WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative diagnostic diagrams

  1. Revised Diagnostic Diagrams for Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Riesgo, H

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of electron density - excitation for a sample of 613 planetary nebulae are presented. The present extensive sample allows the definition of new statistical limits for the distribution of planetary nebulae in the log [Ha/[SII

  2. Modelling the Spoon IRS diagnostic diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Rowan-Robinson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We explore whether our models for starbursts, quiescent star-forming galaxies and for AGN dust tori are able to model the full range of IRS spectra measured with Spitzer. The diagnostic plot of 9.7 mu silicate optical depth versus 6.2 mu PAH equivalent width, introduced by Spoon and coworkers in 2007, gives a good indication of the age and optical depth of a starburst, and of the contribution of an AGN dust torus. However there is aliasing between age and optical depth at later times in the evolution of a starburst, and between age and the presence of an AGN dust torus. Modeling the full IRS spectra and using broad-band 25-850 mu fluxes can help to resolve these aliases. The observed spectral energy distributions require starbursts of a range of ages with initial dust optical depth ranging from 50-200, optically thin dust emission ('cirrus') illuminated by a range of surface brightnesses of the interstellar radiation field, and AGN dust tori with a range of viewing angles.

  3. Alternative proofs for Kocik's Geometric Diagram for Relativistic Velocity Addition

    CERN Document Server

    Sasane, Amol

    2015-01-01

    A geometric construction for the Poincare formula for relativistic addition of velocities in one dimension was given by Jerzy Kocik in "Geometric Diagram for Relativistic Addition of Velocities", American Journal of Physics, volume 80, page 737, 2012. While the proof given there used Cartesian coordinate geometry, three alternative approaches are given in this article: a trigonometric one, one via Euclidean geometry, and one using projective geometry.

  4. 3D Spectroscopy of Blue Compact Galaxies. Diagnostic Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Delgado, I; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Moiseev, A V; Cairos, L M; Martinez-Delgado, Ismael; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Moiseev, Alexei V.; Cairos, Luz M.

    2007-01-01

    Here we present the analysis of 3D spectroscopic data of three Blue Compact Galaxies (Mrk324, Mrk370, and IIIZw102). Each of the more than 22500 spectra obtained for each galaxy has been fitted by a single gaussian from which we have inferred the velocity dispersion (sigma), the peak intensity (Ipeak), and the central wavelength (lambda_c). The analysis shows that the sigma vs Ipeak diagrams look remarkably similar to those obtained for giant extragalactic HII regions. They all present a supersonic narrow horizontal band that extends across all the range of intensities and that result from the massive nuclear star-forming regions of every galaxy. The sigma vs Ipeak diagrams present also several inclined bands of lower intensity and an even larger sigma, arising from the large galactic volumes that surround the main central emitting knots. Here we also show that the sigma vs lambda_c and lambda_c vs Ipeak diagrams, are powerful tools able to unveil the presence of high and low mass stellar clusters, and thus a...

  5. A New Diagnostic Diagram of Ionization Source for High Redshift Emission Line Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new diagram, the Kinematic-Excitation diagram (KEx diagram), which uses the [OIII]/H\\beta\\ line ratio and the [OIII]5007 emission line width (\\sigma_{[OIII]}) to diagnose the ionization source and physical properties of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) and the star-forming galaxies (SFGs). The KEx diagram is a suitable tool to classify emission-line galaxies (ELGs) at intermediate redshift because it uses only the [OIII]5007 and H\\beta\\ emission lines. We use the SDSS DR7 main galaxy sample and the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagnostic to calibrate the diagram at low redshift. We find that the diagram can be divided into 3 regions: one occupied mainly by the pure AGNs (KEx-AGN region), one dominated by composite galaxies (KEx-composite region), and one contains mostly SFGs (KEx-SFG region). AGNs are separated from SFGs in this diagram mainly because they preferentially reside in luminous and massive galaxies and have high [OIII]/H\\beta. The separation of AGN from star-forming galaxies is e...

  6. The 2D Alternative Binary L—J System:Solid—Liquid Phase Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhi; CHENLi-Rong

    2002-01-01

    The Lennard-Jones potential is introduced into the Collins model and is generalized to the two-dimensional alternative binary system.The Gibbs free energy of the binary system is calculated.According to the thermodynamic conditions of solid-liquid equilibrium,the “cigar-type ” phase diagram and the phase diagram with a minimum are obtained.The results are quite analogous to the behavior of three-dimensional substances.

  7. Learning Diagnostic Diagrams in Transport-Based Data-Collection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vu The; Eklund, Peter; Cook, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Insights about service improvement in a transit network can be gained by studying transit service reliability. In this paper, a general procedure for constructing a transit service reliability diagnostic (Tsrd) diagram based on a Bayesian network is proposed to automatically build a behavioural...... model from Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) and Automatic Passenger Counters (APC) data. Our purpose is to discover the variability of transit service attributes and their effects on traveller behaviour. A Tsrd diagram describes and helps to analyse factors affecting public transport by combining domain...

  8. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: new diagnostic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergont, Aleksandra; Kaciński, Marek

    2014-01-01

    A syndrome of alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare disorder first presented in 1971. AHC is characterized by transient episodes of hemiplegia affecting either one or both sides of the body. Age of onset is before 18 months and the common earliest manifestations are dystonic or tonic attacks and nystagmus. Hemiplegic episodes last minutes to days and the frequency and duration tend to decrease with time. Motor and intellectual development is affected, deficits may also develop later. Epileptic seizures occur in some patients. Neuroimaging of the brain usually reveals no abnormalities. The variability of individual clinical presentations and evolution of symptoms have made diagnosis difficult. Therefore the problems of misdiagnosis could account for the low prevalence of this syndrome. This paper hopes to present actual data on AHC, especially of the results of genetic research and new diagnostic tools.

  9. Ages and metallicities of star clusters: new calibrations and diagnostic diagrams from visible integrated spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, J F C

    2004-01-01

    We present homogeneous scales of ages and metallicities for star clusters from very young objects, through intermediate-age ones up to the oldest known clusters. All the selected clusters have integrated spectra in the visible range, as well as reliable determinations of their ages and metallicities. From these spectra equivalent widths (EWs) of KCaII, Gband(CH) and MgI metallic, and Hdelta, Hgamma and Hbeta Balmer lines have been measured homogeneously. The analysis of these EWs shows that the EW sums of the metallic and Balmer H lines, separately, are good indicators of cluster age for objects younger than 10 Gyr, and that the former is also sensitive to cluster metallicity for ages greater than 10 Gyr. We propose an iterative procedure for estimating cluster ages by employing two new diagnostic diagrams and age calibrations based on the above EW sums. For clusters older than 10 Gyr, we also provide a calibration to derive their overall metal contents.

  10. The two-dimensional alternative binary L-J system: liquid-gas phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张陟; 陈立溁

    2003-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) binary system without considering the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential has been studied by using the Collins model. In this paper, we introduce the L-J potential into the 2D binary system and consider the existence of the holes that are called the "molecular fraction". The liquid-gas phase diagram of the 2D alternative binary L-J system is obtained. The results are quite analogous to the behaviour of 3D substances.

  11. Ground-State Phase Diagram of S = 2 Heisenberg Chains with Alternating Single-Site Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    The ground-state phase diagram of S = 2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains with coexisting uniform and alternating single-site anisotropies is investigated by the numerical exact diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group methods. We find the Haldane, large-D, Néel, period-doubled Néel, gapless spin fluid, quantized and partial ferrimagnetic phases. The Haldane phase is limited to the close neighborhood of the isotropic point. Within numerical accuracy, the transition from the gapless spin-fluid phase to the period-doubled Néel phase is a direct transition. Nevertheless, the presence of a narrow spin-gap phase between these two phases is suggested on the basis of the low-energy effective theory. The ferrimagnetic ground state is present in a wide parameter range. This suggests the realization of magnetized single-chain magnets with a uniform spin magnitude by controlling the environment of each magnetic ion without introducing ferromagnetic interactions.

  12. SDSS IV MaNGA - Spatially resolved diagnostic diagrams: A proof that many galaxies are LIERs

    CERN Document Server

    Belfiore, Francesco; Maraston, Claudia; Emsellem, Eric; Bershady, Matthew A; Masters, Karen L; Yan, Renbin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Boquien, Médéric; Brownstein, Joel R; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Heckman, Timothy M; Law, David R; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Pan, Kaike; Stanghellini, Letizia; Thomas, Daniel; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B

    2016-01-01

    We study the spatially resolved excitation properties of the ionised gas in a sample of 646 galaxies using integral field spectroscopy data from SDSS-IV MaNGA. Making use of Baldwin-Philips-Terlevich diagnostic diagrams we demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of extended (kpc scale) low ionisation emission-line regions (LIERs) in both star forming and quiescent galaxies. In star forming galaxies LIER emission can be associated with diffuse ionised gas, most evident as extra-planar emission in edge-on systems. In addition, we identify two main classes of galaxies displaying LIER emission: `central LIER' (cLIER) galaxies, where central LIER emission is spatially extended, but accompanied by star formation at larger galactocentric distances, and `extended LIER' (eLIER) galaxies, where LIER emission is extended throughout the whole galaxy. In eLIER and cLIER galaxies, LIER emission is associated with radially flat, low H$\\alpha$ equivalent width of line emission ($<$ 3 \\AA) and stellar population indices demons...

  13. SDSS IV MaNGA - spatially resolved diagnostic diagrams: a proof that many galaxies are LIERs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Francesco; Maiolino, Roberto; Maraston, Claudia; Emsellem, Eric; Bershady, Matthew A.; Masters, Karen L.; Yan, Renbin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Boquien, Médéric; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Heckman, Timothy M.; Law, David R.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Pan, Kaike; Stanghellini, Letizia; Thomas, Daniel; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.

    2016-09-01

    We study the spatially resolved excitation properties of the ionized gas in a sample of 646 galaxies using integral field spectroscopy data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) programme. Making use of Baldwin-Philips-Terlevich diagnostic diagrams we demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of extended (kpc scale) low-ionization emission-line regions (LIERs) in both star-forming and quiescent galaxies. In star-forming galaxies LIER emission can be associated with diffuse ionized gas, most evident as extraplanar emission in edge-on systems. In addition, we identify two main classes of galaxies displaying LIER emission: `central LIER' (cLIER) galaxies, where central LIER emission is spatially extended, but accompanied by star formation at larger galactocentric distances, and `extended LIER' (eLIER) galaxies, where LIER emission is extended throughout the whole galaxy. In eLIER and cLIER galaxies, LIER emission is associated with radially flat, low H α equivalent width of line emission (<3 Å) and stellar population indices demonstrating the lack of young stellar populations, implying that line emission follows tightly the continuum due to the underlying old stellar population. The H α surface brightness radial profiles are always shallower than 1/r2 and the line ratio [O III] λ5007/[O II] λλ3727,29 (a tracer of the ionization parameter of the gas) shows a flat gradient. This combined evidence strongly supports the scenario in which LIER emission is not due to a central point source but to diffuse stellar sources, the most likely candidates being hot, evolved (post-asymptotic giant branch) stars. Shocks are observed to play a significant role in the ionization of the gas only in rare merging and interacting systems.

  14. The 2D Alternative Binary L-J System: Solid-Liquid Phase Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi; CHEN Li-Rong

    2002-01-01

    The Lennard-Jones potential is introduced into the Collins model and is generalized to the two-dimensionalalternative binary system. The Gibbs free energy of the binary system is calculated. According to the thermodynamicconditions of solid-liquid equilibrium, the "cigar-type" phase diagram and the phase diagram with a minimum areobtained. The results are quite analogous to the behavior of three-dimensional substances.

  15. Alternative method of Reduction of the Feynman Diagrams to a set of Master Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Borja, Julio

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new set of Master Integrals which can be used as a basis for multiloop calculation in any gauge massless field theory. In these theories we consider three-point Feynman diagrams with arbitrary number of loops. The corresponding multiloop integrals may be decomposed in terms of this set of the Master Integrals. We construct a new reduction procedure which we apply to perform this decomposition.

  16. Alternative method of Reduction of the Feynman Diagrams to a set of Master Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Julio; Kondrashuk, Igor

    2016-10-01

    We propose a new set of Master Integrals which can be used as a basis for certain multiloop calculations in massless gauge field theories. In these theories we consider three-point Feynman diagrams with arbitrary number of loops. The corresponding multiloop integrals may be decomposed in terms of this set of the Master Integrals. We construct a new reduction procedure which we apply to perform this decomposition.

  17. Effects of Bond Alternation on the Ground-State Phase Diagram of One-Dimensional XXZ Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Ling; LIU Guang-Hua; TIAN Guang-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The ground-state properties and quantum phase transitions (QPTs) of the one-dimensional bond-alternative XXZ model are investigated by the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) method.The bond-alternative effects on its ground-state phase diagram are discussed in detail.Once the bond alternation is taken into account,the antiferromagnetic phase (△ > 1) will be destroyed at a given critical point and change into a disordered phase without nonlocal string order.The QPT is shown to be second-order,and the whole phase diagram is provided.For the ferromagnetic phase region (△ <-1),the critical point rc always equals 1 (independent of △),and the QPT for this case is shown to be first-order.The dimerized Heisenberg model is also discussed,and two disordered phases can be distinguished by with or without nonlocal string orders.Both the bipartite entanglement and the fidelity per site,as two kinds of model-independent measures,are capable of describing all the QPTs in such a quantum model.

  18. Transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram as an alternative method for technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.

    2012-12-01

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.

  19. A Diagnostic Diagram to Understand the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer at High Wind Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Long time series of offshore meteorological measurements in the lower marine atmospheric boundary layer show dynamical regimes and variability that are forced partly by interaction with the underlying sea surface and partly by the passage of cloud systems overhead. At low wind speeds, the dynamics and stability structure of the surface layer depend mainly on the air-sea temperature difference and the measured wind speed at a standard height. The physical processes are mostly understood and the quantified through Monin-Obukhov (MO) similarity theory. At high wind speeds different dynamical regimes become dominant. Breaking waves contribute to the atmospheric loading of sea spray and water vapor and modify the character of air-sea interaction. Downdrafts and boundary layer rolls associated with clouds at the top of the boundary layer impact vertical heat and momentum fluxes. Data from offshore meteorological monitoring sites will typically show different behavior and the regime shifts depending on the local winds and synoptic conditions. However, the regular methods to interpret time series through spectral analysis give only a partial view of dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer. Also, the spectral methods have limited use for boundary layer and mesoscale modellers whose geophysical diagnostics are mostly anchored in directly measurable quantities: wind speed, temperature, precipitation, pressure, and radiation. Of these, wind speed and the air-sea temperature difference are the most important factors that characterize the dynamics of the lower atmospheric boundary layer and they provide a dynamical and thermodynamic constraint to frame observed processes, especially at high wind speeds. This was recognized in the early interpretation of the Froya database of gale force coastal winds from mid-Norway (Andersen, O.J. and J. Lovseth, Gale force maritime wind. The Froya data base. Part 1: Sites and instrumentation. Review of the data base, Journal of Wind

  20. Submillimeter-HCN Diagram for an Energy Diagnostics in the Centers of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Takuma; Aalto, Susanne; Espada, Daniel; Fathi, Kambiz; Harada, Nanase; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Krips, Melanie; Martín, Sergio; Matsushita, Satoki; Meier, David S; Nakai, Naomasa; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Schinnerer, Eva; Sheth, Kartik; Terashima, Yuichi; Turner, Jean L

    2015-01-01

    Compiling data from literature and the ALMA archive, we show enhanced HCN(4-3)/HCO$^+$(4-3) and/or HCN(4-3)/CS(7-6) integrated intensity ratios in circumnuclear molecular gas around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) compared to those in starburst (SB) galaxies (submillimeter HCN-enhancement). The number of sample galaxies is significantly increased from our previous work. We expect this feature could potentially be an extinction-free energy diagnostic tool of nuclear regions of galaxies. Non-LTE radiative transfer modelings of the above molecular emission lines involving both collisional and radiative excitation, as well as a photon trapping effect were conducted to investigate the cause of the high line ratios in AGNs. As a result, we found that enhanced abundance ratios of HCN-to-HCO$^+$ and HCN-to-CS in AGNs as compared to SB galaxies by a factor of a few to even $>$ 10 is a plausible explanation for the submillimeter HCN-enhancement. However, a counter argument of a systematically higher gas density in AGNs t...

  1. Submillimeter-HCN Diagram for Energy Diagnostics in the Centers of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro; Aalto, Susanne; Espada, Daniel; Fathi, Kambiz; Harada, Nanase; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Krips, Melanie; Martín, Sergio; Matsushita, Satoki; Meier, David S.; Nakai, Naomasa; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Schinnerer, Eva; Sheth, Kartik; Terashima, Yuichi; Turner, Jean L.

    2016-02-01

    Compiling data from literature and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array archive, we show enhanced HCN(4-3)/HCO+(4-3) and/or HCN(4-3)/CS(7-6) integrated intensity ratios in circumnuclear molecular gas around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) compared to those in starburst (SB) galaxies (submillimeter HCN enhancement). The number of sample galaxies is significantly increased from our previous work. We expect that this feature could potentially be an extinction-free energy diagnostic tool of nuclear regions of galaxies. Non-LTE radiative transfer modelings of the above molecular emission lines involving both collisional and radiative excitation, as well as a photon trapping effect, were conducted to investigate the cause of the high line ratios in AGNs. As a result, we found that enhanced abundance ratios of HCN to HCO+ and HCN to CS in AGNs as compared to SB galaxies by a factor of a few to even ≳10 are a plausible explanation for the submillimeter HCN enhancement. However, a counterargument of a systematically higher gas density in AGNs than in SB galaxies can also be a plausible scenario. Although we cannot fully distinguish these two scenarios at this moment owing to an insufficient amount of multi-transition, multi-species data, the former scenario is indicative of abnormal chemical composition in AGNs. Regarding the actual mechanism to realize the composition, we suggest that it is difficult with conventional gas-phase X-ray-dominated region ionization models to reproduce the observed high line ratios. We might have to take into account other mechanisms such as neutral-neutral reactions that are efficiently activated in high-temperature environments and/or mechanically heated regions to further understand the high line ratios in AGNs.

  2. SUBMILLIMETER-HCN DIAGRAM FOR ENERGY DIAGNOSTICS IN THE CENTERS OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Aalto, Susanne [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Observatory, SE-439 94 Onsala (Sweden); Espada, Daniel; Martín, Sergio; Nakanishi, Kouichiro [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova, 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Fathi, Kambiz [Stockholm Observatory, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Harada, Nanase; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Matsushita, Satoki [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hatsukade, Bunyo; Imanishi, Masatoshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Krips, Melanie [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 St. Martin d’Hères (France); Meier, David S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Soccoro, NM 87801 (United States); Nakai, Naomasa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Ten-nodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Schinnerer, Eva [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany); Sheth, Kartik [NASA, 300 E Street SW, Washington, DC 20546 (United States); Terashima, Yuichi [Department of Physics, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Turner, Jean L., E-mail: takumaizumi@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Compiling data from literature and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array archive, we show enhanced HCN(4–3)/HCO{sup +}(4–3) and/or HCN(4–3)/CS(7–6) integrated intensity ratios in circumnuclear molecular gas around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) compared to those in starburst (SB) galaxies (submillimeter HCN enhancement). The number of sample galaxies is significantly increased from our previous work. We expect that this feature could potentially be an extinction-free energy diagnostic tool of nuclear regions of galaxies. Non-LTE radiative transfer modelings of the above molecular emission lines involving both collisional and radiative excitation, as well as a photon trapping effect, were conducted to investigate the cause of the high line ratios in AGNs. As a result, we found that enhanced abundance ratios of HCN to HCO{sup +} and HCN to CS in AGNs as compared to SB galaxies by a factor of a few to even ≳10 are a plausible explanation for the submillimeter HCN enhancement. However, a counterargument of a systematically higher gas density in AGNs than in SB galaxies can also be a plausible scenario. Although we cannot fully distinguish these two scenarios at this moment owing to an insufficient amount of multi-transition, multi-species data, the former scenario is indicative of abnormal chemical composition in AGNs. Regarding the actual mechanism to realize the composition, we suggest that it is difficult with conventional gas-phase X-ray-dominated region ionization models to reproduce the observed high line ratios. We might have to take into account other mechanisms such as neutral–neutral reactions that are efficiently activated in high-temperature environments and/or mechanically heated regions to further understand the high line ratios in AGNs.

  3. Endoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic alternative technique of taeniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Julian Canaval-Zuleta

    Full Text Available Despite a low incidence in developed countries, gastrointestinal taeniasis should be suspected in patients with abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and/or malabsorption of unknown origin, even more so if they come from endemic regions or areas with poor hygienic and alimentary habits. Diagnosis is traditionally reached by identifying the parasite in stools, but more recently both serological and immunological approaches are also available. Based on a patient diagnosed by gastroscopy, a literature review was undertaken of patients diagnosed by endoscopy. We discuss endoscopy as diagnostic modality, and the effectiveness and safety that endoscopic treatment may provide in view of the potential risk for neurocysticercosis.

  4. Endoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic alternative technique of taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaval Zuleta, Héctor Julián; Company Campins, María M; Dolz Abadía, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Despite a low incidence in developed countries, gastrointestinal taeniasis should be suspected in patients with abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and/or malabsorption of unknown origin, even more so if they come from endemic regions or areas with poor hygienic and alimentary habits. Diagnosis is traditionally reached by identifying the parasite in stools, but more recently both serological and immunological approaches are also available. Based on a patient diagnosed by gastroscopy, a literature review was undertaken of patients diagnosed by endoscopy. We discuss endoscopy as diagnostic modality, and the effectiveness and safety that endoscopic treatment may provide in view of the potential risk for neurocysticercosis.

  5. Identifying Differences in Diagnostic Skills between Physics Students: Students' Self-Diagnostic Performance Given Alternative Scaffolding

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Elisheva; Singh, Chandralekha; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2016-01-01

    "Self-diagnosis tasks" aim at fostering diagnostic behavior by explicitly requiring students to present diagnosis as part of the activity of reviewing their problem solutions. We have been investigating the extent to which introductory physics students can diagnose their own mistakes when explicitly asked to do so with different levels of scaffolding support provided to them. In our study in an introductory physics class with more than 200 students, the recitation classes were split into three different experimental groups in which different levels of guidance were provided for performing the self-diagnosis activities. We present our findings that students' performance was far from perfect. However, differences in the scaffolding in the three experimental groups (i.e. providing a correct solution and a self-diagnosis rubric) noticeably affected the resulting diagnosis.

  6. Direct PCR: Alternative Diagnostic Method for Diagnosis of Diphtheria Rapidly, Easily and Cost Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases require immediate and appropriate treatment to decrease the fatality risk patients incident, for example diphtheria. Time to help patients is very crucial since delay of therapy may increase the mortality cases up to 20 times. In other hands, conventional diagnostic methods (the gold standard for diagnosis of diphtheria is time consuming and laborious. Therefore, an alternative diagnostic method which is rapid, easy and inexpensive is needed. In this case, direct PCR has been proved to reduce time and cost in laboratory examination. This study aimed to develop direct PCR as alternative diagnostic method for diagnosis of diphtheria rapidly, easily, and inexpensive. Fifteen samples include 10 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae (toxigenic and 3 isolates of Corynebacterium non- diphtheriae (nontoxigenic and 2 clinical specimens (throat swab was examined by performing direct PCR method and a standard PCR method was used for optimizing the protocols. Result showed that direct PCR can be used to amplify target genes correctly as well as standard PCR. All of C. diphtheriae samples showed bands at 168 bp (dtxR gene marker and 551 bp (tox gene marker while no band appeared in others. Direct PCR detected at least 71 CFU/uL of bacterial cells in samples. We concluded that direct PCR can be used for alternative diagnostic method for diagnosis of diphtheria which is rapid, easy and cost effective.

  7. Development and Integration of an Advanced Stirling Convertor Linear Alternator Model for a Tool Simulating Convertor Performance and Creating Phasor Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metscher, Jonathan F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    A simple model of the Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) linear alternator and an AC bus controller has been developed and combined with a previously developed thermodynamic model of the convertor for a more complete simulation and analysis of the system performance. The model was developed using Sage, a 1-D thermodynamic modeling program that now includes electro-magnetic components. The convertor, consisting of a free-piston Stirling engine combined with a linear alternator, has sufficiently sinusoidal steady-state behavior to allow for phasor analysis of the forces and voltages acting in the system. A MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed to interface with the Sage software for simplified use of the ASC model, calculation of forces, and automated creation of phasor diagrams. The GUI allows the user to vary convertor parameters while fixing different input or output parameters and observe the effect on the phasor diagrams or system performance. The new ASC model and GUI help create a better understanding of the relationship between the electrical component voltages and mechanical forces. This allows better insight into the overall convertor dynamics and performance.

  8. Phase diagrams in mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system with two alternative layers within the effective-field theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bayram Devirena; Yasin Polatb; Mustafa Keskinc

    2011-01-01

    The phase diagrams in the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system with two alternative layers on a honeycomb lattice are investigated and discussed by the use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The interaction of the nearest-neighbour spins of each layer is taken to be positive (ferromagnetic interaction) and the interaction of the adjacent spins of the nearest-neighbour layers is considered to be either positive or negative (ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic interaction). The temperature dependence of the layer magnetizations of the system is examined to characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the phase transitions and obtain the phase transition temperatures. The system exhibits both second-and first-order phase transitions besides triple point (TP), critical end point (E), multicritical point (A), isolated critical point (C) and reentrant behaviour depending on the interaction parameters. We have also studied the temperature dependence of the total magnetization to find the compensation points,system. The phase diagrams are constructed in eight different planes and it is found that the system also presents the compensation phenomena depending on the sign of the bilinear exchange interactions.

  9. Phase diagram of an integrable alternating U{sub q}[sl(2|1)] superspin chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frahm, Holger, E-mail: frahm@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Martins, Marcio J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C.P. 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos (SP) (Brazil)

    2012-09-11

    We construct a family of integrable vertex model based on the typical four-dimensional representations of the quantum group deformation of the Lie superalgebra sl(2|1). Upon alternation of such a representation with its dual this model gives rise to a mixed superspin Hamiltonian with local interactions depending on the representation parameter {+-}b and the deformation parameter {gamma}. As a subsector this model contains integrable vertex models with ordinary symmetries for twisted boundary conditions. The thermodynamic limit and low energy properties of the mixed superspin chain are studied using a combination of analytical and numerical methods. Based on these results we identify the phases realized in this system as a function of the parameters b and {gamma}. The different phases are characterized by the operator content of the corresponding critical theory. Only part of the spectrum of this effective theory can be understood in terms of the U(1) symmetries related to the physical degrees of freedom corresponding to spin and charge. The other modes lead to logarithmic finite-size corrections in the spectrum of the theory.

  10. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  11. The clinical inadequacy of the DSM-5 classification of somatic symptom and related disorders: an alternative trans-diagnostic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Fava, Giovanni A

    2016-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) somatic symptom and related disorders chapter has a limited clinical utility. In addition to the problems that the single diagnostic rubrics and the deletion of the diagnosis of hypochondriasis entail, there are 2 major ambiguities: (1) the use of the term "somatic symptoms" reflects an ill-defined concept of somatization and (2) abnormal illness behavior is included in all diagnostic rubrics, but it is never conceptually defined. In the present review of the literature, we will attempt to approach the clinical issue from a different angle, by introducing the trans-diagnostic viewpoint of illness behavior and propose an alternative clinimetric classification system, based on the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research.

  12. SCADA Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Matthew Rose worked at the Naval Postgraduate School as a graphic designer from February 2002-November 2011. His work for NPS included logos, brochures, business packs, movies/presentations, posters, the CyberSiege video game and many other projects. This material was organized and provided by the artist, for inclusion in the NPS Archive, Calhoun. Includes these files: Plan_ver.ai; powerline.jpg; SCADA diagram.ai; SCADA diagram.pdf; SCADA diagramsmall.pdf; SCADA2.pdf

  13. Electrical engineering of engineers 2. Alternative current engineering, loci diagrams, transformers, multiphase systems. A lecture and working book for the basic study. 8 ed.; Elektrotechnik fuer Ingenieure 2. Wechselstromtechnik, Ortskurven, Transformator, Mehrphasensysteme. Ein Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch fuer das Grundstudium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissgerber, Wilfried

    2013-05-01

    The book under consideration covers the basics and calculation methods of the alternating current technology, the transformer, loci diagrams as well as three-phase systems. The book is dedicated to the students of engineering and natural sciences, electrical engineering, technical informatics and physics at higher institutes of applied sciences, technical colleges, universities and universities of cooperative education.

  14. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  15. Delimiting diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, V. van

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the unifying notion of delimiting diagram. Hitherto unrelated results such as: Minimality of the internal needed strategy for orthogonal first-order term rewriting systems, maximality of the limit strategy for orthogonal higher-order pattern rewrite systems (with maximality of the strat

  16. Hubble Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, S.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Initially introduced as a way to demonstrate the expansion of the universe, and subsequently to determine the expansion rate (the HUBBLE CONSTANT H0), the Hubble diagram is one of the classical cosmological tests. It is a plot of apparent fluxes (usually expressed as magnitudes) of some types of objects at cosmological distances, against their REDSHIFTS. It is used as a tool to measure the glob...

  17. Efficiency of O-C diagrams as diagnostic tools for long-term period variations. I. Wind-driven mass loss and magnetic braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanouris, N.; Kalimeris, A.; Antonopoulou, E.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.

    2011-11-01

    Context. The credibility of an O-C diagram analysis is investigated when long-term processes are examined in binary systems. The morphology of period and O-C diagrams is thoroughly explored when mass loss and magnetic braking, induced by stellar winds, drive the orbital evolution of late-type detached binaries. Conditions are specified that determine which process dominates. Aims: Our objective is to determine the minimum time intervals that observations are expected to span for a physical mechanism to be detectable by means of an O-C diagram analysis. Computations for various values that account for the noise level and the orbital period are performed to find out to which degree these affect the inferred intervals. Methods: Generalized dot{J-dot{P}} relations that govern the orbital evolution of a binary system are set and solved analytically to determine in a closed form the period and the function expected to represent the respective O-C variations. Semi-empirical relations adapting mass loss and magnetic braking processes for single cool stars are adopted and properly modified to be consistent with the latest observational constraints. A standard Newton-Raphson numerical procedure is then employed to estimate the minimum temporal range over which a specific mechanism is rendered measurable. Results: Mass loss rates comparable to or greater than -10-9 M⊙ yr-1 are measurable for typical noise levels of the O-C diagrams when the data span more than a century. Magnetic braking was proved to be very sensitive on the orbital period and on the braking law adopted for inference. It is expected to be detectable in current O-C diagrams of very short-period binaries only, for others it needs at least two centuries of observations to confirm its effects safely. Conclusions: Both wind driven mass loss and magnetic braking processes are able to drive the orbital evolution of short-period detached binaries (Porb1d) in amounts traced on human timescales. There are also

  18. Constraints on accretion in Ultraluminous X-ray Sources from Spitzer IRS observations of NGC 4485/90: Infrared diagnostic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez, G A; Colbert, E; Roberts, T P; Ward, M J; Malhotra, S; Vazquez, Gerardo A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Colbert, Edward; Roberts, Tymothy P.; Ward, Martin J.

    2007-01-01

    Constraining the astrophysical nature of Ultra-Luminous X-ray (ULX) sources, which have X-ray luminosities exceeding 10^39 erg/s, has been elusive due to the optical faintness of any counterparts. With high spectral resolution observations in the ~10-30 microns wavelength range we have conducted an experiment to study six ULX sources in the NGC 4485/90 galaxy pair. We have found that five of the six ULXs, based on mid-infrared spectral diagnostics, show the characteristic higher ionization features that are found in AGN. The sixth source, ULX-1, is consistent with being a supernova remnant. The chief infrared spectral diagnostics used are the ratios of [S III]/[Si II] vs [Ne III}]/[Ne II]. In two instances fits to the continuum and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) features also indicate higher dust temperatures that are characteristic of accreting sources. Overall, however, we find the continuum is dominated by stellar processes, and the best diagnostic features are the emission lines. High spectral resolutio...

  19. From State Diagram to Class Diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz

    2009-01-01

    UML class diagram and Java source code are interrelated and Java code is a kind of interchange format. Working with UML state diagram in CASE tools, a corresponding xml file is maintained. Designing state diagrams is mostly performed manually using design patterns and coding templates - a time...

  20. Alternative methods of optical diagnostics in the field of standardization and metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinov, Boris I.; Pasechnic, Teodosie I.; Sircu, Sergiu

    2000-10-01

    An optical configuration based on the photothermoplastic recording (PTPR) is suggested for the operational optical diagnostics and standardization of the products in the real time scale. The presence of three or four PTPR cameras along the counter of the tested product makes it possible to investigate in the real-time scale not only the appearance of the internal defects, but also the influence of the condition of different units onto the condition of the whole system. Dry development of the images in the real-time scale and instant fixation of images on the photothermoplastic carriers (PTPC) followed by the computer analysis used to compare the product and the standard allow us to gain in time and areas.

  1. 新旧列车运行图交替期客车车底运用方案的编制%Passenger Train Stock Scheduling in Alternative Periods between the New Train Diagram and the Old One

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕苗苗; 倪少权

    2013-01-01

    以旧列车运行图中1列列车最多与新列车运行图中1列列车存在接续关系、新列车运行图中1列列车最多与旧列车运行图中1列列车存在接续关系、新列车运行图中所有列车必须有客车车底担当为约束条件,以新旧列车运行图交替期列车接续代价最小为目标函数,建立新旧列车运行图交替期客车车底运用方案优化模型,并设计基于蚁群算法的模型求解算法.以成都站执行新运行图时的数据(成都站为客车车底配属站)为例,采用本方法编制新旧列车运行图交替期客车车底运用方案,并与人工基于车底固定运用模式编制的方案对比,结果表明本方法编制的车底运用方案更优,验证了模型和算法的可行性和实用性.%One train in the old train diagram can connect no more than one train in the new train diagram,one train in the new train diagram can connect no more than one train in the old train diagram,and all trains in the new train diagram must be executed by passenger train stock.Taking those shown above as constraints,taking minimizing train connection costs in alternative periods as object function,the optimization model for passenger train stock scheduling in alternative periods is established.According to the characteristics of the model,the model solving algorithm is designed based on ant colony algorithm.Taking the data of Chengdu Station (Chengdu Station is the allocation station of passenger train stock) during the implementation of the new train diagram for example,passenger train stock scheduling in alternative periods is made by the method,and compared with man-made one which is based on the fixed scheduling mode of passenger train stock.Results show that the scheduling plan made by the proposed method is more optimized,and the feasibility and practicality of the model and algorithm are validated.

  2. Treatment guided by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in Tanzanian children: safety and alternative bacterial diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sykes Alma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO guidelines for the treatment of young children with suspected malaria have recently changed from presumptive treatment to anti-malarial treatment guided by a blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT. However, there is limited evidence of the safety of this policy in routine outpatient settings in Africa. Methods Children 3-59 months of age with a non-severe febrile illness and no obvious cause were enrolled over a period of one year in a malaria endemic area of Tanzania. Treatment was determined by the results of a clinical examination and RDT result, and blood culture and serum lactate were also collected. RDT-negative children were followed up over 14 days. Results Over the course of one year, 965 children were enrolled; 158 (16.4% were RDT-positive and treated with artemether-lumefantrine and 807 (83.4% were RDT-negative and treated with non-anti-malarial medicines. Compared with RDT-positives, RDT-negative children were on average younger with a lower axillary temperature and more likely to have a history of cough or difficulty in breathing. Six (0.6% children became RDT-positive after enrolment, all of whom were PCR-negative for Plasmodium falciparum DNA at enrolment. In addition, 12 (1.2% children were admitted to hospital, one with possible malaria, none of whom died. A bacterial pathogen was identified in 9/965 (0.9% children, eight of whom were RDT-negative and one was RDT-positive, but slide-negative. Excluding three children with Salmonella typhi, all of the children with bacteraemia were ≤12 months of age. Compared to double-read research slide results RDTs had a sensitivity of 97.8% (95%CI 96.9-98.7 and specificity of 96.3% (95%CI 96.3-98.4. Conclusions Use of RDTs to direct the use of anti-malarial drugs in young children did not result in any missed diagnoses of malaria although new infections soon after a consultation with a negative RDT result may undermine confidence in results. Invasive

  3. Diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced MR for acute appendicitis and alternative causes of abdominal pain in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, Jeffrey L. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Rady Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Unenhanced MRI has emerged as a useful tool for diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis. The use of contrast-enhanced MRI for diagnosing pediatric appendicitis has not been documented. The purpose of this study is to examine the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced MRI for acute appendicitis and alternative entities in the pediatric population presenting with acute abdominal pain. A retrospective review was conducted of 364 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing contrast-enhanced MRI for the evaluation of possible appendicitis at a single institution between November 2012 and September 2013. There were 132 cases of pathologically confirmed appendicitis out of 364 pediatric patients (36.3%) included in the study. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 96.2% (95% CI [91.4-98.4%]) and 95.7% (95% CI [92.3-97.6%]), respectively. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 92.7% (95% CI [86.6-96.3%]) and 97.8% (95% CI [94.7-99.1%]), respectively. The appendix was visualized in 243 cases (66.8%). Imaging confirmed alternative diagnoses in 75 patients, including most commonly colitis, enteritis or terminal ileitis (n = 25, 6.9%), adnexal cysts (n = 25, 6.9%) and mesenteric adenitis (n = 7, 1.9%). Contrast-enhanced MRI is capable of accurately diagnosing acute appendicitis while detecting many alternative entities of abdominal pain, and it allows good visualization of the appendix. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether contrast-enhanced MRI provides an advantage over non-enhanced MRI for imaging evaluation of acute abdominal pain in the pediatric population. (orig.)

  4. The spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Langer, N

    2014-01-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is an essential diagnostic diagram for stellar structure and evolution, which has now been in use for more than 100 years. Our spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell (sHR) diagram shows the inverse of the flux-mean gravity versus the effective temperature. Observed stars whose spectra have been quantitatively analyzed can be entered in this diagram without the knowledge of the stellar distance or absolute brightness. Observed stars can be as conveniently compared to stellar evolution calculations in the sHR diagram as in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. However, at the same time, our ordinate is proportional to the stellar mass-to-luminosity ratio, which can thus be directly determined. For intermediate- and low-mass star evolution at constant mass, we show that the shape of an evolutionary track in the sHR diagram is identical to that in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We also demonstrate that for hot stars, their stellar Eddington factor can be directly read off the sHR diagram. ...

  5. FORM, Diagrams and Topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, Franz; Ueda, Takahiro; Vermaseren, J A M; Vogt, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a number of FORM features that are essential in the automatic processing of very large numbers of diagrams as used in the Forcer program for 4-loop massless propagator diagrams. Most of these features are new.

  6. Extrinsic Curvature Embedding Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, J L

    2003-01-01

    Embedding diagrams have been used extensively to visualize the properties of curved space in Relativity. We introduce a new kind of embedding diagram based on the {\\it extrinsic} curvature (instead of the intrinsic curvature). Such an extrinsic curvature embedding diagram, when used together with the usual kind of intrinsic curvature embedding diagram, carries the information of how a surface is {\\it embedded} in the higher dimensional curved space. Simple examples are given to illustrate the idea.

  7. [The alternative view on diagnostic of hyperlipoproteinemia, cholesterol lipoproteins of low density and effect of statins: a lecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupoleva, T A; Tikhomirov, D S; Grumbkova, L O; Ignatova, E N; Romanova, T Iu; Filatov, F P; Garanzha, T A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of statins occur in several stages: 1) inhibition in hepatocytes of synthesis of functionally specific pool of spirit cholesterol, polar mono-layer of lipoproteins of very low density; 2) activation of hydrolysis of triglycerides in lipoproteins of very low density, formation of apoE/B-100-ligand and absorption of lipoproteins of very low density by insulin-depended cells; 3) decreasing of content of and spirit cholesterol-lipoproteins of very low density in blood plasma; 4) activation of hydrolysis of triglycerides in lipoproteins of low density, formation of apoB-100-ligand and absorption of lipoproteins of low density by insulin-independent cells; 5) decreasing of level of and increasing of content of lipoproteins of high density. During first weeks of effect of statins occurs decreasing of concentration of triglycerides and unesterified spirit cholesterol-lipoproteins of very low density in blood plasma. Then, slower and more durational decreasing of level of spirit cholesterol-lipoproteins of low density occurs. The value of spirit cholesterol-lipoproteins of low density is primarily determined by content of palmitic saturated fatty acid in food, its endogenous synthesis from glucose and concentration of palmitic triglycerides and lipoproteins of very low density of the same name in blood plasma. The effect of preparations is biologically valid and corresponds to alternative hypolipidemic preparations. All these preparations have an effect following a common algorithm: they activate, using different mechanisms, receptor absorption of lipoproteins of very low density or lipoproteins of low density by cells. The level of spirit cholesterol-lipoproteins of low density in full measure depends on content of triglycerides in blood. The concentration of spirit cholesterol in blood plasma has a reliable diagnostic significance only under physiological content of triglycerides. The main criterion of diagnostic and control of hypolipidemic therapy

  8. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... analysis with operational safety management....

  9. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  10. Economic analysis including long-term risks and costs of alternative diagnostic strategies to evaluate patients with chest pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedetti, Gigliola; Pasanisi, Emilio Maria; Pizzi, Carmine; Turchetti, Giuseppe; Loré, Cosimo

    2008-01-01

    Background Diagnosis costs for cardiovascular disease waste a large amount of healthcare resources. The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical and economic outcomes of alternative diagnostic strategies in low risk chest pain patients. Methods We evaluated direct and indirect downstream costs of 6 strategies: coronary angiography (CA) after positive troponin I or T (cTn-I or cTnT) (strategy 1); after positive exercise electrocardiography (ex-ECG) (strategy 2); after positive exercise echocardiography (ex-Echo) (strategy 3); after positive pharmacologic stress echocardiography (PhSE) (strategy 4); after positive myocardial exercise stress single-photon emission computed tomography with technetium Tc 99m sestamibi (ex-SPECT-Tc) (strategy 5) and direct CA (strategy 6). Results The predictive accuracy in correctly identifying the patients was 83,1% for cTn-I, 87% for cTn-T, 85,1% for ex-ECG, 93,4% for ex-Echo, 98,5% for PhSE, 89,4% for ex-SPECT-Tc and 18,7% for CA. The cost per patient correctly identified results $2.051 for cTn-I, $2.086 for cTn-T, $1.890 for ex-ECG, $803 for ex-Echo, $533 for PhSE, $1.521 for ex-SPECT-Tc ($1.634 including cost of extra risk of cancer) and $29.673 for CA ($29.999 including cost of extra risk of cancer). The average relative cost-effectiveness of cardiac imaging compared with the PhSE equal to 1 (as a cost comparator), the relative cost of ex-Echo is 1.5×, of a ex-SPECT-Tc is 3.1×, of a ex-ECG is 3.5×, of cTnI is ×3.8, of cTnT is ×3.9 and of a CA is 56.3×. Conclusion Stress echocardiography based strategies are cost-effective versus alternative imaging strategies and the risk and cost of radiation exposure is void. PMID:18510723

  11. Economic analysis including long-term risks and costs of alternative diagnostic strategies to evaluate patients with chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzi Carmine

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis costs for cardiovascular disease waste a large amount of healthcare resources. The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical and economic outcomes of alternative diagnostic strategies in low risk chest pain patients. Methods We evaluated direct and indirect downstream costs of 6 strategies: coronary angiography (CA after positive troponin I or T (cTn-I or cTnT (strategy 1; after positive exercise electrocardiography (ex-ECG (strategy 2; after positive exercise echocardiography (ex-Echo (strategy 3; after positive pharmacologic stress echocardiography (PhSE (strategy 4; after positive myocardial exercise stress single-photon emission computed tomography with technetium Tc 99m sestamibi (ex-SPECT-Tc (strategy 5 and direct CA (strategy 6. Results The predictive accuracy in correctly identifying the patients was 83,1% for cTn-I, 87% for cTn-T, 85,1% for ex-ECG, 93,4% for ex-Echo, 98,5% for PhSE, 89,4% for ex-SPECT-Tc and 18,7% for CA. The cost per patient correctly identified results $2.051 for cTn-I, $2.086 for cTn-T, $1.890 for ex-ECG, $803 for ex-Echo, $533 for PhSE, $1.521 for ex-SPECT-Tc ($1.634 including cost of extra risk of cancer and $29.673 for CA ($29.999 including cost of extra risk of cancer. The average relative cost-effectiveness of cardiac imaging compared with the PhSE equal to 1 (as a cost comparator, the relative cost of ex-Echo is 1.5×, of a ex-SPECT-Tc is 3.1×, of a ex-ECG is 3.5×, of cTnI is ×3.8, of cTnT is ×3.9 and of a CA is 56.3×. Conclusion Stress echocardiography based strategies are cost-effective versus alternative imaging strategies and the risk and cost of radiation exposure is void.

  12. Revised diagnostic diagrams for planetary nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Riesgo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan diagramas de diagnóstico de densidad electrónica-excitación para una muestra de 613 nebulosas planetarias. En base a esta extensa muestra se definen nuevos límites estadísticos para la distribución de nebulosas planetarias en los planos log [H_/[S ii

  13. [Mobile phone based data acquisition and evaluation system for the alternative four diagnostic methods of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing; Liu, Ran

    2013-01-01

    This study is dedicated to integrate the theories of the four diagnostic methods of TCM and the methods of mobile healthcare so as to achieve the goal of the four diagnostic functions of TCM on mobile phone. An Android smartphone based data acquisition system has been developed and experimentally demonstrated. It was shown that the prototype could successfully achieve the fundamental function of the four diagnostic methods of TCM and thus help preliminarily interpret the symptoms of human diseases.

  14. Beyond Feynman Diagrams (1/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    For decades the central theoretical tool for computing scattering amplitudes has been the Feynman diagram. However, Feynman diagrams are just too slow, even on fast computers, to be able to go beyond the leading order in QCD, for complicated events with many jets of hadrons in the final state. Such events are produced copiously at the LHC, and constitute formidable backgrounds to many searches for new physics. Over the past few years, alternative methods that go beyond ...

  15. Atomic phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shichun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Cheng model, atomic phase diagram or electron density versus atomic radius diagram describing the interaction properties of atoms of different kinds in equilibrium state is developed. Atomic phase diagram is established based on the two-atoms model. Besides atomic radius, electron density and continuity condition for electron density on interfaces between atoms, the lever law of atomic phase diagram involving other physical parameters is taken into account, such as the binding energy, for the sake of simplicity.

  16. Difference Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Jesper; Lichtenberg, Jacob; Andersen, Henrik Reif;

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new data structure, difference decision diagrams (DDDs), for representing a Boolean logic over inequalities of the form $x-y......This paper describes a new data structure, difference decision diagrams (DDDs), for representing a Boolean logic over inequalities of the form $x-y...

  17. Algorithmic phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Roger

    1987-01-01

    Algorithmic phase diagrams are a neat and compact representation of the results of comparing the execution time of several algorithms for the solution of the same problem. As an example, the recent results are shown of Gannon and Van Rosendale on the solution of multiple tridiagonal systems of equations in the form of such diagrams. The act of preparing these diagrams has revealed an unexpectedly complex relationship between the best algorithm and the number and size of the tridiagonal systems, which was not evident from the algebraic formulae in the original paper. Even so, for a particular computer, one diagram suffices to predict the best algorithm for all problems that are likely to be encountered the prediction being read directly from the diagram without complex calculation.

  18. What Do You Know about Alternative Energy? Development and Use of a Diagnostic Instrument for Upper Secondary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Johari, Marliza; Said, Hardimah; Treagust, David F.

    2015-01-01

    The need for renewable and non-fossil fuels is now recognised by nations throughout the world. Consequently, an understanding of alternative energy is needed both in schools and in everyday life-long learning situations. This study developed a two-tier instrument to diagnose students' understanding and alternative conceptions about alternative…

  19. Inductively generating Euler diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Gem; Rodgers, Peter; Howse, John; Zhang, Leishi

    2011-01-01

    Euler diagrams have a wide variety of uses, from information visualization to logical reasoning. In all of their application areas, the ability to automatically layout Euler diagrams brings considerable benefits. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Euler diagram generation. We develop certain graphs associated with Euler diagrams in order to allow curves to be added by finding cycles in these graphs. This permits us to build Euler diagrams inductively, adding one curve at a time. Our technique is adaptable, allowing the easy specification, and enforcement, of sets of well-formedness conditions; we present a series of results that identify properties of cycles that correspond to the well-formedness conditions. This improves upon other contributions toward the automated generation of Euler diagrams which implicitly assume some fixed set of well-formedness conditions must hold. In addition, unlike most of these other generation methods, our technique allows any abstract description to be drawn as an Euler diagram. To establish the utility of the approach, a prototype implementation has been developed.

  20. Engineering holographic phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Dai, Shou-Huang; Maity, Debaprasad; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2016-10-01

    By introducing interacting scalar fields, we tried to engineer physically motivated holographic phase diagrams which may be interesting in the context of various known condensed matter systems. We introduce an additional scalar field in the bulk which provides a tunable parameter in the boundary theory. By exploiting the way the tuning parameter changes the effective masses of the bulk interacting scalar fields, desired phase diagrams can be engineered for the boundary order parameters dual to those scalar fields. We give a few examples of generating phase diagrams with phase boundaries which are strikingly similar to the known quantum phases at low temperature such as the superconducting phases. However, the important difference is that all the phases we have discussed are characterized by neutral order parameters. At the end, we discuss if there exists any emerging scaling symmetry associated with a quantum critical point hidden under the dome in this phase diagram.

  1. Feynman Diagrams for Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Kumericki, Kresimir

    2016-01-01

    We give a short introduction to Feynman diagrams, with many exercises. Text is targeted at students who had little or no prior exposure to quantum field theory. We present condensed description of single-particle Dirac equation, free quantum fields and construction of Feynman amplitude using Feynman diagrams. As an example, we give a detailed calculation of cross-section for annihilation of electron and positron into a muon pair. We also show how such calculations are done with the aid of computer.

  2. The Importance of Alternative Diagnostic Modalities in the Diagnosis of Small Bowel Tumors After a Negative Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Ribeiro

    2015-05-01

    We report the case of a patient with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding due to a gastrointestinal stromal tumor diagnosed by CT enterography after two negatives capsule endoscopies. This case shows that capsule endoscopy may overlook significant life threatening lesions and highlights the importance of using other diagnostic modalities after a negative capsule endoscopy, especially in patients with a high index of suspicion for small bowel tumoral pathology or persistent/recurrent bleeding.

  3. Sedation for pediatric diagnostic imaging: use of pediatric and nursing resources as an alternative to a radiology department sedation team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruess, Lynne [Department of Radiology, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Scsiences, Bethesda, MD (United States); O' Connor, Stephen C. [Department of Radiology, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Mikita, Cecilia P. [Department of Pediatrics, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Creamer, Kevin M. [Department of Pediatrics, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Objective. To develop a pathway to provide safe, effective, and efficient sedation for pediatric diagnostic imaging studies using non-radiology personnel. Materials and methods. A multidisciplinary team considered manpower and training requirements and national sedation standards before designing a sedation pathway, which included scheduling, pre-sedation history and physical, medication protocols, and monitoring. Oral and IV medication protocols were developed based on patient age and weight. Sedation delays were defined as >15 min (IV) or >30 min (PO) from start of sedation to start of imaging. A sedation failure resulted in an incomplete diagnostic imaging study. Failure rates of 124 sedations before and 388 sedations after the pathway were compared.Results. The sedation failure rate for 7 months prior to pathway initiation was 15% (19/124). In the first 25 months after pathway initiation, failures were significantly reduced to 1.5% (6/388) (P<0.0001). Three (50%) of the six failures after pathway initiation were long examinations (>55 min). Deviation from the recommended medication protocol accounted for most of the 115 delays. Only minor adverse events were seen (12/388, 3.1%).Conclusion. Implementing a pediatric sedation pathway significantly decreases the sedation failure rate. Pediatric residents and nurses can safely, effectively and efficiently sedate pediatric patients for routine diagnostic imaging procedures without the need for a radiology department sedation team in a department with a small-to-moderate volume of pediatric patients. (orig.)

  4. Transformation of theoretical-methodological approaches and methodical tools of the individual and territory welfare diagnostics. Part 1. From spreading to the alternative diagnostics approaches (background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kuklin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an evolution of theoretical and methodological approaches to the welfare study. Existing theories of wellbeing are grouped according to accounted method of goods and resources distribution among society members. As a welfare future as a category we highlight objective (measured and subjective (estimated components. Based on the analysis of scientific literature we determine the ratio of individual and social welfare. The main differences between the categories of “ welfare” and “wealth” are given. The main difference consists in multidirectional changes of welfare and wealth for an increase (decrease in income of the individual (country. In this article we present an analysis of modern approaches to the definition of welfare: state, institutional and expendable approach. The welfare level estimation is complicated due to the need to consider the subjective component. The article provides an analysis of existing approaches to quantitative welfare evaluation ranging from the most common techniques (HDI, GDP to alternative techniques (Happy Planet Index.Methodological devices are structured by levels of welfare assessment objects (world, country, region, people. Based on the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of methods we can conclude that the most reliable method is a comprehensive approach, which includes economic, environmental, social, vital and infrastructure indicators. The author’s approach to the formation of a complex methodological tool for individual and territory welfare estimation is presented in this article.

  5. Asteroseismology Across the HR Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. J.; Cunha, M. S.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    2003-05-01

    Ground-based observations have detected solar-like oscillations on Sun-like stars, and diagnostics similar to those used in helioseismology are now being used to test and constrain the physics and evolutionary state of these stars. Multi-mode oscillations are being observed in an abundance of other stars, including slowly pulsating B stars (SPB stars), delta-Scuti stars, Ap stars and the pulsating white dwarfs. New classes of pulsators continue to be discovered across the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. Yet the chances still to be faced to make asteroseismology across the HR diagram a reality are formidable. Observation, data analysis and theory all pose hard problems to be overcome. This book, reflecting the goal of the meeting, aims to facilitate a cross-fertilisation of ideas and approaches between fields covering different pulsators and with different areas of expertise. The book successfully covers most known types of pulsators, reflecting a highly productive and far reaching interchange of ideas which we believe is conveyed by the papers and posters published, making it a reference for researchers and postgraduate students working on stellar structure and evolution. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1173-3

  6. Electrical engineering of engineers 2. Alternative current engineering, loci diagrams, transformers, multiphase systems - a lecture and working book for the basic study. 5. rev. ed.; Elektrotechnik fuer Ingenieure 2. Wechselstromtechnik, Ortskurven, Transformator, Mehrphasensysteme - Ein Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch fuer das Grundstudium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissgerber, W.

    2005-07-01

    This lecture- and training book covers comprehensively and systematically fundamentals and calculation methods of ac engineering, loci diagrams, transformers and three-phase systems. Many tasks with detailed solutions in the appendix complete theoretical treatises and enable a good preparation for the examination. The latest edition contains an index of applicated definitions, formulas and units. The content: Sinusoidal changing parameters; Calculation of ac grids; Power in the ac circuit; Loci diagrams; transformers; Multi- and three-phase systems. The book directs to students of vocational colleges, technical universities and professional academies. (GL)

  7. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  8. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  9. On Argument and Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneupper, Charles W.

    1978-01-01

    Responds to Charles Willard's recommendations (in an article in "Communication Monographs," November 1976) that argument be viewed as an attempt to establish formal relationships among symbolic structures. Demonstrates flaws in this redefinition and shows argument diagrams to be theoretically and practically justifiable. (JMF)

  10. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de

    2000-01-01

    We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin

  11. First meeting "Cystic echinococcosis in Chile, update in alternatives for control and diagnostics in animals and humans".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Fredes, Fernando; Torres, Marisa; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Alvarez, Juan Francisco; Pavletic, Carlos; Paredes, Rodolfo; Cortés, Sandra

    2016-09-13

    This report summarizes the outcomes of a meeting on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in animals and humans in Chile held in Santiago, Chile, between the 21st and 22nd of January 2016. The meeting participants included representatives of the Departamento de Zoonosis, Ministerio de Salud (Zoonotic Diseases Department, Ministry of Health), representatives of the Secretarias Regionales del Ministerio de Salud (Regional Department of Health, Ministry of Health), Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo Agropecuario (National Institute for the Development of Agriculture and Livestock, INDAP), Instituto de Salud Pública (National Institute for Public Health, ISP) and the Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (Animal Health Department, SAG), academics from various universities, veterinarians and physicians. Current and future CE control activities were discussed. It was noted that the EG95 vaccine was being implemented for the first time in pilot control programmes, with the vaccine scheduled during 2016 in two different regions in the South of Chile. In relation to use of the vaccine, the need was highlighted for acquiring good quality data, based on CE findings at slaughterhouse, previous to initiation of vaccination so as to enable correct assessment of the efficacy of the vaccine in the following years. The current world's-best-practice concerning the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for the screening population in highly endemic remote and poor areas was also discussed.

  12. Computer-assisted learning as an alternative to didactic lectures: a study of teaching the physics of diagnostic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. M. Dale

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an expansion in the number of undergraduate students recruited to the veterinary courses in the UK veterinary schools. This growth in student numbers has not been matched by an increase in academic staff devoted to teaching. In addition, higher education has in the 1990s suffered an approximate 20 per cent reduction in government funding if the effects of inflation and student numbers are taken into account. At the same time there has been a demand for the investigation of teaching quality, leading to the Teaching Quality Assurance process (Ellis, 1993. Thus a number of converging factors have stimulated the need to look for alternative and innovative methods of teaching in veterinary undergraduate education.

  13. Investigating portable fluorescent microscopy (CyScope® as an alternative rapid diagnostic test for malaria in children and women of child-bearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa-Figueiredo José

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt and correct diagnosis of malaria is crucial for accurate epidemiological assessment and better case management, and while the gold standard of light microscopy is often available, it requires both expertise and time. Portable fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope® offers a potentially quicker, easier and more field-applicable alternative. This article reports on the strengths, limitations of this methodology and its diagnostic performance in cross-sectional surveys on young children and women of child-bearing age. Methods 552 adults (99% women of child-bearing age and 980 children (99% ≤ 5 years of age from rural and peri-urban regions of Ugandan were examined for malaria using light microscopy (Giemsa-stain, a lateral-flow test (Paracheck-Pf® and the CyScope®. Results from the surveys were used to calculate diagnostic performance (sensitivity and specificity as well as to perform a receiver operating characteristics (ROC analyses, using light microscopy as the gold-standard. Results Fluorescent microscopy (qualitative reads showed reduced specificity (400 parasites/μL blood: sensitivity of 64.2% and specificity of 86.0%. Overall, the diagnostic performance of the CyScope was found inferior to that of Paracheck-Pf®. Discussion Fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope® is certainly a field-applicable and relatively affordable solution for malaria diagnoses especially in areas where electrical supplies may be lacking. While it is unlikely to miss higher parasitaemia, its application in cross-sectional community-based studies leads to many false positives (i.e. small fluorescent bodies of presently unknown origin mistaken as malaria parasites. Without recourse to other technologies, arbitration of these false positives is presently equivocal, which could ultimately lead to over-treatment; something that should be further explored in future investigations if the CyScope® is to be more widely implemented.

  14. Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new data structure called boolean expression diagrams (BEDs) for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of binary decision diagrams (BDDs) which can represent any Boolean circuit in linear space. Two algorithms are described for transforming...... a BED into a reduced ordered BDD. One is a generalized version of the BDD apply-operator while the other can exploit the structural information of the Boolean expression. This ability is demonstrated by verifying that two different circuit implementations of a 16-bit multiplier implement the same...... Boolean function. Using BEDs, this verification problem is solved efficiently, while using standard BDD techniques this problem is infeasible. Generally, BEDs are useful in applications, for example tautology checking, where the end-result as a reduced ordered BDD is small. Moreover, using operators...

  15. Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) which can represent any Boolean circuit in linear space and still maintain many of the desirable...... properties of BDDs. Two algorithms are described for transforming a BED into a reduced ordered BDD. One closely mimics the BDD apply-operator while the other can exploit the structural information of the Boolean expression. The efficacy of the BED representation is demonstrated by verifying...... that the redundant and non-redundant versions of the ISCAS 85 benchmark circuits are identical. In particular, it is verified that the two 16-bit multiplication circuits (c6288 and c6288nr) implement the same Boolean functions. Using BEDs, this verification problem is solved in less than a second, while using...

  16. TEP process flow diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  17. Technology Logic Diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas NV (United States); O`Brien, M.C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A planning and management tool was developed that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems to technologies that can be used to remediate these problems. Although the Technology Logic Diagram has been widely used within the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, it can be modified for use during the planning of any waste management and environmental cleanup effort.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of ELISA methods as an alternative screening test to indirect immunofluorescence for the detection of antinuclear antibodies. Evaluation of five commercial kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonuttia, Elio; Bassetti, Danila; Piazza, Anna; Visentini, Daniela; Poletto, Monica; Bassetto, Franca; Caciagli, Patrizio; Villalta, Danilo; Tozzoli, Renato; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2004-03-01

    Detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a fundamental laboratory test for diagnosing systemic autoimmune diseases. Currently, the method of choice is indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on a HEp-2 cell substrate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of five commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits for ANA detection and to verify the possibility of using them as an alternative to the IIF method. The study involved 1513 patients, 315 of whom were diagnosed with a systemic autoimmune disease and 1198 in whom an autoimmune disorder was excluded. For all sera, ANA detection was performed via IIF and with five different EIA kits. The results were evaluated in relation to clinical diagnosis and the presence of possible specific autoantibodies (anti-ENA or anti-dsDNA); lastly, they were compared with the results obtained using ANA-IIF as the method of reference. The positive rate of the ANA-IIF test in subjects with systemic autoimmune diseases was 92%, whereas in the five ANA-EIA kits there was broad diversity in terms of response, with positive rates ranging from 74 to 94%. All the EIA kits correctly detected the presence of antibodies (anti-dsDNA, anti-RNP, anti-Ro/SSA) responsible for homogeneous and speckled fluorescence pattern, but at the same time they showed substantial inaccuracy with the nucleolar pattern, with a mean sensitivity of approximately 50% in this case. Instead, there was a large kit-to-kit difference in terms of identification of anti-Scl70 and centromere patterns, for which sensitivities ranged between 45 and 91%, and between 49 and 100%, respectively. The results of the study demonstrate that the commercially available ANA-EIA kits show different levels of sensitivity and specificity. Some of them have a diagnostic accuracy that is comparable and, in some cases, even higher than the IIF method. Consequently, these could be used as an alternative screening test to IIE. However, others do not ensure acceptable

  19. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation in Patients with Chronic Disorder of Consciousness: A Possible Way to Cut the Diagnostic Gordian Knot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naro, Antonino; Bramanti, Placido; Leo, Antonino; Russo, Margherita; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) is a chronic disorder of consciousness (DOC) characterized by a lack of awareness and purposeful motor behaviors, owing to an extensive brain connectivity impairment. Nevertheless, some UWS patients may retain residual brain connectivity patterns, which may sustain a covert awareness, namely functional locked-in syndrome (fLIS). We evaluated the possibility of bringing to light such residual neural networks using a non-invasive neurostimulation protocol. To this end, we enrolled 15 healthy individuals and 26 DOC patients (minimally conscious state-MCS- and UWS), who underwent a γ-band transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We measured the effects of tACS on power and partial-directed coherence within local and long-range cortical networks, before and after the protocol application. tACS was able to specifically modulate large-scale cortical effective connectivity and excitability in all the MCS participants and some UWS patients, who could be, therefore, considered as suffering from fLIS. Hence, tACS could be a useful approach in supporting a DOC differential diagnosis, depending on the level of preservation of the cortical large-scale effective connectivity.

  20. The Massive Thermal Basketball Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, J O; Strickland, Michael T; Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The "basketball diagram" is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar fieldtheory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculatethis diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it toexpressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluatednumerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massivescalar field with a phi^4 interaction to three-loop order.

  1. Disconnected diagrams with twisted-mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Rehim, Abdou; Constantinou, Martha; Finkenrath, Jacob; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Jansen, Karl; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis; Avilés-Casco, Alejandro Vaquero

    2016-01-01

    The latest results from the Twisted-Mass collaboration on disconnected diagrams at the physical value of the pion mass are presented. In particular, we focus on the sigma terms, the axial charges and the momentum fraction, all of them for the nucleon. A detailed error analysis for each observable follows, showing the strengths and weaknesses of the one-end trick. Alternatives are discussed.

  2. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  3. Wellformedness properties in Euler diagrams: which should be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Peter; Zhang, Leishi; Purchase, Helen

    2012-07-01

    Euler diagrams are often used to visualize intersecting data sets in applications such as criminology; genetics, medicine, and computer file systems. One interesting aspect of these diagrams is that some data sets cannot be drawn without breaking one or more "wellformedness properties," which are considered to reduce the user comprehension of the diagrams. However, it is possible to draw the same data with different diagrams, each of which breaks different wellformedness properties. Hence, some properties are "swappable," so motivating the study of which of the alternatives would be best to use. This paper reports on the two empirical studies to determine how wellformedness properties affect comprehension. One study was with abstract data, the other was with concrete data that visualized students' enrollment on university modules. We have results from both studies that imply that diagrams with concurrency or disconnected zones perform less well than other some other properties. Further, we have no results that imply that diagrams with brushing points adversely affect performance. Our data also indicate that nonsimple curves are preferred less than diagrams with other properties. These results will inform both human diagram designers and the developers of automated drawing systems on the best way to visualize data using Euler diagrams.

  4. Knot probabilities in random diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarella, Jason; Chapman, Harrison; Mastin, Matt

    2016-10-01

    We consider a natural model of random knotting—choose a knot diagram at random from the finite set of diagrams with n crossings. We tabulate diagrams with 10 and fewer crossings and classify the diagrams by knot type, allowing us to compute exact probabilities for knots in this model. As expected, most diagrams with 10 and fewer crossings are unknots (about 78% of the roughly 1.6 billion 10 crossing diagrams). For these crossing numbers, the unknot fraction is mostly explained by the prevalence of ‘tree-like’ diagrams which are unknots for any assignment of over/under information at crossings. The data shows a roughly linear relationship between the log of knot type probability and the log of the frequency rank of the knot type, analogous to Zipf’s law for word frequency. The complete tabulation and all knot frequencies are included as supplementary data.

  5. Collective neurodynamics: Phase diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Li, Wenyuan; Schwartz, Robert N.; Hudson, Andrew E.; Meier, Karlheinz; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we conceptualize the phase diagram of collective short-term bio-chemo-electric component of neurodynamics (S-ND) on the parameter space of externally, e.g., pharmacologically, controllable single-neuron parameters such as the resting potential and/or firing threshold, repolarization time, etc. This concept may become a useful tool for the systematization of knowledge in anesthesiology and provide a fruitful venue for future studies of the high-level S-ND functionalities such as short-te...

  6. Diagramming Complex Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    We increasingly live in heterogeneous ever-changing webs of activities where human actions are intertwined with events created by automatic machines.  In order to make such webs understandable to its human participants, their structure should be represented by displays emphasizing their action as...... aspect. The paper suggests thematic roles as a semantics for actions, argues that a selection of well-known diagramming techniques can be defined within this theory, and uses the theory to discuss new issues related to process control and mobile technology....

  7. Electrical engineering of engineers 2. Alternative current engineering, loci diagrams, transformers, multiphase systems. A lecture and working book for the basic study. 7. upd. ed.; Elektrotechnik fuer Ingenieure 2. Wechselstromtechnik, Ortskurven, Transformator, Mehrphasensysteme. Ein Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch fuer das Grundstudium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissgerber, Wilfried

    2009-07-01

    This lecture- and training book covers comprehensively and systematically fundamentals and calculation methods of ac engineering, loci diagrams, transformers and three-phase systems. Many tasks with detailed solutions in the appendix complete theoretical treatises and enable a good preparation for the examination. The latest edition contains an index of applicated definitions, formulas and units. The content: Sinusoidal changing parameters; Calculation of ac grids; Power in the ac circuit; Loci diagrams; transformers; Multi- and three-phase systems. The book directs to students of vocational colleges, technical universities and professional academies. 7th edition is completely revised formally and in content. (orig./GL) [German] Dieses Lehr- und Uebungsbuch behandelt in ausfuehrlicher und systematischer Weise die Grundlagen und Berechnungsverfahren der Wechselstromtechnik, die Ortskurven, den Transformator und die Dreiphasensysteme. Die Inhalte wurden durch intensive Mitarbeit von Studierenden und Kollegen immer wieder verbessert. Zahlreiche Aufgaben mit ausfuehrlichen Loesungen im Anhang ergaenzen die theoretischen Abhandlungen und ermoeglichen eine gute Pruefungsvorbereitung. Ein Verzeichnis der verwendeten Schreibweisen, Formelzeichen und Einheiten erleichtert das Arbeiten mit dem Buch. Die 7. Auflage ist in Inhalt und Form ueberarbeitet. (orig.)

  8. Collins Model and Phase Diagram of 2D Ternary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chuan-Mei; CHEN Li-Rong

    2004-01-01

    The Collins model is introduced into the two-dimensional (2D) alternative ternary system having the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential. The Gibbs free energy of this ternary system is calculated, and according to thermodynamic theory, a group of equations that determine the solid-liquid diagram of ternary system are derived, some isothermal sectional diagrams of the 2D ternary system are obtained. The results are quite similar to the behavior of three-dimensional substances.

  9. Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

  10. Galaxy emission line classification using 3D line ratio diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Frédéric P A; Kewley, Lisa J; Sutherland, Ralph S; Scharwaechter, Julia; Basurah, Hassan M; Ali, Alaa; Amer, Morsi A

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams have become a key tool in understanding the excitation mechanisms of galaxies. The curves used to separate the different regions - HII-like or else excited by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) - have been refined over time but the core technique has not evolved significantly. However, the classification of galaxies based on their emission line ratios really is a multi-dimensional problem. Here we exploit recent software developments to explore the potential of three-dimensional (3D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We introduce a specific set of 3D diagrams, the ZQE diagrams, which separate the oxygen abundance and the ionisation parameter of HII region-like spectra, and which also enable us to probe the excitation mechanism of the gas. By examining these new 3D spaces interactively, we define a new set of 2D diagnostics, the ZE diagnostics, which can provide the metallicity of objects excited by hot young stars, and which cleanly separate HII region-like obje...

  11. Generation of Finite Life Distributional Goodman Diagrams for Reliability Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.

    1971-01-01

    The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.

  12. Diagonal Slices of 3D Young Diagrams in the Approach of Maya Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    According to the correspondence between 2D Young diagrams and Maya diagrams and the relation between 2D and 3D Young diagrams, we construct 3D Young diagrams in the approach of Maya diagrams. Moreover, we formulate the generating function of 3D Young diagrams, which is the MacMahon function in terms of Maya diagrams.

  13. Modeling process flow using diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, B.; de Mast, J.; Mandjes, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process improv

  14. Diagrams and Proofs in Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Jessica M H Grund

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the role of diagrams in mathematical reasoning based on a case study in analysis.   In the presented example certain combinatorial expressions were first found by using diagrams. In the published proofs the pictures are replaced by reasoning about permutation groups...

  15. Combinatorics of Link Diagrams and Volume

    OpenAIRE

    Giambrone, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We show that the volumes of certain hyperbolic A-adequate links can be bounded (above and) below in terms of two diagrammatic quantities: the twist number and the number of certain alternating tangles in an A-adequate diagram. We then restrict our attention to plat closures of certain braids, a rich family of links whose volumes can be bounded in terms of the twist number alone. Furthermore, in the absence of special tangles, our volume bounds can be expressed in terms of a single stable coef...

  16. The Compressibility of Checkerboard Surfaces of Link Diagrams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Qiang BAO

    2007-01-01

    Consider the checkerboard surfaces defined by some link diagrams. When they are notorientable, one considers the boundary surfaces of small regular neighborhoods of them. This articlestudies the compressibility problem of these kinds of surfaces in the link complements. The problemis solved by devising a normalization theory for the compressing discs, which brings up an algorithmto read out compressibility directly from the link diagrams. As an application of the algorithm, thecompressibility changes under Reidermeister moves are studied. Diagrams from the knot tables arealso studied, and surprisingly, some of them are shown to define completely compressible surfaces ofthis kind. Infinitely many examples of non-alternating knot diagrams with incompressible surfaces ofthis kind are also constructed.

  17. The Genesis of Feynman Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Wuthrich, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    In a detailed reconstruction of the genesis of Feynman diagrams the author reveals that their development was constantly driven by the attempt to resolve fundamental problems concerning the uninterpretable infinities that arose in quantum as well as classical theories of electrodynamic phenomena. Accordingly, as a comparison with the graphical representations that were in use before Feynman diagrams shows, the resulting theory of quantum electrodynamics, featuring Feynman diagrams, differed significantly from earlier versions of the theory in the way in which the relevant phenomena were concep

  18. Scattering equations and Feynman diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-09-01

    We show a direct matching between individual Feynman diagrams and integration measures in the scattering equation formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan. The connection is most easily explained in terms of triangular graphs associated with planar Feynman diagrams in φ 3-theory. We also discuss the generalization to general scalar field theories with φ p interactions, corresponding to polygonal graphs involving vertices of order p. Finally, we describe how the same graph-theoretic language can be used to provide the precise link between individual Feynman diagrams and string theory integrands.

  19. Scattering Equations and Feynman Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bourjaily, Jacob L; Damgaard, Poul H

    2015-01-01

    We show a direct matching between individual Feynman diagrams and integration measures in the scattering equation formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan. The connection is most easily explained in terms of triangular graphs associated with planar Feynman diagrams in $\\phi^3$-theory. We also discuss the generalization to general scalar field theories with $\\phi^p$ interactions, corresponding to polygonal graphs involving vertices of order $p$. Finally, we describe how the same graph-theoretic language can be used to provide the precise link between individual Feynman diagrams and string theory integrands.

  20. Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.

  1. Causal diagrams for physical models

    CERN Document Server

    Kinsler, Paul

    2015-01-01

    I present a scheme of drawing causal diagrams based on physically motivated mathematical models expressed in terms of temporal differential equations. They provide a means of better understanding the processes and causal relationships contained within such systems.

  2. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  3. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø

     Probabilistic networks, also known as Bayesian networks and influence diagrams, have become one of the most promising technologies in the area of applied artificial intelligence, offering intuitive, efficient, and reliable methods for diagnosis, prediction, decision making, classification......, troubleshooting, and data mining under uncertainty. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. Intended...

  4. Ion mixing and phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S. S.; Liu, B. X.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-05-01

    Interactions induced by ion irradiation are generally considered to be non-equilibrium processes, whereas phase diagrams are determined by phase equilibria. These two entities are seemingly unrelated. However, if one assumes that quasi-equilibrium conditions prevail after the prompt events, subsequent reactions are driven toward equilibrium by thermodynamical forces. Under this assumption, ion-induced reactions are related to equilibrium and therefore to phase diagrams. This relationship can be seen in the similarity that exists in thin films between reactions induced by ion irradiation and reactions induced by thermal annealing. In the latter case, phase diagrams have been used to predict the phase sequence of stable compound formation, notably so in cases of silicide formation. Ion-induced mixing not only can lead to stable compound formation, but also to metastable alloy formation. In some metal-metal systems, terminal solubilities can be greatly extended by ion mixing. In other cases, where the two constituents of the system have different crystal structures, extension of terminal solubility from both sides of the phase diagram eventually becomes structurally incompatible and a glassy (amorphous) mixture can form. The composition range where this bifurcation is likely to occur is in the two-phase regions of the phase diagram. These concepts are potentially useful guides in selecting metal pairs that from metallic glasses by ion mixing. In this report, phenomenological correlation between stable (and metastable) phase formation and phase diagram is discussed in terms of recent experimental data.

  5. Generalized balanced power diagrams for 3D representations of polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, Andreas; Brieden, Andreas; Gritzmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the grain structure of polycrystalline material is an important task in material science. The present paper introduces the concept of generalized balanced power diagrams as a concise alternative to voxelated mappings. Here, each grain is represented by (measured approximations of...

  6. Perfect orderings on Bratteli diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bezuglyi, Sergey; Yassawi, Reem

    2012-01-01

    Given a Bratteli diagram B, we study the set O(B) of all possible orderings w on a Bratteli diagram B and its subset P(B) consisting of `perfect' orderings that produce Bratteli-Vershik dynamical systems (Vershik maps). We give necessary and sufficient conditions for w to be perfect. On the other hand, a wide class of non-simple Bratteli diagrams that do not admit Vershik maps is explicitly described. In the case of finite rank Bratteli diagrams, we show that the existence of perfect orderings with a prescribed number of extreme paths affects significantly the values of the entries of the incidence matrices and the structure of the diagram B. Endowing the set O(B) with product measure, we prove that there is some j such that almost all orderings on B have j maximal and minimal paths, and that if j is strictly greater than the number of minimal components that B has, then almost all orderings are imperfect.

  7. Improving modeling with layered UML diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Layered diagrams are diagrams whose elements are organized into sets of layers. Layered diagrams are routinely used in many branches of engineering, except Software Engineering. In this paper, we propose to add layered diagrams to UML modeling tools, and elaborate the concept by exploring usage...

  8. Nonabelian cut diagrams and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, C S

    1996-01-01

    A new kind of cut diagram is introduced to sum Feynman diagrams with nonabelian vertices. Unlike the Cutkosky diagrams which compute the discontinuity of single Feynman diagrams, the nonabelian cut diagrams represent a resummation of both the real and the imaginary parts of Feynman diagrams related by permutations. Several applications of the technique are reported, including a resolution of the apparent inconsistency of the baryon problem in large-N_c QCD, a simplified calculation of high-energy low-order QCD diagrams, and progress made with this technique on the unitarization of the BFKL equation.

  9. Visualizing spacetimes via embedding diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Hledik, Stanislav; Cipko, Alois

    2016-01-01

    It is hard to imagine curved spacetimes of General Relativity. A simple but powerful way how to achieve this is visualizing them via embedding diagrams of both ordinary geometry and optical reference geometry. They facilitate to gain an intuitive insight into the gravitational field rendered into a curved spacetime, and to assess the influence of parameters like electric charge and spin of a black hole, magnetic field or cosmological constant. Optical reference geometry and related inertial forces and their relationship to embedding diagrams are particularly useful for investigation of test particles motion. Embedding diagrams of static and spherically symmetric, or stationary and axially symmetric black-hole and naked-singularity spacetimes thus present a useful concept for intuitive understanding of these spacetimes' nature. We concentrate on general way of embedding into 3-dimensional Euclidean space, and give a set of illustrative examples.

  10. Multi-currency Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn V.

    2007-01-01

    When using the influence diagrams framework for solving a decision problem with several different quantitative utilities, the traditional approach has been to convert the utilities into one common currency. This conversion is carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption that the......When using the influence diagrams framework for solving a decision problem with several different quantitative utilities, the traditional approach has been to convert the utilities into one common currency. This conversion is carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption...... that the converted problem is equivalent to the original one. In this paper we present an extension of the influence diagram framework. The extension allows for these decision problems to be modelled in their original form. We present an algorithm that, given a linear conversion function between the currencies...

  11. Basic principles of Hasse diagram technique in chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Rainer; Voigt, Kristina

    2008-11-01

    Principles of partial order applied to ranking are explained. The Hasse diagram technique (HDT) is the application of partial order theory based on a data matrix. In this paper, HDT is introduced in a stepwise procedure, and some elementary theorems are exemplified. The focus is to show how the multivariate character of a data matrix is realized by HDT and in which cases one should apply other mathematical or statistical methods. Many simple examples illustrate the basic theoretical ideas. Finally, it is shown that HDT is a useful alternative for the evaluation of antifouling agents, which was originally performed by amoeba diagrams.

  12. Resistance of Feynman diagrams and the percolation backbone dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, H K; Stenull, O; Oerding, K

    1999-06-01

    We present an alternative view of Feynman diagrams for the field theory of random resistor networks, in which the diagrams are interpreted as being resistor networks themselves. This simplifies the field theory considerably as we demonstrate by calculating the fractal dimension D(B) of the percolation backbone to three loop order. Using renormalization group methods we obtain D(B)=2+epsilon/21-172epsilon(2)/9261+2epsilon(3)[-74 639+22 680zeta(3)]/4 084 101, where epsilon=6-d with d being the spatial dimension and zeta(3)=1.202 057... .

  13. Do Students Know What They Know and What They Don't Know? Using a Four-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess the Nature of Students' Alternative Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the development and application of a four-tier multiple-choice (4TMC) diagnostic instrument, which has not been reported in the literature. It is an enhanced version of the two-tier multiple-choice (2TMC) test. As in 2TMC tests, its answer and reason tiers measure students' content knowledge and explanatory knowledge,…

  14. Enantiomeric 3-chloromandelic acid system: binary melting point phase diagram, ternary solubility phase diagrams and polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Minh, Tam; von Langermann, Jan; Lorenz, Heike; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    A systematic study of binary melting point and ternary solubility phase diagrams of the enantiomeric 3-chloromandelic acid (3-ClMA) system was performed under consideration of polymorphism. The melting point phase diagram was measured by means of thermal analysis, that is, using heat-flux differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results reveal that 3-ClMA belongs to the racemic compound-forming systems. Polymorphism was found for both the enantiomer and the racemate as confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The ternary solubility phase diagram of 3-ClMA in water was determined between 5 and 50 degrees C by the classical isothermal technique. The solubilities of the pure enantiomers are extremely temperature-dependent. The solid-liquid equilibria of racemic 3-ClMA are not trivial due to the existence of polymorphism. The eutectic composition in the chiral system changes as a function of temperature. Further, solubility data in the alternative solvent toluene are also presented.

  15. Electrical elementary diagrams and operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, B.K. [Human Factors Practical Inc., Dipper Harbour, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: HumanFactors@netscape.ca

    2005-07-01

    After 40 years of reading and interrupting electrical elementary logic drawings, I have concluded that we need to make a change. We need to write and express our nuclear power plant logic in some other language than relay ladder logic, solid state logic or computer mnemonics. The language should be English, or your native language, and the format should be Descriptive Block Diagrams. (author)

  16. The diagram for phyllotactic series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szymanowska-Pułka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many authors studying phyllotaxis in various plant species have reported the occurrence of many different numbers of contact parastichy pairs that are members of different Fibonacci-like series. On the basis of these reports a diagram was constructed in which any theoretically possible series was represented by the two first members of a given series.

  17. BIHOURLY DIAGRAMS OF FORBUSH DECREASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihourly diagrams were made of Forbush decreases of cosmic ray intensity as observed at Uppsala from 31 Aug 56 to 31 Dec 59, at Kiruna from Nov 56 to 31 Dec 59, and at Murchison Bay from 26 Aug 57 to 30 Apr 59. (Author)

  18. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø

    Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. This new edition contains six new...

  19. Grid diagrams and Khovanov homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droz, Jean-Marie; Wagner, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    We explain how to compute the Jones polynomial of a link from one of its grid diagrams and we observe a connection between Bigelow’s homological definition of the Jones polynomial and Kauffman’s definition of the Jones polynomial. Consequently, we prove that the Maslov grading on the Seidel–Smith...

  20. Multi-currency Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2004-01-01

    that the converted problem is equivalent to the original one. In this paper we present an extension of the Influence Diagram framework, which allows for these decision problems to be modelled in their original form. We present an algorithm that, given a conversion function between the currencies, discovers...

  1. Diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of alternative methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya M Assefa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths (STH in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya. A cost analysis also explores the cost implications of collecting samples during school surveys when compared to household surveys. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from children (n = 652 attending 18 schools in Bungoma County and diagnosed by the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC coprological methods. Sensitivity and additional diagnostic performance measures were analyzed using Bayesian latent class modeling. Financial and economic costs were calculated for all survey and diagnostic activities, and cost per child tested, cost per case detected and cost per STH infection correctly classified were estimated. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of various survey parameters on cost estimates. RESULTS: Both diagnostic methods exhibited comparable sensitivity for detection of any STH species over single and consecutive day sampling: 52.0% for single day Kato-Katz; 49.1% for single-day Mini-FLOTAC; 76.9% for consecutive day Kato-Katz; and 74.1% for consecutive day Mini-FLOTAC. Diagnostic performance did not differ significantly between methods for the different STH species. Use of Kato-Katz with school-based sampling was the lowest cost scenario for cost per child tested ($10.14 and cost per case correctly classified ($12.84. Cost per case detected was lowest for Kato-Katz used in community-based sampling ($128.24. Sensitivity analysis revealed the cost of case detection for any STH decreased non-linearly as prevalence rates increased and was influenced by the number of samples collected. CONCLUSIONS: The Kato-Katz method was comparable in diagnostic sensitivity to the Mini-FLOTAC method, but afforded greater cost-effectiveness. Future work is required to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of STH surveillance in

  2. Timely Diagnostic Feedback for Database Concept Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng; Chuang, Yuh-Shy

    2013-01-01

    To efficiently learn database concepts, this work adopts association rules to provide diagnostic feedback for drawing an Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD). Using association rules and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) techniques, this work implements a novel Web-based Timely Diagnosis System (WTDS), which provides timely diagnostic feedback…

  3. Phase Stability Diagrams for High Temperature Corrosion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ramos-Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion phenomena of metals by fused salts depend on chemical composition of the melt and environmental conditions of the system. Detail knowledge of chemistry and thermodynamic of aggressive species formed during the corrosion process is essential for a better understanding of materials degradation exposed to high temperature. When there is a lack of kinetic data for the corrosion processes, an alternative to understand the thermodynamic behavior of chemical species is to utilize phase stability diagrams. Nowadays, there are several specialized software programs to calculate phase stability diagrams. These programs are based on thermodynamics of chemical reactions. Using a thermodynamic data base allows the calculation of different types of phase diagrams. However, sometimes it is difficult to have access to such data bases. In this work, an alternative way to calculate phase stability diagrams is presented. The work is exemplified in the Na-V-S-O and Al-Na-V-S-O systems. This system was chosen because vanadium salts is one of the more aggressive system for all engineering alloys, especially in those processes where fossil fuels are used.

  4. Hero's journey in bifurcation diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, L. H. A.; Mustaro, P. N.

    2012-06-01

    The hero's journey is a narrative structure identified by several authors in comparative studies on folklore and mythology. This storytelling template presents the stages of inner metamorphosis undergone by the protagonist after being called to an adventure. In a simplified version, this journey is divided into three acts separated by two crucial moments. Here we propose a discrete-time dynamical system for representing the protagonist's evolution. The suffering along the journey is taken as the control parameter of this system. The bifurcation diagram exhibits stationary, periodic and chaotic behaviors. In this diagram, there are transition from fixed point to chaos and transition from limit cycle to fixed point. We found that the values of the control parameter corresponding to these two transitions are in quantitative agreement with the two critical moments of the three-act hero's journey identified in 10 movies appearing in the list of the 200 worldwide highest-grossing films.

  5. Development of methodology for alternative testing strategies for the assessment of the toxicological profile of nanoparticles used in medical diagnostics. NanoTEST - EC FP7 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusinska, Maria; Fjellsbo, Lise Maria; Heimstad, Eldbjorg; Harju, Mikael; Bartonova, Alena [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (Norway)], E-mail: dusinska@szu.sk; Tran, Lang [Institute of Occupational Medicine (United Kingdom); Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Halamoda, Blanka [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (Switzerland); Marano, Francelyne; Boland, Sonja [University Paris Diderot Paris7 (France); Saunders, Margaret; Cartwright, Laura; Carreira, Sara; Thawley, Susan [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Whelan, Maurice; Klein, Christoph [EC - Directorate General Joint Research Centre (Italy); Housiadas, Christos [National Centre for Scientific Research Demokritos (Greece); Volkovova, Katarina; Tulinska, Jana; Beno, Milan [Slovak Medical University (Slovakia)] (and others)

    2009-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have unique, potentially beneficial properties, but their possible impact on human health is still not known. The area of nanomedicine brings humans into direct contact with NPs and it is essential for both public confidence and the nanotech companies that appropriate risk assessments are undertaken in relation to health and safety. There is a pressing need to understand how engineered NPs can interact with the human body following exposure. The FP7 project NanoTEST (www.nanotest-fp7.eu) addresses these requirements in relation to the toxicological profile of NPs used in medical diagnostics.

  6. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2003-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velo...

  7. Phase diagram of crushed powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodard, Sébastien; Jalbaud, Olivier; Saurel, Richard; Burtschell, Yves; Lapebie, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Compression of monodisperse powder samples in quasistatic conditions is addressed in a pressure range such that particles fragmentation occurs while the solid remains incompressible (typical pressure range of 1-300 MPa for glass powders). For a granular bed made of particles of given size, the existence of three stages is observed during compression and crush up. First, classical compression occurs and the pressure of the granular bed increases along a characteristic curve as the volume decreases. Then, a critical pressure is reached for which fragmentation begins. During the fragmentation process, the granular pressure stays constant in a given volume range. At the end of this second stage, 20%-50% of initial grains are reduced to finer particles, depending on the initial size. Then the compression undergoes the third stage and the pressure increases along another characteristic curve, in the absence of extra fragmentation. The present paper analyses the analogies between the phase transition in liquid-vapour systems and powder compression with crush-up. Fragmentation diagram for a soda lime glass is determined by experimental means. The analogues of the saturation pressure and latent heat of phase change are determined. Two thermodynamic models are then examined to represent the crush-up diagram. The first one uses piecewise functions while the second one is of van der Waals type. Both equations of state relate granular pressure, solid volume fraction, and initial particle diameter. The piecewise functions approach provides reasonable representations of the phase diagram while the van der Waals one fails.

  8. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-03-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  9. An alternative perspective on how laboratory medicine can contribute to solve the health care crisis: a model to save costs by acquiring excellence in diagnostic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussap, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The rapid escalation in health care costs has led to the idea to deliver better care at lower costs, reshaping the responsibilities of the health care system to achieve the goal of creating value for the patient. The pressure for fiscal containment and the progressive reduction in available health care resources originated very short term strategies consisting of abrupt reductions in expenditure, specifically in the provision of clinical pathology laboratory medicine services. However, the impact of laboratory test results on diagnostic and therapeutic interventions has increased enormously in the past decade, due to advances in personalized medicine and to the strictly correlated requirement to use new biomarkers with increasing sensitivity and specificity in clinical practice. In order to create savings by delivering better care there is the need to invest financial resources in purchasing high technology and new sophisticated tests and to promote the expertise of clinical pathologists and laboratory medicine professionals. This approach to creating value in patient health care is more productive and sustainable ethically, morally and economically as a long-term strategy. It can be successfully achieved by applying defined rules that make public-private cooperation clearer, skipping incompatible solutions such as transforming clinical laboratories to 'industrially productive premises', outsourcing laboratory medicine services and using central acquisition of diagnostic systems.

  10. [Gadolinium as an alternative radiocontrast agent in patients with allergy to iodine-based contrast provide for useful diagnostic imagings and safely treatment of biliary tract diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Makoto; Sano, Hitoshi; Fukusada, Shigeki; Kachi, Kenta; Inoue, Tadahisa; Anbe, Kaiki; Nishie, Hirotada; Nishi, Yuji; Yoshimura, Norihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Okumura, Fumihiro; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Takahiro

    2013-05-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of biliary tract disease requires an intraductal radiocontrast agent. Although iodine-based contrast medium is commonly used, some patients show severe allergy to iodinated contrast agent. We have retrospectively reviewed the usefulness and safety of gadolinium as an alternative radiocontrast agent in 3 patients with allergy to iodine-based contrast medium in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary tract diseases. In case 1, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and cholangiography were performed successfully and it was possible to visualize an intrahepatic bile duct stone. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotomy was performed and the intrahepatic bile duct stone was removed. In case 2, endoscopic biliary lithotripsy was performed. In case 3, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and cholangioscopy provided a diagnosis of moderately differentiated carcinoma. He underwent pancreatoduodenectomy. Postoperative cholangiograms were also obtained successfully. Gadolinium contrast agent is an alternative to iodine-based cholangiography for the patients with allergy to iodine.

  11. Operations space diagram for ECRH and ECCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.

    2004-01-01

    A Clemmov-Mullaly-Allis (CMA) type diagram, the ECW-CMA diagram, for representing the operational possibilities of electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECRH/ECCD) systems for fusion plasmas is presented. In this diagram, with normalized density and normalized magnetic field coordinates...

  12. Back to basics: an evaluation of NaOH and alternative rapid DNA extraction protocols for DNA barcoding, genotyping, and disease diagnostics from fungal and oomycete samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundson, Todd W; Eyre, Catherine A; Hayden, Katherine M; Dhillon, Jaskirn; Garbelotto, Matteo M

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity, high diversity and often-cryptic manifestations of fungi and oomycetes frequently necessitate molecular tools for detecting and identifying them in the environment. In applications including DNA barcoding, pathogen detection from plant samples, and genotyping for population genetics and epidemiology, rapid and dependable DNA extraction methods scalable from one to hundreds of samples are desirable. We evaluated several rapid extraction methods (NaOH, Rapid one-step extraction (ROSE), Chelex 100, proteinase K) for their ability to obtain DNA of quantity and quality suitable for the following applications: PCR amplification of the multicopy barcoding locus ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 from various fungal cultures and sporocarps; single-copy microsatellite amplification from cultures of the phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora ramorum; probe-based P. ramorum detection from leaves. Several methods were effective for most of the applications, with NaOH extraction favored in terms of success rate, cost, speed and simplicity. Frozen dilutions of ROSE and NaOH extracts maintained PCR viability for over 32 months. DNA from rapid extractions performed poorly compared to CTAB/phenol-chloroform extracts for TaqMan diagnostics from tanoak leaves, suggesting that incomplete removal of PCR inhibitors is an issue for sensitive diagnostic procedures, especially from plants with recalcitrant leaf chemistry. NaOH extracts exhibited lower yield and size than CTAB/phenol-chloroform extracts; however, NaOH extraction facilitated obtaining clean sequence data from sporocarps contaminated by other fungi, perhaps due to dilution resulting from low DNA yield. We conclude that conventional extractions are often unnecessary for routine DNA sequencing or genotyping of fungi and oomycetes, and recommend simpler strategies where source materials and intended applications warrant such use.

  13. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  14. Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Affinity diagramming is a technique used to externalize, make sense of, and organize large amounts of unstructured, far-ranging, and seemingly dissimilar qualitative data. HCI and interaction design practitioners have adopted and used affinity diagrams for different purposes. This paper discusses...... our particular use of affinity diagramming in prototype evaluations. We reflect on a decade’s experience using affinity diagramming across a number of projects, both in industry and academia. Our affinity diagramming process in interaction design has been tailored and consists of four stages: creating...

  15. Origin and use of crystallization phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Crystallization phase diagrams are frequently used to conceptualize the phase relations and also the processes taking place during the crystallization of macromolecules. While a great deal of freedom is given in crystallization phase diagrams owing to a lack of specific knowledge about the actual phase boundaries and phase equilibria, crucial fundamental features of phase diagrams can be derived from thermodynamic first principles. Consequently, there are limits to what can be reasonably displayed in a phase diagram, and imagination may start to conflict with thermodynamic realities. Here, the commonly used `crystallization phase diagrams' are derived from thermodynamic excess properties and their limitations and appropriate use is discussed.

  16. Diagnostic electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickersin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    In this book the author presents a comprehensive reference text on diagnostic electron microscopy. Throughout the book he illustrates how ultrastructural identification can be helpful for the recognition of cell type and the identification of mechanisms of pathogenesis in various diseases. In addition to electron microscopy photographs, there are also numerous light microscopy photographs for comparison. This text presents the classification of neoplasms in the order and arrangement most familiar to the pathologist. Contents: Introduction; Diagram of a Normal Cell; Normal Cell Function; Embryology; Neoplasms; Infectious Agents; Metabolic Diseases; Renal Diseases; Skeletal Muscle and Peripheral Nerve Diseases; Index.

  17. Phase Diagrams of Nuclear Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Chuck; Berry, Don; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2016-03-01

    In the inner crust of neutrons stars, where matter is near the saturation density, protons and neutrons arrange themselves into complex structures called nuclear pasta. Early theoretical work predicted a simple graduated hierarchy of pasta phases, consisting of spheres, cylinders, slabs, and uniform matter with voids. Previous work has simulated these phases with a simple classical model and has shown that the formation of these structures is dependent on the temperature, density, and proton fraction. However, previous work only studied a limited range of these parameters due to computational limitations. Thanks to recent advances in computing it is now possible to survey the structure of nuclear pasta for a larger range of parameters. By simulating nuclear pasta with constant temperature and proton fraction in an expanding simulation volume we are able to study the phase transitions in nuclear pasta, and thus produce a set of phase diagrams. We report on these phase diagrams as well as newly identified phases of nuclear pasta and discuss their implications for neutron star observables.

  18. Retrospect and Prospect of the Influence Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYanqiong; ShenYongping; ChenYingwu

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation algorithm and the application of the influence diagram were surveyed, which argues that to construct an explicit,compact and objective influence diagram is of the most importance. There are two suggested ways for realization of the influence diagram: introducing the achievements of the modern psychology, cognitive science, behavior science, and so on to represent and solve uncertainty to build a well-constructed influence diagram; based on the observed data to build an influence diagram. Also, the limitations of the influence diagram were analyzed, such as that it cannot deal with asynunetric problems efficiently, cannot picture dynamic problems,cannot model the problems with a limitless horizon, and ther is no highly efficient algorithm. And some potential methods to overcome these limitations were pointed out.

  19. Continuation of point clouds via persistence diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Marcio; Hiraoka, Yasuaki; Obayashi, Ippei

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a mathematical and algorithmic framework for the continuation of point clouds by persistence diagrams. A key property used in the method is that the persistence map, which assigns a persistence diagram to a point cloud, is differentiable. This allows us to apply the Newton-Raphson continuation method in this setting. Given an original point cloud P, its persistence diagram D, and a target persistence diagram D‧, we gradually move from D to D‧, by successively computing intermediate point clouds until we finally find a point cloud P‧ having D‧ as its persistence diagram. Our method can be applied to a wide variety of situations in topological data analysis where it is necessary to solve an inverse problem, from persistence diagrams to point cloud data.

  20. Mathematical review on source-type diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Naofumi; Ohta, Kazuaki; Ide, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    A source-type diagram is a visualization tool used to display earthquake sources, including double-couples, compensated linear vector dipoles, and isotropic deformation. Together with recent observations of non-double-couple events in a variety of tectonic settings, it is important to be able to recognize the source type intuitively from a representative diagram. Since previous works have proposed diagrams created using a range of projections, we review these diagrams in the framework of the moment tensor eigenvalue space. For further applications, we also provide complete formulas for conversion between moment tensor representation and the coordinate system of each diagram style. Using both a global catalog and synthetic data, we discuss differences between types of diagrams and the relative effectiveness of each.

  1. Gravity On-shell Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of supersymmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only $\\dlog$-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for $\\N=8$ supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum, poles at infinity are present and loop amplitudes show special behavior on certain collinear cuts. We demonstrate on 1-loop and 2-loop examples that the behavior on collinear cuts is a highly non-trivial property which requires cancellations between all terms contributing to the amplitude.

  2. Solving Limited Memory Influence Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Mauá, Denis Deratani; Zaffalon, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for exactly solving decision making problems represented as influence diagrams. We do not require the usual assumptions of no forgetting and regularity; this allows us to solve problems with simultaneous decisions and limited information. The algorithm is empirically shown to outperform a state-of-the-art algorithm on randomly generated problems of up to 150 variables and $10^{64}$ solutions. We show that the problem is NP-hard even if the underlying graph structure of the problem has small treewidth and the variables take on a bounded number of states, but that a fully polynomial time approximation scheme exists for these cases. Moreover, we show that the bound on the number of states is a necessary condition for any efficient approximation scheme.

  3. Mapping the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, K

    1999-01-01

    The QCD vacuum in which we live, which has the familiar hadrons as its excitations, is but one phase of QCD, and far from the simplest one at that. One way to better understand this phase and the nonperturbative dynamics of QCD more generally is to study other phases and the transitions between phases. We are engaged in a voyage of exploration, mapping the QCD phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon number chemical potential mu . Because of asymptotic freedom, the high temperature and high baryon density phases of QCD are more simply and more appropriately described in terms of quarks and gluons as degrees of freedom, rather than hadrons. The chiral symmetry breaking condensate which characterizes the vacuum phase melts away. At high densities, quarks form Cooper pairs and new condensates develop. The formation of such superconducting phases requires only weak attractive interactions; these phases may nevertheless break chiral symmetry and have excitations which are indistinguishable from thos...

  4. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  5. Hofstadter Butterfly Diagram in Noncommutative Space

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, H; Takahashi, Hidenori; Yamanaka, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    We study an energy spectrum of electron moving under the constant magnetic field in two dimensional noncommutative space. It take place with the gauge invariant way. The Hofstadter butterfly diagram of the noncommutative space is calculated in terms of the lattice model which is derived by the Bopp's shift for space and by the Peierls substitution for external magnetic field. We also find the fractal structure in new diagram. Although the global features of the new diagram are similar to the diagram of the commutative space, the detail structure is different from it.

  6. Motor neurone disease: diagnostic pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy L

    2013-02-01

    The misdiagnosis of MND (particularly of the ALS phenotype), is uncommon. Atypical presentations, particularly of focal onset and with pure LMN or UMN signs, present a more difficult diagnostic challenge, although perhaps reassuringly, treatable mimics are rare. A working knowledge of potential alternative conditions and MND diagnostic pitfalls should help to reduce the misdiagnosis rate, particularly if the key points are considered.

  7. Ferroelectric phase diagram of PVDF:PMMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.; Stingelin, N.; Michels, J.J.; Spijkman, M.-J.; Asadi, K.; Feldman, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the ferroelectric phase diagram of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The binary nonequilibrium temperature composition diagram was determined and melting of α- and β-phase PVDF was identified. Ferroelectric β-PVDF:PMMA blend films were made b

  8. Ferroelectric Phase Diagram of PVDF : PMMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Mengyuan; Stingelin, Natalie; Michels, Jasper J.; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Asadi, Kamal; Feldman, Kirill; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the ferroelectric phase diagram of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The binary nonequilibrium temperature composition diagram was determined and melting of alpha- and beta-phase PVDF was identified. Ferroelectric beta-PVDF:PMMA blend films w

  9. Comprehending process diagrams in biology education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, M.

    2015-01-01

    Students in secondary Science education seem to have difficulties with comprehending diagrams. Process diagrams are an important type of representation in Biology for explaining processes like protein synthesis, compound cycles, etc. In this thesis, we aimed at getting deeper insight into students’

  10. Automatically extracting class diagrams from spreadsheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of spreadsheets to capture information is widespread in industry. Spreadsheets can thus be a wealthy source of domain information. We propose to automatically extract this information and transform it into class diagrams. The resulting class diagram can be used by software engineers to under

  11. Lubrication modes and the IRG transition diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, D.J.; Gee, de A.W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between a Lubrication Mode Diagram (LMD) for concentrated contacts (LCC's) and the IRG transition diagram has been studied. In addition, scuffing results, obtained by the IRG (International Research Group) have been analysed, as well as the results of scuffing tests performed by dif

  12. Structural Controllability and Observability in Influence Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Brian Y.; Shachter, Ross D.

    2013-01-01

    Influence diagram is a graphical representation of belief networks with uncertainty. This article studies the structural properties of a probabilistic model in an influence diagram. In particular, structural controllability theorems and structural observability theorems are developed and algorithms are formulated. Controllability and observability are fundamental concepts in dynamic systems (Luenberger 1979). Controllability corresponds to the ability to control a system while observability a...

  13. Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Panagopoulos, H

    1998-01-01

    We show how to perform a resummation, to all orders in perturbation theory, of a certain class of gauge invariant diagrams in Lattice QCD. These diagrams are often largely responsible for lattice artifacts. Our resummation leads to an improved perturbative expansion. Applied to a number of cases of interest, this expansion yields results remarkably close to corresponding nonperturbative estimates.

  14. Phase diagram of elastic spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, L; Ziherl, P

    2017-02-15

    Experiments show that polymeric nanoparticles often self-assemble into several non-close-packed lattices in addition to the face-centered cubic lattice. Here, we explore theoretically the possibility that the observed phase sequences may be associated with the softness of the particles, which are modeled as elastic spheres interacting upon contact. The spheres are described by two finite-deformation theories of elasticity, the modified Saint-Venant-Kirchhoff model and the neo-Hookean model. We determine the range of indentations where the repulsion between the spheres is pairwise additive and agrees with the Hertz theory. By computing the elastic energies of nine trial crystal lattices at densities far beyond the Hertzian range, we construct the phase diagram and find the face- and body-centered cubic lattices as well as the A15 lattice and the simple hexagonal lattice, with the last two being stable at large densities where the spheres are completely faceted. These results are qualitatively consistent with observations, suggesting that deformability may indeed be viewed as a generic property that determines the phase behavior in nanocolloidal suspensions.

  15. Persistence Diagrams and the Heat Equation Homotopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fasy, Brittany Terese

    2010-01-01

    Persistence homology is a tool used to measure topological features that are present in data sets and functions. Persistence pairs births and deaths of these features as we iterate through the sublevel sets of the data or function of interest. I am concerned with using persistence to characterize the difference between two functions f, g : M -> R, where M is a topological space. Furthermore, I formulate a homotopy from g to f by applying the heat equation to the difference function g-f. By stacking the persistence diagrams associated with this homotopy, we create a vineyard of curves that connect the points in the diagram for f with the points in the diagram for g. I look at the diagrams where M is a square, a sphere, a torus, and a Klein bottle. Looking at these four topologies, we notice trends (and differences) as the persistence diagrams change with respect to time.

  16. Free-Body Diagrams: Necessary or Sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, Alan; Etkina, Eugenia

    2005-09-01

    The Rutgers PAER group is working to help students develop various scientific abilities. One of the abilities is to create, understand and learn to use for qualitative reasoning and problem solving different representations of physical processes such as pictorial representations, motion diagrams, free-body diagrams, and energy bar charts. Physics education literature indicates that using multiple representations is beneficial for student understanding of physics ideas and for problem solving. We developed a special approach to construct and utilize free-body diagrams for representing physical phenomena and for problem solving. We will examine whether students draw free-body diagrams in solving problems when they know they will not receive credit for it; the consistency of their use in different conceptual areas; and if students who use free-body diagrams while solving problems in different areas of physics are more successful then those who do not.

  17. C.A.D. representation of ternary and quaternary phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delao, James D.

    1986-01-01

    This work is concerned with the utilization of C.A.D. solid-modeling software for the computer representation of three-dimensional phase diagrams. The work was undertaken in two parts. First, the C.A.D. software (I-DEAS, by Structural Dynamics Research Corp.) was integrated with a variety of auxiliary Fortran 77 and I-DEAS language programs which were written specifically for the purpose of phase diagram representation. The capabilities of the resulting suite of software for three-dimensional phase diagram representation were developed and illustrated by the construction, display and manipulation of solid-model phase diagrams for a hypothetical quaternary eutectic system. The results of this work are discussed in some detail in the attached publication ('Solid-modeling: a C.A.D. Alternative for Three-dimensional Phase Diagram Representation'). Such a technique is of general applicability, having utility in both research and education. Secondly, using the C.A.D. technique, data from the literature (gleaned from some 70 separate publications), which represent experimentally determined phase boundaries, were combined to form solid-model representations of the CMS2-M2S-S ternary space diagram and the CMS2-CAS2-M2S-S quaternary liquidus projection (where C=CaO, M=MgO, A=Al2O3, and S=SiO2). These diagrams were utilized in a concurrent study of solidification in the CMAS system.

  18. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Akutsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL, which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111 surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the 〈101〉 direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  19. Relaxation time diagram for identifying heat generation mechanisms in magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Enio, E-mail: lima@cab.cnea.gov.ar; De Biasi, Emilio; Zysler, Roberto D.; Vasquez Mansilla, Marcelo; Mojica-Pisciotti, Mary L. [Centro Atómico Bariloche/CONICET (Argentina); Torres, Teobaldo E.; Calatayud, M. Pilar; Marquina, C.; Ricardo Ibarra, M.; Goya, Gerardo F. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón INA (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    We present a versatile diagram to envisage the dominant relaxation mechanism of single-domain magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) under alternating magnetic fields, as those used in magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). The diagram allows estimating the heating efficiency, measured by the Specific Power Absorption (SPA), originated in the magnetic and viscous relaxation times of single-domain MNPs for a given frequency of the ac magnetic field (AFM). The diagram has been successfully applied to different colloids, covering a wide variety of MNPs with different magnetic anisotropy and particle size, and dispersed in different viscous liquid carriers. From the general diagram, we derived a specific chart based on the Linear Response Theory in order to easily estimate the experimental condition for the optimal SPA values of most colloids currently used in MFH.

  20. A Graphical Introduction to Special Relativity Based on a Modern Approach to Minkowski Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Boxiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive introduction to the kinematics of special relativity based on Minkowski diagrams and provide a graphical alternative to each and every topic covered in a standard introductory sequence. Compared to existing literature on the subject, our introduction of Minkowski diagrams follows a more structured and contemporary approach. This work also demonstrates new ways in which Minkowski diagrams can be used and draws several new insights from the diagrams constructed. In this regard, the sections that stand out are: 1. the derivation of Lorentz transformations (section IIIA through IIID), 2. the discussion of spacetime (section III F), 3. the derivation of velocity addition rules (section IV C), and 4. the discussion of relativistic paradoxes (section V). Throughout the development, special attention has been placed on the needs and strengths of current undergraduate audiences.

  1. Modeling Workflow Using UML Activity Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yinxing(韦银星); Zhang Shensheng

    2004-01-01

    An enterprise can improve its adaptability in the changing market by means of workflow technologies. In the build time, the main function of Workflow Management System (WFMS) is to model business process. Workflow model is an abstract representation of the real-world business process. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) activity diagram is an important visual process modeling language proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). The novelty of this paper is representing workflow model by means of UML activity diagram. A translation from UML activity diagram to π-calculus is established. Using π-calculus, the deadlock property of workflow is analyzed.

  2. Breviz: Visualizing Spreadsheets using Dataflow Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Felienne; van Deursen, Arie

    2011-01-01

    Spreadsheets are used extensively in industry, often for business critical purposes. In previous work we have analyzed the information needs of spreadsheet professionals and addressed their need for support with the transition of a spreadsheet to a colleague with the generation of data flow diagrams. In this paper we describe the application of these data flow diagrams for the purpose of understanding a spreadsheet with three example cases. We furthermore suggest an additional application of the data flow diagrams: the assessment of the quality of the spreadsheet's design.

  3. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  4. Relation among C-curve characterization diagrams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As three control points are fixed and the fourth control point varies, the planar cubic C-curve may take on a loop, a cusp, or zero to two inflection points, depending on the position of the moving point. The plane can, therefore, be partitioned into regions labelled according to the characterization of the curve when the fourth point is in each region. This partitioned plane is called a "characterization diagram". By moving one of the control points but fixing the rest, one can induce different characterization diagrams. In this paper, we investigate the relation among all different characterization diagrams of cubic C-curves based on the singularity conditions proposed by Yang and Wang (2004). We conclude that, no matter what the C-curve type is or which control point varies, the characterization diagrams can be obtained by cutting a common 3D characterization space with a corresponding plane.

  5. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-01-01

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed "covariant diagrams." The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  6. Phase diagram to design passive nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeng Yi

    2015-01-01

    A phase diagram, defined by the amplitude square and phase of scattering coefficients for absorption cross-section in each individual channel, is introduced as a universal map on the electromagnetic properties for passive scatterers. General physical bounds are naturally revealed based on the intrinsic power conservation in a passive scattering system, entailing power competitions among scattering, absorption, and extinction. Exotic scattering and absorption phenomena, from resonant scattering, invisible cloaking, coherent perfect absorber, and subwavelength superscattering can all be illustrated in this phase diagram. With electrically small core-shell scatterers as an example, we demonstrate a systematic method to design field-controllable structures based on the allowed trajectories in the phase diagram. The proposed phase diagram not only provides a simple tool to design optical devices but also promotes a deep understanding on Mie's scattering theory.

  7. QCD Phase Diagram with Imaginary Chemical Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Atsushi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We report our recent results on the QCD phase diagram obtained from the lattice QCD simulation. The location of the phase boundary between hadronic and QGP phases in the two-flavor QCD phase diagram is investigated. The imaginary chemical potential approach is employed, which is based on Monte Carlo simulations of the QCD with imaginary chemical potential and analytic continuation to the real chemical potential region.

  8. Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Stanley

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.

  9. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  10. Reading fitness landscape diagrams through HSAB concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneresse, Jean-Louis, E-mail: jean-louis.vigneresse@univ-lorraine.fr

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Qualitative information from HSAB descriptors. • 2D–3D diagrams using chemical descriptors (χ, η, ω, α) and principles (MHP, mEP, mPP). • Estimate of the energy exchange during reaction paths. • Examples from complex systems (geochemistry). - Abstract: Fitness landscapes are conceived as range of mountains, with local peaks and valleys. In terms of potential, such topographic variations indicate places of local instability or stability. The chemical potential, or electronegativity, its value changed of sign, carries similar information. In addition to chemical descriptors defined through hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) concepts and computed through density functional theory (DFT), the principles that rule chemical reactions allow the design of such landscape diagrams. The simplest diagram uses electrophilicity and hardness as coordinates. It allows examining the influence of maximum hardness or minimum electrophilicity principles. A third dimension is introduced within such a diagram by mapping the topography of electronegativity, polarizability or charge exchange. Introducing charge exchange during chemical reactions, or mapping a third parameter (f.i. polarizability) reinforces the information carried by a simple binary diagram. Examples of such diagrams are provided, using data from Earth Sciences, simple oxides or ligands.

  11. How Different Variants of Orbit Diagrams Influence Student Explanations of the Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor R.

    2010-01-01

    The cause of the seasons is often associated with a very particular alternative conception: That the earth's orbit around the sun is highly elongated, and the differences in distance result in variations in temperature. It has been suggested that the standard diagrams used to depict the earth's orbit may be in some way responsible for the initial…

  12. Using the Logarithmic Concentration Diagram, Log "C", to Teach Acid-Base Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Acid-base equilibrium is one of the most important and most challenging topics in a typical general chemistry course. This article introduces an alternative to the algebraic approach generally used in textbooks, the graphical log "C" method. Log "C" diagrams provide conceptual insight into the behavior of aqueous acid-base systems and allow…

  13. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  14. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  15. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, S.; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and disea

  16. Visualizing Metrics on Areas of Interest in Software Architecture Diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byelas, Heorhiy; Telea, Alexandru; Eades, P; Ertl, T; Shen, HW

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method for the combined visualization of software architecture diagrams, Such as UML class diagrams or component diagrams, and software metrics defined on groups of diagram elements. Our method extends an existing rendering technique for the so-called areas of interest in system arc

  17. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  18. Hubble Diagram Test of Expanding and Static Cosmological Models: The Case for a Slowly Expanding Flat Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo A. Marosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new redshift (RS versus photon travel time ( test including 171 supernovae RS data points. We extended the Hubble diagram to a range of z = 0,0141–8.1 in the hope that at high RSs, the fitting of the calculated RS/ diagrams to the observed RS data would, as predicted by different cosmological models, set constraints on alternative cosmological models. The Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM, the static universe model, and the case for a slowly expanding flat universe (SEU are considered. We show that on the basis of the Hubble diagram test, the static and the slowly expanding models are favored.

  19. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  20. Functionality Semantics of Predicate Data Flow Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓雷; 缪淮扣; 刘玲

    2004-01-01

    SOZL (structured methodology + object-oriented methodology + Z language) is a language that attempts to integrate structured method, object-oriented method and formal method. The core of this language is predicate data flow diagram (PDFD). In order to eliminate the ambiguity of predicate data flow diagrams and their associated textual specifications, a formalization of the syntax and semantics of predicate data flow diagrams is necessary. In this paper we use Z notation to define an abstract syntax and the related structural constraints for the PDFD notation, and provide it with an axiomatic semantics based on the concept of data availability and functionality of predicate operation. Finally, an example is given to establish functionality consistent decomposition on hierarchical PDFD (HPDFD).

  1. Phase diagram of a truncated tetrahedral model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcmar, Roman; Gendiar, Andrej; Nishino, Tomotoshi

    2016-08-01

    Phase diagram of a discrete counterpart of the classical Heisenberg model, the truncated tetrahedral model, is analyzed on the square lattice, when the interaction is ferromagnetic. Each spin is represented by a unit vector that can point to one of the 12 vertices of the truncated tetrahedron, which is a continuous interpolation between the tetrahedron and the octahedron. Phase diagram of the model is determined by means of the statistical analog of the entanglement entropy, which is numerically calculated by the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method. The obtained phase diagram consists of four different phases, which are separated by five transition lines. In the parameter region, where the octahedral anisotropy is dominant, a weak first-order phase transition is observed.

  2. On the numerical evaluation of scalar two-loop self-energy diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berends, F.A. (Instituut-Lorentz, University of Leiden, P.O.B. 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)); Tausk, J.B. (Department of Physics, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom))

    1994-06-20

    In this paper a method is presented for the numerical evaluation of scalar two-loop self-energy diagrams. It is an extension of Kreimer's two-dimensional integral representation for convergent scalar integrals to the general case where divergencies occur. Where possible, the method is extensively compared with alternative techniques. From this it can be concluded, that the described two-dimensional numerical integration leads to a practical numerical answer for scalar two-loop self-energy diagrams with arbitrary masses. ((orig.))

  3. A pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Weng, Jianguang; Hanson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    To make progress in understanding knot theory, we will need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots which are of course continuous in 3D but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal would be to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch 2D knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress to be made in this direction. Pseudo-haptics that simulates haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. This paper outlines one such pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a "physically" reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudo-haptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of whom the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudo-haptic 4D visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2D knot diagrams of 3D knots and 3D projective images of 4D mathematical objects.

  4. Partial chord diagrams and matrix models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Fuji, Hiroyuki; Manabe, Masahide

    spectrum. Furthermore, we consider the boundary length and point spectrum that unifies the last two types of spectra. We introduce matrix models that encode generating functions of partial chord diagrams filtered by each of these spectra. Using these matrix models, we derive partial differential equations......In this article, the enumeration of partial chord diagrams is discussed via matrix model techniques. In addition to the basic data such as the number of backbones and chords, we also consider the Euler characteristic, the backbone spectrum, the boundary point spectrum, and the boundary length...... – obtained independently by cut-and-join arguments in an earlier work – for the corresponding generating functions....

  5. The Voronoi diagram of circles made easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, François; Mioc, Darka; Gold, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Proximity queries among circles could be effectively answered if the Delaunay graph for sets of circles could be computed in an efficient and exact way. In this paper, we first show a necessary and sufficient condition of connectivity of the Voronoi diagram of circles. Then, we show how the Delau......Proximity queries among circles could be effectively answered if the Delaunay graph for sets of circles could be computed in an efficient and exact way. In this paper, we first show a necessary and sufficient condition of connectivity of the Voronoi diagram of circles. Then, we show how...

  6. DEPENDENCE ANALYSIS FOR UML CLASS DIAGRAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fangjun; Yi Tong

    2004-01-01

    Though Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been widely used in software development, the major problems confronted lie in comprehension and testing. Dependence analysis is an important approach to analyze, understand, test and maintain programs. A new kind of dependence analysis method for UML class diagrams is developed. A set of dependence relations is definedcorresponding to the relations among classes. Thus, the dependence graph of UML class diagram can be constructed from these dependence relations. Based on this model, both slicing and measurement coupling are further given as its two applications.

  7. Phase diagrams modified by interfacial penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanacković T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional forms of phase diagrams are constructed without consideration of interfacial energies and they represent an impor­tant tool for chemical engineers and metallurgists. If interfacial energies are taken into consideration, it is intuitively obvious that the regions of phase equilibria must become smaller, because there is a penalty on the formation of interfaces. We investigate this phe­nomenon qualitatively for a one-dimensional model, in which the phases occur as layers rather than droplets or bubbles. The modified phase diagrams are shown in Chapters 3 and 4.

  8. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. (ed.)

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WN) problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remediation, decontamination, and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume 3 B provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (Remedial Action Robotics and Automation, Waste Management) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than each technology in Vol. 2. The TEDS are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each data sheet. Volume 3 can be used in two ways: (1) technologies that are identified from Vol. 2 can be referenced directly in Vol. 3 by using the TEDS codes, and (2) technologies and general technology areas (alternatives) can be located in the index in the front of this volume.

  9. Phase Diagram of Vertically Shaken Granular Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Eshuis, P; Lohse, D; Van der Meer, D; Van der Weele, K; Bos, Robert; Eshuis, Peter; Lohse, Detlef; Meer, Devaraj van der; Weele, Ko van der

    2006-01-01

    A shallow, vertically shaken granular bed in a quasi 2-D container is studied experimentally yielding a wider variety of phenomena than in any previous study: (1) bouncing bed, (2) undulations, (3) granular Leidenfrost effect, (4) convection rolls, and (5) granular gas. These phenomena and the transitions between them are characterized by dimensionless control parameters and combined in a full experimental phase diagram.

  10. Visualizing Multivariate Attributes on Software Diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byelas, Heorhiy; Telea, Alexandru; Winter, A; Knodel, J

    2009-01-01

    Software architecture diagrams and metrics are well-known and heavily used in many areas in software engineering. However they are rarely combined in one (visual) representation. Although there are some advances in this direction, there are also some limitations. In this research, we study how to ov

  11. Orphan-Free Anisotropic Voronoi Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Canas, Guillermo D

    2011-01-01

    We describe conditions under which an appropriately-defined anisotropic Voronoi diagram of a set of sites in Euclidean space is guaranteed to be composed of connected cells in any number of dimensions. These conditions are natural for problems in optimization and approximation, and algorithms already exist to produce sets of sites that satisfy them.

  12. Modeling the phase diagram of carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiringhelli, L.M.; Los, J.H.; Meijer, E.J.; Fasolino, A.; Frenkel, D.

    2005-01-01

    We determined the phase diagram involving diamond, graphite, and liquid carbon using a recently developed semiempirical potential. Using accurate free-energy calculations, we computed the solid-solid and solid-liquid phase boundaries for pressures and temperatures up to 400 GPa and 12 000 K, respect

  13. Diagram of a LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    This diagram gives a schematic representation of the superconducting radio-frequency cavities at LEP. Liquid helium is used to cool the cavity to 4.5 degrees above absolute zero so that very high electric fields can be produced, increasing the operating energy of the accelerator. Superconducting cavities were used only in the LEP-2 phase of the accelerator, from 1996 to 2000.

  14. Phase Diagrams of Strongly Interacting Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We summarize the phase diagrams of SU, SO and Sp gauge theories as function of the number of flavors, colors, and matter representation as well as the ones of phenomenologically relevant chiral gauge theories such as the Bars-Yankielowicz and the generalized Georgi-Glashow models. We finally repo...

  15. Influence Diagrams for Optimal Maintenance Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Over the last two decades Bayesian networks and influence diagrams have received notable attention within the field of artificial intelligence and expert systems. During the last few years the technology has been further developed for problem solving within other engineering fields. The objective...

  16. Phase diagram distortion from traffic parameter averaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H. Toorenburg, J. van & Postema, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motorway traffic congestion is a major bottleneck for economic growth. Therefore, research of traffic behaviour is carried out in many countries. Although well describing the undersaturated free flow phase as an almost straight line in a (k,q)-phase diagram, congested traffic observations and theori

  17. Geometrical splitting and reduction of Feynman diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydychev, Andrei I.

    2016-10-01

    A geometrical approach to the calculation of N-point Feynman diagrams is reviewed. It is shown that the geometrical splitting yields useful connections between Feynman integrals with different momenta and masses. It is demonstrated how these results can be used to reduce the number of variables in the occurring functions.

  18. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  19. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

  20. From ergodicity to extended phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Scott M; Sokol, Alexey A

    2012-04-16

    Structure prediction of stable and metastable phases is put on equal footing for the first time, with a solid thermodynamical background. How to estimate the lifetime of metastable phases is demonstrated by recent groundbreaking work of Jansen, Pentin, and Schön. At the heart lies the exploration of the Gibbs free-energy landscapes and the extended phase diagrams for complex systems.

  1. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  2. On traces of tensor representations of diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Schrijver

    2015-01-01

    Let T be an (abstract) set of types, and let (unknown symbol), o : T -> Z(+). A T-diagram is a locally ordered directed graph G equipped with a function tau : V (G) -> T such that each vertex v of G has indegree (unknown symbol)(tau(v)) and outdegree o(tau(v)). (A directed graph is locally ordered i

  3. Astrovirus Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérot, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Eloit, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, novel human astrovirus (HAstV) strains have been found in immunocompromised individuals in association with central nervous system (CNS) infections. This work reviews the past and current methods for astrovirus detection and their uses in both research laboratories and for medical diagnostic purposes. PMID:28085120

  4. ISOTHERMAL (DELTA)/(ALPHA-PRIME) TRANSFORMATION AND TTT DIAGRAM IN A PLUTONIUM GALLIUM ALLOY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudot, B P; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Schwartz, A J

    2005-11-11

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used as an alternative approach to determining the tine-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for the martensitic delta to alpha-prime transformation in a Pu-2.0 at% Ga alloy. Previous work suggests that the TTT diagram for a similar alloy exhibits an unusual double-C curve for isothermal holds of less than 100 minutes. Here, we extend this diagram to 18 hours, and confirm the double-C curve behavior. When the sample is cooled prior to the isothermal holds, the delta to alpha-prime transformation is observed as several overlapping exothermic peaks. These peaks are very reproducible, and they are believed to be the result of different kinds of delta to alpha-prime martensitic transformation. This may be due to the presence of different nucleation sites and/or different morphologies.

  5. Students' different understandings of class diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  6. Particle diagrams and embedded many-body random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, R. A.; Müller, S.

    2014-07-01

    We present a method which uses Feynman-like diagrams to calculate the statistical quantities of embedded many-body random matrix problems. The method provides a promising alternative to existing techniques and offers many important simplifications. We use it here to find the fourth, sixth, and eighth moments of the level density of an m-body system with k fermions or bosons interacting through a random Hermitian potential (k ≤m) in the limit where the number of possible single-particle states is taken to infinity. All share the same transition, starting immediately after 2k=m, from moments arising from a semicircular level density to Gaussian moments. The results also reveal a striking feature; the domain of the 2nth moment is naturally divided into n subdomains specified by the points 2k=m,3k=m,...,nk=m.

  7. Particle diagrams and embedded many-body random matrix theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, R A; Müller, S

    2014-07-01

    We present a method which uses Feynman-like diagrams to calculate the statistical quantities of embedded many-body random matrix problems. The method provides a promising alternative to existing techniques and offers many important simplifications. We use it here to find the fourth, sixth, and eighth moments of the level density of an m-body system with k fermions or bosons interacting through a random Hermitian potential (k ≤ m) in the limit where the number of possible single-particle states is taken to infinity. All share the same transition, starting immediately after 2k = m, from moments arising from a semicircular level density to Gaussian moments. The results also reveal a striking feature; the domain of the 2nth moment is naturally divided into n subdomains specified by the points 2k = m,3 k = m,...,nk = m.

  8. Bifurcation Diagrams and Generalized Bifurcation Diagrams for a rotational model of an oblate satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Tarnopolski, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents bifurcation and generalized bifurcation diagrams for a rotational model of an oblate satellite. Special attention is paid to parameter values describing one of Saturn's moons, Hyperion. For various oblateness the largest Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent (LCE) is plotted. The largest LCE in the initial condition as well as in the mixed parameter-initial condition space exhibits a fractal structure, for which the fractal dimension was calculated. It results from the bifurcation diagrams of which most of the parameter values for preselected initial conditions lead to chaotic rotation. The First Recurrence Time (FRT) diagram provides an explanation of the birth of chaos and the existence of quasi-periodic windows occuring in the bifurcation diagrams.

  9. A Simple Approach for Boundary Improvement of Euler Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetto, Paolo; Archambault, Daniel; Scheidegger, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    General methods for drawing Euler diagrams tend to generate irregular polygons. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that smoother contours make these diagrams easier to read. In this paper, we present a simple method to smooth the boundaries of any Euler diagram drawing. When refining the diagram, the method must ensure that set elements remain inside their appropriate boundaries and that no region is removed or created in the diagram. Our approach uses a force system that improves the diagram while at the same time ensuring its topological structure does not change. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach through case studies and quantitative evaluations.

  10. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  11. Phase diagram of UCoGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineev, V. P.

    2017-03-01

    The temperature-pressure phase diagram of ferromagnetic superconductor UCoGe includes four phase transitions. They are between the paramagnetic and the ferromagnetic states with the subsequent transition in the superconducting ferromagnetic state and between the normal and the superconducting states after which the transition to the superconducting ferromagnetic state has to occur. Here we have developed the Landau theory description of the phase diagram and established the specific ordering arising at each type of transition. The phase transitions to the ferromagnetic superconducting state are inevitably accompanied by the emergence of screening currents. The corresponding magnetostatics considerations allow for establishing the significant difference between the transition from the ferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic superconducting state and the transition from the superconducting to the ferromagnetic superconducting state.

  12. Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael

    We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.

  13. Flamelet Regime Diagram for Turbulent Combustion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Lee; Ihme, Matthias; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    The flamelet model has been widely used in numerical combustion investigations, particularly for the closure of large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. In most cases, the simulation results demonstrated good agreements with their experimental counterparts. However, a systematic analysis of the flamelet model's applicability, as well as its potential limitations, is seldom conducted, and the model performance is usually based only on a-posteriori comparisons. The objective of this work is to derive a metric that can formally quantify the suitability of the flamelet model in different flame configurations. For this purpose, a flamelet regime diagram has been developed and studied in the context of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a turbulent lifted jet flame. The implementation of the regime diagram in LES has been investigated through explicit filtering of the DNS results.

  14. Enriched model categories and diagram categories

    CERN Document Server

    Guillou, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We collect in one place a variety of known and folklore results in enriched model category theory and add a few new twists. One twist is a new perspective on equivariant model categories. A central theme is a general procedure for constructing a Quillen adjunction, often a Quillen equivalence, between a given V-model category and a category of diagrams in V, where V is any good enriching category. From this perspective, we rederive the result of Schwede and Shipley that reasonable stable model categories are Quillen equivalent to diagram categories of spectra (alias categories of module spectra). The general theory will be applied to G-spectra in a sequel, and for that we need quite a few technical improvements and modifications of general model categorical results. We collect those here. They are bound to have applications in a variety of other contexts.

  15. Phase Diagram Modelling: Nickel - Aluminum - Chromium System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    conducted by Kaufman and co-workers and their lattice stabilities have formed the basis of phase diagram calculations to the present day.1 In...mol ( 0.74827 Ni + 0.73305E-01 Cr + 0.83609E-02 Al ( 1200.00 C, 1.0000 <—s -.Molten alloy <—s <—s) atm, L- NiCrAl , a=0.82994 ) 0.00000

  16. Fluctuations and the QCD Phase Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we will discuss how the study of various fluctuation observables may be used to explore the phase diagram of the strong interaction. We will briefly summarize the present study of experimental and theoretical research in this area. We will then discuss various corrections and issues which need to be understood and applied for a meaningful comparison of experimental measurements with theoretical predictions. This contribution is dedicated to Andrzej Bialas on the occasion of his $80^{\\mathrm{th}}$ birthday.

  17. Lectures on configuration space methods for sunrise-type diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Groote, S

    2003-01-01

    In this lecture series I will give a fundamental insight into configuration space techniques which are of help to calculate a broad class of Feynman diagrams, the sunrise-type diagrams. Applications are shown along with basic concepts and techniques.

  18. On-Shell Diagrams for N = 8 Supergravity Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Heslop, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We define recursion relations for N = 8 supergravity amplitudes using a generalization of the on-shell diagrams developed for planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills. Although the recursion relations generically give rise to non-planar on-shell diagrams, we show that at tree-level the recursion can be chosen to yield only planar diagrams, the same diagrams occurring in the planar N = 4 theory. This implies non-trivial identities for non-planar diagrams as well as interesting relations between the N = 4 and N = 8 theories. We show that the on-shell diagrams of N = 8 supergravity obey equivalence relations analogous to those of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills, and we develop a systematic algorithm for reading off Grassmannian integral formulae directly from the on-shell diagrams. We also show that the 1-loop 4-point amplitude of N = 8 supergravity can be obtained from on-shell diagrams.

  19. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with... informational purposes only. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams in the North Atlantic,...

  20. MDM: A Mode Diagram Modeling Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodic control systems used in spacecrafts and automotives are usually period-driven and can be decomposed into different modes with each mode representing a system state observed from outside. Such systems may also involve intensive computing in their modes. Despite the fact that such control systems are widely used in the above-mentioned safety-critical embedded domains, there is lack of domain-specific formal modelling languages for such systems in the relevant industry. To address this problem, we propose a formal visual modeling framework called mode diagram as a concise and precise way to specify and analyze such systems. To capture the temporal properties of periodic control systems, we provide, along with mode diagram, a property specification language based on interval logic for the description of concrete temporal requirements the engineers are concerned with. The statistical model checking technique can then be used to verify the mode diagram models against desired properties. To demonstrate the viability of our approach, we have applied our modelling framework to some real life case studies from industry and helped detect two design defects for some spacecraft control systems.

  1. Antiferromagnetic phase diagram of the cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L. H. C. M.; Teixeira, A. W.; Marino, E. C.

    2017-02-01

    Taking the spin-fermion model as the starting point for describing the cuprate superconductors, we obtain an effective nonlinear sigma-field hamiltonian, which takes into account the effect of doping in the system. We obtain an expression for the spin-wave velocity as a function of the chemical potential. For appropriate values of the parameters we determine the antiferromagnetic phase diagram for the YBa2Cu3O6+x compound as a function of the dopant concentration in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, our approach provides a unified description for the phase diagrams of the hole-doped and the electron doped compounds, which is consistent with the remarkable similarity between the phase diagrams of these compounds, since we have obtained the suppression of the antiferromagnetic phase as the modulus of the chemical potential increases. The aforementioned result then follows by considering positive values of the chemical potential related to the addition of holes to the system, while negative values correspond to the addition of electrons.

  2. Linearly recursive sequences and Dynkin diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Reutenauer, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by a construction in the theory of cluster algebras (Fomin and Zelevinsky), one associates to each acyclic directed graph a family of sequences of natural integers, one for each vertex; this construction is called a {\\em frieze}; these sequences are given by nonlinear recursions (with division), and the fact that they are integers is a consequence of the Laurent phenomenon of Fomin and Zelevinsky. If the sequences satisfy a linear recursion with constant coefficients, then the graph must be a Dynkin diagram or an extended Dynkin diagram, with an acyclic orientation. The converse also holds: the sequences of the frieze associated to an oriented Dynkin or Euclidean diagram satisfy linear recursions, and are even $\\mathbb N$-rational. One uses in the proof objects called $SL_2$-{\\em tilings of the plane}, which are fillings of the discrete plane such that each adjacent 2 by 2 minor is equal to 1. These objects, which have applications in the theory of cluster algebras, are interesting for themselves. S...

  3. On diagram-chasing in double complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, George M

    2011-01-01

    Diagram-chasing arguments frequently lead to "magical" relations between distant points of diagrams: exactness implications, connecting morphisms, etc.. These long connections are usually composites of short "unmagical" connections, but the latter, and the objects they join, are not visible in the proofs. I try to remedy this situation. Given a double complex in an abelian category, we consider, for each object A of the complex, the familiar horizontal and vertical homology objects at A, and two other objects, which we name the "donor" A_{\\box} and and the "receptor" ^{\\box}A at A. For each arrow of the double complex, we prove the exactness of a 6-term sequence of these objects (the "Salamander Lemma"). Standard results such as the 3x3-Lemma, the Snake Lemma, and the long exact sequence of homology associated with a short exact sequence of complexes, are obtained as easy applications of this lemma. We then obtain some generalizations of the last of the above examples, getting various exact diagrams from doub...

  4. Geometry Algorisms of Dynkin Diagrams in Lie Group Machine Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Xu; Fanzhang Li

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses the geometric method to describe Lie group machine learning (LML)based on the theoretical framework of LML, which gives the geometric algorithms of Dynkin diagrams in LML. It includes the basic conceptions of Dynkin diagrams in LML ,the classification theorems of Dynkin diagrams in LML, the classification algorithm of Dynkin diagrams in LML and the verification of the classification algorithm with experimental results.

  5. Safety-barrier diagrams as a safety management tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2009-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and “bow-tie” diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis and safety management. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The latter's relation to other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian...... the management and maintenance of these systems. Safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  6. Application of Artificial Neural Network in Indicator Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuXiaodong; JiangHua; HanGuoqing

    2004-01-01

    Indicator diagram plays an important role in identifying the production state of oil wells. With an ability to reflect any non-linear mapping relationship, the artificial neural network (ANN) can be used in shape identification. This paper illuminates ANN realization in identifying fault kinds of indicator diagrams, including a back-propagation algorithm, characteristics of the indicator diagram and some examples. It is concluded that the buildup of a neural network and the abstract of indicator diagrams are important to successful application.

  7. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-01

    The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.

  8. The role of perceptual cues in matrix diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Jan; van Amelsvoort, Marije; Anjewierden, A.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess whether the design of a matrix diagram influences how people study the diagram and whether this has an effect on recall of the presented information. We compared four versions of a matrix diagram on antisocial personality disorder. It consisted of four header ce

  9. Developing Tool Support for Problem Diagrams with CPN and VDM++

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe ongoing work on the development of tool support for formal description of domains found in Problem Diagrams. The purpose of the tool is to handle the generation of a CPN model based on a collection of Problem Diagrams. The Problem Diagrams are used for representing the ...

  10. Complex Langevin in Lattice QCD: dynamic stabilisation and the phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Gert; Jäger, Benjamin; Sexty, Dénes

    2016-01-01

    Complex Langevin simulations provide an alternative to sample path integrals with complex weights and therefore are suited to determine the phase diagram of QCD from first principles. We use our proposed method of Dynamic Stabilisation (DS) to ensure improved convergence to the right limit and present new systematic tests of this technique. We also show results on QCD in the limit of heavy quarks and an analysis of DS compared to known results from reweighting.

  11. Testing Diagnostics of Nuclear Activity and Star Formation in Galaxies at z>1

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C; Kocevski, Dale D; Juneau, Stephanie; Weiner, Benjamin J; Faber, S M; McLean, Ian S; Yan, Renbin; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G; Villar, Victor

    2012-01-01

    We present some of the first science data with the new Keck/MOSFIRE instrument to test the effectiveness of different AGN/SF diagnostics at z~1.5. MOSFIRE spectra were obtained in three H-band multi-slit masks in the GOODS-S field, resulting in two hour exposures of 36 emission-line galaxies. We compare X-ray data with the traditional "BPT" line ratio diagnostics and the alternative mass-excitation and color-excitation diagrams, combining new MOSFIRE infrared data with previous HST/WFC3 infrared spectra (from the 3D-HST survey) and multiwavelength photometry. We demonstrate that a high [OIII]/\\Hb ratio is insufficient as an AGN indicator at z>1. For the four X-ray detected galaxies, the classic BPT diagnostic ([OIII]/Hb vs. [NII]/Ha and [SII]/Ha) remains consistent with X-ray AGN/SF classification. The X-ray data also suggest that "composite" galaxies (with intermediate AGN/SF classification) host bona-fide AGNs. Nearly 2/3 of the z~1.5 emission-line galaxies have nuclear activity detected by either X-rays or...

  12. Damage in Concrete and its Detection by Use of Stress-Volumetric Strain Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerga Ján

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The reliable determination of the damage degree of concrete in the structure is difficult and not seldom short-term compressive strengths are considered as real strengths of concrete. Because the load history of the construction is generally unknown, we do not know, whether there have been reached values in the vicinity of the peak of the stress-strain diagram. The strength at the sustained or repeated loading would be then significantly lower, as obtained from tests performed on intact samples. The diagnostic of concrete damage is impeded by environmental effects, resulting in the anisotropy of the development of micro cracks. The possibility is pointed out to use the characteristics of the stress volumetric strain diagram for the assessment of the condition of the material, with the perspective of the application for the determination of the residual long-term strength of concrete

  13. Thyroid diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  14. State-transition diagrams for biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines.

  15. Comprehending 3D Diagrams: Sketching to Support Spatial Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Kristin M; Atit, Kinnari; Ormand, Carol J; Shipley, Thomas F

    2016-11-25

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines commonly illustrate 3D relationships in diagrams, yet these are often challenging for students. Failing to understand diagrams can hinder success in STEM because scientific practice requires understanding and creating diagrammatic representations. We explore a new approach to improving student understanding of diagrams that convey 3D relations that is based on students generating their own predictive diagrams. Participants' comprehension of 3D spatial diagrams was measured in a pre- and post-design where students selected the correct 2D slice through 3D geologic block diagrams. Generating sketches that predicated the internal structure of a model led to greater improvement in diagram understanding than visualizing the interior of the model without sketching, or sketching the model without attempting to predict unseen spatial relations. In addition, we found a positive correlation between sketched diagram accuracy and improvement on the diagram comprehension measure. Results suggest that generating a predictive diagram facilitates students' abilities to make inferences about spatial relationships in diagrams. Implications for use of sketching in supporting STEM learning are discussed.

  16. Design and Realization of Numerical Control Ladder Diagram Edition Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Haixin; MO Yimin; PAN Yunping

    2006-01-01

    The thesis is directed by the idea of oriented- object. Considering the basic functions that NC system Ladder Diagram editor should provide, and through theoretical research and practice, the thesis developed a set of NC system Ladder Diagram editor which can form a Ladder Diagram editor based on vector plotting, intelligently compiling, simulation. This system uses the ladder diagram symbol to express operational order and use the chart symbol series-parallel connection and the position order to express the logical relations between the operational orders, divide the ladder diagram into four parts: the stave, the line, the row and the part, uses the standard order vessel list vessel of the standard template stack (STL) to save the data which involved in the design process. This system can write PLC program by ladder diagram language and is easy to use. The compilation and simulation for PLC diagram have been achieved. It greatly improves the work-efficiency.

  17. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  18. Algorithms for Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Stathopoulos, Andreas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Yoon, Boram [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gupta, Rajan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Computing disconnected diagrams in Lattice QCD (operator insertion in a quark loop) entails the computationally demanding problem of taking the trace of the all to all quark propagator. We first outline the basic algorithm used to compute a quark loop as well as improvements to this method. Then, we motivate and introduce an algorithm based on the synergy between hierarchical probing and singular value deflation. We present results for the chiral condensate using a 2+1-flavor clover ensemble and compare estimates of the nucleon charges with the basic algorithm.

  19. Algorithms for Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh; Orginos, Kostas; Yoon, Boram; Gupta, Rajan; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Computing disconnected diagrams in Lattice QCD (operator insertion in a quark loop) entails the computationally demanding problem of taking the trace of the all to all quark propagator. We first outline the basic algorithm used to compute a quark loop as well as improvements to this method. Then, we motivate and introduce an algorithm based on the synergy between hierarchical probing and singular value deflation. We present results for the chiral condensate using a 2+1-flavor clover ensemble and compare estimates of the nucleon charges with the basic algorithm.

  20. Failure Assessment Diagram for Titanium Brazed Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Yury; Jones, Justin S.; Powell, Mollie M.; Puckett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction equation was used to predict failure in Ti-4V-6Al joints brazed with Al 1100 filler metal. The joints used in this study were geometrically similar to the joints in the brazed beryllium metering structure considered for the ATLAS telescope. This study confirmed that the interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub Tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub Tau)are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in ATLAS brazed joints as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD).

  1. Magnetic phase diagram of Ho-Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Boncour, V [Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, ICMPE, CNRS, 2 rue H Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Hoser, A; Stuesser, N [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109, Berlin (Germany); Hense, K; Gratz, E [Institute for Experimental Physics, Technical University Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 (Austria); Rotter, M [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Wien, Waehringerstrasse 42, 1090 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: paulbon@glvt-cnrs.fr

    2008-03-12

    The magnetic phase diagram of Ho-Ag has been established using magnetoresistance, magnetostriction and neutron diffraction experiments versus applied field and temperature. Three different magnetic phases were observed: an incommensurate antiferromagnetic phase (IC) below T{sub N} = 33 K, a commensurate antiferromagnetic phase (C) above 5 T and below T{sub 1} (5-8 K) and a ferromagnetic component above 3 T. The IC phase undergoes spin reorientations around 5 T (IC') and 13 T (IC'')

  2. On critical exponents without Feynman diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Kallol

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a better analytic handle on the modern conformal bootstrap program, we re-examine and extend the pioneering 1974 work of Polyakov's, which was based on consistency between the operator product expansion and unitarity. As in the bootstrap approach, this method does not depend on evaluating Feynman diagrams. We show how this approach can be used to compute the anomalous dimensions of certain operators in the $O(n)$ model at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in $4-\\epsilon$ dimensions up to $O(\\epsilon^2)$.

  3. On critical exponents without Feynman diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda

    2016-11-01

    In order to achieve a better analytic handle on the modern conformal bootstrap program, we re-examine and extend the pioneering 1974 work of Polyakov’s, which was based on consistency between the operator product expansion and unitarity. As in the bootstrap approach, this method does not depend on evaluating Feynman diagrams. We show how this approach can be used to compute the anomalous dimensions of certain operators in the O(n) model at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in 4-ɛ dimensions up to O({ɛ }2). AS dedicates this work to the loving memory of his mother.

  4. Condensation phase diagrams for lipid-coated perfluorobutane microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford, Paul A; Sirsi, Shashank R; Borden, Mark A

    2014-06-03

    The goal of this study was to explore the thermodynamic conditions necessary to condense aqueous suspensions of lipid-coated gas-filled microbubbles into metastable liquid-filled nanodrops as well as the physicochemical mechanisms involved with this process. Individual perfluorobutane microbubbles and their lipid shells were observed as they were pressurized at 34.5 kPa s(-1) in a microscopic viewing chamber maintained at temperatures ranging from 5 to 75 °C. The microbubbles contracted under pressure, ultimately leading to either full dissolution or microbubble-to-nanodrop condensation. Temperature-pressure phase diagrams conveying condensation and stability transitions were constructed for microbubbles coated with saturated diacylphosphatidylcholine lipids of varying acyl chain length (C16 to C24). The onset of full dissolution was shifted to higher temperatures with the use of longer acyl chain lipids or supersaturated media. Longer chain lipid shells resisted both dissolution of the gas core and mechanical compression through a pronounced wrinkle-to-fold collapse transition. Interestingly, the lipid shell also provided a mechanical resistance to condensation, shifting the vapor-to-liquid transition to higher pressures than for bulk perfluorobutane. This result indicated that the lipid shell can provide a negative apparent surface tension under compression. Overall, the results of this study will aid in the design and formulation of vaporizable fluorocarbon nanodrops for various applications, such as diagnostic ultrasound imaging, targeted drug delivery, and thermal ablation.

  5. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  6. A comparative study of linear and region based diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Gottfried

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two categories of objects spatial information science investigates: actual objects and their spatial properties, such as in geography, and abstract objects which are employed metaphorically, as for visual languages. A prominent example of the latter are diagrams that model knowledge of some domain. Different aspects of diagrams are of interest, including their formal properties or how human users work with them, for example, with diagrams representing sets. The literature about diagrammatic systems for the representation of sets shows a dominance of region-based diagrams like Euler circles and Venn diagrams. The effectiveness of these diagrams, however, is limited because region-based diagrams become quite complex for more then three sets. By contrast, linear diagrams are not equally prevalent but enable the representation of a greater number of sets without getting cluttered. Cluttered diagrams exhibit inherent complexity due to overlapping objects, irrelevant details, or other reasons that impinge upon their legibility. This study contrasts both types of diagrammatic systems and investigates whether the performance of users differs for both kinds of diagrams. A significant difference can be shown regarding the number of diagrams that can be drawn within a fixed period of time and regarding the number of errors made. The results indicate that linear diagrams are more effective by being more restrictive and because region based diagrams show much clutter due to overlapping, coincident, and tangentially touching contours, as well as an overwhelming number of empty zones. Linear diagrams are less prone to errors and do not suffer from clutter.

  7. Prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical predictors of post-diagnostic utilisation of different types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of Danish women treated for primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide inception cohort of Danish women treated for early-stage breast cancer as well as differences in user patterns for individual types of CAM.......This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide inception cohort of Danish women treated for early-stage breast cancer as well as differences in user patterns for individual types of CAM....

  8. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  9. Phase Diagram of Spiking Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed eSeyed-Allaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In computer simulations of spiking neural networks, often it is assumed that every two neurons of the network are connected by a probablilty of 2%, 20% of neurons are inhibitory and 80% are excitatory. These common values are based on experiments, observations. but here, I take a different perspective, inspired by evolution. I simulate many networks, each with a different set of parameters, and then I try to figure out what makes the common values desirable by nature. Networks which are configured according to the common values, have the best dynamic range in response to an impulse and their dynamic range is more robust in respect to synaptic weights. In fact, evolution has favored networks of best dynamic range. I present a phase diagram that shows the dynamic ranges of different networks of different parameteres. This phase diagram gives an insight into the space of parameters -- excitatory to inhibitory ratio, sparseness of connections and synaptic weights. It may serve as a guideline to decide about the values of parameters in a simulation of spiking neural network.

  10. The magnetized effective QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Alejandro; Hernandez, L A; Loewe, M; Zamora, R

    2015-01-01

    The QCD phase diagram in the temperature versus quark chemical potential plane is studied in the presence of a magnetic field, using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. It is shown that the decrease of the couplings with increasing field strength obtained in this model leads to the critical temperature for the phase transition to decrease with increasing field intensity (inverse magnetic catalysis). This happens provided that plasma screening is properly accounted for. It is also found that with increasing field strength the location of the critical end point (CEP) in the phase diagram moves toward lower values of the critical quark chemical potential and larger values of the critical temperature. In addition, the CEP approaches the temperature axis for large values of the magnetic field. We argue that a similar behavior is to be expected in QCD, since the physical impact of the magnetic field, regardless of strength, is to produce a spatial dimension reduction, whereby virtual quark-antiquark pairs are...

  11. Kinematical Diagrams for Conical Relativistic Jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gopal-Krishna; Pronoy Sircar; Samir Dhurde

    2007-03-01

    We present diagrams depicting the expected inter-dependences of two key kinematical parameters of radio knots in the parsec-scale jets of blazars, deduced from VLBI observations. The two parameters are the apparent speed (app = capp) and the effective Doppler boosting factor (eff) of the relativistically moving radio knot. A novel aspect of these analytical computations of – diagrams is that they are made for parsecscale jets having a conical shape, with modest opening angles ( up to 10°), in accord with the VLBI observations of the nuclei of the nearest radio galaxies. Another motivating factor is the recent finding that consideration of a conical geometry can have important implications for the interpretation of a variety of radio observations of blazar jets. In addition to uniform jet flows (i.e., those having a uniform bulk Lorentz factor, ), computational results are also presented for stratified jets where an ultra-relativistic central spine along the jet axis is surrounded by a slower moving sheath, possibly arising from a velocity shear.

  12. Phase diagram of twisted mass lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Stephen R.; Wu, Jackson M.

    2004-11-01

    We use the effective chiral Lagrangian to analyze the phase diagram of two-flavor twisted mass lattice QCD as a function of the normal and twisted masses, generalizing previous work for the untwisted theory. We first determine the chiral Lagrangian including discretization effects up to next-to-leading order (NLO) in a combined expansion in which m2π/(4πfπ)2˜aΛ (a being the lattice spacing, and Λ=ΛQCD). We then focus on the region where m2π/(4πfπ)2˜(aΛ)2, in which case competition between leading and NLO terms can lead to phase transitions. As for untwisted Wilson fermions, we find two possible phase diagrams, depending on the sign of a coefficient in the chiral Lagrangian. For one sign, there is an Aoki phase for pure Wilson fermions, with flavor and parity broken, but this is washed out into a crossover if the twisted mass is nonvanishing. For the other sign, there is a first order transition for pure Wilson fermions, and we find that this transition extends into the twisted mass plane, ending with two symmetrical second order points at which the mass of the neutral pion vanishes. We provide graphs of the condensate and pion masses for both scenarios, and note a simple mathematical relation between them. These results may be of importance to numerical simulations.

  13. The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Gingerich, Owen

    2013-01-01

    The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shaple...

  14. Phase diagram of quantum square ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Louis-Paul; Holdsworth, Peter; Mila, Frederic; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2013-03-01

    We have investigated the ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagram of quantum square ice - realized by the transverse-field Ising model on a checkerboard lattice - using both linear spin-wave (LSW) theory and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). We generalize the model with different couplings between nearest (J1) and next-to-nearest (J2) neighbors on the checkerboard lattice. Our QMC approach generalizes the loop algorithm - very efficient in the study of constrained classical systems - to a ``brane algorithm'' for quantum systems. At the LSW level the vast degeneracy of the ground-state for J1 =J2 and J2 >J1 remains intact; moreover LSW theory breaks down in extended regions of the phase diagram, pointing at non-classical states. Our QMC study goes beyond perturbative schemes and addresses directly the nature of the low-temperature phases. We have critically examined the possibility of a resonating-plaquette state for J1 =J2 , suggested by degenerate perturbation theory on the ice-rule manifold for weak fields. Our QMC results for finite fields confirm the absence of Néel or collinear order, but they do not confirm the presence of resonating-plaquette order, pointing at a possibly more complex non-classical state.

  15. Ab initio phase diagram of iridium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakovsky, L.; Burakovsky, N.; Cawkwell, M. J.; Preston, D. L.; Errandonea, D.; Simak, S. I.

    2016-09-01

    The phase diagram of iridium is investigated using the Z methodology. The Z methodology is a technique for phase diagram studies that combines the direct Z method for the computation of melting curves and the inverse Z method for the calculation of solid-solid phase boundaries. In the direct Z method, the solid phases along the melting curve are determined by comparing the solid-liquid equilibrium boundaries of candidate crystal structures. The inverse Z method involves quenching the liquid into the most stable solid phase at various temperatures and pressures to locate a solid-solid boundary. Although excellent agreement with the available experimental data (to ≲65 GPa) is found for the equation of state (EOS) of Ir, it is the third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS with B0'=5 rather than the more widely accepted B0'=4 that describes our ab initio data to higher pressure (P ) . Our results suggest the existence of a random-stacking hexagonal close-packed structure of iridium at high P . We offer an explanation for the 14-layer hexagonal structure observed in experiments by Cerenius and Dubrovinsky.

  16. Stochastic, real-space, imaginary-time evaluation of third-order Feynman-Goldstone diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2014-01-14

    A new, alternative set of interpretation rules of Feynman-Goldstone diagrams for many-body perturbation theory is proposed, which translates diagrams into algebraic expressions suitable for direct Monte Carlo integrations. A vertex of a diagram is associated with a Coulomb interaction (rather than a two-electron integral) and an edge with the trace of a Green's function in real space and imaginary time. With these, 12 diagrams of third-order many-body perturbation (MP3) theory are converted into 20-dimensional integrals, which are then evaluated by a Monte Carlo method. It uses redundant walkers for convergence acceleration and a weight function for importance sampling in conjunction with the Metropolis algorithm. The resulting Monte Carlo MP3 method has low-rank polynomial size dependence of the operation cost, a negligible memory cost, and a naturally parallel computational kernel, while reproducing the correct correlation energies of small molecules within a few mEh after 10(6) Monte Carlo steps.

  17. On the Impact of Layout Quality to Understanding UML Diagrams: Diagram Type and Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Practical experience suggests that the use and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. In previous work, we have presented evidence supporting this intuition. This contrasts with earlier experiments that yielded weak or inconclusive evidence only. In the ...

  18. Alternative metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    As the old 'publish or perish' adage is brought into question, additional research-impact indices, known as altmetrics, are offering new evaluation alternatives. But such metrics may need to adjust to the evolution of science publishing.

  19. DIAGNOSTIC OF CNC LATHE WITH QC 20 BALLBAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of the influence of the feedmotion speed on the value of selected geometric errors of CNC lathe CTX 310 eco by DMG, indentified by QC 20 Ballbar system. Diagnostically evaluated were: the deviation of the axis squareness, reversal spike, and backlash. These errors determine the forming of the dimensional and shape accuracy of a machine tool. The article discusses the process of the CNC diagnostic test, the diagnostic evaluation and formulates guidelines on further CNC operation. The results of measurements were presented in tables and diagrams.

  20. Diagnostic thoracoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavec Goran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic thoracoscopy in patients with pleural effusion of unclear origin mostly provides the correct diagnosis. Results from published reports of previous researches are not uniform. In 47 male and 20 female patients with pleural effusion of unknown etiology, after receiving negative results obtained from cytological finding of pleural effusion and percutaneous needle biopsy, thoracoscopy with biopsy of one or both pleurae was performed. Procedure was done in local anesthesia using Stortz rigid thoracoscope. In 37 patients with malignant disease (primary or metastatic diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 31 patient (81.12%. In 27 patients with inflammatory pleural disease diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 22 patients (81.4%. Among 11 patients with specific pleural effusions, tuberculosis was confirmed in 10 (90.91%. Normal finding in cases of spontaneous pneumothorax and pulmonary embolism was taken as a positive result. Total number of positive findings was 55 (82.10%. In one patient, the third spontaneous pneumothorax was the indication for thoracoscopy, and after numerous bullae were seen during the procedure, talcum powder pleurodesis was done. In four patients low intensity subcutaneous emphysema occurred one day after thoracoscopy. It can be concluded that thoracoscopy in local anesthesia out of the operating room is good and practical method for solving the unclear pleural effusions, with neglectable rate of complications.

  1. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams During Text-Diagram Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-02-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our results showed that the text-diagram referencing strategy was commonly used. However, some readers adopted other reading strategies, such as reading the diagram or text first. We found all readers who had referred to the diagram spent roughly the same amount of time reading and performed equally well. However, some participants who ignored the diagram performed more poorly on questions that tested understanding of basic facts. This result indicates that dual coding theory may be a possible theory to explain the phenomenon. Eye movement patterns indicated that at least some readers had extracted semantic information of the scientific terms when first looking at the diagram. Readers who read the scientific terms on the diagram first tended to spend less time looking at the same terms in the text, which they read after. Besides, presented clear diagrams can help readers process both semantic and spatial information, thereby facilitating an overall understanding of the article. In addition, although text-first and diagram-first readers spent similar total reading time on the text and diagram parts of the article, respectively, text-first readers had significantly less number of saccades of text and diagram than diagram-first readers. This result might be explained as text-directed reading.

  2. Generalized Ellingham diagrams for utilization in solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishimoto H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized Ellingham diagram for the P-O-H and the Ni-P-OH systems have been constructed to investigate thermodynamically the chemical stability of nickel anode against the gaseous impurities containing phosphorous compounds. In the same way as the original Ellingham diagram, the oxygen potential is used as the vertical axis, while the temperature is adopted as horizontal axis. For the P-O-H system which contains many gaseous species, the dominant areas of gaseous species are displayed with a parameter of their partial pressure in an analogous way to the aqueous species in the Pourbaix diagram. The multicomponent Ellingham diagram for the Ni-P-O-H system was constructed in a similar manner to the multicomponent Pourbaix diagram. The obtained diagrams have been discussed to examine the reactivity of nickel anodes with phosphorus compounds in SOFCs in terms of operational variables such as temperature, oxygen potential, overpotential under the anode polarization and so on.

  3. Bianchi I meets the Hubble diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Schucker, Thomas; Valent, Galliano

    2014-01-01

    We improve existing fits of the Bianchi I metric to the Hubble diagram of supernovae and find an intriguing yet non-significant signal for anisotropy that should be verified or falsified in the near future by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Since the literature contains two different formulas for the apparent luminosity as a function of time of flight in Bianchi I metrics, we present an independent derivation confirming the result by Saunders (1969). The present fit differs from earlier ones by Koivisto & Mota and by Campanelli et al. in that we use Saunders' formula, a larger sample of supernovae, Union 2 and JLA, and we use the general Bianchi I metric with three distinct eigenvalues.

  4. Specification of Learning Content Using Feature Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaševičius, Robertas

    The main idea of a learning object (LO) is to break educational content down into small chunks that can be reused in various learning environments. When reused, such small chunks of educational content are combined in various ways leading to a great variability of the learning content. We propose using feature diagrams (FDs) for the specification of learning content at different layers of abstraction starting from the organization of teaching material in a lecture down to the specification and demonstration of particular software/hardware components. FDs can be used by (1) designers, teachers, and learners for graphical representation of domain knowledge in LOs; (2) programmers to specify and express variability-commonality relationships of LOs at a higher abstraction level to allow the development and implementation of generative LOs; and (3) researchers as a vehicle for analysis and better understanding of the e-Learning domain itself.

  5. QCD phase diagram with isospin chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Bastian B

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we investigate the phase diagram of QCD in the presence of an isospin chemical potential. To alleviate the infrared problems of the theory associated with pion condensation, we introduce the pionic source as an infrared regulator. We discuss various methods to extrapolate the results to vanishing pionic source, including a novel method based on the singular value spectrum of the massive Dirac operator, a leading-order reweighting and a spline Monte-Carlo fit. Our main results concern the phase transition boundary between the normal and the pion condensation phases and the chiral/deconfinement transition temperature as a function of the chemical potential. In addition, we perform a quantitative comparison between our direct results and a Taylor-expansion obtained at zero chemical potential to assess the applicability range of the latter.

  6. Database design using entity-relationship diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bagui, Sikha

    2011-01-01

    Data, Databases, and the Software Engineering ProcessDataBuilding a DatabaseWhat is the Software Engineering Process?Entity Relationship Diagrams and the Software Engineering Life Cycle          Phase 1: Get the Requirements for the Database          Phase 2: Specify the Database          Phase 3: Design the DatabaseData and Data ModelsFiles, Records, and Data ItemsMoving from 3 × 5 Cards to ComputersDatabase Models     The Hierarchical ModelThe Network ModelThe Relational ModelThe Relational Model and Functional DependenciesFundamental Relational DatabaseRelational Database and SetsFunctional

  7. The Gamma Ray Bursts Hubble diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; Dainotti, M G; De Laurentis, M; Izzo, L; Perillo, M

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to their enormous energy release, Gamma Rays Bursts (GRBs) have recently attracted a lot of interest to probe the Hubble diagram (HD) deep into the matter dominated era and hence complement Type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa). We consider here three different calibration methods based on the use of a fiducial LCDM model, on cosmographic parameters and on the local regression on SNeIa to calibrate the scaling relations proposed as an equivalent to the Phillips law to standardize GRBs finding any significant dependence. We then investigate the evolution of these parameters with the redshift to obtain any statistical improvement. Under this assumption, we then consider possible systematics effects on the HDs introduced by the calibration method, the averaging procedure and the homogeneity of the sample arguing against any significant bias.

  8. Phase diagram of a Schelling segregation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, L.; Vannimenus, J.; Nadal, J.-P.

    2009-07-01

    The collective behavior in a variant of Schelling’s segregation model is characterized with methods borrowed from statistical physics, in a context where their relevance was not conspicuous. A measure of segregation based on cluster geometry is defined and several quantities analogous to those used to describe physical lattice models at equilibrium are introduced. This physical approach allows to distinguish quantitatively several regimes and to characterize the transitions between them, leading to the building of a phase diagram. Some of the transitions evoke empirical sudden ethnic turnovers. We also establish links with ‘spin-1’ models in physics. Our approach provides generic tools to analyze the dynamics of other socio-economic systems.

  9. Bayesian Image Reconstruction Based on Voronoi Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, G F; Hitschfeld, N

    2007-01-01

    We present a Bayesian Voronoi image reconstruction technique (VIR) for interferometric data. Bayesian analysis applied to the inverse problem allows us to derive the a-posteriori probability of a novel parameterization of interferometric images. We use a variable Voronoi diagram as our model in place of the usual fixed pixel grid. A quantization of the intensity field allows us to calculate the likelihood function and a-priori probabilities. The Voronoi image is optimized including the number of polygons as free parameters. We apply our algorithm to deconvolve simulated interferometric data. Residuals, restored images and chi^2 values are used to compare our reconstructions with fixed grid models. VIR has the advantage of modeling the image with few parameters, obtaining a better image from a Bayesian point of view.

  10. Revised state diagram of Laponite dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongondry, Philippe; Tassin, Jean François; Nicolai, Taco

    2005-03-15

    We propose a state diagram of charged disk-like mineral particle (Laponite) dispersions as a function of the Laponite concentration (C) and the concentration of added salt (C(s)), based on simple observation and light-scattering measurements. At low C or high C(s) the dispersions separate into two domains due to sedimentation of Laponite aggregates, while at high C and low C(s) they form homogeneous gels that do not flow upon tube reversal. The aggregation rate and the structure factor of the Laponite dispersions is determined with light scattering as a function of C and C(s). We discuss in detail the controversy on the origin of gelation of Laponite dispersions in the absence of added salt. We argue that aggregation rather than glass formation causes gelation.

  11. Improving perturbation theory with cactus diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, M; Skouroupathis, A; Constantinou, Martha; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Skouroupathis, Apostolos

    2006-01-01

    We study a systematic improvement of perturbation theory for gauge fields on the lattice [hep-lat/0606001]; the improvement entails resumming, to all orders in the coupling constant, a dominant subclass of tadpole diagrams. This method, originally proposed for the Wilson gluon action, is extended here to encompass all possible gluon actions made of closed Wilson loops; any fermion action can be employed as well. The effect of resummation is to replace various parameters in the action (coupling constant, Symanzik and clover coefficient) by ``dressed'' values; the latter are solutions to certain coupled integral equations, which are easy to solve numerically. Some positive features of this method are: a) It is gauge invariant, b) it can be systematically applied to improve (to all orders) results obtained at any given order in perturbation theory, c) it does indeed absorb in the dressed parameters the bulk of tadpole contributions. Two different applications are presented: The additive renormalization of fermio...

  12. The urban solid wastes in La Habana (Cuba): management diagnostics and alternatives for their improvement; Los residuos solidos urbanos en la ciudad de La Habana: Diagnostico de la gestion y alternativas para su aprovechamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponjuan Reyes, G. T. [Univsersidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    In this study, it is carried out a diagnosis of all the looks of the Systems of Administration of the R. S. U. in the country of Ciudad de la Habana and they propose alternating for the economical development of the R. S. U. in the county, starting from classifying and study the actions according to the politics of the country concerning the protection of the 2environment and the saving of natural resources. (Author) 22 refs.

  13. Phase Diagrams for Systems Containing Hyperbranched Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Zeiner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbranched polymers show an outstanding potential for applications ranging from chemistry over nanotechnology to pharmacy. In order to take advantage of this potential, the underlying phase behaviour must be known. From the thermodynamic point of view, the modelling of these phase diagrams is quite challenging, because the thermodynamic properties depend on the architecture of the hyperbranched polymer as well as on the number and kind of present functional end groups. The influence of architecture can be taken into account via the lattice cluster theory (LCT as an extension of the well-known Flory–Huggins theory. Whereas the Flory–Huggins theory is limited to linear polymer chains, the LCT can be applied to an arbitrary chain architecture. The number and the kind of functional groups can be handled via the Wertheim perturbation theory, applicable for directed forces between the functional groups and the surrounding solvent molecules. The combination of the LCT and the Wertheim theory can be established for the modelling or even prediction of the liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE of polymer solutions in a single solvent or in a solvent mixture or polymer blends, where the polymer can have an arbitrary structure. The applied theory predicts large demixing regions for mixtures of linear polymers and hyperbranched polymers, as well as for mixtures made from two hyperbranched polymers. The introduction of empty lattice sites permits the theoretical investigation of pressure effects on phase behaviour. The calculated phase diagrams were compared with own experimental data or to experimental data taken from literature.

  14. Thermodynamic Equilibrium Diagrams of Sulphur-Chromium System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The chemical and electrochemical equilibria in the presence of gaseous phase were investigated. Many substances, which consisted of sulphur and chromium, were considered. Various thermodynamic equilibria were calculated in different pressures. Calculation results were shown as log p―1/T and E―T diagrams. These diagrams may be used to study the corrosion of chromium in sulphur-containing circumstances. The diagrams are also used to thermodynami-cally determine the existence area of various substances and so on.

  15. Solid-liquid phase diagram of disubstituted benzene systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黑恩成; 刘国杰

    1995-01-01

    The cooling curves of different compositions of the systems of ortho-chlorotoluene/para-chlorotoluene and ortho-nitrochlorobenzene/para-nitrochlorobenzene are carefully determined by the thermal analysis method. The crystals obtained are also tested. The conclusion that both systems are of simple eutectic diagram but not the solid solution diagram with a minimum melting point is confirmed. The characteristics of the diagram are explained according to the physical and thermodynarmc properties of the components.

  16. Duals of Orphan-Free Anisotropic Voronoi Diagrams are Triangulations

    CERN Document Server

    Canas, Guillermo D

    2011-01-01

    We show that, under mild conditions on the underlying metric, duals of appropriately defined anisotropic Voronoi diagrams are embedded triangulations. Furthermore, they always triangulate the convex hull of the vertices, and have other properties that parallel those of ordinary Delaunay triangulations. These results apply to the duals of anisotropic Voronoi diagrams of any set of vertices, so long as the diagram is orphan-free.

  17. Zone diagrams in compact subsets of uniformly convex normed spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kopecká, E. (Eva); Reem, D.; Reich, S.

    2012-01-01

    A zone diagram is a relatively new concept which has emerged in computational geometry and is related to Voronoi diagrams. Formally, it is a fixed point of a certain mapping, and neither its uniqueness nor its existence are obvious in advance. It has been studied by several authors, starting with T. Asano, J. Matousek and T. Tokuyama, who considered the Euclidean plane with singleton sites, and proved the existence and uniqueness of zone diagrams there. In the present paper we prove the exist...

  18. Zone diagrams in compact subsets of uniformly convex normed spaces

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A zone diagram is a relatively new concept which has emerged in computational geometry and is related to Voronoi diagrams. Formally, it is a fixed point of a certain mapping, and neither its uniqueness nor its existence are obvious in advance. It has been studied by several authors, starting with T. Asano, J. Matousek and T. Tokuyama, who considered the Euclidean plane with singleton sites, and proved the existence and uniqueness of zone diagrams there. In the present paper we prove the exist...

  19. Demonstration of optical computing logics based on binary decision diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiyun; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi

    2012-01-16

    Optical circuits are low power consumption and fast speed alternatives for the current information processing based on transistor circuits. However, because of no transistor function available in optics, the architecture for optical computing should be chosen that optics prefers. One of which is Binary Decision Diagram (BDD), where signal is processed by sending an optical signal from the root through a serial of switching nodes to the leaf (terminal). Speed of optical computing is limited by either transmission time of optical signals from the root to the leaf or switching time of a node. We have designed and experimentally demonstrated 1-bit and 2-bit adders based on the BDD architecture. The switching nodes are silicon ring resonators with a modulation depth of 10 dB and the states are changed by the plasma dispersion effect. The quality, Q of the rings designed is 1500, which allows fast transmission of signal, e.g., 1.3 ps calculated by a photon escaping time. A total processing time is thus analyzed to be ~9 ps for a 2-bit adder and would scales linearly with the number of bit. It is two orders of magnitude faster than the conventional CMOS circuitry, ~ns scale of delay. The presented results show the potential of fast speed optical computing circuits.

  20. Visualization design and verification of Ada tasking using timing diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, R. F.; Szulewski, P. A.; Weiss, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of timing diagrams is recommended in the design and testing of multi-task Ada programs. By displaying the task states vs. time, timing diagrams can portray the simultaneous threads of data flow and control which characterize tasking programs. This description of the system's dynamic behavior from conception to testing is a necessary adjunct to other graphical techniques, such as structure charts, which essentially give a static view of the system. A series of steps is recommended which incorporates timing diagrams into the design process. Finally, a description is provided of a prototype Ada Execution Analyzer (AEA) which automates the production of timing diagrams from VAX/Ada debugger output.

  1. Computer recognition of slag property diagrams in ternary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinxiong Lu; Li Wang; Jiongming Zhang; Xinhua Wang

    2004-01-01

    In order to take data information from the slag property diagram in a ternary system automatically and actually, a picture recognition and drawing software has been developed by Visual Basic 6.0 based on the image coding principle of computer system and the graphics programming method of VB. This software can transform the ternary system isopleth diagram from bitmap format to data file and establish a corresponding database which can be applied to rapidly retrieve a mass of data and make correlative thermodynamics or kinetics calculation. Besides, it still has the function of drawing the ternary system diagram which can draw different kinds of property parameters in the same diagram.

  2. To use or no to use diagrams: The effect of drawing a diagram in solving introductory physics problems

    CERN Document Server

    Maries, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Drawing appropriate diagrams is a useful problem solving heuristic that can transform a give problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving it. A major focus while helping introductory physics students learn problem solving is to help them appreciate that drawing a diagram facilitates problem solution. We conducted an investigation in which 111 students in an algebra-based introductory physics course were subjected to two different interventions during recitation quizzes throughout the semester. They were either (1) asked to solve problems in which the diagrams were drawn for them or (2) explicitly told to draw a diagram. A comparison group was not given any instruction regarding diagrams. We developed a rubric to score the problem-solving performance of students in different intervention groups. We investigated two problems involving electric field and electric force and found that students who draw expert-like diagrams are more successful problem solvers and that a higher level of detai...

  3. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  4. OntoDiagram: Automatic Diagram Generation for Congenital Heart Defects in Pediatric Cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwanath, Kartik; Viswanath, Venkatesh; Drake, William; Lee, Yugyung

    2005-01-01

    In pediatric cardiology as well as many other medical specialties, the accurate portrayal of a large volume of patient information is crucial to providing good patient care. Our research aims at utilizing clinical and spatial ontologies representing the human heart, to automatically generate a Mullins-like diagram [6] based on a patient's information in the cardiology databases. Our ontology allows an intuitive way of modeling congenital defects with the structure of the hum...

  5. THE SYSTEM NEODYMIUM - MANGANESE (STRUCTURES, MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, PHASE DIAGRAM), THE PHASE DIAGRAMS YB-HG AND TB-HG,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALLOYS, YTTERBIUM, TERBIUM, MANGANESE ALLOYS, MERCURY ALLOYS, X RAY DIFFRACTION, X RAY SPECTROSCOPY, DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS, PHASE DIAGRAMS , MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, METALLOGRAPHY, AUSTRIA

  6. Testing Diagnostics of Nuclear Activity and Star Formation in Galaxies at z > 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Konidaris, Nicholas P.; Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Faber, S. M.; McLean, Ian S.; Yan, Renbin; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Villar, Victor

    2013-01-01

    We present some of the first science data with the new Keck/MOSFIRE instrument to test the effectiveness of different AGN/SF diagnostics at z ~ 1.5. MOSFIRE spectra were obtained in three H-band multi-slit masks in the GOODS-S field, resulting in 2 hr exposures of 36 emission-line galaxies. We compare X-ray data with the traditional emission-line ratio diagnostics and the alternative mass-excitation and color-excitation diagrams, combining new MOSFIRE infrared data with previous HST/WFC3 infrared spectra (from the 3D-HST survey) and multiwavelength photometry. We demonstrate that a high [O III]/Hβ ratio is insufficient as an active galactic nucleus (AGN) indicator at z > 1. For the four X-ray-detected galaxies, the classic diagnostics ([O III]/Hβ versus [N II]/Hα and [S II]/Hα) remain consistent with X-ray AGN/SF classification. The X-ray data also suggest that "composite" galaxies (with intermediate AGN/SF classification) host bona fide AGNs. Nearly ~2/3 of the z ~ 1.5 emission-line galaxies have nuclear activity detected by either X-rays or the classic diagnostics. Compared to the X-ray and line ratio classifications, the mass-excitation method remains effective at z > 1, but we show that the color-excitation method requires a new calibration to successfully identify AGNs at these redshifts. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation and operated as a scientific partnership among Caltech, the University of California, and NASA.

  7. TESTING DIAGNOSTICS OF NUCLEAR ACTIVITY AND STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES AT z > 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Konidaris, Nicholas P. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D.; Yan, Renbin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Juneau, Stephanie [Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); McLean, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G.; Villar, Victor [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-20

    We present some of the first science data with the new Keck/MOSFIRE instrument to test the effectiveness of different AGN/SF diagnostics at z {approx} 1.5. MOSFIRE spectra were obtained in three H-band multi-slit masks in the GOODS-S field, resulting in 2 hr exposures of 36 emission-line galaxies. We compare X-ray data with the traditional emission-line ratio diagnostics and the alternative mass-excitation and color-excitation diagrams, combining new MOSFIRE infrared data with previous HST/WFC3 infrared spectra (from the 3D-HST survey) and multiwavelength photometry. We demonstrate that a high [O III]/H{beta} ratio is insufficient as an active galactic nucleus (AGN) indicator at z > 1. For the four X-ray-detected galaxies, the classic diagnostics ([O III]/H{beta} versus [N II]/H{alpha} and [S II]/H{alpha}) remain consistent with X-ray AGN/SF classification. The X-ray data also suggest that 'composite' galaxies (with intermediate AGN/SF classification) host bona fide AGNs. Nearly {approx}2/3 of the z {approx} 1.5 emission-line galaxies have nuclear activity detected by either X-rays or the classic diagnostics. Compared to the X-ray and line ratio classifications, the mass-excitation method remains effective at z > 1, but we show that the color-excitation method requires a new calibration to successfully identify AGNs at these redshifts.

  8. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  9. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  10. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triglyceride (fat) produced by processing coconut oil or palm kernel oil. The body breaks down caprylic acid into substances called “ketone bodies.” The theory behind Axona is that the ketone bodies derived from caprylic acid may provide an alternative energy source for brain cells that have lost ...

  11. Exploring the QCD phase diagram through relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2013-01-01

    We present a review of the studies related to establishing the QCD phase diagram through high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. We particularly focus on the experimental results related to the formation of a quark-gluon phase, crossover transition and search for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram.

  12. 30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 256.8 Section 256.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR..., General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately platted...

  13. Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rosengrant

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of students’ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.

  14. An Introductory Idea for Teaching Two-Component Phase Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of two-component phase diagrams has attracted little attention in this "Journal," and it is hoped that this article will make a useful contribution. Current physical chemistry textbooks describe two-component phase diagrams adequately, but do so in a piecemeal fashion one section at a time; first solid-liquid equilibria, then…

  15. The Effect of Causal Diagrams on Text Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Schraw, Gregory; Lehman, Stephen; Poliquin, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effect of studying a causal diagram on comprehension of causal relationships from an expository science text. A causal diagram is a type of visual display that explicitly represents cause-effect relationships. In Experiment 1, readers between conditions did not differ with respect to memory for main ideas, but the readers who…

  16. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

  17. RNA secondary structure diagrams for very large molecules: RNAfdl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, Nikolai; Wiegels, Tim; Torda, Andrew E.

    2013-01-01

    There are many programs that can read the secondary structure of an RNA molecule and draw a diagram, but hardly any that can cope with 10 3 bases. RNAfdl is slow but capable of producing intersection-free diagrams for ribosome-sized structures, has a graphical user interface for adjustments...

  18. Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles: The Theory of Piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Gem; Leishi Zhang; Howse, John; Rodgers, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Euler diagrams are effective tools for visualizing set intersections. They have a large number of application areas ranging from statistical data analysis to software engineering. However, the automated generation of Euler diagrams has never been easy: given an abstract description of a required Euler diagram, it is computationally expensive to generate the diagram. Moreover, the generated diagrams represent sets by polygons, sometimes with quite irregular shapes that make the diagrams less comprehensible. In this paper, we address these two issues by developing the theory of piercings, where we define single piercing curves and double piercing curves. We prove that if a diagram can be built inductively by successively adding piercing curves under certain constraints, then it can be drawn with circles, which are more esthetically pleasing than arbitrary polygons. The theory of piercings is developed at the abstract level. In addition, we present a Java implementation that, given an inductively pierced abstract description, generates an Euler diagram consisting only of circles within polynomial time.

  19. The Formal Semantics of an UML Activity Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁义芝; 王延章; 刘云飞

    2004-01-01

    Due to lack of strictly defined formal semantics, an UML activity diagram is unsuitable for the tasks of formal analysis, verification and assertion on the system it describes. In this paper, Petri net is used to define the formal semantics of an UML activity diagram containing object flow states, laying a foundation for the precise description and analysis of a workflow system.

  20. Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)

  1. Phase Diagrams of Silicate Systems: Handbook; Third Issue; Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the third issue of the handbook Phase Diagrams of Silicate Systems, information is included on the phase relationships in systems containing...radioelectronics, nuclear engineering, etc. Not only are equilibrium phase diagrams presented in the handbook, but the phases existing in the

  2. Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

  3. Pourbaix ("E"-pH-M) Diagrams in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesterfield, Lester L.; Maddox, Jeremy B.; Crocker, Michael S.; Schweitzer, George K.

    2012-01-01

    "E"-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams provide an important graphical link between the thermodynamic calculations of potential, pH, equilibrium constant, concentration, and changes in Gibbs energy and the experimentally observed behavior of species in aqueous solutions. The utility of "E"-pH diagrams is extended with the introduction of an additional…

  4. Alnus as a disturbing factor in pollen diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1959-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that percentages of pollen in a pollen diagram do not express the exact composition of forests in earlier times. This inaccuracy is due to several factors, for instance the different quantities of pollen produced by plants, the distance of transport etc. A pollen diagram tell

  5. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  6. Phase diagram of colloid-rod system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. K.; Xiao, Xuhui

    2010-01-01

    The semigrand ensemble theory [H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, W. C. K. Poon, P. N. Pusey, A. Stroobants, and P. B. Warren, Europhys. Lett. 20, 559 (1992)] in conjunction with the fundamental measure density functional theory [V. B. Warshavsky and X. Song, Phys. Rev. E 69, 061113 (2004)] are used to construct the Helmholtz free energy densities of a mixture of uncharged colloidal hard spheres and colloidal rods in its solid and liquid phases. Given these free energy density functions, we apply the free energy density minimization method [G. F. Wang and S. K. Lai, Phys. Rev. E 70, 051402 (2004)] to crosshatch the system's regions of phases in coexistence. The calculated results show that the triangular area bounded by gas-liquid, gas-solid, and liquid-solid coexisting two phases which has been called the coexistence region of gas-liquid-solid corresponds in fact to sets of two phases in coexistence. The phase boundaries which define our calculated coexistence domains compare very well with previous theoretical calculations. The relevance of the phase-diagram domains to three phases in coexistence will be discussed.

  7. Cosmological test with the QSO Hubble diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Corredoira, M; Lusso, E; Risaliti, G

    2016-01-01

    A Hubble diagram (HD) has recently been constructed in the redshift range 099% C.L. The Quasi-Steady State Model is excluded at >95% C.L. The remaining four models (Lambda-CDM/wCDM, the R_h=ct Universe, the Friedmann open universe and a Static universe with a linear Hubble law) all pass the test. However, only Lambda-CDM/wCDM and $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ also pass the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test. The optimized parameters in Lambda-CDM/wCDM are Omega_m=0.20^{+0.24}_{-0.20} and w_{de}=-1.2^{+1.6}_{-infinity} (the dark-energy equation-of-state). Combined with the AP test, these values become Omega_m=0.38^{+0.20}_{-0.19} and w_{de}=-0.28^{+0.52}_{-0.40}. But whereas this optimization of parameters in Lambda-CDM/wCDM creates some tension with their concordance values, the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ Universe has the advantage of fitting the QSO and AP data without any free parameters.

  8. The dysprosium-tin phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremenko, V.N.; Bulanova, M.V.; Martsenjuk, P.S. (I.N. Frantsevich Inst. for Problems of Materials Science, Kiev (Ukraine))

    1992-12-07

    The dysprosium-tin phase diagram was established by means of differential thermal, X-ray and microscopic analyses of 22 alloys. Seven intermetallic compounds were found to exist in the system. Dy[sub 5]Sn[sub 3] melts congruently at 1870 degC, and undergoes a polymorphous transformation at 1823 [+-] 6 degC. The intermetallics Dy[sub 5]Sn[sub 4], Dy[sub 11]Sn[sub 10], DySn, Dy[sub 4]Sn[sub 5], DySn[sub 2], DySn[sub 3] are formed peritectically at 1712 [+-]11, 1605 [+-]12, 1208 [+-]3, 1166 [+-]7, 1138 [+-]3 and 747 [+-]6 degC respectively. DySn[sub 3] exists in a narrow temperature range, in two polymorphous modifications. The transformation [beta]-DySn[sub 3] [yields] [alpha]-DySn[sub 3] occurs at 608 [+-] 12 degC, and at 499 [+-]2 degC [alpha]-DySn[sub 3] decomposes to DySn[sub 2] and the tin-rich melt. The dysprosium-rich eutectic crystallizes at 1204 [+-]10 degC and contains 13 at.% tin. The solid-state solubility of tin in dysprosium is about 3 at.%, and that of dysprosium in tin is negligible.

  9. Cloning Voronoi Diagrams via Retroactive Data Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dickerson, Matthew T; Goodrich, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of replicating a Voronoi diagram $V(S)$ of a planar point set $S$ by making proximity queries, which are of three possible (in decreasing order of information content): 1. the exact location of the nearest site(s) in $S$; 2. the distance to and label(s) of the nearest site(s) in $S$; 3. a unique label for every nearest site in $S$. We provide algorithms showing how queries of Type 1 and Type 2 allow an exact cloning of $V(S)$ with $O(n)$ queries and $O(n \\log^2 n)$ processing time. We also prove that queries of Type 3 can never exactly clone $V(S)$, but we show that with $O(n \\log\\frac{1}{\\epsilon})$ queries we can construct an $\\epsilon$-approximate cloning of $V(S)$. In addition to showing the limits of nearest-neighbor database security, our methods also provide one of the first natural algorithmic applications of retroactive data structures.

  10. Analysis of Sequence Diagram Layout in Advanced UML Modelling Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ņikiforova Oksana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System modelling using Unified Modelling Language (UML is the task that should be solved for software development. The more complex software becomes the higher requirements are stated to demonstrate the system to be developed, especially in its dynamic aspect, which in UML is offered by a sequence diagram. To solve this task, the main attention is devoted to the graphical presentation of the system, where diagram layout plays the central role in information perception. The UML sequence diagram due to its specific structure is selected for a deeper analysis on the elements’ layout. The authors research represents the abilities of modern UML modelling tools to offer automatic layout of the UML sequence diagram and analyse them according to criteria required for the diagram perception.

  11. A comparison of two approaches for solving unconstrained influence diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmann-Ohlsen, Kristian S.; Jensen, Finn V.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2009-01-01

    Influence diagrams and decision trees represent the two most common frameworks for specifying and solving decision problems. As modeling languages, both of these frameworks require that the decision analyst specifies all possible sequences of observations and decisions (in influence diagrams......, this requirement corresponds to the constraint that the decisions should be temporarily linearly ordered). Recently, the unconstrained influence diagram was proposed to address this drawback. In this framework, we may have a partial ordering of the decisions, and a solution to the decision problem therefore...... consists not only of a decision policy for the various decisions, but also of a conditional specification of what to do next. Relative to the complexity of solving an influence diagram, finding a solution to an unconstrained influence diagram may be computationally very demanding w.r.t. both time and space...

  12. Efficient computation of clipped Voronoi diagram for mesh generation

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2013-04-01

    The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental geometric structure widely used in various fields, especially in computer graphics and geometry computing. For a set of points in a compact domain (i.e. a bounded and closed 2D region or a 3D volume), some Voronoi cells of their Voronoi diagram are infinite or partially outside of the domain, but in practice only the parts of the cells inside the domain are needed, as when computing the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Such a Voronoi diagram confined to a compact domain is called a clipped Voronoi diagram. We present an efficient algorithm to compute the clipped Voronoi diagram for a set of sites with respect to a compact 2D region or a 3D volume. We also apply the proposed method to optimal mesh generation based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Calculation of Gallium-metal-Arsenic phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, J. D.; Davison, J. E.; Ray, A. E.; Smith, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical contacts and metallization to GaAs solar cells must survive at high temperatures for several minutes under specific mission scenarios. The determination of which metallizations or alloy systems that are able to withstand extreme thermal excursions with minimum degradation to solar cell performance can be predicted by properly calculated temperature constitution phase diagrams. A method for calculating a ternary diagram and its three constituent binary phase diagrams is briefly outlined and ternary phase diagrams for three Ga-As-X alloy systems are presented. Free energy functions of the liquid and solid phase are approximated by the regular solution theory. Phase diagrams calculated using this method are presented for the Ga-As-Ge and Ga-As-Ag systems.

  14. PDR diagnostics study with CLOUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Xue; Maohai Huang

    2009-01-01

    A series of plane-parallel photodissociation region (PDR) models are calculated using the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY. These models span a wide range of physical conditions, with gas densities of n = 102 - 106 cm-3 and incident far-ultraviolet (FUV) fields of G0 = 100 - 106 (where Go is the FUV flux in units of the local interstellar value), which are comparable with various astrophysical environments from interstellar diffuse clouds to the dense neutral gas around galactic compact HII regions. Based on the calculated results, we study the thermal balance of PDR gas and the emissions of [ CII ], [ CI ] and [ OI ] fine-structure lines under different physical conditions. The intensities and strength ratios of the studied lines, which are frequently used as PDR diagnostics, are presented using contour diagrams as functions of n and Go. We compare the calculated PDR surface gas temperatures T8 with those from Kaufman et al. and find that Ts from our models are systematically higher over most of the adopted n-G0 parameter space. The predicated line intensities and ratios from our work and those from Kaufman et al. can be different by a factor greater than 10, and such large differences usually occur near the border of our parameter space. The different methods of treating the dust grain physics, the change of H2 formation and dissociation rates, and the improvement in the radiation transfer of line emissions in our CLOUDY models are likely to be the major reasons for the divergences. Our models represent an up-to-date treatment of PDR diagnostic calcula- tions and can be used to interpret observational data. Meanwhile, the uncertainties in the treatment of microphysics and chemical processes in PDR models have significant effects on PDR diagnostics.

  15. The Eh-pH Diagram and Its Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hsiung Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Pourbaix presented Eh versus pH diagrams in his “Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solution”, diagrams have become extremely popular and are now used in almost every scientific area related to aqueous chemistry. Due to advances in personal computers, such diagrams can now show effects not only of Eh and pH, but also of variables, including ligand(s, temperature and pressure. Examples from various fields are illustrated in this paper. Examples include geochemical formation, corrosion and passivation, precipitation and adsorption for water treatment and leaching and metal recovery for hydrometallurgy. Two basic methods were developed to construct an Eh-pH diagram concerning the ligand component(s. The first method calculates and draws a line between two adjacent species based on their given activities. The second method performs equilibrium calculations over an array of points (500 × 800 or higher are preferred, each representing one Eh and one pH value for the whole system, then combines areas of each dominant species for the diagram. These two methods may produce different diagrams. The fundamental theories, illustrated results, comparison and required conditions behind these two methods are presented and discussed in this paper. The Gibbs phase rule equation for an Eh-pH diagram was derived and verified from actual plots. Besides indicating the stability area of water, an Eh-pH diagram normally shows only half of an overall reaction. However, merging two or more related diagrams together reveals more clearly the possibility of the reactions involved. For instance, leaching of Au with cyanide followed by cementing Au with Zn (Merrill-Crowe process can be illustrated by combining Au-CN and Zn-CN diagrams together. A second example of the galvanic conversion of chalcopyrite can be explained by merging S, Fe–S and Cu–Fe–S diagrams. The calculation of an Eh-pH diagram can be extended easily into another dimension, such

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part B, Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.

  17. The Dy-Zn phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, A.; Cardinale, A. M.; Delfino, S.; Ferro, R.

    2003-03-01

    The dysprosium-zinc phase diagram has been investigated over its entire composition range by using differential thermal analysis, (DTA) metallographic analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Seven intermetallic phases have been found and their structures confirmed. DyZn, DyZn2, Dy13Zn58, and Dy2Zn17 melt congruently at 1095 °C, 1050 °C, 930 °C, and 930 °C, respectively. DyZn3, Dy3Zn11, and DyZn12 form through peritectic reactions at 895 °C, about 900 °C and 685 °C, respectively. Four eutectic reactions occur at 850 °C and 30.0 at pct Zn (between (Dy) and DyZn), 990 °C and 60.0 at pct Zn (between DyZn and DyZn2), 885 °C and 76.0 at pct Zn (between DyZn3 and Dy3Zn11), and 875 °C and 85.0 at pct Zn (involving Dy13Zn58 and Dy2Zn17). The Dy-rich end presents a catatectic equilibrium; a degenerate invariant effect has been found in the Zn-rich region. The phase equilibria of the Dy-Zn alloys are discussed and compared with those of the other known RE-Zn systems (RE=rare earth metal) in view of the regular change in the relative stabilities of the phases across the lanthanide series

  18. On the effect of stochastic transition in the fundamental diagram of traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Siqueira, Adriano Francisco; Wu, Chen; Qian, Wei-Liang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose an alternative stochastic model for the fundamental diagram of traffic flow with minimal number of parameters. Our approach is based on a mesoscopic viewpoint of the traffic system in terms of the dynamics of vehicle velocity transitions. A key feature of the present approach lies in its stochastic nature which makes it possible to describe not only the flow-concentration relation, the so-called fundamental diagram in traffic engineering, but also its variance -- an important ingredient in the observed data of traffic flow. It is shown that the model can be seen as a derivative of the Boltzmann equation when assuming a discrete velocity spectrum. The latter assumption significantly simplifies the mathematics and therefore, facilitates the study of its physical content through the analytic solutions. The model parameters are then adjusted to reproduce the observed traffic flow on the "23 de maio" highway in the Brazilian city of Sao Paulo, where both the fundamental diagram and its var...

  19. Homotopy theory of modules over diagrams of rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. C. Greenlees

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given a diagram of rings, one may consider the category of modules over them. We are interested in the homotopy theory of categories of this type: given a suitable diagram of model categories ℳ( (as runs through the diagram, we consider the category of diagrams where the object ( at comes from ℳ(. We develop model structures on such categories of diagrams and Quillen adjunctions that relate categories based on different diagram shapes. Under certain conditions, cellularizations (or right Bousfield localizations of these adjunctions induce Quillen equivalences. As an application we show that a cellularization of a category of modules over a diagram of ring spectra (or differential graded rings is Quillen equivalent to modules over the associated inverse limit of the rings. Another application of the general machinery here is given in work by the authors on algebraic models of rational equivariant spectra. Some of this material originally appeared in the preprint “An algebraic model for rational torus-equivariant stable homotopy theory”, arXiv:1101.2511, but has been generalized here.

  20. Bifurcation diagrams in relation to synchronization in chaotic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debabrata Dutta; Sagar Chakraborty

    2010-06-01

    We numerically study some of the three-dimensional dynamical systems which exhibit complete synchronization as well as generalized synchronization to show that these systems can be conveniently partitioned into equivalent classes facilitating the study of bifurcation diagrams within each class. We demonstrate how bifurcation diagrams may be helpful in predicting the nature of the driven system by knowing the bifurcation diagram of driving system and vice versa. The study is extended to include the possible generalized synchronization between elements of two different equivalent classes by taking the Rössler-driven-Lorenz-system as an example.

  1. Does the butterfly diagram indicate asolar flux-transport dynamo?

    CERN Document Server

    Schüssler, M

    2004-01-01

    We address the question whether the properties of the observed latitude-time diagram of sunspot occurence (the butterfly diagram) provide evidence for the operation of a flux-transport dynamo, which explains the migration of the sunspot zones and the period of the solar cycle in terms of a deep equatorward meridional flow. We show that the properties of the butterfly diagram are equally well reproduced by a conventional dynamo model with migrating dynamo waves, but without transport of magnetic flux by a flow. These properties seem to be generic for an oscillatory and migratory field of dipole parity and thus do not permit an observational distinction between different dynamo approaches.

  2. Linkage intensity learning approach with genetic algorithm for causality diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-liang; CHEN Juan-juan

    2007-01-01

    The causality diagram theory, which adopts graphical expression of knowledge and direct intensity of causality, overcomes some shortages in belief network and has evolved into a mixed causality diagram methodology for discrete and continuous variable. But to give linkage intensity of causality diagram is difficult, particularly in many working conditions in which sampling data are limited or noisy. The classic learning algorithm is hard to be adopted. We used genetic algorithm to learn linkage intensity from limited data. The simulation results demonstrate that this algorithm is more suitable than the classic algorithm in the condition of sample shortage such as space shuttle's fault diagnoisis.

  3. Dynamic programming in in uence diagrams with decision circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Shachter, Ross D

    2012-01-01

    Decision circuits perform efficient evaluation of influence diagrams, building on the ad- vances in arithmetic circuits for belief net- work inference [Darwiche, 2003; Bhattachar- jya and Shachter, 2007]. We show how even more compact decision circuits can be con- structed for dynamic programming in influ- ence diagrams with separable value functions and conditionally independent subproblems. Once a decision circuit has been constructed based on the diagram's "global" graphical structure, it can be compiled to exploit "lo- cal" structure for efficient evaluation and sen- sitivity analysis.

  4. Thermodynamic equilibrium diagram of the chlorine-titanium system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ailing; GUO Xiaofei; ZHANG Heming; LIU Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The chemical and electrochemical equilibria of the chlorine-titanium system in the presence of gaseous phase were investigated. Many species, which consisted of chlorine and titanium, were considered. Various thermodynamic equilibria were calculated in the different pressures at different temperatures. The calculated results were shown as log p-1/T and E-T diagrams. These diagrams may be used as important tools for corrosion study and titanium production. The diagrams are also used to thermodynamically determine the existence areas of various species and so on.

  5. Immunosensors in Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justino, Celine I L; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P

    2016-01-01

    The application of simple, cost-effective, rapid, and accurate diagnostic technologies for detection and identification of cardiac and cancer biomarkers has been a central point in the clinical area. Biosensors have been recognized as efficient alternatives for the diagnostics of various diseases due to their specificity and potential for application on real samples. The role of nanotechnology in the construction of immunological biosensors, that is, immunosensors, has contributed to the improvement of sensitivity, since they are based in the affinity between antibody and antigen. Other analytes than biomarkers such as hormones, pathogenic bacteria, and virus have also been detected by immunosensors for clinical point-of-care applications. In this chapter, we first introduced the various types of immunosensors and discussed their applications in clinical diagnostics over the recent 6 years, mainly as point-of-care technologies for the determination of cardiac and cancer biomarkers, hormones, pathogenic bacteria, and virus. The future perspectives of these devices in the field of clinical diagnostics are also evaluated.

  6. Ferrian Ilmenites: Investigating the Magnetic Phase Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagroix, F.

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the magnetic phase changes within the hematite-ilmenite solid solution, yFeTiO3·(1-y)·Fe2O3. Two sets of synthetic ferrian ilmenites of y-values equal to 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 were available for this study. As currently drawn, the magnetic phase diagram, proposed by Ishikawa et al. [1985, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. v.54, 312-325], predicts for increasing y values (0.5

  7. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  8. 76 FR 54787 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY... revised North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram,...

  9. 76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and...

  10. A quality improvement tool - driver diagram: a model of driver diagram to reduce primary caesarean section rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Fathima

    2016-05-01

    Results: Various quality improvement tools can be used in the clinical context. Among them, driver diagram is most widely used at the start of an improvement initiative. The driver diagram in this article shows its applicability in one of the clinical aspects of obstetrics, to reduce primary caesarean section rates. Conclusions: Driver diagram is an easy and a simple tool widely used in quality improvement activities. It is essential to use at the beginning of improvement initiatives. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1339-1342

  11. Unproven diagnostic procedures in IgE-mediated allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, B; Grüber, C

    2004-08-01

    A considerable body of literature on therapeutic aspects of complementary and alternative medicine has been published in recent years, but little is known on diagnostic procedures. This short review lists complementary and alternative diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of allergic diseases and presents an assessment of their usefulness for the daily practice. The review of the literature revealed that neither the determination of specific immunoglobulin G-antibodies in serum, the hair-analysis, the cytotoxic test, kinesiology, iridology, or electrodermal testing represent useful tests for the daily practice. To date, no complementary or alternative diagnostic procedure can be recommended as a meaningful element in the diagnostic work-up of allergic diseases. This is especially true for food allergy: properly performed oral food challenges still represent the gold standard for implementing specific diets in food allergic individuals. Ineffective diagnostic approaches may be costly for the consumer and delay appropriate therapy.

  12. Geometrical approach to the evaluation of multileg Feynman diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydychev, A.I. [Department of Physics, University of Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Delbourgo, R. [Physics Department, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    1998-10-01

    A connection between one-loop N-point Feynman diagrams and certain geometrical quantities in non-Euclidean geometry is discussed. A geometrical way to calculate the corresponding Feynman integrals is considered. (author)

  13. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams - Alaska Region NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. At lower latitudes (0-48 degrees) OPDs are 1 degree in latitude by 2...

  14. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, José A.

    2012-05-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The left side originally related in Gowin's Vee with philosophies, theories, models, laws or regularities now agrees with Toulmin's concepts (language, models as representation techniques and application procedures). Mexican science teachers without experience in science education research used the heuristic diagram to learn about the history of chemistry considering also in the left side two different historical times: past and present. Through a semantic differential scale teachers' attitude to the heuristic diagram was evaluated and its usefulness was demonstrated.

  15. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams - Atlantic Region NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree...

  16. Finite Rank Bratteli Diagrams and their Invariant Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Bezuglyi, Sergey; Medynets, Konstantin; Solomyak, Boris

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study ergodic measures on non-simple Bratteli diagrams of finite rank that are invariant with respect to the cofinal equivalence relation. We describe the structure of finite rank diagrams and prove that every ergodic invariant measure (finite or infinite) is an extension of a finite ergodic measure defined on a simple subdiagram. We find some algebraic criteria in terms of entries of incidence matrices and their norms under which such an extension remains a finite measure. Furthermore, the support of every ergodic measure is explicitly determined. We also give an algebraic condition for a diagram to be uniquely ergodic. It is proved that Vershik maps (not necessarily continuous) on finite rank Bratteli diagrams cannot be strongly mixing and always have zero entropy with respect to any finite ergodic invariant measure. A number of examples illustrating the established results is included.

  17. Official Protraction Diagram and Leasing Map Boundaries - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows official protraction diagram (OPD) and leasing map boundaries covering areas of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) within Federal jurisdiction....

  18. The Hopf algebra approach to Feynman diagram calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Kreimer, Dirk [CNRS-IHES, Le Bois-Marie, 35, Route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Center for Math. Phys., Boston University, MA (United States)

    2005-12-16

    The Hopf algebra structure underlying Feynman diagrams which governs the process of renormalization in perturbative quantum field theory is reviewed. Recent progress is briefly summarized with an emphasis on further directions of research. (topical review)

  19. Partition functions of web diagrams with an O7$^-$-plane

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    We consider the computation of the topological string partition function for 5-brane web diagrams with an O7$^-$-plane. Since upon quantum resolution of the orientifold plane these diagrams become non-toric web diagrams without the orientifold we are able to apply the topological vertex to obtain the Nekrasov partition function of the corresponding 5d theory. We apply this procedure to the case of 5d $SU(N)$ theories with one hypermultiplet in the antisymmetric representation and to the case of 5d pure $USp(2N)$ theories. For these cases we discuss the dictionary between parameters and moduli of the 5d gauge theory and lengths of 5-branes in the web diagram and moreover we perform comparison of the results obtained via application of the topological vertex and the one obtained via localisation techniques, finding in all instances we consider perfect agreement.

  20. Alaska NAD 83 Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. At lower latitudes (0-48 degrees) OPDs are 1 degree in latitude by 2...

  1. Bubble diagram through the Symmetries of Feynman Integrals method

    CERN Document Server

    Kol, Barak

    2016-01-01

    The Symmetries of Feynman Integrals method (SFI) associates a natural Lie group with any diagram, depending only on its topology. The group acts on parameter space and the method determines the integral's dependence within group orbits. This paper analyzes the bubble diagram, namely the 1-loop propagator diagram, through the SFI method. This is the first diagram with external legs to be analyzed within SFI, and the method is generalized to include this case. The set of differential equation is obtained. In order to solve it the set is transformed into partial invariants variables. The equations are integrated to reproduce the integral's value. This value is interpreted in terms of triangle geometry partially inspired by earlier papers.

  2. Phase diagrams of binary mixtures of oppositely charged colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Markus; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2010-09-28

    Phase diagrams of binary mixtures of oppositely charged colloids are calculated theoretically. The proposed mean-field-like formalism interpolates between the limits of a hard-sphere system at high temperatures and the colloidal crystals which minimize Madelung-like energy sums at low temperatures. Comparison with computer simulations of an equimolar mixture of oppositely charged, equally sized spheres indicate semiquantitative accuracy of the proposed formalism. We calculate global phase diagrams of binary mixtures of equally sized spheres with opposite charges and equal charge magnitude in terms of temperature, pressure, and composition. The influence of the screening of the Coulomb interaction upon the topology of the phase diagram is discussed. Insight into the topology of the global phase diagram as a function of the system parameters leads to predictions on the preparation conditions for specific binary colloidal crystals.

  3. Phase diagrams of binary crystalline-crystalline polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkar, Rushikesh A; Kyu, Thein

    2006-08-17

    A thermodynamically self-consistent theory has been developed to establish binary phase diagrams for two-crystalline polymer blends by taking into consideration all interactions including amorphous-amorphous, crystal-amorphous, amorphous-crystal, and crystal-crystal interactions. The present theory basically involves combination of the Flory-Huggins free energy for amorphous-amorphous isotropic mixing and the Landau free energy of polymer solidification (e.g., crystallization) of the crystalline constituents. The self-consistent solution via minimization of the free energy of the mixture affords determination of eutectic, peritectic, and azeotrope phase diagrams involving various coexistence regions such as liquid-liquid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid coexistence regions bound by liquidus and solidus lines. To validate the present theory, the predicted eutectic phase diagrams have been compared with the reported experimental binary phase diagrams of blends such as polyethylene fractions as well as polycaprolactone/trioxane mixtures.

  4. A dialogue about protein crystallization and phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherie, Neer

    2012-07-01

    A lighthearted researcher and a disheartened student discuss the challenges of protein crystallization and how phase diagrams can be used to address these challenges. The student feels a little better afterwards, but many proteins remain uncrystallized.

  5. Lyapunov exponent diagrams of a 4-dimensional Chua system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Cristiane; Albuquerque, Holokx A; Rubinger, Rero M; Rech, Paulo C

    2011-09-01

    We report numerical results on the existence of periodic structures embedded in chaotic and hyperchaotic regions on the Lyapunov exponent diagrams of a 4-dimensional Chua system. The model was obtained from the 3-dimensional Chua system by the introduction of a feedback controller. Both the largest and the second largest Lyapunov exponents were considered in our colorful Lyapunov exponent diagrams, and allowed us to characterize periodic structures and regions of chaos and hyperchaos. The shrimp-shaped periodic structures appear to be malformed on some of Lyapunov exponent diagrams, and they present two different bifurcation scenarios to chaos when passing the boundaries of itself, namely via period-doubling and crisis. Hyperchaos-chaos transition can also be observed on the Lyapunov exponent diagrams for the second largest exponent.

  6. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area.1-4 Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams,4-6 and over recent years a rich variety of approaches has been proposed to add value to force diagrams. Suggestions include strategies for identifying candidate forces,6,7 emphasizing the distinction between "contact" and "noncontact" forces,5,8 and the use of computer-based tutorials.9,10 Instructors have suggested a variety of conventions for constructing force diagrams, including approaches to arrow placement and orientation2,11-13 and proposed notations for locating forces or marking action-reaction force pairs.8,11,14,15

  7. Ontological Modeling of Transformation in Heart Defect Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanath, Venkatesh; Tong, Tuanjie; Dinakarpandian, Deendayal; Lee, Yugyung

    2006-01-01

    The accurate portrayal of a large volume data of variable heart defects is crucial to providing good patient care in pediatric cardiology. Our research aims to span the universe of congenital heart defects by generating illustrative diagrams that enhance data interpretation. To accommodate the range and severity of defects to be represented, we base our diagrams on transformation models applied to a normal heart rather than a static set of defects. These models are based on a domain-specific ...

  8. Computer Simulation of IT-diagrams of Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Smoljan

    2004-01-01

    Computer simulation of austenite decomposition has been investigated. The inversion method of prediction of phase portion in steel based on hardenability curve of Jominy-specimen has been established. The designed method of prediction austenite decomposition has been used in computer simulation of isothermal transformation (IT) diagram of low alloyed steel. IT-diagrams of low alloyed steel can be successfully predicted by proposed method of computer simulation.

  9. New Lagrangian diagnostics for characterizing fluid flow mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Mundel, Ruty; Gildor, Hezi; Rom-Kedar, Vered

    2014-01-01

    A new kind of Lagrangian diagnostic family is proposed and a specific form of it is suggested for characterizing mixing: the maximal extent of a trajectory (MET). It enables the detection of coherent structures and their dynamics in two- (and potentially three-) dimensional unsteady flows in both bounded and open domains. Its computation is much easier than all other Lagrangian diagnostics known to us and provides new insights regarding the mixing properties on both short and long time scales and on both spatial plots and distribution diagrams. We demonstrate its applicability to two dimensional flows using two toy models and a data set of surface currents from the Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Diagnostic management of renal colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, C; Salvador, R; Artigas, J M

    2015-01-01

    Renal colic is a common reason for presentation to emergency departments, and imaging has become fundamental for the diagnosis and clinical management of this condition. Ultrasonography and particularly noncontrast computed tomography have good diagnostic performance in diagnosing renal colic. Radiologic management will depend on the tools available at the center and on the characteristics of the patient. It is essential to use computed tomography techniques that minimize radiation and to use alternatives like ultrasonography in pregnant patients and children. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical and radiologic presentations, and clinical management of ureteral lithiasis.

  11. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  12. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a diagnostic system in response to SBIR Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology that will simultaneously detect and...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1806-04 - On-board diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-board diagnostics. 86.1806-04..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1806-04 On-board diagnostics. This § 86.1806-04... alternative to SAE J1850. (iii) ISO 15765-4.3:2001 “Road Vehicles-Diagnostics on Controller Area Network...

  14. What can we learn by comparing students' diagram-construction processes with the mathematical conceptions inferred from their explanations with completed diagrams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Joanne; Hohensee, Charles; Diamond, Jaime Marie

    2014-09-01

    Despite recent research interest in student-created diagrams, little research has systematically investigated students' diagram- construction processes, meaning the order and manner in which students create markings as they physically generate diagrams. In this study, we characterize the various processes students use to create diagrams that represent a quadratic motion situation involving increasing speed, and we explore how these diagram-construction processes are related to students' conceptions of speed as inferred from their explanations with their completed diagrams. Previous literature suggests contrasting predictions regarding whether or not students' diagram-construction processes are closely related (from our perspective as researchers) to students' inferred conceptions. We see the study as having value for research and practice by raising new questions related to diagram-construction processes, pointing to the potential formative assessment value of attending to diagram-construction processes, and demonstrating the need for the development of theory to explain the relationships identified by this study.

  15. Fuel-motion diagnostics and cineradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1982-09-01

    Nuclear and non-nuclear applications of cineradiography are reviewed, with emphasis on diagnostic instrumentation for in-pile transient-reactor safety testing of nuclear fuel motion. The primary instrument for this purpose has been the fast-neutron hodoscope, which has achieved quantitative monitoring of time, location, mass, and velocity of fuel movement under the difficult conditions associated with transient-reactor experiments. Alternative diagnostic devices that have been developed have not matched the capabilities of the hodoscope. Other applications for the fuel-motion diagnostic apparatus are also evolving, including time-integrated radiography and direct time- and space-resolved fuel-pin power monitoring. Although only two reactors are now actively equipped with high-resolution fuel-motion diagnostic systems, studies and tests have been carried out in and for many other reactors.

  16. A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Allender

    Full Text Available Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity.Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12 built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session.The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity.This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems.

  17. Penguin-like Diagrams from the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chia, Swee-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagra...

  18. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  19. Interesting features in the combined Galex and Sloan color diagrams of solar-like galactic populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Myron A.; Shiao, Bernard [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana, E-mail: myronmeister@gmail.com, E-mail: shiao@stsci.edu, E-mail: bianchi@pha.jhu.edu [Johns Hopkins University, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    of young, chromospherically active stars in the field. We also address a third perplexing color property, namely, the presence of a prominent island of 'UV red' stars surrounded by 'UV blue' stars in the diagnostic (NUV–g), (g – i) color diagram. We find that the subpopulation composing this island is mainly horizontal branch stars. These objects do not exhibit UV excesses and therefore have UV colors typical for their spectral types. This subpopulation appears 'red' in the UV only because the stars' colors are not pulled to the blue by the inclusion of UVe stars.

  20. ISTTOK plasma control with the tomography diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, H.; Caralho, P.J.; Duarte, P.; Pereira, T.; Coelho, R.; Silva, C. [Association Euratom/IST, Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Technology Graduate Institute, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    A real-time plasma position control system is mandatory to achieve long duration (up to 250 ms), Alternating Current (AC) discharges on the ISTTOK tokamak. Such a system has been used for some time supported only on magnetic field diagnostic data. However, this system does not function accurately when the plasma current is low, rendering it inoperative during the plasma current reversal. A tomography diagnostic with 3 pinhole cameras and 8 silicone photodiode channels per camera was installed and customized to supply alternative plasma position to be used for plasma position control. As no filtering is applied, most of the radiation detected is in the visible/near-UV range. This system (i) executes a tomographic reconstruction, (ii) determines the average emissivity position from it, (iii) calculates the shift from the required position and (iv) supplies the vertical field power supply unit with the desired current value, all in less than 100 {mu}s. The horizontal magnetic field power supply unit is expected to be included in the system and will have no impact in the process time. This paper presents the tomography diagnostic architecture together with results of its scientific exploitation in ISTTOK AC discharges, where it has proven to be capable of supplying an accurate plasma position during the current reversal. The use of the tomography diagnostic for plasma position overcomes some limitations of the magnetic diagnostics, but poses challenges of its own such as blindness to plasma current direction. (authors)

  1. Sequential Voronoi diagram calculations using simple chemical reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Ben de Lacy; Adamatzky, Andy

    2012-01-01

    In our recent paper [de Lacy Costello et al. 2010] we described the formation of complex tessellations of the plane arising from the various reactions of metal salts with potassium ferricyanide and ferrocyanide loaded gels. In addition to producing colourful tessellations these reactions are naturally computing generalised Voronoi diagrams of the plane. The reactions reported previously were capable of the calculation of three distinct Voronoi diagrams of the plane. As diffusion coupled with a chemical reaction is responsible for the calculation then this is achieved in parallel. Thus an increase in the complexity of the data input does not utilise additional computational resource. Additional benefits of these chemical reactions is that a permanent record of the Voronoi diagram calculation (in the form of precipitate free bisectors) is achieved, so there is no requirement for further processing to extract the calculation results. Previously it was assumed that the permanence of the results was also a potenti...

  2. Phase diagram for a nano-yttria-stabilized zirconia system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadikiya, Mohammad; Sabarou, Hooman; Chen, Ming;

    2016-01-01

    Due to the attractive properties of nanoparticles because of their effective surface area, they have been studied widely. Nano-yttria-stabilized zirconia (n-YSZ) is a ceramic which has been scrutinized extensively in past years. Because of the different stability behavior of n-YSZ in comparison...... with bulk YSZ, a new phase diagram is needed for the n-YSZ system in order to identify stable phases under various conditions. In this study, a phase diagram for the n-YSZ system was provided to determine phase stability ranges at room temperature with respect to particle size and composition....... By applying the CALPHAD approach, a 3-D phase diagram for the n-YSZ system was established in which the stability range of each individual phase can be predicted based on the particle size, composition, and temperature....

  3. Monte Carlo study of Dirac semimetals phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguta, V. V.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper the phase diagram of Dirac semimetals is studied within a lattice Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, we concentrate on the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking which results in a semimetal-insulator transition. Using numerical simulation, we determine the values of the critical coupling constant of the semimetal-insulator transition for different values of the anisotropy of the Fermi velocity. This measurement allows us to draw a tentative phase diagram for Dirac semimetals. It turns out that within the Dirac model with Coulomb interaction both Na3Bi and Cd3As2 , known experimentally to be Dirac semimetals, would lie deep in the insulating region of the phase diagram. This result probably shows a decisive role of screening of the interelectron interaction in real materials, similar to the situation in graphene.

  4. Sequence Algebra, Sequence Decision Diagrams and Dynamic Fault Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauzy, Antoine B., E-mail: Antoine.Rauzy@lix.polytechnique.f [LIX-CNRS, Computer Science, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2011-07-15

    A large attention has been focused on the Dynamic Fault Trees in the past few years. By adding new gates to static (regular) Fault Trees, Dynamic Fault Trees aim to take into account dependencies among events. Merle et al. proposed recently an algebraic framework to give a formal interpretation to these gates. In this article, we extend Merle et al.'s work by adopting a slightly different perspective. We introduce Sequence Algebras that can be seen as Algebras of Basic Events, representing failures of non-repairable components. We show how to interpret Dynamic Fault Trees within this framework. Finally, we propose a new data structure to encode sets of sequences of Basic Events: Sequence Decision Diagrams. Sequence Decision Diagrams are very much inspired from Minato's Zero-Suppressed Binary Decision Diagrams. We show that all operations of Sequence Algebras can be performed on this data structure.

  5. How to Draw Energy Level Diagrams in Excitonic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X-Y

    2014-07-03

    Emerging photovoltaic devices based on molecular and nanomaterials are mostly excitonic in nature. The initial absorption of a photon in these materials creates an exciton that can subsequently dissociate in each material or at their interfaces to give charge carriers. Any attempt at mechanistic understanding of excitonic solar cells must start with drawing energy level diagrams. This seemingly elementary exercise, which is described in textbooks for inorganic solar cells, has turned out to be a difficult subject in the literature. The problem stems from conceptual confusion of single-particle energy with quasi-particle energy and the misleading practice of mixing the two on the same energy level diagram. Here, I discuss how to draw physically accurate energy diagrams in excitonic solar cells using only single-particle energies (ionization potentials and electron affinities) of both ground and optically excited states. I will briefly discuss current understanding on the electronic energy landscape responsible for efficient charge separation in excitonic solar cells.

  6. UML activity diagrams in requirements specification of logic controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Logic controller specification can be prepared using various techniques. One of them is the wide understandable and user-friendly UML language and its activity diagrams. Using formal methods during the design phase increases the assurance that implemented system meets the project requirements. In the approach we use the model checking technique to formally verify a specification against user-defined behavioral requirements. The properties are usually defined as temporal logic formulas. In the paper we propose to use UML activity diagrams in requirements definition and then to formalize them as temporal logic formulas. As a result, UML activity diagrams can be used both for logic controller specification and for requirements definition, what simplifies the specification and verification process.

  7. Anytime decision making based on unconstrained influence diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luque, Manuel; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2016-01-01

    Unconstrained influence diagrams extend the language of influence diagrams to cope with decision problems in which the order of the decisions is unspecified. Thus, when solving an unconstrained influence diagram we not only look for an optimal policy for each decision, but also for a so-called step......-policy specifying the next decision given the observations made so far. However, due to the complexity of the problem, temporal constraints can force the decision maker to act before the solution algorithm has finished, and, in particular, before an optimal policy for the first decision has been computed....... This paper addresses this problem by proposing an anytime algorithm that at any time provides a qualified recommendation for the first decisions of the problem. The algorithm performs a heuristic-based search in a decision tree representation of the problem. We provide a framework for analyzing...

  8. The spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of Galactic massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, N; Langer, N; Simón-Díaz, S; Schneider, F R N; Izzard, R G

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram narrates their evolutionary history and directly assesses their properties. Placing stars in this diagram however requires the knowledge of their distances and interstellar extinctions, which are often poorly known for Galactic stars. The spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (sHRD) tells similar evolutionary tales, but is independent of distance and extinction measurements. Based on spectroscopically derived effective temperatures and gravities of almost 600 stars, we derive for the first time the observational distribution of Galactic massive stars in the sHRD. While biases and statistical limitations in the data prevent detailed quantitative conclusions at this time, we see several clear qualitative trends. By comparing the observational sHRD with different state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary predictions, we conclude that convective core overshooting may be mass-dependent and, at high mass ($\\geq 15\\,M_\\odot$), stronger than previously thou...

  9. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ``Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.`` The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG&G Idaho, Inc.`s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

  10. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

  11. Zone and double zone diagrams in abstract spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Reem, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A zone diagram of order $n$ is a relatively new concept which was first defined and studied by T. Asano, J. Matousek and T. Tokuyama. It can be interpreted as a state of equilibrium between $n$ mutually hostile kingdoms. Formally, it is a fixed point of a certain mapping. These authors considered the Euclidean plane and proved the existence and uniqueness of zone diagrams there. In the present paper we generalize this concept in various ways. We consider $m$-spaces (a simple generalization of metric spaces) and prove some existence and (non)uniqueness results there. In contrast to previous works, our proofs are based on purely order theoretic arguments. Many explicit examples are given, and some of them illustrate new phenomena which occur in the general case. We also re-interpret zone diagrams as a stable configuration in a certain combinatorial game, and provide an algorithm for finding this configuration in a particular case.

  12. Generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) using Feynman-like diagrams

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-05-19

    Single scattering events recorded in surface seismic data do not fully illuminate the subsurface structure, especially if it is complicated. In such cases, multiple internal scatterings (internal multiples) can help improve the illumination. We devise a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) procedure that maps internal multiple energy to their true location with a relatively mild addition to the computational cost. GIMI theory relies heavily on seismic interferometry, which often involves cumbersome algebra, especially when one is dealing with high-order terms in the perturbation series. To make the derivations, and inference of the results easier, we introduce Feynman-like diagrams to represent different terms of the perturbation series (solution to the Lippman–Schwinger equation). The rules we define for the diagrams allow operations like convolution and cross-correlation in the series to be compressed in diagram form. The application of the theory to a double scattering example demonstrates the power of the method.

  13. Monte-Carlo study of Dirac semimetals phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Braguta, V V; Kotov, A Yu; Nikolaev, A A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the phase diagram of Dirac semimetals is studied within lattice Monte-Carlo simulation. In particular, we concentrate on the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking which results in semimetal/insulator transition. Using numerical simulation we determined the values of the critical coupling constant of the semimetal/insulator transition for different values of the anisotropy of the Fermi velocity. This measurement allowed us to draw tentative phase diagram for Dirac semimetals. It turns out that within the Dirac model with Coulomb interaction both Na$_3$Bi and Cd$_3$As$_2$ known experimentally to be Dirac semimetals would lie deeply in the insulating region of the phase diagram. It probably shows a decisive role of screening of the interelectron interaction in real materials, similar to the situation in graphene.

  14. TOOL PATH PLANNING USING VORONOI DIAGRAM AND THREE STACKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the object-oriented data structure of Vor onoi diagram, the algorithm of the trimmed offset generating and the optimal too l path planning of the pocket machining for multiply connected polygonal domains are studied. The intersection state transition rule is improved in this algorit hm. The intersection is between the trimmed offsets and Voronoi polygon. On this basis, the trimmed offset generating and the optimal tool path planning are mad e with three stacks(I-stack, C-stack and P-stack)in different monotonous pouc hes of Voronoi diagram. At the same time, a merging method of Voronoi diagram an d offsets generating for multiply connected polygonal domains is also presented. The above algorithms have been implemented in NC machining successfully, and th e efficiency is fully verified.

  15. Phase diagram studies on the Na-Mo-O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, T.; Mahendran, K. H.; Kutty, K. V. G.; Mathews, C. K.

    1989-06-01

    The phase diagram of the Na-Mo-O ternary system is of interest in interpreting the behaviour of structural materials in the sodium circuits of fast breeder reactors and sodium-filled heat pipes. Experiments involving heating of sodium oxide with molybdenum metal under vacuum, selective removal of oxygen from polymolybdates by reducing them under hydrogen and confirmation of the coexistence of various phase mixtures were conducted in the temperature range of 673 to 923 K. Phase fields involving molybdenum metal, dioxide of molybdenum and ternary compounds were derived from these results. The ternary phase diagram of the Na-Mo-O system was constructed and isothermal cross sections of the phase diagram are presented.

  16. The limit shape problem for ensembles of Young diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    This book treats ensembles of Young diagrams originating from group-theoretical contexts and investigates what statistical properties are observed there in a large-scale limit. The focus is mainly on analyzing the interesting phenomenon that specific curves appear in the appropriate scaling limit for the profiles of Young diagrams. This problem is regarded as an important origin of recent vital studies on harmonic analysis of huge symmetry structures. As mathematics, an asymptotic theory of representations is developed of the symmetric groups of degree n as n goes to infinity. The framework of rigorous limit theorems (especially the law of large numbers) in probability theory is employed as well as combinatorial analysis of group characters of symmetric groups and applications of Voiculescu's free probability. The central destination here is a clear description of the asymptotic behavior of rescaled profiles of Young diagrams in the Plancherel ensemble from both static and dynamic points of view.

  17. Influence Diagram Use With Respect to Technology Planning and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.; DeHoff, Bryan; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2009-01-01

    Influence diagrams are relatively simple, but powerful, tools for assessing the impact of choices or resource allocations on goals or requirements. They are very general and can be used on a wide range of problems. They can be used for any problem that has defined goals, a set of factors that influence the goals or the other factors, and a set of inputs. Influence diagrams show the relationship among a set of results and the attributes that influence them and the inputs that influence the attributes. If the results are goals or requirements of a program, then the influence diagram can be used to examine how the requirements are affected by changes to technology investment. This paper uses an example to show how to construct and interpret influence diagrams, how to assign weights to the inputs and attributes, how to assign weights to the transfer functions (influences), and how to calculate the resulting influences of the inputs on the results. A study is also presented as an example of how using influence diagrams can help in technology planning and investment. The Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) used this technique to examine the impact of R&D spending on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of a space transportation system. The question addressed was the effect on the recurring and the non-recurring portions of LCC of the proportion of R&D resources spent to impact technology objectives versus the proportion spent to impact operational dependability objectives. The goals, attributes, and the inputs were established. All of the linkages (influences) were determined. The weighting of each of the attributes and each of the linkages was determined. Finally the inputs were varied and the impacts on the LCC determined and are presented. The paper discusses how each of these was accomplished both for credibility and as an example for future studies using influence diagrams for technology planning and investment planning.

  18. Path planning of the robot assembly based on Voronoi diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zhuang; ZHAO Yan-zheng

    2008-01-01

    Based on the concepts of Voronoi diagram that describes geometry information of the robot assembly in C space, the position vector path parameter equation of the assembly movement between the step shaft and two-sided beating bracket was given. And the path planning strategy of the component initiative assembly was put forward as well. Theoretical analysis proves that using the Voronoi diagram to do the geometry reasoning on the assembly space can evaluate the feasibility of the component assembly, and can present the reference posi-tion vector path of the component movement from the initial configuration to the objective configuration, there-fore improves the flexibility of the robot initiative assembly.

  19. Microsoft Visio 2013 business process diagramming and validation

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, David

    2013-01-01

    Microsoft Visio 2013 Business Process Diagramming and Validation provides a comprehensive and practical tutorial including example code and demonstrations for creating validation rules, writing ShapeSheet formulae, and much more.If you are a Microsoft Visio 2013 Professional Edition power user or developer who wants to get to grips with both the essential features of Visio 2013 and the validation rules in this edition, then this book is for you. A working knowledge of Microsoft Visio and optionally .NET for the add-on code is required, though previous knowledge of business process diagramming

  20. An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...... depths. An evaluation of the system based on a total of 1671 experiments has shown that unfavourable snarled chips can be detected with 98% certainty which indeed makes the system a valuable tool in chip breakability tests. Using the system, chip breaking diagrams can be elaborated with a previously...

  1. A Note on Dual MHV Diagrams in N=4 SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Travaglini, Gabriele; Yang, Gang

    2010-01-01

    Recently a reformulation of the MHV diagram method in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in momentum twistor space was presented and was shown to be equivalent to the perturbative expansion of the expectation value of a supersymmetric Wilson loop in momentum twistor space. In this note we present related explicit Feynman rules in dual momentum space, which should have the interpretation of Wilson loop diagrams in dual momentum space. We show that these novel rules are completely equivalent to ordinary spacetime MHV rules and can be naturally viewed as their graph dual representation.

  2. GPU Based Detection of Topological Changes in Voronoi Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bernaschi, Massimo; Sbragaglia, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The Voronoi diagrams are an important tool having theoretical and practical applications in a large number of fields. We present a new procedure, implemented as a set of CUDA kernels, which detects, in a general and efficient way, topological changes in case of dynamic Voronoi diagrams whose generating points move in time. The solution that we provide has been originally developed to identify plastic events during simulations of soft-glassy materials based on a Lattice Boltzmann model with frustrated-short range attractive and mid/long-range repulsive-interactions. Along with the description of our approach, we present also some preliminary physics results.

  3. Intelligent Drug Delivery System Using UML Diagrams Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Qi-feng; LIU Cheng-liang; ZHA Xuan F

    2008-01-01

    A novel intelligent drug delivery system potential for the more effective therapy of the diabeticswas proposed, and the composition of system was analyzed. Based on the design of micro-electro-mechanicalsystems (MEMS), an iterative modeling process was introduced. Unified modeling language (UML) was em-ployed to describe the function requirement, and different diagrams were built up to explore the static model,the dynamic model and the employment model. The mapping analysis of different diagrams can simply verifythe consistency and completeness of the system model.

  4. UML activity diagram swimlanes in logic controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobelny, Michał; Grobelna, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    Logic controller behavior can be specified using various techniques, including UML activity diagrams and control Petri nets. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. Application of both specification types in one project allows to take benefits from both of them. Additional elements of UML models make it possible to divide a specification into some parts, considered from other point of view (logic controller, user or system). The paper introduces an idea to use UML activity diagrams with swimlanes to increase the understandability of design models.

  5. An inverse method to interpret colour-magnitude diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Vergely, J L; Egret, D; Bienaymé, O; Vergely, Jean-Luc; Koeppen, Joachim; Egret, Daniel; Bienayme, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    An inverse method is developed to determine the star formation history, the age-metallicity relation, and the IMF slope from a colour-magnitude diagram. The method is applied to the Hipparcos HR diagram. We found that the thin disk of our Galaxy shows a peak of stellar formation 1.6 Gyr ago. The stars close to the Sun have a solar metallicity and a mean IMF index equal to 3.2. However, the model and the evolutionary tracks do not correctly reproduce the horizontal giant branch.

  6. CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saunders, N

    1998-01-01

    This monograph acts as a benchmark to current achievements in the field of Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry, often called CALPHAD which is an acronym for Computer CALculation of PHAse Diagrams. It also acts as a guide to both the basic background of the subject area and the cutting edge of the topic, combining comprehensive discussions of the underlying physical principles of the CALPHAD method with detailed descriptions of their application to real complex multi-component materials. Approaches which combine both thermodynamic and kinetic models to interpret non-equilibr

  7. Combinational Logic-Level Verification using Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1997-01-01

    Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) is a new data structure for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) that are capable of representing any Boolean circuit in linear space and still maintain many of the desirable properties...... of BDDs. This paper demonstrates that BEDs are well suited for solving the combinational logic-level verification problem which is, given two combinational circuits, to determine whether they implement the same Boolean functions. Based on all combinational circuits in the ISCAS 85 and LGSynth 91...

  8. Equivalence Checking of Combinational Circuits using Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    The combinational logic-level equivalence problem is to determine whether two given combinational circuits implement the same Boolean function. This problem arises in a number of CAD applications, for example when checking the correctness of incremental design changes (performed either manually...... or by a design automation tool).This paper introduces a data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) and two algorithms for transforming a BED into a Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (OBDD). BEDs are capable of representing any Boolean circuit in linear space and can exploit structural...

  9. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  10. Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in Lattice QCD, to all Orders

    CERN Document Server

    Panagopoulos, H

    2000-01-01

    We show how to perform a resummation, to all orders in perturbation theory, of a certain class of gauge invariant tadpole-like diagrams in Lattice QCD. These diagrams are often largely responsible for lattice artifacts. Our resummation leads to an improved perturbative expansion. Applied to a number of cases of interest, e.g. the lattice renormalization of some two-fermion operators, this expansion yields results remarkably close to corresponding nonperturbative estimates. We consider in our study both the Wilson and the clover action for fermions.

  11. Invariants in the Yukawa system’s thermodynamic phase diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhorst, Arno; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    phase diagram deriving from the fact that they have curves (isomorphs) along which structure and dynamics in reduced units are invariant to a good approximation. We show that the Yukawa system has strong virial potential-energy correlations and identify its isomorphs by two different methods. One method...... of a known approximate analytical expression for this line in the temperature-density phase diagram. The paper's results give the first demonstration that the isomorph theory can be applied to systems like dense colloidal suspensions and strongly coupled dusty plasmas...

  12. A Finite Temperature Phase Diagram in Rotating Bosonic Optical Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bei-Bing; WAN Shao-Long

    2011-01-01

    A finite temperature phase diagram of the rotating Bose-Hubbard model, including the crossover between Mott insulator and the normal state, is derived on the frame of the Gutzwiller mean-field theory. In addition, we calculate the critical temperature of superBuid-normal phase transition.%@@ A finite temperature phase diagram of the rotating Bose-Hubbard model, including the crossover between Mort insulator and the normal state, is derived on the frame of the Gutzwiller mean-field theory.In addition, we calculate the critical temperature of superfluid-normal phase transition.

  13. Towards an estimation of water masses formation areas from SMOS-based TS diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockmann, Marlene; Sabia, Roberto; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Donlon, Craig; Font, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    Temperature-Salinity (TS) diagrams emphasize the mutual variability of ocean temperature and salinity values, relating them to the corresponding density. Canonically used in oceanography, they provide a means to characterize and trace ocean water masses. In [1], a first attempt to estimate surface-layer TS diagrams based on satellite measurements has been performed, profiting from the recent availability of spaceborne salinity data. In fact, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS, [2]) and the Aquarius/SAC-D [3] satellite missions allow to study the dynamical patterns of Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) for the first time on a global scale. In [4], given SMOS and Aquarius salinity estimates, and by also using Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA, [5]) effort, experimental satellite-based TS diagrams have been routinely derived for the year 2011. They have been compared with those computed from ARGO-buoys interpolated fields, referring to a customised partition of the global ocean into seven regions, according to the water masses classification of [6]. In [7], moreover, besides using TS diagrams as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the temporal variation of SST and SSS (and their corresponding density) as estimated by satellite measurements, the emphasis was on the interpretation of the geographical deviations with respect to the ARGO baseline (aiming at distinguishing between the SSS retrieval errors and the additional information contained in the satellite data with respect to ARGO). In order to relate these mismatches to identifiable oceanographic structures and processes, additional satellite datasets of ocean currents, evaporation/precipitation fluxes, and wind speed have been super-imposed. Currently, the main focus of the study deals with the exploitation of these TS diagrams as a prognostic tool to derive water masses formation areas. Firstly, following the approach described in [8], the surface

  14. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  15. Mort User's Manual: For use with the Management Oversight and Risk Tree analytical logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.W.; Eicher, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains the User's Manual for MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree), a logic diagram in the form of a work sheet'' that illustrates a long series of interrelated questions. MORT is a comprehensive analytical procedure that provides a disciplined method for determining the causes and contributing factors of major accidents. Alternatively, it serves as a tool to evaluate the quality of an existing system. While similar in many respects to fault tree analysis, MORT is more generalized and presents over 1500 specific elements of an ideal universal'' management program for optimizing environment, safety and health, and other programs. This User's Manual is intended to be used with the MORT diagram dated February 1992.

  16. DIAGRAM SOLVE THE USE OF SIMULINK BLOCK DIAGRAM TO SOLVE MATHEMA THEMATICAL CONTROL EQU MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND CONTROL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ghasem

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the simulink block diagram is used to solve a model consists of a set of ordinary differential and algebraic equations to control the temperature inside a simple stirred tank heater. The flexibility of simulink block diagram gives students a better understanding of the control systems. The simulink also allows solution of mathematical models and easy visualization of the system variables. A polyethylene fluidized bed reactor is considered as an industrial example and the effect of the Proportional, Integral and Derivative control policy is presented for comparison.

  17. On the impact of layout quality to understanding UML diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Practical experience suggests that use and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. However, existing experimental evidence for this effect is been weak and inconclusive. In this paper, we explore two explanations. Firstly, we observe that the visual...

  18. Approximate Solutions of Interactive Dynamic Influence Diagrams Using Model Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Doshi, Prashant; Qiongyu, Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Interactive dynamic influence diagrams (I-DIDs) offer a transparent and semantically clear representation for the sequential decision-making problem over multiple time steps in the presence of other interacting agents. Solving I-DIDs exactly involves knowing the solutions of possible models...

  19. Ternary phase diagram calculations of pentaerythritol-pentaglycerine-neopentylglycol system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A.; Talekar, A. [Chemical and Materials Engineering Department (MS388), University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Chandra, D., E-mail: dchandra@unr.edu [Chemical and Materials Engineering Department (MS388), University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Chien, W.-M. [Chemical and Materials Engineering Department (MS388), University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ternary phase diagrams of polyalcohols are developed using the CALPHAD method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These ternary phase diagrams are thermodynamically calculated for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Orientational disorder is observed in the high temperature (energy storage) phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyalcohols are potential thermal energy storage materials. - Abstract: The pentaerythritol (PE)-pentaglycerine (PG)-neopentylglycol (NPG) ternary system has been thermodynamically assessed using the CALPHAD method and Thermo-Calc software. The PE-PG, PG-NPG, PE-NPG binary systems have also been calculated using CALPHAD on the basis of reported binary experimental data. The solution phases are modeled as substitutional solutions, in which the excess Gibbs energies are expressed by the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu polynomial. The PE-NPG binary phase diagram was modeled using Henrian solution model, and the liquid phase was assumed ideal. The PG-NPG system was optimized using regular and sub-regular solution models and show invariant equilibria at 298 K. The PE-NPG binary system was calculated from room temperature to the liquid phase temperatures. The modeled phase diagrams and the experimental data are in good agreement. A set of self consistent thermodynamic parameters formulating the Gibbs energies of various phases in the PE-PG-NPG ternary system are obtained in the present work. Thermodynamic properties, several vertical and isopleth sections have been calculated and are in good agreement with experimental data.

  20. Energy Diagram for the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Drawing a schematic energy diagram for the decomposition of H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] catalyzed by MnO[subscript 2] through a simple thermometric measurement outlined in this study is intended to integrate students' understanding of thermochemistry and kinetics of chemical reactions. The reaction enthalpy, delta[subscript r]H, is…

  1. Using Tree Diagrams as an Assessment Tool in Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the potential of the tree diagram, a type of graphic organizer, as an assessment tool to measure students' knowledge structures in statistics education. Students' knowledge structures in statistics have not been sufficiently assessed in statistics, despite their importance. This article first presents the rationale and method…

  2. A cut-away diagram of the DELPHI experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    A diagram of the DELPHI end-cap and barrel. Detectors are used in layers to detect different particles produced by the collisions in the beam pipe at the vertex detector. Each detector makes many different measurements, which are read off to a system of computers for analysis.

  3. 6d SCFTs, 5d Dualities and Tao Web Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Hirotaka; Lee, Kimyeong; Yagi, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    We propose 5d descriptions of 6d ${\\cal N}=(1,0)$ superconformal field theories arising from Type IIA brane configurations with an $O8^-$-plane. We T-dualize the brane diagram along a compactification circle and obtain a 5-brane web diagram with two $O7^-$-planes. The gauge theory description of the resulting 5d theory for a given 6d superconformal field theory is not unique, and we argue that the non-uniqueness leads to various dual 5d gauge theories. There are three sources which lead to the 5d dualities. One type comes from either resolving both or one of the two $O7^-$-planes. The two situations give us two different ways to read off a 5d gauge theory from essentially the same web diagram. The second type originates from different distributions of D5 or D7-branes, shifting the gauge group ranks of the 5d quiver theory. The last one comes from the 90 or 45 degree rotations of the 5-brane web diagram, which is a part of the $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ duality of Type IIB string theory, leading to completely differen...

  4. Dynamical phase diagram of Gaussian wave packets in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, H.; Neff, T.; Fleischmann, R.

    2016-03-01

    We study the dynamics of self-trapping in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) loaded in deep optical lattices with Gaussian initial conditions, when the dynamics is well described by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE). In the literature an approximate dynamical phase diagram based on a variational approach was introduced to distinguish different dynamical regimes: diffusion, self-trapping, and moving breathers. However, we find that the actual DNLSE dynamics shows a completely different diagram than the variational prediction. We calculate numerically a detailed dynamical phase diagram accurately describing the different dynamical regimes. It exhibits a complex structure that can readily be tested in current experiments in BECs in optical lattices and in optical waveguide arrays. Moreover, we derive an explicit theoretical estimate for the transition to self-trapping in excellent agreement with our numerical findings, which may be a valuable guide as well for future studies on a quantum dynamical phase diagram based on the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian.

  5. Introducing the Circular Flow Diagram to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraban, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The circular flow of income diagram is a simplified representation of the functioning of a free-market economic system. It illustrates how businesses interact with the other economic participants within the key macroeconomic markets that coordinate the flow of income through the national economy. Therefore, it can provide students of business with…

  6. Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Jun Li; Hong-Fei Liang; Wen Feng

    2010-01-01

    Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities.Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups(or filaments)does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres,and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle,making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator.It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle,demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths,as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram,which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength.

  7. The Phase Shifts of the Paired Wings of Butterfly Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kejun; Feng, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Sunspot groups observed by Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from May 1874 to November 2008 and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from March 1919 to December 1989 are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, making the paired wings just and only keep the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, but a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram should bring about an almost same relative phase shift of hemis...

  8. Equations of State and Phase Diagrams of Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    We present equations of state relating the phases and a three-dimensional phase diagram for ammonia with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data and including recent information on the high-pressure solid phases. This presentation follows similar articles on carbon dioxide and water published in this…

  9. Failure Assessment Diagram for Brazed 304 Stainless Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Yory

    2011-01-01

    Interaction equations were proposed earlier to predict failure in Albemet 162 brazed joints. Present study demonstrates that the same interaction equations can be used for lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in 304 stainless steel joints brazed with silver-based filler metals as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagrams (FAD).

  10. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  11. Phase diagram of a system of hard ellipsoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.; Mulder, B.M.; McTaque, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The phase diagram of a system of hard ellipsoids of revolution was investigated by means of constant-pressure Monte Carlo simulation. Prolate as well as oblate ellipsoids were considered. The results for the isotherms of the system at several different values of the length-to-breadth ratio are prese

  12. Massless scalar Feynman diagrams: five loops and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, David J

    2016-01-01

    Several powerful techniques for evaluating massless scalar Feynman diagrams are developed, viz: the solution of recurrence relations to evaluate diagrams with arbitrary numbers of loops in $n=4-2\\omega$ dimensions; the discovery and use of symmetry properties to restrict and compute Taylor series in $\\omega$; the reduction of triple sums over Chebyshev polynomials to products of Riemann zeta functions; the exploitation of conformal invariance to avoid four-dimensional Racah coefficients. As an example of the power of these techniques we evaluate all of the 216 diagrams, with 5 loops or less, which give finite contributions of order $1/k^2$ or $1/k^4$ to a propagator of momentum $k$ in massless four-dimensional scalar field theories. Remarkably, only 5 basic numbers are encountered: $\\zeta(3)$, $\\zeta(5)$, $\\zeta(7)$, $\\zeta(9)$ and the value of the most symmetrical diagram, which is calculated to 14 significant figures. It is conceivable that these are the only irrationals appearing in 6-loop beta functions. ...

  13. Integrating Mathematics and Science: Ecology and Venn Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Eliza; Munakata, Mika; Evans, Jessica M.; Pizzigoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to integrate mathematics and science have been widely recognized by mathematics and science educators. However, successful integration of these two important school disciplines remains a challenge. In this article, a mathematics and science activity extends the use of Venn diagrams to a life science context and then circles back to a…

  14. Application of Analytic Geometry to Ternary and Quaternary Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Advantages of representing ternary and quaternary composition diagrams by means of rectangular coordinates were pointed out in a previous paper (EJ 288 693). A further advantage of that approach is that analytic geometry, based on rectangular coordinates, is directly applicable as demonstrated by the examples presented. (JN)

  15. Verification of bifurcation diagrams for polynomial-like equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Philip; Li, Yi; Ouyang, Tiancheng

    2008-03-01

    The results of our recent paper [P. Korman, Y. Li, T. Ouyang, Computing the location and the direction of bifurcation, Math. Res. Lett. 12 (2005) 933-944] appear to be sufficient to justify computer-generated bifurcation diagram for any autonomous two-point Dirichlet problem. Here we apply our results to polynomial-like nonlinearities.

  16. Magnetic phase diagrams from non-collinear canonical band theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shallcross, Sam; Nordstrom, L.; Sharma, S.

    2007-01-01

    to construct phase diagrams of magnetic order for the fcc and bcc lattices. Several examples of non-collinear magnetism are seen to be canonical in origin, in particular, that of gamma-Fe. In this approach, the determination of magnetic stability results solely from changes in kinetic energy due to spin...

  17. Zone diagrams in compact subsets of uniformly convex normed spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kopecká, Eva; Reich, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    A zone diagram is a relatively new concept which has emerged in computational geometry and is related to Voronoi diagrams. Formally, it is a fixed point of a certain mapping, and neither its uniqueness nor its existence are obvious in advance. It has been studied by several authors, starting with T. Asano, J. Matousek and T. Tokuyama, who considered the Euclidean plane with singleton sites, and proved the existence and uniqueness of zone diagrams there. In the present paper we prove the existence of zone diagrams with respect to finitely many pairwise disjoint compact sites contained in a compact and convex subset of a uniformly convex normed space. The proof is based on the Schauder fixed point theorem, the Curtis-Schori theorem regarding the Hilbert cube, and on recent results concerning the characterization of Voronoi cells as a collection of line segments and their geometric stability with respect to small changes of the corresponding sites. Along the way we obtain the continuity of the Dom mapping as wel...

  18. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The experiment builds upon basic concepts of NMR spectral analysis, typically taught in the undergraduate…

  19. Investigating the QCD phase diagram with hadron multiplicities at NICA

    CERN Document Server

    Becattini, F

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the potential of the experimental programme at NICA to investigate the QCD phase diagram and particularly the position of the critical line at large baryon-chemical potential with accurate measurements of particle multiplicities. We briefly review the present status and we outline the tasks to be accomplished both theoretically and the experimentally to make hadronic abundances a sensitive probe.

  20. Phase diagram and thermal properties of strong-interaction matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Chen, Jing; Liu, Yu-Xin; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.; Schmidt, Sebastian M.

    2016-05-20

    We introduce a novel method for computing the (μ, T)-dependent pressure in continuum QCD, from which we obtain a complex phase diagram and predictions for thermal properties of the dressed-quark component of the system, providing the in-medium behavior of the related trace anomaly, speed of sound, latent heat, and heat capacity.

  1. Expanding Application of the Wiggers Diagram to Teach Cardiovascular Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jamie R.; Wang, Jiun-Jr

    2014-01-01

    Dr. Carl Wiggers' careful observations have provided a meaningful resource for students to learn how the heart works. Throughout the many years from his initial reports, the Wiggers diagram has been used, in various degrees of complexity, as a fundamental tool for cardiovascular instruction. Often, the various electrical and mechanical plots…

  2. Gravitational Lensing of the CMB: a Feynman Diagram Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, A.E.; Manohar, A.V.; Waalewijn, W.J.; Yadav, A.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a Feynman diagram approach to calculating correlations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in the presence of distortions. As one application, we focus on CMB distortions due to gravitational lensing by Large Scale Structure (LSS). We study the Hu-Okamoto quadratic estimator for extr

  3. Phase diagram of a model of the protein amelogenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaga, Jason; Pemberton, Elizabeth; Gunton, J. D.; Rickman, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the self-assembly and phase behavior of models of colloidal and protein particles with anisotropic interactions. One example of particular interest is amelogenin, an important protein involved in the formation of dental enamel. Amelogenin is primarily hydrophobic with a 25-residue charged C-terminus tail. This protein undergoes a hierarchical assembly process that is crucial to mineral deposition, and experimental work has demonstrated that the deletion of the C-terminus tail prevents this self-assembly. A simplified model of amelogenin has been proposed in which the protein is treated as a hydrophobic sphere, interacting via the Asakura-Oosawa (AO) potential, with a tethered point charge on its surface. In this paper, we examine the effect of the Coulomb interaction between the point charges in altering the phase diagram of the AO model. For the parameter case specific to amelogenin, we find that the previous in vitro experimental and model conditions correspond to the system being near the low-density edge of the metastable region of the phase diagram. Our study illustrates more generally the importance of understanding the phase diagram for proteins, in that the kinetic pathway for self-assembly and the resulting aggregate morphology depends on the location of the initial state in the phase diagram.

  4. Interpreting Evolutionary Diagrams: When Topology and Process Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.; Shade, Courtney K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors argue that some diagrams in biology textbooks and the popular press presented as depicting evolutionary relationships suggest an inappropriate (anagenic) conception of evolutionary history. The goal of this research was to provide baseline data that begin to document how college students conceptualize the evolutionary relationships…

  5. Computer-Generated Phase Diagrams for Binary Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolls, Kenneth R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Computer programs that generate projections of thermodynamic phase surfaces through computer graphics were used to produce diagrams representing properties of water and steam and the pressure-volume-temperature behavior of most of the common equations of state. The program, program options emphasizing thermodynamic features of interest, and…

  6. Investigating the QCD phase diagram with hadron multiplicities at NICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becattini, F. [Universita di Firenze (Italy); INFN, Firenze (Italy); Stock, R. [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We discuss the potential of the experimental programme at NICA to investigate the QCD phase diagram and particularly the position of the critical line at large baryon-chemical potential with accurate measurements of particle multiplicities. We briefly review the present status and we outline the tasks to be accomplished both theoretically and the experimentally to make hadronic abundances a sensitive probe. (orig.)

  7. The fundamental diagram : a macroscopic traffic flow model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H.

    1976-01-01

    In models of traffic flow, the interactions between vehicles are of prime interest, and are based on characteristics of the drivers, road and vehicles. The fundamental diagram is a representation of a relationship on a macroscopic level in the steady state between the quantity of traffic and a chara

  8. Modified Ishikawa Diagram as a Tool for Knowledge-Mapping of Agronomic Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kedaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel method of graphical representation of agronomic practices in crop production. The influence of initial factors, the need to follow a chronology of individual operations and the possibility of using this information for creating a knowledge base are all considered in the method designed. Consequently, alternate methods of knowledge mapping are described: Mind maps, conceptual maps, cognitive maps as well as Ishikawa diagram, which is the main inspiration for our method. These established methods of knowledge mapping have been confronted with the method proposed by our research team using a qualitative survey. Results of this study suggest a high potential of use of our method in agronomy. At the end of this article, we propose additional steps for possible improvements in usability of the method described.

  9. Diagnostics of Nanodusty Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Franko; Groth, Sebastian; Tadsen, Bejamin; Piel, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The diagnostic of nanodusty plasmas, i.e. plasmas including nano-sized dust particles, is a challenging task. For both, the diagnostic of the nanodusty plasma itself, and the in-situ diagnostic of the nanoparticles, no standard diagnostic exist. Nanodust particle size and density can be estimated using light scattering techniques, namely kinetic Mie ellipsometry and extinction measurements. The charge of the nanoparticles can be estimated from the analysis of dust density waves (DDW). Parameters like the electron density, which give information about the plasma itself, may be deduced from the DDW analysis. We present detailed investigations on nanodust in a reactive Argon-Acetylene plasma created in an rf-driven parallel plate reactor at low pressure using the above mentioned portfolio of diagnostic. Funded by DFG under contract SFB TR-24/A2.

  10. Benefit-risk Evaluation for Diagnostics: A Framework (BED-FRAME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Scott R; Pennello, Gene; Pantoja-Galicia, Norberto; Jiang, Hongyu; Hujer, Andrea M; Hujer, Kristine M; Manca, Claudia; Hill, Carol; Jacobs, Michael R; Chen, Liang; Patel, Robin; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Bonomo, Robert A

    2016-09-15

    The medical community needs systematic and pragmatic approaches for evaluating the benefit-risk trade-offs of diagnostics that assist in medical decision making. Benefit-Risk Evaluation of Diagnostics: A Framework (BED-FRAME) is a strategy for pragmatic evaluation of diagnostics designed to supplement traditional approaches. BED-FRAME evaluates diagnostic yield and addresses 2 key issues: (1) that diagnostic yield depends on prevalence, and (2) that different diagnostic errors carry different clinical consequences. As such, evaluating and comparing diagnostics depends on prevalence and the relative importance of potential errors. BED-FRAME provides a tool for communicating the expected clinical impact of diagnostic application and the expected trade-offs of diagnostic alternatives. BED-FRAME is a useful fundamental supplement to the standard analysis of diagnostic studies that will aid in clinical decision making.

  11. Diagram for a small planet. The Production and Ecosystem Possibilities Curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, Alan Day [Economics Department, SUNY-Cortland, Old Main, Room 136A, Cortland, New York, 13045 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    With the development of the GPI there is now an ecological alternative to GDP for measuring a country's economic performance, but we still lack an ecological alternative to the PPC for illustrating a country's economic problem. The diagram suggested here illustrates a country's production and ecosystem possibilities - including climate stability, flood control, carbon sequestration, aquifer recharge, scenery, recreation, biological diversity, and so on. Burning a rainforest to clear the land shifts a country's PPC outward, giving the visual impression of an unmitigated improvement; but such development causes a movement along the country's PEPC, as ecosystem services are transformed into GDP. The slope of the PEPC is the marginal rate of transformation, which equals the ratio of the land's marginal marketable product to its marginal ecosystem product. Changes in technology create substitution and income effects that help explain the enclosure movement and the environmental Kuznets curve. Much as employment of the human resource can be restrained to allow more leisure, development of the natural resource can be restrained to preserve more ecosystem services. Commercial lobbying interests and rivalries for positional goods create distortions that move a country along its PEPC to a materialistic misallocation, with too little conservation. An idealistic misallocation is also possible, with too much preservation of the natural environment. Small is beautiful, up to a point, and that is evident in this diagram. Jacob Viner's [Viner, J., 1937. Studies in the Theory of International Trade. Harper and Brothers, New York] analytical objections to the PPC are revived. (author)

  12. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leng, de Bas; Gijlers, Hannie

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Methods: Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and

  13. Diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography for intracranial pressure in idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, M; Yri, H; Sander, B;

    2013-01-01

    , and 20 healthy controls. Investigations included measurement of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and total retinal thickness (RT), automated visual field testing, and measurement of CSF opening pressure. An OCT elevation diagram was developed as a new diagnostic tool....... The diagnostic ability of OCT as a marker of increased ICP (> 25 cmH(2)O) was investigated using multiple regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: OCT elevation diagrams showed that in 60 % of patients newly diagnosed with IIH and in 10 % of patients with long-term IIH, 50...... optic atrophy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a marker for CSF opening pressure in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 20 newly diagnosed, 21 long-term IIH patients...

  14. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... with conventional medicine or therapy, it is considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of alternative medicine. Acupuncture ...

  15. Statefinder Diagnostic for Born-Infeld Type Dark Energy Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zeng-Guang; LU Hui-Qing

    2008-01-01

    Using a new method called the statefinder diagnostics which can make one dark energy model differ from the others, we investigate the dynamics of Born-Infeld (B-I) type dark energy model. The evolution trajectory of B-I type dark energy with Mexican hat potential model with respect to e-folding time N is shown in the r (s) diagram, When the parameter of noncanonical kinetic energy term η→0 or kinetic energy ψ2→0, the B-I type dark energy (K-essence) model reduces to the quintessence model or the ACDM model corresponding to the statefinder pair {r, s}={1, 0} respectively. As a result, the evolution trajectory of our model in the r (s) diagram in Mexican hat potential is quite different from those of other dark energy models. The current values of parameters Ω,ψ and ω,ψ in this model meet the latest observations WMAP5 well.

  16. Diagnostics in critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SadchikovD.V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research: improvement of quality of diagnostics at the patients in a critical condition in intensive care unit. Material and methods. In total have analyzed 1957 medical cards of the patients who have died in ICU»s. At the first stage studied the factors influencing on diagnostics of critically ill patients (medical cards of 1557 patients; at the second stage investigated influence of the diagnostic standards in ICU»s practice on improvement of quality of diag- nostics of critically ill patients (400 medical cards of the patients who have died. Entry criterions were standards and algorithm of diagnostics. Techniques of research: average bed-day in groups, first-day lethality, quantity of the carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores. Results. Quality of diagnostics depend on carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II score. The conclusion. The laboratory tests and tool methods of research conforming to the standards of diagnostics are necessary for improvement of quality of diagnostics, it is necessary to take into account an altered level of consciousness (Glasgow come score and severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores

  17. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  18. [Vasculitis - diagnostic and therapeutic advances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Albuquerque, R; Machado, Filipa

    2014-01-01

    Vasculitis is characterized by inflammation and necrosis of blood vessels walls. It represents a heterogeneous group of conditions, whose etiopathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. Although uncommon, with an annual incidence of 40-54 cases per 1.000.000 persons, this is an important cause of multiorganic dysfunction and premature mortality. Depending on the affected vessels, it can cause diverse clinical presentations, which makes difficult its recognition. It is therefore a challenge for any clinician. This paper reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic advances of the most common forms of vasculitis, in order to optimize the approach and management of this clinical entity. We have conducted a search in Medline database on articles written in English, published for the last 10 years using the keywords: vasculitis, epidemiology, classification, diagnosis and treatment. To minimize the impact of vasculitis it is essential an early diagnosis, allowing a timely institution of the appropriate treatment. The diagnosis depends on the integration of clinical, laboratory, imaging and histopathologic data. According to the clinical condition, it may be indicated the removal of the offending antigen, the treatment of the underlying disease or specific treatment of the primary vasculitis. The introduction of immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide has revolutionized the prognosis of these patients but, despite its efficacy, it is associated with frequent relapses and significant toxicity. The study of the pathogenesis has been providing more effective and safer diagnostic and therapeutic options, for example B-cell depleting agents, but additional studies are needed to confirm the potential of these alternatives.

  19. New tuberculosis diagnostics and rollout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Early detection and effective treatment are crucial for tuberculosis control, but global case detection rates remain low. The diagnosis of paediatric and extrapulmonary disease is problematic and there are, as yet, no rapid screening tests to assist active case finding in the community. Progress has been made in clinic-based detection tools with the introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF, a nucleic acid amplification test that combines sample processing and analysis in a single instrument to provide a diagnostic result and detection of resistance to rifampicin in under 2 h. Enthusiasm for Xpert MTB/RIF has been high and global rollout has been facilitated by donor agencies. However, concerns remain about access and sustainability due to the high cost and infrastructure requirements. Although more sensitive than smear microscopy, early studies suggest the impact of the new test on case detection rates and patient survival has been limited. Alternative technologies are being developed, including non-sputum-based tests to assist the detection of extrapulmonary disease. Evaluation studies are needed to provide evidence of the impact of the new technologies on patient outcomes. This will enable appropriate placement of new diagnostic products in the healthcare system to support the control and eventual eradication of tuberculosis disease.

  20. Model Checking with Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pierre; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algebra of Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams (EVMDDs) to encode arithmetic functions and its implementation in a model checking library. We provide efficient algorithms for manipulating EVMDDs and review the theoretical time complexity of these algorithms for all basic arithmetic and relational operators. We also demonstrate that the time complexity of the generic recursive algorithm for applying a binary operator on EVMDDs is no worse than that of Multi- Terminal Decision Diagrams. We have implemented a new symbolic model checker with the intention to represent in one formalism the best techniques available at the moment across a spectrum of existing tools. Compared to the CUDD package, our tool is several orders of magnitude faster

  1. Comparative Study on DFD to UML Diagrams Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Jilani, Atif A A; Nadeem, Aamer

    2011-01-01

    Most of legacy systems use nowadays were modeled and documented using structured approach. Expansion of these systems in terms of functionality and maintainability requires shift towards object-oriented documentation and design, which has been widely accepted by the industry. In this paper, we present a survey of the existing Data Flow Diagram (DFD) to Unified Modeling language (UML) transformation techniques. We analyze transformation techniques using a set of parameters, identified in the survey. Based on identified parameters, we present an analysis matrix, which describes the strengths and weaknesses of transformation techniques. It is observed that most of the transformation approaches are rule based, which are incomplete and defined at abstract level that does not cover in depth transformation and automation issues. Transformation approaches are data centric, which focuses on data-store for class diagram generation. Very few of the transformation techniques have been applied on case study as a proof of ...

  2. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION (TTT) DIAGRAMS FOR FUTURE WASTE COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A.; Edwards, T.

    2010-07-08

    As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the waste form stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The T{sub g} of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and in SRNL-STI-2009-00025. Additional phase transformation information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not cover composition regions estimated for future waste processing. To develop TTT diagrams for future waste types, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated two caches of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate glass compositions which would be likely processed with and without Al dissolution. These were used for glass transition temperature measurement and TTT diagram development. The glass transition temperatures of both glasses were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and were recorded to be 448 C and 452 C. Using the previous TTT diagrams as

  3. A Visual Interface Diagram For Mapping Functions In Integrated Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Mattias; Oliver Jespersen, Mikkel; Göhler, Simon Moritz;

    2015-01-01

    of visualizing relations between parts and functions in highly integrated mechanical products. The result is an interface diagram that supports design teams in communication, decision making and design management. The diagram gives the designer an overview of the couplings and dependencies within a product......In product development there is a recognized tendency towards increased functionality for each new product generation. This leads to more integrated and complex products, with the risk of development delays and quality issues as a consequence of lacking overview and transparency. The work described...... in this article has been conducted in collaboration with Novo Nordisk on the insulin injection device FlexTouch® as case product. The FlexTouch® reflects the characteristics of an integrated product with several functions shared between a relatively low number of parts. In this article we present a novel way...

  4. Semantic annotation of requirements for automatic UML class diagram generation

    CERN Document Server

    Amdouni, Soumaya; Bouabid, Sondes

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity of software engineering requires effective methods and tools to support requirements analysts' activities. While much of a company's knowledge can be found in text repositories, current content management systems have limited capabilities for structuring and interpreting documents. In this context, we propose a tool for transforming text documents describing users' requirements to an UML model. The presented tool uses Natural Language Processing (NLP) and semantic rules to generate an UML class diagram. The main contribution of our tool is to provide assistance to designers facilitating the transition from a textual description of user requirements to their UML diagrams based on GATE (General Architecture of Text) by formulating necessary rules that generate new semantic annotations.

  5. Algorithmic calculation of two-loop Feynman diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, J; Fleischer, J; Tarasov, O V

    1995-01-01

    In a recent paper \\cite{ft} a new powerful method to calculate Feynman diagrams was proposed. It consists in setting up a Taylor series expansion in the external momenta squared. The Taylor coefficients are obtained from the original diagram by differentiation and putting the external momenta equal to zero. It was demonstrated that by a certain conformal mapping and subsequent resummation by means of Pad\\'{e} approximants it is possible to obtain high precision numerical values of the Feynman integrals in the whole cut plane. The real problem in this approach is the calculation of the Taylor coefficients for the arbitrary mass case. Since their analytic evaluation by means of CA packages uses enormous CPU and yields very lengthy expressions, we develop an algorithm with the aim to set up a FORTRAN package for their numerical evaluation. This development is guided by the possibilities offered by the formulae manipulating language FORM \\cite{FORM}.

  6. Nonequilibrium phase diagram of the driven-dissipative photonic lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, M; Türeci, H E; Schmidt, S

    2016-01-01

    We study the nonequilibrium steady state of a driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model with Kerr nonlinearity. Employing a mean-field decoupling for the intercavity hopping $J$, we find that the crossover between low and high photon-number states inherited from the single cavity transforms into a gas--liquid bistability at large $J$. We determine the boundary separating smooth and sharp gas--liquid transitions in the $\\Delta$--$J$ diagram, where the detuning $\\Delta$ relates to the liquid-phase photon density, and find that it exhibits a lobe structure strikingly reminiscent of the phase boundary in the equilibrium phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model. Going beyond mean-field, we characterize the bulk phases and the transition region by their compressibility and pair-correlations.

  7. Evaluation of self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, T. L.

    1977-10-01

    The feasibility of calculating Wagner self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams was examined. The self-interaction parameters of 22 non-ferrous liquid solutions were calculated utilizing an equation based on the equality of the chemical potentials of a component in two equilibrium phases. Utilization of the equation requires the evaluation of the first and second derivatives of various liquidus and solidus data at infinite dilution of the solute component. Several numerical methods for evaluating the derivatives of tabular data were examined. A method involving power series curve fitting and subsequent differentiation of the power series was found to be the most suitable for the interaction parameter calculations. Comparison of the calculated self-interaction parameters with values obtained from thermodynamic measurements indicates that the Wagner self-interaction parameter can be successfully calculated from binary phase diagrams.

  8. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. (ed.)

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

  9. Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdikova, M V [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 61077 Kharkov (Ukraine); Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E, E-mail: mike.zhitomirsky@cea.fr [Service de Physique Statistique, Magnetisme et Supraconductivite, UMR-E9001 CEA-INAC/UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2011-04-27

    We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.

  10. One-loop diagrams in the random Euclidean matching problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucibello, Carlo; Parisi, Giorgio; Sicuro, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    The matching problem is a notorious combinatorial optimization problem that has attracted for many years the attention of the statistical physics community. Here we analyze the Euclidean version of the problem, i.e., the optimal matching problem between points randomly distributed on a d -dimensional Euclidean space, where the cost to minimize depends on the points' pairwise distances. Using Mayer's cluster expansion we write a formal expression for the replicated action that is suitable for a saddle point computation. We give the diagrammatic rules for each term of the expansion, and we analyze in detail the one-loop diagrams. A characteristic feature of the theory, when diagrams are perturbatively computed around the mean field part of the action, is the vanishing of the mass at zero momentum. In the non-Euclidean case of uncorrelated costs instead, we predict and numerically verify an anomalous scaling for the sub-sub-leading correction to the asymptotic average cost.

  11. Measurement uncertainty of liquid chromatographic analyses visualized by Ishikawa diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Veronika R

    2003-09-01

    Ishikawa, or cause-and-effect diagrams, help to visualize the parameters that influence a chromatographic analysis. Therefore, they facilitate the set up of the uncertainty budget of the analysis, which can then be expressed in mathematical form. If the uncertainty is calculated as the Gaussian sum of all uncertainty parameters, it is necessary to quantitate them all, a task that is usually not practical. The other possible approach is to use the intermediate precision as a base for the uncertainty calculation. In this case, it is at least necessary to consider the uncertainty of the purity of the reference material in addition to the precision data. The Ishikawa diagram is then very simple, and so is the uncertainty calculation. This advantage is given by the loss of information about the parameters that influence the measurement uncertainty.

  12. Phase diagram of a bulk 1d lattice Coulomb gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Démery, V.; Monsarrat, R.; Dean, D. S.; Podgornik, R.

    2016-01-01

    The exact solution, via transfer matrix, of the simple one-dimensional lattice Coulomb gas (1d LCG) model can reproduce peculiar features of ionic liquid capacitors, such as overscreening, layering, and camel- and bell-shaped capacitance curves. Using the same transfer matrix method, we now compute the bulk properties of the 1d LCG in the constant voltage ensemble. We unveil a phase diagram with rich structure exhibiting low-density disordered and high-density ordered phases, separated by a first-order phase transition at low temperature; the solid state at full packing can be ordered or not, depending on the temperature. This phase diagram, which is strikingly similar to its three-dimensional counterpart, also sheds light on the behaviour of the confined system.

  13. Improving The Decisional Process By Using UML Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udrica Mioara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the world has moved from predominantly industrial society to information society, governed by a new set of rules, which allows access to digital technologies, processing, storage and transmission of information. Organizations include in their decisional process Business Intelligence components, which help the decision-makers to establish the conditions of financial equilibrium, to highlight weaknesses and strengths, to make predictions.Particularly, Unified Modelling Language (UML, as a formal and standardized language, allows the control of the system’s complexity, shows different but complementary views of the organization and ensures independence towards the implementation language and the domain of application. This article aims to show the way UML diagrams are used as support in a decisional process for a hotel company. UML diagrams designed help decisionmakers to analysis and discover the causes, to design and simulation of possible scenarios, to implement and measuring the results.

  14. Formal verification of Simulink/Stateflow diagrams a deductive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Naijun; Zhao, Hengjun

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a state-of-the-art technique for formal verification of continuous-time Simulink/Stateflow diagrams, featuring an expressive hybrid system modelling language, a powerful specification logic and deduction-based verification approach, and some impressive, realistic case studies. Readers will learn the HCSP/HHL-based deductive method and the use of corresponding tools for formal verification of Simulink/Stateflow diagrams. They will also gain some basic ideas about fundamental elements of formal methods such as formal syntax and semantics, and especially the common techniques applied in formal modelling and verification of hybrid systems. By investigating the successful case studies, readers will realize how to apply the pure theory and techniques to real applications, and hopefully will be inspired to start to use the proposed approach, or even develop their own formal methods in their future work.

  15. Phase Diagram for Ashkin-Teller Model on Bethe Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Jian-Xin; YANG Zhan-Ru

    2005-01-01

    Using the recursion method, we study the phase transitions of the Ashkin-Teller model on the Bethe lattice,restricting ourselves to the case of ferromagnetic interactions. The isotropic Ashkin-Teller model and the anisotropic one are respectively investigated, and exact expressions for the free energy and the magnetization are obtained. It can be found that each of the three varieties of phase diagrams, for the anisotropic Ashkin-Teller model, consists of four phases, I.e., the fully disordered paramagnetic phase Para, the fully ordered ferromagnetic phase Ferro, and two partially ordered ferromagnetic phases and , while the phase diagram, for the isotropic Ashkin-Teller model,contains three phases, I.e., the fully disordered paramagnetic phase Para, the fully ordered ferromagnetic phase Baxter Phase, and the partially ordered ferromagnetic phase .

  16. Phase diagram of hot QCD in an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Eduardo; Mizher, Ana Julia [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68528, Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 RJ (Brazil); Chernodub, Maxim [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique - LMPT, CNRS UMR 6083 Tours, Federation Denis Poisson, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite Francois Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2010-07-01

    The structure of the phase diagram for strong interactions becomes richer in the presence of a magnetic background, which enters as a new control parameter for the thermodynamics, and can exhibit new phases and interesting features. Motivated by the relevance of this physical setting for current and future high-energy heavy ion collision experiments and for the cosmological QCD transitions, we use the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to Polyakov loops as an effective theory to investigate how the chiral and the deconfining transitions are affected, and present a general picture for the temperature-magnetic field phase diagram. We compute and discuss each contribution to the effective potential for the approximate order parameters, and uncover new phenomena such as the para-magnetically-induced breaking of Z(3). (authors)

  17. Phase Diagrams of Electrostatically Self-Assembled Amphiplexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Stanic; M Mancuso; W Wong; E DiMasi; H Strey

    2011-12-31

    We present the phase diagrams of electrostatically self-assembled amphiplexes (ESA) comprised of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl), dodecane, pentanol, and water at three different NaCl salt concentrations: 100, 300, and 500 mM. This is the first report of phase diagrams for these quinary complexes. Adding a cosurfactant, we were able to swell the unit cell size of all long-range ordered phases (lamellar, hexagonal, Pm3n, Ia3d) by almost a factor of 2. The added advantage of tuning the unit cell size makes such complexes (especially the bicontinuous phases) attractive for applications in bioseparation, drug delivery, and possibly in oil recovery.

  18. Phase diagram of Mo at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M

    2008-10-01

    We report values of the Poisson Ratios for shock compressed Mo, calculated from the sound speed measurements, which provide evidence that the 210 GPa ({approx}4100K) transition cannot be a bcc-hcp transition, as originally proposed. Instead, we find the transition is from the bcc to a noncrystalline phase. For pressures above 210 GPa, the Poisson Ratio increases steadily with increasing temperature, approaching the liquid value of 0.5 at 390 GPa({approx}10,000K), suggesting the presence of a noncrystalline solid-liquid mixture. Free energy model calculations were used to show that the low melting slope of Mo, and the phase diagram, can be explained by the presence of local liquid structures. A new phase diagram is proposed for Mo that is constrained by the experimental evidence.

  19. Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdikova, M V; Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E

    2011-04-27

    We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.

  20. Complete Phase Diagrams for a Holographic Superconductor/Insulator System

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Gary T

    2010-01-01

    The gravitational dual of an insulator/superconductor transition driven by increasing the chemical potential has recently been constructed. However, the system was studied in a probe limit and only a part of the phase diagram was obtained. We include the backreaction and construct the complete phase diagram for this system. For fixed chemical potential there are typically two phase transitions as the temperature is lowered. Surprisingly, for a certain range of parameters, the system first becomes a superconductor and then becomes an insulator as the temperature approaches zero. As a byproduct of our analysis, we also construct the gravitational dual of a Bose-Einstein condensate of glueballs in a confining gauge theory.

  1. Transmissibility-Based Operational Modal Analysis: Enhanced Stabilisation Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert De Sitter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has been shown that also transmissibilities can be used to identify the modal parameters. This approach has several advantages: because of the deterministic character of the transmissibility functions, the estimated parameters are more accurate than the results obtained with the power spectra based operational modal analysis techniques. Another advantage is that the transmissibility functions do not depend on the colouring of the unknown forces. A disadvantage of the transmissibility based operational modal analysis techniques is that non-physical modes show up in the stabilisation diagrams. In this contribution it will first be shown that those non-physical modes will show up when traditional stabilisation diagrams are used. In a second step, a new approach of selecting the physical modes out of a set of estimated modes will be discussed and the new approach will be validated using data generated with an acoustical Finite Element Model. Finally, the approach will be validated using real acoustical data.

  2. Multiple nonergodic disordered states in Laponite suspensions: A phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari-Farouji, S.; Tanaka, Hajime; Wegdam, G. H.; Bonn, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    We study the time evolution of different Laponite suspensions from a low-viscosity ergodic state to a viscoelastic nonergodic state over a wide range of volume fractions and salt contents. We find that the evolution of nonergodicity parameter (Debye-Waller factor) splits into two branches for all the samples, which correspond to two distinct dynamically arrested states. At moderately high salt concentrations, on the other hand, a third nonergodic state appears that is different from the above two nonergodic states. Measurement of the conductivity of Laponite solutions in pure water shows that the contribution of counterions in the ionic strength is considerable and their role should be taken into account in interpretations of aging dynamics and the phase diagram. Based on these data and available data in the literature, we propose a (nonequilibrium) phase diagram for Laponite suspensions.

  3. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. (ed.)

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  4. Collapsing cycloidal structures in the magnetic phase diagram of erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jehan, D.A.; McMorrow, D.F.; Simpson, J.A.;

    1994-01-01

    how it distorts as the field is increased. In low fields, there is a spin reorientation, so that the plane of the cycloid becomes perpendicular to the applied field, while in larger fields, the cycloid collapses through a series of fanlike structures. At lower temperatures, as the field is increased......The magnetic structure of Er with a magnetic field applied in the hexagonal basal plane has been studied using a combination of experimental techniques and mean-field modeling. From neutron-scattering and magnetization measurements, phase diagrams are constructed. At temperatures above...... approximately 20 K, the application of a field is found to favor cycloidal structures with modulation wave vectors of q(c) = (6/23)c*, (4/15)c*, and (2/7)c*. For fields above almost-equal-to 40 kOe, the (2/7) structure dominates the phase diagram. From a detailed study of this most stable cycloid, we determine...

  5. Locating air quality monitoring station using wind impact area diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, K V; Verma, P; Devotta, S

    2008-10-01

    In this study a new methodology is suggested to approximate the impact area downwind of an air pollution source, where air quality monitoring can be carried out to capture the maximum pollutant concentration. Hourly wind speed for a given month is grouped in to different wind speed ranges and the distance of pollutant travel is approximated from the average wind speed of that wind speed range. Since change in wind direction causes the impact distance to rotate, its rotation is approximated by the SD of wind direction change. Using this approach, area or region down wind of a source is determined and plotted. The pattern of monthly change of wind is better represented by the new type of diagram as compared to the wind rose diagram.

  6. Gravitational lensing of the CMB: A Feynman diagram approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Waalewijn, Wouter J. [Nikhef, Theory Group, Science Park 105, 1098 XG, Amsterdam (Netherlands); ITFA, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1018 XE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yadav, Amit P.S., E-mail: ayadav@physics.ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-09-07

    We develop a Feynman diagram approach to calculating correlations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in the presence of distortions. As one application, we focus on CMB distortions due to gravitational lensing by Large Scale Structure (LSS). We study the Hu–Okamoto quadratic estimator for extracting lensing from the CMB and derive the noise of the estimator up to O(ϕ{sup 4}) in the lensing potential ϕ. By identifying the diagrams responsible for the previously noted large O(ϕ{sup 4}) term, we conclude that the lensing expansion does not break down. The convergence can be significantly improved by a reorganization of the ϕ expansion. Our approach makes it simple to obtain expressions for quadratic estimators based on any CMB channel, including many previously unexplored cases. We briefly discuss other applications to cosmology of this diagrammatic approach, such as distortions of the CMB due to patchy reionization, or due to Faraday rotation from primordial axion fields/.

  7. Gravitational lensing of the CMB: A Feynman diagram approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Jenkins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop a Feynman diagram approach to calculating correlations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB in the presence of distortions. As one application, we focus on CMB distortions due to gravitational lensing by Large Scale Structure (LSS. We study the Hu–Okamoto quadratic estimator for extracting lensing from the CMB and derive the noise of the estimator up to O(ϕ4 in the lensing potential ϕ. By identifying the diagrams responsible for the previously noted large O(ϕ4 term, we conclude that the lensing expansion does not break down. The convergence can be significantly improved by a reorganization of the ϕ expansion. Our approach makes it simple to obtain expressions for quadratic estimators based on any CMB channel, including many previously unexplored cases. We briefly discuss other applications to cosmology of this diagrammatic approach, such as distortions of the CMB due to patchy reionization, or due to Faraday rotation from primordial axion fields.

  8. On the Regularization of On-Shell Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Benincasa, Paolo; Gordo, David

    2014-01-01

    In this letter we discuss a regularization scheme for the integration of generic on-shell forms. The basic idea is to extend the three-particle amplitudes to the space of unphysical helicities keeping the dimension of the related coupling constant fixed, and construct on-shell forms out of them. We briefly discuss the analytic structure of the extended on-shell diagrams, both at tree level and one loop. Furthermore, we propose an integration contour which, applied to the relevant on-shell forms, allows to extract the four-particle amplitudes in Lorentz signature at one loop. With this contour at hand, we explicitly apply our procedure to this case obtaining the IR divergences as poles in the deformation parameter space, as well as the correct functional form for the finite term. This procedure provides a natural regularization for generic on-shell diagrams.

  9. "Phase diagrams of Lecithin-based microemulsions containing Sodium Salicylate "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Aboofazeli R

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial phase diagrams were constructed at 25°C to investigate the phase behaviour of systems composed of soybean lecithin, water, sodium salicylate, alcohol and isopropyl myristate. The lecithins used were the commercially available soy bean lecithins, namely E200 and E170 (phosphatidyl choline purities greater than 95% and 68-72% respectively. The cosurfactants employed were n-propanol, 2-propanol and n-butanol and these were used at lecithin/alcohol weight ratios (Km of 1:1 and 1.5:1. At a given Km, the aqueous phase consisted of a 2% w/w sodium salicylate solution. Phase diagrams showed the area of existence of a stable isotropic region along the surfactant/oil axis (i.e., reverse microemulsion area. The extension of the microemulsion domain was influenced by the purity of surfactant, the lecithin/alcohol weight ratios and the kind of the alcohol.

  10. Phase diagrams of nanoalloys: influence of size and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, F; Maras, E; Legrand, B

    2015-11-14

    The size dependence of the phase diagram of nanoalloys with a tendency to phase separate is investigated. As the critical temperature may depend on both the size and the morphology of the nanoparticles, we consider nanowires with different cross-sections and also nanotubes with different circumferences. The variation of the critical temperature with the length of all these nanoparticles is systematically studied using Monte Carlo simulations based on an Ising model. A non-monotonic variation of the critical temperature is observed as a function of the length. The maximal value of the critical temperature is reached when the length and the circumference of the nanoparticles are similar. The phase diagrams obtained within two thermodynamic ensembles (the canonical ensemble and the pseudo grand canonical ensemble) are compared and discussed in terms of the behaviour of a single particle or an assembly of nanoparticles in mutual equilibrium with each other.

  11. Microcanonical Phase Diagram of the BEG and Ising Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李粮生; 郑宁; 史庆藩

    2012-01-01

    The density of states of long-range Blume-Emery-Criffiths (BEG) and short-range lsing models are obtained by using Wang-Landau sampling with adaptive windows in energy and magnetization space. With accurate density of states, we are able to calculate the mierocanonical specific heat of fixed magnetization introduced by Kastner et al. in the regions of positive and negative temperature. The microcanonical phase diagram of the Ising model shows a continuous phase transition at a negative temperature in energy and magnetization plane. However the phase diagram of the long-range model constructed by peaks of the microeanonieal specific heat looks obviously different from the Ising chart.

  12. Size Dependent Phase Diagrams of Nickel-Carbon Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, Y; Zappelli, A; Amara, H; Ducastelle, F; Bichara, C

    2015-11-13

    The carbon rich phase diagrams of nickel-carbon nanoparticles, relevant to catalysis and catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes, are calculated for system sizes up to about 3 nm (807 Ni atoms). A tight binding model for interatomic interactions drives the grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations used to locate solid, core shell and liquid stability domains, as a function of size, temperature, and carbon chemical potential or concentration. Melting is favored by carbon incorporation from the nanoparticle surface, resulting in a strong relative lowering of the eutectic temperature and a phase diagram topology different from the bulk one. This should lead to a better understanding of the nanotube growth mechanisms.

  13. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Phase Diagrams: Fifty Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Avraham; Kröger, Martin; Winnik, Françoise M

    2015-12-14

    In 1968, Heskins and Guillet published the first systematic study of the phase diagram of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), at the time a "young polymer" first synthesized in 1956. Since then, PNIPAM became the leading member of the growing families of thermoresponsive polymers and of stimuli-responsive, "smart" polymers in general. Its thermal response is unanimously attributed to its phase behavior. Yet, in spite of 50 years of research, a coherent quantitative picture remains elusive. In this Review we survey the reported phase diagrams, discuss the differences and comment on theoretical ideas regarding their possible origins. We aim to alert the PNIPAM community to open questions in this reputably mature domain.

  14. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories will develop a Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS) in response to Topic X10.01 Reusable...

  15. Rotorcraft Diagnostics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR program, Ridgetop will introduce the first low-cost, low-power, and lightweight data monitoring solution for rotorcraft diagnostics. The solution is...

  16. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  17. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are offered to all pregnant women. What is amniocentesis? Amniocentesis is a diagnostic test. It usually is done ... a very small chance of pregnancy loss with amniocentesis. Leakage of amniotic fluid and slight bleeding can ...

  18. Stability field diagrams for Ln–O–Cl systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K T JACOB; APOORVA DIXIT; ARNEET RAJPUT

    2016-06-01

    Isothermal stability field diagrams for Ln−O−Cl systems (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) are developed by taking partial pressures of volatile components oxygen and chlorine as variables. Thermodynamic properties of all the oxides and trichlorides (LnCl$_3$) are available in the literature. However, data for oxychlorides (LnOCl) and dichlorides (LnCl$_2$) are limited. Based on systematic trends in stability of these compounds across the lanthanide series, missing data are estimated to construct the diagrams for 13 Ln−O−Cl systems at 1000 K. All the lanthanide elements form stable LnCl$_3$ and LnOCl. Dichlorides of Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Tm and Yb are stable. For systems in which dichlorides are unstable (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er), the LnOCl is in equilibrium with the metal (Ln) and the stability field of LnOCl is sandwiched between those of oxides and trichlorides. Stability field diagrams of lanthanide systems forming stable LnCl$_2$ are of two kinds: in the first kind (Ln = Nd,Dy) the stability fields of Ln and LnOCl are in contact and the stability field of LnOCl separates the fields of chlorides and oxides. In diagrams of the second kind (Ln = Sm, Eu, Tm, Yb) there is a direct equilibrium between the oxides and dichlorides at low partial pressures of oxygen and chlorine. There is no contact between the stability fields of Ln and LnOCl; the stability field of LnOCl intervenes between the oxide and chloride phases only at higher partial pressures.

  19. Precambrian plate tectonic setting of Africa from multidimensional discrimination diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeet K.

    2017-01-01

    New multi-dimensional discrimination diagrams have been used to identify plate tectonic setting of Precambrian terrains. For this work, nine sets of new discriminant-function based multi-dimensional discrimination diagrams were applied for thirteen case studies of Precambrian basic, intermediate and acid magmas from Africa to highlight the application of these diagrams and probability calculations. The applications of these diagrams indicated the following results: For northern Africa: to Wadi Ghadir ophiolite, Egypt indicated an arc setting for Neoproterozoic (746 ± 19 Ma). For South Africa: Zandspruit greenstone and Bulai pluton showed a collision and a transitional continental arc to collision setting at about Mesoarchaean and Neoarchaean (3114 ± 2.3 Ma and 2610-2577 Ma); Mesoproterozoic (1109 ± 0.6 Ma and 1100 Ma) ages for Espungabera and Umkondo sills were consistent with an island arc setting. For eastern Africa, Iramba-Sekenke greenstone belt and Suguti area, Tanzania showed an arc setting for Neoarchaean (2742 ± 27 Ma and 2755 ± 1 Ma). Chila, Bulbul-Kenticha domain, and Werri area indicated a continental arc setting at about Neoproterozoic (800-789 Ma); For western Africa, Sangmelima region and Ebolowa area, southern Cameroon indicated a collision and continental arc setting, respectively for Neoarchaean (∼2800-2900 Ma and 2687-2666 Ma); Finally, Paleoproterozoic (2232-2169 Ma) for Birimian supergroup, southern Ghana a continental arc setting; and Paleoproterozoic (2123-2108 Ma) for Katiola-Marabadiassa, Côte d'Ivoire a transitional continental arc to collision setting. Although there were some inconsistencies in the inferences, most cases showed consistent results of tectonic settings. These inconsistencies may be related to mixed ages, magma mixing, crustal contamination, degree of mantle melting, and mantle versus crustal origin.

  20. MEASURING C PROGRAM COVERAGE BASED ON BINARY DECISION DIAGRAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Liang; Xu Baowen; Chen Lin

    2005-01-01

    Test coverage analysis is a structural testing technique, which helps to evaluate the sufficiency of software testing. This letter presents two test generation algorithms based on binary decision diagrams to produce tests for the Multiple-Condition Criterion(M-CC) and the Modified Condition/Decision Criterion(MC/DC), and describes the design of the C program Coverage Measurement Tool (CCMT), which can record dynamic behaviors of C programs and quantify test coverage.

  1. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Levinson, David M

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000-2001 and 2010-2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon.

  2. Approximate Compilation of Constraints into Multivalued Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzic, Tarik; Hooker, John N.; O’Sullivan, Barry;

    2008-01-01

    We present an incremental refinement algorithm for approximate compilation of constraint satisfaction models into multivalued decision diagrams (MDDs). The algorithm uses a vertex splitting operation that relies on the detection of equivalent paths in the MDD. Although the algorithm is quite...... by replacing the equivalence test with a constraint-specific measure of distance. We demonstrate the value of the approach for approximate and exact MDD compilation and evaluate its benefits in one of the main MDD application domains, interactive configuration....

  3. Phase diagram of strong interactions in an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Mizher, Ana Julia; Chernodub, M N

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the phase diagram of strong interactions in the presence of a magnetic field within the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop, and show that the chiral and deconfinement lines can split. We also study the behavior of the chiral condensate in this magnetic environment and find an approximately linear dependence on the external field, in accordance with lattice data.

  4. Sign-posting the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourendu Gupta

    2012-10-01

    The good agreement between lattice predictions and data for the shape of the distribution of event-by-event fluctuations of the baryon number is discussed. Such comparisons can give fine probes of thermalization, and can be used to provide a direct determination of the cross-over temperature c QCD. The logic of these comparisons and the systematics involved are discussed. The same methods can be used to further explore the phase diagram.

  5. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  6. Global phase diagram of a dirty Weyl semimetal

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bitan; Juricic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We here theoretically study the global phase diagram of a three-dimensional dirty Weyl system. The generalized Harris criterion, augmented by a perturbative renormalization-group (RG) analysis shows that weak disorder is an irrelevant perturbation at the Weyl semimetal(WSM)-insulator quantum critical point (QCP). But, a metallic phase sets in through a quantum phase transition (QPT) at strong disorder across a multicritical point, characterized by the correlation length exponent $\

  7. A Hierarchical Sensor Network Based on Voronoi Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Rui-qiang; ZHAO Jian-li; SUN Qiu-xia; WANG Guang-xing

    2006-01-01

    A hierarchical sensor network is proposed which places the sensing and routing capacity at different layer nodes.It thus simplifies the hardware design and reduces cost. Adopting Voronoi diagram in the partition of backbone network,a mathematical model of data aggregation based on hierarchical architecture is given. Simulation shows that the number of transmission data packages is sharply cut down in the network, thus reducing the needs in the bandwidth and energy resources and is thus well adapted to sensor networks.

  8. Some remarks on non-planar Feynman diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielas, Krzysztof; Dubovyk, Ievgen; Gluza, Janusz [Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, Tord [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Two criteria for planarity of a Feynman diagram upon its propagators (momentum ows) are presented. Instructive Mathematica programs that solve the problem and examples are provided. A simple geometric argument is used to show that while one can planarize non-planar graphs by embedding them on higher-genus surfaces (in the example it is a torus), there is still a problem with defining appropriate dual variables since the corresponding faces of the graph are absorbed by torus generators.

  9. jQuery.Feyn: Drawing Feynman Diagrams with SVG

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zan

    2013-01-01

    jQuery.Feyn is a tool for drawing Feynman diagrams with Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), written in JavaScript and runs in modern browsers. It features predefined propagator styles, vertex types, and symbols. Math formulae can be included as external graphics, or typeset with TeX through MathJax library. The generated SVG code can be easily modified to make fine adjustments and conveniently transferred using copy-and-paste.

  10. Causal diagrams, the placebo effect, and the expectation effect

    OpenAIRE

    Shahar E; Shahar DJ

    2013-01-01

    Eyal Shahar,1 Doron J Shahar2 1Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, 2Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Using causal diagrams, a formal research methodology, we analyzed several definitions of placebo and the placebo effect. We conclude that placebo is an ambiguous, redundant term and that the so-called placebo effect conceals far more interesting effects that are attributed t...

  11. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  12. The Effects of Stereoscopic Projection on the Understanding by Nigerian Schoolchildren of Spatial Relationships in Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J. R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discussion of stereoscopic and planoscopic diagrams as they relate to the level of understanding in depth relationships. Findings indicate a significantly lower understanding in stereoscopic diagrams when compared to a real three-dimensional situation. (JEG)

  13. Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-PSupernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, Peter; Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Howell, D. Andrew; Astier, Pierre; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Conley, Alex; Fabbro, Sebastien; Fouchez, Dominique; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas

    2006-03-20

    We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift upto z {approx}0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy&Pinto (2002) and exploits a correlation between the absolute brightness of SNeII-P and the expansion velocities derived from the minimum of the Fe II 516.9 nm P-Cygni feature observed during the plateau phases. We present three refinements to this method which significantly improve the practicality of measuring the distances of SNe II-P at cosmologically interesting redshifts. These are an extinction correction measurement based on the V-I colors at day 50, across-correlation measurement for the expansion velocity and the ability to extrapolate such velocities accurately over almost the entire plateau phase. We apply this revised method to our dataset of high-redshift SNe II-P and find that the resulting Hubble diagram has a scatter of only 0.26 magnitudes, thus demonstrating the feasibility of measuring the expansion history, with present facilities, using a method independent of that based upon supernovae of Type Ia.

  14. Bow-tie diagrams for risk management in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culwick, M D; Merry, A F; Clarke, D M; Taraporewalla, K J; Gibbs, N M

    2016-11-01

    Bow-tie analysis is a risk analysis and management tool that has been readily adopted into routine practice in many high reliability industries such as engineering, aviation and emergency services. However, it has received little exposure so far in healthcare. Nevertheless, its simplicity, versatility, and pictorial display may have benefits for the analysis of a range of healthcare risks, including complex and multiple risks and their interactions. Bow-tie diagrams are a combination of a fault tree and an event tree, which when combined take the shape of a bow tie. Central to bow-tie methodology is the concept of an undesired or 'Top Event', which occurs if a hazard progresses past all prevention controls. Top Events may also occasionally occur idiosyncratically. Irrespective of the cause of a Top Event, mitigation and recovery controls may influence the outcome. Hence the relationship of hazard to outcome can be viewed in one diagram along with possible causal sequences or accident trajectories. Potential uses for bow-tie diagrams in anaesthesia risk management include improved understanding of anaesthesia hazards and risks, pre-emptive identification of absent or inadequate hazard controls, investigation of clinical incidents, teaching anaesthesia risk management, and demonstrating risk management strategies to third parties when required.

  15. Experimental determination of the Ta–Ge phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo Pinto da Silva, Antonio Augusto, E-mail: aaaps@ppgem.eel.usp.br [EEL/USP – Escola de Engenharia de Lorena (EEL), Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Pólo Urbo-Industrial Gleba AI-6, 12602-810 Lorena, SP (Brazil); Coelho, Gilberto Carvalho [EEL/USP – Escola de Engenharia de Lorena (EEL), Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Pólo Urbo-Industrial Gleba AI-6, 12602-810 Lorena, SP (Brazil); UniFoa – Centro Universitário de Volta Redonda, Núcleo de Pesquisa, Campus Três Poços, Avenida Paulo Erlei Alves Abrantes, 1325, Bairro Três Poços, 27240-560 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Suzuki, Paulo Atsushi [EEL/USP – Escola de Engenharia de Lorena (EEL), Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Pólo Urbo-Industrial Gleba AI-6, 12602-810 Lorena, SP (Brazil); Fiorani, Jean Marc; David, Nicolas; Vilasi, Michel [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)

    2013-11-05

    Highlights: •Ta–Ge phase diagram propose for the first time. •The phase αTa{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} was not observed in samples investigated in this work. •Three eutectics reactions where determined with the liquid compositions at 20.5; 28.0; 97.0 at.% Ge. -- Abstract: In the present work, the Ta–Ge phase diagram has been experimentally studied, considering the inexistence of a Ta–Ge phase diagram in the literature. The samples were prepared via arc melting and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The intermetallics phases βTa{sub 3}Ge, αTa{sub 3}Ge, βTa{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} and TaGe{sub 2} where confirmed in this system. Three eutectics reactions where determined with the liquid compositions at 20.5; 28.0; 97.0 at.% Ge. The phases βTa{sub 3}Ge and βTa{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} solidifies congruently while TaGe{sub 2} is formed through a peritectic transformation. The temperature of the Ta-rich eutectic (L ↔ Ta{sub ss} + βTa{sub 3}Ge) was measured by the Pirani-Alterthum method at 2440 °C and the Ge-rich eutectic (L ↔ TaGe{sub 2} + Ge{sub ss}) by DTA at 937 °C.

  16. Low-resolution remeshing using the localized restricted voronoi diagram

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2014-10-01

    A big problem in triangular remeshing is to generate meshes when the triangle size approaches the feature size in the mesh. The main obstacle for Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT)-based remeshing is to compute a suitable Voronoi diagram. In this paper, we introduce the localized restricted Voronoi diagram (LRVD) on mesh surfaces. The LRVD is an extension of the restricted Voronoi diagram (RVD), but it addresses the problem that the RVD can contain Voronoi regions that consist of multiple disjoint surface patches. Our definition ensures that each Voronoi cell in the LRVD is a single connected region. We show that the LRVD is a useful extension to improve several existing mesh-processing techniques, most importantly surface remeshing with a low number of vertices. While the LRVD and RVD are identical in most simple configurations, the LRVD is essential when sampling a mesh with a small number of points and for sampling surface areas that are in close proximity to other surface areas, e.g., nearby sheets. To compute the LRVD, we combine local discrete clustering with a global exact computation. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  17. A new model of Ishikawa diagram for quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliana, Luca

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the results of a study concerning the use of the Ishikawa diagram in analyzing the causes that determine errors in the evaluation of theparts precision in the machine construction field. The studied problem was"errors in the evaluation of partsprecision” and this constitutes the head of the Ishikawa diagram skeleton.All the possible, main and secondary causes that could generate the studied problem were identified. The most known Ishikawa models are 4M, 5M, 6M, the initials being in order: materials, methods, man, machines, mother nature, measurement. The paper shows the potential causes of the studied problem, which were firstly grouped in three categories, as follows: causes that lead to errors in assessing the dimensional accuracy, causes that determine errors in the evaluation of shape and position abnormalities and causes for errors in roughness evaluation. We took into account the main components of parts precision in the machine construction field. For each of the three categories of causes there were distributed potential secondary causes on groups of M (man, methods, machines, materials, environment/ medio ambiente-sp.). We opted for a new model of Ishikawa diagram, resulting from the composition of three fish skeletons corresponding to the main categories of parts accuracy.

  18. Phase Diagrams of Electric-Fduced Aggregation in Conducting Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusid, B.; Acrivos, A.

    1999-01-01

    Under the application of a sufficiently strong electric field, a suspension may undergo reversible phase transitions from a homogeneous random arrangement of particles into a variety of ordered aggregation patterns. The surprising fact about electric-field driven phase transitions is that the aggregation patterns, that are observed in very diverse systems of colloids, display a number of common structural features and modes of evolution thereby implying that a universal mechanism may exist to account for these phenomena. It is now generally believed that this mechanism emanates from the presence of the long-range anisotropic interactions between colloidal particles due to their polarization in an applied field. But, in spite of numerous applications of the electric-field-driven phenomena in biotechnology, separation, materials engineering, chemical analysis, etc. our understanding of these phenomena is far from complete. Thus, it is the purpose of the proposed research to develop a theory and then test experimentally, under normal- and low-gravity conditions, the accuracy of the theoretical predictions regarding the effect of the synergism of the interparticle electric and hydrodynamic interactions on the phase diagram of a suspension. The main results from our theoretical studies performed to-date enable one to trace how the variations of the electrical properties of the constituent materials influence the topology of the suspension phase diagram and then, by using an appropriate phase diagram, to evaluate how the electric-field-induced transformations will depend on the frequency and the strength of the applied field.

  19. Electrodynamic metaphors: communicating particle physics with Feynman diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietroni Massimo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to communicate the basic laws of particle physics with Feynman diagrams - visual tools which represent elementary particle processes. They were originally developed as a code to be used by physicists and are still used today for calculations and elaborations of theoretical nature. The technical and mathematical rules of Feynman diagrams are obviously the exclusive concern of physicists, but on a pictorial level they can help to popularize many concepts, ranging from matter and the antimatter; the creation, destruction and transformation of particles; the role of ‘virtual’ particles in interactions; the conservation laws, symmetries, etc. Unlike the metaphors often used to describe the microcosm, these graphic representations provide an unequivocal translation of the physical content of the underlying quantum theory. As such they are perfect metaphors, not misleading constructions. A brief introduction on Feynman diagrams will be followed by the practical realization of this project, which will be carried out with the help of an experiment based on three-dimensional manipulable objects. The Feynman rules are expressed in terms of mechanical constraints on the possible conjuctions among the various elements of the experiment. The final part of the project will present the results of this experiment, which has been conducted among high-school students.

  20. All About Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A primer on alternative schools. Described are existing programs in different areas, philosophy of the alternative schools, funding, student behavior, community relations, accountability, State regulations, management, and the environment of the alternative school. A list of sources of additional information on alternative schools is included.…