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Sample records for alternate fuels combustibles

  1. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  2. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    In the cement industry there is an increasing environmental and financial motivation for substituting conventional fossil fuels with alternative fuels, being biomass or waste derived fuels. However, the introduction of alternative fuels may influence emissions, cement product quality, process...... stability, and process efficiency. Alternative fuel substitution in the calciner unit has reached close to 100% at many cement plants and to further increase the use of alternative fuels rotary kiln substitution must be enhanced. At present, limited systematic knowledge of the alternative fuel combustion...... modelling, data collection and observations at an industrial cement plant firing alternative fuels. Alternative fuels may differ from conventional fossil fuels in combustion behaviour through differences in physical and chemical properties and reaction kinetics. Often solid alternative fuels are available...

  3. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  4. Sulfur Release during Alternative fuels Combustion in Cement Rotary Kilns

    OpenAIRE

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Glarborg, Peter; Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Cement production is an energy-intensive process, whic h has traditionally been dependent on fossil fuels. However, the usage of selected waste, biomass, and by-products with recoverable calorific value, defined as alternative fuels, is increasing and their combustion is mo re challenging compared to fossil fuels, due to the lack of experience in handling the different and va rying combustion characteristics caused by different chemical and physical properties, e.g. higher moisture content an...

  5. Sulfur Release during Alternative fuels Combustion in Cement Rotary Kilns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar

    Cement production is an energy-intensive process, whic h has traditionally been dependent on fossil fuels. However, the usage of selected waste, biomass, and by-products with recoverable calorific value, defined as alternative fuels, is increasing and their combustion is mo re challenging compared...... in order to separate the influence of the simultaneous phenomena occurring in the experimental set-up, such as mixing th e fuel with the bed material, heating up of a particle, 5 iii Abstract Cement production is an energy-intensive process, whic h has traditionally been dependent on fossil fuels. However...... to fossil fuels, due to the lack of experience in handling the different and va rying combustion characteristics caused by different chemical and physical properties, e.g. higher moisture content and larger particle sizes. When full combustion of alternative fuels in the calcin er and/or main burner...

  6. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause

  7. Advisable alternative fuels for Mexico; Combustibles alternativos convenientes para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Gonzalez, Jorge Luis [ICA Fluor (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The alternative fuels are born with the goal of not damaging the environment; biodiesel, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, methanol, natural gas, LP gas, are the main alternative fuels. However, the biodiesel and bioetanol are the only completely renewable ones, this makes them ideal to be developed in Mexico, since the agricultural sector could be fortified, the technological independence be favored, improve the conservation of the oil resources and by all means not to affect the environment. On the other hand, also efficient cultivation techniques should be developed to guarantee the economy of the process. [Spanish] Los combustibles alternativos nacen con la meta de no danar el medio ambiente; el biodiesel, electricidad, etanol, hidrogeno, metanol, gas natural, gas LP, son los principales combustibles alternativos. No obstante, el biodiesel y el bioetanol son los unicos completamente renovables, esto los hace ideales para desarrollarse en Mexico, ya que se podria fortalecer el sector agricola, favorecer la independencia tecnologica, mejorar la administracion de los recursos petroleros y por supuesto no afectar al medio ambiente. Por otro lado tambien se tendrian que desarrollar tecnicas de cultivo eficientes para garantizar la economia del proceso.

  8. Comparative analysis of alternative fuels in detonation combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Azami, M. H.; Savill, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Detonation combustion prominently exhibits high thermodynamic efficiency which leads to better performance. As compared to the conventionally used isobaric heat addition in a Brayton cycle combustor, detonation uses a novel isochoric Humphrey cycle which utilises shocks and detonation waves to provide pressure-rise combustion. Such unsteady combustion has already been explored in wave rotor, pulse detonation engine and rotating detonation engine configurations as alternative technologies for ...

  9. Combustion of Sewage Sludge as Alternative Fuel for Cement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fuzhou; ZHANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    The combustion of sewage sludge and coal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis.Both differential scanning calorimetric analysis and derivative thermogravimetric profiles showed differences between combustion of sewage sludge and coal, and non-isothermal kinetics analysis method was applied to evaluate the combustion process. Based on Coats-Redfem integral method, some reaction models were tested,the mechanism and kinetics of the combustion reaction were discussed. The results show that the combustion of sewage sludge is mainly in the Iow temperature stage, meanwhile the ignition temperature and Arrhenius activation energy are lower than that of coal. The combustion of sewage sludge has the advantage over coal in some aspects, thus sewage sludge can partly replace coal used as cement industry fuel.

  10. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  11. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the laboratory effort to identify and quantify organic exhaust species generated from alternative-fueled light-duty vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline. The exhaust species from these vehicles were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without a vehicle catalyst in place to determine the influence of a catalytic converter on species formation.

  12. Theoretical investigaion of the performance of alternative aviation fuels in an aero-enginve combustion chamber

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    When considering alternative fuels for aviation, factors such as the overall efficiency of the combustion process and the levels of emissions emitted to the atmosphere, need to be critically evaluated. The physical and chemical properties of a fuel influence the combustion efficiency and emissions and therefore need to be considered. The energy content of a biofuel, which is influenced negatively by the presence of oxygen in the molecular structure (i.e. oxygenated chemical compounds), is rel...

  13. Review: Circulation of Inorganic Elements in Combustion of Alternative Fuels in Cement Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Cement production is an energy-intensive process, which traditionally has been dependent on fossil fuels. However, the use of alternative fuels, i.e., selected waste, biomass, and byproducts with recoverable calorific value, is constantly increasing. Combustion of these fuels is more challenging......, compared to fossil fuels, because of a lack of experience and different chemical and physical properties. When complete oxidation Of fuels in the calciner and main burner is not achieved, they burn in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln, causing local reducing conditions and increasing...

  14. SO2 Release as a Consequence of Alternative Fuel Combustion in Cement Rotary Kiln Inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of alternative fuels in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln may cause local reducing conditions and, subsequently, decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials, increasing the SO2 concentration in the gas phase. The decomposition of sulfates increases......-temperature rotary drum, focusing on the influence of the fuel particle size and volatile content. The SO2 release increased with a decreasing fuel particle size and with an increasing fuel volatile content. Furthermore, CO, H2, and CH4, which are the main reducing gases released during fuel devolatilization, were...

  15. SO2 Release as a Consequence of Alternative Fuel Combustion in Cement Rotary Kiln Inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of alternative fuels in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln may cause local reducing conditions and, subsequently, decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials, increasing the SO2 concentration in the gas phase. The decomposition of sulfates increases...... the sulfur circulation and may be problematic because high sulfur circulation can cause sticky material buildup, affecting the process operation of the cement kiln system. The SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of pine wood and tire rubber has been studied experimentally in a high......-temperature rotary drum, focusing on the influence of the fuel particle size and volatile content. The SO2 release increased with a decreasing fuel particle size and with an increasing fuel volatile content. Furthermore, CO, H2, and CH4, which are the main reducing gases released during fuel devolatilization, were...

  16. Impact of aviation non-CO₂ combustion effects on the environmental feasibility of alternative jet fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Russell W; Wolfe, Philip J; Hileman, James I

    2011-12-15

    Alternative fuels represent a potential option for reducing the climate impacts of the aviation sector. The climate impacts of alternatives fuel are traditionally considered as a ratio of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to those of the displaced petroleum product; however, this ignores the climate impacts of the non-CO(2) combustion effects from aircraft in the upper atmosphere. The results of this study show that including non-CO(2) combustion emissions and effects in the life cycle of a Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) fuel can lead to a decrease in the relative merit of the SPK fuel relative to conventional jet fuel. For example, an SPK fuel option with zero life cycle GHG emissions would offer a 100% reduction in GHG emissions but only a 48% reduction in actual climate impact using a 100-year time window and the nominal climate modeling assumption set outlined herein. Therefore, climate change mitigation policies for aviation that rely exclusively on relative well-to-wake life cycle GHG emissions as a proxy for aviation climate impact may overestimate the benefit of alternative fuel use on the global climate system.

  17. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    OpenAIRE

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Larsen, Morten Boberg

    2012-01-01

    I cementindustrien er der en øget miljømœssig og økonomisk motivation for at erstatte konventionelle fossile brœndsler med alternative brœndsler; biomasse og affald. Indførelsen af alternative brœndsler kan dog påvirke emissioner, cementproduktkvalitet, processtabilitet og -effektivitet. I kalcinatoren er substitutionen med alternative brœndsler nået tœt på 100% på mange cementanlœg, og for at øge anvendelsen af alternative brœndsler yderligere må substitutionen i roterovnen øges. Der er begr...

  18. Combustion instability and active control: Alternative fuels, augmentors, and modeling heat release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sammy Ace

    Experimental and analytical studies were conducted to explore thermo-acoustic coupling during the onset of combustion instability in various air-breathing combustor configurations. These include a laboratory-scale 200-kW dump combustor and a 100-kW augmentor featuring a v-gutter flame holder. They were used to simulate main combustion chambers and afterburners in aero engines, respectively. The three primary themes of this work includes: 1) modeling heat release fluctuations for stability analysis, 2) conducting active combustion control with alternative fuels, and 3) demonstrating practical active control for augmentor instability suppression. The phenomenon of combustion instabilities remains an unsolved problem in propulsion engines, mainly because of the difficulty in predicting the fluctuating component of heat release without extensive testing. A hybrid model was developed to describe both the temporal and spatial variations in dynamic heat release, using a separation of variables approach that requires only a limited amount of experimental data. The use of sinusoidal basis functions further reduced the amount of data required. When the mean heat release behavior is known, the only experimental data needed for detailed stability analysis is one instantaneous picture of heat release at the peak pressure phase. This model was successfully tested in the dump combustor experiments, reproducing the correct sign of the overall Rayleigh index as well as the remarkably accurate spatial distribution pattern of fluctuating heat release. Active combustion control was explored for fuel-flexible combustor operation using twelve different jet fuels including bio-synthetic and Fischer-Tropsch types. Analysis done using an actuated spray combustion model revealed that the combustion response times of these fuels were similar. Combined with experimental spray characterizations, this suggested that controller performance should remain effective with various alternative fuels

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of alternative fuels in a gas turbine engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Simon; Raper, David; Lee, David S; Williams, Paul I; Rye, Lucas; Blakey, Simon; Wilson, Chris W; Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip D

    2012-06-01

    We report on the particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the exhaust of a test-bed gas turbine engine when powered by Jet A-1 aviation fuel and a number of alternative fuels: Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF), Shell gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene, and Jet A-1/GTL 50:50 blended kerosene. The concentration of PAH compounds in the exhaust emissions vary greatly between fuels. Combustion of FSJF produces the greatest total concentration of PAH compounds while combustion of GTL produces the least. However, when PAHs in the exhaust sample are measured in terms of the regulatory marker compound benzo[a]pyrene, then all of the alternative fuels emit a lower concentration of PAH in comparison to Jet A-1. Emissions from the combustion of Jet A-1/GTL blended kerosene were found to have a disproportionately low concentration of PAHs and appear to inherit a greater proportion of the GTL emission characteristics than would be expected from volume fraction alone. The data imply the presence of a nonlinear relation between fuel blend composition and the emission of PAH compounds. For each of the fuels, the speciation of PAH compounds present in the exhaust emissions were found to be remarkably similar (R(2) = 0.94-0.62), and the results do provide evidence to support the premise that PAH speciation is to some extent indicative of the emission source. In contrast, no correlation was found between the PAH species present in the fuel with those subsequently emitted in the exhaust. The results strongly suggests that local air quality measured in terms of the particulate-bound PAH burden could be significantly improved by the use of GTL kerosene either blended with or in place of Jet A-1 kerosene.

  20. Review: Circulation of Inorganic Elements in Combustion of Alternative Fuels in Cement Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2015-01-01

    Cement production is an energy-intensive process, which traditionally has been dependent on fossil fuels. However, the use of alternative fuels, i.e., selected waste, biomass, and byproducts with recoverable calorific value, is constantly increasing. Combustion of these fuels is more challenging......, compared to fossil fuels, because of a lack of experience and different chemical and physical properties. When complete oxidation Of fuels in the calciner and main burner is not achieved, they burn in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln, causing local reducing conditions and increasing...... the internal circulation of S, Cl, Na, and K. Compounds containing these elements, such as alkali salts, evaporate when exposed to high temperatures and subsequently condense in colder parts of the plant. The transformation of the volatile inorganic species at different locations in the cement plant...

  1. Air emission from the co-combustion of alternative derived fuels within cement plants: Gaseous pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Glen; Agranovski, Igor E

    2015-02-01

    Cement manufacturing is a resource- and energy-intensive industry, utilizing 9% of global industrial energy use while releasing more than 5% of global carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. With an increasing demand of production set to double by 2050, so too will be its carbon footprint. However, Australian cement plants have great potential for energy savings and emission reductions through the substitution of combustion fuels with a proportion of alternative derived fuels (ADFs), namely, fuels derived from wastes. This paper presents the environmental emissions monitoring of 10 cement batching plants while under baseline and ADF operating conditions, and an assessment of parameters influencing combustion. The experiential runs included the varied substitution rates of seven waste streams and the monitoring of seven target pollutants. The co-combustion tests of waste oil, wood chips, wood chips and plastic, waste solvents, and shredded tires were shown to have the minimal influence when compared to baseline runs, or had significantly reduced the unit mass emission factor of pollutants. With an increasing ADF% substitution, monitoring identified there to be no subsequent emission effects and that key process parameters contributing to contaminant suppression include (1) precalciner and kiln fuel firing rate and residence time; (2) preheater and precalciner gas and material temperature; (3) rotary kiln flame temperature; (4) fuel-air ratio and percentage of excess oxygen; and (5) the rate of meal feed and rate of clinker produced.

  2. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase IV report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.H.; Dellinger, B. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States). Research Institute; Sidhu, S.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    As part of the US-DOE`s on-going interest in the use of alternative automotive fuels, the University of Dayton Research Institute has been conducting research on pollutant emissions resulting from the combustion of candidate fuels. This research, under the direction and sponsorship of the NREL, has been concerned primarily with the combustion of compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and ethanol. In the first 24 months of this program, studies of the oxygen rich, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich thermal degradation of these fuels in the temperature range of 300 to 1100{degrees}C at atmospheric pressure and for reaction times of 1.0 and 2.0 s were completed. Trace organic products were identified and quantified for each fuel as a function of temperature. The results of these studies agreed well with the results of tail-pipe emission studies in that the types and quantity of emissions measured in both the laboratory and engine tests were shown to be very similar under certain operating conditions. However, some chemicals were observed in the laboratory studies that were not observed in the engine studies and vice versa. This result is important in that it has implications concerning the origin of these emissions. Experiments concerning the NO perturbed oxidation of methanol, M85, ethanol, and E85 indicated the presence of complex oxidation chemistry. At mild temperatures, NO addition resulted in enhanced fuel conversion. At elevated temperatures, an inhibitory effect was observed through increased yields of both partial oxidation and pyrolysis-type reaction products. Comparison of flow reactor product distributions with engine test results generally indicated improved comparisons when NO was added to the fuel. Analysis of secondary components of alcohol fuels resulted in some unexpected observations. Several previously unidentified species were observed in these experiments which may impact atmospheric reactivity assessments of these fuels.

  3. Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems. Summary technical progress report, August 15, 1978-January 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Wong, E.

    1980-02-27

    The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resources. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternative fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are: (a) develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternative fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and (b) provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. This is the second major report of the program. Key experimental findings during this reporting period concern stirred combustor soot production during operation at controlled temperature conditions, soot production as a function of combustor residence time, an improved measurement technique for total hydrocarbons and initial stirred combustor results of fuel nitrogen conversion. While the results to be presented concern a stirred combustor which utilizes premixed fuel vapor/oxidant mixtures, a new combustor which combusts liquid fuel injected into the reactor as a spray has been developed and will be described. Analytical program progress includes the development of new quasiglobal models of soot formation and assessment of needs for other submodel development.

  4. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. For compression ignition engines converted to run on natural gas, there are two main options discussed, there are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can operate at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the CNG engines research and development fueled using CNG are highlighted to keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline or diesel counterparts. The high activities for future CNG engines research and development to meet future CNG engines is recorded in the paper.

  5. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH{sub 3}. Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using

  6. Kiln process impact of alternative solid fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner - Mathematical modelling and full-scale experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars André; Manjula, Edirisinghe V. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased use of alternative fuels in cement kilns is a trend in the world. However, replacing fossil fuels like coal with different alternative fuels will give various impacts on the overall kiln process due to the fuel characteristics. Hence, it is important to know to what extent the fossil fuels can be replaced by different alternative fuels without severely changing process conditions, product quality or emissions. In the present study, a mass and energy balance for the combustion of dif...

  7. The effect of alternative fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner on production capacity and improvement with oxygen enrichment.

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W.K.Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model based on a mass and energy balance for the combustion in a cement rotary kiln was developed. The model was used to investigate the impact of replacing about 45 % of the primary coal energy by different alternative fuels. Refuse derived fuel, waste wood, solid hazardous waste and liquid hazardous waste were used in the modeling. The results showed that in order to keep the kiln temperature unchanged, and thereby maintain the required clinker quality, the production capa...

  8. Evaluation of unthrottled combustion system options for light duty applications with future syncrude derived fuels. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needham, J. R.; Cooper, B. M.; Norris-Jones, S. R.

    1982-12-01

    An experimental program examining the interaction between several fuel and light duty automotive engine combinations is detailed. Combustion systems addressed covered indirect and direct injection diesel and spark ignited stratified charge. Fuels primarily covered D2, naphtha and intermediate broadcut blends. Low ignition quality diesel fuels were also evaluated. The results indicate the baseline fuel tolerance of each combustion system and enable characteristics of the systems to be compared. Performance, gaseous and particulate emissions aspects were assessed. The data obtained assists in the selection of candidate combustion systems for potential future fuels. Performance and environmental penalties as appropriate are highlighted relative to the individual candidates. Areas of further work for increased understanding are also reviewed.

  9. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  10. SO2 Release as a Consequence of Alternative Fuel Combustion in Cement Rotary Kiln Inlets

    OpenAIRE

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of alternative fuels in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln may cause local reducing conditions and, subsequently, decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials, increasing the SO2 concentration in the gas phase. The decomposition of sulfates increases the sulfur circulation and may be problematic because high sulfur circulation can cause sticky material buildup, affecting the process operation of the cement kiln system. The SO2 release from cement raw...

  11. KHD combustion chamber. Flexible use of alternative fuels in the cement plant; KHD Brennkammer. Flexibler Einsatz von alternativen Brennstoffen im Zementwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, Heiko [Humboldt Wedag GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In many parts of the world, the use of alternative fuels is a recognized measure for reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions that result from burning primary fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Alternative or secondary fuels are the terms used for combustible residues from industrial and commercial manufacturing processes, agricultural production, and sorted municipal refuse. Due to the wide range of possible sources of alternative fuels, there is very great variation in their energy content, ash, moisture content, particle size, form, density etc., so there is no patent solution for their use in a cement plant. For proper operation of the rotary kiln, it is particularly important to use alternative fuel qualities that have good heat value and reactivity in order to achieve a stable, hot sintering zone and to completely burnout the highest possible amount of the fuel while it is suspended in the air stream. Combustion in the calciner places fewer demands on the properties of the alternative fuels than combustion in the rotary kiln burner does. This means that the calciner is the ideal combustion point for the usage of alternative fuels. To enable maximum possible flexibility for the combustion of widely differing alternative fuels in the calciner, KHD Humboldt Wedag offers the option of installing a combustion chamber in the modular PYROCLON calciner system. Due to the operating characteristics of this combustion chamber, which are described in the following sections of this article, even alternative fuels with low heat values and a low degree of preparation can be safely and completely burnt. (orig.)

  12. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Rosli A. Bakar

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two op...

  13. The Thermochemical Degradation of Hot Section Materials for Gas Turbine Engines in Alternative-Fuel Combustion Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Timothy

    Gas turbine engines remain an integral part of providing the world's propulsion and power generation needs. The continued use of gas turbines requires increased temperature operation to reach higher efficiencies and the implementation of alternative fuels for a lower net-carbon footprint. This necessitates evaluation of the material coatings used to shield the hot section components of gas turbines in these new extreme environments in order to understand how material degradation mechanisms change. Recently, the US Navy has sought to reduce its use of fossil fuels by implementing a blended hydroprocessed renewable diesel (HRD) derived from algae in its fleet. To evaluate the material degradation in this alternative environment, metal alloys are exposed in a simulated combustion environment using this blended fuel or the traditional diesel-like fuel. Evaluation of the metal alloys showed the development of thick, porous scales with a large depletion of aluminum for the blend fuel test. A mechanism linking an increased solubility of the scale to the blend fuel test environment will be discussed. For power generation applications, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants can provide electricity with 45% efficiency and full carbon capture by using a synthetic gas (syngas) derived from coal, biomass, or another carbon feedstock. However, the combustion of syngas is known to cause high water vapor content levels in the exhaust stream with unknown material consequences. To evaluate the effect of increased humidity, air-plasma sprayed (APS), yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is thermally aged in an environment with and without humidity. An enhanced destabilization of the parent phase by humid aging is revealed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Microstructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning-TEM (STEM) indicate an enhanced coarsening of the domain structure of the YSZ in the humid environment. The enhanced

  14. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  15. Effects of alternate fuels. Report No. 6. Analysis of low-alumina castable refractory degraded by residual oil combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G. C.; Tennery, V. J.

    1978-07-01

    This is the sixth of a series of reports on analyses of several types of refractories used in industrial furnaces with fuels considered alternate to natural gas. Analyses were performed on a low-alumina castable used for only two months in the roof of a residual-oil-fired boiler. The maximum hot-face temperature during operation was about 1530/sup 0/K. The original microstructure of the castable, which consisted of mullite aggregate bonded with iron-containing gehlenite (2 CaO . Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ . SiO/sub 2/), quartz and cristobalite, was totally altered during service in regions close to the hot face. At room temperature the altered microstructure consisted of corundum and gehlenite in a new oxide glass phase containing the elements Na, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Al, Ni, and Si. The reactions of the fuel oil impurities Na, Fe, and Ni with mullite, quartz, and cristobalite in the original castable refractory caused the rapid degradation at the hot face during service in the boiler. Increasing the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content of the castable by replacing mullite aggregate with alumina aggregate and using gehlenite with less iron impurity as the bonding material should improve the performance of this castable refractory or retard reactions of the castable with fuel oil combustion products including Na, Fe, and Ni.

  16. Combustion Characteristics and Performance of Low-Swirl Injectors with Natural Gas and Alternative Fuels At Elevated Pressures and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerer, David Joseph

    Stationary power-generating gas turbines in the United States have historically been fueled with natural gas, but due to its increasing price and the need to reduce carbon emissions, interest in alternative fuels is increasing. In order to effectively operate engines with these fuels their combustion characteristics need be well understood, especially at elevated pressures and temperatures. In this dissertation, the performance of blends of natural gas / methane with hydrogen and carbon dioxide, to simulate syngas and biogas, are evaluated in a model low-swirl stabilized combustor inside an optically accessible high-pressure vessel. The flashback and lean blow out limits, along with pollutant emissions, flow field, and turbulent displacement flame speeds, are measured as a function of fuel composition, pressure, inlet temperature, firing temperature, and flow rate in the range from 1 to 8 atm, 294 to 600K, 1350 to 1950K, and 20 to 60 m/s, respectively. These properties are quantified as a function of the inlet parameters. The lean blow-out limits are independent of pressure and inlet temperature but are weakly dependent on velocity. NOX emissions for both fuels were found to be exponentially dependent upon firing temperature, but emissions for the high-hydrogen flames were consistently higher than those of natural gas flames. The flashback limits for a 90%/10% (by volume) hydrogen/methane mixture increase with velocity and inlet temperature, but decrease with pressure. Correspondingly, the flame position progresses toward the combustor nozzle with increasing pressure and flame temperature, but away with increasing inlet temperature and velocity. Flashback occurred when the leading edge of the flame entered the nozzle. Local displacement turbulent flame speeds scale linearly with the turbulent fluctuating velocities, u', at the leading edge of the flame. Turbulent flame speeds for high-hydrogen fuels are twice that of natural gas for the same inlet conditions. The

  17. A Study of Pollutant Formation from the Lean Premixed Combustion of Gaseous Fuel Alternatives to Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Keith Boyd, Jr.

    The goal of this research is to identify how nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions and flame stability (blowout) are impacted by the use of fuels that are alternatives to typical pipeline natural gas. The research focuses on lean, premixed combustors that are typically used in state-of-the-art natural gas fueled systems. An idealized laboratory lean premixed combustor, specifically the jet-stirred reactor, is used for experimental data. A series of models, including those featuring detailed fluid dynamics and those focusing on detailed chemistry, are used to interpret the data and understand the underlying chemical kinetic reasons for differences in emissions between the various fuel blends. An ultimate goal is to use these data and interpretive tools to develop a way to predict the emission and stability impacts of changing fuels within practical combustors. All experimental results are obtained from a high intensity, single-jet stirred reactor (JSR). Five fuel categories are studied: (1) pure H 2, (2) process and refinery gas, including combinations of H2, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8, (3) oxygen blown gasified coal/petcoke composed of H2, CO, and CO2, (4) landfill and digester gas composed of CH4, CO2, and N2, and (5) liquified natural gas (LNG)/shale/associated gases composed of CH4, C2H6, and C3 H8. NOx measurements are taken at a nominal combustion temperature of 1800 K, atmospheric pressure, and a reactor residence time of 3 ms. This is done to focus the results on differences caused by fuel chemistry by comparing all fuels at a common temperature, pressure, and residence time. This is one of the few studies in the literature that attempts to remove these effects when studying fuels varying in composition. Additionally, the effects of changing temperature and residence time are investigated for selected fuels. At the nominal temperature and residence time, the experimental and modeling results show the following trends for NOx emissions as a function of fuel type: 1.) NOx

  18. On the rational formulation of alternative fuels: melting point and net heat of combustion predictions for fuel compounds using machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, D A; Starck, L; Mougin, P; Rousseau, B; Creton, B

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of predictive models for two fuel specifications: melting points (T(m)) and net heat of combustion (Δ(c)H). Compounds inside the scope of these models are those likely to be found in alternative fuels, i.e. hydrocarbons, alcohols and esters. Experimental T(m) and Δ(c)H values for these types of molecules have been gathered to generate a unique database. Various quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approaches have been used to build models, ranging from methods leading to multi-linear models such as genetic function approximation (GFA), or partial least squares (PLS) to those leading to non-linear models such as feed-forward artificial neural networks (FFANN), general regression neural networks (GRNN), support vector machines (SVM), or graph machines. Except for the case of the graph machines method for which the only inputs are SMILES formulae, previously listed approaches working on molecular descriptors and functional group count descriptors were used to develop specific models for T(m) and Δ(c)H. For each property, the predictive models return slightly different responses for each molecular structure. Therefore, models labelled as 'consensus models' were built by averaging values computed with selected individual models. Predicted results were then compared with experimental data and with predictions of models in the literature.

  19. Co-combustion of Fossil Fuels and Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao

    The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw...

  20. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... temperature. The flue gas produced thus consists primarily of carbon dioxide and water. Much research on the different aspects of an oxy-fuel power plant has been performed during the last decade. Focus has mainly been on retrofits of existing pulverized-coal-fired power plant units. Green-field plants which...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy-fuel...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  2. Development of a Raman spectroscopy technique to detect alternate transportation fuel hydrocarbon intermediates in complex combustion environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Barlow, Robert S.

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectra for important hydrocarbon fuels and combustion intermediates were recorded over a range of low-to-moderate flame temperatures using the multiscalar measurement facility located at Sandia/CA. Recorded spectra were extrapolated to higher flame temperatures and then converted into empirical spectral libraries that can readily be incorporated into existing post-processing analysis models that account for crosstalk from overlapping hydrocarbon channel signal. Performance testing of the developed libraries and reduction methods was conducted through an examination of results from well-characterized laminar reference flames, and was found to provide good agreement. The diagnostic development allows for temporally and spatially resolved flame measurements of speciated hydrocarbon concentrations whose parent is more chemically complex than methane. Such data are needed to validate increasingly complex flame simulations.

  3. Combustion of large solid fuels in cement rotary kilns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma

    (MBM), waste wood, sewage sludge, paper and plastics. The alternative fuel share of the total energy varies significantly from region to region, but the general trend is towards increased alternative fuel utilization. Solid alternative fuels typically have physical and chemical properties that differ......The cement industry has a significant interest in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels in order to minimize production costs and reduce CO2 emissions. These new alternative fuels are in particular solid fuels such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), tire-derived fuel (TDF), meat and bone meal...... from traditional solid fossil fuels. This creates a need for new combustion equipment or modification of existing kiln systems, because alternative fuels may influence process stability and product quality. Process stability is mainly influenced by exposing the raw material bed in the rotary kiln...

  4. On the Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Lean Partially Premixed Combustion, Burning Speed, Flame Instability and Plasma Formation of Alternative Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Omid

    This dissertation investigates the combustion and injection fundamental characteristics of different alternative fuels both experimentally and theoretically. The subjects such as lean partially premixed combustion of methane/hydrogen/air/diluent, methane high pressure direct-injection, thermal plasma formation, thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon/air mixtures at high temperatures, laminar flames and flame morphology of synthetic gas (syngas) and Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels were extensively studied in this work. These subjects will be summarized in three following paragraphs. The fundamentals of spray and partially premixed combustion characteristics of directly injected methane in a constant volume combustion chamber have been experimentally studied. The injected fuel jet generates turbulence in the vessel and forms a turbulent heterogeneous fuel-air mixture in the vessel, similar to that in a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Direct-Injection (DI) engines. The effect of different characteristics parameters such as spark delay time, stratification ratio, turbulence intensity, fuel injection pressure, chamber pressure, chamber temperature, Exhaust Gas recirculation (EGR) addition, hydrogen addition and equivalence ratio on flame propagation and emission concentrations were analyzed. As a part of this work and for the purpose of control and calibration of high pressure injector, spray development and characteristics including spray tip penetration, spray cone angle and overall equivalence ratio were evaluated under a wide range of fuel injection pressures of 30 to 90 atm and different chamber pressures of 1 to 5 atm. Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon/air plasma mixtures at ultra-high temperatures must be precisely calculated due to important influence on the flame kernel formation and propagation in combusting flows and spark discharge applications. A new algorithm based on the statistical thermodynamics was developed to calculate the ultra-high temperature plasma

  5. Review of alternative fuels data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the interaction of fuel physical and chemical properties with combustion characteristics and indicators, a ranking of the importance of various fuel properties with respect to the combustion process was established. This ranking was used to define a suite of specific experiments whose objective is the development of an alternative fuels design data base. Combustion characteristics and indicators examined include droplet and spray formation, droplet vaporization and burning, ignition and flame stabilization, flame temperature, laminar flame speed, combustion completion, soot emissions, NOx and SOx emissions, and the fuels' thermal and oxidative stability and fouling and corrosion characteristics. Key fuel property data is found to include composition, thermochemical data, chemical kinetic rate information, and certain physical properties.

  6. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  7. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  8. A parametric study on the emissions from an HCCI alternative combustion engine resulting from the auto-ignition of primary reference fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon; Amouroux, Jacques [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The homogeneous charge compression ignition is an alternative combustion technology that can reduce automobile pollution, provided that the exhaust emission can be controlled. A parametric study can be useful in order to gain more understanding in the emission reduction possibilities via this new combustion technology. For this purpose, the inlet temperature, the equivalence ratio and the compression ratio are changed, respectively, from 30 to 70{sup o}C, 0.28 to 0.41 and 6 to 14. Also the diluting, thermal and chemical effects of exhaust gas recirculation were studied. The emission of CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and hydrocarbons has been measured using primary reference fuels. It appears that an increase in the inlet temperature, the EGR temperature, the equivalence ratio and the compression ratio results into a decrease of the emissions of CO and the hydrocarbons of up to 75%. The emission of CO{sub 2} increased, however, by 50%. The chemical parameters showed more complicated effects, resulting into a decrease or increase of the emissions, depending on whether the overall reactivity increased or not. If the reactivity increased, generally, the emissions of CO and hydrocarbons increased, while that of CO{sub 2} increased. The increase of CO{sub 2} emissions could be compensated by altering the compression ratio and the EGR parameters, making it possible to control the emission of the HCCI engine. (author)

  9. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Using biofuel tracers to study alternative combustion regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J. H.; Flowers, D. L.; Buchholz, B. A.; Dibble, R. W.

    2007-06-01

    Interest in the use of alternative fuels and engines is increasing as the price of petroleum climbs. The inherently higher efficiency of Diesel engines has led to increased adoption of Diesels in Europe, capturing approximately 40% of the new passenger car market. Unfortunately, lower CO2 emissions are countered with higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and higher noise. Adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel helps reduce PM emissions. However, relying on fuel alone to reduce PM is unrealistic due to economic constraints and difficult due to the emerging PM standards. Keeping peak combustion temperature below 1700 K inhibits NOx formation. Altering the combustion regime to burn at temperatures below the NOx threshold and accept a wide variety of fuels seems like a promising alternative for future engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a possible solution. Fuel and air are well mixed prior to intake into a cylinder (homogeneous charge) and ignition occurs by compression of the fuel-air mixture by the piston. HCCI is rapid and relatively cool, producing little NOx and PM. Unfortunately, it is hard to control since HCCI is initiated by temperature and pressure instead of a spark or direct fuel injection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use intrinsically labeled biofuels as tracers of HCCI combustion. Data from tracer experiments are used to improve our combustion modeling.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF LAMINAR FLAME SPEED OF ALTERNATIVE LIQUID FUEL BLENDS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The rapid fluctuation in oil prices and increased demand of clean fuels to reduce emissions has forced the researchers to find alternative fuels that can give the same or better overall fuel characteristics. This thesis aims at looking into the prospects of Gas to Liquid (GTL) fuel as an alternative fuel for Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs), by investigating the flame speed of GTL fuel and its 50/50 (by volume) blend with conventional diesel. The tests were conducted in a new...

  12. Combustion of the alternative marine diesel fuel LCO in large diesel engines; Verbrennung des alternativen Marinekraftstoffs LCO in Grossdieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeier, Daniel; Takasaki, Koji; Tajima, Hiroshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (JP). Lab. of Engine and Combustion (ECO)

    2008-11-15

    Large diesel engines represent the heart of the ships, which transport worldwide about 80% of the goods over the sea route these days. Regimentations of the IMO are planning drastic reductions of nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide emission limitations from marine diesel engines. At the Laboratory of Engine and Combustion (ECO) of the Kyushu University in Fukuoka (Japan), experiments were carried out on a medium size, single cylinder, diesel engine with two-stroke technology in order to investigate the use of Light Cycle Oil (LCO) in large diesel engines with new combustion processes. (orig.)

  13. Control issues in oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snarheim, Dagfinn

    2009-08-15

    Combustion of fossil fuels is the major energy source in todays society. While the use of fossil fuels is a necessity for our society to function, there has been an increasing concern on the emissions of CO{sub 2} resulting from human activities. Emissions of CO{sub 2} are considered to be the main cause for the global warming and climate changes we have experienced in recent years. To fight the climate changes, the emissions of CO{sub 2} must be reduced in a timely fashion. Strategies to achieve this include switching to less carbon intensive fuels, renewable energy sources, nuclear energy and combustion with CO{sub 2} capture. The use of oxy-fuel combustion is among the alternative post- and pre combustion capture concepts, a strategy to achieve power production from fossil fuels with CO{sub 2} capture. In an oxy-fuel process, the fuel is burned in a mixture of oxygen and CO{sub 2} (or steam), leaving the exhaust consisting mainly of CO{sub 2} and steam. The steam can be removed by use of a condenser, leaving (almost) pure CO{sub 2} ready to be captured. The downside to CO{sub 2} capture is that it is expensive, both in capital cost of extra equipment, and in operation as it costs energy to capture the CO{sub 2}. Thus it is important to maximize the efficiency in such plants. One attractive concept to achieve CO{sub 2} capture by use of oxy-fuel, is a semi-closed oxy-fuel gas turbine cycle. The dynamics of such a plant are highly integrated, involving energy and mass recycle, and optimizing efficiency might lead to operational (control) challenges. In these thesis we investigate how such a power cycle should be controlled. By looking at control at such an early stage in the design phase, it is possible to find control solutions otherwise not feasible, that leads to better overall performance. Optimization is used on a nonlinear model based on first principles, to compare different control structures. Then, closed loop simulations using MPC, are used to validate

  14. Flexible fuel engine based on multi-combustion control technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaolu; HUANG Zhen; QIAO Xinqi; SONG Jun; FANG Junhua; XIA Huimin

    2005-01-01

    A combustion control strategy is proposed for diesel engine to reduce PM and NOx emissions significantly, which adopts some technologies including internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), split spray, adjustable fuel delivery advance angle and the application of alternative fuels. Based on this strategy, a flexible fuel engine has been developed. The experimental results show that this engine can be fueled with diesel fuel, alcohol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC), etc. It works with extremely low levels of particulate matter (PM) and NOx, 2~3% higher effective thermal efficiency on moderate and high loads when alternative fuels are used. This engine not only has lower exhaust emissions, but also can be fueled with those alternative fuels, which are difficult to be ignited by compression.

  15. The environmental benefits of using alternative fuels; Avantages environnementaux lies a l'utilisation de combustibles de substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlill, J. [Steetley Dolomite Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    Lafarge Lime has two operations in the UK producing dolomitic lime for use in the steel, chemicals and refractory industries. Neither site has the opportunity to burn natural gas and the primary fuel is petroleum coke. To produce the range of dolomitic limes for the steel and refractory industries, the Whitwell operation requires high temperatures. Consequently the generation of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} is substantial. (author)

  16. Pulse Detonation Assessment for Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanafi Azami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The higher thermodynamic efficiency inherent in a detonation combustion based engine has already led to considerable interest in the development of wave rotor, pulse detonation, and rotating detonation engine configurations as alternative technologies offering improved performance for the next generation of aerospace propulsion systems, but it is now important to consider their emissions also. To assess both performance and emissions, this paper focuses on the feasibility of using alternative fuels in detonation combustion. Thus, the standard aviation fuels Jet-A, Acetylene, Jatropha Bio-synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene, Camelina Bio-synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene, Algal Biofuel, and Microalgae Biofuel are all asessed under detonation combustion conditions. An analytical model accounting for the Rankine-Hugoniot Equation, Rayleigh Line Equation, and Zel’dovich–von Neumann–Doering model, and taking into account single step chemistry and thermophysical properties for a stoichiometric mixture, is applied to a simple detonation tube test case configuration. The computed pressure rise and detonation velocity are shown to be in good agreement with published literature. Additional computations examine the effects of initial pressure, temperature, and mass flux on the physical properties of the flow. The results indicate that alternative fuels require higher initial mass flux and temperature to detonate. The benefits of alternative fuels appear significant.

  17. A highly combustible composite solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonetaka, K.; Iketani, Y.; Nisino, A.; Takeuti, Y.

    1983-07-12

    To increase the combustibility, the briqueted solid fuel is coated with an auxiliary fuel which is characterized by high flamability. The composition ofthe basic fuel includes a solid fuel with a high combustion temperature and seeming density (mineral coal, activated charcoal, coke, graphite and a carbonized product), a desulfurizing agent (CaCO3 or MgO), a combustion promotor (Ca(CO3)2, KNO3, sodium acetate, iron oxalate) and forming additives (bentonite, clay or talc) or a binder (pitch, tar, methylcellulose or cement). The auxiliary fuel has the very same composition, but is characterized by a low ignition temperature and density (for instance, due to the addition of sawdust). The obtained two layer composite fuel is characterized by improved ignitibility and combustibility.

  18. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  19. Advancing the Limits of Dual Fuel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigsson, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    There is a growing interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest; the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors the Diesel Dual Fuel, DDF, engine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the DDF engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste; commonly referred to as biomethane, can provide a reduction in greenhouse gases unmatched by any other fuel. The DDF engine is from a combustion point of view a hybrid between the diesel and the otto engine and it shares characteristics with both. This work identifies the main challenges of DDF operation and suggests methods to overcome them. Injector tip temperature and pre-ignitions have been found to limit performance in addition to the restrictions known from literature such as knock and emissions of NO{sub x} and HC. HC emissions are especially challenging at light load where throttling is required to promote flame propagation. For this reason it is desired to increase the lean limit in the light load range in order to reduce pumping losses and increase efficiency. It is shown that the best results in this area are achieved by using early diesel injection to achieve HCCI/RCCI combustion where combustion phasing is controlled by the ratio between diesel and methane. However, even without committing to HCCI/RCCI combustion and the difficult control issues associated with it, substantial gains are accomplished by splitting the diesel injection into two and allocating most of the diesel fuel to the early injection. HCCI/RCCI and PPCI combustion can be used with great effect to reduce the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons at light load. At high load, the challenges that need to be overcome are mostly related to heat. Injector tip temperatures need to be observed since the cooling effect of

  20. Numerical Studies on Controlling Gaseous Fuel Combustion by Managing the Combustion Process of Diesel Pilot Dose in a Dual-Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulski Maciej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment and counteracting global warming require finding alternative sources of energy. One of the methods of generating energy from environmentally friendly sources is increasing the share of gaseous fuels in the total energy balance. The use of these fuels in compression-ignition (CI engines is difficult due to their relatively high autoignition temperature. One solution for using these fuels in CI engines is operating in a dualfuel mode, where the air and gas mixture is ignited with a liquid fuel dose. In this method, a series of relatively complex chemical processes occur in the engine's combustion chamber, related to the combustion of individual fuel fractions that interact with one another. Analysis of combustion of specific fuels in this type of fuel injection to the engine is difficult due to the fact that combustion of both fuel fractions takes place simultaneously. Simulation experiments can be used to analyse the impact of diesel fuel combustion on gaseous fuel combustion. In this paper, we discuss the results of simulation tests of combustion, based on the proprietary multiphase model of a dual-fuel engine. The results obtained from the simulation allow for analysis of the combustion process of individual fuels separately, which expands the knowledge obtained from experimental tests on the engine.

  1. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2015-07-14

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  2. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2016-06-28

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  3. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  4. Turbine Fuel Alternatives (Near Term)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    There was some evidence that the use of the alcohol blends affected the combustion properties of the fuel. A temperature survey was conducted with a T-34C...Jet-A. Also, the corrected fuel flow is lower when using an alcohol blend than when operating on Jet-A. These two factors indicate the combustion ...VERSUS CORRECTED TURBINE OUTLET TEMPERATURE A-7 200, -T ’go-I 190 170- ETA oix 15X ETANOL ! ¶,0-1 1 20- S 110j 1. 001 9 0 I 7 0 10 zo 460 500 540 580

  5. Fuel gas combustion research at METC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, T.S.

    1995-06-01

    The in-house combustion research program at METC is an integral part of many METC activities, providing support to METC product teams, project managers, and external industrial and university partners. While the majority of in-house combustion research in recent years has been focussed on the lean premixed combustion of natural gas fuel for Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) applications, increasing emphasis is being placed on issues of syngas combustion, as the time approaches when the ATS and coal-fired power systems programs will reach convergence. When the METC syngas generator is built in 1996, METC will have the unique combination of mid-scale pressurized experimental facilities, a continuous syngas supply with variable ammonia loading, and a team of people with expertise in low-emissions combustion, chemical kinetics, combustion modeling, combustion diagnostics, and the control of combustion instabilities. These will enable us to investigate such issues as the effects of pressure, temperature, and fuel gas composition on the rate of conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx, and on combustion instabilities in a variety of combustor designs.

  6. Alternative Fuels (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    SASOL Jet Fuel Qatar GTL Syntroleum Jet fuel in B-52 Nigeria GTL China Coal GTL Shell Bintulu GTL Cellulose ethanol for ground use Ocean Bio...Bintulu GTL Ocean Bio-fuel Factories Bio-butanol for ground use Future Energy Source Resurgence in Nuclear Power Bio-jet tests done ASTM Spec...High energy deoxygenated bio-jet fuel from algae PSU coal derived JP-8 B-52 emissions Scoping study HBR TF emissions New bio- fuel impacts Adv

  7. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  8. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  9. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  10. Combustion of large solid fuels in cement rotary kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma

    2012-03-15

    The cement industry has a significant interest in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels in order to minimize production costs and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. These new alternative fuels are in particular solid fuels such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), tire-derived fuel (TDF), meat and bone meal (MBM), waste wood, sewage sludge, paper and plastics. This thesis provides an insight into the utilization of solid alternative fuels in the material inlet end of rotary kilns. This position is interesting because it allows utilization of large fuel particles, thereby eliminating the need for an expensive shredding of the fuels. The challenge, however, is that the solid fuels will be mixed into the cement raw materials, which is likely to affect process stability and clinker quality, as described above. The mixing of fuels and raw materials was studied experimentally in a pilot-scale rotary drum and was found to be a fast process, reaching steady state within few drum revolutions. Thus, heat transfer by conduction from the cement raw materials to the fuel particles is a major heat transfer mechanism rather than convection or radiation from the freeboard gas above the material bed. Consequently, the temperature of the cement raw materials becomes a factor of great importance for heating the fuel particles. Combustion of different alternative fuels has been investigated experimentally in a pilot-scale rotary furnace under conditions similar to those in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns. The main focus was on tire rubber and pine wood which are relevant fuels in this context. Heating, drying and devolatilization of alternative fuels are fast processes that primarily depend on heat transfer and fuel particle size. Devolatilization of a large wood or tire particle with a thickness of 20 mm at 900 deg. C is for example around 2 minutes. By contrast, char oxidation is a slow process which may greatly reduce the amounts of solid fuels to be utilized in the

  11. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  12. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  13. Fuel services; Servicios de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, H.; Alvarez, P.; Jimenez, J.

    2006-07-01

    Refuelling outages comprise a number of maintenance tasks scheduled long in advance to assure a reliable operation throughout the next cycle and, in the long run, a safer and more efficient plant. Most of these tasks are routine service of mechanical and electrical system and likewise fuel an be considered a critical component as to handling, inspection, cleaning and repair. ENUSA-ENWESA AIE has been working in this area since 1995 growing from fuel repair to a more integrated service that includes new and spent fuel handling, inserts, failed fuel rod detection systems, ultrasonic fuel cleaning,fuel repair and a comprehensive array of inspection and tests related to the reliability of the mechanical components in the fuel assembly, all this, performed in compliance with quality, safety, health physics and any other nuclear standard. (Author)

  14. FY2015 Annual Report for Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjöberg, Carl-Magnus G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and the need to secure energy supplies are two reasons for a growing interest in engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This project contributes to the science-base needed by industry to develop highly efficient DISI engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Our emphasis is on lean operation, which can provide higher efficiencies than traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation. Since lean operation can lead to issues with ignition stability, slow flame propagation and low combustion efficiency, we focus on techniques that can overcome these challenges. Specifically, fuel stratification is used to ensure ignition and completeness of combustion but has soot- and NOx- emissions challenges. For ultralean well-mixed operation, turbulent deflagration can be combined with controlled end-gas auto-ignition to render mixed-mode combustion that facilitates high combustion efficiency. However, the response of both combustion and exhaust emissions to these techniques depends on the fuel properties. Therefore, to achieve optimal fuel-economy gains, the engine combustion-control strategies must be adapted to the fuel being utilized.

  15. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, recognize that engine and infrastructure compatibility can make or break the impact of even the most promising fuel. NREL and its industry partners navigate the intersection of fuel chemistry, ignition kinetics, combustion, and emissions, with innovative approaches to engines and fuels that meet drivers' expectations, while minimizing petroleum use and GHGs.

  16. Fuel and Combustion Characteristics of Organic Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Kunihiko; Ida, Tamio

    From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies for prevent global warning. This study is an attempt to burn biomass lamps made from residues in order to thermally recycle waste products of drink industries. The pyrolytic properties of shochu dregs and used tea leaves were observed by thermo-gravimertic analysis (TG) to obtained fundamental data of drink waste pyrolysis. It observed that shochu dregs pyrolyze under lower temperature than used tea leaves. These wastes were compressed by hot press apparatus in the temperature range from 140 to 180 °C for use as Bio-fuel (BF). The combustion behavior of BF was observed in fall-type electric furnace, where video-recording was carried out at sequential steps, such as ignition, visible envelope flame combustion and char combustion to obtain combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, visible flame combustion time and char combustion time.

  17. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  18. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  19. Alternative solvents for post combustion carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The process model of post combustion chemical absorption is developed in Aspen Plus for both coal and gas fired power plant flue gas treating. The re-boiler energy requirement is considered as the most important factor to be optimized. Two types of solvents, mono-ethylamine (MEA) and di-ethylamine (DEA), are used to implement the model for three different efficiencies. The re-boiler energy requirement for regeneration process is calculated. Temperature and concentration profiles in absorption column are analyzed to understand the model behavior. Re-boiler energy requirement is considerably lower for DEA than MEA as well as impact of corrosion also less in DEA. Therefore, DEA can be recommended as a better solvent for post combustion process for carbon capture plants in fossil fuel fired power industries.

  20. Alternative solvents for post combustion carbon capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Morten C. Melaaen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process model of post combustion chemical absorption is developed in Aspen Plus for both coal and gas fired power plant flue gas treating. The re-boiler energy requirement is considered as the most important factor to be optimized. Two types of solvents, mono-ethylamine (MEA and di-ethylamine (DEA, are used to implement the model for three different efficiencies. The re-boiler energy requirement for regeneration process is calculated. Temperature and concentration profiles in absorption column are analyzed to understand the model behavior. Re-boiler energy requirement is considerably lower for DEA than MEA as well as impact of corrosion also less in DEA. Therefore, DEA can be recommended as a better solvent for post combustion process for carbon capture plants in fossil fuel fired power industries.

  1. Measurements of fuel-N release during solid fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Di Nola; H. Spliethoff; S. Leiser; W. van de Kamp [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Thermal Power Engineering Section

    2003-07-01

    A South American high volatile bituminous coal and two fuel blends obtained by adding 10% cocoa shells and 10% wood, respectively, were selected to investigate the release of fuel nitrogen during devolatilisation and the char burnout behavior. The chars were produced at atmospheric pressure in heated wire mesh (HWM) and isothermal plug flow (IPFR) reactors and subsequently compared for their fuel-N content. Char burnout behavior was investigated comparing data from IPFR with outputs of a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Results showed that the volatile release yield was more affected by the final temperature and the residence time rather than by the heating rate. Fuel nitrogen release occurred to be particularly influenced by the residence time, showing higher total yields in the HWM with longer hold times at peak temperature. The comparison of char combustion rates in the IPFR and TGA showed that the data gained using a TGA is quantitatively not representative for combustion rates found in an industrial boiler. Combustion rates determined with the TGA are approximately three orders of magnitude lower than those determined with the IPFR. However, it was shown that differences in the combustion rates of the different fuels are reproducible qualitatively with both approaches. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Annual Report FY2014 Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Due to concerns about future petroleum supply and accelerating climate change, increased engine efficiency and alternative fuels are of interest. This project contributes to the science-base needed by industry to develop highly efficient DISI engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Lean operation is studied since it can provide higher efficiencies than traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation. Since lean operation can lead to issues with ignition stability, slow flame propagation and low combustion efficiency, focus is on techniques that can overcome these challenges. Specifically, fuel stratification can be used to ensure ignition and completeness of combustion, but may lead to soot and NOx emissions challenges. Advanced ignition system and intake air preheating both promote ignition stability. Controlled end-gas autoignition can be used maintain high combustion efficiency for ultra-lean well-mixed conditions. However, the response of both combustion and exhaust emission to these techniques depends on the fuel properties. Therefore, to achieve optimal fuel-economy gains, the combustion-control strategies of the engine must adopt to the fuel being utilized.

  3. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  4. Comprehensive study of biodiesel fuel for HSDI engines in conventional and low temperature combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tormos, Bernardo; Novella, Ricardo; Garcia, Antonio; Gargar, Kevin [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, ES, Campus de Vera, s/n, Edificio 6D. Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    In this research, an experimental investigation has been performed to give insight into the potential of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engines. The scope of this work has been broadened by comparing the combustion characteristics of diesel and biodiesel fuels in a wide range of engine loads and EGR conditions, including the high EGR rates expected for future diesel engines operating in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime. The experimental work has been carried out in a single-cylinder engine running alternatively with diesel and biodiesel fuels. Conventional diesel fuel and neat biodiesel have been compared in terms of their combustion performance through a new methodology designed for isolating the actual effects of each fuel on diesel combustion, aside from their intrinsic differences in chemical composition. The analysis of the results has been sequentially divided into two progressive and complementary steps. Initially, the overall combustion performance of each fuel has been critically evaluated based on a set of parameters used as tracers of the combustion quality, such as the combustion duration or the indicated efficiency. With the knowledge obtained from this previous overview, the analysis focuses on the detailed influence of biodiesel on the different diesel combustion stages known ignition delay, premixed combustion and mixing controlled combustion, considering also the impact on CO and UHC (unburn-hydrocarbons) pollutant emissions. The results of this research explain why the biodiesel fuel accelerates the diesel combustion process in all engine loads and EGR rates, even in those corresponding with LTC conditions, increasing its possibilities as alternative fuel for future DI diesel engines. (author)

  5. Development of Kinetic Mechanisms for Next-Generation Fuels and CFD Simulation of Advanced Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McNenly, Matt J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whitesides, Russell [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Killingsworth, Nick J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-17

    Predictive chemical kinetic models are needed to represent next-generation fuel components and their mixtures with conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. These kinetic models will allow the prediction of the effect of alternative fuel blends in CFD simulations of advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. Enabled by kinetic models, CFD simulations can be used to optimize fuel formulations for advanced combustion engines so that maximum engine efficiency, fossil fuel displacement goals, and low pollutant emission goals can be achieved.

  6. Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels: Combustion fundamentals and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels (PF), as a promising technology for CO2 capture from power plants, has gained a lot of concerns and also advanced considerable research, development and demonstration in the last past years worldwide. The use of CO2 or the mixture of CO2 and H2O vapor as th...

  7. Cyclic Combustion Variations in Dual Fuel Partially Premixed Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, K. K. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Krishnan, S. R. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Qi, Y. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

    2012-05-09

    Dual fuel pilot ignited natural gas engines are identified as an efficient and viable alternative to conventional diesel engines. This paper examines cyclic combustion fluctuations in conventional dual fuel and in dual fuel partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC). Conventional dual fueling with 95% (energy basis) natural gas (NG) substitution reduces NOx emissions by almost 90%t relative to straight diesel operation; however, this is accompanied by 98% increase in HC emissions, 10 percentage points reduction in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and 12 percentage points increase in COVimep. Dual fuel LTC is achieved by injection of a small amount of diesel fuel (2-3 percent on an energy basis) to ignite a premixed natural gas₋air mixture to attain very low NOx emissions (less than 0.2 g/kWh). Cyclic variations in both combustion modes were analyzed by observing the cyclic fluctuations in start of combustion (SOC), peak cylinder pressures (Pmax), combustion phasing (Ca50), and the separation between the diesel injection event and Ca50 (termed "relative combustion phasing" ). For conventional dual fueling, as % NG increases, Pmax decreases, SOC and Ca50 are delayed, and cyclic variations increase. For dual fuel LTC, as diesel injection timing is advanced from 20° to 60° BTDC, the relative combustion phasing is identified as an important combustion parameter along with SoC, Pmax, and CaPmax. For both combustion modes, cyclic variations were characterized by alternating slow and fast burn cycles, especially at high %NG and advanced injection timings. Finally, heat release return maps were analyzed to demonstrate thermal management strategies as an effective tool to mitigate cyclic combustion variations, especially in dual fuel LTC.

  8. Liquid Metal Fuel Combustion Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Mechanics. No such analysis seem to have been done todate . The other way is to calculate the fluid Finally the location of the liquid particles within the...3601, July about 10 axial locations before peaking up . At about y=25, the 1987. 5 3. L.P.Cook and E.R.Plante: Survey of alternate Stored Chemical

  9. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  10. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  11. Dimethyl ether as alternative fuel for CI engine and vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen HUANG; Xinqi QIAO; Wugao ZHANG; Junhua WU; Junjun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    As a developing and the most populous country in the world, China faces major challenges in energy supply and environmental protection. It is of great importance to develop clean and alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. On the basis of researches on DME engine and vehicle at Shanghai Jiaotong University in the last twelve years, fuel injection, combustion, performance and exhaust emissions of DME engine and DME vehicle are introduced in this paper. The results indicate that DME engines can achieve high thermal efficiency and ultra low emissions, and will play a significant role in meeting the energy demand while minimizing environmental impact in China.

  12. Sulphur release from alternative fuel firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The cement industry has long been dependent on the use of fossil fuels, although a recent trend in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels has arisen. 1, 2 However, when unconverted or partly converted alternative fuels are admitted directly in the rotary kiln inlet, the volatiles released...

  13. Impact of alternate fuels on industrial refractories and refractory insulation applications. An Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-09-01

    The effects of use of alternate fuels such as distillate oils, residual oils, coal, producer gas, and electricity on refractory insulation are evaluated. Sections are included on alternate fuels for 1976 to 1980, assessment by industry of fuel conversion impact on industrial refractories in the period 1976 to 1980, interactions of alternate fuel combustion products with refractories and refractory insulation, and analysis of degradation mechanisms in refractories and refractory materials. (JRD)

  14. Modeling of large-scale oxy-fuel combustion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Quite some studies have been conducted in order to implement oxy-fuel combustion with flue gas recycle in conventional utility boilers as an effective effort of carbon capture and storage. However, combustion under oxy-fuel conditions is significantly different from conventional air-fuel firing......, among which radiative heat transfer under oxy-fuel conditions is one of the fundamental issues. This paper demonstrates the nongray-gas effects in modeling of large-scale oxy-fuel combustion processes. Oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas in a 609MW utility boiler is numerically studied, in which...... calculation of the oxy-fuel WSGGM remarkably over-predicts the radiative heat transfer to the furnace walls and under-predicts the gas temperature at the furnace exit plane, which also result in a higher incomplete combustion in the gray calculation. Moreover, the gray and non-gray calculations of the same...

  15. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  16. Periodic Partial Extinction Regime in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia Quiroz, Miguel; Bennewitz, John; Vargas, Andres; Sim, Hyung Sub; Smith, Owen; Karagozian, Ann

    2016-11-01

    This experimental study investigates the response of burning liquid fuel droplets exposed to standing acoustic waves, extending prior studies quantifying mean and temporal flame response to moderate acoustic excitation. This investigation explores alternative fuels exposed to a range of acoustic forcing conditions (frequencies and amplitudes), with a focus on ethanol and JP-8. Three fundamental flame regimes are observed: sustained oscillatory combustion, periodic partial extinction and reignition (PPER), and full extinction. Phase-locked OH* chemiluminescence imaging and local temporal pressure measurements allow quantification of the combustion-acoustic coupling through the local Rayleigh index G. As expected, PPER produces negative G values, despite having clear flame oscillations. PPER is observed to occur at low-frequency, high amplitude excitation, where the acoustic time scales are large compared with kinetic/reaction times scales for diffusion-limited combustion processes. These quantitative differences in behavior are determined to depend on localized fluid mechanical strain created by the acoustic excitation as well as reaction kinetics. Supported by AFOSR Grant FA9550-15-1-0339.

  17. Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    This Ph.D. thesis describes an experimental and modeling investigation of the thermal conversion of coal and an experimental investigation of the emission of NO from char combustion in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres. The motivation for the work has been the prospective use of the technology “Oxy......-Fuel Combustion” as a mean of CO2 abatement in large scale energy conversion. Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) experiments have been conducted in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 mixtures in the temperature interval 1173 K – 1673 K using inlet O2 concentrations between 5 – 28 vol. %. Bituminous coal has been used as fuel in all....... % it was found that char conversion rate was lowered in O2/CO2 compared to O2/N2. This is caused by the lower diffusion coefficient of O2 in CO2 (~ 22 %) that limits the reaction rate in zone III compared to combustion in O2/N2. Using char sampled in the EFR experiments ThermoGravimetric Analyzer (TGA...

  18. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution; La pila de combustible en los vehiculos automoviles: un reto tecnologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Martinez, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO{sub 2} as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?.

  19. Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  1. Chemical looping combustion. Fuel conversion with inherent CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvoll, Oeyvind

    2005-07-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a new concept for fuel energy conversion with CO2 capture. In CLC, fuel combustion is split into separate reduction and oxidation processes, in which a solid carrier is reduced and oxidized, respectively. The carrier is continuously recirculated between the two vessels, and hence direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. As a result, a stoichiometric amount of oxygen is transferred to the fuel by a regenerable solid intermediate, and CLC is thus a variant of oxy-fuel combustion. In principle, pure CO2 can be obtained from the reduction exhaust by condensation of the produced water vapour. The thermodynamic potential and feasibility of CLC has been studied by means of process simulations and experimental studies of oxygen carriers. Process simulations have focused on parameter sensitivity studies of CLC implemented in 3 power cycles; CLC-Combined Cycle, CLC-Humid Air Turbine and CLC-Integrated Steam Generation. Simulations indicate that overall fuel conversion ratio, oxidation temperature and operating pressure are among the most important process parameters in CLC. A promising thermodynamic potential of CLC has been found, with efficiencies comparable to, - or better than existing technologies for CO2 capture. The proposed oxygen carrier nickel oxide on nickel spinel (NiONiAl) has been studied in reduction with hydrogen, methane and methane/steam as well as oxidation with dry air. It has been found that at atmospheric pressure and temperatures above 600 deg C, solid reduction with dry methane occurs with overall fuel conversion of 92%. Steam methane reforming is observed along with methane cracking as side reactions, yielding an overall selectivity of 90% with regard to solid reduction. If steam is added to the reactant fuel, coking can be avoided. A methodology for long-term investigation of solid chemical activity in a batch reactor is proposed. The method is based on time variables for oxidation. The results for Ni

  2. Advanced Diagnostics in Oxy-Fuel Combustion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Clausen, Sønnik

    , formed the basis of a publication and it is part of two PhD dissertations. The name of the conference the journal and the dissertations are listed below. - Joint Meeting of the Scandinavian-Nordic and French Sections of the Combustion Institute, Combustion of Char Particles under Oxy-Fuel Conditions......: Formation of NO and Particle Temperature, Copenhagen, 9-10 November 2009. - Brix J, Navascués LG, Joachim, Nielsen JB, Bonnek PL, Larsen HE, Clausen S, Glarborg P, Jensen AD, Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal Char: Particle Temperature and NO Formation, Submitted to Fuel on the 19th of November 2010. - Brix J......, Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal, Ph.D. Thesis, CHEC Research Centre – Technical University of Denmark, 2011. - Toftegaard, MB, OxyFuel Combustion of Coal and Biomass, Ph.D. Thesis, CHEC Research Centre – Technical University of Denmark, 2011. In addition two students projects have been carried out...

  3. Characterisation of fuels for advanced pressurised combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Hupa, M.; Backman, P.; Forssen, M.; Karlsson, M.; Kullberg, M.; Sorvari, V.; Uusikartano, T. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group; Nurk, M. [Tallinskij Politekhnicheskij Inst., Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of the research was to determine a set of fuel characteristics which quantify the behaviour of a fuel in a typical pressurised combustor or gasifier environment, especially in hybrid processes such as second generation PFBC. One specific aspect was to cover a wide range of fuels, including several coal types and several grades of peat and biomasses: 7 types of coal, 2 types of peat, 2 types of wood, 2 types of black liquor, Estonian oil shale and Venezuelan Orimulsion were studied. The laboratory facilities used are a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor (PTGR), a pressurised grid heater (PGH) and an atmospheric entrained flow quartz tube reactor, with gas analysis, which can be operated as a fixed bed reactor. A major part of the work was related to fuel devolatilisation in the PGH and sequential devolatilisation and char gasification (with carbon dioxide or steam) in the PTGR. The final part of that work is reported here, with the combustion of Estonian oil shale at AFBC or PFBC conditions as additional subject. Devolatilisation of the fuels at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen while monitoring gaseous exhausts, followed by ultimate analysis of the chars has been reported earlier. Here, results on the analysis of the reduction of NO (with and without CO) on chars at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed reactor are reported. Finally, a comparison is given between experimental results and direct numerical simulation with several computer codes, i.e. PyroSim, developed at TU Graz, Austria, and the codes Partikkeli, Pisara and Cogas, which were provided by VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae

  4. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  5. Combustion Characterization and Model Fuel Development for Micro-tubular Flame-assisted Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarek, Ryan J; Garrett, Michael J; Baskaran, Amrish; Ahn, Jeongmin

    2016-10-02

    Combustion based power generation has been accomplished for many years through a number of heat engine systems. Recently, a move towards small scale power generation and micro combustion as well as development in fuel cell research has created new means of power generation that combine solid oxide fuel cells with open flames and combustion exhaust. Instead of relying upon the heat of combustion, these solid oxide fuel cell systems rely on reforming of the fuel via combustion to generate syngas for electrochemical power generation. Procedures were developed to assess the combustion by-products under a wide range of conditions. While theoretical and computational procedures have been developed for assessing fuel-rich combustion exhaust in these applications, experimental techniques have also emerged. The experimental procedures often rely upon a gas chromatograph or mass spectrometer analysis of the flame and exhaust to assess the combustion process as a fuel reformer and means of heat generation. The experimental techniques developed in these areas have been applied anew for the development of the micro-tubular flame-assisted fuel cell. The protocol discussed in this work builds on past techniques to specify a procedure for characterizing fuel-rich combustion exhaust and developing a model fuel-rich combustion exhaust for use in flame-assisted fuel cell testing. The development of the procedure and its applications and limitations are discussed.

  6. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Eric [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  7. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  8. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  9. Serpent: an alternative for the nuclear fuel cells analysis of a BWR; SERPENT: una alternativa para el analisis de celdas de combustible nuclear de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva A, L.; Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gomez T, A. M., E-mail: lidi.s.albarran@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In the last ten years the diverse research groups in nuclear engineering of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and Instituto Politecnico Nacional (UNAM, IPN), as of research (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ) as well as the personnel of the Nuclear Plant Management of the Comision Federal de Electricidad have been using the codes Helios and /or CASMO-4 in the generation of cross sections (X S) of nuclear fuel cells of the cores corresponding to the Units 1 and 2 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Both codes belong to the Studsvik-Scandpower Company who receives the payment for the use and their respective maintenance. In recent years, the code Serpent appears among the nuclear community distributed by the OECD/Nea which does not has cost neither in its use neither in its maintenance. The code is based on the Monte Carlo method and makes use of the processing in parallel. In the Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas of the IPN, the personnel has accumulated certain experience in the use of Serpent under the direction of personal of the ININ; of this experience have been obtained for diverse fuel burned, the infinite multiplication factor for three cells of nuclear fuel, without control bar and with control bar for a known thermodynamic state fixed by: a) the fuel temperature (T{sub f}), b) the moderator temperature (T{sub m}) and c) the vacuums fraction (α). Although was not realized any comparison with the X S that the codes Helios and CASMO-4 generate, the results obtained for the infinite multiplication factor show the prospective tendencies with regard to the fuel burned so much in the case in that is not present the control bar like when it is. The results are encouraging and motivate to the study group to continue with the X S generation of a core in order to build the respective library of nuclear data as a following step and this can be used for the codes PARCS, of USA NRC, DYN3D of HZDR, or others developed locally

  10. Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

    2009-12-31

    The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this

  11. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  12. MODELING OF FUEL SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS AND DIESEL COMBUSTION CHAMBER PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The computer model for coordination of fuel spray characteristics with diesel combustion chamber parameters has been created in the paper.  The model allows to observe fuel sprays  develоpment in diesel cylinder at any moment of injection, to calculate characteristics of fuel sprays with due account of a shape and dimensions of a combustion chamber, timely to change fuel injection characteristics and supercharging parameters, shape and dimensions of a combustion chamber. Moreover the computer model permits to determine parameters of holes in an injector nozzle that provides the required fuel sprays characteristics at the stage of designing a diesel engine. Combustion chamber parameters for 4ЧН11/12.5 diesel engine have been determined in the paper.

  13. Potential of alternative sorbents for desulphurization: from laboratory tests to the full-scale combustion unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbyszek Szeliga; Dagmar Juchelkova; Bohumir Cech; Pavel Kolat; Franz Winter; Adam J. Campen; Tomasz S. Wiltowski [Technical University of Ostrava (VSB), Ostrava (Czech Republic). Department of Energy Engineering

    2008-09-15

    At present, natural limestone is used for the desulphurization of waste gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is important to save all primary resources, such as limestone, for the future. The researchers focused on finding alternative sorbents for the purpose of desulphurization in a dry additive method, which would become the alternative for natural limestone. This paper is primarily focused on desulphurization tests of selected substances. Tests were initially conducted on the laboratory scale, followed by pilot and full-scale combustion units. 15 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  15. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  16. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    There are different interpretations of the term 'alternative fuels', depending on the part of the world in which the definition is used. In this report, alternative fuels mainly stand for fuels that can replace gasoline and diesel oil and at the same time contribute to lowered emissions with impact on health, environment and climate. The use of alternative vehicle fuels has increased during the last 30 years. However, the increase has developed slowly and today the use is very limited, compared to the use of conventional fuels. Although, the use in some special applications, often in rather small geographical areas, can be somewhat larger. The main interest for alternative fuels has for a long time been driven by supply security issues and the possibility to reduce emissions with a negative impact on health and environment. However, the development of reformulated gasoline and low sulphur diesel oil has contributed to substantially decreased emissions from these fuels without using any alternative fuel. This has reduced the environmental impact driving force for the introduction of alternative fuels. In line with the increased interest for climate effects and the connections between these effects and the emission of greenhouse gases, and then primarily carbon dioxide, the interest for biomass based alternative fuels has increased during the 1990s. Even though one of the driving forces for alternative fuels is small today, alternative fuels are more commonly accepted than ever before. The European Commission has for example in May 2003 agreed on a directive for the promotion of the use of bio fuels. In the directive there are goals for the coming 7 years that will increase the use of alternative fuels in Europe rather dramatically, from below 1 percent now up to almost 6 percent of the total vehicle fuel consumption in 2010. The increased use of alternative fuels in Europe and the rest of the world will create a need for a common interpretation of what we

  17. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  18. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2014-10-07

    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  19. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  20. Combustion technology overview. [the use of broadened property aircraft fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of combustor technology developments required for use of broadened property fuels in jet aircraft is presented. The intent of current investigations is to determine the extent to which fuel properties can be varied, to obtain a data base of combustion - fuel quality effects, and to determine the trade-offs associated with broadened property fuels. Subcomponents of in-service combustors such as fuel injectors and liners, as well as air distributions and stoichiometry, are being altered to determine the extent to which fuel flexibility can be extended. Finally, very advanced technology consisting of new combustor concepts is being evolved to optimize the fuel flexibility of gas turbine combustors.

  1. Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.; Greene, Howard L.

    With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security, and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking non-petroleum based alternative fuels, along with more advanced energy technologies (e.g., fuel cells) to increase the efficiency of energy use. The most promising alternative fuel will be the fuel that has the greatest impact on society. The major impact areas include well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions, non-petroleum feed stocks, well-to-wheel efficiencies, fuel versatility, infrastructure, availability, economics, and safety. Compared to some of the other leading alternative fuel candidates (i.e., methane, methanol, ethanol, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels), dimethyl ether appears to have the largest potential impact on society, and should be considered as the fuel of choice for eliminating the dependency on petroleum. DME can be used as a clean high-efficiency compression ignition fuel with reduced NO x, SO x, and particulate matter, it can be efficiently reformed to hydrogen at low temperatures, and does not have large issues with toxicity, production, infrastructure, and transportation as do various other fuels. The literature relevant to DME use is reviewed and summarized to demonstrate the viability of DME as an alternative fuel.

  2. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  3. Combustion Characterization of Bio-derived Fuels and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid

    Climate change has become a serious concern nowadays. The main reason is believed to be the high emission of greenhouse gases, namely CO2 which is mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. At the same time, energy demand has increased exponentially while the energy supply mainly depends...... on fossil fuels, especially for transportation. The practical strategy to address such problems in medium term is to increase the efficiency of combustion-propelled energy-production systems, as well as to reduce the net release of CO2 and other harmful pollutants, likely by using nonconventional fuels....... Modern internal combustion engines such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are more efficient and fuel-flexible compared to the conventional engines, making opportunities to reduce the release of greenhouse and other polluting gases to the environment. Combustion temperature...

  4. On gas and particle radiation in pulverized fuel combustion furnaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2015-01-01

    Radiation is the principal mode of heat transfer in a combustor. This paper presents a refined weighted sum of gray gases model for computational fluid dynamics modelling of conventional air-fuel combustion, which has greater accuracy and completeness than the existing gaseous radiative property....... Although the refined gaseous radiative property model shows great advantages in gaseous fuel combustion modelling, its impacts are largely compromised in pulverized solid fuel combustion, in which particle-radiation interaction plays the dominant role in radiation heat transfer due to high particle loading....... Use of conversion-dependent particle emissivity and scattering factor will not only change the particle heating and reaction history, but also alter the radiation intensity and thus temperature profiles in the furnace. For radiation modelling in pulverized fuel combustion, the priority needs...

  5. Fuel design real-time to control HCCI combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yuchun; HUANG Zhen; LU Xingcai; FANG Junhuan; ZU Linlin

    2006-01-01

    In order to achieve lower emissions and extensive load in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine system, a novel fuel design concept that high-octane number fuel and high-cetane number fuel are mixed real-time to control HCCI combustion is proposed in this study. HCCI combustion fueled with iso-octane/n-heptane mixtures controlled real-time on a single-cylinder HCCI combustion engine is studied. The test results show that the equivalence ratio of n-heptane in mixtures decides ignition and controls the combustion phase of HCCI combustion. The addition of iso-octane extends knocking limit in equivalence ratio somewhat,but knocking occurrence mainly depends on the total concentration of mixture. Although operating range in equivalence ratio becomes narrow with the increasing proportion of iso-octane, the maximum load of HCCI combustion fueled with iso-octane/n-heptane mixtures controlled real-time is increased about 80% more than that of pure n-heptane. When iso-octane/n-heptane mixtures are controlled in optimized method, it is proved that the load of HCCI combustion can be fully extended and emissions can be decreased remarkably, while at the same time the higher indicated thermal efficiencies are obtained over the extensive operation range.

  6. COMBUSTION SIMULATION IN A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE CYLINDER: EFFECTS OF AIR-FUEL RATIO ON THE COMBUSTION DURATION

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Combustion is an important subject of internal combustion engine studies. To reduce the air pollution from internal combustion engines and to increase the engine performance, it is required to increase combustion efficiency. In this study, effects of air/fuel ratio were investigated numerically. An axisymmetrical internal combustion engine was modeled in order to simulate in-cylinder engine flow and combustion. Two dimensional transient continuity, momentum, turbulence, energy, and combustion...

  7. DoD use of Domestically-Produced Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-10

    fuels and vehicles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS alternative fuel infrastructure, electric vehicles, biofuels, ethanol , biodiesel , drop-in, synthetic fuel...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 10 APR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 06 JAN 2014 - 2014 APR 10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DoD use of...based fuels and biodiesel , in DoD vehicles; (2) current and projected actions by the DoD to increase the use of alternative fuels in vehicles; (3) a

  8. Advanced modeling of oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chungen Yin

    2011-01-15

    The main goal of this small-scale project is to investigate oxy-combustion of natural gas (NG) through advanced modeling, in which radiation, chemistry and mixing will be reasonably resolved. 1) A state-of-the-art review was given regarding the latest R and D achievements and status of oxy-fuel technology. The modeling and simulation status and achievements in the field of oxy-fuel combustion were also summarized; 2) A computer code in standard c++, using the exponential wide band model (EWBM) to evaluate the emissivity and absorptivity of any gas mixture at any condition, was developed and validated in detail against data in literature. A new, complete, and accurate WSGGM, applicable to both air-fuel and oxy-fuel combustion modeling and applicable to both gray and non-gray calculation, was successfully derived, by using the validated EWBM code as the reference mode. The new WSGGM was implemented in CFD modeling of two different oxy-fuel furnaces, through which its great, unique advantages over the currently most widely used WSGGM were demonstrated. 3) Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed for oxy-NG flame and air-NG flame, in which dissociation effects were considered to different degrees. Remarkable differences in oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion were revealed, and main intermediate species that play key roles in oxy-fuel flames were identified. Different combustion mechanisms are compared, e.g., the most widely used 2-step global mechanism, refined 4-step global mechanism, a global mechanism developed for oxy-fuel using detailed chemical kinetic modeling (CHEMKIN) as reference. 4) Over 15 CFD simulations were done for oxy-NG combustion, in which radiation, chemistry, mixing, turbulence-chemistry interactions, and so on were thoroughly investigated. Among all the simulations, RANS combined with 2-step and refined 4-step mechanism, RANS combined with CHEMKIN-based new global mechanism for oxy-fuel modeling, and LES combined with different combustion

  9. Dual-Fuel Combustion for Future Clean and Efficient Compression Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Benajes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stringent emissions limits introduced for internal combustion engines impose a major challenge for the research community. The technological solution adopted by the manufactures of diesel engines to meet the NOx and particle matter values imposed in the EURO VI regulation relies on using selective catalytic reduction and particulate filter systems, which increases the complexity and cost of the engine. Alternatively, several new combustion modes aimed at avoiding the formation of these two pollutants by promoting low temperature combustion reactions, are the focus of study nowadays. Among these new concepts, the dual-fuel combustion mode known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI seems more promising because it allows better control of the combustion process by means of modulating the fuel reactivity depending on the engine operating conditions. The present experimental work explores the potential of different strategies for reducing the energy losses with RCCI in a single-cylinder research engine, with the final goal of providing the guidelines to define an efficient dual-fuel combustion system. The results demonstrate that the engine settings combination, piston geometry modification, and fuel properties variation are good methods to increase the RCCI efficiency while maintaining ultra-low NOx and soot emissions for a wide range of operating conditions.

  10. Chemistry and radiation in oxy-fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of combustion chemistry and radiation heat transfer in oxy-fuel combustion modeling, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling study has been performed for two different oxy-fuel furnaces. One is a lab-scale 0.8MW oxy-natural gas flame furnace whose detailed in......-flame measurement data are available; the other is a conventional 609MW utility boiler which is assumed to be operating under oxy-fuel combustion condition with dry flue gas recycle. A new model for gaseous radiative properties is developed, validated, and then implemented in the CFD simulations. The CFD results...... are compared to those based on the widely used model in literature, as well as the in-flame measurement data. The importance and advantage of the new model for gaseous radiative properties have been well demonstrated. Different combustion mechanisms are also implemented and compared in the CFD simulations...

  11. Fuel injection characteristics of diesel-stimulated natural gas combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarawa, M.; Milton, B.E.; Casey, R.T.; Miao, H. [University of New South Wales, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    Although dual-fuel (DF) engines using a low cetane number primary fuel such as natural gas (NG) ignited by a pilot diesel spay have been the subject of much investigation over years, there are still many unknown problems related to the fundamental combustion process of two fuels. In this work, a quiescent constant volume combustion bomb and a 3-D numerical model have been used to study the effects of injection nozzle characteristics on the combustion of pre-mixed NG/air with pilot distillate spray. Experimental tests were conducted on combustion process of pre-mixed natural gas/air with pilot injection pressure of 30 and 20 MPa with a 4 hole injector, and also with injector nozzle of 8 and 4 holes. The global results obtained from computations compared well with the experimental results. (Author)

  12. Modelling of fuel spray and combustion in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, M.T.; Kaario, O.T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel spray and air motion characteristics and combustion in direct injection (DI) diesel engines was studied using computational models of the commercial CFD-code FIRE. Physical subprocesses modelled included Lagrangian spray droplet movement and behaviour (atomisation, evaporation and interaction of spray droplets) and combustion of evaporated liquid spray in the gas phase. Fuel vapour combustion rate was described by the model of Magnussen and Hjertager. The standard k,{epsilon}-model was used for turbulence. In order to be able to predict combustion accurately, the fuel spray penetration should be predicted with reasonable accuracy. In this study, the standard drag coefficient had to be reduced in order to match the computed penetration to the measured one. In addition, the constants in the submodel describing droplet breakup also needed to be adjusted for closer agreement with the measurements. The characteristic time scale of fuel consumption rate k/C{sub R} {epsilon} strongly influenced the heat release and in-cylinder pressure. With a value around 2.0 to 5.0 for C{sub R}, the computed in-cylinder pressure during the compression stroke agreed quite well with the measurements. On the other hand, the in-cylinder pressure was underpredicted during the expansion stroke. This is partly due to the fact that hydrocarbon fuel combustion was modelled as a one-step reaction reading to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and inadequate description of the mixing of reactants and combustion products. (author) 16 refs.

  13. The combustion of solid fuels and wastes

    CERN Document Server

    Tillman, David

    1991-01-01

    Careful organization and empirical correlations help clarify the prodigious technical information presented in this useful reference.Key Features* Written for practicing engineers, this comprehensive book supplies an overall framework of the combustion process; It connects information on specific reactions and reaction sequences with current applications and hardware; Each major group of combustion solids is evaluated; Among the many topics covered are:* Various biomass forms* The coalification process* Grate, kiln, and suspension firing* Fluidized bed combustion

  14. Final Report - Low Temperature Combustion Chemistry And Fuel Component Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Recent research into combustion chemistry has shown that reactions at “low temperatures” (700 – 1100 K) have a dramatic influence on ignition and combustion of fuels in virtually every practical combustion system. A powerful class of laboratory-scale experimental facilities that can focus on fuel chemistry in this temperature range is the rapid compression facility (RCF), which has proven to be a versatile tool to examine the details of fuel chemistry in this important regime. An RCF was used in this project to advance our understanding of low temperature chemistry of important fuel compounds. We show how factors including fuel molecular structure, the presence of unsaturated C=C bonds, and the presence of alkyl ester groups influence fuel auto-ignition and produce variable amounts of negative temperature coefficient behavior of fuel ignition. We report new discoveries of synergistic ignition interactions between alkane and alcohol fuels, with both experimental and kinetic modeling studies of these complex interactions. The results of this project quantify the effects of molecular structure on combustion chemistry including carbon bond saturation, through low temperature experimental studies of esters, alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols.

  15. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  16. Enhancing instruction in Fuels and Combustion Laboratory via a developed computer-assisted program for establishing efficient coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) fuel proportions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglaya, A.B. [La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of digital computation in Fuels and Combustion Laboratory experiments used by the senior students of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, De La Salle University-Manila, Philippines. One of the students' experiments involved the determination of the most efficient CDOM fuel proportion as alternative fuel to diesel oil for steam generators and other industrial applications. Theoretical calculations show that it requires tedious and repetitive computations. A computer-assisted program was developed to lessen the time-consuming activities. The formulation of algorithms were based on the system of equations of the heat interaction between the CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion and by applying the principles of mass and energy equations (or the First Law of Thermodynamics) for reacting systems were utilized. The developed computer-assisted program output verified alternative fuel selected through actual experimentation.

  17. Liquid alternative diesel fuels with high hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancsok, Jenoe; Varga, Zoltan; Eller, Zoltan; Poelczmann, Gyoergy [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon Processing; Kasza, Tamas [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary)

    2013-06-01

    Mobility is a keystone of the sustainable development. In the operation of the vehicles as the tools of mobility internal combustion engines, so thus Diesel engines will play a remarkable role in the next decades. Beside fossil fuels - used for power these engines - liquid alternative fuels have higher and higher importance, because of their known advantages. During the presentation the categorization possibilities based on the chronology of their development and application will be presented. The importance of fuels with high hydrogen content will be reviewed. Research and development activity in the field of such kind of fuels will be presented. During this developed catalytic systems and main performance properties of the product will be presented which were obtained in case of biogasoils produced by special hydrocracking of natural triglycerides and in case of necessity followed by isomerization; furthermore in case of synthetic biogasoils obtained by the isomerization hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch paraffins produced from biomass based synthesis gas. Excellent combustion properties (cetane number > 65-75), good cold flow properties and reduced harmful material emission due to the high hydrogen content (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}) are highlighted. Finally production possibilities of linear and branched paraffins based on lignocelluloses are briefly reviewed. Summarizing it was concluded that liquid hydrocarbons with high isoparaffin content are the most suitable fuels regarding availability, economical and environmental aspects, namely the sustainable development. (orig.)

  18. 10 CFR 490.506 - Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 490.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.506 Alternative fueled vehicle credit transfers. (a) Any fleet... fueled vehicle credit to— (1) A fleet that is required to acquire alternative fueled vehicles; or (2)...

  19. Alternative motor fuels today and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B

    2004-07-01

    Today, petroleum products account for 97% of the energy consumed in road transport. The purpose of replacing these products with alternative energies is to reduce oil dependence as well as greenhouse gas emissions. The high price of oil has promoted the use of 'conventional' alternative motor fuels (biofuels, LPG, NGV) and also renewed interest in syn-fuels (GTL, CTL, BTL) that have already given rise to industrial and pilot projects. (author)

  20. Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of solid fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions can occur and cause decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2 concentration, which may cause...... deposit formation in the kiln system. SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of solid fuels has been studied experimentally in a high temperature rotary drum. The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. The SO2 release from the raw materials...

  1. Combustion of coal gas fuels in a staged combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Mcvey, J. B.; Sederquist, R. A.; Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources generally have heating values much lower than natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable nitrogen oxide exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations indicate that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low nitrogen oxide emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels contaning up to 0.8-wt pct nitrogen. An experimental program was conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7 pct ammonia are presented.

  2. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  3. Hydrogen: A real alternative to fossil fuels and bio fuels in the Spanish vehicle industry; El Hidrogeno: Una alternativa real a los combustible fosiles y a los biocombustible para automoacion en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Sobrino, F.; Rodriguez-Monroy, C.; Hernandez-Perez, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    For several years, UE has been trying to increase the use of bio fuels to replace petrol or diesel in the transports with the aim of fulfilling a commitment about climate change, supplying environmentally friendly conditions, promoting renewable energy sources. To achieve this, the 2003/30/EC Directive states that in all the European countries, before 31st December 2010, at least 5.75% of all petrol and diesel fuels used for transport are bio fuels. In previous papers, the authors evaluated this possibility. Analyzing hydrogen as replacement of fossil fuels and bio fuels nowadays in spain and a technical,economic and environmental point of view is the aim of this paper. (Author)

  4. Compounded turbocharged rotary internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, P.E.

    1992-10-15

    This patent describes a compounded engine. It comprises: a first Wankel engine having a housing with a trochoidal inner surface containing a generally triangular shaped rotor, the engine containing a fuel supply system suitable for operating the engine with natural gas as a fuel; a turbocharge compressing air for combustion by the engine, the turbocharger being driven by the exhaust gases which exit from the engine; a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust from the engine after that exhaust has passed through the turbocharger, the chamber having an ignition device suitable for igniting hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust, whereby the engine timing, and the air and fuel mixture of the engine are controlled so that when the engine exhaust reaches the combustion chamber the exhaust contains a sufficient amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons to enable ignition and combustion of the engine exhaust in the combustion chamber without the addition of fuel or air, and whereby the engine operating conditions are controlled to vary the performance of the secondary combustor; and a controllable ignition device to ignite the exhaust gases in the combustion chamber at predetermined times.

  5. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  6. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  7. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-02-03

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  8. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  9. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-01-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  10. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  11. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  12. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  13. Natural Gas for Advanced Dual-Fuel Combustion Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nicholas Ryan

    Natural gas fuels represent the next evolution of low-carbon energy feedstocks powering human activity worldwide. The internal combustion engine, the energy conversion device widely used by society for more than one century, is capable of utilizing advanced combustion strategies in pursuit of ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions. Yet many emerging advanced combustion strategies depend upon traditional petroleum-based fuels for their operation. In this research the use of natural gas, namely methane, is applied to both conventional and advanced dual-fuel combustion strategies. In the first part of this work both computational and experimental studies are undertaken to examine the viability of utilizing methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel in reactivity controlled compression ignition, a leading advanced dual-fuel combustion strategy. As a result, methane is shown to be capable of significantly extending the load limits for dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition in both light- and heavy-duty engines. In the second part of this work heavy-duty single-cylinder engine experiments are performed to research the performance of both conventional dual-fuel (diesel pilot ignition) and advanced dual-fuel (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion strategies using methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel. Both strategies are strongly influenced by equivalence ratio; diesel pilot ignition offers best performance at higher equivalence ratios and higher premixed methane ratios, whereas reactivity controlled compression ignition offers superior performance at lower equivalence ratios and lower premixed methane ratios. In the third part of this work experiments are performed in order to determine the dominant mode of heat release for both dual-fuel combustion strategies. By studying the dual-fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition and single-fuel spark ignition, strategies representative of autoignition and flame propagation

  14. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Brian R.; Ochs, Thomas Lilburn; Summers, Cathy Ann; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul Chandler

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  15. Alternative Fuels and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The main report of the project on Transportation Fuels based on Renewable Energy. The report contains a review of potential technologies for electric, hybrid and hydrogen propulsion in the Danish transport sector, including an assessment of their development status. In addition, the energy...

  16. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  17. Brown clouds over South Asia: biomass or fossil fuel combustion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Orjan; Kruså, Martin; Zencak, Zdenek; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Granat, Lennart; Engström, Erik; Praveen, P S; Rao, P S P; Leck, Caroline; Rodhe, Henning

    2009-01-23

    Carbonaceous aerosols cause strong atmospheric heating and large surface cooling that is as important to South Asian climate forcing as greenhouse gases, yet the aerosol sources are poorly understood. Emission inventory models suggest that biofuel burning accounts for 50 to 90% of emissions, whereas the elemental composition of ambient aerosols points to fossil fuel combustion. We used radiocarbon measurements of winter monsoon aerosols from western India and the Indian Ocean to determine that biomass combustion produced two-thirds of the bulk carbonaceous aerosols, as well as one-half and two-thirds of two black carbon subfractions, respectively. These constraints show that both biomass combustion (such as residential cooking and agricultural burning) and fossil fuel combustion should be targeted to mitigate climate effects and improve air quality.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Hollow-Cone Injection and Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion With Naphtha Fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad A.

    2016-01-29

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI), also known as partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) and gasoline direct injection compression ignition (GDICI), engines have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition (SI) engines. Lean-burn combustion with the direct injection of fuel eliminates throttle losses for higher thermodynamic efficiencies, and the precise control of the mixture compositions allows better emission performance such as NOx and particulate matter (PM). Recently, low octane gasoline fuel has been identified as a viable option for the GCI engine applications due to its longer ignition delay characteristics compared to diesel and lighter evaporation compared to gasoline fuel (Chang et al., 2012, "Enabling High Efficiency Direct Injection Engine With Naphtha Fuel Through Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion," SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-0677). The feasibility of such a concept has been demonstrated by experimental investigations at Saudi Aramco (Chang et al., 2012, "Enabling High Efficiency Direct Injection Engine With Naphtha Fuel Through Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion," SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-0677; Chang et al., 2013, "Fuel Economy Potential of Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Combustion With Naphtha Fuel," SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-2701). The present study aims to develop predictive capabilities for low octane gasoline fuel compression ignition (CI) engines with accurate characterization of the spray dynamics and combustion processes. Full three-dimensional simulations were conducted using converge as a basic modeling framework, using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulent mixing models. An outwardly opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated against existing and new experimental data. An emphasis was made on the spray penetration characteristics. Various spray breakup and collision models have been

  19. Opportunities for Alternative Fuels Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    fuels derived from a mixture of coal and biomass. It is highly uncertain whether appreciable amounts of hydrotreated renewable oils can be...affordably and cleanly produced within the United States or abroad. Hydrotreated renewable oils are produced by processing animal fats or vegetable oils...possible source of oil for hydrotreatment. Fifty-fifty blends of hydrotreated oils have already been successfully demonstrated in flight tests sponsored by

  20. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  1. Dioxin emissions from small-scale combustion of bio-fuel and household waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, Bjoern

    2005-09-01

    This thesis deals with emissions of persistent organic pollutants, primarily dioxins, from the combustion of solid biofuels and dry combustible household waste in relatively small facilities, 5-600 kW, without advanced air pollution controls. Co-combustion of waste and biofuel in effective small boilers was tested as an alternative to prevailing large-scale management and combustion strategies for handling municipal solid waste. This approach includes no advanced air pollution control systems, but offers two advantages: limiting transport and providing scope to use local biofuel resources. Source-sorted, dry, combustible household waste was collected from households in a sparsely populated area and co-combusted as briquettes together with reed canary-grass in 150-600 kW biofuel boilers. Most trials showed difficulties to meet regulative limits for the emissions of dioxins valid for incineration of MSW and the regulated limits for emissions of hydrochloric acid were exceeded manifold. It was concluded that additional flue-gas cleaning will be needed to ensure that emissions are sufficiently low. Dioxins were also found in the waste, especially in the textile fraction. The mass of dioxins in the flue-gas emissions was generally lower than the mass in the fuel input. Intermittent combustion of wood pellets in a residential boiler resulted in an unexpectedly high dioxin emissions factor of 28 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg fuel. Combustion of wood in a modern environmentally certified boiler yielded considerably lower dioxin emissions than combustion in an old boiler, and combustion with a full air supply, i.e. with use of heat storage tank, resulted in up to 90% reductions in dioxin emission factors compared to combustion with reduced air supply. Combustion of plastic waste in a residential wood boiler resulted in high emissions of dioxins. Tests of uncontrolled combustion of garden and household waste in barrels or open fires, 'backyard burnings', resulted in emissions

  2. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5

  3. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Levasseur, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of advanced coal-cleaning technologies aimed at expanding the use of the nation`s vast coal reserves in an environmentally and economically acceptable manner. Because of the lack of practical experience with deeply beneficiated coal-based fuels, PETC has contracted Combustion Engineering, Inc. to perform a multi-year project on `Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.` The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels (BCs) influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs.

  4. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Substitutionen af fossilt med alternativt brændsel i cement produktionen er steget betydeligt i den sidste dekade. Af disse nye alternative brændsler, udgør de faste brændsler p.t. den største andel, hvor kød- og benmel, plastic og dæk i særdeleshed har været de alternative brændsler der har bidraget med mest alternativ brændsels energi til den tyske cement industri. De nye alternative brændsler er typisk karakteriseret ved et højt indhold af flygtige bestanddele og adskiller sig typisk fra t...

  5. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  6. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transporation Program - State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Factsheet answering frequently asked questions about the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (the Program) that implements provisions of Titles III–V of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). Answers to questions that are frequently asked about the Program by managers of state government and alternative fuel provider fleets are provided in the factsheet.

  7. Ignition of Metal Powders in Combustion Products of Model Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-13

    y AD/A-001 172 IGNITION OF METAL POWDERS IN COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF MODEL FUEL A. K. Klyauzov, et al Foreign Technology...S. Air Force UNCLASSIFIED »b. s»ouc » "I»0«T TITLE IGNITION OF METAL POWDERS IN COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF MODEL FUEL f* OCJCPIPTIVK NOTKI (Typ* o...report mnd Inclumiv «**»••) Translation S »UTMö«I|I ( Firn tSSS», rnlddl* Inltlml, faar .tarna; A. K. Klyauzov, M. M. Arsh, et al 6

  8. Clean coal combustion: development of clean combustion technologies for residual fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, M.F. [Electric Research Institute, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Most of the large quantities of heavy fuel oil (about 4% sulphur-content) produced in Mexican refineries are burned in power plants. More natural gas is being used, and it is estimated that by 2010, about one-third of Mexico's electricity will be produced from natural gas. As petroleum and gas reserves are depleted, power plants will consume more imported coal. To continue combustion of dirty fuels, advanced clean combustion technologies must be developed. Two feasibility projects were conducted over the period 1989-1995 on combustion of Mexican fuels in a bubbling fluidized combustor and in IGCC power plants. More recent feasibility studies for cogeneration plants in refineries are outlined. Solid fuels for IGCC and CFB are among the most important developments. Over the period 2004-2008, projects to study clean combustion of Mexican fuels will be conducted in the following areas: operational problems in IGCC plants, construction of an entrained flow gasifier for synthesis gas production and for feeding of heavy fuels and coal emulsions, and development of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models.

  9. Thorium utilization program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending November 30, 1975. [Fuel element crushing, solids handling, fluidized bed combustion, aqueous separations, solvent extraction, systems design and drafting, alternative head-end reprocessing, and fuel recycle systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-31

    The development program for HTGR fuel reprocessing continues to emphasize the design and construction of a prototype head-end line. Design work on the multistage crushing system, the primary and secondary fluidized bed burners, the pneumatic transfer systems, and the ancillary fixtures for semiremote assembly and disassembly is essentially complete. Fabrication and receipt of all major components is under way, and auxiliary instrumentation and support systems are being installed. Studies of flow characteristics of granular solids in pneumatic transfer systems are continuing and data are being collected for use in design of systems for solids handling. Experimental work on the 20-cm primary fluidized bed burner verified the fines recycle operating mode in runs of greater than 24 hr. Twelve leaching runs were performed during the quarter using crushed, burned-back TRISO coated ThC/sub 2/ particles and burned-back BISO coated sol gel ThO/sub 2/ particles to examine the effect of varying the Thorex-to-thoria ratio to give product solutions ranging from 0.25M to 1M in thorium. Only minor effects were observed and reference values for facility operations were specified. Two-stage leaching runs with burned-back ThC/sub 2/ indicate there are no measurable differences in total dissolution time as compared to single-stage leaching. Bench-scale tests on oxidation of HTGR fuel boron carbide at 900/sup 0/C indicates that most if not all of the carbide will be converted to boron oxide in the fluidized bed burner. Eight solvent extraction runs were completed during the quarter. These runs represented the first cycle and second uranium cycle of the acid-Thorex flowsheet. A detailed calculation of spent fuel compositions by fuel block and particle type is being performed for better definition of process streams in a fuel reprocessing facility.

  10. Development and integration of a scalable low NOx combustion chamber for a hydrogen-fueled aerogas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, S.; Funke, H. H.-W.; Hendrick, P.; Recker, E.; Elsing, R.

    2013-03-01

    The usage of alternative fuels in aircraft industry plays an important role of current aero engine research and development processes. The micromix burning principle allows a secure and low NOx combustion of gaseous hydrogen. The combustion principle is based on the fluid phenomenon of jet in cross flow and achieves a significant lowering in NOx formation by using multiple miniaturized flames. The paper highlights the development and the integration of a combustion chamber, based on the micromix combustion principle, into an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) GTCP 36-300 with regard to the necessary modifications on the gas turbine and on the engine controller.

  11. Algae fuels : a tantalizing alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2010-11-15

    This article surveyed the current state of research and development in the area of algae use as a basis for fuel and as a feedstock for the chemical industry. The constraints inhibiting the commercialization of algae-related processes were discussed and a brief overview of the history of algae research was presented. Interest in algae research has ebbed and flowed in conjunction with economic and social concerns. It is unknown whether algae can be grown on a scale and cost that is commercially viable. A bench-scale algae cultivation system involving photobioreactors was described. Algae are increasingly being used in treating wastewater from industrial processes, as algae can reduce ammonia and phosphate loads in effluent. Exhaust carbon dioxide is being used to feed algae crops. Advances are needed to make turning algae oil into fuel cost effective. A bench-stage process for extracting algae oil from water for biofuel conversion was described. The process results in easier-to-dry biomass without using chemical solvents or centrifuges. Algae biomass is also being explored for used as a polymer feedstock. Algae can be grown anywhere there is sun, but the challenge is in developing a large enough supply of algae biomass. Second generation algae plastic products will be more complex and may involve the creation of a monomer out of algae itself, which could make algae competitive with oil in the plastics industry. Skeptics doubt that algae processes can be commercialized, but some within the industry believe that algae biomass will eventually work within the norms of industrial processes. 5 figs.

  12. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anna E.; Saxena, Nikita T.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize alternative fueling for military and commercial use, the industry has set forth guidelines that must be met by each fuel. These aviation fueling requirements are outlined in MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 Annex (2011) standards, and are classified as "drop-in" fuel replacements. This report provides combustor performance data for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100, relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Data were taken at various nominal inlet conditions: 75 psia (0.52 MPa) at 500 degF (533 K), 125 psia (0.86 MPa) at 625 degF (603 K), 175 psia (1.21 MPa) at 725 degF (658 K), and 225 psia (1.55 MPa) at 790 degF (694 K). Combustor performance analysis assessments were made for the change in flame temperatures, combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, and exhaust plane temperatures at 3, 4, and 5 percent combustor pressure drop (DP) for fuel:air ratios (F/A) ranging from 0.010 to 0.025. Significant general trends show lower liner temperatures and higher flame and combustor outlet temperatures with increases in FT fueling relative to JP-8+100 fueling. The latter affects both turbine efficiency and blade and vane lives.

  13. Hybrid rocket fuel combustion and regression rate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Anderson, F. A.; Cohen, N. S.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop hybrid fuels (1) with higher regression rates and reduced dependence on fuel grain geometry and (2) that maximize potential specific impulse using low-cost materials. A hybrid slab window motor system was developed to screen candidate fuels - their combustion behavior and regression rate. Combustion behavior diagnostics consisted of video and high speed motion pictures coverage. The mean fuel regression rates were determined by before and after measurements of the fuel slabs. The fuel for this initial investigation consisted of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder with coal and aluminum fillers. At low oxidizer flux levels (and corresponding fuel regression rates) the filled-binder fuels burn in a layered fashion, forming an aluminum containing binder/coal surface melt that, in turn, forms into filigrees or flakes that are stripped off by the crossflow. This melt process appears to diminish with increasing oxidizer flux level. Heat transfer by radiation is a significant contributor, producing the desired increase in magnitude and reduction in flow dependency (power law exponent) of the fuel regression rate.

  14. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  15. Use of alternative fuels in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    A future sustainable energy system will certainly be based on a variety of environmentally benign energy production technologies. Fuel cells can be a key element in this scenario. One of the fuel cells types the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has a number of advantages that places them in a favorable position: high efficiency, parallel production of electricity and high value heat, prevention of NOx emission, flexibility regarding usable fuels, and certain tolerance towards impurities. It is thus a natural option, to combine such a highly efficient energy conversion tool with a sustainable fuel supply. In the present contribution, the use of alternative compared to conventional fuels in SOFCs was evaluated. Regarding carbon containing, biomass derived fuels, SOFCs showed excellent power output and stability behavior during long-term testing under technologically relevant conditions. Moreover, ammonia can be used directly as fuel. The chemical and structural properties of the SOFC anode makes it even possible, to combine a chemical conversion of the fuel, for example methane into synthesis gas via steam reforming and decomposition of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, with the electrochemical production of electricity in one step. (au)

  16. Combustion of liquid fuels floating on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garo Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented consists of a study of the burning characteristics of a liquid fuel floating on water with emphasis in the phenomena known as boilover. The problem is of technical interest in the petro-chemical industry, particularly from the point of view of pollution and fires resulting from accidental liquid fuel spills in open water. Testing with multicomponent fuels gives information's about events that can occur in a practical situation, while testing with single component fuels permits obtaining fundamental information about the problem. It evidences the major effects caused by the transfer of heat from the fuel to the water underneath. One of these effects is the disruptive burning of the fuel known as boilover, that is caused by the water boiling and splashing, and results in a sharp increase in burning rate and often in the explosive burning of the fuel. It is shown that this event is caused by the onset of water boiling nucleation at the fuel/water interface and that it occurs at an approximate constant temperature that is above the saturation temperature of the water (water is superheated. These measurements conducted in two laboratories, address the major issues of the process by analyzing the effect of the variation of the parameters of the problem (initial fuel-layer thickness, pool diameter, and fuel type, on the burning rate, time to start of boilover, pre-boilover mass ratio, and boilover intensity. Finally, two types of modeling are proposed to describe the heat transfer in fuel and water phases: one simple for practical purposes, the other, more elaborated and transient, taking particularly into consideration the radiation in depth.

  17. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  18. The fuel cell; La pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boursin, P.

    2005-07-01

    This document is an exhaustive review of the history of fuel cells from 1802 to 2004. It focusses mainly on the automotive applications and supplies many technical details about each prototype of fuel cell and/or vehicle. (J.S.)

  19. Characterization of fuels for atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Rowley, D.R.; Perna, M.A. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (USA). Research Center); Stallings, J.W. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Divilio, R.J. (Combustion Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored a fuels characterization program for the past several years with the intention of assisting utilities and boiler manufacturers in evaluating fuel quality impact on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) performance. The goal has been to provide an improved framework for making fuel switching decisions and consolidating operating experience. Results from this program include a set of bench-scale testing procedures, a fuel characterization data base, and a performance simulation model that links fuel characteristics to combustion performance. This paper reviews the major results of the fuels characterization program. The testing procedures, data base, and performance simulation models are briefly described and their application illustrated with examples. Performance predictions for the B W 1-ft{sup 2} bench-scale AFBC and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 20 MW(e) AFBC Pilot Plant are compared with actual test data. The relationship of coal rank to combustion is discussed. 11 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  1. Physical and chemical effects of low octane gasoline fuels on compression ignition combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2016-09-30

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines running on low octane gasoline fuels are considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. In this study, three fuels with different chemical and physical characteristics have been investigated in single cylinder engine running in GCI combustion mode at part-load conditions both experimentally and numerically. The studied fuels are: Saudi Aramco light naphtha (SALN) (Research octane number (RON) = 62 and final boiling point (FBP) = 91 °C), Haltermann straight run naphtha (HSRN) (RON = 60 and FBP = 140 °C) and a primary reference fuel (PRF65) (RON = 65 and FBP = 99 °C). Injection sweeps, where the start of injection (SOI) is changed between −60 and −11 CAD aTDC, have been performed for the three fuels. Full cycle computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were executed using PRFs as chemical surrogates for the naphtha fuels. Physical surrogates based on the evaporation characteristics of the naphtha streams have been developed and their properties have been implemented in the engine simulations. It was found that the three fuels have similar combustion phasings and emissions at the conditions tested in this work with minor differences at SOI earlier than −30 CAD aTDC. These trends were successfully reproduced by the CFD calculations. The chemical and physical effects were further investigated numerically. It was found that the physical characteristics of the fuel significantly affect the combustion for injections earlier than −30 CAD aTDC because of the low evaporation rates of the fuel because of the higher boiling temperature of the fuel and the colder in-cylinder air during injection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  2. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  3. SOIL CONTAMINATION BY NITROGEN COMPOUNDS DURING ORGANIC FUEL COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bubnov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a transition mechanism of flue gas nitrogen oxides being formed due to organic fuel combustion from atmosphere into soil. Mechanisms of nitrogen compound origination and transformation in atmosphere and their transition into soil have been presented in the paper. The paper recommends a generalized equation for mathematical description of nitrogen migration into soil. 

  4. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  6. Aircraft emissions of methane and nitrous oxide during the alternative aviation fuel experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Gregory W; Lee, Ben H; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Wofsy, Steven C; McManus, J Barry; Nelson, David D; Zahniser, Mark S

    2011-08-15

    Given the predicted growth of aviation and the recent developments of alternative aviation fuels, quantifying methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emission ratios for various aircraft engines and fuels can help constrain projected impacts of aviation on the Earth's radiative balance. Fuel-based emission indices for CH(4) and N(2)O were quantified from CFM56-2C1 engines aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the first Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-I) in 2009. The measurements of JP-8 fuel combustion products indicate that at low thrust engine states (idle and taxi, or 4% and 7% maximum rated thrusts, respectively) the engines emit both CH(4) and N(2)O at a mean ± 1σ rate of 170 ± 160 mg CH(4) (kg Fuel)(-1) and 110 ± 50 mg N(2)O (kg Fuel)(-1), respectively. At higher thrust levels corresponding to greater fuel flow and higher engine temperatures, CH(4) concentrations in engine exhaust were lower than ambient concentrations. Average emission indices for JP-8 fuel combusted at engine thrusts between 30% and 100% of maximum rating were -54 ± 33 mg CH(4) (kg Fuel)(-1) and 32 ± 18 mg N(2)O (kg Fuel)(-1), where the negative sign indicates consumption of atmospheric CH(4) in the engine. Emission factors for the synthetic Fischer-Tropsch fuels were statistically indistinguishable from those for JP-8.

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  8. Elimination of abnormal combustion in a hydrogen-fueled engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.R.; Swain, M.N. [Analytical Technologies, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report covers the design, construction, and testing of a dedicated hydrogen-fueled engine. Both part-load and full-load data were taken under laboratory conditions. The engine design included a billet aluminum single combustion chamber cylinder-head with one intake valve, two sodium coiled exhaust valves, and two spark plugs. The cylinder-head design also included drilled cooling passages. The fuel-delivery system employed two modified Siemens electrically actuated fuel injectors, The exhaust system included two separate headers, one for each exhaust port. The piston/ring combination was designed specifically for hydrogen operation.

  9. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confer, Keith [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States)

    2014-12-18

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  10. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  11. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  12. Knock characteristics of dual-fuel combustion in diesel engines using natural gas as primary fuel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O M I Nwafor

    2002-06-01

    This paper investigates the combustion knock characteristics of diesel engines running on natural gas using pilot injection as means of initiating combustion. The diesel engines knock under normal operating conditions but the knock referred to in this paper is an objectionable one. In the dual-fuel combustion process we have the ignition stage followed by the combustion stage. There are three types of knock: diesel knock, spark knock and knock due to secondary ignition delay of the primary fuel (erratic knock). Several factors have been noted to feature in defining knock characteristics of dual-fuel engines that include ignition delay, pilot quantity, engine load and speed, turbulence and gas flow rate.

  13. Numerical Simulations of Hollow Cone Injection and Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion With Naphtha Fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad A.

    2016-01-11

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI), also known as partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) and gasoline direct injection compression ignition (GDICI), engines have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. Lean burn combustion with the direct injection of fuel eliminates throttle losses for higher thermodynamic efficiencies, and the precise control of the mixture compositions allows better emission performance such as NOx and particulate matter (PM). Recently, low octane gasoline fuel has been identified as a viable option for the GCI engine applications due to its longer ignition delay characteristics compared to diesel and lighter evaporation compared to gasoline fuel [1]. The feasibility of such a concept has been demonstrated by experimental investigations at Saudi Aramco [1, 2]. The present study aims to develop predictive capabilities for low octane gasoline fuel compression ignition engines with accurate characterization of the spray dynamics and combustion processes. Full three-dimensional simulations were conducted using CONVERGE as a basic modeling framework, using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulent mixing models. An outwardly opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated against existing and new experimental data. An emphasis was made on the spray penetration characteristics. Various spray breakup and collision models have been tested and compared with the experimental data. An optimum combination has been identified and applied in the combusting GCI simulations. Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model and modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) break models proved to work the best for the investigated injector. Comparisons between various existing spray models and a parametric study have been carried out to study the effects of various spray parameters. The fuel effects have been tested by using three different primary reference fuel (PRF

  14. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  15. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW{sub Th} pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using

  16. Use of alternative fuels in cement manufacture. Effect on clinker and cement characteristics and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares industrial clinker and cement produced using conventional and alternative fuels (animal meal, tyres or a mixture of the two. The results show no relevant differences in terms of mineralogical composition between the clinker manufactured with alternative fuels and the product obtained using conventional fuel. Clinker produced with alternative fuels at any one factory have a very similar or even lower content in heavy metals than the product manufactured with conventional fuel in the same plant (with the sole exception of Zn when the alternative fuel used is shredded tyres. Mineralogical and morphological analyses reveal no significant differences between the two types of products that can be attributed to the type of fuel used in their manufacture. All six types of cement studied are compliant with the existing legislation as regards both physical and chemical properties. Cement compressive strength is found to be to legal standards regardless of the type of fuel used. Finally, the rheological properties of the cement paste are observed to be unaffected by the type of fuel.

    Se han estudiado clínkeres y cementos obtenidos en procesos industriales que han utilizado combustibles convencionales y combustibles alternativos (harinas cárnicas, neumáticos usados y mezclas de ambos. Los resultados obtenidos han demostrado que los clínkeres fabricados con los combustibles alternativos no presentan diferencias significativas en la composición mineralógica respecto a los obtenidos con combustibles convencionales. Los contenidos de metales pesados en los clínkeres procedentes de la misma fábrica (a excepción de los contenidos en Zn en aquéllos que utilizan neumáticos son muy similares o incluso inferiores a los fabricados con combustibles convencionales. Los análisis mineralógico y morfológico de los clínkeres no evidencian diferencias asignables al tipo de combustible utilizado. Todos los cementos estudiados cumplen

  17. Pollutants generated by the combustion of solid biomass fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jenny M; Ma, Lin; Williams, Alan; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This book considers the pollutants formed by the combustion of solid biomass fuels. The availability and potential use of solid biofuels is first discussed because this is the key to the development of biomass as a source of energy.This is followed by details of the methods used for characterisation of biomass and their classification.The various steps in the combustion mechanisms are given together with a compilation of the kinetic data. The chemical mechanisms for the formation of the pollutants: NOx, smoke and unburned hydrocarbons, SOx, Cl compounds, and particulate metal aerosols

  18. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.

  19. Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuels; Foerbraenning av utsorterade avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Christer; Myringer, Aase; Helgesson, Anna [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eskilsson, David; Ekvall, Annika [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this project was to increase the understanding of opportunities and problems connected with combustion of sorted waste fractions containing paper, wood and plastics (PWP-fuel) in fluidized bed boilers. An evaluation of the effect of sulphur containing additives in a PWP-fuel fired boiler was also performed within the project since this is not previously reported in open literature. The experience from two boilers at different plants, Johannes (BFB) and Hoegdalen P6 (CFB) during the firing season 2003/2004 was documented. In the Johannes boiler the main fuel is bark while Hoegdalen P6 combusts 100 % PWP-fuel. Analysis of the fuels shows that there are large differences between the two boilers. At Johannes the PWP-fuel contained low amounts of elements (chlorine, alkali and other metals) that are expected to result in increased operational problems or emissions. A large proportion of these unwanted elements came from the wood and paper fractions. The plastic fraction in Johannes had very low levels of unwanted elements. The fuel at Hoegdalen contained large amounts of elements such as chlorine, alkali and other metals that can cause operational problems. First of all the plastic fraction contained large amounts of chlorine, most likely from PVC, which results in a more corrosive atmosphere in the boiler. The fraction of fines in the Hoegdalen fuel contained larger concentrations of potassium and sodium compared with the other fuel fractions, substances that also are related to the formation of deposits. The fraction of fines in the fuel probably also results in combustion taking place high up in the boiler and to some extent continuing in the cyclones. The characterisation of the combustion behaviour performed in Johannes identified a maldistribution in O{sub 2}, CO and gas temperature over a cross-section of the furnace. This was not depending on the fuel mixture but is more likely depending on uneven fuel feeding or air distribution. A comparison between

  20. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  1. Gas Turbine Combustion and Ammonia Removal Technology of Gasified Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeharu Hasegawa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoints of securing a stable supply of energy and protecting our global environment in the future, the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC power generation of various gasifying methods has been introduced in the world. Gasified fuels are chiefly characterized by the gasifying agents and the synthetic gas cleanup methods and can be divided into four types. The calorific value of the gasified fuel varies according to the gasifying agents and feedstocks of various resources, and ammonia originating from nitrogenous compounds in the feedstocks depends on the synthetic gas clean-up methods. In particular, air-blown gasified fuels provide low calorific fuel of 4 MJ/m3 and it is necessary to stabilize combustion. In contrast, the flame temperature of oxygen-blown gasified fuel of medium calorie between approximately 9–13 MJ/m3 is much higher, so control of thermal-NOx emissions is necessary. Moreover, to improve the thermal efficiency of IGCC, hot/dry type synthetic gas clean-up is needed. However, ammonia in the fuel is not removed and is supplied into the gas turbine where fuel-NOx is formed in the combustor. For these reasons, suitable combustion technology for each gasified fuel is important. This paper outlines combustion technologies and combustor designs of the high temperature gas turbine for various IGCCs. Additionally, this paper confirms that further decreases in fuel-NOx emissions can be achieved by removing ammonia from gasified fuels through the application of selective, non-catalytic denitration. From these basic considerations, the performance of specifically designed combustors for each IGCC proved the proposed methods to be sufficiently effective. The combustors were able to achieve strong results, decreasing thermal-NOx emissions to 10 ppm (corrected at 16% oxygen or less, and fuel-NOx emissions by 60% or more, under conditions where ammonia concentration per fuel heating value in unit volume was 2.4 × 102 ppm

  2. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  3. Fuels made from agricultural biomass - (biogas) alternative types(Alternativne vrste goriva iz poljoprivredne biomase - biogas)

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovska, Vangelica; Jovanovski, Nikola; Sovreski, Zlatko; Pop-Andonov, Goran; Sinani, Feta

    2013-01-01

    Biogas is a typical "product" of urban discharges, which has a great negative environmental impact. To avoid this negative effect, it can be burnt at very high temperatures, producing smoke emissions composed of CO2. A useful alternative is to use biogas as fuel to feed co-generation plants, producing electricity. At the moment biogas is used as fuel, introducing it directly in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless the heterogeneity of the gas stresses the engine, reducing its life. The new te...

  4. Versatile Affordable Advanced Fuels and Combustion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    the solution and spin -cast into films using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-based sol-gel silica as matrix...insert. White colonies, 48 from each fuel sample, were processed using the QIAprep Spin Mini Prep Kit following the manufacturer’s protocol but eluting...assumed, for simplicity, that the activation energy of the surface reaction is the same for all stainless steels considered (SS316 and SS304 ). Computational

  5. Characterisation of fuels for advanced pressurized combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Hupa, M.; Backman, P.; Karlsson, M.; Kullberg, M.; Sorvari, V. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland); Nurk, M. [Tallinn Univ. (Estonia)

    1996-12-01

    After 2 of the 3 years for this EU Joule 2 extension project, a rough comparison on the devolatilisation behaviour and char reactivity of 11 fossil fuels and 4 biofuels has been obtained. The experimental plan for 1995 has been completed, the laboratory facilities appeared to be well suited for the broad range of analyses presented here. A vast amount of devolatilisation tests in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure with gas analysis and char analysis gave a lot of information on the release of carbon, sulphur, nitrogen and also sodium, chloride and some other elements. Also first-order rate parameters could be determined. Solid pyrolysis yield measurements with the pressurised grid heater show a very good reproducibility except for the fuels with high carbonate content and those with very small char yield. Problems have to be solved considering lower heating rates and the use of folded grids. Fuel pyrolysis followed by gasification (with carbon dioxide or water as oxidising agent) at various temperatures and pressures shows that in general char solid yields and gasification reactivities are higher at elevated pressure. The design and construction of a pressurized single particle reactor, to be operational early 1996 is currently being negotiated. Numerical modelling of coal devolatilisation shows that even for atmospheric pressures the results differ significantly from experimental findings. (author)

  6. Co-combustion of pulverized coal and solid recovered fuel in an entrained flow reactor- General combustion and ash behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was carried out in an entrained flow reactor, and the influence of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite on co-combustion was investigated. The co-combustion experiments were carried out with SRF shares of 7...... corrosion potential during co-combustion of coal and SRF, except for the experiments with NaCl or PVC addition....

  7. Combustion characteristics and air pollutant formation during oxy-fuel co-combustion of microalgae and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Dou, Jinxiao; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels is seen as one of the key technologies for carbon capture to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The combustion characteristics of lignite coal, Chlorella vulgaris microalgae, and their blends under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 conditions were studied using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Mass Spectroscopy (TG-MS). During co-combustion of blends, three distinct peaks were observed and were attributed to C. vulgaris volatiles combustion, combustion of lignite, and combustion of microalgae char. Activation energy during combustion was calculated using iso-conventional method. Increasing the microalgae content in the blend resulted in an increase in activation energy for the blends combustion. The emissions of S- and N-species during blend fuel combustion were also investigated. The addition of microalgae to lignite during air combustion resulted in lower CO2, CO, and NO2 yields but enhanced NO, COS, and SO2 formation. During oxy-fuel co-combustion, the addition of microalgae to lignite enhanced the formation of gaseous species.

  8. Flame blowout and pollutant emissions in vitiated combustion of conventional and bio-derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    The widening gap between the demand and supply of fossil fuels has catalyzed the exploration of alternative sources of energy. Interest in the power, water extraction and refrigeration (PoWER) cycle, proposed by the University of Florida, as well as the desirability of using biofuels in distributed generation systems, has motivated the exploration of biofuel vitiated combustion. The PoWER cycle is a novel engine cycle concept that utilizes vitiation of the air stream with externally-cooled recirculated exhaust gases at an intermediate pressure in a semi-closed cycle (SCC) loop, lowering the overall temperature of combustion. It has several advantages including fuel flexibility, reduced air flow, lower flame temperature, compactness, high efficiency at full and part load, and low emissions. Since the core engine air stream is vitiated with the externally cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream, there is an inherent reduction in the combustion stability for a PoWER engine. The effect of EGR flow and temperature on combustion blowout stability and emissions during vitiated biofuel combustion has been characterized. The vitiated combustion performance of biofuels methyl butanoate, dimethyl ether, and ethanol have been compared with n-heptane, and varying compositions of syngas with methane fuel. In addition, at high levels of EGR a sharp reduction in the flame luminosity has been observed in our experimental tests, indicating the onset of flameless combustion. This drop in luminosity may be a result of inhibition of processes leading to the formation of radiative soot particles. One of the objectives of this study is finding the effect of EGR on soot formation, with the ultimate objective of being able to predict the boundaries of flameless combustion. Detailed chemical kinetic simulations were performed using a constant-pressure continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) network model developed using the Cantera combustion code, implemented in C++. Results have

  9. Effect of alternative fuel properties on NOx reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter; Tokheim, Lars-André; Bjerketvedt, Dag

    2002-01-01

    Today we see a substantial increase in the use of alternative fuels in the cement industry. The prospect of reduction in fuel costs and the environmental benefits of waste to energy conversion are the driving forces. For several years Norcem have steadily increased their use of alternative fuels such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), liquid hazardous waste (LHW), solid hazardous waste (SHW), animal meal (AM) and waste oil (WO). Alternative fuels behave differently compared to e.g. coa...

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  11. Santilli's new fuels as sources of clean combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Indrani B. Das

    2013-10-01

    Molecular combustion or nuclear fission is the conventional source of energy, which are not clean as they generate large amount of green house gas or nuclear waste. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind, etc. However, each of these sources has their own limitations and is dependent on geographical locations. The modern day demand of clean, cheap and abundant energy gets fulfilled by the novel fuels that have been developed through hadronic mechanics/chemistry. In the present paper, a short review on such novel fuels like Hadronic energy of non-nuclear type (combustion of MagneGas) and nuclear type (intermediate controlled nuclear fusion and particle type like stimulated neutron decay) has been presented.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Turbine Vane Heat Transfer for Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, Andrew Carl [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-03-23

    modern turbine engines; and What advancements in film cooling hole geometry and design can increase effectiveness of film cooling in turbines burning high-hydrogen coal syngas due to the higher heat loads and mass flow rates of the core flow? Experimental and numerical investigations of advanced cooling geometries that can improve resistance to surface deposition were performed. The answers to these questions were investigated through experimental measurements of turbine blade surface temperature and coolant coverage (via infrared camera images and thermocouples) and time-varying surface roughness in the NETL high-pressure combustion rig with accelerated, simulated surface deposition and advanced cooling hole concepts, coupled with detailed materials analysis and characterization using conventional methods of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), 3-D Surface Topography (using a 3-D stylus profilometer). Detailed surface temperatures and cooling effectiveness could not be measured due to issues with the NETL infrared camera system. In collaboration with faculty startup funding from the principal investigator, experimental and numerical investigations were performed of an advanced film cooling hole geometry, the anti-vortex hole (AVH), focusing on improving cooling effectiveness and decreasing the counter-rotating vortex of conventional cooling holes which can entrain mainstream particulate matter to the surface. The potential benefit of this program is in gaining a fundamental understanding of how the use of alternative fuels will effect the operation of modern gas turbine engines, providing valuable data for more effective cooling designs for future turbine systems utilizing alternative fuels.

  13. Experimental study of hydrogen as a fuel additive in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saanum, Inge

    2008-07-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbons in internal combustion engines results in emissions that can be harmful both to human health and to the environment. Although the engine technology is improving, the emissions of NO{sub x}, PM and UHC are still challenging. Besides, the overall consumption of fossil fuel and hence the emissions of CO{sub 2} are increasing because of the increasing number of vehicles. This has lead to a focus on finding alternative fuels and alternative technologies that may result in lower emissions of harmful gases and lower CO{sub 2} emissions. This thesis treats various topics that are relevant when using blends of fuels in different internal combustion engine technologies, with a particular focus on using hydrogen as a fuel additive. The topics addressed are especially the ones that impact the environment, such as emissions of harmful gases and thermal efficiency (fuel consumption). The thesis is based on experimental work performed at four different test rigs: 1. A dynamic combustion rig with optical access to the combustion chamber where spark ignited premixed combustion could be studied by means of a Schlieren optical setup and a high speed video camera. 2. A spark ignition natural gas engine rig with an optional exhaust gas recycling system. 3. A 1-cylinder diesel engine prepared for homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. 4. A 6-cylinder standard diesel engine The engine rigs were equipped with cylinder pressure sensors, engine dynamometers, exhaust gas analyzers etc. to enable analyses of the effects of different fuels. The effect of hydrogen blended with methane and natural gas in spark ignited premixed combustion was investigated in the dynamic combustion rig and in a natural gas engine. In the dynamic combustion rig, the effect of hydrogen added to methane on the flame speed and the flame structure was investigated at elevated pressure and temperature. A considerable increase in the flame speed was observed when adding 30 vol

  14. C60 fullerenes from combustion of common fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Andrea J., E-mail: ajtiwari@vt.edu [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, 200 Patton Hall, 750 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Ashraf-Khorassani, Mehdi, E-mail: mashraf@vt.edu [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, 480 Davidson Hall, 900 West Campus Drive, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Marr, Linsey C., E-mail: lmarr@vt.edu [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, 200 Patton Hall, 750 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Releases of C{sub 60} fullerenes to the environment will increase with the growth of nanotechnology. Assessing the potential risks of manufactured C{sub 60} requires an understanding of how its prevalence in the environment compares to that of natural and incidental C{sub 60}. This work describes the characterization of incidental C{sub 60} present in aerosols generated by combustion of five common fuels: coal, firewood, diesel, gasoline, and propane. C{sub 60} was found in exhaust generated by all five fuels; the highest concentrations in terms of mass of C{sub 60} per mass of particulate matter were associated with diesel and coal. Individual aerosols from these combustion processes were examined by transmission electron microscopy. No relationship was found between C{sub 60} content and either the separation of graphitic layers (lamellae) within the particles, nor the curvature of those lamellae. Estimated global emissions of incidental C{sub 60} to the atmosphere from coal and diesel combustion range from 1.6 to 6.3 t yr{sup −1}, depending upon combustion conditions. These emissions may be similar in magnitude to the total amount of manufactured C{sub 60} produced on an annual basis. Consequent loading of incidental C{sub 60} to the environment may be several orders of magnitude higher than has previously been modeled for manufactured C{sub 60}. - Highlights: • Exhaust of common fuels (coal, diesel, etc.) analyzed via chromatography for C{sub 60.} • All five fuels tested produced C{sub 60} in aerosols in mass fractions up to several ppm. • Emissions of incidental C{sub 60} may be comparable to the total amount manufactured.

  15. 18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section 281.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Determination § 281.304 Computation of alternative fuel volume. (a) General rule. For purposes of § 281.208(b)(1)(i)(B), and § 281.305: (1) Alternative fuel volume of an essential agricultural user is equal to...

  16. Alternate-Fuel Vehicles and Their Application in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Chip

    1991-01-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming increasingly attractive from environmental, energy independence, and economic perspectives. Addresses the following topics: (1) federal and state legislation; (2) alternative fuels and their attributes; (3) practical experience with alternative-fuel vehicles in pupil transportation; and (4) options for school…

  17. Proceedings of the 1996 Windsor workshop on alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document contains information which was presented at the 1996 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels. Topics include: international links; industry topics and infrastructure issues; propane; engine developments; the cleanliness of alternative fuels; heavy duty alternative fuel engines; California zev commercialization efforts; and in-use experience.

  18. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  19. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  20. Emissions from Petrol Engine Fueled Gasoline–Ethanol–Methanol (GEM Ternary mixture as Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu Saravana Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demands of petroleum fuels due to the rapid development automotive society coupled with the environmental pollution issues have inspired the efforts on exploring alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Bioethanol obtained from biomass and bioenergy crops has been proclaimed as one of the feasible alternative to gasoline. In this study, the effect of gasoline–ethanol–methanol (GEM ternary blend on the emission characteristics of petrol engine was studied. Three different fuel blends, namely, E0 (gasoline, G75E21M4 (75% gasoline, 21% hydrous ethanol and 4% methanol and E25 (25% anhydrous ethanol and 75% gasoline were tested in a 1.3-l K3-VE spark-ignition engine. The results indicate that, when G75E21M4 fuel blend was used, a significant drop in CO, CO2, NOx and HC emissions by about 42%, 15%, 7% and 5.2% compared to E0, respectively. Moreover, the emission results for G75E21M4 are marginally lower than E25 whereas; HC emission was slightly higher than E25.

  1. Water interaction with laboratory-simulated fossil fuel combustion particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovicheva, O B; Kireeva, E D; Shonija, N K; Khokhlova, T D

    2009-10-01

    To clarify the impact of fossil fuel combustion particles' composition on their capacity to take up water, we apply a laboratory approach in which the method of deposition of compounds, identified in the particulate coverage of diesel and aircraft engine soot particles, is developed. It is found that near-monolayer organic/inorganic coverage of the soot particles may be represented by three groups of fossil fuel combustion-derived particulate matter with respect to their Hansh's coefficients related to hydrophilic properties. Water adsorption measurements show that nonpolar organics (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) lead to hydrophobization of the soot surface. Acidic properties of organic compounds such as those of oxidized PAHs, ethers, ketones, aromatic, and aliphatic acids are related to higher water uptake, whereas inorganic acids and ionic compounds such as salts of organic acids are shown to be responsible for soot hydrophilization. This finding allows us to quantify the role of the chemical identity of soot surface compounds in water uptake and the water interaction with fossil fuel combustion particles in the humid atmosphere.

  2. Advanced Integrated Fuel/Combustion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    the laminar heat transfer correlation of Sieder and Tate @24# Nu51.86S Re Pr DL D 1/3S mm intD 0.14 (13) If desired, an alternative and more accurate...Convection on Viscous-Flow Heat Transfer in Horizontal Tubes,’’ Chem. Eng. Sci., 17, pp. 335–350.238 Õ Vol. 122, DECEMBER 2000 12@24# Sieder , E. N., and

  3. Surrogate fuel formulation for light naphtha combustion in advanced combustion engines

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2015-03-30

    Crude oil once recovered is further separated in to several distinct fractions to produce a range of energy and chemical products. One of the less processed fractions is light naphtha (LN), hence they are more economical to produce than their gasoline and diesel counterparts. Recent efforts have demonstrated usage of LN as transportation fuel for internal combustion engines with slight modifications. In this study, a multicomponent surrogate fuel has been developed for light naphtha fuel using a multi-variable nonlinear constrained optimization scheme. The surrogate, consisting of palette species n-pentane, 2-methylhexane, 2-methylbutane, n-heptane and toluene, was validated against the LN using ignition quality tester following ASTM D6890 methodology. Comparison of LN and the surrogate fuel demonstrated satisfactory agreement.

  4. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Exceptions b. Heavy-Duty Engine Types and Gross Vehicle Weight Classes c. Dual-Fuel Standards 2. Useful Life... first type, dedicated alternative fueled vehicles or engines, are only capable of operating on one type of fuel. Dual-fueled vehicles or engines, the second type, can operate on two types of fuel,...

  5. Fuel Chemistry And Combustion Distribution Effects On Rocket Engine Combustion Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-19

    model, the D 2 law rate constant for ideal combustion, k0, of a droplet is dependent on the thermal properties of the fuel and oxidizer and is...remaining increase in the D 2 law regression rate constant is caused by the non- ideal conditions of the experiment. Natural convection is present, as...is the gap-averaged pressure. Considering incompressible gas flow (ρ is constant ), two governing equations can be solved for the pressure in the gap

  6. Experimental study of hydrogen as a fuel additive in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saanum, Inge

    2008-07-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbons in internal combustion engines results in emissions that can be harmful both to human health and to the environment. Although the engine technology is improving, the emissions of NO{sub x}, PM and UHC are still challenging. Besides, the overall consumption of fossil fuel and hence the emissions of CO{sub 2} are increasing because of the increasing number of vehicles. This has lead to a focus on finding alternative fuels and alternative technologies that may result in lower emissions of harmful gases and lower CO{sub 2} emissions. This thesis treats various topics that are relevant when using blends of fuels in different internal combustion engine technologies, with a particular focus on using hydrogen as a fuel additive. The topics addressed are especially the ones that impact the environment, such as emissions of harmful gases and thermal efficiency (fuel consumption). The thesis is based on experimental work performed at four different test rigs: 1. A dynamic combustion rig with optical access to the combustion chamber where spark ignited premixed combustion could be studied by means of a Schlieren optical setup and a high speed video camera. 2. A spark ignition natural gas engine rig with an optional exhaust gas recycling system. 3. A 1-cylinder diesel engine prepared for homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. 4. A 6-cylinder standard diesel engine The engine rigs were equipped with cylinder pressure sensors, engine dynamometers, exhaust gas analyzers etc. to enable analyses of the effects of different fuels. The effect of hydrogen blended with methane and natural gas in spark ignited premixed combustion was investigated in the dynamic combustion rig and in a natural gas engine. In the dynamic combustion rig, the effect of hydrogen added to methane on the flame speed and the flame structure was investigated at elevated pressure and temperature. A considerable increase in the flame speed was observed when adding 30 vol

  7. Pre-heating Fuel for Charge Homogeneity to Improve Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Shanmukam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the automobile engine that people have is of one that is bygone. The automobile engine today is the pinnacle of engineering expertise, implementing the best of technologies and undergoing the best of manufacturing processes to make the closest possible achievement to perfection, from design to combustion. The art of perfection though starts much before the process itself. In case of the automobile engine, the process is the 4-Stroke cycle that most engines go through and the art we are referring to is attaining homogeneity in charge. Homogeneous charge in an Internal Combustion Engine refers to the complete mixture of fuel (Petrol and air, entering the cylinder. Ideally this would mean the complete dispersion of the atomised fuel in air. This as a result reduces the overall efficiency of the engine. To help achieve the required atomisation, reducing the Surface Tension of the fuel is a potential solution. On reduction of Surface Tension the atomisation is enhanced, possibly reaching the ideal value. This can be achieved by heating the fuel to an operating temperature for which heat can be extracted from a potential source, namely the Exhaust Manifold.

  8. Determination of heating value of industrial waste for the formulation of alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouabid G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative fuels has become increasingly widespread. They are basically designed based on industrial waste so that they can substitute fossil fuels which start to become scarce. Alternative fuels must meet some criteria, namely an important calorific content, minimum humidity and ash content. When it comes to combustion, the most interesting parameter is the calorific value which represents the thermal energy released during combustion. The experiments that were conducted showed that the calorific value is influenced by other parameters namely moisture and ash content. It was therefore necessary to study the behavior of the heating value in terms of these two parameters in order to establish a relationship that is used to describe the behavior. This is expected to allow a simulation of the calorific value of a mixture of various industrial waste.

  9. COMBUSTION SIMULATION IN A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE CYLINDER: EFFECTS OF AIR-FUEL RATIO ON THE COMBUSTION DURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureddin Dinler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion is an important subject of internal combustion engine studies. To reduce the air pollution from internal combustion engines and to increase the engine performance, it is required to increase combustion efficiency. In this study, effects of air/fuel ratio were investigated numerically. An axisymmetrical internal combustion engine was modeled in order to simulate in-cylinder engine flow and combustion. Two dimensional transient continuity, momentum, turbulence, energy, and combustion equations were solved. The k-e turbulence model was employed. The fuel mass fraction transport equation was used for modeling of the combustion. For this purpose a computational fluid dynamics code was developed by using the finite volume method with FORTRAN programming code. The moving mesh was utilized to simulate the piston motion. The developed code simulates four strokes of engine continuously. In the case of laminar flow combustion, Arrhenius type combustion equations were employed. In the case of turbulent flow combustion, eddy break-up model was employed. Results were given for rich, stoichiometric, and lean mixtures in contour graphs. Contour graphs showed that lean mixture (l = 1.1 has longer combustion duration.

  10. Preliminary ecotoxicity assessment of new generation alternative fuels in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gunther; Dolecal, Renee E; Colvin, Marienne A; George, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    The United States Navy (USN) is currently demonstrating the viability of environmentally sustainable alternative fuels to power its fleet comprised of aircraft and ships. As with any fuel used in a maritime setting, there is potential for introduction into the environment through transport, storage, and spills. However, while alternative fuels are often presumed to be eco-friendly relative to conventional petroleum-based fuels, their environmental fate and effects on marine environments are essentially unknown. Here, standard laboratory-based toxicity experiments were conducted for two alternative fuels, jet fuel derived from Camelina sativa (wild flax) seeds (HRJ5) and diesel fuel derived from algae (HRD76), and two conventional counterparts, jet fuel (JP5) and ship diesel (F76). Initial toxicity tests performed on water-accommodated fractions (WAF) from neat fuels partitioned into seawater, using four standard marine species in acute and chronic/sublethal tests, indicate that the alternative fuels are significantly less toxic to marine organisms.

  11. Spray combustion of Jet-A and diesel fuels in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the spray combustion of Jet-A fuel in an optical constant-volume combustion chamber under different ambient initial conditions. Ambient temperature was varied at 800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K and five different ambient O2 concentrations were used, spanning 10-21%. These ambient conditions can be used to mimic practical diesel engine working conditions under different fuel injection timings and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels. Both transient and quasi-steady state analyses were conducted. The transient analysis focused on the flame development from the beginning to the end of the combustion process, illustrating how the flame structure evolves with time. The quasi-steady state analysis concentrated on the stable flame structure and compared the flame emissions in terms of spatially integrated intensity, flame effective area, and intensity per pixel. The transient analysis was based on measurements using high-speed imaging of both OH∗ chemiluminescence and broadband natural luminosity (NL). For the quasi-steady state analysis, three flame narrow-band emissions (OH∗ at 310 nm, Band A at 430 nm and Band B at 470 nm) were captured using an ICCD camera. Based on the current Jet-A data and diesel data obtained from previous experiments, a comparison between Jet-A and diesel was made in terms of flame development during the transient state and spatially integrated intensity, flame effective area, and intensity per pixel during the quasi-steady state. For the transient results, Jet-A shares a similar flame development trend to diesel, but featuring a narrower region of NL and a wider region of OH∗ with the increase of ambient temperature and O2 concentration. The soot cloud is oxidized more quickly for Jet-A than diesel at the end of combustion, evident by comparing the area of NL, especially under high O2 concentration. The quasi-steady state results suggest that soot is oxidized effectively under high O2 concentration conditions by the

  12. Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuels; Foerbraenning av utsorterade avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Christer; Myringer, Aase; Helgesson, Anna [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eskilsson, David; Ekvall, Annika [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this project was to increase the understanding of opportunities and problems connected with combustion of sorted waste fractions containing paper, wood and plastics (PWP-fuel) in fluidized bed boilers. An evaluation of the effect of sulphur containing additives in a PWP-fuel fired boiler was also performed within the project since this is not previously reported in open literature. The experience from two boilers at different plants, Johannes (BFB) and Hoegdalen P6 (CFB) during the firing season 2003/2004 was documented. In the Johannes boiler the main fuel is bark while Hoegdalen P6 combusts 100 % PWP-fuel. Analysis of the fuels shows that there are large differences between the two boilers. At Johannes the PWP-fuel contained low amounts of elements (chlorine, alkali and other metals) that are expected to result in increased operational problems or emissions. A large proportion of these unwanted elements came from the wood and paper fractions. The plastic fraction in Johannes had very low levels of unwanted elements. The fuel at Hoegdalen contained large amounts of elements such as chlorine, alkali and other metals that can cause operational problems. First of all the plastic fraction contained large amounts of chlorine, most likely from PVC, which results in a more corrosive atmosphere in the boiler. The fraction of fines in the Hoegdalen fuel contained larger concentrations of potassium and sodium compared with the other fuel fractions, substances that also are related to the formation of deposits. The fraction of fines in the fuel probably also results in combustion taking place high up in the boiler and to some extent continuing in the cyclones. The characterisation of the combustion behaviour performed in Johannes identified a maldistribution in O{sub 2}, CO and gas temperature over a cross-section of the furnace. This was not depending on the fuel mixture but is more likely depending on uneven fuel feeding or air distribution. A comparison between

  13. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  14. The impact of alternate fuels on future candidate automotive engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahnke, C.J.; Nichols, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    The thermal efficiency that could occur in the future for a variety of automotive engine candidates operating on conventional and alternate fuels is projected based on current automotive engine development trends and the special characteristics of the various alternate fuels. The multi-fuel engine candidates include mixture cycle and direct injection reciprocating engines, as well as adiabatic turbocompound engines and advanced gas turbine and Stirling engines. The alternate fuels considered are propane, methanol, ethanol, diesel and methane.

  15. Characterisation of ashes produced by co-combustion of recovered fuels and peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenhaeuser, M.; Zevenhoven, R. [Borealis Polymers Oy, Porvoo (Finland); Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland); Orjala, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Peltola, K. [Foster Wheeler Energy (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Source separation of combustible materials from household or municipal solid waste yields a raw material for the production of Packaging Derived Fuel (PDF). This fuel can substitute the traditional fuels in heat and power generation and is also called recycled fuel. Co-combustion of these types of fuels with coal has been studied in several LIEKKI-projects and the results have been both technically and environmentally favourable. (author)

  16. Combustion Characteristics of Liquid Normal Alkane Fuels in a Model Combustor of Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    今村, 宰; 石川, 雄太; 鈴木, 俊介; 福本, 皓士郎; 西田, 俊介; 氏家, 康成; 津江, 光洋

    Effect of kinds of one-component n-alkane liquid fuels on combustion characteristics was investigated experimentally using a model combustor of scramjet engine. The inlet condition of a model combustor is 2.0 of Mach number, up to 2400K of total temperature, and 0.38MPa of total pressure. Five kinds of n-alkane are tested, of which carbon numbers are 7, 8, 10, 13, and 16. They are more chemically active and less volatile with an increase of alkane carbon number. Fuels are injected to the combustor in the upstream of cavity with barbotage nitrogen gas and self-ignition performance was investigated. The result shows that self-ignition occurs with less equivalence ratio when alkane carbon number is smaller. This indicates that physical characteristic of fuel, namely volatile of fuel, is dominant for self-ignition behavior. Effect on flame-holding performance is also examined with adding pilot hydrogen and combustion is kept after cutting off pilot hydrogen with the least equivalence ratio where alkane carbon number is from 8 to 10. These points are discussed qualitatively from the conflict effect of chemical and physical properties on alkane carbon number.

  17. Report by the AERES on the unit: Fuel Study Department (DEC) under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA); Rapport de l'AERES sur l'unite: Departement d'Etudes des Combustibles (DEC) sous tutelle des etablissements et organismes: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, the DEC (Departement d'Etudes des Combustibles, Fuel Study Department) which comprises four departments: a department of analysis and characterization of fuel behaviour (SA3C) which comprises four laboratories, a Plutonium, Uranium and Minor Actinides department (SPUA) which comprises four laboratories, a department for the investigation and simulation of fuel behaviour (four laboratories) and the Leca-Star department (3 laboratories and a project group). The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved, risks and recommendations, productions and publications on different themes (fundamental research on fuels, fuel design, fabrications, characterizations and property measurements, experimental irradiations, characterization of irradiated fuels and chemical and radio-chemical analysis, modelling and simulation). A more detailed assessment is presented for each theme in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project

  18. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  19. Nongray-gas Effects in Modeling of Large-scale Oxy-fuel Combustion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    , among which radiative heat transfer under oxy-fuel conditions is one of the fundamental issues. This paper demonstrates the nongray-gas effects in modeling of large-scale oxy-fuel combustion processes. Oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas in a large-scale utility boiler is numerically investigated......, the gray calculation of the oxy-fuel WSGGM remarkably over-predicts the radiative heat transfer to the furnace walls and under-predicts the gas temperature at the furnace exit plane, which also result in a higher incomplete combustion in the gray calculation. Moreover, the gray and non-gray calculations......Quite some studies have been conducted in order to implement oxy-fuel combustion with flue gas recycle in conventional utility boilers as an effective effort of carbon capture and storage. However, combustion under oxy-fuel conditions is significantly different from conventional air-fuel firing...

  20. Combustion Mode Design with High Efficiency and Low Emissions Controlled by Mixtures Stratification and Fuel Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on the combustion mode design with high efficiency and low emissions controlled by fuel reactivity and mixture stratification that have been conducted in the authors’ group, including the charge reactivity controlled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion, stratification controlled premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI combustion, and dual-fuel combustion concepts controlled by both fuel reactivity and mixture stratification. The review starts with the charge reactivity controlled HCCI combustion, and the works on HCCI fuelled with both high cetane number fuels, such as DME and n-heptane, and high octane number fuels, such as methanol, natural gas, gasoline and mixtures of gasoline/alcohols, are reviewed and discussed. Since single fuel cannot meet the reactivity requirements under different loads to control the combustion process, the studies related to concentration stratification and dual-fuel charge reactivity controlled HCCI combustion are then presented, which have been shown to have the potential to achieve effective combustion control. The efforts of using both mixture and thermal stratifications to achieve the auto-ignition and combustion control are also discussed. Thereafter, both charge reactivity and mixture stratification are then applied to control the combustion process. The potential and capability of thermal-atmosphere controlled compound combustion mode and dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI/highly premixed charge combustion (HPCC mode to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion are then presented and discussed. Based on these results and discussions, combustion mode design with high efficiency and low emissions controlled by fuel reactivity and mixtures stratification in the whole operating range is proposed.

  1. Novel approaches in advanced combustion characterization of fuels for advanced pressurized combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J. [VTT Energy (Finland); Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This project is a part of the EU Joule 2 (extension) programme. The objective of the research of Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) is to produce experimental results of the effects of pressure and other important parameters on the combustion of pulverized coals and their char derivates. The results can be utilized in modelling of pressurized combustion and in planning pilot-scale reactors. The coals to be studied are Polish hvb coal, French lignite (Gardanne), German anthracite (Niederberg) and German (Goettelbom) hvb coal. The samples are combusted in an electrically heated, pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR), where the experimental conditions are controlled with a high precision. The particle size of the fuel can vary between 100 and 300 {mu}m. The studied things are combustion rates, temperatures and sizes of burning single coal and char particles. The latter measurements are performed with a method developed by Tampere University of Technology, Finland. In some of the experiments, mass loss and elemental composition of the char residue are studied in more details as the function of time to find out the combustion mechanism. Combustion rate of pulverized (140-180 {mu}m) Gardanne lignite and Niederberg anthracite were measured and compared with the data obtained earlier with Polish hvb coal at various pressures, gas temperatures, oxygen partial pressures and partial pressures of carbon dioxide in the second working period. In addition, particle temperatures were measured with anthracite. The experimental results were treated with multivariable partial least squares (PLS) method to find regression equation between the measured things and the experimental variables. (author)

  2. On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chaturvedi, Sushil K.; Kheireddine, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen in the combustion products. This method involves using a controller which maintains the fuel (gas) volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is determined form a known correlation with the fuel flow rate. An on-line computer accesses the fuel flow data and displays the heat of combustion measurement at desired time intervals. This technique appears to be especially applicable for measuring heats of combustion of hydrocarbon mixtures of unknown composition such as natural gas.

  3. Low NO/x/ combustion systems for burning heavy residual fuels and high-fuel-bound nitrogen fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. J.; Batakis, A.; Lecren, R. T.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Design concepts are presented for lean-lean and staged rich-lean combustors. The combustors are designed for the dry reduction of thermal NO(x), control of NO(x) from fuels containing high levels of organic nitrogen, and control of smoke from low hydrogen content fuels. The combustor concepts are tested with a wide variety of fuels including a middle distillate, a petroleum based heavy residual, a coal derived synthetic, and ratios of blends of these fuels. The configurations of the lean-lean and rich-lean combustion systems are provided along with a description of the test rig and test procedure.

  4. Alternative Fuels: Are we Making the Right Choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    diesel at any ratio with little to no modification. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002) Homogeneous charge compression ignition ( HCCI ) engines ...have the potential to provide high, diesel-like efficiencies and very low emissions. In an HCCI engine , a dilute, premixed fuel/air charge auto...replacements for fossil fuels in the internal combustion engine . Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), better known as propane, is a clean-burning fossil fuel

  5. Premixer assembly for mixing air and fuel for combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2016-12-13

    A premixer assembly for mixing air and fuel for combustion includes a plurality of tubes disposed at a head end of a combustor assembly. Also included is a tube of the plurality of tubes, the tube including an inlet end and an outlet end. Further included is at least one non-circular portion of the tube extending along a length of the tube, the at least one non-circular portion having a non-circular cross-section, and the tube having a substantially constant cross-sectional area along its length

  6. Combustion characteristics of a turbocharged DI compression ignition engine fueled with petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakci, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2) and biodiesel from soybean oil were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine at full load at 1400-rpm engine speed. The experimental results compared with No. 2 diesel fuel showed that biodiesel provided significant reductions in PM, CO, and unburned HC, the NO(x) increased by 11.2%. Biodiesel had a 13.8% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption due to its lower heating value. However, using No. 1 diesel fuel gave better emission results, NO(x) and brake-specific fuel consumption reduced by 16.1% and 1.2%, respectively. The values of the principal combustion characteristics of the biodiesel were obtained between two petroleum diesel fuels. The results indicated that biodiesel may be blended with No. 1 diesel fuel to be used without any modification on the engine.

  7. Characterisation of refuse-derived fuels on the basis of their combustion characteristics; Charakterisierung von Ersatzbrennstoffen hinsichtlich brennstofftechnischer Eigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M.; Ncube, S. [Bauhaus Univ. Weimer (Germany). Lehrstuhl Verfahren und Umwelt

    2007-07-01

    Refuse-derived fuels and biomass-derived fuels are used in power stations and industrial production processes, either in monocombustion plants or in cocombustion plants. Their energy content, ignition and combustion characteristics, slag formation and corrosion potential make them difficult fuels. The contribution starts by reviewing the combustion characteristics of refuse-derived and biomass-derived fuels and analyzing their influence on the combustion characteristics. Various methods of defining the combustion characteristics of these fuels are explained. (orig.)

  8. Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

  9. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  10. So/sub 2/ reduction in non-utility combustion sources: technical and economic comparison of alternatives. Final task report, May 1974--Sep 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, P.S.K.; Kropp, E.L.; Ballantyne, W.E.; Anastas, M.Y.; Putnam, A.A.

    1975-10-01

    The report gives results of an analysis of non-utility combustion (NUC) sources for various size classes and fuel types with respect to the significance of SO/sub 2/ emissions. Technical and economic comparisons of various SO/sub 2/ control alternatives were made for the important size classes and fuel types. Categories of alternatives included are: physical cleaning of coal, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, fluidized-bed combustion of coal, and flue gas desulfurization. For small size classes of NUC sources, applicabilities of package sorption systems are reviewed. (GRA)

  11. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Tylczak, Joseph [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Meier, Gerald H [University of Pittsburgh; Lutz, Bradley [University of Pittsburgh; Jung, Keeyoung [Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Korea; Mu, Nan; Yanar, Nazik M [University of Pittsburgh; Pettit, Frederick S [University of Pittsburgh; Zhu, Jingxi [Carnegie Mellon University; Wise, Adam [Carnegie Mellon University; Laughlin, David E. [Carnegie Mellon University; Sridhar, Seetharaman [Carnegie Mellon University

    2013-11-25

    Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air for ease of capture of CO2 from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N2 with CO2 and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model Fe–Cr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions. Evidence was found for a hreshold for severe attack between 10-4 and 10-3 atm of SO3 at 700ºC.

  12. Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2008-01-01

    reactor to test the impact of changes in operating conditions and fuel type on the AEA adsorption of ash and NOx formation. Increased oxidizing conditions, obtained by improved fuel-air mixing or higher excess air, decreased the AEA requirements of the produced ash by up to a factor of 25. This was due...... on a carbon black. The reactor was modeled with CFD and a relationship between oxygen concentration in the early stage of combustion and the AEA adsorption properties of the ash was observed. The NOx formation increased by up to three times with more oxidizing conditions and thus, there was a trade....... The AEA requirements of a fly ash can be suppressed by exposing it to oxidizing species, which oxidizes the carbon surface and thus prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post...

  13. Fuel injection for internal combustion engines. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of fuel injection systems applied to internal combustion engines and turbines. Gasoline, diesel, synthetic fuels, and liquid gas systems are discussed relative to systems` variations and performances. Fuel injection atomization and combustion are considered in theory, and fuel injection relative to emission control is included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Fuel injection for internal combustion engines. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of fuel injection systems applied to internal combustion engines and turbines. Gasoline, diesel, synthetic fuels, and liquid gas systems are discussed relative to systems' variations and performances. Fuel injection atomization and combustion are considered in theory, and fuel injection relative to emission control is included. (Contains a minimum of 223 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-15

    March 2003 the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor fuels (IEA/AMF) decided to continue annex XXVII 'Standardization of alternative fuels' with a second phase. The purpose of the second phase was to go further in the contacts with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as well as the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and their technical committees, to better understand their needs and to investigate how IEA/AMF could contribute to their work. It was also scheduled to put forward proposals on how IEA/AMF could cooperate with CEN and ISO and their technical committees (TC: s), primarily ISO/TC 28 'Petroleum Products and Lubricants' and CEN/TC 19 'Petroleum Products, Lubricants and Related Products'. The main part of the work in IEA/AMF annex XXVII phase two has focused on personal contacts within CEN/TC 19 and ISO/TC 28, but also on data and information collection from websites and written information. Together with the analysis of this information, the internal organization of a cooperation between IEA/AMF and ISO/TC 28 and of a cooperation between IEA/AMF and CEN/TC 19 have also been discussed and analysed.

  16. The Mutagenic Potential Caused by the Emissions from Combustion of Crude Glycerin and Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Terruggi Mazak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of crude glycerin as an alternative of energy generation to replace the traditional fuels. The Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH was applied to study the mutagenic effects caused by the emissions generated in the direct combustion of diesel oil and glycerin in a flame tube furnace. Tradescantia inflorescences were exposed to gaseous emissions from the combustion tests in a fumigation chamber for 30-40 min. The analysis of variance and the Tukey test were applied to compare the differences between six test groups (intoxicated with emissions from glycerin and diesel oil combustion and a control group. Only one glycerin group showed statistical differences (0.05, possibly due to the complexity of the burning process and impurities, besides the acrolein present in its emissions. The high heating value (HHV of crude glycerin (25.5 MJ/kg was lower than diesel oil (45.19 MJ/kg, but it was comparable to other fuels. Although the use of glycerin as a biofuel could be an important aspect to be considered, the results showed that the glycerin had a substantial mutagenic potential similar to that of diesel oil.

  17. Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

  19. Fuel combustion exhibiting low NO{sub x} and CO levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J.O.; Bramlette, T.T.; Barr, P.K.

    1996-07-30

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for safely combusting a fuel in such a manner that very low levels of NO{sub x} and CO are produced. The apparatus comprises an inlet line containing a fuel and an inlet line containing an oxidant. Coupled to the fuel line and to the oxidant line is a mixing means for thoroughly mixing the fuel and the oxidant without combusting them. Coupled to the mixing means is a means for injecting the mixed fuel and oxidant, in the form of a large-scale fluid dynamic structure, into a combustion region. Coupled to the combustion region is a means for producing a periodic flow field within the combustion region to mix the fuel and the oxidant with ambient gases in order to lower the temperature of combustion. The means for producing a periodic flow field can be a pulse combustor, a rotating band, or a rotating cylinder within an acoustic chamber positioned upstream or downstream of the region of combustion. The mixing means can be a one-way flapper valve; a rotating cylinder; a rotating band having slots that expose open ends of said fuel inlet line and said oxidant inlet line simultaneously; or a set of coaxial fuel annuli and oxidizer annuli. The means for producing a periodic flow field may or may not be in communication with an acoustic resonance. When employed, the acoustic resonance may be upstream or downstream of the region of combustion. 14 figs.

  20. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  1. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  2. Flame ignition studies of conventional and alternative jet fuels and surrogate components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning

    Practical jet fuels are widely used in air-breathing propulsion, but the chemical mechanisms that control their combustion are not yet understood. Thousands of components are contained in conventional and alternative jet fuels, making thus any effort to model their combustion behavior a daunting task. That has been the motivation behind the development of surrogate fuels that contain typically a small number of neat components, whose physical properties and combustion behavior mimic those of the real jet fuel, and whose kinetics could be modeled with increased degree of confidence. Towards that end, a large number of experimental data are required both for the real fuels and the attendant surrogate components that could be used to develop and validate detailed kinetic models. Those kinetic models could be used then upon reduction to model a combustor and eventually optimize its performance. Among all flame phenomena, ignition is rather sensitive to the oxidative and pyrolytic propensity of the fuel as well as to its diffusivity. The counterflow configuration is ideal in probing both the fuel reactivity and diffusivity aspects of the ignition process and it was used in the present work to determine the ignition temperatures of premixed and non-premixed flames of a variety of fuels relevant to air-breathing propulsion. The experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, elevated unburned fuel mixture temperatures, and various strain rates that were measured locally. Several recent kinetic models were used in direct numerical simulations of the experiments and the computed results were tested against the experimental data. Furthermore, through sensitivity, reaction path, and structure analyses of the computed flames, insight was provided into the dominant mechanisms that control ignition. It was found that ignition is primarily sensitive to fuel diffusion and secondarily sensitive to chemical kinetics and intermediate species diffusivities under the low fuel

  3. Alternative Fabrication of Recycling Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Metal fuels such as U-Zr/U-Pu-Zr alloys have been considered as a nuclear fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. In order to develop innovative fabrication method of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, modified casting under inert atmosphere has been applied for metal fuel slugs for SFR. Alternative fabrication method of fuel slugs has been introduced to develop an improved fabrication process of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements. In this study, metal fuel slugs for SFR have been fabricated by modified casting method, and characterized to evaluate the feasibility of the alternative fabrication method. In order to prevent evaporation of volatile elements such as Am and improve quality of fuel slugs, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied in KAERI. U-10Zr-5Mn fuel slug containing volatile surrogate element Mn was soundly cast by modified injection casting under modest pressure. Evaporation of Mn during alternative casting could not be detected by chemical analysis. Mn element was most recovered with prevention of evaporation by alternative casting. Modified injection casting has been selected as an alternative fabrication method in KAERI, considering evaporation prevention, and proven benefits of high productivity, high yield, and good remote control.

  4. Effect of Selected Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials on the Cement Clinker Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigáč, Július

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with the study of the effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on the cement clinker quality. The clinker quality was expressed by the content of two principal minerals alite C3S and belite C2S. The additions of alternative fuels ashes and raw materials, in principle, always increased the belite content and conversely reduced the amount of alite. The alternative fuels with high ash content were used such as the meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge and the used alternative raw materials were metallurgical slags - granulated blastfurnace slag, air cooled blastfurnace slag and demetallized steel slag, fluidized bed combustion fly ash and waste glass. Meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge were evaluated as moderately suitable alternative fuels which can be added in the amounts of 2.8 wt. % addition of meat-bone meals ash, 3.64 wt. % addition of sewage sludge ash and 3.8 wt. % addition of paper sludge ash to the cement raw mixture. Demetallised steel slag is suitable for production of special sulphate resistant cement clinker for CEM I -SR cement with addition up to 5 wt. %. Granulated blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4 wt. %. Air cooled blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4.2 wt. %. Waste glass is not very appropriate alternative raw material with addition only 1.16 wt. %. Fluidized bed combustion fly ash appears not to be equally appropriate alternative raw material for cement clinker burning with less potential utilization in the cement industry and with addition 3.41 wt. %, which forms undesired anhydrite CaSO4 in the cement clinker.

  5. Effect of Selected Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials on the Cement Clinker Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strigáč Július

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of the effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on the cement clinker quality. The clinker quality was expressed by the content of two principal minerals alite C3S and belite C2S. The additions of alternative fuels ashes and raw materials, in principle, always increased the belite content and conversely reduced the amount of alite. The alternative fuels with high ash content were used such as the meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge and the used alternative raw materials were metallurgical slags - granulated blastfurnace slag, air cooled blastfurnace slag and demetallized steel slag, fluidized bed combustion fly ash and waste glass. Meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge were evaluated as moderately suitable alternative fuels which can be added in the amounts of 2.8 wt. % addition of meat-bone meals ash, 3.64 wt. % addition of sewage sludge ash and 3.8 wt. % addition of paper sludge ash to the cement raw mixture. Demetallised steel slag is suitable for production of special sulphate resistant cement clinker for CEM I –SR cement with addition up to 5 wt. %. Granulated blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4 wt. %. Air cooled blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4.2 wt. %. Waste glass is not very appropriate alternative raw material with addition only 1.16 wt. %. Fluidized bed combustion fly ash appears not to be equally appropriate alternative raw material for cement clinker burning with less potential utilization in the cement industry and with addition 3.41 wt. %, which forms undesired anhydrite CaSO4 in the cement clinker.

  6. The combustion properties analysis of various liquid fuels based on crude oil and renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab-Rogalinski, K.; Szwaja, S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents results of investigation on combustion properties analysis of hydrocarbon based liquid fuels commonly used in the CI engine. The analysis was performed with aid of the CRU (Combustion Research Unit). CRU is the machine consisted of a constant volume combustion chamber equipped with one or two fuel injectors and a pressure sensor. Fuel can be injected under various both injection pressure and injection duration, also with two injector versions two stage combustion with pilot injection can be simulated, that makes it possible to introduce and modify additional parameter which is injection delay (defined as the time between pilot and main injection). On a basis of this investigation such combustion parameters as pressure increase, rate of heat release, ignition delay and combustion duration can be determined. The research was performed for the four fuels as follows: LFO, HFO, Biofuel from rape seeds and Glycerol under various injection parameters as well as combustion chamber thermodynamic conditions. Under these tests the change in such injection parameters as injection pressure, use of pilot injection, injection delay and injection duration, for main injection, were made. Moreover, fuels were tested under different conditions of load, what was determined by initial conditions (pressure and temperature) in the combustion chamber. Stored data from research allows to compare combustion parameters for fuels applied to tests and show this comparison in diagrams.

  7. Construction and evaluation of a fuel cell prototype (proton exchange fuel cell); Construccion y evaluacion de un prototipo de celda a combustible (proton exchange fuel cell)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, L. [Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Energia - LAPEN, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, São Jose, SC (Brasil)] e-mail: luciano.silva@univali.br; Paula, M.M.S.; Fiori, M [Lasicom, Universidade do Extremos Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, S.C. (Brasil); Benavides, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Santos, V. [Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Energia - LAPEN, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, São Jose, SC (Brasil)

    2009-09-15

    Because electric energy is a vitally important material for the development of the country, this work is aimed at offering an alternative methodology for the construction and operational demonstration of a PEMFC fuel cell. Recently discovered natural gas reserves can be exploited using modern methods and its use fulfills generation, distribution and low environmental impact priorities. All these factors can be observed with the use of fuel cells, especially when working with reformed natural gas. In addition to its low environmental impact during the generation of this energy, the use of fuel cells reflects a generator source that can be located with the consumer, further reducing problems created by transmission lines, fuel transport, etc. Fuel cells are receiving a great deal of attention from the international community and some models are already commercially available. They are showing excellent possibilities for becoming one of the future technologies to generate electric energy with low environmental impact. [Spanish] En funcion de la necesidad de energia electrica como insumo de vital importancia para el desarrollo del pais, este trabajo pretende ofrecer una metodologia alternativa para la construccion y demostracion operacional de una celda a combustible del tipo PEMFC. La explotacion de las reservas de gas natural descubiertas recientemente puede realizarse a traves de metodos modernos y su uso tiene las prioridades de generacion, distribucion y bajo impacto ambiental. Todos estos aspectos se pueden observar dentro del uso de celdas a combustible, especialmente cuando se trabaja con gas natural reformado. Ademas del factor de bajo impacto ambiental durante la misma generacion de energia, el uso de las celdas a combustible involucra una fuente generadora, que puede colocarse junto al consumidor, reduciendo aun mas los problemas generados por las lineas de transmision, el transporte del combustible, etc. Las celdas a combustible estan recibiendo una gran

  8. Combustion Chemistry Diagnostics for Cleaner Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2016-09-12

    Climate change, environmental problems, urban pollution, and the dependence on fossil fuels demand cleaner, renewable energy strategies. However, they also ask for urgent advances in combustion science to reduce emissions. For alternative fuels and new combustion regimes, crucial information about the chemical reactions from fuel to exhaust remains lacking. Understanding such relations between combustion process, fuel, and emissions needs reliable experimental data from a wide range of conditions to provide a firm basis for predictive modeling of practical combustion processes.

  9. A new comprehensive reaction mechanism for combustion of hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranzi, E.; Sogaro, A.; Gaffuri, P.; Pennati, G. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria Chimica; Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-03

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed which describes pyrolysis, ignition and oxidation of many small hydrocarbon fuels over a wide range of experimental conditions. Fuels include carbon monoxide and hydrogen, methane and other alkane species up to n-butane, ethylene, propene, acetylene, and oxygenated species such as methanol, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Formation of some larger intermediate and product species including benzene, butadiene, large olefins, and cyclopentadiene has been treated in a semi-empirical manner. The reaction mechanism has been tested for conditions that do not involve transport and diffusional processes, including plug flow and stirred reactors, batch reactors and shock tubes. The present kinetic model and its validation differ from previous reaction mechanisms in two ways. First, in addition to conventional combustion data, experiments more commonly associated with chemical engineering problems such as oxidative coupling, oxidative pyrolysis and steam cracking are used to test the reaction mechanism, making it even more general than previous models. In addition, H atom abstraction and some other reaction rates, even for the smaller C{sub 2}, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, are treated using approximations that facilitate future extensions to larger fuels in a convenient manner. Construction of the reaction mechanism and comparisons with experimental data illustrate the generality of the model.

  10. 77 FR 14583 - Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans. SUMMARY: Projects... American Preferences. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is considering issuing waivers to...

  11. Preferences for alternative fuel vehicles by Dutch local governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsoever, F.J. van; Hagen, P.; Willems, M

    2013-01-01

    Using a choice model, we estimate the preferences for alternative fuel vehicles by Dutch local governments. The analysis shows that local governments are willing to pay between 25% and 50% extra for an alternative fuel vehicle without a serious loss of utility. Further, local emissions are an import

  12. Investigation on the spontaneous combustion of refuse-derived fuels during storage using a chemiluminescence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matunaga, Atsushi; Yasuhara, Akio; Shimizu, Yoshitada; Wakakura, Masahide; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2008-12-01

    Refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a high-caloric material, is used by various combustion processes, such as power plants, as alternative fuel. Several explosion accidents, however, possibly initiated by the spontaneous combustion of stored RDF, have been reported in Japan. Therefore the spontaneous combustion of RDF prepared from domestic garbage was investigated using chemiluminescence. RDF samples were heated either under air or under nitrogen for 1, 2, or 4 h at 120 or 140 degrees C and then cooled by an air or nitrogen stream. All RDF samples exhibited chemiluminescence. In air-treated RDF samples (heated and cooled by air), chemiluminescence after ageing was shown to be slightly lower than before ageing, whereas in nitrogen-treated samples (both heated and cooled by nitrogen) chemiluminescence decreased significantly after ageing. When nitrogen was replaced with air during aging, however, a sudden increase of chemiluminescence was observed. On the other hand, when cooling was done with air, chemiluminescence increased. Higher chemiluminescence was also observed during high-temperature treatment. Further experiments on cellulose, one of the major components of domestic garbage, exhibited similar chemiluminescence patterns to those of RDF when treated by the same methods as those used for RDF ageing. Chemiluminescence from cellulose increased significantly when the atmospheric gas was changed from nitrogen to air, suggesting that oxygen in the air promoted the formation of hydroperoxide from cellulose. Therefore, it is hypothesized that cellulose plays an important role in the formation of chemiluminescence from RDF. The formation of chemiluminescence indicated that radicals are formed from RDF by oxidation or thermal degradation at room or atmospheric temperatures and may subsequently lead to spontaneous combustion.

  13. Chemical Looping Combustion with Different Types of Liquid Fuels Combustion en boucle chimique avec différentes charges liquides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoteit A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available CLC is a new promising combustion process for CO2 capture with less or even no energy penalty compared to other processes. Up to now, most of the work performed on CLC was conducted with gaseous or solid fuels, using methane and coal and/or pet coke. Liquid fuels such as heavy fuels resulting from oil distillation or conversion may also be interesting feedstocks to consider. However, liquid fuels are challenging feedstock to deal with in fluidized beds. The objective of the present work is therefore to investigate the feasibility of liquid feed injection and contact with oxygen carrier in CLC conditions in order to conduct partial or complete combustion of hydrocarbons. A batch experimental fluidized bed set-up was developed to contact alternatively oxygen carrier with liquid fuels or air. The 20 mm i.d. fluidized bed reactor was filled up with 45 g of NiAl0.44O1.67 and pulses of 1-2 g of liquid were injected in the bed at high temperatures up to 950˚C. Different feedstocks have been injected, from dodecane to heavy fuel oils No.2. Results show that, during the reduction period, it is possible to convert all the fuel injected and there is no coke remaining on particles at the end of the reduction step. Depending upon oxygen available in the bed, either full combustion or partial combustion can be achieved. Similar results were found with different liquid feeds, despite their different composition and properties. Le CLC est un nouveau concept prometteur appliqué à la combustion qui permet le captage de CO en minimisant la pénalité énergétique liée au captage. Jusqu’à présent, l’essentiel des travaux de recherche dans le domaine du CLC concerne les charges gazeuses (méthane et solides (charbon et coke. Les charges liquides, et particulièrement les résidus pétroliers, sont des charges également intéressantes à considérer a priori. La mise en oeuvre de ces charges en lit fluidisé est cependant délicate. L’objet de ce

  14. Sustainability of fossil fuels and alternative energies for Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasdemiroglu, E.

    1989-01-01

    Reserves and production of fossil fuels in Turkey are discussed, as well as projections of production rates to the year 2010. Sustainability of fossil-fuel production has been estimated on the basis of presently known data. Fossil fuels will have a very limited lifetime. Bitumens, hydropower, geothermal energy, solar energy, wind power, biomass, and nuclear energy are appropriate alternative technologies. The potentials of these alternatives are given and recommendations made to enhance their contributions. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  16. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion - 2012 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Doha, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2010; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; and CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information.

  17. Thermal explosion in a combustible gas containing fuel droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, A. C.; Gol'dshtein, V.; Goldfarb, I.; Zinoviev, A.

    1998-06-01

    An original physical model of self-ignition in a combustible gas mixture containing liquid fuel droplets is developed. The droplets are small enough for the gas-droplet mixture to be considered as a fine mist such that individual droplet burning is subsumed into a well-stirred, spatially invariant burning approximation. A classical Semenov-type analysis is used to describe the exothermic reaction, and the endothermic terms involve the use of quasi-steady mass transfer/heat balance and the Clausius-Clapeyron evaporative law. The resulting analysis predicts the ignition delay which is a function of the system parameters. Results are given for typical dynamical regimes. The case of different initial temperatures for droplets and gas is highly relevant to gas turbine lean blow-out and re-ignition.

  18. Alternative membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, A.K.; Pitchumani, S.; Sridhar, P.; Shukla, A.K. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India)

    2009-07-01

    Nafion, a perfluoro-sulfonated membrane, is utilized as a membrane electrolyte in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). However, to realize optimum PEFC performance, the Nafion membrane needs to be fully humidified, making the system quite costly. Therefore, in order to solve this problem, alternative membrane electrolytes that could operate under low humidity conditions are needed. This paper reported on composite Nafion membranes with ceramic/inorganic fillers such as silica and mesoporous zirconium phosphate (MZP). Silica was impregnated to the Nafion matrix by a unique water hydrolysis sol-gel route and casted as a composite membrane while MZP, a solid-super-acid-proton-conducting medium as well as water absorbing material was synthesized by a co-assembly technique and impregnated to the Nafion matrix to form a composite membrane. The performance of the PEFCs with Nafion membrane and composite membranes was tested with hydrogen/oxygen gas and hydrogen/air feeds at varying relative humidity (RH) values under ambient conditions. It was concluded that under RH value as low as 18 per cent, the PEFC with Nafion membrane delivers a peak-power density of only 130 mW/square centimeter.

  19. CYLINDER PRESSURE VARIATIONS OF THE FUMIGATED HYDROGEN-DIESEL DUAL FUEL COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonthum Wongchai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylinder pressure is one of the main parameters of diesel engine combustion affecting several changes in exhaust gas emission composition and amount as well as engine useful power, specifically when alternative fuels are used. One among other alternative fuels for diesel engine is hydrogen that can be used as fumigated reagent with air prior to intake to engine in order to substitute the main fossil diesel. In this study, experimental investigation was accomplished using a single cylinder diesel engine for agriculture running on different ratios of hydrogen-to-diesel. Cylinder pressure traces corresponding to the crank angle positions were indicated and analyzed for maximum cylinder pressure and their coefficient of variation. The regression analysis is used to find the correlations between hydrogen percentage and the maximum cylinder pressure as well as its coefficient of variation. When higher hydrogen percentages were added, the combustion shifted toward later crank angles with the maximum cylinder pressure decreased and eminent effects at higher load and speed. The plots of hydrogen percentage against the coefficient of variation of the maximum cylinder pressure (COVPmax show the increase in variation of maximum cylinder pressure when the hydrogen percentage increased for all conditions tested. Gaseous hydrogen fumigated prior to intake to the engine reduced maximum cylinder pressure from the combustion while increasing the values of COVPmax. The maximum pressure-hydrogen percentage correlations and the COVPmax-hydrogen percentage correlations show better curve fittings by second order (n = 2 correlation compared to the first order (n = 1 correlation for all the test conditions.

  20. Decrease of noxious emissions in the residual fuel oil combustion; Disminucion de emisiones nocivas en la combustion de aceite combustible residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandoki W, Jorge [Econergia S. de R. L. de C. V. Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The residual fuel oil combustion emits noxious substances such as carbonaceous particulate, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur trioxide at unacceptable levels. Water emulsified in the fuel substantially reduces such emissions, achieving besides, in most of the cases, a net saving in the fuel consumption. The beneficial effects are shown in burning the residual fuel oil as a water emulsion, as well as the method to produce an adequate emulsion. The emulsified fuel technology offers a low cost option to reduce air pollution. The fuel oil quality has been declining during the last decades due to: 1. Increase in the production of crude heavy oils, generally with higher content of asphaltens and sulfur. 2. Less availability of vacuum distillation residues due to its conversion into greater value products. 3. More intensive conversion processes such as catalytic cracking, visbreaking, etc. that increase the asphaltenes concentration in the bottoms, causing instability problems. 4. The increase in the vanadium and other metals content as the concentration of asphaltenes increases. The use of emulsified fuel oil provides an efficient and economical method to substantially reduce the noxious emissions to the atmosphere. The emulsion contains water particles in a diameter between 2 and 20 microns, uniformly distributed in the fuel oil, generally in a proportion generally of 5 to 10%; besides, it contains a tensioactive agent to assure a stable emulsion capable of withstanding the shearing forces of the pumping and distribution systems. When the atomized oil drops get into the combustion chamber, the emulsified water flashes into high pressure steam, originating a violent secondary atomization. The effect of this secondary atomization is the rupture of the oil drops of various hundred microns, producing drops of 5 to 15 microns in diameter. Since the necessary time for combustion is an exponential function of the drop diameter, a very substantial improvement in the combustion is

  1. Status and outlook for biofuels, other alternative fuels and new vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.-O.; Aakko-Saksa, P.; Sipilae, K.

    2008-03-15

    The report presents an outlook for alternative motor fuels and new vehicles. The time period covered extends up to 2030. The International Energy Agency and the U.S. Energy Information Administration predict that the world energy demand will increase by over 50% from now to 2030, if policies remain unchanged. Most of the growth in demand for energy in general, as well as for transport fuels, will take place in non-OECD countries. Gasoline and diesel are projected to remain the dominant automotive fuels until 2030. Vehicle technology and high quality fuels will eventually solve the problem of harmful exhaust emissions. However, the problem with CO{sub 2} still remains, and much attention will be given to increase efficiency. Hybrid technology is one option to reduce fuel consumption. Diesel engines are fuel efficient, but have high emissions compared with advanced gasoline engines. New combustion systems combining the best qualities of gasoline and diesel engines promise low emissions as well as high efficiency. The scenarios for alternative fuels vary a lot. By 2030, alternative fuels could represent a 10- 30% share of transport fuels, depending on policies. Ambitious goals for biofuels in transport have been set. As advanced biofuels are still in their infancy, it seems probable that traditional biofuels will also be used in 2030. Ethanol is the fastest growing biofuel. Currently the sustainability of biofuels is discussed extensively. Synthetic fuels promise excellent end-use properties, reduced emissions, and if produced from biomass, also reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. The report presents an analysis of technology options to meet the requirements for energy security, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, reduced local emissions as well as sustainability in general in the long run. In the short term, energy savings will be the main measure for CO{sub 2} reductions in transport, fuel switches will have a secondary role. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  3. Combustion-derived substances in deep basins of Puget Sound: historical inputs from fossil fuel and biomass combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce E; Brandenberger, Jill M; Wade, Terry L; Crecelius, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Reconstructions of 250 years historical inputs of two distinct types of black carbon (soot/graphitic black carbon (GBC) and char-BC) were conducted on sediment cores from two basins of the Puget Sound, WA. Signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also used to support the historical reconstructions of BC to this system. Down-core maxima in GBC and combustion-derived PAHs occurred in the 1940s in the cores from the Puget Sound Main Basin, whereas in Hood Canal such peak was observed in the 1970s, showing basin-specific differences in inputs of combustion byproducts. This system showed relatively higher inputs from softwood combustion than the northeastern U.S. The historical variations in char-BC concentrations were consistent with shifts in climate indices, suggesting an influence of climate oscillations on wildfire events. Environmental loading of combustion byproducts thus appears as a complex function of urbanization, fuel usage, combustion technology, environmental policies, and climate conditions.

  4. Simulation Analysis of Combustion Parameters and Emission Characteristics of CNG Fueled HCCI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Diaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The naturally aspirated compressed natural gas (CNG fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine operation region is narrow between heavy knock at rich air-fuel mixture side and misfire at the lean air-fuel mixture side. However, high activation energy is needed to attain autoignition temperature of CNG fueled HCCI engine. This paper seeks to provide guidance in overcoming challenges of CNG fueled HCCI engine by using CHEMKIN. It is used to investigate the fundamental characteristics of the homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion process for different air-fuel mixture inlet temperature, relative air-fuel ratio of 2.5, and with hemispherical bowl types of combustion chambers. The variation of various properties like the peak cylinder pressure, peak cylinder temperature, CO emission, NO emission, soot emission, and HC emission are studied. It is necessary to develop new combustion models to simulate and predict all parameters with high accuracy.

  5. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface coating materials: Their compositions and potential as an alternative fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Choi, In-Young; Son, Youn-Suk; Song, Kyu-Yong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2016-03-01

    A sampling system was designed to determine the composition ratios of VOCs emitted from 31 surface coating materials (SCMs). Representative architectural, automotive, and marine SCMs in Korea were investigated. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were the predominant VOCs. The VOC levels (wt%) from automotive SCMs were significantly higher than those from architectural and marine paints. It was found that target SCMs comprised mainly VOCs with 6-10 carbon atoms in molecules, which could be adsorbed by activated carbon. The saturated activated carbon which had already adsorbed toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene was combusted. The saturated activated carbon was more combustible than new activated carbon because it comprised inflammable VOCs. Therefore, it could be an alternative fuel when using in a "fuelization system". To use the activated carbon as a fuel, a control technology of VOCs from a coating process was also designed and introduced.

  6. Residue Derived Fuels as an Alternative Fuel for the Hellenic Power Generation Sector and their Potential for Emissions ReductionConstantinos S. Psomopoulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos S. Psomopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Landfill Directive (1999/31 EC promotes more environmental friendly waste management options, by reducing the amount of wastes and more specific of biodegradable wastes, disposed of in landfills. The EU member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment process for municipal solid waste and non-hazardous industrial wastes to comply with the abovementioned Directive's targets on landfill diversion, and produce waste derived fuels such as refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel. Waste derived fuels present high calorific values depending on their synthesis and are being used both in dedicated waste-to-energy plants and as fuel substitutes in industrial processes. In this paper the refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel production and utilisation options in European Union are presented, and the possibilities in Greece based on the waste production and National Plan for Waste Management of the Ministry of Environment is attempted. The existing and ongoing studies on co-combustion and co-gasification with brown coal support the use of refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel as fuel on Hellenic Power Sector, adopting in the existing lignite power plants adequate Air Pollution Control systems. If the co-combustion or co-gasification of these alternative fuels is adopted from the Hellenic Power Sector a reduction on emissions is expected that cannot be neglected.

  7. Measurements of nitrous acid in commercial aircraft exhaust at the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ben H; Santoni, Gregory W; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Zahniser, Mark S; Wofsy, Steven C; Munger, J William

    2011-09-15

    The Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX), conducted in January of 2009 in Palmdale, California, quantified aerosol and gaseous emissions from a DC-8 aircraft equipped with CFM56-2C1 engines using both traditional and synthetic fuels. This study examines the emissions of nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO(2)) measured 145 m behind the grounded aircraft. The fuel-based emission index (EI) for HONO increases approximately 6-fold from idle to takeoff conditions but plateaus between 65 and 100% of maximum rated engine thrust, while the EI for NO(x) increases continuously. At high engine power, NO(x) EI is greater when combusting traditional (JP-8) rather than Fischer-Tropsch fuels, while HONO exhibits the opposite trend. Additionally, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was identified in exhaust plumes emitted only during engine idle. Chemical reactions responsible for emissions and comparison to previous measurement studies are discussed.

  8. A Primer on Alternative Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    for millennia that certain sugars can be fermented (anaerobically decomposed into alcohols and carbon dioxide) in the presence of enzymes (complex...here involves the hydrolysis (decomposition by reaction with water) of cornstarch ( 6 10 5C H O− − ) and the fermentation of the resulting Maltose ( 12...transportation fuels. Fuels made from natural oils are generally referred to as biodiesel fuels. About 95% of biomass oils are triglycerides (three fatty

  9. Combustion characteristics of Methanol-base fuel(MBF)made by coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quan; ZHAO Cong-cong; LIU Yang

    2011-01-01

    Profound experimental research was made on Methanol-base fuel(MBF)mainly consisting of methanol,and the results were compared with that of diesel oil.Their respective combustion characteristics of caloric value,combustion efficiency and components of smoke were synthetically analyzed by employing the electronic weighing devices,the rotor flow-meter,intelligent flue gas analyzer,advanced bomb calorimeter,etc.,referring to the feasibility of taking it as a fuel for general use.Experiment results show that Methanol-base fuel not only has superiorities on combustion characteristics but also bears energy saving and environmental protection advantages.

  10. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CI ENGINE USING KARANJA BIODIESEL BLENDS AS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. PHADTARE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Karanja based bio-diesel is a non-edible, biodegradable fuel suitable for diesel engines. Karanja biodiesel has been prepared by transesterification method. Biodiesel-diesel blends have been prepared on volume basis. Physical properties of Karanja biodiesel, diesel and its blends have been determined. An experimentalinvestigation has been carried out to analyze combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, VCR diesel engine fuelled with Karanja biodiesel and its blends (10%, 20%, 30%, 50% and 75% with neat diesel. A series of engine tests, with CR 16.5, 17.5 and 18.5 have been conducted using each of the above blends for comparativeevaluation. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, peak pressure development, heat release rate analysis of engine have been studied. The results of the experiment in each case have been compared with baseline data of neat diesel. Ignition delays of bio-diesel blends are lower than that of diesel; peak pressure takes place definitely after TDC for safe and efficient operation. Comparable rate of pressure rise obtained is indicative of stable and noise free operation of CI engines with karanja biodiesel blends. B10 is suitable alternative fuel for diesel at slightly higher CR can be used without any engine modifications.

  11. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions.

  12. Decrease of noxious emissions in the residual fuel oil combustion; Disminucion de emisiones nocivas en la combustion de aceite combustible residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandoki W, Jorge [Econergia S. de R. L. de C. V. Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The residual fuel oil combustion emits noxious substances such as carbonaceous particulate, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur trioxide at unacceptable levels. Water emulsified in the fuel substantially reduces such emissions, achieving besides, in most of the cases, a net saving in the fuel consumption. The beneficial effects are shown in burning the residual fuel oil as a water emulsion, as well as the method to produce an adequate emulsion. The emulsified fuel technology offers a low cost option to reduce air pollution. The fuel oil quality has been declining during the last decades due to: 1. Increase in the production of crude heavy oils, generally with higher content of asphaltens and sulfur. 2. Less availability of vacuum distillation residues due to its conversion into greater value products. 3. More intensive conversion processes such as catalytic cracking, visbreaking, etc. that increase the asphaltenes concentration in the bottoms, causing instability problems. 4. The increase in the vanadium and other metals content as the concentration of asphaltenes increases. The use of emulsified fuel oil provides an efficient and economical method to substantially reduce the noxious emissions to the atmosphere. The emulsion contains water particles in a diameter between 2 and 20 microns, uniformly distributed in the fuel oil, generally in a proportion generally of 5 to 10%; besides, it contains a tensioactive agent to assure a stable emulsion capable of withstanding the shearing forces of the pumping and distribution systems. When the atomized oil drops get into the combustion chamber, the emulsified water flashes into high pressure steam, originating a violent secondary atomization. The effect of this secondary atomization is the rupture of the oil drops of various hundred microns, producing drops of 5 to 15 microns in diameter. Since the necessary time for combustion is an exponential function of the drop diameter, a very substantial improvement in the combustion is

  13. Investigation of thermal and environmental characteristics of combustion of gaseous fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetkin, A. V.; Suris, A. L.

    2015-03-01

    Numerical investigations are fulfilled for some thermal and environmental characteristics of combustion of gaseous fuels used at present in tube furnaces of petroleum refineries. The effect of the fuel composition on these characteristics is shown and probable consequences of the substitution of natural gas to other types of fuels. Methane, ethane, propane, butane, propylene, and hydrogen are considered for comparison, which in most cases are constituents of the composition of the fuel burnt in furnaces. The effect of the fuel type, its associated combustion temperature, combustion product emissivity, temperature of combustion chamber walls, mean beam length, and heat release on the variation in the radiant heat flux within the radiant chamber of furnaces is investigated. The effect of flame characteristics, which are determined by the presence of diffusion combustion zones formed by burners used at present in furnaces for reducing nitrogen oxides emission, is analyzed. The effect of the fuel type on the equilibrium NO concentration is also investigated. The investigations were carried out both at arbitrary given gas temperatures and at effective temperatures dependent on the adiabatic combustion temperature and the temperature at the chamber output and determined based on solving a set of equations at various heat-release rates of the combustion chamber.

  14. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 2. Alternatives for waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume II of the five-volume report is devoted to the description of alternatives for waste treatment. The discussion is presented under the following section titles: fuel reprocessing modifications; high-level liquid waste solidification; treatment and immobilization of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; treatment of noncombustible solid wastes; treatment of combustible wastes; treatment of non-high-level liquid wastes; recovery of transuranics from non-high-level wastes; immobilization of miscellaneous non-high-level wastes; volatile radioisotope recovery and off-gas treatment; immobilization of volatile radioisotopes; retired facilities (decontamination and decommissioning); and, modification and use of selected fuel reprocessing wastes. (JGB)

  15. Alternative Fuels and Their Potential Impact on Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, D.; Hendricks, R.; Walther, R.

    2006-01-01

    With a growing gap between the growth rate of petroleum production and demand, and with mounting environmental needs, the aircraft industry is investigating issues related to fuel availability, candidates for alternative fuels, and improved aircraft fuel efficiency. Bio-derived fuels, methanol, ethanol, liquid natural gas, liquid hydrogen, and synthetic fuels are considered in this study for their potential to replace or supplement conventional jet fuels. Most of these fuels present the airplane designers with safety, logistical, and performance challenges. Synthetic fuel made from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstock shows significant promise as a fuel that could be easily integrated into present and future aircraft with little or no modification to current aircraft designs. Alternatives, such as biofuel, and in the longer term hydrogen, have good potential but presently appear to be better suited for use in ground transportation. With the increased use of these fuels, a greater portion of a barrel of crude oil can be used for producing jet fuel because aircraft are not as fuel-flexible as ground vehicles.

  16. Effects of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel on combustion and emissions of direct injection diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcheng HUANG; Shangxue WANG; Longbao ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel on the combustion and emission characteristics of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine under different fuel delivery advance angles were investigated. The experi-mental results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits shorter ignition delay, lower peak values of premixed burning rate, lower combustion pressure and pressure rise rate, and higher peak value of diffusion burning rate than con-ventional diesel fuel when the engine remains unmodified. In addition, the unmodified engine with F-T diesel fuel has lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher effective thermal efficiency, and presents lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions than conventional diesel fuel. When fuel delivery advance angle is retarded by 3 crank angle degrees, the combustion duration is obviously shor-tened; the peak values of premixed burning rate, the com-bustion pressure and pressure rise rate are further reduced; and the peak value of diffusion burning rate is further increased for F-T diesel fuel operation, Moreover, the retardation of fuel delivery advance angle results in a further significant reduction in NOx emissions with no penalty on specific fuel consumption and with much less penalty on HC, CO and smoke emissions.

  17. Using SPL (Spent Pot-Lining) as an Alternative Fuel in Metallurgical Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Mostaghel, Sina; Ray, Shamik; Chattopadyay, Kinnor

    2016-09-01

    Replacing coke (coal) in a metallurgical furnace with other alternative fuels is beneficial for process economics and environmental friendliness. Coal injection is a common practice in blast furnace ironmaking, and spent pot-lining (SPL) was conceptualized as an alternative to coal. SPL is a resourceful waste from primary Aluminum production, with high carbon value. Equilibrium thermodynamics was used to calculate the energy content of SPL, and the compositional changes during SPL combustion. In order to capture the kinetics and mass transfer aspects, a blast furnace tuyere region CFD model was developed. The results of SPL combustion were compared with standard PCI coals, which are commonly used in blast furnaces. The CFD model was validated with experimental results for standard high volatile coals.

  18. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane

  19. EMISSION AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT FUELS IN A HCCI ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sendilvelan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Different intake valve timings and fuel injection amounts were tested in order to identify their effects on exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics using variable valve actuation (VVA in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine. The HCCI engine is a promising concept for future automobile engines and stationary power plants. The two-stage ignition process in a HCCI engine creates advanced ignition and stratified combustion, which makes the ignition timing and combustion rate controllable. Meanwhile, the periphery of the fuel-rich zone leads to fierce burning, which results in slightly high NOx emissions. The experiments were conducted in a modified single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine. In this experiment we use diesel, bio-diesel (Jatropha and gasoline as the fuel at different mixing ratios. HCCI has advantages in high thermal efficiency and low emissions and could possibly become a promising combustion method in internal combustion engines.

  20. Fuels for homogenous, self-igniting combustion processes; Brennstoffe fuer homogene selbstgezuendete Verbrennungsprozesse - Jahresbericht 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, A.; Boulouchos, K.

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), reports on work done in 2007 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, on fuels for homogenous, self-igniting combustion processes. A single-stroke engine was used to test the combustion of n-heptane, n-butane and their combinations. The flexibility of the test-bed is discussed and the combustion characteristics observed are described. Also, the results obtained are presented and discussed. Multi-zone simulation and factors influencing the combustion are examined. Ignition and combustion of synthetic, diesel-like fuels are discussed. Co-operation with the project started in 2007 by the Society for Research on Combustion Engines which involves other universities and several industrial companies is noted.

  1. Fast start-up of microchannel fuel processor integrated with an igniter for hydrogen combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryi, Shin Kun; Park, Jong Soo; Cho, Song Ho; Kim, Sung Hyun

    A Pt-Zr catalyst coated FeCrAlY mesh is introduced into the combustion outlet conduit of a newly designed microchannel reactor (MCR) as an igniter of hydrogen combustion to decrease the start-up time. The catalyst is coated using a wash-coating method. After installing the Pt-Zr/FeCrAlY mesh, the reactor is heated to its running temperature within 1 min with hydrogen combustion. Two plate-type heat-exchangers are introduced at the combustion outlet and reforming outlet conduits of the microchannel reactor in order to recover the heat of the combustion gas and reformed gas, respectively. Using these heat-exchangers, methane steam reforming is carried out with hydrogen combustion and the reforming capacity and energy efficiency are enhanced by up to 3.4 and 1.7 times, respectively. A compact fuel processor and fuel-cell system using this reactor concept is expected to show considerable advancement.

  2. Use of MRF residue as alternative fuel in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, John R; Breckel, Alex C; Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Single-stream recycling has helped divert millions of metric tons of waste from landfills in the U.S., where recycling rates for municipal solid waste are currently over 30%. However, material recovery facilities (MRFs) that sort the municipal recycled streams do not recover 100% of the incoming material. Consequently, they landfill between 5% and 15% of total processed material as residue. This residue is primarily composed of high-energy-content non-recycled plastics and fiber. One possible end-of-life solution for these energy-dense materials is to process the residue into Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) that can be used as an alternative energy resource capable of replacing or supplementing fuel resources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum coke, or biomass in many industrial and power production processes. This report addresses the energetic and environmental benefits and trade-offs of converting non-recycled post-consumer plastics and fiber derived from MRF residue streams into SRF for use in a cement kiln. An experimental test burn of 118 Mg of SRF in the precalciner portion of the cement kiln was conducted. The SRF was a blend of 60% MRF residue and 40% post-industrial waste products producing an estimated 60% plastic and 40% fibrous material mixture. The SRF was fed into the kiln at 0.9 Mg/h for 24h and then 1.8 Mg/h for the following 48 h. The emissions data recorded in the experimental test burn were used to perform the life-cycle analysis portion of this study. The analysis included the following steps: transportation, landfill, processing and fuel combustion at the cement kiln. The energy use and emissions at each step is tracked for the two cases: (1) The Reference Case, where MRF residue is disposed of in a landfill and the cement kiln uses coal as its fuel source, and (2) The SRF Case, in which MRF residue is processed into SRF and used to offset some portion of coal use at the cement kiln. The experimental test burn and accompanying analysis indicate

  3. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  4. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  5. OPTIMUM PLANNING OF EXPERIMENTS AT MODELING FUEL CONSUMPTION IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Koshevoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of optimum experiments planning by cost expenses at studying the processes of fuel consumption internal combustion engines is shown. The mathematical models of these processes in different state of engine working are synthesized.

  6. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bi-modal particulate size distribution (PSD) with...

  7. Review of NO/sub x/ emission factors for stationary fossil fuel combustion sources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, R.J.; Sailor, W.C.; Wasilewski, J.; Kuby, W.C.

    1979-09-01

    A review of recent NOx test data was performed, and summaries of emission factors presented for various types of stationary source combustion and for various fossil fuels. The effects of combustion modifications on NOx emissions are quantified. Background data are given to help the user determine the reliability of each factor in particular applications.

  8. Effects of moisture release and radiation properties in pulverized fuel combustion: A CFD modelling study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2016-01-01

    Pulverized fuels (PF) prepared and fired in utility boilers always contain some moisture. For some fuels with high moisture contents (e.g., brown coals), the share of the evaporation enthalpy is quite significant compared to the heat released during combustion, which often needs to be reclaimed.......g., oxy-fuel or air–fuel), account for the variations in CO2 and H2O concentrations in a flame, and include the impacts of other participating gases (e.g., CO and hydrocarbons) needs to be derived for combustion CFD community....

  9. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 17, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1993-08-01

    Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Completed modeling calculations of coal mineral matter transformations, deposition behavior, and heat transfer impacts of six test fuels; and ran pilot-scale tests of Upper Freeport feed coal, microagglomerate product, and mulled product.

  10. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  11. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  12. Fuel combustion exhibiting low NO.sub.x and CO levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jay O.; Bramlette, T. Tazwell; Barr, Pamela K.

    1996-01-01

    Method and apparatus for safely combusting a fuel in such manner that very low levels of NO.sub.x and CO are produced. The apparatus comprises an inlet line (12) containing a fuel and an inlet line (18) containing an oxidant. Coupled to the fuel line (12) and to the oxidant line (18) is a mixing means (11,29,33,40) for thoroughly mixing the fuel and the oxidant without combusting them. Coupled to the mixing means (11,29,33,40) is a means for injecting the mixed fuel and oxidant, in the form of a large-scale fluid dynamic structure (8), into a combustion region (2). Coupled to the combustion region (2) is a means (1,29,33) for producing a periodic flow field within the combustion region (2) to mix the fuel and the oxidant with ambient gases in order to lower the temperature of combustion. The means for producing a periodic flow field can be a pulse combustor (1), a rotating band (29), or a rotating cylinder (33) within an acoustic chamber (32) positioned upstream or downstream of the region (2) of combustion. The mixing means can be a one-way flapper valve (11); a rotating cylinder (33); a rotating band (29) having slots (31) that expose open ends (20,21) of said fuel inlet line (12) and said oxidant inlet line (18) simultaneously; or a set of coaxial fuel annuli (43) and oxidizer annuli (42,44). The means for producing a periodic flow field (1, 29, 33) may or may not be in communication with an acoustic resonance. When employed, the acoustic resonance may be upstream or downstream of the region of combustion (2).

  13. The effect of fuel pyrolysis on the coal particle combustion: An analytical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Baghsheikhi Mostafa; Rahbari Alireza; Ashrafizadeh Seyed Mehdi; Bidabadi Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analytically investigate the symmetrical combustion of an isolated coal particle with the fuel pyrolysis effect. The modelling concept of coal particles is similar to that of the liquid droplet combustion but in the case of coal devolatilization, the particles do not shrink like droplet does due to evaporation of liquid fuel. The rate of devolatilization of volatiles can be calculated using the equation that is similar to Arrheniu...

  14. Experiments and Modeling of Multi-Component Fuel Behavior in Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    heteroatom components. Such models will be necessary input to the large computer codes which calculate the characteristics of two phase reacting flows...methane -nd acetylene accompanied by soot formation. The trends are similar for the two fuels except that JP-4 produces more methane than JP-7. Both fuels...fuels vii1 be increasingly important as the sources shift to heavier petroleum , oil shale, tar sands and coal derived fuels. The combustion of such

  15. CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Warsaw, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process, the IEA is making available for free download the ''Highlights'' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion now for sale on IEA Bookshop. This annual publication contains, for more than 140 countries and regions: estimates of CO2 emissions from 1971 to 2011; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; a decomposition of CO2 emissions into driving factors; and CO2emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, key sources, and other relevant information. The nineteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP-19), in conjunction with the ninth meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 9), met in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 22 November 2013. This volume of ''Highlights'', drawn from the full-scale study, was specially designed for delegations and observers of the meeting in Warsaw.

  16. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  17. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  18. Combustion and emissions of the diesel engine using bio-diesel fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The combustion and heat release of engines using diesel fuel and bio-diesel fuel have been investigated.The results illustrate that the combustion happens in advance and the ignition delay period is shortened.The initial heat release peak declines a little,the corresponding crankshaft angle changes in advance,and the combustion duration is prolonged.The economic performance and emission features of diesel engines using diesel fuel and bio-diesel fuel are compared.The results also show that the specific fuel consumption of bio-diesel increases by about 12% .The emissions,such as CO,HC,and particulate matter decrease remarkably whereas NOx increases a little.

  19. OxyFuel combustion of Coal and Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg

    investigations on the combustion of coal, biomass (straw), and blends of coal and straw in air and O2/CO2 mixtures. The experiments have been performed in semi-technical scale in a once-through 30 kWth swirl-stabilized flame. The work has focused on improving the fundamental knowledge on oxyfuel combustion...... the important aspects of ash and deposit formation during co-firing of coal and biomass and combustion of pure biomass in oxyfuel atmospheres in semi-technical scale. The presented work has lead to the identification of reference operating conditions which enables a direct comparison of combustion in air...... and oxyfuel atmospheres. Apart from slightly improved burnout and reduced emissions of NO during oxyfuel combustion these operating conditions yield similar combustion characteristics in both environments. Co-firing coal and biomass or combustion of pure biomass in an oxyfuel power plant could yield...

  20. Fuel combustion test in constant volume combustion chamber with built-in adaptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEONG; DongSoo; CHO; GyuBack; CHOI; SuJin; LEE; JinSoo

    2010-01-01

    Combustion tests of pre-mixture of methane and air in constant volume combustion chamber(CVCC) have been carried out by means of flame propagation photo and gas pressure measurement,the effects of CVCC body temperature,intake pressure of pre-mixture of methane and air,equivalence ratio and location of the built-in adaptor have been investigated.The whole combustion chamber can be divided into two parts,i.e.the upper combustion chamber and the lower combustion chamber,by the built-in adaptor with through hole.Owing to the built-in adaptor with through hole,jet ignition or compression ignition(auto-ignition) phenomena may occur in the lower combustion chamber,which is helpful to getting higher flame propagation velocity,higher combustion peak pressure,low cycle-to-cycle variation and more stable combustion process.

  1. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2013-05-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  2. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steve [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moore, D. [USCAR

    2013-04-05

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  3. Efficiency and exhaust gas analysis of variable compression ratio spark ignition engine fuelled with alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Seshaiah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering energy crises and pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. In the present work, the variable compression ratio spark ignition engine designed to run on gasoline has been tested with pure gasoline, LPG (Isobutene, and gasoline blended with ethanol 10%, 15%, 25% and 35% by volume. Also, the gasoline mixed with kerosene at 15%, 25% and 35% by volume without any engine modifications has been tested and presented the result. Brake thermal and volumetric efficiency variation with brake load is compared and presented. CO and CO2 emissions have been also compared for all tested fuels.

  4. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Emission characteristics and combustion instabilities in an oxy-fuel swirl-stabilized combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-neng LI; Hao ZHOU; Ke-fa CEN

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the emission characteristics and combustion instabilities of oxy-fuel combustions in a swirl-stabilized combustor.Different oxygen concentrations(Xoxy=25%-45%,where Xoxy is oxygen concentra-tion by volume),equivalence ratios(=0.75~1.15)and combustion powers(CP=1.08~2.02kW)were investigated in the oxy-fuel (CH4/CO2/O2)combustions,and reference cases(Xoxy=25%~35%,Cha/N2/O2 flames)were covered.The results show that the oxygen concentration in the oxidant stream significantly affects the combustion delay in the oxy-fuel flames,and the equivalence ratio has a slight effect,whereas the combustion power shows no impact.The temperature levels of the oxy-fuel flames inside the combustion chamber are much higher(up to 38.7%)than those of the reference cases.Carbon monoxide was vastly producedwhen Xoxy>35% or >0.95 in the oxy-fuel flames,while no nitric oxide was found in the exhaust gases because no N2 participates in the combustion process.The combustion instability of the oxy-fuel combustion is very different from those of the reference cases with similar oxygen content.Oxy-fuel combustions excite strong oscillations in all cases studied Xoxy=25%~45%.However,no pressure fluctuations were detected in the reference cases when Xoxy>28.6% accomplished by heavily sooting flames which were not found in the oxy-fuel combustions.Spectrum analysis shows that the frequency of dynamic pressure oscillations exhibits randomness in the range of 50~250 Hz,therefore resulting in a very small resultant amplitude.Temporal oscillations are very strong with amplitudes larger than 200 Pa,even short time fast Fourier transform(FFT)analysis(0.08 s)shows that the pressure amplitude can be larger than 40 Pa.

  6. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  7. Additive Effectiveness Investigations in Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    coupon, in a tube in shell heat exchanger. The fuel flows in the annulus and deposit forms on the outside. When a test temperature is specified, 275 °C...has a small filter made from materials similar to those found in aviation filter separators. The rating is a form of turbidity measurement with 100

  8. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    Must use earth's most abundant natural resources - Biomass, Solar, Arid land (43%), Seawater (97%) with nutrients (80%) plus brackish waters and nutrients resolve environmental triangle of conflicts energy-food-freshwater and ultrafine particulate hazards. Requires Paradigm Shift - Develop and Use Solar* for energy; Biomass for aviation and hybrid-electric-compressed air mobility fueling with transition to hydrogen long term.

  9. Combustion Simulation and Quick-freeze Observation of a Cupola-furnace Process Using a Bio-coke Fuel Based on Tea Scum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Murata, Hirotoshi; Kuwana, Kazunori; Mizuno, Satoru; Morita, Akihiro; Ida, Tamio

    Global environment problems have become more and more serious in recent years, and reduction of greenhouse gas emission based on Kyoto Protocol adopted at the 3rd conference of the parties of the United nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3); securement of primary energy source and development of clean and renewable energy sources have been pressingly needed in consideration of the predicted depletion of fossil fuel in the future. In this study, we explore the use of a solidified biomass-derived fuel, having the maximum compressive strength of 100MPa and calorific value of 21MJ/kg, in iron-casting or iron-making processes as an alternative fuel to be mixed with coal coke. This study, carried out for internal observation using a quick-freeze technique, observed an actual working cupola furnace under the 20% alternative coal coke operation condition. After quick freeze of the cupola furnace, the solidified biomass fuel was found to inhabit near the iron-melting zone. Especially, this solidified biomass fuel smoothly changes carbonized fuel through high-density state during the operating process. On the other hand, this study tried to simulate gasification combustion under a high temperature environment instead of actual internal combustion of solidified biomass fuel. These combustion mechanisms were confirmed to be similar to diffusion-flame phenomena in general.

  10. Fuel/oxidizer-rich high-pressure preburners. [staged-combustion rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenman, L.

    1981-01-01

    The analyses, designs, fabrication, and cold-flow acceptance testing of LOX/RP-1 preburner components required for a high-pressure staged-combustion rocket engine are discussed. Separate designs of injectors, combustion chambers, turbine simulators, and hot-gas mixing devices are provided for fuel-rich and oxidizer-rich operation. The fuel-rich design addresses the problem of non-equilibrium LOX/RP-1 combustion. The development and use of a pseudo-kinetic combustion model for predicting operating efficiency, physical properties of the combustion products, and the potential for generating solid carbon is presented. The oxygen-rich design addresses the design criteria for the prevention of metal ignition. This is accomplished by the selection of materials and the generation of well-mixed gases. The combining of unique propellant injector element designs with secondary mixing devices is predicted to be the best approach.

  11. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  12. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Stratton, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hileman, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Malwitz, A. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Balasubramanian, S. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  13. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  14. FUEL EFFECTS ON COMBUSTION WITH EGR DILUTION IN SPARK IGNITED ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The use of EGR as a diluent allows operation with an overall stoichiometric charge composition, and the addition of cooled EGR results in well-understood thermodynamic benefits for improved fuel consumption. This study investigates the effect of fuel on the combustion and emission response of EGR dilution in spark ignited engines. A 2.0 L GM Ecotec LNF engine equipped with the production side-mounted direct injection (DI) fueling system is used in this study. Ethanol, isooctane and certified gasoline are investigated with EGR from 0% to the EGR dilution tolerance. Constant BMEP at 2000 rpm was operated with varying CA50 from 8 CAD to 16 CAD aTDCf. The results show that ethanol gives the largest EGR tolerance at a given combustion phasing, engine load and speed. The improved EGR dilution tolerance with ethanol is attributed to a faster flame speed, which manifests itself as shorter combustion duration. Data shows that the combustion stability limit occurs at a critical combustion duration that is fuel independent. Due to different flame speeds, this critical combustion duration occurs at different EGR levels for the different fuels.

  15. The causes and effects of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yimin

    The corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard is the major policy tool to improve the fleet average miles per gallon of automobile manufacturers in the U.S. The Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) provides special treatment in calculating the fuel economy of alternative fuel vehicles to give manufacturers CAFE incentives to produce more alternative fuel vehicles. AMFA has as its goals an increase in the production of alternative fuel vehicles and a decrease in gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This dissertation examines theoretically the effects of the program set up under AMFA. It finds that, under some conditions, this program may actually increase gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The dissertation also uses hedonic techniques to examine whether the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) has a significant effect on the implicit price of fuel economy and whether the marginal value of vehicle fuel efficiency changes over time. It estimates the change of implicit price in miles per gallon after the production of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Results indicate that every year consumers may evaluate vehicle fuel economy differently, and that since AFVs came to the market, the marginal value of fuel economy from specific companies producing AFVs has decreased. This finding suggests that since the AMFA provides extra Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) credit for those automakers producing AFVs, the automakers can take advantage of the incentive to produce more profitable conventional vehicles and meet CAFE standards without improving the fleet fuel economy. In this way, manufacturers who produce AFVs are willing to offer a lower price for the fuel economy under the AMFA. Additionally, this paper suggests that the flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the market are not significantly more expensive than comparable conventional vehicles, even if FFVs are also able to run on an alternative fuel and may cost more than conventional vehicles

  16. 78 FR 23832 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... that run on liquid and non-liquid fuels, such as ethanol and other alcohols, including E85 ethanol... vehicle's estimated driving range (i.e., the travel distance on a single charge or tank of fuel), general... liquid fuels, or fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials. See 76 FR 39478 (July...

  17. 76 FR 31513 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... AFVs that run on liquid and non-liquid fuels, such as ethanol and other alcohols including E85 ethanol... vehicle's estimated cruising range (i.e., the travel distance on a single charge or tank of fuel), general... by liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, or fuels (other than...

  18. Performance Evaluation of a High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Modulation Valve for Active Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saus, Joseph R.; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, a characterization rig was designed and constructed for the purpose of evaluating high bandwidth liquid fuel modulation devices to determine their suitability for active combustion control research. Incorporated into the rig s design are features that approximate conditions similar to those that would be encountered by a candidate device if it were installed on an actual combustion research rig. The characterized dynamic performance measures obtained through testing in the rig are planned to be accurate indicators of expected performance in an actual combustion testing environment. To evaluate how well the characterization rig predicts fuel modulator dynamic performance, characterization rig data was compared with performance data for a fuel modulator candidate when the candidate was in operation during combustion testing. Specifically, the nominal and off-nominal performance data for a magnetostrictive-actuated proportional fuel modulation valve is described. Valve performance data were collected with the characterization rig configured to emulate two different combustion rig fuel feed systems. Fuel mass flows and pressures, fuel feed line lengths, and fuel injector orifice size was approximated in the characterization rig. Valve performance data were also collected with the valve modulating the fuel into the two combustor rigs. Comparison of the predicted and actual valve performance data show that when the valve is operated near its design condition the characterization rig can appropriately predict the installed performance of the valve. Improvements to the characterization rig and accompanying modeling activities are underway to more accurately predict performance, especially for the devices under development to modulate fuel into the much smaller fuel injectors anticipated in future lean-burning low-emissions aircraft engine combustors.

  19. Combustion characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine fueled with Fischer-Tropsch diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yongcheng; ZHOU Longbao; PAN Keyu

    2007-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel is characterized by a high cetane number, a near-zero sulphur content and a very low aromatic level. On the basis of the recorded incylinder pressures and injector needle lifts, the combustion characteristics of an unmodified single-cylinder directinjection diesel engine operating on F-T diesel fuel are analyzed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel operation. The results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits a slightly longer injection delay and injection duration, an average of 18.7% shorter ignition delay, and a comparable total combustion duration when compared to those of conventional diesel fuel. Meanwhile, F-T diesel fuel displays an average of 26.8% lower peak value of premixed burning rate and a higher peak value of diffusive burning rate. In addition, the F-T diesel engine has a slightly lower peak combustion pressure, a far lower rate of pressure rise, and a lower mechanical load and combustion noise than the conventional diesel engine. The brake specific fuel consumption is lower and the effective thermal efficiency is higher for F-T diesel fuel operation.

  20. Future Fossil Fuel Alternative; DME (A review)

    OpenAIRE

    Erdener, Hülya; Arinan, Ayca; Orman, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    The world energy consumption is steadily growing with the industrial improvements of the developing countries and the readily available fossil fuel reserves lack in fulfilling this energy requirement. The depletion of the easily achievable reserves; gives rise to the concept of oil production from oil shale and tar sands. However, the high cost and the operational difficulties stand as the major drawbacks in front of these technologies. Along with these circumstances, and the environmental co...

  1. Investigation of the effects of renewable diesel fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Ogunkoya, Dolanimi

    2015-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate renewable fuels in a compression-ignition internal combustion engine. The focus of this study was the effect of newly developed renewable fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions. Eight fuels were investigated, and they include diesel, jet fuel, a traditional biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester: FAME), and five next generation biofuels. These five fuels were derived using a two-step process: hydrolysis of the oil into fatty acids (if necessary) and then a thermo-catalytic process to remove the oxygen via a decarboxylation reaction. The fuels included a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (DCFA), a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids with varying amounts of H2 used during the deoxygenation process (DCFAH), a continuous deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (CDCFA), fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid (DLA), and a third reaction to isomerize the products of the deoxygenated canola derived fatty acid alkanes (IPCF). Diesel, jet fuel, and biodiesel (FAME) have been used as benchmarks for comparing with the newer renewable fuels. The results of the experiments show slightly lower mechanical efficiency but better brake specific fuel consumption for the new renewable fuels. Results from combustion show shorter ignition delays for most of the renewable (deoxygenated) fuels with the exception of fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid. Combustion results also show lower peak in-cylinder pressures, reduced rate of increase in cylinder pressure, and lower heat release rates for the renewable fuels. Emission results show an increase in hydrocarbon emissions for renewable deoxygenated fuels, but a general decrease in all other emissions including NOx, greenhouse gases, and soot. Results also demonstrate that isomers of the alkanes resulting from the deoxygenation of the canola derived fatty acids could be a potential replacement to conventional fossil diesel and biodiesel based on the

  2. Combustion of High Molecular Weight Hydrocarbon Fuels and JP-8 at Moderate Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    Chelliah, Combust. Flame 159 (2012) 1026–1043. [77] G.M.G. Watson, J.D. Munzar, J.M. Bergthorson, Energy Fuels 27 (2013) 7031– 7043. [78] T. Morel, J...speeds of hydrocarbon and oxygenated fuels , Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 38 (2012), pp. 468–501. [22] http://creckmodeling.chem.polimi.it...Cuoci, T. Faravelli, A. Frassoldati, E. Ranzi, and A. Stagni, Improved kinetic model of the low-temperature oxidation of n-heptane, Energy & Fuels 28

  3. Progress in the development of combustion kinetics databases for liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Tsang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the present situation regarding chemical kinetic databases for the simulation of the combustion of liquid fuels. Past work in the area is summarized. Much is known about the reactions of the smaller fragments from combustion processes. In order to describe real liquid fuels there is the need for an understanding of how the larger organic fuels are broken down to these fragments. The type of reactions that need to be considered are described and the breakdown of heptane is used as an example.

  4. Distillate Fuel Trends: International Supply Variations and Alternate Fuel Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    Acids derived Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Rig, ASTM D6079 HVO Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil IARC International...including hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and Biomass-to- Liquid (BTL), provided all other specifications are respected and the resulting blend meets...number of commercial, middle distillate fuels (diesel and jet). It is most often made through either hydrotreating processes or Fischer-Tropsch (FT

  5. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-07

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  6. Study on Model Based Combustion Control of Diesel Engine with Multi Fuel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, R.; Yamasaki, Y.; Kaneko, S.

    2016-09-01

    A controller for model-based control of diesel engine with triple injection were developed with a combustion model. In the combustion model, an engine cycle is discretized into several representative points in order to improve calculation speed, while physical equations are employed to expand the versatility. The combustion model can predict in-cylinder pressure and temperature in these discrete points. Prediction accuracy of the combustion model was evaluated by comparison with experimental result. A controller was designed with the combustion model in order to calculate optimal fuel injection pattern for controlling in-cylinder pressure peak timing. The controller's performance was evaluated through simulation in which the combustion model was used as a plant model.

  7. Refined weighted sum of gray gases model for air-fuel combustion and its impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is the principal mode of heat transfer in utility boiler furnaces. Models for radiative properties play a vital role in reliable simulations of utility boilers and simulation-based design and optimization. The weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGGM) is one of the most widely used models...... in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of air-fuel combustion processes. It represents a reasonable compromise between an oversimplified gray gas model and a comprehensive approach addressing high-resolution dependency of radiative properties and intensity upon wavelength. The WSGGM coefficients...... and not taken into account (e.g., in gaseous fuel combustion). Comparatively, the impacts of the refined model are greatly compromised under a solid-fuel combustion scenario because of the important role of the particle−radiation interaction. As the conclusion, the refined air-fuel WSGGM is highly recommended...

  8. Carbon stripping - a critical process step in chemical looping combustion of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramp, M.; Thon, A.; Hartge, E.U.; Heinrich, S.; Werther, J. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Solids Process Engineering and Particle Technology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    In chemical looping combustion of solid fuels the well-mixed solids flow from the fuel reactor consisting of char, ash, and oxygen carrier particles cannot be completely separated into its constituents before it enters the air reactor. The slip of carbon will thus lead to char oxidation in the wrong reactor. Process simulation was applied to investigate the carbon stripping process in chemical looping combustion of solid fuels. Depending on the fuel choice, without carbon stripping CO{sub 2} capture rates below 50 % are calculated for 4 min of solids residence time in the fuel reactor. In a process with carbon stripper, however, CO{sub 2} capture rates exceeding 90 % can be achieved for both fuels investigated in this work. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Recovered fuels - The connection between fuel preparation, combustion equipments and ash quality; Returbraenslen - kopplingen mellan braensleberedning, foerbraenningsutrustning och askkvalitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Johansson, Inge [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    The lack of bio fuel and new regulations of waste treatment have increased the interest of recovered fuels. Co-combustion is of great interest, but the consequences and permit handling involved in introducing a new fuel into a plant have to be investigated. The aim of this study is to see if it is possible to affect the ash quality by pre-treatment of the fuel, or by firing in different combustion equipments. Ashes can be used in several different types of applications. Few of these have uniform requirements of ash quality. The ongoing research will hopefully help generating unified regulations and recommendations for the uses of ashes. However, right now the knowledge is limited and very specific. Every type of ash has to be analysed for the appropriate use. It is especially the requirements of leaching that are difficult to make general. The work started with a survey of recovered fuels. It contains roughly which fuels exist and which of those are accessible for the energy market in Sweden. The survey showed that there are approximately 13 Mton/y wastes partly accessible to the energy market; 50 % are used for material recycling, 32 % for energy recovery, 1.5 % for composting and the rest are used as landfill. Three recovered fuels were chosen and studied more thoroughly. These were PTP (paper, wood and plastic), tires and impregnated wood. The project showed that the recovered fuels have different qualifications as fuels and have different possibilities at co-combustion which results in variable ash quality. A pre-treated fuel is more homogeneous which give better combustion and cleaner ashes. A fluidised bed demands a more pre-treated fuel than a grate and the fluidised bed generate more ashes because the ashes contain bed material. As a result of this the ashes from a fluidised bed is generally easier to utilize. In this project the composition of ashes from co-combustion of the three recovered fuels together with wood fuel has been estimated. The aim was to

  10. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic

  11. Co-combustion of Fossil Fuels and Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao

    and the utilization of a waste-derived material as an additive; 3) the combustion of a biomass residue rich in phosphorus. Co-combustion of coal and SRF was conducted in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The work revealed that when coal was co-fired with up to 25 wt% SRF, the burnout and the emissions of SO2...

  12. Combustion of drops of Mexican fuel oils with high asphaltenes content; Combustion de gotas de combustoleos mexicanos con alto contenido de asfaltenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rodriguez, Jose Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    In this work the combustion of fuel drops with a content of 18% of asphaltenes has been studied . The results obtained for this fuel were compared with the ones obtained for another with a content of 12% asphaltenes. The drops were suspended in a platinum filament and burned in an spherical radiant furnace. The drop size varied between 600 and 800 microns. The fuel drops with 12% asphaltenes showed shorter combustion times, a smaller diameter increment of the smaller diameter during the combustion stages and also a shorter burning time of the carbonaceous residue than the fuel drops with a content of 18% asphaltenes. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la combustion de gotas de combustible con 18% de contenido de asfaltenos. Los resultados obtenidos para este combustible se compararon con los obtenidos para otro con 12% de contenido de asfaltenos. Las gotas fueron suspendidas en un filamento de platino y quemadas en un horno radiante esferico. El tamano de las gotas vario entre 600 y 800 micras. Las gotas de combustible con 12% de asfaltenos mostraron tiempos de combustion mas cortos, un incremento del diametro menor durante las etapas de combustion y un tiempo de quemado del residuo carbonoso tambien mas corto que las gotas del combustible con 18% de contenido de asfaltenos.

  13. Combustion quasi-two zone predictive model for dual fuel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Soliman, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shoubra Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, 108, Shoubra Street, Cairo (Egypt)

    2001-08-01

    A quasi-two zone predictive model is developed in the present work for prediction of the combustion processes in dual fuel engines and some of their performance features. Methane is used as the main fuel while employing a small quantity of liquid fuel (pilot) injected through the conventional Diesel fuel system. This model emphasizes the effects of chemical kinetics activity of the premixed gaseous fuel on the combustion performance, while the role of the pilot fuel in the ignition and heat release processes is considered. A detailed chemical kinetic scheme consists of 178 elementary reaction steps, and 41 chemical species are employed to describe the oxidation of the gaseous fuel from the start of compression to the end of the expansion process. The associated formation and concentrations of exhaust emissions are correspondingly established. This combustion model is able to establish the development of the combustion process with time and the associated important operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, rates of energy release and composition. Predicted values for methane operation show good agreement with corresponding previous experimental values over a range of operating conditions mainly associated with high load operation. (Author)

  14. Reduction of fuel side costs due to biomass co-combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wils, Andrea; Calmano, Wolfgang; Dettmann, Peter; Kaltschmitt, Martin; Ecke, Holger

    2012-03-15

    The feasibility and influence of co-combustion of woody biomass on the fuel side costs is discussed for three hard coal power plants located in Berlin, Germany. Fuel side costs are defined as the costs resulting from flue gas cleaning and by-products. To have reliable data, co-firing tests were conducted in two power plants (i.e., slag tap furnace and circulating fluidising bed combustion). The amount of wood which was co-fired varied at levels below 11% of the fuel heat input. Wood chips originating from landscape management were used. The analyses show that co-combustion of woody biomass can lower the fuel side costs and that the co-combustion at a level below 10% of the thermal capacity is technically feasible without major problems. Furthermore, a flexible spreadsheet tool was developed for the calculation of fuel side costs and suggestions for operational improvements were made. For example, the adaptation of the Ca/S ratio (mass ratio of calcium in limestone to sulphur in the fuel) in one plant could reduce the fuel side costs up to 135 k€ yr(-1) (0.09 €M Wh(-1)).

  15. GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOMASS COMBUSTION IN SMALL HEATING APPLIANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Dell'Antonia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of emission control has increased sharply due to the increased need of energy from combustion. However, biomass utilization in energy production is not free from problems because of physical and chemical characteristics which are substantially different from conventional energy sources. In this situation, the quantity and quality of emissions as well as used renewable sources as wood or corn grain are often unknown. To assess this problem the paper addresses the objectives to quantify the amount of greenhouse gases during the combustion of corn as compared to the emissions in fossil combustion (natural gas, LPG and diesel boiler. The test was carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia in 2006-2008 to determine the air pollution (CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2 and CO2 from fuel combustion in family boilers with a power between 20-30 kWt. The flue gas emission was measured with a professional semi-continuous multi-gas analyzer, (Vario plus industrial, MRU air Neckarsulm-Obereisesheim. Data showed a lower emission of fossil fuel compared to corn in family boilers in reference to pollutants in the flue gas (NOx, SO2 and CO. In a particular way the biomass combustion makes a higher concentration of carbon monoxide (for an incomplete combustion because there is not a good mixing between fuel and air and nitrogen oxides (in relation at a higher content of nitrogen in herbaceous biomass in comparison to another fuel.

  16. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  17. Influence of bio-additives on combustion of liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsch, Marek; Durčanský, Peter

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution there are analyses of the course of the pressure curves, which were measured in the diesel engine MD UR IV, which is often used in cogeneration units. The results of the analyses confront the properties and quality of fuels. The measuring was realized with a constant rotation speed of the engine and by using different fuels. The fuels were pure diesel fuels and diesel fuel with bio-additives of hydrogenate RO (rape oil), FAME, and bioethanol.

  18. Effects of co-combustion of secondary fuels on fly ash quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, F.J.M.; Vissers, J.L.J.; Van den Berg, J.W. [Dutch Fly Ash Corp., (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    In 1995, the Netherlands considered using secondary fuels in combination with hard coal for power generation. This decision was based on both economic and environmental advantages of co-combustion of secondary fuels. The combustion of non-fossil fuels results in lower carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Initially, the Dutch government only allowed 10 per cent co-combustion of secondary fuels, but in 2000, higher percentages were allowed in favour of decreasing fossil carbon dioxide production. This paper presented the results of a complete characterization of fly ashes. In particular, to show whether the quality of fly ash was affected by co-combustion, the technical and environmental quality of concrete with fly ash was evaluated in comparison to the quality of concrete with reference fly ashes. Fly ashes from co-combustion showed no significant changes in chemical composition from their reference ashes, except for the calcium oxide contents of PA10 and the phosphate content of RWZI. Fly ashes from co-combustion were found to be enriched in trace elements. The secondary fuels that were considered besides fly ash were wood, poultry, litter, sewage sludge, coffee grounds, and cocoa shells. These all contribute to lowering the emissions of fossil carbon dioxide because they all contain short cycle carbon dioxide. Co-combustion is viewed as a way for coal fired plants in the Netherlands to reach the targets of the Kyoto Agreement on climate change. European legislation is in preparation to make utilization of fly ashes from co-combustion possible. 7 refs., 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. 77 FR 36423 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ..., coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels derived from biological materials (e.g., 100% biodiesel), and... requirements appear unnecessary.\\18\\ \\17\\ 42 U.S.C. 13211(3)(B). According to the legislative history,...

  20. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-05-26

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i.e., biomass to liquid (BTL), and a regular No. 2 diesel in a constant volume combustion chamber using multiband flame measurement and two-color pyrometry. The spray combustion flame structure was visualized by using multiband flame measurement to show features of soot formation, high temperature and low temperature reactions, which can be characterized by the narrow-band emissions of radicals or intermediate species such as OH, HCHO, and CH. The objective of this study was to identify the details of multiple injection combustion, including a pilot and a main injection, and to provide further insights on how the two injections interact. For comparison, three injection strategies were considered for both fuels including a two-injection strategy (Case TI), single injection strategy A (Case SA), and single injection strategy B (Case SB). Multiband flame results show a strong interaction, indicated by OH emissions between the pilot injection and the main injection for Case TI while very weak connection is found for the narrow-band emissions acquired through filters with centerlines of 430 nm and 470 nm. A faster flame development is found for the main injection of Case TI compared to Cases SA and SB, which could be due to the high temperature environment and large air entrainment from the pilot injection. A lower soot level is observed for the BTL flame compared to the diesel flame for all three injection types. Case TI has a lower soot level compared to Cases SA and SB for the BTL fuel, while the diesel fuel maintains a similar soot level among all three injection strategies. Soot temperature of Case TI is lower for both fuels, especially for diesel. Based on these results, it is expected that the two-injection strategy could be

  1. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  2. Combustion behaviors of a compression-ignition engine fueled with diesel/methanol blends under various fuel delivery advance angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zuohua; Lu, Hongbing; Jiang, Deming; Zeng, Ke; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Junqiang; Wang, Xibin

    2004-12-01

    A stabilized diesel/methanol blend was described and the basic combustion behaviors based on the cylinder pressure analysis was conducted in a compression-ignition engine. The study showed that increasing methanol mass fraction of the diesel/methanol blends would increase the heat release rate in the premixed burning phase and shorten the combustion duration of the diffusive burning phase. The ignition delay increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle for both the diesel fuel and the diesel/methanol blends. For a specific fuel delivery advance angle, the ignition delay increased with the increase of the methanol mass fraction (oxygen mass fraction) in the fuel blends and the behaviors were more obvious at low engine load and/or high engine speed. The rapid burn duration and the total combustion duration increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. The centre of the heat release curve was close to the top-dead-centre with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. Maximum cylinder gas pressure increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and the maximum cylinder gas pressure of the diesel/methanol blends gave a higher value than that of the diesel fuel. The maximum mean gas temperature remained almost unchanged or had a slight increase with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and it only slightly increased for the diesel/methanol blends compared to that of the diesel fuel. The maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle of the diesel/methanol blends and the value was highest for the diesel/methanol blends.

  3. Effects of fractal grid on emissions in burner combustion by using fuel-water-air premix injector derived from biodiesel crude palm oil (CPO base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Mirnah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel is attracted good attention from worldwide especially for renewable and prevention energy such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of the hydrocarbon fuels and it has potential for external combustion. As one of the different solutions to these problems, rapid mixing of biodiesel-water-air technique is one of the most significant approaches to improve the combustion and reduce the emissions. The gas emission can be reduced by two methods. First is by improving an injector with fractal and the other is by using a biodiesel-water mixture as an alternative fuel. Mixing of water with fuel in the combustion process is a low cost and effective way. This research used biodiesel Crude Palm Oil (CPO as fuels in which blended with diesel. This study investigated the effects of water content and equivalence ratio on emissions with the rapid mixing injector. Fuels used are diesel, CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 and the exhausts gaseous tested are CO, CO2, HC and NOX. The gas emissions processes are tested by using the gas analyzer. In this research, water premix of percentage up to 15vol% and blending biodiesel ratio was varied from 5vom% - 15vol%. The result shows that increasing of water content will effected decrement of CO, CO2 and HC emissions but increasing the NOX emissions.

  4. Characterisation of ashes produced by co-combustion of recovered fuels and peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenhaeuser, M. [Borealis Polymers Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The current project focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of refuse derived fuel with coal, peat, wood or bark, which could lead to slagging, fouling and corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced at fluidised bed (FB) combustion conditions in the 15 kW reactor at VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analysed by XRF at Outokumpu Geotechnical Laboratory, Outokumpu. The sintering behaviour of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at the Combustion Chemistry Research Group at Aabo Akademi University. The current extended programme includes a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark/coal (5 tests) and wood/coal (2 tests), a RF from Jyvaskyla (2 tests with peat/coal) and de-inking sludges co- combusted at full-scale with wood waste or paper mill sludge (4 ashes provided by IVO Power). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 deg C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1000 deg C. Ash from 100 % RDF combustion does not sinter, 25 % RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Contrary to the earlier hypothesis a 25 % coal addition seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows, that (again), in general, an increased level of alkali chlorides and sulphates gives increased sintering. Finally, some results on sintering tendency measurements on ashes from full-scale CFB co-combustion of deinking sludge with wood waste and paper mill sludge are given. This shows that these ashes show very little, if any, sintering tendency, which can be explained from ash chemistry

  5. Numerical study of test gas vitiation effects on hydrogen-fueled scramjet combustion%Numerical study of test gas vitiation effects on hydrogen-fueled scramjet combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chao-qun; TIAN Liang; XU Xu

    2012-01-01

    The effects of major vitiated species (H2O and CO2) and minor vitiated species (H,OH and O radicals) produced by combustion air preheater on ignition and combustion of hydrogen-fueled seramjet were numerically investigated. Firstly, kinetic analyses with CHEMKIN SENKIN code were conducted to evaluate the effects of contamination on the ignition delay times of hydrogen fuel over a range of temperature and pressure variations. Then numerical simulation of a three-dimensional reacting flow in hydrogen-fueled seramjet combustor was performed. The two-equation shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model was used for modeling turbulence and 33 reactions finite-rate chemistry was used for modeling the H2/air kinetics. The results show that: free radical species such as H,O,and OH may significantly promote the ignition process of hydrogen-air at relatively low initial temperature and pressure. However, H2O and CO2 have inhibition effects on the ignition process. Under the same conditions, H2O has more effective inhibition effects than CO2. The temperature and pressure rise due to combustion are lower in the air vitiated with H2O and CO2 because of their higher heat capacities and more dissociation. Combustion efficiency and thrust calculated for vitiated air case are lower than clean air case. These results indicate the importance of accounting for vitiation effects when extrapolating performance data from ground test to flight demonstration.

  6. Combustion characteristics of the LO2/GCH4 fuel-rich preburners for staged combustion cycle rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Fumiei; Tamura, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masaki

    1991-09-01

    The combustion characteristics of Liquid Oxygen (LO2)/Gaseous Methane (GCH4) fuel rich preburners were experimentally studied using subscale hardware. Three types of preburners with coaxial type propellant injection elements were designed and fabricated, and were used for hot fire testing. LO2 was used as oxidizer, and GCH4 at room temperature was used as fuel. The tests were conducted at chamber pressures ranging from 6.7 to 11.9 M Pa, and oxidizer to fuel ratios ranged from 0.16 to 0.42. The test results, which include combustion gas temperature T(sub c), characteristic velocity C(sup *) and soot adhesion data, are presented. The T(sub c) efficiency and the C(sup *) efficiency were found to be a function of oxidizer to fuel ratio and chamber pressure. These efficiencies are correlated by an empirical correlation parameter which accounts for the effects of oxidizer to fuel ratio and chamber pressure. The exhaust plumes were colorless and transparent under all tests conditions. There was some soot adhesion to the chamber wall, but no soot adhesion was observed on the main injector simulator orifices. Higher temperature igniter gas was required to ignite the main propellants of the preburner compared with that of the LO2/Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) propellants combination.

  7. Co-combustion of solid recovered fuels in coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Stephanie; Thomé-Kozmiensky, Karl Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Currently, in ten coal-fired power plants in Germany solid recovered fuels from mixed municipal waste and production-specific commercial waste are co-combusted and experiments have been conducted at other locations. Overall, in 2010 approximately 800,000 tonnes of these solid recovered fuels were used. In the coming years up to 2014 a slight decline in the quantity of materials used in co-combustions is expected. The co-combustion activities are in part significantly influenced by increasing power supply from renewable sources of energy and their impact on the regime of coal-fired power plants usage. Moreover, price trends of CO₂ allowances, solid recovered fuels as well as imported coal also have significant influence. In addition to the usage of solid recovered fuels with biogenic content, the co-combustion of pure renewable biofuels has become more important in coal-fired power plants. The power plant operators make high demands on the quality of solid recovered fuels. As the operational experience shows, a set of problems may be posed by co-combustion. The key factors in process engineering are firing technique and corrosion. A significant ecological key factor is the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The results of this study derive from research made on the basis of an extensive literature search as well as a survey on power plant operators in Germany. The data from operators was updated in spring 2011.

  8. Effects of Catalysts on Emissions of Pollutants from Combustion Processes of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Agnieszka; Guziałowska-Tic, Joanna; Tic, Wilhelm Jan

    2014-12-01

    The dynamic growth of the use of non-renewable fuels for energy purposes results in demand for catalysts to improve their combustion process. The paper describes catalysts used mainly in the processes of combustion of motor fuels and fuel oils. These catalysts make it possible to raise the efficiency of oxidation processes simultanously reducing the emission of pollutants. The key to success is the selection of catalyst compounds that will reduce harmful emissions of combustion products into the atmosphere. Catalysts are introduced into the combustion zone in form of solutions miscible with fuel or with air supplied to the combustion process. The following compounds soluble in fuel are inclused in the composition of the described catalysts: organometallic complexes, manganese compounds, salts originated from organic acids, ferrocen and its derivatives and sodium chloride and magnesium chloride responsible for burning the soot (chlorides). The priority is to minimize emissions of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and carbon monoxide, as well as particulate matter.

  9. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-12-01

    A DOE/PETC funded study was conducted to examine the use of a liquid phase mixed alcohol synthesis (LPMAS) plant to produce gasoline blending ethers. The LPMAS plant was integrated into three utilization scenarios: a coal fed IGCC power plant, a petroleum refinery using coke as a gasification feedstock, and a standalone natural gas fed partial oxidation plant. The objective of the study was to establish targets for the development of catalysts for the LPMAS reaction. In the IGCC scenario, syngas conversions need only be moderate because unconverted syngas is utilized by the combined cycle system. A once through LPMAS plant achieving syngas conversions in the range of 38--49% was found to be suitable. At a gas hourly space velocity of 5,000 sL/Kg-hr and a methanol:isobutanol selectivity ratio of 1.03, the target catalyst productivity ranges from 370 to 460 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the petroleum refinery scenario, high conversions ({approximately}95%) are required to avoid overloading the refinery fuel system with low Btu content unconverted syngas. To achieve these high conversions with the low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas, a recycle system was required (because of the limit imposed by methanol equilibrium), steam was injected into the LPMAS reactor, and CO{sub 2} was removed from the recycle loop. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 265 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the standalone LPMAS scenario, essentially complete conversions are required to achieve a fuel balanced plant. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 285 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. The economics of this scenario are highly dependent on the cost of the natural gas feedstock and the location of the plant. For all three case scenarios, the economics of a LPMAS plant is marginal at current ether market prices. Large improvements over demonstrated catalyst productivity and alcohol selectivity are required.

  10. Advanced diagnostics in oxy-fuel combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, J.; Clausen, Soennik; Degn Jensen, A. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. CHEC Research Centre, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Boeg Toftegaard, M. (DONG Energy Power, Hvidovre (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    This report sums up the findings in PSO-project 010069, ''Advanced Diagnostics in Oxy-Fuel Combustion Processes''. Three areas of optic diagnostics are covered in this work: - FTIR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. The results obtained in the swirl burner have proved the FTIR method as a valuable technique for gas phase temperature measurements. When its efficacy is evaluated against traditional thermocouple measurements, two cases, with and without probe beam stop, must however be treated separately. When the FTIR probe is operated with the purpose of gas phase concentration measurements the probe needs to operate with a beam stop mounted in front of it. With this beam stop in place it was shown that the measured gas phase temperature was affected by cooling, induced by the cooled beam stop. Hence, for a more accurate determination of gas phase temperatures the probe needed to operate without the beam stop. When this was the case, the FTIR probe showed superior to traditional temperature measurements using a thermocouple as it could measure the fast temperature fluctuations. With the beam stop in place the efficacy of the FTIR probe for gas temperature determination was comparable to the use of a traditional thermocouple. The evaluation of the FTIR technique regarding estimation of gas phase concentrations of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CO showed that the method is reliable though it cannot be stated as particularly accurate. The accuracy of the method is dependent on the similarity of the reference emission spectra of the gases with those obtained in the experiments, as the transmittance intensity is not a linear function of concentration. The length of the optical path also affects the steadiness of the measurements. The length of the optical path is difficult to adjust on the small scales that are the focus of this work. However

  11. 3D Computation of Hydrogen-Fueled Combustion around Turbine Blade-Effect of Arrangement of Injector Holes -

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Makoto YAMAMOTO; Junichi IKEDA; Kazuaki INABA

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a number of environmental problems caused from fossil fuel combustion have been focused on. In addition, with the eventual depletion of fossil energy resources, hydrogen gas is expected to be an alternative energy resource in the near future. It is characterized by high energy per unit weight, high reaction rate, wide range of flammability and the low emission property. On the other hand, many researches have been underway in several countries to improve a propulsion system for an advanced aircraft. The system is required to have higher power, lighter weight and lower emissions than existing ones. In such a future propulsion system, hydrogen gas would be one of the promising fuels for realizing the requirements. Considering these backgrounds, our group has proposed a new cycle concept for hydrogen-fueled aircraft propulsion system. In the present study, we perform 3dimensional computations of turbulent flow fields with hydrogen-fueled combustion around a turbine blade. The main objective is to clarify the influence of arrangement of hydrogen injector holes. Changing the chordwise and spanwise spacings of the holes, the 3 dimensional nature of the flow and thermal fields is numerically studied.

  12. Utilization of waste tires as alternative fuel in cement plant

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Cement industry is regulated by legislation in which various measures are specified for prevention and reduction of air pollution as well as protection of human health, due to atmospheric emissions, which occur during cement production. Legislation also holds emission limit values for co-incineration of wastes i.e. alternative fuels. Waste tires as an alternative fuel can be co-incinerated i.e. co-processed in cement plants, where the high calorific value of the rubber is used to substitute f...

  13. Fuel rich and fuel lean catalytic combustion of the stabilized confined turbulent gaseous diffusion flames over noble metal disc burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal S. Zakhary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic combustion of stabilized confined turbulent gaseous diffusion flames using Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 disc burners situated in the combustion domain under both fuel-rich and fuel-lean conditions was experimentally studied. Commercial LPG fuel having an average composition of: 23% propane, 76% butane, and 1% pentane was used. The thermal structure of these catalytic flames developed over Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 burners were examined via measuring the mean temperature distribution in the radial direction at different axial locations along the flames. Under-fuel-rich condition the flames operated over Pt catalytic disc attained high temperature values in order to express the progress of combustion and were found to achieve higher activity as compared to the flames developed over Pd catalytic disc. These two types of catalytic flames demonstrated an increase in the reaction rate with the downstream axial distance and hence, an increase in the flame temperatures was associated with partial oxidation towards CO due to the lack of oxygen. However, under fuel-lean conditions the catalytic flame over Pd catalyst recorded comparatively higher temperatures within the flame core in the near region of the main reaction zone than over Pt disc burner. These two catalytic flames over Pt and Pd disc burners showed complete oxidation to CO2 since the catalytic surface is covered by more rich oxygen under the fuel-lean condition.

  14. Utilization of spent activated carbon to enhance the combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Chang-Wen; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Jhong-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the heating value and combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel, spent activated carbon derived fuel, and derived fuel from a mixture of organic sludge and spent activated carbon. Spent activated carbon was sampled from an air pollution control device of an incinerator and characterized by XRD, XRF, TG/DTA, and SEM. The spent activated carbon was washed with deionized water and solvent (1N sulfuric acid) and then processed by the organic sludge derived fuel manufacturing process. After washing, the salt (chloride) and sulfide content could be reduced to 99% and 97%, respectively; in addition the carbon content and heating value were increased. Different ratios of spent activated carbon have been applied to the organic sludge derived fuel to reduce the NO(x) emission of the combustion.

  15. Evaluation of wood residues from Crete as alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vamvuka, G. Bandelis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Olive and citrus prunings, the main agricultural residues of Crete, are considered to be of premium importance for local energy production, substituting a large part of conventional fuels. The thermal behaviour of these fuels during combustion was studied by thermogravimetry, at non-isothermal heating conditions. Fly ashes were collected from tests in a lab-scale fluidized bed facility. The effect of the inorganic constituents of the fuels on slagging/fouling and agglomeration propensities, as well as environmental pollution was examined. Kinetic models were developed and reaction rates were determined. The agroresidues studied were characterized as good quality fuels, having high volatile and low ash and sulphur contents. Their ash was rich in Ca, Si, K and P minerals. However, fly ashes were poorer in alkali compounds, implying lower deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. The environmental impact of heavy metals is negligible. The thermochemical reactivity of the two fuels in air was very similar. A power low model fitted the experimental results accurately.

  16. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-05

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  17. GRH 12-01 Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion Poster 0108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. Lutz; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

    2012-05-20

    The goals are to: (1) Achieve 90% CO{sub 2} capture at no more than a 35% increase in levelized cost of electricity of post-combustion capture for new and existing conventional coal-fired power plants; (2) Provide high-temperature corrosion information to aid in materials development and selection for oxy-fuel combustion; and (3) Identify corrosion mechanism and behavior differences between air- and oxy-firing.

  18. Multidimensional Modeling of Fuel Composition Effects on Combustion and Cold-starting in Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    equally important for both the gas and liquid phase. For the gas phase, a modified Redlich - Kwong equation of state is used (Prausnitz, [lo]). In the...residual fuel mass (case 9). Ignition started early but the combustion developed at a slower rate. Another application of an altered engine geometry...Power, Vol. 115, pp. 781-789,1993. 17. Kong, S.C., Han, Z., and Reitz, R.D., “The Development and Application of a Diesel Ignition and Combustion

  19. Experimental combustion analysis of a hsdi diesel engine fuelled with palm oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN AGUDELO; ELKIN GUTIÉRREZ; PEDRO BENJUMEA

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB), No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively). To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant po...

  20. Global mercury emissions from combustion in light of international fuel trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yilin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The spatially resolved emission inventory is essential for understanding the fate of mercury. Previous global mercury emission inventories for fuel combustion sources overlooked the influence of fuel trading on local emission estimates of many countries, mostly developing countries, for which national emission data are not available. This study demonstrates that in many countries, the mercury content of coal and petroleum locally consumed differ significantly from those locally produced. If the mercury content in locally produced fuels were used to estimate emission, then the resulting global mercury emissions from coal and petroleum would be overestimated by 4.7 and 72%, respectively. Even higher misestimations would exist in individual countries, leading to strong spatial bias. On the basis of the available data on fuel trading and an updated global fuel consumption database, a new mercury emission inventory for 64 combustion sources has been developed. The emissions were mapped at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 and at country resolution for a period from 1960 to 2006. The estimated global total mercury emission from all combustion sources (fossil fuel, biomass fuel, solid waste, and wildfires) in 2007 was 1454 Mg (1232-1691 Mg as interquartile range from Monte Carlo simulation), among which elementary mercury (Hg(0)), divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(2+)), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) were 725, 548, and 181 Mg, respectively. The total emission from anthropogenic sources, excluding wildfires, was 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg), with coal combustion contributing more than half. Globally, total annual anthropogenic mercury emission from combustion sources increased from 285 Mg (263-358 Mg) in 1960 to 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg) in 2007, owing to an increased fuel consumption in developing countries. However, mercury emissions from developed countries have decreased since 2000.

  1. Hydrogen and fuel cells; Hydrogene et piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  2. Fuel cells applied to transport; Celdas de combustible aplicadas al transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas Gonzalez, Miguel [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The future demand of energy as well as the preservation of the environment have generated, in several countries, the necessity of developing alternative means for the most efficient transformation of energy that causes minimum damages to the environment. The fuel cells technology is outlined as one of the alternating means to the traditional forms of transforming the energy for residential use as well as for the automotive vehicles. At present it is in a final stage of demonstration, reason why as of year 2003 the possibility will exist on automobiles and trucks circulating normally. [Spanish] La futura demanda de energeticos asi como la preservacion del medio ambiente ha generado, en varios paises, la necesidad de desarrollar medios alternos para la transformacion mas eficiente de la energia que cause minimos danos al ambiente. La tecnologia de celdas de combustible se perfila como uno de los medios alternos a la forma tradicional de transformar la energia tanto para uso residencial como para los vehiculos automotores. En la actualidad se encuentra en una etapa final de demostracion por lo que posiblemente a partir del ano 2003 se cuente con automoviles y camiones circulando normalmente.

  3. A Model for Nitrogen Chemistry in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Pulverized Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Hansen, Stine; Toftegaard, Maja Bøg;

    2011-01-01

    , heating and devolatilization of particles, and gas–solid reactions. The model is validated by comparison with entrained flow reactor results from the present work and from the literature on pulverized coal combustion in O2/CO2 and air, covering the effects of fuel, mixing conditions, temperature......In this work, a model for the nitrogen chemistry in the oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized coal has been developed. The model is a chemical reaction engineering type of model with a detailed reaction mechanism for the gas-phase chemistry, together with a simplified description of the mixing of flows......, stoichiometry, and inlet NO level. In general, the model provides a satisfactory description of NO formation in air and oxy-fuel combustion of coal, but under some conditions, it underestimates the impact on NO of replacing N2 with CO2. According to the model, differences in the NO yield between the oxy...

  4. Combustion characteristics of SI engine fueled with methanol-gasoline blends during cold start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruizhi SONG; Tiegang HU; Shenghua LIU; Xiaoqiang LIANG

    2008-01-01

    A 3-cylinder port fuel injection (PFI) engine fueled with methanol-gasoline blends was used to study combustion and emission characteristics. Cylinder pres-sure analysis indicates that engine combustion is improved when methanol is added to gasoline. With the increase of methanol, the flame developing period and the rapid combustion period are shortened, and the indicated mean effective pressure increases during the first 50 cycles. Meanwhile, a novel quasi-instantaneous sampling system was designed to measure engine emissions during cold start and warm-up. The results at 5℃ show that unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) decrease remarkably. Hydrocarbon (HC) reduces by 40% and CO by 70% when fueled with M30 (30% methanol in volume). The exhaust gas temperature is about 140℃ higher at 200 s after operation compared with that of gasoline.

  5. Trace elements in co-combustion of solid recovered fuel and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Trace element partitioning in co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was studied in an entrained flow reactor. The experiments were carried out at conditions similar to pulverized coal combustion, with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.% (wet basis), 14.8 wt.% and 25.0 wt...... linearly with their content in fuel ash. This linear tendency was affected when the fuels were mixed with additives. The volatility of trace elements during combustion was assessed by applying a relative enrichment (RE) factor, and TEM–EDS analysis was conducted to provide qualitative interpretations.......%. In addition, the effect of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite on trace element partitioning was investigated. The trace elements studied were As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn, since these elements were significantly enriched in SRF as compared to coal. During the experiments, bottom ash...

  6. Plant Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems Fed by Alternative Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Different plant design for several fuel types such as natural gas, methanol, ethanol, DME, ammonia and pure hydrogen are presented and analysed. Anode recirculation which is an important issue in SOFC plants are also explored and studied. It is shown that depending on type of the fuel whether fuel...... recirculation is needed or not and if so then what would be the effect of anode recycling on plant efficiency. A single study with similar conditions and prerequisites will thus reveal the importance of fuel recirculation on plant performance with alternative fuels. It is also shown that increasing anode...... recycle increases plant efficiency only if fuel utilization factor is low. Other important issues such as why plant efficiency is lower when it is fed with hydrogen or biogas compared to when it is fed by other fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME and ammonia will also be discussed and explained...

  7. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  8. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  9. Valuation of flexible solutions with alternative fuel cell energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haahtela, T.; Surakka, T.; Malinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). BIT Research Centre

    2009-07-01

    Fuel cells are an emerging technology with high potential, but also with significant market uncertainty. Fuel cells are currently in the transition from field trials to commercial introduction, and firms need to consider whether the technology fulfils the reliability and cost requirements of their current and upcoming products. This paper presented a framework to assist managers in finding the suitable valuation method for comparing different alternatives with emerging fuel cell technology. The dynamic valuation approaches of decision tree analysis, real options and system dynamics were discussed as they help in choosing the optimal timing and product structure over a long time period. Three examples of applications with fuel cells were briefly presented. The paper also addressed how the suggested valuation methods could be applied to them. These applications included maritime buoys; removable crisis management energy source container; and electrification of public transportation. It was concluded that the fuel cell technology has already become economically feasible in certain application areas. Improving technical reliability and cost reductions will make fuel cells even more competitive alternatives in new application areas. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  10. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... software. Furthermore, manufacturers often change components and strategies between model years as...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is streamlining the process by which manufacturers of clean alternative... Engineering Judgment C. Vehicle/Engine Groupings and Emission Data Vehicle/Engine Selection D. Mixed-Fuel...

  11. Other Alternative Diesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy crises of the 1970’s and early 1980’s provided impetus for developing alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils and animal fats. Other driving forces may be derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments and farmers desire to develop new uses for surplus agricultural commodities. ...

  12. Comparisons between oxy-fuel combustion and IGCC technologies in China coal- energy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xue; Clemente Jul, María del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    A comparison between oxy-fuel combustion plants and IGCC plants has been carried out. Oxy-fuel combustion performs better for the retrofit of exist pulverized coal plants after the evaluation of efficiency, retrofit cost and O&M cost. China is currently and will depending on coal for its energy for a long time. Plenty of PC plants are used in existing power plants due to its lower coal consumption. One way to reduce CO2 emission with CCS is to equip existing power plants with appliance...

  13. High temperature corrosion by combustion gases produced by burning liquid fuels containing sulphur, sodium and vanadium.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Fazlur Rahman

    1980-01-01

    High temperature corrosion, at 730° C, by combustion gases produced by burning liquid fuels in a laboratory combustor has been investigated. A selected range of steels and alloys (mild steel, stainless steel type 347, Nimonic N90, N105, and IN657) have been tested in the combustion gases using fuels containing varying amounts of impurities in the range of 0 - 6% sulphur, 0 - 60 ppm sodium, and 0 - 300 ppm vanadium. On the basis of the comprehensive results a computer programme was written t...

  14. Regenerable mixed copper-iron-inert support oxygen carriers for solid fuel chemical looping combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Tian, Hanjing

    2016-12-20

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier for a chemical looping cycle, such as the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The oxygen carrier is comprised of at least 24 weight % (wt %) CuO, at least 10 wt % Fe2O3, and an inert support, and is typically a calcine. The oxygen carrier exhibits a CuO crystalline structure and an absence of iron oxide crystalline structures under XRD crystallography, and provides an improved and sustained combustion reactivity in the temperature range of 600.degree. C.-1000.degree. C. particularly for solid fuels such as carbon and coal.

  15. Research of power fuel low-temperature vortex combustion in industrial boiler based on numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova K.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the presented research is to perform numerical modelling of fuel low-temperature vortex combustion in once-through industrial steam boiler. Full size and scaled-down furnace model created with FIRE 3D software and was used for the research. All geometrical features were observed. The baseline information for the low-temperature vortex furnace process are velocity and temperature of low, upper and burner blast, air-fuel ratio, fuel consumption, coal dust size range. The obtained results are: temperature and velocity three dimensional fields, furnace gases and solid fuel ash particles concentration.

  16. Application of neural network in the study of combustion rate of natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严兆大; 周重光; 苏石川; 刘震涛; 王希珍

    2003-01-01

    In order to predict and improve the performance of natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine (DFE), a combustion rate model based on forward neural network was built to study the combustion process of the DFE. The effect of the operating parameters on combustion rate was also studied by means of this model. The study showed that the predicted results were good agreement with the experimental data. It was proved that the developed combustion rate model could be used to successfully predict and optimize the combustion process of dual fuel engine.

  17. Application of neural network in the study of combustion rate of natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严兆大; 周重光; 苏石川; 刘震涛; 王希珍

    2003-01-01

    In order to predict and improve the performance of matural gas/diesel dual fuel engine(DFE),a combustion rate model based on forward meural network was built to study the combustion process of the DFE.The effect of the operating parameters on combustion rate was also studied by means of this model.The study showed that the predicted results were good agreement with the experimental data.It was proved that the de-veloped combustion rate model could be used to successfully predict and optimize the combustion process of dual fuel engine.

  18. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... subject to these respective acquisition mandates turns on the size and location criteria set forth in the... meets the criteria for a dual fueled automobile, as that term is defined in section 513(h)(1)(C) of the... definition would read as follows: (1) An automobile that meets the criteria for a dual fueled automobile...

  19. Air quality effects of alternative fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, P.; Ligocki, M.; Looker, R.; Cohen, J.

    1997-11-01

    To support the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, a comparison of potential air quality effects of alternative transportation fuels is being performed. This report presents the results of Phase 1 of this program, focusing on reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol blended with 15 percent gasoline (M85), and compressed natural gas (CNG). The fuels are compared in terms of effects on simulated future concentrations of ozone and mobile source air toxics in a photochemical grid model. The fuel comparisons were carried out for the future year 2020 and assumed complete replacement of gasoline in the projected light-duty gasoline fleet by each of the candidate fuels. The model simulations were carried out for the areas surrounding Los Angeles and Baltimore/DC, and other (non-mobile) sources of atmospheric emissions were projected according to published estimates of economic and population growth, and planned emission control measures specific to each modeling domain. The future-year results are compared to a future-year run with all gasoline vehicle emissions removed. The results of the comparison indicate that the use of M85 is likely to produce similar ozone and air toxics levels as those projected from the use of RFG. Substitution of CNG is projected to produce significantly lower levels of ozone and the mobile source air toxics than those projected for RFG or M85. The relative benefits of CNG substitution are consistent in both modeling domains. The projection methodologies used for the comparison are subject to a large uncertainty, and modeled concentration distributions depend on meteorological conditions. The quantitative comparison of fuel effects is thus likely to be sensitive to alternative assumptions. The consistency of the results for two very different modeling domains, using very different base assumptions, lends credibility to the qualitative differentiation among these fuels. 32 refs., 42 figs., 47 tabs.

  20. Global combustion: the connection between fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions (1997-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Jennifer K; Nagy, R Chelsea; Archibald, Sally; Bowman, David M J S; Moritz, Max A; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Williamson, Grant J

    2016-06-05

    Humans use combustion for heating and cooking, managing lands, and, more recently, for fuelling the industrial economy. As a shift to fossil-fuel-based energy occurs, we expect that anthropogenic biomass burning in open landscapes will decline as it becomes less fundamental to energy acquisition and livelihoods. Using global data on both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, we tested this relationship over a 14 year period (1997-2010). The global average annual carbon emissions from biomass burning during this time were 2.2 Pg C per year (±0.3 s.d.), approximately one-third of fossil fuel emissions over the same period (7.3 Pg C, ±0.8 s.d.). There was a significant inverse relationship between average annual fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. Fossil fuel emissions explained 8% of the variation in biomass burning emissions at a global scale, but this varied substantially by land cover. For example, fossil fuel burning explained 31% of the variation in biomass burning in woody savannas, but was a non-significant predictor for evergreen needleleaf forests. In the land covers most dominated by human use, croplands and urban areas, fossil fuel emissions were more than 30- and 500-fold greater than biomass burning emissions. This relationship suggests that combustion practices may be shifting from open landscape burning to contained combustion for industrial purposes, and highlights the need to take into account how humans appropriate combustion in global modelling of contemporary fire. Industrialized combustion is not only an important driver of atmospheric change, but also an important driver of landscape change through companion declines in human-started fires.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.

  1. Combustion performance of an aluminum melting furnace operating with liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieckele, Angela Ourivio; Naccache, Monica Feijo; Gomes, Marcos Sebastiao de P. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mails: nieckele@puc-rio.br, naccache@puc-rio.br, mspgomes@puc-rio.br

    2010-10-15

    The characteristics associated with the delivery of the fuel to be used as the energy source in any industrial combustion equipment are of extreme importance, as for example, in improving the performance of the combustion process and in the preservation of the equipment. A clean and efficient combustion may be achieved by carefully selecting the fuel and oxidant, as well as the operational conditions of the delivery system for both. In the present work, numerical simulations were carried out using the commercial code FLUENT for analyzing some of the relevant operational conditions inside an aluminum reverb furnace employing liquid fuel and air as the oxidant. Different fuel droplets sizes as well as inlet droplet stream configurations were examined. These characteristics, associated with the burner geometry and the fuel dispersion and delivery system may affect the flame shape, and consequently the temperature and the heat flux distribution within the furnace. Among the results obtained in the simulations, it was shown the possible damages to the equipment, which may occur as a result of the combustion process, if the flame is too long or too intense and concentrated. (author)

  2. Coconut Oil Based Hybrid Fuels as Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranil Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with diesel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. Approach: One of the techniques is the preparation of a microemulsion fuel, called a hybrid fuel. In this study, hybrid fuels consisting of coconut oil, ethanol and octan-1-ol were prepared with an aim to test their suitability as a fuel for diesel engines. Density, viscosity and gross calorific values of these fuels were determined and the fuels were used to run a direct injection diesel engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with that of diesel and coconut oil. Results: The experimental results show that the engine efficiency of the hybrid fuels is comparable to that of diesel. As the percentage of ethanol and/or octan-1-ol increased, the viscosity of the hybrid fuels decreased and the engine efficiency increased. The exhaust emissions were lower than those for diesel, except carbon monoxide, which increased. Conclusion/Recommendations: Hence, it is concluded that these hybrid fuels can be used successfully as an alternative fuel in diesel engines without any modifications. Their completely renewable nature ensures that they are environmentally friendly.

  3. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 15, October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1993-03-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; re-analyzed the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of the first nine feed coals and BCFs using a modified CCSEM technique; updated the topical summary report; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

  4. Thorium utilization program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending May 31, 1976. [Fuel element crushing, solids handling, fluidized-bed combustion, aqueous separations, solvent extraction, off-gas studies, semiremote handling systems, alternative head-end processing, and fuel recycle design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-30

    The work reported includes the development of unit processes and equipment for reprocessing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel and the design and development of an integrated line to demonstrate the head end of HTGR reprocessing using unirradiated fuel materials. Work is also described on trade-off studies concerning the required design of recycle facilities for the large-scale recycle of HTGR fuels in order to guide the development activities for HTGR fuel recycle.

  5. The nuclear fuel cycle; Le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  6. Effect of fuel characteristics on synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite by solution combustion route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir K Ghosh; Asit Prakash; Someswar Datta; Sujit K Roy; Debabrata Basu

    2010-02-01

    The effect of fuel characteristics on the processing of nano sized calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) fine powders by the solution combustion technique is reported. Urea, glycine and glucose were used as fuels in this study. By using different combinations of urea and glycine fuels and occasional addition of small amounts of highly water-soluble glucose, the flame temperature (f) of the process as well as product characteristics could be controlled easily. The powders obtained by this modified solution combustion technique were characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, FESEM–EDX, particle size analyser (PSD) and specific surface area (SSA) measurements. The particle size of phase pure HA powder was found to be < 20 nm in this investigation. The effects of glucose addition with stoichiometric ( = 1) and fuel excess ( > 1) urea and glycine precursor batches were investigated separately.

  7. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. SWAFEA. Sustainable Way for Alternative Fuels and Energy in Aviation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the aviation sector uses petroleum derived liquid fuels as the energy carrier of choice for flight. In light the present environmental, economical and political concerns as to the sustainability of this energy source, the question of which alternatives the aviation sector should pursue in

  8. Systems of ignition and combustion stabilization for water-coal fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zasypkin Ivan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the review of researches of the ignition and combustion stabilization of the water-coal fuel. Working models of plants are described, the results of their tests in laboratory and industrial conditions are given. Two schemes of the WCF ignition are presented - one with burners with hydrocarbon (solar fuel, and the other with the system of plasma ignition. Advantages of these two systems are described. The promising future of the SPI application in industrial conditions is demonstrated.

  9. Dilution effects on the controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion of hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, A.; Zhao, H.; Ma, T.; Ladommatos, N

    2001-01-01

    Copyright © 2001 SAE International. This paper is posted on this site with permission from SAE International. Further use of this paper is not permitted without permission from SAE This paper presents results from an experimental programme researching the in-cylinder conditions necessary to obtain homogenous CAI (or HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine. The fuels under investigation include three blends of Unleaded Gasoline, a 95 RON Primary Reference Fuel, Methanol, and Ethanol. This wor...

  10. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.M.

    1992-05-19

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products' laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively benign'' system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE's program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

  11. Combustion zone investigation in fuel flexible suspension fired boilers, Experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander; Hvid, Søren Lovmand

    The purpose of the project is to obtain data for full-scale validation of predictive models for combustion and cocombustion of biomass in utility boilers. In addition, focus was on development of innovative optical measuring techniques as a means to increase data quality by fast measurements and ...

  12. Management of spent fuel; Gestion del combustible irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrampes Blanch, J.

    2015-07-01

    The management of irradiated fuel has become one of the materials that more time and resources deals within their responsibilities that also cover other areas such as the design of the new cycles, supply of fresh fuel, tracking operation cycles and strategies of power changes. (Author)

  13. The California Multimedia Risk Assessment Protocol for Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, T.; Ginn, T. R.; McKone, T. E.; Rice, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Any new fuel in California requires approval by the state agencies overseeing human and environmental health. In order to provide a systematic evaluation of new fuel impacts, California now requires a multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for fuel approval. The fuel MMRA involves all relevant state agencies including: the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), the Office of Environmental Health Hazards Assessment (OEHHA), and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) overseen by the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA). The lead agency for MMRAs is the CARB. The original law requiring a multimedia assessment is California Health and Safety Code 43830.8. In addition, the low carbon fuel standard (LCFS), the Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), and the Verified Diesel Emission Control Strategy (VDECS) have provisions that can require a multimedia assessment. In this presentation, I give an overview of the California multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for new fuels that has been recently developed and applied to several alternative fuels. The objective of the California MMRA is to assess risk of potential impacts of new fuels to multiple environmental media including: air, water, and soil. Attainment of this objective involves many challenges, including varying levels of uncertainty, relative comparison of incommensurate risk factors, and differing levels of priority assigned to risk factors. The MMRA is based on a strategy of relative risk assessment and flexible accommodation of distinct and diverse fuel formulations. The approach is tiered by design, in order to allow for sequentially more sophisticated investigations as knowledge gaps are identified and re-prioritized by the ongoing research. The assessment also involves peer review in order to provide coupling between risk assessment and stakeholder investment, as well as constructive or confrontational feedback. The multimedia assessment

  14. Reduced Gravity Studies of Soret Transport Effects in Liquid Fuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2004-01-01

    Soret transport, which is mass transport driven by thermal gradients, can be important in practical flames as well as laboratory flames by influencing transport of low molecular weight species (e.g., monatomic and diatomic hydrogen). In addition, gas-phase Soret transport of high molecular weight fuel species that are present in practical liquid fuels (e.g., octane or methanol) can be significant in practical flames (Rosner et al., 2000; Dakhlia et al., 2002) and in high pressure droplet evaporation (Curtis and Farrell, 1992), and it has also been shown that Soret transport effects can be important in determining oxygen diffusion rates in certain classes of microgravity droplet combustion experiments (Aharon and Shaw, 1998). It is thus useful to obtain information on flames under conditions where Soret effects can be clearly observed. This research is concerned with investigating effects of Soret transport on combustion of liquid fuels, in particular liquid fuel droplets. Reduced-gravity is employed to provide an ideal (spherically-symmetrical) experimental model with which to investigate effects of Soret transport on combustion. The research will involve performing reduced-gravity experiments on combustion of liquid fuel droplets in environments where Soret effects significantly influence transport of fuel and oxygen to flame zones. Experiments will also be performed where Soret effects are not expected to be important. Droplets initially in the 0.5 to 1 mm size range will be burned. Data will be obtained on influences of Soret transport on combustion characteristics (e.g., droplet burning rates, droplet lifetimes, gas-phase extinction, and transient flame behaviors) under simplified geometrical conditions that are most amenable to theoretical modeling (i.e., spherical symmetry). The experiments will be compared with existing theoretical models as well as new models that will be developed. Normal gravity experiments will also be performed.

  15. Biomass Conversion into Solid Composite Fuel for Bed-Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the conversion of different types of biomass into solid composite fuel. The subject of research is the heat conversion of biomass into solid composite fuel. The research object is the biomass of the Tomsk region (Russia: peat, waste wood, lake sapropel. Physical experiment of biomass conversion is used as method of research. The new experimental unit for thermal conversion of biomass into carbon residue, fuel gas and pyrolysis condensate is described. As a result of research such parameters are obtained: thermotechnical biomass characteristics, material balances and product characteristics of the heat-technology conversion. Different methods of obtaining solid composite fuel from the products of thermal technologies are considered. As a result, it is established: heat-technology provides efficient conversion of the wood chips and peat; conversion of the lake sapropel is inefficient since the solid composite fuel has the high ash content and net calorific value.

  16. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Andres

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e., maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10 % uncertainty (95 % confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed characteristics of these emissions.

  17. Greenfield Alternative Study LEU-Mo Fuel Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Division of URS

    2008-07-01

    This report provides the initial “first look” of the design of the Greenfield Alternative of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC); a facility to be built at a Greenfield DOE National Laboratory site. The FFC is designed to fabricate LEU-Mo monolithic fuel for the 5 US High Performance Research Reactors (HPRRs). This report provides a pre-conceptual design of the site, facility, process and equipment systems of the FFC; along with a preliminary hazards evaluation, risk assessment as well as the ROM cost and schedule estimate.

  18. Sweet Sorghum Alternative Fuel and Feed Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, Donald C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Dept.; Kaltenbach, C. Colin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-07-30

    The University of Arizona undertook a “pilot” project to grow sweet sorghum on a field scale (rather than a plot scale), produce juice from the sweet sorghum, deliver the juice to a bio-refinery and process it to fuel-grade ethanol. We also evaluated the bagasse for suitability as a livestock feed and as a fuel. In addition to these objectives we evaluated methods of juice preservation, ligno-cellulosic conversion of the bagasse to fermentable sugars and alternative methods of juice extraction.

  19. Ethanol as an Alternative Fuel for Automobiles: Using the First Law of Thermodynamics to Calculate the "Corn-Area-per-Car" Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Students will use the first law of thermodynamics to determine the feasibility of using corn ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuels in automobiles. Energy flow is tracked from the Sun, to photosynthesized carbohydrate, to ethanol through fermentation, and finally to work in the combustion engine. Feasibility is gauged by estimating a…

  20. Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels in a Laboratory Fluidized-bed Reactor Combustion de charges solides avec la boucle chimique dans un lit fluidisé de laboratoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leion H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available When using solid fuel in a chemical looping system, the char fraction of the fuel needs to be gasified before syngas react with the oxygen carrier. This can be done inside the fuel reactor with fuel and oxygen carriers well mixed, and, since this gasification is comparably slow, this will be the time limiting step of such a system. An option is to use an oxygen carrier that is able to release gas-phase oxygen which can react with the fuel by normal combustion giving a significantly faster overall fuel conversion. This last option is generally referred to as Chemical Looping combustion with Oxygen Un-coupling (CLOU. In this work, an overview is given of parameters that affect the fuel conversion in laboratory CLC and CLOU experiments. The main factor determining the fuel conversion, in both CLC and CLOU, is the fuel itself. High-volatile fuels are generally more rapidly converted than low volatile fuels. This difference in fuel conversion rate is more pronounced in CLC than in CLOU. However, the fuel conversion is also, both for CLC and CLOU, increased by increasing temperature. Increased steam and SO2 fraction in the surrounding gas will also enhance the fuel conversion in CLC. CO2 gasification in CLC appears to be very slow in comparison to steam gasification. H2 can inhibit fuel gasification in CLC whereas CO did not seem to have any effect. Possible deactivation of oxygen carriers due to SO2 or ash also has to be considered. Lorsque l’on utilise des combustibles solides dans la boucle chimique (CLC pour Chemical Looping Combustion, il est nécessaire de gazéifier le char avant de faire la combustion du gaz de synthèse au contact du transporteur d’oxygène. Ces réactions peuvent s’effectuer dans le réacteur fuel, dans lequel le combustible et le transporteur d’oxygène sont bien mélangés. Cependant, la gazéification du charbon est lente et reste l’étape limitante du processus de combustion dans ces conditions. Une alternative

  1. Systems Analysis of Technologies for Energy Recovery from Waste. Part I. Gasification followed by Catalytic Combustion, PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications in Comparison with Incineration. Part - II. Catalytic combustion - Experimental part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Frostell, Bjoern [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Chemical Technology

    2005-02-01

    This project is entitled 'Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration'. Some of the technologies that are currently developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology include catalytic combustion and fuel cells as downstream units in a gasification system. The aim of this project is to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. In second part of this project economic analyses of the technologies in general and catalytic combustion and fuel cell technologies in particular will be carried out. Four technology scenarios are studied: (1) Gasification followed by Low temperature fuel cells (Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. The waste used as feedstock is an industrial waste containing parts of household waste, paper waste, wood residues and poly ethene. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios will be supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied are classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment in to the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the four impact categories with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second

  2. CO-COMBUSTION OF REFUSE DERIVED FUEL WITH COAL IN A FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. WAN AB KARIM GHANI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology which utilizes municipal solid waste-based refused derived fuel. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from refuse derived fuel was co-fired with coal in a 0.15 m diameter and 2.3 m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and carbon monoxide emissions were studied and compared with those from pure coal combustion. This study proved that the blending effect had increased the carbon combustion efficiency up to 12% as compared to single MSW-based RDF. Carbon monoxide levels fluctuated between 200-1600 ppm were observed when coal is added. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of biomass with coal can be achieved with minimum modification of existing coal-fired boilers.

  3. Laser Spectrometric Measurement System for Local Express Diagnostics of Flame at Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobtsev, V. D.; Kozlov, D. N.; Kostritsa, S. A.; Smirnov, V. V.; Stel'makh, O. M.; Tumanov, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    A laboratory laser spectrometric measurement system for investigation of spatial distributions of local temperatures in a flame at combustion of vapors of various liquid hydrocarbon fuels in oxygen or air at atmospheric pressure is presented. The system incorporates a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometer with high spatial resolution for local thermometry of nitrogen-containing gas mixtures in a single laser shot and a continuous operation burner with a laminar diffusion flame. The system test results are presented for measurements of spatial distributions of local temperatures in various flame zones at combustion of vapor—gas n-decane/nitrogen mixtures in air. Its applicability for accomplishing practical tasks in comparative laboratory investigation of characteristics of various fuels and for research on combustion in turbulent flames is discussed.

  4. Utilization of ventilation air methane as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Changfu; Xu, Xuchang

    2008-04-01

    Ventilation air methane (VAM) accounts for 60-80% of the total emissions from coal mining activities in China, which is of serious greenhouse gas concerns as well as a waste of valuable fuel sources. This contribution evaluates the use of the VAM utilization methods as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler. The paper describes the system design and discusses some potential technical challenges such as methane oxidation rate, corrosion, and efficiency. Laboratory experimentation has shown that the VAM can be burnt completely in circulated fluidized bed furnaces, and the VAM oxidation does not obviously affect the boiler operation when the methane concentration is less than 0.6%. The VAM decreased the incomplete combustion loss for the circulating fluidized bed combustion furnace. The economic benefit from the coal saving insures that the proposed system is more economically feasible.

  5. Knock prediction for dual fuel engines by using a simplified combustion model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费少梅; 刘震涛; 严兆大

    2003-01-01

    The present work used a methane-air mixture chemical kinetics scheme consisting of 119 elementary reaction steps and 41 chemical species to develop a simplified combustion model for prediction of the knock in dual fuel engines. Calculated values by the model for natural gas operation showed good agreement with corresponding experimental values over a broad range of operating conditions.

  6. Theoretical Combustion Performance of Several High-Energy Fuels for Ramjet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Leonard K; Breitwieser, Roland; Gammon, Benson E

    1958-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of the air and fuel specific-impulse characteristics of magnesium, magnesium octene-1 slurries, aluminum, aluminum octene-1 slurries, boron, boron octene-1 slurries, carbon, hydrogen, alpha-methylnaphthalene, diborane, pentaborane, and octene-1 is presented. While chemical equilibrium was assumed in the combustion process, the expansion was assumed to occur at fixed composition.

  7. Membrane-integrated oxy-fuel combustion of coal: Process design and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Nijmeijer, A.; Winnubst, A.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A membrane-integrated oxy-fuel combustion process is designed and simulated in UniSim Design®. The results of the simulation indicate that a net efficiency of 31.8% is obtained for a coal-fired power plant of 182 MWth (assuming only carbon in the coal), including the compression of CO2 to 100 bar. T

  8. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF AN EMULSIFIED HEAVY FUEL OIL IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of measuring emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion flue gases of a No. 6 fuel oil, both with and without an emulsifying agent, in a 2.5 million Btu/hr (732 kW) firetube boiler with the purpose of determining the impacts of the e...

  9. Combustion Chamber Deposits and PAH Formation in SI Engines Fueled by Producer Gas from Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made concerning the formation of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in SI gas engines fueled by producer gas. The main objective was to determine and characterise CCD and PAH formation caused by the presence of the light tar compounds phenol and guaiacol in producer gas from an...

  10. Characterisation of supplementary fuels for co-combustion with pulverised coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikkinen, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The current and future energy policy aims at increasing the share of renewable energy in worlds energy supply. One possibility to enhance energy production by renewable sources within a short term is co-combustion. This means co-firing biomass and waste with fossil fuels at existing power plants ori

  11. Combustion of Methane and Biogas Fuels in Gas Turbine Can-type Combustor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guessab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the numerical simulation on combustion of methane and biogas mixtures in the swirl burner can-Type of gas turbine combustion chamber. The study deals with the impact of mass fraction of carbon dioxide for biogas on emissions of noxious compounds during combustion. The investigations were done for four different fuels: pure methane (100% CH4, three biogases (90%CH4+10%CO2, 75%CH4+25%CO2 and 70%CH4+30%CO2, with the constant value of equivalence ratio ( = 0.95. The numerical results show that a low content of carbon dioxide in methane-air mixture leads to a better flame stability through an increase of the volume of the recirculation zone. The numerical analysis has shown that the biogas fuel allows a reduction of about 33% on the NO emissions and about 10% on the CO emissions and carbon dioxide contained in the fuel leads to the lowering of the flame temperature, whose effect reduces NO emissions. The results of the investigation clearly demonstrate that it is possible to use such fuels in combustion systems with swirl burners.

  12. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Y. C.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high pressure slab motor has been designed and manufactured for conducting experimental investigations. Oxidizer (LOX or GOX) supply and control systems have been designed and partly constructed for the head-end injection into the test chamber. Experiments using HTPB fuel, as well as fuels supplied by NASA designated industrial companies will be conducted. Design and construction of fuel casting molds and sample holders have been completed. The portion of these items for industrial company fuel casting will be sent to the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation in the near future. The study focuses on the following areas: observation of solid fuel burning processes with LOX or GOX, measurement and correlation of solid fuel regression rate with operating conditions, measurement of flame temperature and radical species concentrations, determination of the solid fuel subsurface temperature profile, and utilization of experimental data for validation of a companion theoretical study (Part 2) also being conducted at PSU.

  13. Fundamental phenomena on fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion processes with applications to hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kenneth K.; Lu, Y. C.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.

    1994-11-01

    An experimental study on the fundamental processes involved in fuel decomposition and boundary layer combustion in hybrid rocket motors is being conducted at the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. This research should provide a useful engineering technology base in the development of hybrid rocket motors as well as a fundamental understanding of the complex processes involved in hybrid propulsion. A high pressure slab motor has been designed and manufactured for conducting experimental investigations. Oxidizer (LOX or GOX) supply and control systems have been designed and partly constructed for the head-end injection into the test chamber. Experiments using HTPB fuel, as well as fuels supplied by NASA designated industrial companies will be conducted. Design and construction of fuel casting molds and sample holders have been completed. The portion of these items for industrial company fuel casting will be sent to the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation in the near future. The study focuses on the following areas: observation of solid fuel burning processes with LOX or GOX, measurement and correlation of solid fuel regression rate with operating conditions, measurement of flame temperature and radical species concentrations, determination of the solid fuel subsurface temperature profile, and utilization of experimental data for validation of a companion theoretical study (Part 2) also being conducted at PSU.

  14. Modelling of coal combustion enhanced through plasma-fuel systems in full-scale boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Askarova; Z. Jankoski; E.I. Karpenko; E.I. Lavrischeva; F.C. Lockwood; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Department of Physics

    2005-07-01

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmental friendly low-rank coal combustion. This work presents numerical modelling results of plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air-fuel mixture plasma activation, ignition and combustion. A 1D kinetic code, PLASMA-COAL, calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures and velocities of treated coal-air mixtures in a burner incorporating a plasma source. It gives initial data for 3D-modeling of power boilers furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of pulverised coal fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated. 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Biomass Fuel and Combustion Conditions Selection in a Fixed Bed Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Arce

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The biomass market has experienced an increase in development, leading to research and development efforts that are focused on determining optimal biofuel combustion conditions. Biomass combustion is a complex process that involves divergent parameters and thus requires the use of advanced analysis methods. This study proposes combining grey relational analysis (GRA and error propagation theory (EPT to select a biofuel and its optimal combustion conditions. This research will study three biofuels that are currently used in a region of South Europe (Spain, and the most important variables that affect combustion are the ignition front propagation speed and the highest temperature that is reached at the fixed bed combustor. The results demonstrate that a combination of both theories for the analysis of solid-state thermochemical phenomena enables a fast and simple way of choosing the best configuration for each fuel.

  16. Investigation of pressurized combustion and characterization of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of the research of Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) was to produce results of the effects of pressure and other important parameters on the combustion of pulverized coals using both experimental and theoretical methods. The results can be utilized to model pressurized combustion and to plan pilot-scale reactors. The studied coals were Polish hvb coal, French lignite (Gardanne), German anthracite (Niederberg) and German (Goettelborn) hvb coal. In was originally planned to study also a char of one of these coals. However, anthracite was selected instead of char, because the theoretical studies predicted maximum pressure effect to be found for antracite-type coals (with low reactivity and low content of volatiles). The pulverized coal samples were combusted in an electrically heated, pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR), where the experimental conditions were controlled with a high precision. The studied particle size fractions were 100-125 Em and 140-180 Am for anthracite and 140-180 {mu}m for the other coals. The studied things were combustion rates and temperatures of burning particles. Two types of sets of experiments were carried out. In the first case, experimental planning was done and the results were handled with multivariable partial least squares (PLS) method. Gas temperature varied from 1073K to 1473K and pressure from 0.2 MPa to 0.8 MPa. The other variables were PO2 and PCO{sub 2}. Some of the experiments were carried out at conditions prevailing during flue gas recirculation (CO{sub 2} concentration was > 20 vol%). In the second case, oxygen concentration was kept constant ( 10 vol%) and pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 0.8 MPa with an interval of 0.1 MPa

  17. Mechanism and optimization of fuel injection parameters on combustion noise of DI diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆辉; 郝志勇; 郑旭; 杨文英; 毛杰

    2016-01-01

    Combustion noise takes large proportion in diesel engine noise and the studies of its influence factors play an important role in noise reduction. Engine noise and cylinder pressure measurement experiments were carried out. And the improved attenuation curves were obtained, by which the engine noise was predicted. The effect of fuel injection parameters in combustion noise was investigated during the combustion process. At last, the method combining single variable optimization and multivariate combination was introduced to online optimize the combustion noise. The results show that injection parameters can affect the cylinder pressure rise rate and heat release rate, and consequently affect the cylinder pressure load and pressure oscillation to influence the combustion noise. Among these parameters, main injection advance angle has the greatest influence on the combustion noise, while the pilot injection interval time takes the second place, and the pilot injection quantity is of minimal impact. After the optimal design of the combustion noise, the average sound pressure level of the engine is distinctly reduced by 1.0 dB(A) generally. Meanwhile, the power, emission and economy performances are ensured.

  18. Combustion of Shock-Dispersed Fuels in a Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A L

    2003-04-23

    In previous studies we have investigated after-burning effects of a fuel-rich explosive (TNT). In that case the detonation only releases about 30 % of the available energy, but generates a hot cloud of fuel that can burn in the ambient air, thus evoking an additional energy release that is distributed in space and time. The current series of small-scale experiments can be looked upon as a natural generalization of this mechanism: a booster charge disperses a (non-explosive) fuel, provides mixing with air and - by means of the hot detonation products - energy to ignite the fuel. The current version of our miniature Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charges consists of a spherical booster charge of 0.5 g PETN, embedded in a paper cylinder of approximately 2.2 cm3, which is filled with powdered fuel compositions. The main compositions studied up to now contain aluminum powder, hydrocarbon powders like polyethylene or sucrose and/or carbon particles. These charges were studied in three different chambers of 4-1, 6.6-1 and 40.5-1 volume. In general, the booster charge was sufficient to initiate burning of the fuel. This modifies the pressure signatures measured with a number of wall gages and increases the quasi-static overpressure level obtained in the chambers. On the one hand the time-scale and the yield of the pressure rise depend on the fuel and its characteristics. On the other hand they also depend on the flow dynamics in the chamber, which is dominated by shock reverberations, and thus on the chamber geometry and volume. The paper gives a survey of the experimental results and discusses the possible influences of some basic parameters.

  19. Pyrolysis decomposition of tamarind seed for alternative fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, M A; Islam, M R; Parveen, M; Haniu, H; Takai, K

    2013-12-01

    The conversion of tamarind seed into bio-oil by pyrolysis has been taken into consideration in the present work. The major components of the system were fixed bed fire-tube heating reactor, liquid condenser and collector. The crushed tamarind seed in particle form was pyrolyzed in an electrically heated fixed bed reactor. The products were liquid, char and gasses. The parameters varied were reactor temperature, running time, gas flow rate and feed particle size. The maximum liquid yield was 45 wt% at 400°C for a feed size of 3200 μm diameter at a gas flow rate of 6l/min with a running time of 30 min. The obtained pyrolysis liquid at these optimum process conditions were analyzed for physical and chemical properties to be used as an alternative fuel. The results show the potential of tamarind seed as an important source of alternative fuel and chemicals as well.

  20. Combustion of Microalgae Oil and Ethanol Blended with Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using renewable oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is a proposed method to reduce diesel engine emission. Ethanol has lower density, viscosity, cetane number and calorific value than petroleum diesel (PD. Microalgae oil is renewable, environmentally friendly and has the potential to replace PD. In this paper, microalgae oil (10% and ethanol (10% have been mixed and added to (80% diesel fuel as a renewable source of oxygenated fuel. The mixture of microalgae oil, ethanol and petroleum diesel (MOE20% has been found to be homogenous and stable without using surfactant. The presence of microalgae oil improved the ethanol fuel demerits such as low density and viscosity. The transesterification process was not required for oil viscosity reduction due to the presence of ethanol. The MOE20% fuel has been tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at different speed. The engine test results with MOE20% showed a very comparable engine performance of in-cylinder pressure, brake power, torque and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC to that of PD. The NOx emission and HC have been improved while CO and CO2 were found to be lower than those from PD at low engine speed.

  1. Numerical studies of the combustion of fuel oil in the boiler furnace at reduced load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivantsov Aleksandr A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the work due to the need to assess the effectiveness and reliability of the boiler units on reserve fuel after reconstruction associated with a change in the base fuel and approaches of numerical analysis. Analysis of physical and chemical processes in the furnace volume of boiler BKZ–210–140 operating on reserve fuel and rated load when using the Euler and Euler combined and Lagrangian modeling approaches. Results of the numerical modeling of the processes of aerodynamics, heat exchange, and combustion in the furnace volume.

  2. Numerical simulation of fuel sprays and combustion in a premixed lean diesel engine; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu to nensho no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Sasaki, S.; Shimazaki, N.; Hashizume, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel sprays and combustion in a direct injection Premixed lean Diesel Combustion (PREDIC) engine, which can make smokeless combustion with little NOx emission, is studied numerically. Numerical simulation was carried out by means of KIVA II based computer code with a combustion submodel. The combustion submodel describes the formation of combustible fuel vapor by turbulent mixing and four-step chemical reaction which includes low temperature oxidation. Comparison between computation and experiment shows qualitatively good agreement in terms of heat release rate and NO emission. Computational results indicate that the combustion is significantly influenced by fuel spray characteristics and injection timing to vary NO emission. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Low Floor Americans with Disabilities Compliant Alternate Fuel Vehicle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bartel

    2004-11-26

    This project developed a low emission, cost effective, fuel efficient, medium-duty community/transit shuttle bus that meets American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and meets National Energy Policy Act requirements (uses alternative fuel). The Low Profile chassis, which is the basis of this vehicle is configured to be fuel neutral to accommodate various alternative fuels. Demonstration of the vehicle in Yellowstone Park in summer (wheeled operation) and winter (track operation) demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility for this vehicle to provide year around operation throughout the Parks system as well as normal transit operation. The unique configuration of the chassis which provides ADA access with a simple ramp and a flat floor throughout the passenger compartment, provides maximum access for all passengers as well as maximum flexibility to configure the vehicle for each application. Because this product is derived from an existing medium duty truck chassis, the completed bus is 40-50% less expensive than existing low floor transit buses, with the reliability and durability of OEM a medium duty truck.

  4. Green Engines Development Using Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG is a gaseous form of natural gas, it have been recognized as one of the promising alternative fuel due to its substantial benefits compared to gasoline and diesel. Natural gas is produced from gas wells or tied in with crude oil production. Approach: Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Results: The technology of engine conversion was well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For petrol engines or spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. The diesel engines converted or designed to run on natural gas, there were two main options discussed. There are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can be operated at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. Conclusions: In this study, the low exhaust gas emissions of CNG engines research and development were highlighted. Stoichiometric natural gas engines were briefly reviewed. To keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline or diesel counterparts. High activity for future green CNG engines research and development to meet future stringent emissions standards was recorded in the study.

  5. DOE Project 18546, AOP Task 1.1, Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Research in 2011 was focused on diesel range fuels and diesel combustion and fuels evaluated in 2011 included a series of oxygenated biofuels fuels from University of Maine, oxygenated fuel compounds representing materials which could be made from sewage, oxygenated marine diesel fuels for low emissions, and a new series of FACE fuel surrogates and FACE fuels with detailed exhaust chemistry and particulate size measurements. Fuels obtained in late 2011, which will be evaluated in 2012, include a series of oil shale derived fuels from PNNL, green diesel fuel (hydrotreated vegetable oil) from UOP, University of Maine cellulosic biofuel (levulene), and pyrolysis derived fuels from UOP pyrolysis oil, upgraded at University of Georgia. We were able to demonstrate, through a project with University of Wisconsin, that a hybrid strategy for fuel surrogates provided both accurate and rapid CFD combustion modeling for diesel HCCI. In this strategy, high molecular weight compounds are used to more accurately represent physical processes and smaller molecular weight compounds are used for chemistry to speed chemical calculations. We conducted a small collaboration with sp3H, a French company developing an on-board fuel quality sensor based on near infrared analysis to determine how to use fuel property and chemistry information for engine control. We were able to show that selected outputs from the sensor correlated to both fuel properties and to engine performance. This collaboration leveraged our past statistical analysis work and further work will be done as opportunity permits. We conducted blending experiments to determine characteristics of ethanol blends based on the gasoline characteristics used for blending. Results indicate that much of the octane benefits gained by high level ethanol blending can be negated by use of low octane gasoline blend stocks, as allowed by ASTM D5798. This may limit ability to optimize engines for improved efficiency with ethanol fuels

  6. Fluidized bed combustion and its application to refused fuels. Combustion en leche fluido y su aplicacion a combustibles residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euba, J.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of the energetic crisis produced in th 70's it was proposed to find new power supplies and it also was the start of the use of traditional energy, which up to that date had not been profitable. At the same time, the worry about the pollutant emissions to the environment was increasing and finally it was approved a new legislation on atmosphere pollution, which is the Directive of the European community Council of 24th November 1988. Under these circumstances there are very important the new technologies for the supply of residual combustion with low values of pollution, where it is very important the combustion in fluidized bed. (Author)

  7. Impacts and implementation of fuel moisture release and radiation properties in modelling of pulverized fuel combustion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2015-01-01

    Pulverized fuels (PF) prepared and fired in utility boilers usually contain a certain amount of moisture, either free moisture or chemically bound moisture. In PF furnaces, radiation which is the principal mode of heat transfer consists of contribution from both gas and particle phase. This paper...... presents different methods for fuel moisture release and new models for gas and particle radiative properties, and demonstrates their implementation, importance and impacts in PF combustion modelling via a comprehensive CFD study of a pulverized coal-fired utility boiler. To conclude, it is recommended...... to add the free moisture into the primary air stream while lump the moisture retained in the feed after the mills with volatiles in PF combustion modelling. For gas and particle radiation in PF boilers, it is found that particle radiation largely overwhelms gas radiation due to high particle loading...

  8. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Bréon, F.-M.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms......, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossilfuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon...... dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed...

  9. Effect of Fuel Types on Combustion Characteristics and Performance of a Four Stroke IC Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Rana Ali Hussein,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Gasoline, Ethanol, Gasohol E10, and Kerosene on the performance and combustion characteristics of a spark ignition (SI engine were investigated. In the experiment, the internal combustion (IC engine includes one cylinder, two valves, and four stroke spark ignition. Performance tests were carried out for specific fuel consumption, brake specific fuel consumption, power developed, corrosion rate, and carbon dioxide (CO2 and carbon monoxide (CO emissions. The measurements were conducted under various engine speeds ranging from 1500 to 4500 rpm. The experimental results showed that the performance of engine was improved with the use of gasoline and gasohol E10 in comparison with the Ethanol and Kerosene. The concentrations of CO2 and CO were presented and compared for all type of fuel examined.

  10. Combustion parameters of spark ignition engine using waste potato bioethanol and gasoline blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Abasian, M.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the combustion parameters of a SI engine operating on bioethanol-gasoline blends (E0-E20: 20% bioethanol and 80% gasoline by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for bioethanol production from potato wastes. The results showed that increasing the bioethanol content in the blend fuel will decrease the heating value of the blended fuel and increase the octane number. Combustion parameters were evaluated and analyzed at different engine speeds and loads (1000-5000 rpm). The results revealed that using bioethanol-gasoline blended fuels will increase the cylinder pressure and its 1st and 2nd derivatives (P(θ), P•(θ) and P••(θ)). Moreover, using bioethanol- gasoline blends will increase the heat release (Q•(θ)) and worked of the cycle. This improvement was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol.

  11. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  12. Application of the Advanced Distillation Curve Method to Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine Gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Jessica L.

    2015-07-16

    © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2015 by the American Chemical Society. Incremental but fundamental changes are currently being made to fuel composition and combustion strategies to diversify energy feedstocks, decrease pollution, and increase engine efficiency. The increase in parameter space (by having many variables in play simultaneously) makes it difficult at best to propose strategic changes to engine and fuel design by use of conventional build-and-test methodology. To make changes in the most time- and cost-effective manner, it is imperative that new computational tools and surrogate fuels are developed. Currently, sets of fuels are being characterized by industry groups, such as the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and other entities, so that researchers in different laboratories have access to fuels with consistent properties. In this work, six gasolines (FACE A, C, F, G, I, and J) are characterized by the advanced distillation curve (ADC) method to determine the composition and enthalpy of combustion in various distillate volume fractions. Tracking the composition and enthalpy of distillate fractions provides valuable information for determining structure property relationships, and moreover, it provides the basis for the development of equations of state that can describe the thermodynamic properties of these complex mixtures and lead to development of surrogate fuels composed of major hydrocarbon classes found in target fuels.

  13. The atomization and the flame structure in the combustion of residual fuel oils; La atomizacion y estructura de flama en la combustion de combustibles residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado Estandia, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    In this article a research on the combustion of heavy residual fuel oils is presented. The type of flames studied were obtained by means of the burning of sprays produced by an atomizer designed and calibrated specially for the research purpose. The flame characteristics that were analyzed are its length, its luminosity, the temperature, the distribution of the droplets size and mainly the burning regime of the droplets in the flame. The experimental techniques that were used for these studies were shadow micro-photography, suction pyrometry and of total radiation, laser diffraction, 35 mm photography, and impact push. The analysis of the experimental results, together with the results of the application of a mathematical model, permitted to establish two parameters, that quantitatively related determine the burning regime of the droplets in a flame of sprays of residual heavy fuel oil. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una investigacion sobre la combustion de combustibles residuales pesados. El tipo de flamas estudiadas se obtuvieron mediante el quemado de sprays producidos por un atomizador disenado y calibrado especialmente para el proposito de la investigacion. Las caracteristicas de flama que se analizaron son la longitud, la luminosidad, la temperatura, la distribucion de tamano de gotas y, principalmente, el regimen de quemado de gotas en la flama. Las tecnicas experimentales que se usaron para estos estudios fueron microfotografia de sombras, pirometria de succion y de radiacion total, difraccion laser, fotografia de 35 mm y empuje de impacto. El analisis de resultados experimentales, junto con los resultados de la aplicacion de un modelo matematico, permitio establecer dos parametros, que relacionados cuantitativamente, determinan el regimen de quemado de gotas en una flama de sprays de combustible residual pesado.

  14. Trends of Syngas as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ftwi Yohaness Hagos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Syngas from biomass and solid waste is a carbon-neutral fuel believed to be a promising fuel for future engines. It was widely used for spark-ignition engines in the WWII era before being replaced with gasoline. In this paper, the technological development, success, and challenges for application of syngas in power generating plants, the trends of engine technologies, and the potential of this fuel in the current engine technology are highlighted. Products of gasification vary with the variation of input parameters. Therefore, three different syngases selected from the two major gasification product categories are used as case studies. Their fuel properties are compared to those of CNG and hydrogen and the effects on the performance and emissions are studied. Syngases have very low stoichiometric air-fuel ratio; as a result they are not suitable for stoichiometric application. Besides, syngases have higher laminar flame speed as compared to CNG. Therefore, stratification under lean operation should be used in order to keep their performance and emissions of NOx comparable to CNG counterpart. However, late injection stratification leads to injection duration limitation leading to restriction of output power and torque. Therefore, proper optimization of major engine variables should be done in the current engine technology.

  15. THE MARINE HEAVY FUEL IGNITION AND COMBUSTION BY PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOROIANU CORNELIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuous damage of the used fuel quality, of its dispersion due to the increasing viscosity, make necessary the volume expansion and the rise of the e electric spark power used at ignition. A similar situation appears to the transition of the generator operation from the marine Diesel heavy fuel to the residues of water-fuel mixture. So, it feels like using an ignition system with high specific energy and power able to perform the starting and burning of the fuels mentioned above. Such a system is that which uses a low temperature plasma jet. Its use involves obtaining a high temperature area round about the jet, with a high discharge power, extending the possibility of obtaining a constant burning of different concentration (density mixtures. Besides the action of the temperature of the air-fuel mixture, the plasma jet raises the rate of oxidation reaction as a result of appearance of lot number of active centers such as loaded molecules, atoms, ions, free radicals.

  16. Fuel cells in Japan; Les piles a combustible au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nataf, J.M.

    2000-06-01

    The government R and D effort for the development of fuel cells in Japan reaches 7 billions of yen for the year 2000. R and D on molted carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) has reached its maturity with real scale tests performed on plants with a power of about 1 MW, but some problems remain to be solved. R and D on polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) is very active, motivated by applications for transportation systems but also for stationary power generation units. The budget devoted to PEFC R and D has been multiplied by five for the year 2000. The R and D on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is still active but encounters problems and remains a long term program. R and D on PEFC is achieved and the cells are at the marketing stage and represent the essential part of the installed units. NEDO is the organization responsible for the fuel cell R and D program and the active members are the gas and power companies. The main goal is to reach a 2 GW capacity in 2010. (J.S.)

  17. Alternative Measuring Approaches in Gamma Scanning on Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihm Kvenangen, Karen

    2007-06-15

    In the future, the demand for energy is predicted to grow and more countries plan to utilize nuclear energy as their source of electric energy. This gives rise to many important issues connected to nuclear energy, such as finding methods that can verify that the spent nuclear fuel has been handled safely and used in ordinary power producing cycles as stated by the operators. Gamma ray spectroscopy is one method used for identification and verification of spent nuclear fuel. In the specific gamma ray spectroscopy method called gamma scanning the gamma radiation from the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134 and Eu-154 are measured in a spent fuel assembly. From the results, conclusions can be drawn about the fuels characteristics. This degree project examines the possibilities of using alternative measuring approaches when using the gamma scanning method. The focus is on examining how to increase the quality of the measured data. How to decrease the measuring time as compared with the present measuring strategy, has also been investigated. The main part of the study comprises computer simulations of gamma scanning measurements. The simulations have been validated with actual measurements on spent nuclear fuel at the central interim storage, Clab. The results show that concerning the quality of the measuring data the conventional strategy is preferable, but with other starting positions and with a more optimized equipment. When focusing on the time aspect, the helical measuring strategy can be an option, but this needs further investigation.

  18. Experiments and simulations of NOx formation in the combustion of hydroxylated fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates the influence of molecular structure in hydroxylated fuels (i.e. fuels with one or more hydroxyl groups), such as alcohols and polyols, on NOx formation. The fuels studied are three lower alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol), two diols (1,2-ethanediol and 1,2-propanediol), and one triol (1,2,3-propanetriol); all of which are liquids at room temperature and span a wide range of thermophysical properties. Experimental stack emissions measurements of NO/NO2, CO, and CO2 and flame temperature profiles utilizing a rake of thermocouples were obtained in globally lean, swirling, liquid atomized spray flames inside a refractory-lined combustion chamber as a function of the atomizing air flow rate and swirl number. These experiments show significantly lower NOx formation with increasing fuel oxygen content despite similarities in the flame temperature profiles. By controlling the temperature profiles, the contribution to NOx formation through the thermal mechanism were matched, and variations in the contribution through non-thermal NOx formation pathways are observed. Simulations in a perfectly stirred reactor, at conditions representative of those measured within the combustion region, were conducted as a function of temperature and equivalence ratio. The simulations employed a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic model for NOx formation from hydroxylated fuels developed based on recent alcohol combustion models and extended to include polyol combustion chemistry. These simulations provide a qualitative comparison to the range of temperatures and equivalence ratios observed in complex swirling flows and provide insight into the influence of variations in the fuel decomposition pathways on NOx formation. It is observed that increasing the fuel bound oxygen concentration ultimately reduces the formation of NOx by increasing the proportion of fuel oxidized through formaldehyde, as opposed to acetylene or acetaldehyde

  19. Spray and atomization of diesel fuel and its alternatives from a single-hole injector using a common rail fuel injection system

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, PinChia

    2013-01-01

    Fuel spray and atomization characteristics play an important role in the performance of internal combustion engines. As the reserves of petroleum fuel are expected to be depleted within a few decades, finding alternative fuels that are economically viable and sustainable to replace the petroleum fuel has attracted much research attention. In this work, the spray and atomization characteristics were investigated for commercial No. 2 diesel fuel, biodiesel (FAME) derived from waste cooking oil (B100), 20% biodiesel blended diesel fuel (B20), renewable diesel fuel produced in house, and civil aircraft jet fuel (Jet-A). Droplet diameters and particle size distributions were measured by a laser diffraction particle analyzing system and the spray tip penetrations and cone angles were acquired using a high speed imaging technique. All experiments were conducted by employing a common-rail high-pressure fuel injection system with a single-hole nozzle under room temperature and pressure. The experimental results showed that biodiesel and jet fuel had different features compared with diesel. Longer spray tip penetration and larger droplet diameters were observed for B100. The smaller droplet size of the Jet-A were believed to be caused by its relatively lower viscosity and surface tension. B20 showed similar characteristics to diesel but with slightly larger droplet sizes and shorter tip penetration. Renewable diesel fuel showed closer droplet size and spray penetration to Jet-A with both smaller than diesel. As a result, optimizing the trade-off between spray volume and droplet size for different fuels remains a great challenge. However, high-pressure injection helps to optimize the trade-off of spray volume and droplet sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that the smallest droplets were within a region near the injector nozzle tip and grew larger along the axial and radial direction. The variation of droplet diameters became smaller with increasing injection pressure.

  20. Waste plastics as supplemental fuel in the blast furnace process: improving combustion efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsu; Shin, Sunghye; Sohn, Seungman; Choi, Jinshik; Ban, Bongchan

    2002-10-14

    The possibility of using waste plastics as a source of secondary fuel in a blast furnace has been of recent interest. The success of this process, however, will be critically dependent upon the optimization of operating systems. For instance, the supply of waste plastics must be reliable as well as economically attractive compared with conventional secondary fuels such as heavy oil, natural gas and pulverized coal. In this work, we put special importance on the improvement of the combustibility of waste plastics as a way to enhance energy efficiency in a blast furnace. As experimental variables to approach this target, the effects of plastic particle size, blast temperature, and the level of oxygen enrichment were investigated using a custom-made blast model designed to simulate a real furnace. Lastly, the combustion efficiency of the mixture of waste plastics and pulverized coal was tested. The observations made from these experiments led us to the conclusion that with the increase of both blast temperature and the level of oxygen enrichment, and with a decrease in particle size, the combustibility of waste polyethylene could be improved at a given distance from the tuyere. Also it was found that the efficiency of coal combustion decreased with the addition of plastics; however, the combustion efficiency of mixture could be comparable at a longer distance from the tuyere.

  1. 10 CFR 490.203 - Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 490.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Mandatory State Fleet Program § 490.203 Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. (a) General Provisions... fleets, a State may follow a Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan that has been approved by...

  2. Combustion zone investigation in fuel flexible suspension fired boilers, Experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander; Hvid, Søren Lovmand;

    The purpose of the project is to obtain data for full-scale validation of predictive models for combustion and cocombustion of biomass in utility boilers. In addition, focus was on development of innovative optical measuring techniques as a means to increase data quality by fast measurements......-straw flame at conditions close to daily co-firing operation. 4 measurement ports was used for mapping of flames with a distance up to 6.72 m from burner wall using 5 m and 7 m long water-cooled probes. Gas temperatures and gas composition were measured by FTIR fibre-optic probe and extractive gas sampling...

  3. Experimental Investigation Of Biogas-Biodiesel Dual Fuel Combustion In A Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesha D. K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt at achieving diesel fuel equivalent performance from diesel engines with maximum substitution of diesel with renewable fuels. In this context the study has been designed to analyze the influence of B20 algae biodiesel as a pilot fuel in a biodiesel biogas dual fuel engine, and results are compared to those of biodiesel and diesel operation at identical engine settings. Experiments were performed at various loads from 0 to 100 % of maximum load at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. In general, B20 algae biodiesel is compatible with diesel in terms of performance and combustion characteristics. Dual fuel mode operation displays lower thermal efficiency and higher fuel consumption than for other fuel modes of the test run across the range of engine loads. Dual fuel mode displayed lower emissions of NOx and Smoke opacity while HC and CO concentrations were considerably higher as compared to other fuels. In dual fuel mode peak pressure and heat release rate were slightly higher compared to diesel and biodiesel mode of operation for all engine loads.

  4. Euler-Euler granular flow model of liquid fuels combustion in a fluidized reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoda Stevan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the numerical simulation of liquid fuel combustion in a fluidized reactor using a two-fluid Eulerian-Eulerian fluidized bed modeling incorporating the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF to gas and solid phase flow prediction. The comprehensive model of the complex processes in fluidized combustion chamber incorporates, besides gas and particular phase velocity fields’ prediction, also the energy equations for gas and solid phase and the transport equations of chemical species conservation with the source terms due to the conversion of chemical components. Numerical experiments show that the coefficients in the model of inter-phase interaction drag force have a significant effect, and they have to be adjusted for each regime of fluidization. A series of numerical experiments was performed with combustion of the liquid fuels in fluidized bed (FB, with and without significant water content. The given estimations are related to the unsteady state, and the modeled time period corresponds to flow passing time throw reactor column. The numerical experiments were conducted to examine the impact of the water content in a liquid fuel on global FB combustion kinetics.

  5. Experimental and simulation studies of combustion of blended fuel oil for use in industrial gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A.; Ani, F.N. [Teknologi Malaysia Univ., Johor (Malaysia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Mamat, Z.A.; Zardi, Z. [TNB Research, Selangor (Malaysia); Aziz, A. [Prai Power Station, Penang (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    This paper described a preliminary investigation of the combustion properties of palm olein distillate blended with diesel in a combustion chamber. The aim of the study was to examine the efficacy of the fuel for use in industrial gas turbines with an unmodified gas system. Experiments were conducted for 100 per cent diesel and blends of diesel with 20, 40, and 50 per cent palm olein distillate. Combustion firing experiments were also conducted for 100 per cent palm olein distillates. Results of the study demonstrated that nitroge oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions ranged from between 30 and 55 ppm. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling was conducted in order to compare the performance of the various blends. Results showed that flow and temperature contours for fuels with lower palm olein percentages had a more uniform combustion process due to a higher rate of fuel vaporization. It was concluded that palm olein distillate blends of more than 40 per cent are not recommended, as the soot particles of higher blends cause damage to turbine casings. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A HSDI DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN AGUDELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB, No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively. To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant power output without carrying out any modification of the engine or its fuel injection system. As the POB content in the blend increased, there was a slight reduction in the fuel/air equivalence ratio from 0.39 (B0 to 0.37 (B100, an advance of injection timing and of start of combustion. Additionally, brake thermal efficiency, combustion duration, maximum mean temperature, temperature at exhaust valve opening and exhaust gas efficiency decreased; while the peak pressure, exergy destruction rate and specific fuel consumption increased. With diesel fuel and the blends B20 and B50 the same combustion stages were noticed. However, as a consequence of the differences pointed out, the thermal history of the process was affected. The diffusion combustion stage became larger with POB content. For B100 no premixed stage was observed.

  7. Evaluation of plasma jet ignition for improved performance of alternate fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J. F.; Golenko, Z.; McIlwain, M. E.

    1982-08-01

    Alcohols, such as ethanol and methanol, are potential substitutes for gasolines during periods of fuel shortages. The pure alcohols have been reported to cause performance and starting problems when used to fuel internal combustion engines. This study characterized how three modes of ignition, OEM magneto, high energy conventional spark (CI) and plasma jet ignition (PJI) influenced the engine combustion properties of ethanol, methanol and gasoline alcohol blends. Specific combustion properties examined in these measurement were burning velocity and lean limit. In addition, the engine performance was determined for 30% alcohol gasoline containing blends. These engine performance measurements determined brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. The findings of this study suggest that high energy ignition systems, such as plasma jet ignition, will improve both fuel combustion properties and engine performance.

  8. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting

  9. Fuel oil combustion with low production of nitrogen oxides; Combustion de combustoleo con baja produccion de oxidos de nitrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalera Campoverde, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    This work presents the results of the theoretical-experimental study of the effects of the secondary air jet directed perpendicularly to the flame axis in the fuel oil combustion in a 500 Kw furnace. The main purpose of this study was to obtain low nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions without increasing the CO, which is observed in low NO{sub x} conventional burners. The experimental results showed a significative reduction of the NO{sub x} and of the CO, from 320 to 90 ppm and from 50 ppm to negligible values, respectively. A commercial computational code of fluid dynamics was employed for modeling the combustion in base line conditions, without secondary air and with the injection of secondary air. The experimental results were compared with calculated ones. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio teorico experimental de los efectos de los chorro de aire secundario dirigidos en forma perpendicular al eje de la flama en la combustion del combustoleo en un horno de 500 kW. El proposito principal del estudio fue obtener bajas emisiones de oxidos de nitrogeno (NO{sub x}) sin incrementar el CO, lo cual se observa en quemadores convencionales de bajo NO{sub x}. Los resultados experimentales demostraron una reduccion significativa del NO{sub x} y del CO: de 320 a 90 ppm y de 50 ppm a valores despreciables, respectivamente. Se empleo un codigo computacional comercial de dinamica de fluidos para modelar la combustion en condiciones de linea base, sin aire secundario, y con la inyeccion del aire secundario. Se comparan resultados experimentales con los calculados.

  10. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY METHOD OF GASEOUS FUEL COMBUSTION WITH THE USE OF QUASI-OPTICAL MICROWAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with the problem of developing low emission combustors operating on natural gas or LPG, to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides NOx. The possibility of burning very lean fuel mixtures is studied. To initiate the ignition and combustion stabilization the discharge generated by the quasi-optical microwave is used. Main Results. Initiating ignition by streamer microwave discharge increases the rate of combustion and combustion efficiency about four times as compared with the conventional spark ignition. Streamer discharge ignition by very lean fuel-air mixture is demonstrated with the factor of oxiding agent excess greater than the limit of explosive range under normal conditions. According to indirect indicators, ignition by microwave discharge created by quasi-optical radiation is of non-thermal nature. Microwave discharge excites oxygen atoms, and intense ultra-violet radiation is generated as a result that causes formation of cold nonequilibrium plasma with avalanche growth of free electrons. Streamer discharge propagates at a speed of 5 km /s, so the initiation of the ignition occurs immediately throughout. The temperature of the fuel mixture at the point of ignition initiation does not exceed 400 К.There is no area with a temperature sufficient to initiate thermal Zeldovich mechanism of emission of nitrogen oxides. Combustion rate is high. As a result the Fenimore mechanism of "fast nitrogen oxides" has no chance to be progressing, and NOx emissions in appreciable quantities are excluded. Energy costs are comparable with spark ignition.Practical Relevance. The studied technology is designed for low emission internal combustion engines, power gas turbines, gas compressor units, fueled by natural gas.

  11. Nitrogen Chemistry During Burnout in Fuel-Staged Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Per Gravers; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1996-01-01

    A parametric study involving flow reactor experiments and chemical kinetic modeling is presented for the burnout zone in fuel-staging (reburning). The results provide guidelines for optimizing the reburn process and provide a test basis for verifying kinetic models for nitrogen chemistry at tempe...

  12. Technology channel fuel cells; Reseau technologique piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document presents the PACo channel, its research and development program and the calendar of the first year. The PACo channel aims at stimulate the technology innovation in the domain of the fuel cells and organize collaborations between enterprises and research laboratories. (A.L.B.)

  13. Formation of Liquid Products at the Filtration Combustion of Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Salgansky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yields of liquid and gaseous products of the filtration combustion of cellulose, wood, peat, coal, and rubber have been investigated. Experiments have shown that the gasification of solid fuels in the regime with superadiabatic heating yields liquid hydrocarbons with quantity and quality, which are close to those produced using other methods, for example, by pyrolysis. But in this case no additional energy supply is needed to carry out the gasification process. The low calorific combustible gas, which forms in this process, contains a substantial quantity of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are components of syngas.

  14. Combustion of Gaseous Fuels with High Temperature Air in Normal- and Micro-gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Gupta, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is determine the effect of air preheat temperature on flame characteristics in normal and microgravity conditions. We have obtained qualitative (global flame features) and some quantitative information on the features of flames using high temperature combustion air under normal gravity conditions with propane and methane as the fuels. This data will be compared with the data under microgravity conditions. The specific focus under normal gravity conditions has been on determining the global flame features as well as the spatial distribution of OH, CH, and C2 from flames using high temperature combustion air at different equivalence ratio.

  15. Study of agglomeration behavior of combustion-synthesized nano-crystalline ceria using new fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Srirupa T.; Bedekar, Vinila [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Patra, A.; Sastry, P.U. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: aktyagi@barc.gov.in

    2008-10-20

    Ceria powders were prepared by gel combustion process using cerium nitrate and hitherto unexplored amino acid fuels such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, tryptophan, phenyl alanine, valine, etc. These powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area analysis, sinterability, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The combustion-synthesized powders were agglomerates of nano-crystallites. SAXS profiles of the powders prepared using tryptophan, phenyl alanine and dimethyl urea exhibited fractal behavior.

  16. Effects of MTBE blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions; MTBE kongo keiyu ga diesel nensho haiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shundo, S.; Yokota, H.; Kakegawa, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of MTBE (Methyl-t-butyl ether) blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions were studied. In conventional diesel combustion, the testing mode was carried out in conformity with the Japanese 13 mode. Furthermore, this fuel was applied to a new combustion system (Homogeneous Charge Intelligent Multiple Injection). MTBE blended diesel fuel is more effective in the case of new combustion system and very low NOx, PM capability is suggested. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Physical Simulation of Burning Process of Alternative Engine Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Assad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of burning process in the closed vessel has been fulfilled with the help of method high-speed photography through a transparent glass. This method as an efficient means for investigation of fast processes permits to obtain a visual, convenient visual perception insight about the development of the burning process and understand peculiarities of the development of flame in the closed vessels.The paper contains a description of an experimental stand and methodology for execution of an experiment on visualization of the flame development and measurement of main parameters of the burning process in a closed vessel that is in the simulating combustion chamber.According to the obtained photos an analysis of form, structure and dynamics of flame front development has been carried out; some peculiarities and differences of flames of various fuel-air mixtures have been established and the paper proves an occurrence of the secondary glow during burning in the closed vessel.Body of data obtained with the help of the visualization of burning process makes it possible to determine main parameters of the burning process. In particular, relation of the pressure developed in the chamber with the mass of burnt-out mixture has been investigated and dependence has been obtained that shows the law of fuel burning-out in the graphic form.

  18. Chemical analysis of solid residue from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkmic, M. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecturek Zagreb (Croatia); Curkovic, L. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Zagreb (Croatia); Asperger, D. [HEP-Proizvodnja, Thermal Power Plant Department, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-06-15

    This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. The methods were developed for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer analysis. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residue, it was necessary to develop two methods. The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion (Method 1), while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. e. coal (Method 2). Method calibration was performed on sets of 12 (Method 1) and 6 (Method 2) certified reference materials (CRM). CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation the linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty of methods for each analyte separately was assessed. The methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Fuel properties and combustion characteristics of some promising bamboo species in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ritesh Kumar; N.Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the fuel characteristics of five important bamboo species viz., Dendrocalamus strictus, D. brandisii, D. stocksii, Bambusa bambos and B. balcooa. The selected species cover more than 85%of the total growing stock of bamboo in India. Basic density varied from 0.48 to 0.78 g⋅cm-3 among the bamboo species studied. Ash content, volatile matter content and fixed carbon content ranged between 1.4%-3.0%, 77.2%-80.8%and 17.6%-21.1%, respectively. Variation in calorific value (18.7-19.6 MJ⋅kg-1) was marginal. Fuel value index var-ied widely (586-2120) among bamboo species. The highest calorific value (19.6 MJ⋅kg-1) and fuel value index (2120) were found in B. bal-cooa. Ash elemental analysis revealed that silica and potassium are the major ash forming minerals in bamboo biomass. Silica content ranged from 8.7%to 49.0%, while potassium ranged from 20.6%to 69.8%. We studied combustion characteristics under oxidizing atmosphere. Burning profiles of the samples were derived by applying the derivative thermo-gravimetric technique which is discussed in detail. The five bamboo species were different in their combustion behaviour, mainly due to differences in physical and chemical properties. We compare fuel prop-erties, ash elemental analysis and combustion characteristics of bamboo biomass with wood biomass of Eucalyptus hybrid (Eucalyptus tereticor-nis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis).

  20. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Andres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50%. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  1. Chemical, microphysical and optical properties of primary particles from the combustion of biomass fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Gazala; Venkataraman, Chandra; Bond, Tami C; Schauer, James J

    2008-12-01

    Biomass fuel combustion for residential energy significantly influences both emissions and the atmospheric burden of aerosols in world regions, i.e., east and south Asia. This study reports measurements of climate-relevant properties of particles emitted from biomass fuels widely used for cooking in south Asia, in laboratory experiments simulating actual cooking in the region. Fuel burn rates of 1-2 kg h(-1) for wood species, and 1.5-2 kg h(-1) for crop residues and dried cattle dung, influenced PM2.5 emission factors which were 1.7-2 g kg(-1) at low burn rates but 5-9 gkg(-1) at higher burn rates. Total carbon accounted for 45-55% and ions and trace elements for 2-12% of PM2.5 mass. The elemental carbon (EC) content was variable and highest (22-35%) in particles emitted from low burn rate combustion (wood and jute stalks) but significantly lower (2-4%) from high burn rate combustion (dried cattle dung and rice straw). The mass absorption cross-section (MAC, m2 g(-1)) correlated with EC content for strongly absorbing particles. Weakly absorbing particles, from straw and dung combustion, showed absorption that could not be explained by EC content alone. On average, the MAC of biofuel emission particles was significantly higher than reported measurements from forest fires but somewhat lower than those from diesel engines, indicating potential to significantly influence atmospheric absorption. Both for a given fuel and across different fuels, increased burn rates result in higher emission rates of PM2.5, larger organic carbon (OC) content, larger average particle sizes, and lower MAC. Larger mean particle size (0.42-1.31 microm MMAD) and organic carbon content, than in emissions from combustion sources like diesels, have potential implications for hygroscopic growth and cloud nucleation behavior of these aerosols. These measurements can be used to refine regional emission inventories and derive optical parametrizations, for climate modeling, representative of regions

  2. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  3. Combustion aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels as a viable demil technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Davis, K.; Sinquefield, S.; Huey, S.; Lipkin, J.; Shah, D.; Ross, J.; Sclippa, G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

    1996-05-01

    This investigation addresses the combustion-related aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels in boilers as an economically viable and environmentally acceptable use of excess energetic materials. The economics of this approach indicate that the revenues from power generation and chemical recovery approximately equal the costs of boiler modification and changes in operation. The primary tradeoff is the cost of desensitizing the fuels against the cost of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) or other disposal techniques. Two principal combustion-related obstacles to the use of energetic-material-derived fuels are NO{sub x} generation and the behavior of metals. NO{sub x} measurements obtained in this investigation indicate that the nitrated components (nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, etc.) of energetic materials decompose with NO{sub x} as the primary product. This can lead to high uncontrolled NO{sub x} levels (as high as 2,600 ppm on a 3% O{sub 2} basis for a 5% blend of energetic material in the fuel). NO{sub x} levels are sensitive to local stoichiometry and temperature. The observed trends resemble those common during the combustion of other nitrogen-containing fuels. Implications for NO{sub x} control strategies are discussed. The behavior of inorganic components in energetic materials tested in this investigation could lead to boiler maintenance problems such as deposition, grate failure, and bed agglomeration. The root cause of the problem is the potentially extreme temperature generated during metal combustion. Implications for furnace selection and operation are discussed.

  4. Organization of fuel accounting and determining the efficiency of combustion of wood fuel in boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlosyuk, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of official Soviet publications covering general principles, calorific value of wood species and waste wood, and specific fuel requirements of different boilers. Accounting is based on the concept of nominal fuel (calorific value 7000 kcal/kg). Reduced boiler efficiency when burning low-grade fuel, e.g. waste wood of 55% moisture content, results in higher fuel consumption than expected from the calorific value alone. A method of estimating normal fuel requirements is described. 3 references.

  5. Critical Processes Involved in Formulation of Water-in-Oil Fuel Emulsions, Combustion Efficiency of the Emulsified Fuels and Their Possible Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Dibofori-Orji

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to highlight some problems encountered during the formulation of water-inoil (w/o emulsions of diesel fuel. The combustion efficiency of the resultant emulsions and some pollutant gas emissions were determined. The paper also discussed possible environmental impacts of these emissions. Internal Combustion Engines (ICE find application in many modes of transportation including marine, land and air transportation. Economic and environmental considerations have led to the quest for improved combustion efficiency of the various fossil fuels used for these modes of transportation. The possibility of combustion of emulsified fuels has been the centre of some research efforts in the search for improved combustion efficiency. Diesel is mixed with water to form fuel-oil emulsions for combustion in some internal combustion engines. Depending on certain factors, two possible types of fuel-oil emulsions can be obtained: Oil in water and water in oil emulsions. Combustibility of the resulting emulsions was investigated. In this study, neat diesel was emulsified using polyethylene glycol as the emulsifying agent to produce water in oil emulsions. The water in oil emulsion was found to be combustible within certain limits of percentage content of water and air/fuel ratios. Problems encountered in the attempts to burn the emulsions include the nature and type of emulsifying agent, the method and means of mixing, as well as stability of the emulsions. This study shows that the emulsion containing 5% water had the highest combustion efficiency. Combustion of fuels, whether neat or emulsified, has some environmental impacts. Different noxious substances as exhaust products of combustion when emitted into the atmosphere could be injurious to human health, plants and animals within or close to the operating environments. In this study, the exhaust gases were analysed and their possible environmental impacts were discussed. The emulsion

  6. Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

  7. Schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence imaging of combustion in a turbulent boundary layer over a solid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Miller, Victor A.; Cantwell, Brian J.

    2016-03-01

    Combustion in a turbulent boundary layer over a solid fuel is studied using simultaneous schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence imaging. The flow configuration is representative of a hybrid rocket motor combustor. Six different hydrocarbon fuels, including both classical hybrid rocket fuels and a high regression rate fuel (paraffin wax), are burned in an undiluted oxygen free-stream at pressures ranging from atmospheric to 1524.2 kPa (221.1 psi). A detailed explanation of methods for registering the schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence images to one another is presented, and additionally, details of the routines used to extract flow features of interest (like the boundary layer height and flame location) are provided. At atmospheric pressure, the boundary layer location is consistent between all fuels; however, the flame location varies for each fuel. The flame zone appears to be smoothly distributed over the fuel surface at atmospheric pressure. At elevated pressures and correspondingly increased Dahmköhler number (but at constant Reynolds number), flame morphology is markedly different, exhibiting large rollers in a shear layer above the fuel grain and finer structures in the flame. The chemiluminescence intensity is found to be roughly proportional to the fuel burn rate at both atmospheric and elevated chamber pressures.

  8. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  9. Effect on Particulate and Gas Emissions by Combusting Biodiesel Blend Fuels Made from Different Plant Oil Feedstocks in a Liquid Fuel Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norwazan Abdul Rahim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the combustion performance of various blends of biodiesel fuels and diesel fuel from lean to rich mixtures. The biodiesel blend fuel combustion experiments were carried out using a liquid fuel burner and biodiesel fuel made from various plant oil feedstocks, including jatropha, palm and coconut oils. The results show that jatropha oil methyl ester blend 25 (JOME B25 and coconut oil methyl ester blend 25 (COME B25 blended at 25% by volume in diesel fuel produced lower carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC emissions due to more complete combustion. Overall, JOME B25 had the highest CO emission reduction, at about 42.25%, followed by COME B25 at 26.44% emission reduction relative to pure diesel fuel. By contrast, the palm oil methyl ester blend 25 (POME B25 showed a 48.44% increase in these emissions. The results showed that the nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions were slightly higher for all biodiesel blend fuels compared with pure diesel fuel combustion. In case of sulphur dioxide (SO2 and UHC emissions, all biodiesel blends fuels have significantly reduced emissions. In the case of SO2 emission, the POME B25, JOME B25 and COME B25 emissions were reduced 14.62%, 14.45% and 21.39%, respectively, relative to SO2 emission from combusting pure diesel fuel. UHC emissions of POME B25, JOME B25 and COME B25 showed 51%, 71% and 70% reductions, respectively, compared to diesel fuel. The conclusion from the results is that all the biodiesel blend fuels are suitable and can be recommended for use in liquid fuel burners in order to get better and ‘greener’ environmental outcomes.

  10. Emulsified fuels. Its use in stationary sources; Combustibles emulsionados. Su utilizacion en fuentes estacionarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Morales, Gilberto; Magdaleno Molina, Moises; Vargas Y, Victor M.; Gavira D, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Basic aspects are set forth of the heavy hydrocarbon fuels, the principles, preparation and particularities of the combustion with emulsions, that currently represent one option, either by themselves or in combination with other technologies to utilize heavy hydrocarbons, obtaining advantages in the reduction of polluting emissions, particulate matter and NOx, which allow continuing operating the operation within the limits established by the technical ecological standards. [Espanol] Se exponen aspectos basicos de los combustibles de hidrocarburos pesados (HC), los principios, preparacion y particularidades de la combustion con emulsiones, que actualmente representan una alternativa por si solos o en combinacion con otras tecnologias para utilizar hidrocarburos pesados, obteniendose ventajas en la reduccion de emisiones de contaminantes de particulas y NOx, lo cual permite continuar operando dentro de los limites que establecen las normas tecnicas ecologicas.

  11. Quasi-Dimensional Modeling of a CNG Fueled HCCI Engine Combustion Using Detailed Chemical Kinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Bakhshan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an in-house quasi dimensional code has been developed which simulates the intake, compression, combustion, expansion and exhaust strokes of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine. The compressed natural gas (CNG has been used as fuel. A detailed chemical kinetic scheme constituting of 310 and 1701 elementary equations developed by Bakhshan et al. has been applied for combustion modeling and heat release calculations. The zero-dimensional k-ε turbulence model has been used for calculation of heat transfer. The output results are the performance and pollutants emission and combustion characteristics in HCCI engines. Parametric studies have been conducted to discussing the effects of various parameters on performance and pollutants emission of these engines.

  12. A novel vortex-fluidized bed combustor with two combustion chambers for rice-husk fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhiyanon, T.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel vortexing-fluidized bed combustor (VFBC using rice-husk as fuel was developed and presented. The combined characteristics of vortex combustion and fluidized bed combustion are the main features of the VFBC, which was designed to achieve high thermal capacity (MWth m-3, high thermal efficiency and low diameter to height ratio. The VFBC comprises a vertical cylinder chamber and a conical base, which provides a bed for incompletely combusted fuel. The overall dimensions are 1.10 m in height and 0.40 m in diameter. To evaluate combustor performance, the specific feed rate of fuel and mass flow rates of the primary, secondary, and tertiary air were varied independently of one another. The combustion appeared into two zones characterized by different combustion behaviors, i.e. 1 vortext combustion above the vortex ring and 2 fluidized bed combustion below the vortex ring. The fluidized bed zone has uniform temperature distributions across the cross-section of the combustor. The swirling of air above the vortex ringand the vortex ring itself played important roles in preventing the escape of combustion particulates. Bottomash appeared as fine black and grey particles of ash, which ranged in size from 200 to 600 µm. Fluidizationcould be initiated without the assistance of any inert material mixed into the bed. The experimental resultsindicated that thermal efficiency did not depend on the secondary or tertiary airflows, but was significantlyinfluenced by the excess air resulting from the combined total of the three airflows. The introduction of thetertiary airflow helped maintaining the temperature inside the combustor within acceptable levels. According to experimental conditions, i.e. a specific feed rate of 240 kg h-1m-3 and excess air (157%, it was found that the VFBC could achieve an exit gas temperature of 1060ºC, thermal efficiency of 95%, and thermal capacity of 0.91 MWth m-3. The amounts of CO2, CO, and O2 gases emitted were directly

  13. Alarming Oxygen Depletion Caused by Hydrogen Combustion and Fuel Cells and their Resolution by Magnegas$^{TM}$

    OpenAIRE

    Santilli, R. M.

    2000-01-01

    We recall that hydrogen combustion does resolve the environmental problems of fossil fuels due to excessive emission of carcinogenic substances and carbon dioxide. However, hydrogen combustion implies the permanent removal from our atmosphere of directly usable oxygen, a serious environmental problem called oxygen depletion, since the combustion turns oxygen into water whose separation to restore the original oxygen is prohibitive due to cost. We then show that a conceivable global use of hyd...

  14. Transformation of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles from a Diesel Fuel Additive during Combustion in a Diesel Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, James G; Cox, Steven S; Vance, Marina E; Marr, Linsey C; Hochella, Michael F

    2017-02-21

    Nanoscale cerium oxide is used as a diesel fuel additive to reduce particulate matter emissions and increase fuel economy, but its fate in the environment has not been established. Cerium oxide released as a result of the combustion of diesel fuel containing the additive Envirox, which utilizes suspended nanoscale cerium oxide to reduce particulate matter emissions and increase fuel economy, was captured from the exhaust stream of a diesel engine and was characterized using a combination of bulk analytical techniques and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The combustion process induced significant changes in the size and morphology of the particles; ∼15 nm aggregates consisting of 5-7 nm faceted crystals in the fuel additive became 50-300 nm, near-spherical, single crystals in the exhaust. Electron diffraction identified the original cerium oxide particles as cerium(IV) oxide (CeO2, standard FCC structure) with no detectable quantities of Ce(III), whereas in the exhaust the ceria particles had additional electron diffraction reflections indicative of a CeO2 superstructure containing ordered oxygen vacancies. The surfactant coating present on the cerium oxide particles in the additive was lost during combustion, but in roughly 30% of the observed particles in the exhaust, a new surface coating formed, approximately 2-5 nm thick. The results of this study suggest that pristine, laboratory-produced, nanoscale cerium oxide is not a good substitute for the cerium oxide released from fuel-borne catalyst applications and that future toxicity experiments and modeling will require the use/consideration of more realistic materials.

  15. Investigation of the spraying mechanism and combustion of the suspended coal fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murko Vasiliy I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the earlier one [1]. It presents the results of the suspended coal fuel spraying with pneumo-mechanical sprayers followed by the fuel combustion in a vortex furnace. It is shown that, during the spraying, two qualitatively different systems of drops are forming. The first one with the “drops” diameter above 80 - 100 mm is presented by coal particles, the other - by water-coal drops. Different dynamics of temperature variation of the coal particle and WCF drops during their combustion is founded. The residence time of the burning particles and WCF drops in the vortex furnace is proportional to their diameter, which permits to provide their effective burn-off.

  16. Experimental Study of the Combustion Dynamics of Renewable & Fossil Fuel Co-Fire in Swirling Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaķe, M.; Barmina, I.; Kriško, V.; Gedrovičs, M.; Descņickis, A.

    2009-01-01

    The complex experimental research into the combustion dynamics of rene-wable (wood biomass) and fossil (propane) fuel co-fire in a swirling flame flow has been carried out with the aim to achieve clean and effective heat production with reduced carbon emissions. The effect of propane co-fire on the formation of the swirling flame velocity, temperature and composition fields as well as on the combustion efficiency and heat output has been analysed. The results of experimental study show that the propane supply into the wood biomass gasifier provides faster wood fuel gasification with active release of volatiles at the primary stage of swirling flame flow formation, while the swirl-induced recirculation with enhanced mixing of the flame components results in a more complete burnout of wood volatiles downstream of the combustor with reduced mass fraction of polluting impurities in the emissions.

  17. Enhanced combustion by jet ignition in a turbocharged cryogenic port fuel injected hydrogen engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretti, Alberto A.; Watson, Harry C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Melbourne, 3010 Melbourne (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    The Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition (HAJI) is a physico-chemical combustion enhancement system developed at the University of Melbourne. Jet ignition can ignite ultra-lean air/fuel mixtures which are far beyond the stable ignition limit of a spark plug. Jet ignition may further enhance the combustion properties of hydrogen enabling the development of a diesel-like, almost throttle-less, control of load by quantity of fuel injected for higher thermal efficiencies all over the range of loads. The object of this paper is to show the benefits of jet ignition and present the latest results obtained on a four cylinder engine having the jet ignition coupled with cryogenic hydrogen injection and turbo charging. (author)

  18. The effect of fuel pyrolysis on the coal particle combustion: An analytical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghsheikhi Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analytically investigate the symmetrical combustion of an isolated coal particle with the fuel pyrolysis effect. The modelling concept of coal particles is similar to that of the liquid droplet combustion but in the case of coal devolatilization, the particles do not shrink like droplet does due to evaporation of liquid fuel. The rate of devolatilization of volatiles can be calculated using the equation that is similar to Arrhenius equation. This model is based on an assumption of combined quasi-steady and transient behaviour of the process and especially focuses on predicting the variations of temperature profile, radius of pyrolysis and transfer number. It is revealed that the entrance of pyrolysis effect into the governing equations leads to the reduction in the film radius and consequently a reduction in the stand-off ratio and transfer number.

  19. Pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific value, fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J.; Hoppesteyn, P.D.J.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU-funded, international R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific flue fuel gas. The objects of the project are: To design, manufacture and t