WorldWideScience

Sample records for altered rectal sensory

  1. Sensory and motor responses to rectal distention vary according to rate and pattern of balloon inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W M; Read, N W; Prior, A; Daly, J A; Cheah, S K; Grundy, D

    1990-10-01

    rectum is slowly filling. Rectal sensation and concomitant external anal sphincter activity was not associated with anal relaxation during ramp inflation; most subjects felt the sensation long after the pressure reached its lowest level. However, under all circumstances the onset of rectal sensation was associated with an increase of external anal sphincter electrical activity. In conclusion, the rectal sensory and anorectal motor responses to distention depend on the rate and pattern of distention, which may activate a different population of receptors. Results from different laboratories cannot be compared directly unless the pattern and rate of distension are the same.

  2. Uranium-induced sensory alterations in the zebrafish Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faucher, K., E-mail: kfaucher@hotmail.fr [Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie des radionucleides (LECO), Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire, Centre de Cadarache, Batiment 186, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Floriani, M.; Gilbin, R.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie des radionucleides (LECO), Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire, Centre de Cadarache, Batiment 186, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2012-11-15

    The effect of chronic exposure to uranium ions (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) on sensory tissues including the olfactory and lateral line systems was investigated in zebrafish (Danio rerio) using scanning electron microscopy. The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to uranium damaged sensory tissues in fish. The fish were exposed to uranium at the concentration of 250 {mu}g l{sup -1} for 10 days followed by a depuration period of 23 days. Measurements of uranium uptake in different fish organs: olfactory rosettes and bulbs, brain, skin, and muscles, were also determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS during the entire experimental period. The results showed that uranium displayed a strong affinity for sensory structures in direct contact with the surrounding medium, such as the olfactory and lateral line systems distributed on the skin. A decreasing gradient of uranium concentration was found: olfactory rosettes > olfactory bulbs > skin > muscles > brain. At the end of the experiment, uranium was present in non-negligible quantities in sensory tissues. In parallel, fish exposed to uranium showed severe sensory tissue alterations at the level of the olfactory and lateral line systems. In both sensory systems, the gross morphology was altered and the sensory hair cells were significantly damaged very early after the initiation of exposure (from the 3rd day). At the end of the experiment, after 23 days of depuration, the lateral line system still displayed slight tissue alterations, but approximately 80% of the neuromasts in this system had regenerated. In contrast, the olfactory system took more time to recover, as more than half of the olfactory rosettes observed remained destroyed at the end of the experiment. This study showed, for the first time, that uranium is able to damage fish sensory tissues to such an extent that tissue regeneration is delayed.

  3. Altered visual sensory fusion in children with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, P; Rodríguez, C; Núñez, J C; Vallejo, G; González-Pienda, J A

    2014-12-01

    Reading is a multi-sensory and multi-cognitive task, and its difficulties (e.g., dyslexia) are not a unitary disorder. There are probably a variety of manifestations that relate to the actual site of impairment. A randomized, pre-test/post-test nonequivalent-groups design was conducted over 4 months with three groups aged between 6 and 8 years. One group comprised 76 participants (34 boys, 42 girls) with reading difficulties and altered sensory fusion (RD+ASF), a second group was made up of 123 students (59 boys, 64 girls) with reading difficulties but without altered sensory fusion (RD), and a third group comprised 81 participants (39 boys, 42 girls) who were young readers (RL) without reading delay, paired with the RD group on reading level. The experimental groups received intervention in the skills of control, stimulus recognition, and phonological awareness during a 4-month period. Both pre-test and post-test measures of errors in reading mechanics and reading routes (word and pseudo-word) were obtained. Poorer results in mechanics and reading routes of the RD+ASF group suggest that the effectiveness of the intervention depended on the characteristics of the groups and on the presence of sensory fusion deficits in the RD students.

  4. Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: the altered auditory feedback paradigm and the glove effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF in musician's dystonia (MD and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004. Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in synchrony with a metronome on a MIDI-piano with 3 auditory feedback conditions: 1. normal feedback; 2. no feedback; 3. constant delayed feedback. Experiment 2 employs synchronization-continuation paradigm: 12 MD patients and 12 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in two phases: first in synchrony with a metronome, secondly continue the established tempo without the metronome. There are 4 experimental conditions, among them 3 are the same altered auditory feedback as in Experiment 1 and 1 is related to altered tactile sensory input. The coefficient of variation of inter-onset intervals of the key depressions was calculated to evaluate fine motor control. Results: In both experiments, the healthy controls and the patients behaved very similarly. There is no difference in the regularity of playing between the two groups under any condition, and neither did AAF nor did altered tactile feedback have a beneficial effect on patients’ fine motor control. Conclusions: The results of the two experiments suggest that in the context of our experimental designs, AAF and altered tactile feedback play a minor role in motor coordination in patients with musicians' dystonia. We propose that altered auditory and tactile feedback do not serve as effective sensory tricks and may not temporarily reduce the symptoms of patients suffering from MD in this experimental context.

  5. Global DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer and may predict response to treatment - A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsang, J S

    2014-07-28

    In rectal cancer, not all tumours display a response to neoadjuvant treatment. An accurate predictor of response does not exist to guide patient-specific treatment. DNA methylation is a distinctive molecular pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis. Whether DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant treatment and a potential response predictor is unknown. We aimed to determine whether DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and to determine its role in predicting response to treatment.

  6. ALTERED QUANTITATIVE SENSORY TESTING OUTCOME IN SUBJECTS WITH OPIOID THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Preclinical studies have suggested that opioid exposure may induce a paradoxical decrease in the nociceptive threshold, commonly referred as opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). While OIH may have implications in acute and chronic pain management, its clinical features remain unclear. Using an office-based quantitative sensory testing (QST) method, we compared pain threshold, pain tolerance, and the degree of temporal summation of the second pain in response to thermal stimulation among three g...

  7. Alteration in sensory nerve function following electrical shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, G S; Bier, M; Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M; Lee, R C

    1996-12-01

    A study of the effects of electrical shock on peripheral nerve fibres is presented. Strength and duration of the applied shocks were similar to those encountered in a typical industrial electrical accident. The purpose of this study is: (i) to identify the electrophysiological and morphological change in nerve fibres after the application of electrical current shocks; (ii) to examine the ability of the peripheral nerve fibres to spontaneously regain function and; (iii) to demonstrate the usefulness of the sensory refractory spectrum as an additional technique in assessing the damage. Three groups of animals received twelve 4-ms electric field pulses of approximately 37 V/cm (n = 5), 75 V/cm (n = 9) and 150 V/cm (n = 6), respectively. Group 4 was a control group and received a direct application of 2 per cent lidocaine over the sciatic nerve for 30 min. Thermal effects of the shocks were negligible. The sensory refractory spectrum shows that electrical shock damage was mainly to the large, fast myelinated fibres and that higher field strengths do more damage. Also in a histological examination it was found that the more heavily shocked myelinated fibres had sustained more damage.

  8. Diabetic polyneuropathy, sensory neurons, nuclear structure and spliceosome alterations: a role for CWC22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kobayashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Unique deficits in the function of adult sensory neurons as part of their early neurodegeneration might account for progressive polyneuropathy during chronic diabetes mellitus. Here, we provide structural and functional evidence for aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in a chronic type 1 model of experimental diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN. Cajal bodies (CBs, unique nuclear substructures involved in RNA splicing, increased in number in diabetic sensory neurons, but their expected colocalization with survival motor neuron (SMN proteins was reduced – a mislocalization described in motor neurons of spinal muscular atrophy. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs, also participants in the spliceosome, had abnormal multiple nuclear foci unassociated with CBs, and their associated snRNAs were reduced. CWC22, a key spliceosome protein, was aberrantly upregulated in diabetic dorsal root ganglia (DRG, and impaired neuronal function. CWC22 attenuated sensory neuron plasticity, with knockdown in vitro enhancing their neurite outgrowth. Further, axonal delivery of CWC22 siRNA unilaterally to locally knock down the aberrant protein in diabetic nerves improved aspects of sensory function in diabetic mice. Collectively, our findings identify subtle but significant alterations in spliceosome structure and function, including dysregulated CBs and CWC22 overexpression, in diabetic sensory neurons that offer new ideas regarding diabetic sensory neurodegeneration in polyneuropathy.

  9. Diabetic polyneuropathy, sensory neurons, nuclear structure and spliceosome alterations: a role for CWC22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Chandrasekhar, Ambika; Cheng, Chu; Martinez, Jose A.; Ng, Hilarie; de la Hoz, Cristiane

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Unique deficits in the function of adult sensory neurons as part of their early neurodegeneration might account for progressive polyneuropathy during chronic diabetes mellitus. Here, we provide structural and functional evidence for aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in a chronic type 1 model of experimental diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). Cajal bodies (CBs), unique nuclear substructures involved in RNA splicing, increased in number in diabetic sensory neurons, but their expected colocalization with survival motor neuron (SMN) proteins was reduced – a mislocalization described in motor neurons of spinal muscular atrophy. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), also participants in the spliceosome, had abnormal multiple nuclear foci unassociated with CBs, and their associated snRNAs were reduced. CWC22, a key spliceosome protein, was aberrantly upregulated in diabetic dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and impaired neuronal function. CWC22 attenuated sensory neuron plasticity, with knockdown in vitro enhancing their neurite outgrowth. Further, axonal delivery of CWC22 siRNA unilaterally to locally knock down the aberrant protein in diabetic nerves improved aspects of sensory function in diabetic mice. Collectively, our findings identify subtle but significant alterations in spliceosome structure and function, including dysregulated CBs and CWC22 overexpression, in diabetic sensory neurons that offer new ideas regarding diabetic sensory neurodegeneration in polyneuropathy. PMID:28250049

  10. Diabetic polyneuropathy, sensory neurons, nuclear structure and spliceosome alterations: a role for CWC22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Chandrasekhar, Ambika; Cheng, Chu; Martinez, Jose A; Ng, Hilarie; de la Hoz, Cristiane; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2017-03-01

    Unique deficits in the function of adult sensory neurons as part of their early neurodegeneration might account for progressive polyneuropathy during chronic diabetes mellitus. Here, we provide structural and functional evidence for aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in a chronic type 1 model of experimental diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). Cajal bodies (CBs), unique nuclear substructures involved in RNA splicing, increased in number in diabetic sensory neurons, but their expected colocalization with survival motor neuron (SMN) proteins was reduced - a mislocalization described in motor neurons of spinal muscular atrophy. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), also participants in the spliceosome, had abnormal multiple nuclear foci unassociated with CBs, and their associated snRNAs were reduced. CWC22, a key spliceosome protein, was aberrantly upregulated in diabetic dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and impaired neuronal function. CWC22 attenuated sensory neuron plasticity, with knockdown in vitro enhancing their neurite outgrowth. Further, axonal delivery of CWC22 siRNA unilaterally to locally knock down the aberrant protein in diabetic nerves improved aspects of sensory function in diabetic mice. Collectively, our findings identify subtle but significant alterations in spliceosome structure and function, including dysregulated CBs and CWC22 overexpression, in diabetic sensory neurons that offer new ideas regarding diabetic sensory neurodegeneration in polyneuropathy.

  11. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28 or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV, calbindin (CB, and calretinin (CR neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6. Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity.

  12. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Suemitsu, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Okamoto, Motoi

    2015-01-01

    Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28) or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR) neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6). Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity.

  13. Tissue-Associated Bacterial Alterations in Rectal Carcinoma Patients Revealed by 16S rRNA Community Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andrew M.; Jesus, Eliane C.; Lopes, Ademar; Aguiar, Samuel; Begnami, Maria D.; Rocha, Rafael M.; Carpinetti, Paola Avelar; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Hoffmann, Christian; Freitas, Helano C.; Silva, Israel T.; Nunes, Diana N.; Setubal, João C.; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic and inflammatory forms of colorectal cancer (CRC) account for more than 80% of cases. Recent publications have shown mechanistic evidence for the involvement of gut bacteria in the development of both CRC-forms. Whereas, colon and rectal cancer have been routinely studied together as CRC, increasing evidence show these to be distinct diseases. Also, the common use of fecal samples to study microbial communities may reflect disease state but possibly not the tumor microenvironment. We performed this study to evaluate differences in bacterial communities found in tissue samples of 18 rectal-cancer subjects when compared to 18 non-cancer controls. Samples were collected during exploratory colonoscopy (non-cancer group) or during surgery for tumor excision (rectal-cancer group). High throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V4–V5 region was conducted on the Ion PGM platform, reads were filtered using Qiime and clustered using UPARSE. We observed significant increases in species richness and diversity in rectal cancer samples, evidenced by the total number of OTUs and the Shannon and Simpson indexes. Enterotyping analysis divided our cohort into two groups, with the majority of rectal cancer samples clustering into one enterotype, characterized by a greater abundance of Bacteroides and Dorea. At the phylum level, rectal-cancer samples had increased abundance of candidate phylum OD1 (also known as Parcubacteria) whilst non-cancer samples had increased abundance of Planctomycetes. At the genera level, rectal-cancer samples had higher abundances of Bacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Parabacteroides, Desulfovibrio, and Odoribacter whereas non-cancer samples had higher abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Lactobacillus, and Bacillus. Two Bacteroides fragilis OTUs were more abundant among rectal-cancer patients seen through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, whose presence was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and enrichment verified by digital

  14. Tissue-associated bacterial alterations in rectal carcinoma patients revealed by 16S rRNA community profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Maltez Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic and inflammatory forms of colorectal cancer (CRC account for more than 80% of cases. Recent publications have shown mechanistic evidence for the involvement of gut bacteria in the development of both CRC-forms. Whereas colon and rectal cancer have been routinely studied together as CRC, increasing evidence show these to be distinct diseases. Also, the common use of fecal samples to study microbial communities may reflect disease state but possibly not the tumor microenvironment. We performed this study to evaluate differences in bacterial communities found in tissue samples of 18 rectal-cancer subjects when compared to 18 non-cancer controls. Samples were collected during exploratory colonoscopy (non-cancer group or during surgery for tumor excision (rectal-cancer group. High throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V4-V5 region was conducted on the Ion PGM platform, reads were filtered using Qiime and clustered using UPARSE. We observed significant increases in species richness and diversity in rectal cancer samples, evidenced by the total number of OTUs and the Shannon and Simpson indexes. Enterotyping analysis divided our cohort into two groups, with the majority of rectal cancer samples clustering into one enterotype, characterized by a greater abundance of Bacteroides and Dorea. At the phylum level, rectal-cancer samples had increased abundance of candidate phylum OD1 (also known as Parcubacteria whilst non-cancer samples had increased abundance of Planctomycetes. At the genera level, rectal-cancer samples had higher abundances of Bacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Parabacteroides, Desulfovibrio and Odoribacter whereas non-cancer samples had higher abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Lactobacillus and Bacillus. Two Bacteroides fragilis OTUs were more abundant among rectal-cancer patients seen through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, whose presence was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and enrichment verified

  15. Balancing bilateral sensory activity: callosal processing modulates sensory transmission through the contralateral thalamus by altering the response threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Ebner, Ford F

    2006-07-01

    Rats tactually explore a nearly spherical space field around their heads with their whiskers. The information sampled by the two sets of whiskers is integrated bilaterally at the cortical level in an activity dependent manner via the corpus callosum. We have recently shown that sensory activity in one barrel field cortex (BFC) modulates the processing of incoming sensory information to the other BFC. Whether interhemispheric integration is dynamically linked with corticothalamic modulation of incoming sensory activity is an important hypothesis to test, since subcortical relay neurons are directly modulated by cortical neurons through top-down processes. In the present study, we compared the direct sensory responses of single thalamic relay neurons under urethane anesthesia before and after inactivating the BFC contralateral to a thalamic neuron. The data show that silencing one BFC reduces response magnitude in contralateral thalamic relay neurons, significantly and reversibly, in response to test stimuli applied to the principal whisker at two times response threshold (2T) intensity for each unit. Neurons in the ventral posterior medial (VPM) nucleus and the medial division of the posterior nucleus (POm) react in a similar manner, although POm neurons are more profoundly depressed by inactivation of the contralateral BFC than VPM neurons. The results support the novel idea that the subcortical relay of sensory information to one hemisphere is strongly modulated by activity levels in the contralateral as well as in the ipsilateral SI cortex. The mechanism of the modulation appears to be based on shifting the stimulus-response curves of thalamic neurons, thereby rendering them more or less sensitive to sensory stimuli. We conclude that global sensory processing is created by combining activity in each cerebral hemisphere and continually balancing the flow of information to cortex by adjusting the responsiveness of ascending sensory pathways.

  16. Human brain plasticity: evidence from sensory deprivation and altered language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Helen; Bavelier, Daphne

    2002-01-01

    The results from the language studies taken as a whole point to different developmental time courses and developmental vulnerabilities of aspects of grammatical and semantic/lexical processing. They thus provide support for conceptions of language that distinguish these subprocesses within language. Similarly, following auditory deprivation, processes associated with the dorsal visual pathway were more altered than were functions associated with the ventral pathway, providing support for conceptions of visual system organization that distinguish functions along these lines. Could the effects observed in blind and deaf adults be accounted for, at least in part, by the redundant connectivity of the immature human brain? One way we tested this hypothesis was to study the differentiation of visual and auditory sensory responses in normal development (Neville, 1995). In normal adults, auditory stimuli elicit ERP responses that are large over temporal brain regions but small or absent over occipital regions. By contrast, in 6-month-old children we observed that auditory ERPs are equally large over temporal and visual brain regions, consistent with the idea that there is less specificity and more redundancy of connections between the auditory and visual cortex at this time. Between 6 and 36 months, however, we observed a gradual decrease in the amplitude of the auditory ERP over visual areas, while the amplitude over the temporal areas was unchanged. These results suggest that early in human development, there exists a redundancy of connections between auditory and visual areas and that this overlap gradually decreases after birth. This loss of redundancy may be a boundary condition that determines when sensory deprivation can result in alterations in the organization of remaining sensory systems. The considerable variability in timing of sensitive periods may also be in part due to temporal differences in the occurrence of redundancy within different systems. Ongoing

  17. Behavioral, Perceptual, and Neural Alterations in Sensory and Multisensory Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sarah H.; Stevenson, Ryan A.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Although sensory processing challenges have been noted since the first clinical descriptions of autism, it has taken until the release of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013 for sensory problems to be included as part of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the diagnostic profile. Because sensory information forms the building blocks for higher-order social and cognitive functions, we argue that sensory processing is not only an additional piece of the puzzle, but rather a critical cornerstone for characterizing and understanding ASD. In this review we discuss what is currently known about sensory processing in ASD, how sensory function fits within contemporary models of ASD, and what is understood about the differences in the underlying neural processing of sensory and social communication observed between individuals with and without ASD. In addition to highlighting the sensory features associated with ASD, we also emphasize the importance of multisensory processing in building perceptual and cognitive representations, and how deficits in multisensory integration may also be a core characteristic of ASD. PMID:26455789

  18. Nonthermal sensory input and altered human thermoregulation: effects of visual information depicting hot or cold environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    A recent study showed that thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses can be invoked simply by exposure to visual information, even though the thermal environments are neutral and unchanged. However, it was not clear how such responses affect actual human body temperature regulation. We investigated whether such visually invoked physiological responses can substantively affect human core body temperature in a thermally challenging cold environment. Participants comprised 13 graduate or undergraduate students viewing different video images containing hot, cold, or no scenery, while room temperature was gradually lowered from 28 to 16 °C over 80 min. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, core to skin temperature gradient, and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiment. Rectal temperature was significantly lower when hot video images were presented compared to when control video images were presented. Oxygen consumption was comparable among all video images, but core to skin temperature gradient was significantly lower when hot video images were presented. This result suggests that visual information, even in the absence of thermal energy, can affect human thermodynamics and core body temperature.

  19. Altered head orientation patterns in children with idiopathic scoliosis in conditions with sensory conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijgelaar, P. N.; Wapstra, F. H.; Otten, E.; Veldhuizen, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is the most common spinal deformity in adolescents. Defective postural equilibrium may be a contributing factor. The information of the three sensory systems combined enables the formation of a central representation of head position and body posture. Comparison of head ang

  20. Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Holstege (Jan); W. de Graaff (Wim); S.M. Hossaini (Mehdi); S.C. Cano; D. Jaarsma (Dick); J. Deschamps (Jacqueline); E. van den Akker (Eric)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAlthough Hox gene expression has been linked to motoneuron identity, a role of these genes in development of the spinal sensory system remained undocumented. Hoxb genes are expressed at high levels in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Hoxb8 null mutants manifest a striking phenotype of

  1. Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, J.C.; de Graaff, W.G.A.J.; Hossaini, M.; Cano, S.C.; Jaarsma, D.; van den Akker, E.; Deschamps, J.

    2008-01-01

    Although Hox gene expression has been linked to motoneuron identity, a role of these genes in development of the spinal sensory system remained undocumented. Hoxb genes are expressed at high levels in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Hoxb8 null mutants manifest a striking phenotype of excessive g

  2. Functional organization of motor cortex of adult macaque monkeys is altered by sensory loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hui-Xin; Jain, Neeraj; Collins, Christine E; Lyon, David C; Kaas, Jon H

    2010-02-16

    When somatosensory cortex (S1) is deprived of some of its inputs after section of ascending afferents in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, it reorganizes to overrepresent the surviving inputs. As somatosensory cortex provides guiding sensory information to motor cortex, such sensory loss and representational reorganization could affect the development of the motor map in primary motor cortex (M1), especially if the sensory loss occurs early in development. To address this possibility, the dorsal columns of the spinal cord were sectioned between cervical levels (C3-5) 3-12 days after birth in five macaque monkeys. After 3-5 years of maturation (young adults), we determined how movements were represented in M1 contralateral to the lesion by using microelectrodes to electrically stimulate sites in M1 to evoke movements. Although the details of the motor maps in these five monkeys varied, the forelimb motor maps were abnormal. The representations of digit movements were reduced and abnormally arranged. Current levels for evoking movements from the forelimb region of M1 were in the normal range, but the lowest mean stimulation thresholds were for wrist or elbow instead of digit movements. Incomplete lesions and bilateral lesions produced fewer abnormalities. The results suggest that the development of normal motor cortex maps in M1 depends on sensory feedback from somatosensory maps.

  3. Altered postural control strategies and sensory organization in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Tsang, William W N; Ng, Gabriel Y F

    2012-10-01

    The postural control of children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) was compared under conditions of reduced or conflicting sensory input. Twenty-two children with DCD (16 males, 6 females; mean age 7 years 6 months, SD 1 year 5 months) and 19 children with normal motor development were tested (13 males, 6 females; mean age 6 years 11 months, SD 1 year 1 month). Standing balance, sensory organization and motor control strategy were evaluated using the sensory organization test (SOT). The results revealed that children with DCD had lower composite equilibrium scores (pchildren in the control group. No significant between-group difference in their average somatosensory ratio was observed. Additionally, children with DCD had lower motor strategy scores (swayed more on their hips) than the normal children when forced to depend on vestibular cues alone to balance (pchildren with DCD had deficits in standing balance control in conditions that included reduced or conflicting sensory signals. The visual and vestibular systems tended to be more involved in contributing to the balance deficits than the somatosensory system. Moreover, children with DCD tended to use hip strategy excessively when forced to rely primarily on vestibular signals to maintain postural stability.

  4. Locomotor activity and sensory-motor developmental alterations in rat offspring exposed to arsenic prenatally and via lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumilar, Fernanda; Lencinas, Ileana; Bras, Cristina; Giannuzzi, Leda; Minetti, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of the most toxic naturally occurring contaminants in the environment. The major source of human exposure to inorganic As (iAs) is through contaminated drinking water. Although both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity derived from this metalloid have been thoroughly studied, the effects of iAs on the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS) have received less attention and only a few studies have focused on neurobehavioral effects. Thus, in order to characterize developmental and behavioral alterations induced by iAs exposure, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 0.05 and 0.10 mg/L iAs through drinking water during gestation and lactation. Sensory-motor reflexes in each pup were analyzed and the postnatal day when righting reflex, cliff aversion and negative geotaxis were recorded. Functional Observational Battery (FOB) and locomotor activity in an open field were assessed in 90-day-old offspring. Results show that rats exposed to low iAs concentrations through drinking water during early development evidence a delay in the development of sensory-motor reflexes. Both FOB procedure and open-field tests showed a decrease in locomotor activity in adult rats. This study reveals that exposure to the above-mentioned iAs concentrations produces dysfunction in the CNS mechanisms whose role is to regulate motor and sensory development and locomotor activity.

  5. Diazepam Rectal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious, life-threatening side effects. Do not drink alcohol or use street drugs during your treatment. ... your doctor if you drink large amounts of alcohol or use or have used street ... using diazepam rectal gel, call your doctor.talk to your doctor about ...

  6. Altered sensory-weighting mechanisms is observed in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allard Paul

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoliosis is the most common type of spinal deformity. In North American children, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS makes up about 90% of all cases of scoliosis. While its prevalence is about 2% to 3% in children aged between 10 to 16 years, girls are more at risk than boys for severe progression with a ratio of 3.6 to 1. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that idiopathic scoliosis interferes with the mechanisms responsible for sensory-reweighting during balance control. Methods Eight scoliosis patients (seven female and one male; mean age: 16.4 years and nine healthy adolescents (average age 16.5 years participated in the experiment. Visual and ankle proprioceptive information was perturbed (eyes closed and/or tendon vibration suddenly and then returned to normal (eyes open and/or no tendon vibration. An AMTI force platform was used to compute centre of pressure root mean squared velocity and sway density curve. Results For the control condition (eyes open and no tendon vibration, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients had a greater centre of pressure root mean squared velocity (variability than control participants. Reintegration of ankle proprioception, when vision was either available or removed, led to an increased centre of pressure velocity variability for the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients whereas the control participants reduced their centre of pressure velocity variability. Moreover, in the absence of vision, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis exhibited an increased centre of pressure velocity variability when ankle proprioception was returned to normal (i.e. tendon vibration stopped. The analysis of the sway density plot suggests that adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, during sensory reintegration, do not scale appropriately their balance control commands. Conclusion Altogether, the present results demonstrate that idiopathic scoliosis adolescents have difficulty in

  7. Late effects of radiotherapy on rectum; Les complications rectales de la radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosset, J.F.; Bontemps, P.; Courvoisier, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 25 - Besancon (France)

    1997-12-01

    Late rectal morbidity has been observed in 2 % - 25 % of patients treated with radiotherapy using curative doses for prostate, cervix and rectal cancers. The major encountered clinical pictures are rectal proctitis, rectal/anal strictures, rectal bleeding, ulcers and fistula. Some may alter the patient`s lifestyle while other may induce death. Recommendations concerning the clinical practice are described. The treatment of these late rectal effects include nutritional recommendations, laser, formalin application, and surgery. (author)

  8. Exposure of fluid milk to LED light negatively affects consumer perception and alters underlying sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole; Carey, Nancy; Murphy, Steven; Kent, David; Bang, Jae; Stubbs, Tim; Wiedmann, Martin; Dando, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption per capita in the United States has been steadily declining since the 1940s. Many factors have contributed to this decline, including the increasing consumption of carbonated beverages and bottled water. To meet the challenge of stemming the decline in consumption of fluid milk, the dairy industry must take a systematic approach to identifying and correcting for factors that negatively affect consumers' perception of fluid milk quality. To that end, samples of fluid milk were evaluated to identify factors, with a particular focus on light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure, which negatively affect the perceived sensory quality of milk, and to quantify their relative effect on the consumer's experience. Fluid milk samples were sourced from 3 processing facilities with varying microbial postprocessing contamination patterns based on historical testing. The effect of fat content, light exposure, age, and microbiological content were assayed across 23 samples of fluid milk, via consumer, descriptive sensory, and instrumental analyses. Most notably, light exposure resulted in a broad negative reaction from consumers, more so than samples with microbiological contamination exceeding 20,000 cfu/mL on days approaching code. The predominant implication of the study is that a component of paramount importance in ensuring the success of the dairy industry would be to protect fluid milk from all sources of light exposure, from processing plant to consumer.

  9. Preserved sensory-motor function despite large-scale morphological alterations in a series of patients with holocord syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awai, Lea; Curt, Armin

    2015-03-15

    Although the central nervous system has a limited capacity for regeneration after acute brain and spinal cord injuries, it can reveal extensive morphological changes. Occasionally, the formation of an extensive syrinx in the spinal cord can be observed that causes no or only limited signs of functional impairment. This condition creates a unique opportunity to evaluate the mismatch between substantial morphological changes and functional outcomes. We identified seven patients with holocord syringomyelia affecting the cervical cord following chronic traumatic thoracic/lumbar spinal cord injury (19-34 years after injury) or holocord syringomyelia of non-traumatic origin, and anatomical syrinx dimensions (length, cross-sectional area) were determined using sagittal and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans. Motor- and sensory-pathway integrity were evaluated using electrophysiological assessments (i.e., motor, dermatomal sensory, and dermatomal contact-heat [dCHEP] evoked potentials, as well as nerve conduction studies). These were specifically compared to clinical measures of upper-limb strength and grasping performance, including three-dimensional motion analysis. Despite extensive anatomical changes of the cervical cord (on average 26% reduction of residual spinal cord area and intrusion of almost the entire cervical spinal cord), a clinically relevant impairment of upper-limb motor function was absent while only subtle sensory deficits could be detected. dCHEPs revealed the highest sensitivity by disclosing impairments of spinothalamic pathways. Comparable to that of the brain, extensive anatomical changes of the spinal cord can occur with only subtle functional impairment. The time scale of slowly-emerging morphological alterations is essential to permit an enormous capacity for plasticity of the spinal cord.

  10. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-04-29

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  11. Regulated Deficit Irrigation Alters Anthocyanins, Tannins and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Federico Casassa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS, yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  12. Lidocaine alters the input resistance and evokes neural activity in crayfish sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keceli, M B; Purali, N

    2007-03-01

    Lidocaine, a use-dependent Na(+) channel blocker, paradoxically evokes neural activation in the slowly adapting stretch receptor organ of crayfish at 5-10 mmol/l concentration. For elucidating the underlying mechanisms of this paradoxical effect, a series of conventional electrophysiological experiments were performed in the stretch receptor neurons of crayfish. In the presence of tetrodotoxin, lidocaine did not evoke impulse activity, however, a slowly developing and dose-dependent depolarization occurred in both the rapidly and slowly adapting stretch receptors. Similar effects were observed by perfusion of equivalent concentrations of benzocaine but not of procaine or prilocaine. Lidocaine did not evoke neural activity in the rapidly adapting neuron which fires action potential(s) in response to rapid changes in membrane potential. Slowly developing mode of the depolarization indicated the reason why only depolarization but not action potential responses were observed in the rapidly adapting neuron. The depolarizing effect of lidocaine was independent from any ionic channel or exchanger system. However, lidocaine and benzocaine but not procaine and prilocaine evoked a dose-dependent alteration in the input resistance of the neuron. It was proposed that the principal mechanism of the effect could stem from a change in the physical properties of the neuronal membrane.

  13. Peripheral injury of pelvic visceral sensory nerves alters GFRa (GDNF family receptor alpha localization in sensory and autonomic pathways of the sacral spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Lynne Forrest

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin and artemin use their co-receptors (GFRα1, GFRα2 and GFRα3, respectively and the tyrosine kinase Ret for downstream signalling. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG most of the unmyelinated and some myelinated sensory afferents express at least one GFRα. The adult function of these receptors is not completely elucidated but their activity after peripheral nerve injury can facilitate peripheral and central axonal regeneration, recovery of sensation, and sensory hypersensitivity that contributes to pain. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of spinal cord and sciatic nerve injuries in adult rodents have identified characteristic changes in GFRα1, GFRα2 or GFRα3 in central spinal cord axons of sensory neurons located in dorsal root ganglia. Here we extend and contrast this analysis by studying injuries of the pelvic and hypogastric nerves that contain the majority of sensory axons projecting to the pelvic viscera (e.g., bladder and lower bowel. At 7 d, we detected some effects of pelvic but not hypogastric nerve transection on the ipsilateral spinal cord. In sacral (L6-S1 cord ipsilateral to nerve injury, GFRα1-immunoreactivity (IR was increased in medial dorsal horn and CGRP-IR was decreased in lateral dorsal horn. Pelvic nerve injury also upregulated GFRα1- and GFRα3-IR terminals and GFRα1-IR neuronal cell bodies in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus that provides the spinal parasympathetic preganglionic output to the pelvic nerve. This evidence suggests peripheral axotomy has different effects on somatic and visceral sensory input to the spinal cord, and identifies sensory-autonomic interactions as a possible site of post-injury regulation.

  14. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Hothersall

    Full Text Available Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1 and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg (Part 2. Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167 from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1. In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further

  15. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothersall, Becky; Caplen, Gina; Parker, Richard M A; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Murrell, Joanna C

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1) and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg) and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg) (Part 2). Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167) from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold) were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1). In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further investigation.

  16. Ocean acidification alters the otoliths of a pantropical fish species with implications for sensory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignami, Sean; Enochs, Ian C; Manzello, Derek P; Sponaugle, Su; Cowen, Robert K

    2013-04-30

    Ocean acidification affects a wide diversity of marine organisms and is of particular concern for vulnerable larval stages critical to population replenishment and connectivity. Whereas it is well known that ocean acidification will negatively affect a range of calcareous taxa, the study of fishes is more limited in both depth of understanding and diversity of study species. We used new 3D microcomputed tomography to conduct in situ analysis of the impact of ocean acidification on otolith (ear stone) size and density of larval cobia (Rachycentron canadum), a large, economically important, pantropical fish species that shares many life history traits with a diversity of high-value, tropical pelagic fishes. We show that 2,100 μatm partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) significantly increased not only otolith size (up to 49% greater volume and 58% greater relative mass) but also otolith density (6% higher). Estimated relative mass in 800 μatm pCO2 treatments was 14% greater, and there was a similar but nonsignificant trend for otolith size. Using a modeling approach, we demonstrate that these changes could affect auditory sensitivity including a ∼50% increase in hearing range at 2,100 μatm pCO2, which may alter the perception of auditory information by larval cobia in a high-CO2 ocean. Our results indicate that ocean acidification has a graded effect on cobia otoliths, with the potential to substantially influence the dispersal, survival, and recruitment of a pelagic fish species. These results have important implications for population maintenance/replenishment, connectivity, and conservation efforts for other valuable fish stocks that are already being deleteriously impacted by overfishing.

  17. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception.

  18. Digital rectal exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007069.htm Digital rectal exam To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower ...

  19. Slowed muscle force production and sensory organization deficits contribute to altered postural control strategies in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Yiu, Beverley P H L

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to (1) compare the postural control strategies, sensory organization of balance control, and lower limb muscle performance of children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and (2) determine the association between postural control strategies, sensory organization parameters and knee muscle performance indices among children with DCD. Fifty-eight DCD-affected children and 46 typically developing children participated in the study. Postural control strategies and sensory organization were evaluated with the sensory organization test (SOT). Knee muscle strength and time to produce maximum muscle torque (at 180°/s) were assessed using an isokinetic machine. Analysis of variance was used to compare the outcome variables between groups, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between postural control strategies, sensory organization parameters, and isokinetic indices in children with DCD. The DCD group had significantly lower strategy scores (SOT conditions 5 and 6), lower visual and vestibular ratios, and took a longer time to reach peak torque in the knee flexor muscles than the control group (p>0.05). After accounting for age, sex, and body mass index, the vestibular ratio explained 35.8% of the variance in the strategy score of SOT condition 5 (ppostural control strategy, sensory organization and prolonged duration of muscle force development. Slowed knee muscle force production combined with poor visual and vestibular functioning may result in greater use of hip strategy by children with DCD in sensory challenging environments.

  20. Dynamic long-term microstructural and ultrastructural alterations in sensory nerves of rats of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yuan; Li Jun; Zhou Junfei; Feng Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background Paclitaxel,as a first line anti-neoplastic compound,frequently produces long-term pain after tumors have been treated.Clinical manifestations are varied and non-specific.Pathology of the nervous system during the development of the neuropathic pain is unclear.Thus,eady diagnosis and treatment is often unsatisfying for patients.This study aimed to promote considerate understanding of the structural alteration of sensory nerves.Methods All rats were simply randomized into 3 groups:paclitaxel group,vehicle group and saline group.An established rat model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (2 mg/kg) was chosen for our research,behavior tests were operated during the procedure of 56 days.All rats were sampled on days 0,3,7,28 and 56.The hind paw plantar skin,sciatic nerves,dorsal root ganglion and attached fibers,and lumbar spinal cord were processed for light and electron microscopy.The differences among 3 groups were analyzed with one-way analysis of vadance (ANOVA).Results We affirmed that paclitaxel-induced mechano-aliodynia and mechano-hyperalgesia occured after a 3-7-day delay,and this pain peaked at day 28 and persisted to day 56.Paclitaxel and vehicle treatment both evoked thermalhyperalgesia.Paclitaxel-induced axonal and myelin sheath degeneration was evident.At days 3 and 7,significant increases in atypical mitochondria in both myelinated axons and C-fibers of paclitaxel-treated nerves indicated that injured mitochondria correlated to specific paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain,and the abnormity sustained till day 56.Microtubule was unaffected in myelinated axons or C-fibers in paclitaxel-or vehicle-treated rats.Significant increase of G ratio was evident with paclitaxel injection at days 7 and 28.Conclusion Our research suggests a causal role for axonal degeneration,abnormalities in axonal mitochondria,and structural modification of axonal microtubules in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain,and the abnormal mitochondria could be connected

  1. High-resolution analysis of DNA copy number alterations in rectal cancer. Correlation with metastasis, survival, and mRNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyen, Jerome; Gerard, Jean-Pierre [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nice (France); University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice (France); Letouze, Eric; Marisa, Laetitia; Reynies, Aurelien de [Ligue Nationale Contre Le Cancer, Programme Cartes d' Identite des Tumeurs, Paris (France); Milano, Gerard; Etienne-Grimaldi, Marie-Christine [University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice (France); Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Oncopharmacology Unit, Nice (France); Olschwang, Sylviane [INSERM U1068, Marseille (France); Gaedcke, Jochen; Ghadimi, Michael [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Goettingen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    This study aimed to determine the candidate genes and chromosomal imbalances capable of predicting occurrences of metastasis in patients with rectal cancer. Fresh frozen tumor tissues from 80 patients with rectal cancer were prospectively collected and analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 gene expression arrays and high-resolution Illumina single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Endpoints of the study were metastasis-free survival (MFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). The median follow-up was 102 months (1-146). Deletions of 8p and 1p36-35 correlated with worse MFS (p = 0.005 and p = 0.01, respectively) and CSS (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified 8p deletion as an independent prognostic factor for MFS (p = 0.04) and CSS (p = 0.003); 97 genes located on the 8p chromosome were significantly underexpressed in tumors with 8p deletion. This study shows for the first time in rectal cancer an independent correlation of 8p deletion with MFS and CSS and highlights potential new tumor suppressor genes. (orig.) [German] Diese Studie zielt darauf ab, Kandidatengene und chromosomale Ungleichgewichte vorherzusagen und das Auftreten von Metastasen bei Rektumkarzinompatienten zu bestimmen. Frisch gefrorenes Tumorgewebe von 80 Patienten mit Rektumkarzinom wurde prospektiv erfasst und mit Affymetrix-(HG-U133-Plus-2.0)-Genexpressionsarrays und hochaufloesenden Illumina-Single-Nukleotid-Polymorphismus-(SNP-)Arrays analysiert. Endpunkte der Studie waren fernmetastasenfreies Ueberleben (MFU) und krebsspezifisches Ueberleben (KSU). Die mediane Nachbeobachtungszeit betrug 102 Monate (1-146 Monate). Die Deletionen von 8p und 1p36-35 waren mit schlechterem MFU (jeweils p = 0,005 und p = 0,01) und KSU (jeweils p = 0,001 und p = 0,01) korreliert. Die multivariate Analyse identifizierte - 8p als unabhaengigen prognostischen Faktor fuer MFU (p = 0,04) und KSU (p = 0,003). In Tumoren mit einer 8p-Deletion waren 97 Gene auf Chromosom 8p

  2. Altered sensory experience exacerbates stable dendritic spine and synapse loss in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Reena Prity; Li, Wen; Szepesi, Zsuzsanna; Li, Jia-Yi

    2015-01-07

    A key question in Huntington's disease (HD) is what underlies the early cognitive deficits that precede the motor symptoms and the characteristic neuronal death observed in HD. The mechanisms underlying cognitive symptoms in HD remain unknown. Postmortem HD brain and animal model studies demonstrate pathologies in dendritic spines and abnormal synaptic plasticity before motor symptoms and neurodegeneration. Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity caused by mechanisms such as LTP or novel sensory experience potentiates synaptic strength, enhances new dendritic spine formation and stabilization, and may contribute to normal cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. We have previously reported that under baseline conditions (without any sensory manipulation) neuronal circuitry in HD (R6/2 mouse model) was highly unstable, which led to a progressive loss of persistent spines in these mice, and that mutant huntingtin was directly involved in the process. Here, we investigated whether pathological processes of HD interfere with the normal experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines in the R6/2 model. Six weeks of two-photon in vivo imaging before and after whisker trimming revealed that sensory deprivation exacerbates loss of persistent-type, stable spines in R6/2 mice compared with wild-type littermates. In addition, sensory deprivation leads to impaired transformation of newly generated spines into persistent spines in R6/2 mice. As a consequence, reduced synaptic density and decreased PSD-95 protein levels are evident in their barrel cortical neurons. These data suggest that mutant huntingtin is implicated in maladaptive synaptic plasticity, which could be one of the plausible mechanisms underlying early cognitive deficits in HD.

  3. Seeing your error alters my pointing: observing systematic pointing errors induces sensori-motor after-effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ronchi

    Full Text Available During the procedure of prism adaptation, subjects execute pointing movements to visual targets under a lateral optical displacement: as consequence of the discrepancy between visual and proprioceptive inputs, their visuo-motor activity is characterized by pointing errors. The perception of such final errors triggers error-correction processes that eventually result into sensori-motor compensation, opposite to the prismatic displacement (i.e., after-effects. Here we tested whether the mere observation of erroneous pointing movements, similar to those executed during prism adaptation, is sufficient to produce adaptation-like after-effects. Neurotypical participants observed, from a first-person perspective, the examiner's arm making incorrect pointing movements that systematically overshot visual targets location to the right, thus simulating a rightward optical deviation. Three classical after-effect measures (proprioceptive, visual and visual-proprioceptive shift were recorded before and after first-person's perspective observation of pointing errors. Results showed that mere visual exposure to an arm that systematically points on the right-side of a target (i.e., without error correction produces a leftward after-effect, which mostly affects the observer's proprioceptive estimation of her body midline. In addition, being exposed to such a constant visual error induced in the observer the illusion "to feel" the seen movement. These findings indicate that it is possible to elicit sensori-motor after-effects by mere observation of movement errors.

  4. Rectal cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Mohammad Sadegh; Keramati, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer is the second most common cancer in large intestine. The prevalence and the number of young patients diagnosed with rectal cancer have made it as one of the major health problems in the world. With regard to the improved access to and use of modern screening tools, a number of new cases are diagnosed each year. Considering the location of the rectum and its adjacent organs, management and treatment of rectal tumor is different from tumors located in other parts of the gastrointe...

  5. Rectal culture (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Ellen R; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2017-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15-28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups.

  7. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Ellen R.; Sherwood, Nancy M.

    2017-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15–28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups. PMID:28346489

  8. Breast metastases from rectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia; FANG Yu; LI Ang; LI Fei

    2011-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from extramammary neoplasms are very rare, constituting 2.7% of all malignant breast tumours. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the breast is primary breast cancer. Rectal cancer metastasizing to the breast is extremely rare. We report a case of aggressive rectal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast.

  9. MRI of rectal stromal tumour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Claus; Lindebjerg, Jan; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2012-01-01

    to be aware of for the rectal multidisciplinary team. On suspicion of GIST, patients should be referred to a sarcoma centre. The diagnosis of rectal GIST can be suggested on MRI by the presence of a well-defined heterogeneously large mass with a necrotic center associated with a prominent extra...

  10. Rectal carcinoids: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Frank D

    2014-07-01

    Rectal carcinoids are increasing in incidence worldwide. Frequently thought of as a relatively benign condition, there are limited data regarding optimal treatment strategies for both localized and more advanced disease. The aim of this study was to summarize published experiences with rectal carcinoids and to present the most current data.

  11. AN UNUSUAL RECTAL FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rectal foreign bodies are common, but foreign body made of glass with uneven sharp distal end and complicated with hypovolemic shock is very rare. It is very challenging to be removed by laparotomy and poses extra difficulty in emergency. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 45-year-old man with complains of rectal foreign body and bleeding per rectum reported in emergency room. On examination patient was in hypovolemic shock and continuous bleeding through anal opening. Emergency laparotomy was per-formed and foreign body was retrieved successfully. DISCUSSION: Rectal foreign body made of glass with uneven sharp distal end towards distal end of rectum is very rare. Retrieval of these foreign bodies will be very difficult, especially for the emergency cases that are complicated with hypovolemic shock. Emergency laparotomy can be successfully performed to stop the bleeding and minimize rectal and anal canal trauma. To the best of our knowledge, such rectal foreign body has been rarely reported. CONCLUSION: Rectal foreign body with uneven sharp edges towards anal opening are difficult to retrieve trough transanal route. Hypovolemic shock due to bleeding and rectal perforation is major complications of these foreign bodies. Emergency laparotomy should be done in these cases.

  12. Rectal Sensitivity in Diabetes Patients with Symptoms of Gastroparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Søfteland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a clinical setting, diabetic autonomic complications (cardiac, gastrointestinal, urogenital, etc. are often handled as separate entities. We investigated rectal sensitivity to heat, mechanical distension, and electrical stimulations in 20 patients with diabetes and symptoms of gastroparesis, to evaluate the extent of visceral neuronal damage. Furthermore, to evaluate the relation between the nervous structures we examined gastric emptying and cardiac autonomic function with the hypothesis being an association between these. We found that 60% of patients had delayed gastric empting. Rectal hyposensitivity was a general finding as they tolerated 67% higher thermal, 42% more mechanical, and 33% higher electrical current intensity compared to healthy controls. In patients, most heart rate variability parameters were reduced; they reported significantly more gastrointestinal symptoms and a reduced quality of life in all SF-36 domains. Shortened RR interval correlated with reduced rectal temperature sensitivity, and gastric retention rate was negatively associated with symptoms of nausea and vomiting. To conclude, in these patients with signs and symptoms of diabetic gastroparesis, rectal sensitivity was reduced, and heart rate variability was impaired. Thus, we suggest regarding diabetic autonomic neuropathy as a diffuse disorder. Symptoms of widespread autonomic dysfunction and sensory disorders should be expected and treated in these patients.

  13. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  14. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  15. Radiological imaging of rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Lincender-Cvijetić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities of diagnosing abdominal imaging in patients with rectal cancer, detecting lesions and assessing the stage of the lesions, in order to select the appropriate therapy. Before the introduction of imaging technologies, the diagnosis of colorectal pathology was based on conventional methods of inspecting intestines with a barium enema, with either a single or double contrast barium enema. Following the development of endoscopic methods and the wide use of colonoscopy, colonoscopy became the method of choice for diagnosing colorectal diseases. The improvement of Computerized Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, gave us new possibilities for diagnosing colorectal cancer. For rectal cancer, trans-rectal US (TRUS or endo-anal US (EAUS have a significant role. For staging rectal cancer, the Multi Slice Computed Tomography (MSCT is not the method of choice, but Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is preferred when it comes to monitoring the rectum. Therole of the MRI in the T staging of rectal cancer is crucial in preoperative assessment of: thickness – the width of the tumor, the extramural invasion, the circumference of resection margin (CRM, andthe assessment of the inclusion of mesorectal fascia. For successful execution of surgical techniques, good diagnostic imaging of the cancer is necessary in order to have a low level of recurrence. According to medical studies, the sensitivity of FDG-PET in diagnosing metastatic nodals is low, but for now it is not recommended in routine diagnosis of metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

  16. Sensor probe for rectal manometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blechschmidt, R.A.; Hohlfeld, O.; Mueller, R.; Werthschuetzky, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektromechanische Konstruktionen

    2001-07-01

    In this paper a pressure sensor probe is presented that is suitable for assessing dynamic rectal pressure profiles. It consists of ten piezoresistive sensors, mounted on low temperature co-fired ceramics. The sensors are coated with a bio-compatible silicone elastomer. It was possible to reduce the size of the ceramic to 4.5 x 5.5 mm with a height of 1.4 mm. The whole probe has a diameter of 9 mm and a length of 20 cm. One healthy test person underwent rectal manometry. The experimental data and the analysis of linearity, hysteresis, temperature stability, and reproducibility are discussed. The presented sensor probe extends the classical anorectal manometry, particularly in view of quantifying disorders of the rectal motility. (orig.)

  17. Rectal temperatures in postpartum cows

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Helena Venturolli Perri; Leslie Cristina Scarpelli; Thais Mioto Martinelli; César Esper; Katia Denise Bresciani; Marion Burkhardt de Koivisto

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate parturition data with the rectal temperature in the early postpartum period of dairy cows. One hundred and eighty cows were randomly selected between September 1999 and July 2000, in seven dairy farms located in the Northwest region of São Paulo, Brazil. For the first ten days postpartum, rectal temperature (RT) was taken between 5:00 and 8:00 a.m. using an electronic thermometer (M525 - GLA Agricultural Electronics, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401-7500). C...

  18. IQGAP1 in rectal adenocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, Emilie;

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma includes total mesorectal excision, which is preceded by radiochemotherapy (RCT) in cases of advanced disease. The response to RCT varies from total tumor regression to no effect but this heterogeneous response is unexplained. However, both radiation and treatme...

  19. Sleeping position and rectal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S A; Anderson, E S; Lodemore, M; Rawson, D; Wailoo, M P

    1991-08-01

    The effects of sleeping position upon body temperature were assessed by continuous monitoring of rectal temperature in 137 babies sleeping at home under conditions chosen by their parents. There were three groups of subjects: (1) normal babies aged 12-22 weeks whose temperature rhythms were developed, (2) normal babies aged 6-12 weeks who were developing their night time temperature rhythms, and (3) babies the night after diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus immunisation, whose temperature rhythms were disturbed. Sleeping in the prone position was not associated with higher rectal temperatures at any time of night in young babies, nor did it exaggerate the disturbance of rectal temperature rhythm after immunisation. In older normal babies the prone position did not disturb rectal temperature in the first part of the night, though prone sleepers warmed a little faster prior to walking, especially in warm conditions. Prone sleepers were, however, born earlier in gestation and tended to be of lower birth weight. Normal babies can therefore thermoregulate effectively whatever their sleeping posture, even in warm conditions, though the prone position may make it slightly more difficult to lose heat. It is difficult to see how the prone position, even interacting with warm conditions, could induce lethal hyperthermia in otherwise normal babies. Perhaps the prone position is associated with other risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome.

  20. Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoh, Eric, E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ≥1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ≤25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction.

  1. Correlation between tumor regression grade and rectal volume in neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Seok; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Chung, Kwangzoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether large rectal volume on planning computed tomography (CT) results in lower tumor regression grade (TRG) after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in rectal cancer patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed medical records of 113 patients treated with surgery following neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer between January and December 2012. Rectal volume was contoured on axial images in which gross tumor volume was included. Average axial rectal area (ARA) was defined as rectal volume divided by longitudinal tumor length. The impact of rectal volume and ARA on TRG was assessed. Results Average rectal volume and ARA were 11.3 mL and 2.9 cm². After completion of neoadjuvant CCRT in 113 patients, pathologic results revealed total regression (TRG 4) in 28 patients (25%), good regression (TRG 3) in 25 patients (22%), moderate regression (TRG 2) in 34 patients (30%), minor regression (TRG 1) in 24 patients (21%), and no regression (TRG0) in 2 patients (2%). No difference of rectal volume and ARA was found between each TRG groups. Linear correlation existed between rectal volume and TRG (p = 0.036) but not between ARA and TRG (p = 0.058). Conclusion Rectal volume on planning CT has no significance on TRG in patients receiving neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer. These results indicate that maintaining minimal rectal volume before each treatment may not be necessary. PMID:27592514

  2. Correlation between tumor regression grade and rectal volume in neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong Seok; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Chung, Kwang Zoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To determine whether large rectal volume on planning computed tomography (CT) results in lower tumor regression grade (TRG) after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in rectal cancer patients. We reviewed medical records of 113 patients treated with surgery following neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer between January and December 2012. Rectal volume was contoured on axial images in which gross tumor volume was included. Average axial rectal area (ARA) was defined as rectal volume divided by longitudinal tumor length. The impact of rectal volume and ARA on TRG was assessed. Average rectal volume and ARA were 11.3 mL and 2.9 cm². After completion of neoadjuvant CCRT in 113 patients, pathologic results revealed total regression (TRG 4) in 28 patients (25%), good regression (TRG 3) in 25 patients (22%), moderate regression (TRG 2) in 34 patients (30%), minor regression (TRG 1) in 24 patients (21%), and no regression (TRG0) in 2 patients (2%). No difference of rectal volume and ARA was found between each TRG groups. Linear correlation existed between rectal volume and TRG (p = 0.036) but not between ARA and TRG (p = 0.058). Rectal volume on planning CT has no significance on TRG in patients receiving neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer. These results indicate that maintaining minimal rectal volume before each treatment may not be necessary.

  3. Anorectal function and outcomes after transanal minimally invasive surgery for rectal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feza Y Karakayali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a minimally invasive technique that allows full-thickness resection and suture closure of the defect for large rectal adenomas, selected low-risk rectal cancers, or small cancers in patients who have a high risk for major surgery. Our aim, in the given prospective study was to report our initial clinical experience with TAMIS, and to evaluate its effects on postoperative anorectal functions. Materials and Methods: In 10 patients treated with TAMIS for benign and malignant rectal tumors, preoperative and postoperative anorectal function was evaluated with anorectal manometry and Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score. Results: The mean distance of the tumors from the anal verge was 5.6 cm, and mean tumor diameter was 2.6 cm. All resection margins were tumor free. There was no difference in preoperative and 3-week postoperative anorectalmanometry findings; only mean minimum rectal sensory volume was lower at 3 weeks after surgery. The Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score was normal in all patients except one which resolved by 6 weeks after surgery.The mean postoperative follow-up was 28 weeks without any recurrences. Conclusion: Transanal minimally invasive surgery is a safe and effective procedure for treatment of rectal tumors and can be performed without impairing anorectal functions.

  4. Isolated rectal diverticulum complicating with rectal prolapse and outlet obstruction: Case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang-Wei Chen; Shu-Wen Jao; Huang-Jen Lai; Ying-Chun Chiu; Jung-Cheng Kang

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of rectal diverticula is very rare, with only sporadic reports in the literature since 1911. Symptomatic rectal diverticula are encountered even less frequently.Treatments of these complicated events range from conservative treatments to major surgical interventions.We present a hitherto unreported occurrence of isolated rectal diverticulum complicated with rectal prolapse and outlet obstruction. Delorme's procedure resulted in subsidence of symptoms and resolution of the diverticulum. It provides a minimal invasive surgical technique to successfully address the reported malady.

  5. An Unusual Cause of Rectal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Gruber

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS is a benign disease that is often misdiagnosed. It is characterized by a combination of symptoms, endoscopic findings and histology. Patients present with constipation, rectal bleeding, mucous discharge, pain and a sensation of incomplete defecation. There are many different manifestations of this disease, with or without rectal prolapse. We report an unusual presentation of SRUS as a circular stenosis in a middle-aged male.

  6. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS ANALYSIS FOR STAGEⅠ RECTAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武爱文; 顾晋; 薛钟麒; 王怡; 徐光炜

    2001-01-01

    To explore the death-related factors of stageⅠrectal cancer patients. Methods: 89 cases of stage I rectal cancer patients between 1985 and 2000 were retrospectively studied for prognostic factors. Factors including age, gender, tumor size, circumferential occupation, gross type, pathological type, depth of tumor invasion, surgical procedure, adjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative complication were chosen for cox multivariate analysis (forward procedure) using Spss software (10.0 version). Results: multivariate analysis demonstrated that muscular invasion was an independent negative prognostic factor for stageⅠrectal cancer patients (P=0.003). Conclusion: Muscular invasion is a negative prognostic factor for stage I rectal cancer patients.

  7. Axillary and rectal temperature measurements in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, C J; Hewson, P H; Thornton, A. J.; Cole, T J

    1992-01-01

    Rectal and axillary temperatures were measured during the daytime in 281 infants seen randomly at home and 656 at hospital under 6 months old, using mercury-in-glass thermometers. The normal temperature range derived from the babies at home was 36.7-37.9 degrees C for rectal temperature and 35.6-37.2 degrees C for axillary temperature. Rectal temperature was higher than axillary in 98% of the measurements. The mean (SD) difference between rectal and axillary temperatures was 0.7 (0.5) degrees...

  8. Multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Momoko; Ikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Kawamura, Takuji; Katsura, Kanade

    2016-08-01

    We report multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins who, respectively, had 42 and 36 carcinoid tumors in the lower rectum. This is the first report about carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins. Both twins developed a similar number of rectal carcinoids with a similar distribution. Investigation of their genetic background may provide information about the origin of these tumors.

  9. Rectal cancer surgery: volume-outcome analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Emmeline

    2010-12-01

    There is strong evidence supporting the importance of the volume-outcome relationship with respect to lung and pancreatic cancers. This relationship for rectal cancer surgery however remains unclear. We review the currently available literature to assess the evidence base for volume outcome in relation to rectal cancer surgery.

  10. Quantitative criteria of radiation pathomorphosis in case of concentrated irradiation of rectal tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaev, S.V.; Savel' eva, O.P.; Serov, S.F.; Mel' nikov, R.A.; Frolova, Z.V.; Neishtadt, E.L.; Korkhov, V.V.; Ovanesyan, T.L. (Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Onkologii, Leningrad (USSR))

    1981-01-01

    The morphologic picture of postradiation alterations in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma is studied. The qualitative evaluation of postradiation changes using the morphological criteria applied is shown to be possible. It can promote the search of optimum regimes of concentrated preoperative irradiation.

  11. Study shows colon and rectal tumors constitute a single type of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pattern of genomic alterations in colon and rectal tissues is the same regardless of anatomic location or origin within the colon or the rectum, leading researchers to conclude that these two cancer types can be grouped as one, according to The Cancer

  12. [A case of metastatic rectal cancer with fulminant hepatitis caused by XELOX therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmochi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yuta; Yoneda, Masataka; Ito, Yasuhiro; Ohkubo, Yusuke; Egawa, Tomohisa; Nagashima, Atsushi; Shimokawa, Reiko; Makino, Hiroyuki; Yamamuro, Wataru

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of fulminant hepatitis that was caused by XELOX therapy administered for metastatic rectal cancer. A 69- year-old man with metastatic rectal cancer received 4 courses XELOX therapy. He was subsequently admitted to our hospital with general fatigue. Shenzhen flapping and altered consciousness were noticed on the fifth day of hospitalization. A liver biopsy was subsequently performed. The patient was diagnosed with liver failure due to sinusoidal obstruction syndrome caused by oxaliplatin. This case provides valuable information as there are only a few reports of fulminant hepatitis caused by oxaliplatin.

  13. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  14. [Ultrasonographic study of rectal carcinoid tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, M; Fujita, N; Matsunaga, A; Ando, M; Tominaga, G; Noda, Y; Kobayashi, G; Kimura, K; Yuki, T; Ishida, K; Yago, A; Mochizuki, F; Chonan, A

    1996-11-01

    To compare intraluminal ultrasonographic (ILUS) findings with histological findings of rectal carcinoid tumors, 35 patients with rectal carcinoid tumors were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1) The rectal wall was visualized as a seven- or nine-layer structure by means of ILUS in 81% of the patients. 2) The possibility that the thin hyperechoic third layer above the tumor on ILUS corresponds to the muscularis mucosae and fibrointerstitium above the tumor histologically. 3) In cases with relatively high internal echoes, the amount of fibrointerstitium exceeded that of tumor cells histologically. 4) In cases with nonuniform internal echo patterns, tumor cells were separated by thick fibrointerstitium forming nodular nests.

  15. ENDOSCOPIC TECHNOLOGIES IN EARLY RECTAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Samsonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total mesorectal excision is the “golden standard” of surgical treatment for rectal cancer. Development of endoscopic technologies allowed to implement the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in early rectal cancer treatment, decrease morbidity and mortality, improve functional outcome and quality of life. Oncological safety of this method is still a subject for discussion due to lack of lymph node harvest. Endoscopic operations for early rectal cancer are being actively implemented in daily practice, but lack of experience does not allow to include this method in national clinical prac-tice guidelines.

  16. EUS-Assisted Evaluation of Rectal Varices before Banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal varices are an important cause of bleed. The bleeding can be sometimes fatal. Endoscopic management is possible and is generally done in emergency situation. Rectal variceal banding is useful. Hemodynamic evaluation has shown that the blood flow in rectal varices is from above downwards; however, the site of banding of rectal varices is unclear. This case series shows that the rectal varices should be banded at the highest point of inflow.

  17. Discrimination of rectal cancer through human serum using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Yang, Tianyue; Li, Siqi; Zhang, Su; Jin, Lili

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used to detect the changes in blood serum components that accompany rectal cancer. The differences in serum SERS data between rectal cancer patients and healthy controls were examined. Postoperative rectal cancer patients also participated in the comparison to monitor the effects of cancer treatments. The results show that there are significant variations at certain wavenumbers which indicates alteration of corresponding biological substances. Principal component analysis (PCA) and parameters of intensity ratios were used on the original SERS spectra for the extraction of featured variables. These featured variables then underwent linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and classification and regression tree (CART) for the discrimination analysis. Accuracies of 93.5 and 92.4 % were obtained for PCA-LDA and parameter-CART, respectively.

  18. A rare cause of chronic rectal bleeding in children; solitary rectal ulcer: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Abdulkerim; Tander, Burak; Temiz, Muhyittin; Barış, Sancar; Arıtürk, Ender

    2011-03-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer causing lower gastrointestinal bleeding is extremely rare in children. Rare presentation, non-specific symptoms, insufficient experience, and characteristics mimicking other rectal diseases may cause misdiagnosis or delay of diagnosis in some pediatric patients. Here, we report a 10-year-old boy with solitary rectal ulcer diagnosed two years after onset of the symptoms who responded well to the conservative therapy, including high-fiber diet, laxatives, defecation training, and sucralfate enema.

  19. Transvaginal ultrasonography of rectal endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Anne Gisselmann; Seyer-Hansen, Mikkel; Forman, Axel

    Objectives: The aim of this present study was to evaluate the interobserver variation of transvaginal ultrasonographic measurements of endometriosis infiltrating the rectosigmoid wall. Methods: Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed independently by two observers. Observer 1 had several years...... of experience in ultrasonography while observer 2 was a medical student with no prior experience in ultrasonography or endometriosis. In 24 patient length, width and depth of endometriosis infiltrating the rectosigmoid bowel was measured. The differences between the observers were analysed by Bland and Altman...... for a relatively short period gives comparable scanning results between the two observers. It seems that transvaginal ultrasound could be used as a diagnostic tool for rectal endometriosis in most departments. However, the irregular morphology of the lesions makes the measurements very complex, and a strict...

  20. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  1. Wind sock deformity in rectal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Seyed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal atresia is a rare anorectal deformity. It usually presents with neonatal obstruction and it is often a complete membrane or severe stenosis. Windsock deformity has not been reported in rectal atresia especially, having been missed for 2 years. A 2-year-old girl reported only a severe constipation despite having a 1.5-cm anal canal in rectal examination with scanty discharge. She underwent loop colostomy and loopogram, which showed a wind sock deformity of rectum with mega colon. The patient underwent abdominoperineal pull-through with good result and follow-up. This is the first case of the wind sock deformity in rectal atresia being reported after 2 years of age.

  2. Low Rectal Cancer Study (MERCURY II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    Adenocarcinoma; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Colorectal Neoplasms; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Rectal Diseases

  3. Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma Presenting as a Rectal Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Fitzgerald

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal adenocarcinoma typically presents as an incidentally noted appendiceal mass, or with symptoms of right lower quadrant pain that can mimic appendicitis, but local involvement of adjacent organs is uncommon, particularly as the presenting sign. We report on a case of a primary appendiceal cancer initially diagnosed as a rectal polyp based on its appearance in the rectal lumen. The management of the patient was in keeping with standard practice for a rectal polyp, and the diagnosis of appendiceal adenocarcinoma was made intraoperatively. The operative strategy had to be adjusted due to this unexpected finding. Although there are published cases of appendiceal adenocarcinoma inducing intussusception and thus mimicking a cecal polyp, there are no reports in the literature describing invasion of the appendix through the rectal wall and thus mimicking a rectal polyp. The patient is a 75-year-old female who presented with spontaneous hematochezia and, on colonoscopy, was noted to have a rectal polyp that appeared to be located within a diverticulum. When endoscopic mucosal resection was not successful, she was referred to colorectal surgery for a low anterior resection. Preoperative imaging was notable for an enlarged appendix adjacent to the rectum. Intraoperatively, the appendix was found to be densely adherent to the right lateral rectal wall. An en bloc resection of the distal sigmoid colon, proximal rectum and appendix was performed, with pathology demonstrating appendiceal adenocarcinoma that invaded through the rectal wall. The prognosis in this type of malignancy weighs heavily on whether or not perforation and spread throughout the peritoneal cavity have occurred. In this unusual presentation, an en bloc resection is required for a complete resection and to minimize the risk of peritoneal spread. Unusual appearing polyps do not always originate from the bowel wall. Abnormal radiographic findings adjacent to an area of

  4. Identification of capsaicin-sensitive rectal mechanoreceptors activated by rectal distension in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, N J; Kerrin, A; Singer, C A; Hennig, G W; Gerthoffer, W T; McDonnell, O

    2008-05-01

    Rodents detect visceral pain in response to noxious levels of rectal distension. However, the mechanoreceptors that innervate the rectum and respond to noxious levels of rectal distension have not been identified. Here, we have identified the mechanoreceptors of capsaicin-sensitive rectal afferents and characterized their properties in response to circumferential stretch of the rectal wall. We have also used the lethal spotted (ls/ls) mouse to determine whether rectal mechanoreceptors that respond to capsaicin and stretch may also develop in an aganglionic rectum that is congenitally devoid of enteric ganglia. In wild type (C57BL/6) mice, graded increases in circumferential stretch applied to isolated rectal segments activated a graded increase in firing of slowly-adapting rectal mechanoreceptors. Identical stimuli applied to the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice also activated similar graded increases in firing of stretch-sensitive rectal afferents. In both wild type and aganglionic rectal preparations, focal compression of the serosal surface using von Frey hairs identified mechanosensitive "hot spots," that were associated with brief bursts of action potentials. Spritzing capsaicin (10 microM) selectively onto each identified mechanosensitive hot spot activated an all or none discharge of action potentials in 32 of 56 identified hot spots in wild type mice and 24 of 62 mechanosensitive hot spots in the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice. Each single unit activated by both capsaicin and circumferential stretch responded to low mechanical thresholds (1-2 g stretch). No high threshold rectal afferents were ever recorded in response to circumferential stretch. Anterograde labeling from recorded rectal afferents revealed two populations of capsaicin-sensitive mechanoreceptor that responded to stretch: one population terminated within myenteric ganglia, the other within the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers. In the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice, only the

  5. Report sensory analyses veal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, M.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of a client of Animal Sciences Group, different varieties of veal were analyzed by both instrumental and sensory analyses. The sensory evaluation was performed with a sensory analytical panel in the period of 13th of May and 31st of May, 2005. The three varieties of veal were: young bull,

  6. Locally advanced rectal cancer: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokelaar RF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RF Kokelaar, MD Evans, M Davies, DA Harris, J Beynon Department of Colorectal Surgery, Singleton Hospital, Swansea, UK Abstract: Between 5% and 10% of patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC, and 10% of rectal cancers recur after surgery, of which half are limited to locoregional disease only (locally recurrent rectal cancer. Exenterative surgery offers the best long-term outcomes for patients with LARC and locally recurrent rectal cancer so long as a complete (R0 resection is achieved. Accurate preoperative multimodal staging is crucial in assessing the potential operability of advanced rectal tumors, and resectability may be enhanced with neoadjuvant therapies. Unfortunately, surgical options are limited when the tumor involves the lateral pelvic sidewall or high sacrum due to the technical challenges of achieving histological clearance, and must be balanced against the high morbidity associated with resection of the bony pelvis and significant lymphovascular structures. This group of patients is usually treated palliatively and subsequently survival is poor, which has led surgeons to seek innovative new solutions, as well as revisit previously discarded radical approaches. A small number of centers are pioneering new techniques for resection of beyond-total mesorectal excision tumors, including en bloc resections of the sciatic notch and composite resections of the first two sacral vertebrae. Despite limited experience, these new techniques offer the potential for radical treatment of previously inoperable tumors. This narrative review sets out the challenges facing the management of LARCs and discusses evolving management options. Keywords: rectal cancer, exenteration, pelvic sidewall, sacrectomy

  7. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses and accessi......This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses...... and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  8. Rectal and colon cancer : Not just a different anatomic site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamas, K.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.; de Vries, E. G. E.; van Vugt, M. A. T. M.; Beets-Tan, R. G.; van Etten, B.; de Groot, D. J. A.; Hospers, G. A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Due to differences in anatomy, primary rectal and colon cancer require different staging procedures, different neo-adjuvant treatment and different surgical approaches. For example, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is administered solely for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy and total

  9. MRI Findings of Rectal Submucosal Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hon Soul; Kim, Joo Hee; Lim, Joon Seok; Choi, Jin Young; Chung, Yong Eun; Park, Mi Suk; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Sang Kyum [Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Rectal submucosal lesions encompass a wide variety of benign and malignant tumors involving the rectum. With optical colonoscopy, any mass-like protrusion covered by normal mucosa, whether the underlying process is intramural or extramural in origin, may be reported as a submucosal lesion. Whereas the assessment of submucosal lesions may be limited with performing optical colonoscopy, cross-sectional imaging such as CT, transrectal ultrasonography and MRI allows the evaluation of perirectal tissues and pelvic organs in addition to the entire thickness of the rectum, and so this is advantageous for the assessment of rectal submucosal tumors. Among these, MRI is the best investigative modality for soft tissue characterization. Therefore, knowledge of the MRI features of rectal submucosal tumors can help achieve accurate preoperative diagnoses and facilitate the appropriate management.

  10. National and international guidelines for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L B J; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Rectal cancer is a common malignancy. Differences in daily practice may influence the morbidity and mortality, and many national and international organizations have created guidelines for staging and treatment of rectal cancer. Even though consensus is reached within individual guidelines......, this might not be the case between guidelines. No formal evaluation of the contrasting guidance has been reported. METHOD: A systematic search for national and international guidelines on rectal cancer was performed. Eleven guidelines were identified for further analysis. RESULTS: There was no consensus...... excision (TME). There was no consensus concerning local treatment of T1 tumours and adjuvant therapy, and not all guidelines included metastatic disease and recurrence. There was no consensus on the protocol for follow up. The guidelines had different approaches to evidence. All referred to evidence...

  11. Masquerading Mycobacterium: Rectal Growth or Tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabajit Choudhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year old male presented to us with history of lower abdominal pain for 6 months. His physical examination revealed a rectal mass of approximately 1centimeter. He was investigated for possible rectal growth with sigmoidoscopy and biopsy. The histopathological examination (HPE showed a non-specific chronic inflammation in the tissue from the mass. Another tissue from the mass was sent for polymerase chain reaction (PCR for tuberculosis, which turned out to be positive. The patient was started on standard anti tubercular (ATT regimen and responded completely to the treatment. We discuss the patient and review some of the available literature on the topic and discuss the issue of considering a diagnosis of tuberculosis in cases with rectal mass specially when it has become a major public health issue with increasing number of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected patients.

  12. Rectal cancer treatment: Improving the picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approach for rectal cancer treatment is currently well defined. Nevertheless, new and promising advances are enriching the portrait. Since the US NIH Consensus in the early 90's some new characters have been added. A bird's-eye view along the last decade shows the main milestones in the development of rectal cancer treatment protocols. New drugs, in combination with radiotherapy are being tested to increase response and tumor control outcomes. However, therapeutic intensity is often associated with toxicity. Thus, innovative strategies are needed to create a better-balanced therapeutic ratio. Molecular targeted therapies and improved technology for delivering radiotherapy respond to the need for accuracy and precision in rectal cancer treatment.

  13. Temporal Arthery Thermometer versus Cenventional Rectal Thermometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Hanne; Maschmann, Christian Peter

    equipment for measuring body temperature is necessary. Various non-invasive and easily used digital thermometers are available including the Temporal Artery Thermometer (TAT). However, there is lack of evidence for using the TAT-measurement as an accurate non-invasive method for measuring body temperature....... Methods: We designed a prospective comparative study of body temperature measurements using the TAT (Exergen TAT-5000 fra Exergen Corporation, Watertown, Massachusett) and a conventional digital rectal thermometer (Omron MC-341-E, OMRON healtcare Europe B.V., Hoofddroop, Holland), respectively...... and negative predictive value was 63.2% (CI: 46.0–78.2) and 96.5% (CL: 94.0–98.2), respectively. Conclusions: The study showed inacceptable wide temperature deviation between measurements performed with the TAT compared with the rectal measurements being performed with a conventional rectal thermometer...

  14. Primary Transanal Management of Rectal Atresia in a Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Braiek; A, Ksia; I, Krichen; S, Belhassen; K, Maazoun; S, Ben Youssef; N, Kechiche; M, Mekki; A, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Rectal atresia (RA) with a normal anus is a rare anomaly. We describe a case of rectal atresia in a newborn male presenting with an abdominal distension and failure of passing meconium. The rectal atresia was primarily operated by transanal route.

  15. Massive zosteriform cutaneous metastasis from rectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damin, D C; Lazzaron, A R; Tarta, C; Cartel, A; Rosito, M A

    2003-07-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a large and rapidly growing skin lesion approximately six months after resection of a rectal carcinoma. The lesion measured 40 cm in size, extended from the suprapubic area to the proximal half of the left groin, and showed a particular zosteriform aspect. Biopsy confirmed a metastatic skin adenocarcinoma. Cutaneous metastases from rectal cancer are very uncommon. Their gross appearance is not distinctive, although the skin tumors are usually solid, small (less than 5 cm) and painless nodules or papules. Early biopsies for suspicious skin lesions are needed in patients with a history of colorectal cancer.

  16. VMAT planning study in rectal cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Jun; Kong, Wei; Wang, Yan-Yang; Ding, Zhe; Yan, Gang; Zhe, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the dosimetric differences among fixed field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (SA-VMAT) and double-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (DA-VMAT) plans in rectal cancer. Method Fifteen patients with rectal cancer previously treated with IMRT in our institution were selected for this study. For each patient, three plans were generated with the planning CT scan: one using a fixed beam IMRT, and two plans using the VM...

  17. Clinical study on treatment of rectal carcinoma with Chinese herbal medicine and high dose fluorouracil emulsion via rectal infusion.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨光

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of rectal infusion of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) plus high dose fluorouracil emulsion in treating rectal carcinoma. Methods: 86 patients of rectal carcinoma were randomly divided into CHM plus chemotherapy group and single chemotherapy group, and the

  18. Hemangioma colorretal Colon rectal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Pinheiro Barreto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O hemangioma colorretal (HCR é uma lesão vascular benigna rara, com manifestação clínica geralmente entre 5 e 25 anos de idade. Faz parte do diagnóstico diferencial das causas de hemorragia digestiva baixa, sendo confundido, na maioria das vezes, com entidades mais comuns, como hemorróidas e doenças inflamatórias intestinais. O retardo do diagnóstico ocorre freqüentemente devido ao desconhecimento da doença, com taxas de mortalidade alcançando 40 a 50% na presença de sangramento importante. O caso relatado é de uma paciente de 17 anos de idade, admitida no Serviço de Colo-proctologia do Hospital Universitário - HUUFMA, em setembro de 2005, com anemia e sangramento retal, desde a infância, de forma intermitente e não dolorosa. Apresentado sua história clínica e propedêutica diagnóstica, realizada por meio de exames laboratoriais, endoscopia digestiva alta, colonoscopia e arteriografia de mesentéricas e ilíacas internas. O tratamento cirúrgico realizado foi retossigmoidectomia convencional com anastomose colorretal baixa, com boa evolução pós-operatória, tendo o exame histopatológico da peça cirúrgica ressecada, confirmado o diagnostico.The colon and rectum hemangioma is a rare benign vascular lesion, with clinical features usually between 5 and 25 years of age. It is included in the differential diagnose of the lower digestive bleeding causes, and has been frequently misdiagnosed with other more common entities, like hemorrhoids and bowel inflammatory disease. The late diagnose occurs usually because of the rarity of the disease, with mortality rates reaching 40 to 50% in presence of severe bleeding. We report a case of a 17 years old girl who was admitted at the Coloproctology Service of the Academic Hospital - HUUFMA, in September 2005, with anemia and intermittent rectal bleeding since childhood. Laboratorial findings included laboratorial exams, GI endoscopy, colonoscopy and arteriography of mesenteric and

  19. Expression and role of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma and its relationship with invasion and metastasis in rectal carcinoma.Materials S-P immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of Tie-2 in 40 cases of rectal carcinoma and 10 cases of normal rectal tissues.Results Tie-2 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of vascular endothelial cells in cancerous tissues and partly in the cytoplasm of some cancerous cells.The expression of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma was signi...

  20. Management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O

    2012-11-01

    Although well described, there is limited published data related to management on the coexistence of prostate and rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution\\'s experience with this and propose a treatment algorithm based on the best available evidence.

  1. Evidence and research in rectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentini, V.; Beets-Tan, R.; Borras, J.M.; Krivokapic, Z.; Leer, J.W.H.; Pahlman, L.; Rodel, C.; Schmoll, H.J.; Scott, N.; Velde, C.V.; Verfaillie, C.

    2008-01-01

    The main evidences of epidemiology, diagnostic imaging, pathology, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and follow-up are reviewed to optimize the routine treatment of rectal cancer according to a multidisciplinary approach. This paper reports on the knowledge shared between different specialists inv

  2. Current management of locally recurrent rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Bak; Laurberg, Søren; Holm, Thorbjörn

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: A review of the literature was undertaken to provide an overview of the surgical management of locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) after the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME). Method: A systematic literature search was undertaken using PubMed, Embase, Web...

  3. Surgery for local recurrence of rectal carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wiggers (Theo); M.R. de Vries (Mark); B. Veeze-Kuypers (Bernadette)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate results, especially mortality and morbidity, of surgical resection with curative intent for patients with a local recurrence of rectal cancer, in combination with radiotherapy. METHODS: Consecutive medical records of 163 patients with local re

  4. 'Microerosions' in rectal biopsies in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Small (less than 1 mm), superficial erosions ('microerosions') have been observed stereo-microscopically in surface-stained rectal biopsies in Crohn's disease (CD). Biopsy specimens from 97 patients with CD, 225 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and a control material of 161 patients were investigated...

  5. Management of rectal varices in portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Rectal varices are portosystemic collaterals that form asa complication of portal hypertension, their prevalencehas been reported as high as 94% in patients withextrahepatic portal vein obstruction. The diagnosis istypically based on lower endoscopy (colonoscopy orsigmoidoscopy). However, endoscopic ultrasonographyhas been shown to be superior to endoscopy in diagnosingrectal varices. Color Doppler ultrasonography isa better method because it allows the calculation of thevelocity of blood flow in the varices and can be used topredict the bleeding risk in the varices. Although rare,bleeding from rectal varices can be life threatening. Themanagement of patients with rectal variceal bleedingis not well established. It is important to ensurehemodynamic stability with blood transfusion and tocorrect any coagulopathy prior to treating the bleedingvarices. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy has beenreported to be more effective in the management ofactive bleeding from rectal varices with less rebleedingrate as compared to endoscopic band ligation. Transjugularintrahepatic portsystemic shunt alone or incombination with embolization is another method usedsuccessfully in control of bleeding. Balloon-occludedretrograde transvenous obliteration is an emergingprocedure for management of gastric varices that hasalso been successfully used to treat bleeding rectalvarices. Surgical procedures including suture ligationand porto-caval shunts are considered when othermethods have failed.

  6. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses toward disgusting stimuli – Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Croy, Ilona; Laqua, Kerstin; Süß, Frank; Joraschky, Peter; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors, or tactile stimuli. Therefore, disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared. A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory channel. Ratings ...

  7. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses toward disgusting stimuli—Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Croy, Ilona; Laqua, Kerstin; Süß, Frank; Joraschky, Peter; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors, or tactile stimuli. Therefore, disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared. A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory channel. Ratings ...

  8. Rectal cancer radiotherapy: Towards European consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, Vincenzo (Cattedra di Radioterapia, Univ. Cattolica S.Cuore, Rome (Italy)), E-mail: vvalentini@rm.unicatt.it; Glimelius, Bengt (Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    Background and purpose. During the first decade of the 21st century several important European randomized studies in rectal cancer have been published. In order to help shape clinical practice based on best scientific evidence, the International Conference on 'Multidisciplinary Rectal Cancer Treatment: Looking for an European Consensus' (EURECA-CC2) was organized. This article summarizes the consensus about imaging and radiotherapy of rectal cancer and gives an update until May 2010. Methods. Consensus was achieved using the Delphi method. Eight chapters were identified: epidemiology, diagnostics, pathology, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, treatment toxicity and quality of life, follow-up, and research questions. Each chapter was subdivided by topic, and a series of statements were developed. Each committee member commented and voted, sentence by sentence three times. Sentences which did not reach agreement after voting round no 2 were openly debated during the Conference in Perugia (Italy) December 2008. The Executive Committee scored percentage consensus based on three categories: 'large consensus', 'moderate consensus', 'minimum consensus'. Results. The total number of the voted sentences was 207. Of the 207, 86% achieved large consensus, 13% achieved moderate consensus, and only three (1%) resulted in minimum consensus. No statement was disagreed by more than 50% of members. All chapters were voted on by at least 75% of the members, and the majority was voted on by >85%. Considerable progress has been made in staging and treatment, including radiation treatment of rectal cancer. Conclusions. This Consensus Conference represents an expertise opinion process that may help shape future programs, investigational protocols, and guidelines for staging and treatment of rectal cancer throughout Europe. In spite of substantial progress, many research challenges remain

  9. HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    G, Amruth; S, Praveen-kumar; B, Nataraju; BS, Nagaraja

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities.

  10. Genetic variation in selenoprotein genes, lifestyle, and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Slattery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations between selenium and cancer have directed attention to role of selenoproteins in the carcinogenic process. METHODS: We used data from two population-based case-control studies of colon (n = 1555 cases, 1956 controls and rectal (n = 754 cases, 959 controls cancer. We evaluated the association between genetic variation in TXNRD1, TXNRD2, TXNRD3, C11orf31 (SelH, SelW, SelN1, SelS, SepX, and SeP15 with colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS: After adjustment for multiple comparisons, several associations were observed. Two SNPs in TXNRD3 were associated with rectal cancer (rs11718498 dominant OR 1.42 95% CI 1.16,1.74 pACT 0.0036 and rs9637365 recessive 0.70 95% CI 0.55,0.90 pACT 0.0208. Four SNPs in SepN1 were associated with rectal cancer (rs11247735 recessive OR 1.30 95% CI 1.04,1.63 pACT 0.0410; rs2072749 GGvsAA OR 0.53 95% CI 0.36,0.80 pACT 0.0159; rs4659382 recessive OR 0.58 95% CI 0.39,0.86 pACT 0.0247; rs718391 dominant OR 0.76 95% CI 0.62,0.94 pACT 0.0300. Interaction between these genes and exposures that could influence these genes showed numerous significant associations after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Two SNPs in TXNRD1 and four SNPs in TXNRD2 interacted with aspirin/NSAID to influence colon cancer; one SNP in TXNRD1, two SNPs in TXNRD2, and one SNP in TXNRD3 interacted with aspirin/NSAIDs to influence rectal cancer. Five SNPs in TXNRD2 and one in SelS, SeP15, and SelW1 interacted with estrogen to modify colon cancer risk; one SNP in SelW1 interacted with estrogen to alter rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs in this candidate pathway influenced survival after diagnosis with colon cancer (SeP15 and SepX1 increased HRR and rectal cancer (SepX1 increased HRR. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support an association between selenoprotein genes and colon and rectal cancer development and survival after diagnosis. Given the interactions observed, it is likely that the impact of cancer susceptibility from genotype is

  11. The rectal microbiota of cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and uninfected controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J S; Nichols, J; Jalali, M; Litster, A

    2015-10-22

    Rectal swabs were collected from 31 cats, 16 with FIV infection and 15 uninfected controls, to evaluate and compare the rectal bacterial microbiota in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection and uninfected controls. The rectal microbiota was characterized via next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene (V4 region) polymerase chain reaction products. Eighteen different phyla were identified. Firmicutes dominated in both groups, followed by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, but there were no significant differences between groups. When predominant orders are compared, FIV-infected cats had significant higher median relative abundances of Bifidobacteriales (P=0.022), Lactobacillales (P=0.022) and Aeromonadales (P=0.043). No differences were identified in the 50 most common genera when adjusted for false discovery rate. There were significant differences in community membership (Jaccard index, unifrac P=0.008, AMOVA Pmicrobiota differed between cats with FIV infection and uninfected controls. Some of the changes that were noted have been associated with 'dysbiosis' and proinflammatory states in other species, so it is possible that subclinical alteration in the intestinal microbiota could influence the health of FIV-infected cats. Evaluation of the reasons for microbiota alteration and the potential impact on cat health is required.

  12. Learning Curves in Robotic Rectal Cancer Surgery: A literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery offers several advantages over open surgery, including quicker recovery, shorter hospital stay and improved cosmesis. However, laparoscopic rectal surgery is technically difficult and is associated with a long learning curve. The last decade has seen the emergence of robotic rectal cancer surgery. In contrast to laparoscopy, robotic surgery offers stable 3D views with advanced dexterity and ergonomics in narrow spaces such as the pelvis. Whether this translates into a shorter learning curve is still debated. The aim of this literature search is to ascertain the learning curve of robotic rectal cancer surgery. Methods This review analyses the literature investigating the learning curve of robotic rectal cancer surgery. Using the Medline database a literature search of articles investigating the learning curve of robotic rectal surgery was performed. All relevant articles were included. Results Twelve original studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The current literature suggests that the learning curve of robotic rectal surgery varies between 15 and 44 cases and is probably shorter to that of laparoscopic rectal surgery. Conclusions There are only a few studies assessing the learning curve of robotic rectal surgery and they possess several differences in methodology and outcome reporting. Nevertheless, current evidence suggests that robotic rectal surgery might be easier to learn than laparoscopy. Further well designed studies applying CUSSUM analysis are required to validate this motion.

  13. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona eCroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction towards disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant’s disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  14. Improved survival after rectal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, S; Harling, H; Iversen, L H

    2010-01-01

    treated from 1994 to 2006. Method The study was based on the National Rectal Cancer Registry and the National Colorectal Cancer Database, supplemented with data from the Central Population Registry. The analysis included actuarial overall and relative survival. Results A total of 10 632 patients were......Objective In 1995, an analysis showed an inferior prognosis after rectal cancer in Denmark compared with the other Scandinavian countries. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) was established with the aim of improving the prognosis, and in this study we present a survival analysis of patients...... operated on. The overall 5-year survival increased from 0.37 in 1994 to 0.51% in 2006; the improvement was greater in men (20% points) than in women (10% points), and greatest in stage III (20% points). The relative 5-year survival increased from 0.46 to 0.62, including an improvement of 23% points in men...

  15. Transanal Evisceration Caused by Rectal Laceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Sánchez, María Teresa; Richart Aznar, Jose Manuel; Martí Martínez, Eva María; Martínez-Abad, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Transrectal evisceration caused by colorectal injury is an unusual entity. This pathology is more frequent in elderly patients and it is usually produced spontaneously. Rectal prolapse is the principal predisposing factor. An 81-year-old woman was taken to the hospital presenting exit of intestinal loops through the anus. After first reanimation measures, an urgent surgery was indicated. We observed the absence of almost every small intestine loop in the abdominal cavity; these had been moved to the pelvis. After doing the reduction, a 3 to 4 cm linear craniocaudal perforation in upper rectum was objectified, and Hartmann's procedure was performed. We investigated and knew that she frequently manipulate herself to extract her faeces. The fast preoperative management avoided a fatal conclusion or an extensive intestinal resection. Reasons that make us consider rectal self-injury as the etiologic factor are explained. PMID:24639971

  16. Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jin; LI Jiyou; YAO Yunfeng; LU Aiping; WANG Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish a tectal carcinoma with anal metastases from coexistent synchronous anorectal carcinomas.The therapeutic strategy for rectal and anal carcinoma is so different that it should be clearly identified.Here,we report on the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with an upper-third rectal adenocarcinoma.Five months after resection,he developed an adenocarcinoma in the anal canal.The histological slides of both tumors were reviewed and immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins(CKs)7 and 20 were performed.The index tumor demonstrated CK 7-/CK 20+and the second showed CK7+/CK20+.For this reason,we believe the present case had synchronous adenocarcinomas arising from anal canal and the rectum separately.It is very important to difierentiate the anorectal lesions pathologically because of the impact on the therapeutic options available,especially for the lesion arising in the anal canal.

  17. Technological advances in radiotherapy of rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the available evidence for the use of modern radiotherapy techniques for chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, with specific focus on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: The dosimetric....... Overall results are encouraging, as toxicity levels - although varying across reports - appear lower than for 3D conformal radiotherapy. Innovative treatment techniques and strategies which may be facilitated by the use of IMRT/VMAT include simultaneously integrated tumour boost, adaptive treatment...

  18. Increasing trend in retained rectal foreign bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayantunde, Abraham A; Unluer, Zynep

    2016-01-01

    AIM To highlight the rising trend in hospital presentation of foreign bodies retained in the rectum over a 5-year period. METHODS Retrospective review of the cases of retained rectal foreign bodies between 2008 and 2012 was performed. Patients’ clinical data and yearly case presentation with data relating to hospital episodes were collected. Data analysis was by SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, United States. RESULTS Twenty-five patients presented over a 5-year period with a mean age of 39 (17-62) years and M: F ratio of 2:1. A progressive rise in cases was noted from 2008 to 2012 with 3, 4, 4, 6, 8 recorded patients per year respectively. The majority of the impacted rectal objects were used for self-/partner-eroticism. The commonest retained foreign bodies were sex vibrators and dildos. Ninty-six percent of the patients required extraction while one passed spontaneously. Two and three patients had retrieval in the Emergency Department and on the ward respectively while 19 patients needed examination under anaesthesia for extraction. The mean hospital stay was 19 (2-38) h. Associated psychosocial issues included depression, deliberate self-harm, illicit drug abuse, anxiety and alcoholism. There were no psychosocial problems identified in 15 patients. CONCLUSION There is a progressive rise in hospital presentation of impacted rectal foreign bodies with increasing use of different objects for sexual arousal. PMID:27830039

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology of rectal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, R; Rajwanshi, A; Wig, J D; Gupta, N M; Kesiezie, V; Bhasin, D K; Malik, A K; Gupta, S K; Mehta, S K

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the results of transproctoscopic fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of rectal lesions. Fifty one consecutive patients referred with a presumptive diagnosis of rectal mass were subjected to proctoscopic examination when fine needle aspiration cytology, brush cytology and biopsy samples were taken. Of the 30 patients of malignancy of rectum in whom all the three sampling techniques were applied, the biopsy was positive in 27 (90%), brush cytology in 25 (83.3%) and fine needle aspiration cytology in 29 (96.6%). A combination of fine needle aspiration cytology with brush cytology gave a positive yield in 96.6% while that fine needle aspiration cytology with brush cytology gave a yield of 100%. Fine needle aspiration cytology was most helpful in infiltrative tumours. All 10 patients with secondaries in the pouch of Douglas or rectovesical pouch, and the single patient with submucosal rectal carcinoma were correctly diagnosed at fine needle aspiration cytology. There were no false positive results with fine needle aspiration cytology and no complications were encountered with the procedure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2323600

  20. Cortical network reorganization guided by sensory input features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgard, Michael P; Pandya, Pritesh K; Engineer, Navzer D; Moucha, Raluca

    2002-12-01

    Sensory experience alters the functional organization of cortical networks. Previous studies using behavioral training motivated by aversive or rewarding stimuli have demonstrated that cortical plasticity is specific to salient inputs in the sensory environment. Sensory experience associated with electrical activation of the basal forebrain (BasF) generates similar input specific plasticity. By directly engaging plasticity mechanisms and avoiding extensive behavioral training, BasF stimulation makes it possible to efficiently explore how specific sensory features contribute to cortical plasticity. This review summarizes our observations that cortical networks employ a variety of strategies to improve the representation of the sensory environment. Different combinations of receptive-field, temporal, and spectrotemporal plasticity were generated in primary auditory cortex neurons depending on the pitch, modulation rate, and order of sounds paired with BasF stimulation. Simple tones led to map expansion, while modulated tones altered the maximum cortical following rate. Exposure to complex acoustic sequences led to the development of combination-sensitive responses. This remodeling of cortical response characteristics may reflect changes in intrinsic cellular mechanisms, synaptic efficacy, and local neuronal connectivity. The intricate relationship between the pattern of sensory activation and cortical plasticity suggests that network-level rules alter the functional organization of the cortex to generate the most behaviorally useful representation of the sensory environment.

  1. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; HAGHIGHAT, MAHMOOD

    2012-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign and chronic disorder well known in young adults and less in children. It is often related to prolonged excessive straining or abnormal defecation and clinically presents as rectal bleeding, copious mucus discharge, feeling of incomplete defecation, and rarely rectal prolapse. SRUS is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histological findings. The current treatments are suboptimal, and despite correct diagnosis, outcomes can ...

  2. Screening for a raised rectal temperature in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R.J.; O'Dempsey, T J; Greenwood, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare rectal and axillary temperature measurements in African children. Altogether 573 sick children were seen in an outpatient setting in rural West Africa. Rectal and axillary temperatures were measured and the parent or guardian was asked if they thought that the child had a raised body temperature. Normal ranges were defined from an age matched population of 203 healthy children. A raised axillary temperature predicted a raised rectal temperature wi...

  3. Patterns of metastasis in colon and rectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Matias Riihimäki; Akseli Hemminki; Jan Sundquist; Kari Hemminki

    2016-01-01

    Investigating epidemiology of metastatic colon and rectal cancer is challenging, because cancer registries seldom record metastatic sites. We used a population based approach to assess metastatic spread in colon and rectal cancers. 49,096 patients with colorectal cancer were identified from the nationwide Swedish Cancer Registry. Metastatic sites were identified from the National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. Rectal cancer more frequently metastasized into thoracic organs (OR ...

  4. Complete perineal tear with rectal prolapse: an unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sima; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Ganguly, Rajendra Prasad; Patra, Kajal Kumar

    2007-09-01

    The association of complete perineal tear and rectal prolapse is less reported in literature, although isolated complete perineal tear and the combinations of vaginal and rectal prolapse are not so unusual, where multiparity and unsupervised home deliveries are quiet common. An interesting case of long standing complete perineal tear with complete rectal prolapse is reported in a 60 years old lady along with review of literature, discussing the management and follow-up of the condition.

  5. Rectal motility after sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, H B; Worsøe, J; Krogh, K;

    2010-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is effective against faecal incontinence, but the mode of action is obscure. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of SNS on fasting and postprandial rectal motility. Sixteen patients, 14 women age 33-73 (mean 58), with faecal incontinence of various...... contractions, total time with cyclic rectal contractions, the number of aborally and orally propagating contractions, the number of anal sampling reflexes or rectal wall tension during contractions. Postprandial changes in rectal tone were significantly reduced during SNS (P

  6. Alteración diurna de la carga calórica corporal e interrelación de las temperaturas rectal y láctea en vacas cruzadas (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Pardo Suizo y Holstein bajo estrés calórico diurno durante la época seca en el clima tropical húmedo - Daytime alteration of body heat load and relationship between rectal and milk temperatures in crossbred (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Brown Swiss and Holstein lactating cows under heat stress during summer time in the humid tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araúz, E. E.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas temperaturas rectal y de la secreción láctea y la carga calóricacorporal fueron evaluadas en 191 vacas en lactación (cruzadas 6/8Pardo Suizo x 2/8 Cebú y 6/8 Holstein x 2/8 Cebú: 27; Pardo Suizo:131; y Holstein: 33; bajo estrés calórico diurno en la época secadistribuidas entre 45 y 1064 msnm; con el objetivo de establecer laalteración diurna y su interrelación según el grupo genético y el grado de sensibilidad calórica.SummaryRectal and milk temperatures were measured in the afternoon (2 PM to4 PM in 191 lactating dairy cows (6/8 Brown Swiss x 2/8 Zebu and 6/8Holstein x 2/8 Zebu: 27, Brown Swiss: 131 and Holstein: 33 underheat stress in the tropical environment to evaluate daytime alterationof body heat load and establish the relationship between rectal andmilk temperature.

  7. Stapled transanal rectal resection for obstructed defecation syndrome associated with rectocele and rectal intussusception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the safety and efficacy of stapled transanal rectal resection(STARR),and to analyze the outcome of the patients 12-mo after the operation.METHODS:From May 2007 to October 2008,50 female patients with rectocele and/or rectal intussusception underwent STARR.The preoperative status,perioperative and postoperative complications at baseline,3,6 and 12-mo were assessed.Data were collected prospectively from standardized questionnaires for the assessment of constipation[constipation scoring system,...

  8. Quality of life in rectal cancer surgery: What do the patientask?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer surgery has dramatically changed withthe introduction of the total mesorectal excision (TME),which has demonstrated to significantly reduce therisk of local recurrence. The combination of TME withradiochemotherapy has led to a reduction of local failureto less than 5%. On the other hand, surgery for rectalcancer is also impaired by the potential for a significantloss in quality of life. This is a new challenge surgeonsshould think about nowadays If patients live more,they also want to live better. The fight against cancercannot only be based on survival, recurrence rate andother oncological endpoints. Patients are also askingfor a decent quality of life. Rectal cancer is probably aparadigmatic example: Its treatment is often associatedwith the loss or severe impairment of faecal function,alteration of body anatomy, urogenital problems and,sometimes, intractable pain. The evolution of laparoscopiccolorectal surgery in the last decades is animportant example, which emphasizes the importancethat themes like scar, recovery, pain and quality of lifemight play for patients. The attention to quality of lifefrom both patients and surgeons led to several surgicalinnovations in the treatment of rectal cancer: Sphinctersaving procedures, reservoir techniques (pouch andcoloplasty) to mitigate postoperative faecal disorders,nerve-sparing techniques to reduce the risk for sexualdysfunction. Even more conservative procedures havebeen proposed alternatively to the abdominal-perinealresection, like the local excisions or transanal endoscopicmicrosurgery, till the possibility of a wait and seeapproach in selected cases after radiation therapy.

  9. MicroRNA in rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azadeh Azizian; Jens Gruber; B Michael Ghadimi; Jochen Gaedcke

    2016-01-01

    In rectal cancer,one of the most common cancers worldwide,the proper staging of the disease determines the subsequent therapy.For those with locally advancedrectal cancer,a neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy(CRT) is recommended before any surgery.However,response to CRT ranges from complete response(responders) to complete resistance(non-responders).To date we are not able to separate in advance the first group from the second,due to the absence of a valid biomarker.Therefore all patients receive the same therapy regardless of whether they reap benefits.On the other hand almost all patients receive a surgical resection after the CRT,although a watch-and-wait procedure or an endoscopic resection might be sufficient for those who responded well to the CRT.Being highly conserved regulators of gene expression,micro RNAs(mi RNAs) seem to be promising candidates for biomarkers.Many studies have been analyzing the mi RNAs expressed in rectal cancer tissue to determine a specific mi RNA profile for the ailment.Unfortunately,there is only a small overlap of identified mi RNAs between different studies,posing the question as to whether different methods or differences in tissue storage may contribute to that fact or if the results simply are not reproducible,due to unknown factors with undetected influences on mi RNA expression.Other studies sought to find mi RNAs which correlate to clinical parameters(tumor grade,nodal stage,metastasis,survival) and therapy response.Although several mi RNAs seem to have an impact on the response to CRT or might predict nodal stage,there is still only little overlap between different studies.We here aimed to summarize the current literature on rectal cancer and mi RNA expression with respect to the different relevant clinical parameters.

  10. Laparoscopic Rectopexy in Solitary Rectal Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Salmanroughani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome (SRUS come to a physician with passage of mucus and bloody liquid within defecation. The treatment for SRUS is depended to the severity of symptoms and the existance of rectal prolapse. This study is a report of the assessing of rectopexy as surgical modalities for 62 medical treatment resistant SRUS patients who were referred to the gastrointestinal department of Shahid Sadoughi Medical University and Mojibian hospital. The present non-randomized clinical trial was carried out in 62 SRUS patients from 1991 till 2005. In these patients SRUS was confirmed by histology. They were symptomatic after conservative therapy and referred for surgical intervention. All of them had been undergone abdominal rectopexy by two laparoscopic surgeons. In our study, rectal bleeding and history of digitalization had the highest and lowest frequency of symptoms and signs in our cases respectively. Abdominal rectopexy was done in 39 cases and complete recovery in our cases was 69.23%. Complete recovery rate in cases with dysplasia (63.8% was significantly higher than cases without that (P=0.04. Complete recovery rate in cases that had finger defecation (85% was significantly higher than cases without that (50% (P=0.03. Laparoscopic rectopexy is one of the main surgical techniques for treatment of SRUS. This technique can present complete recovery for SRUS patients. Some of them include topical medications, behavior modification supplemented by fiber and biofeedback and surgery were more available and studied. But it seems that education of SRUS patient conservative treatment remain cornerstone in the SRUS management.

  11. [Local excision of giant rectal polypoid neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimitan, Andrea; Burza, Antonio; Basile, Ursula; Saputo, Serena; Mingazzini, Pietro; Stipa, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Local excision is the best therapeutic option for giant adenomas of the rectum. Parks technique for lower rectal lesions and the T.E.M. technique for lesions localised in the middle and upper rectum offer exceptionally good exposure, allowing radical excision in the case of early low-risk T1 adenocarcinomas (well or moderately differentiated [G1/2] without lymphovascular invasion [L0]). From July 1987 to March 2006, 224 patients were treated by local excision for rectal lesions in our department. In 48 patients (21.4%) a large sessile benign lesion was diagnosed preoperatively. In 3 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of severe dysplasia (Tis) final pathology showed adenoma and for this reason they were included in our study group. A total of 51 patients with giant preoperative benign lesions were treated by local excision (Parks technique, T.E.M. or both). Twenty-five (49%) patients had a definitive diagnosis of adenocarcinoma: in situ (pTis) in 22 patients (88%), pT1 in 2 patients (8%) and pT2 in 1 patient (4%). In 26 patients (51%) the diagnosis was adenoma. The overall local recurrence rate was 9.8% (5/51); the recurrence rate was 7.6% (2/26) for adenomas and 12% (3/25) for carcinomas. The median hospital stay was 7 days (range 3-39). There was no operative mortality. Giant sessile polypoid lesions localized in the middle and upper rectum are best treated with T.E.M., while Parks technique is a good option in lower rectal tumours. These techniques, if correctly indicated and well performed, offer great advantages in terms of safety and radicality. In our experience the operative mortality was nil and the morbidity and recurrence rates were low.

  12. Current trends in staging rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdus Samee; Chelliah Ramachandran Selvasekar

    2011-01-01

    Management of rectal cancer has evolved over the years.In this condition preoperative investigations assist in deciding the optimal treatment.The relation of the tumor edge to the circumferential margin (CRM) is an important factor in deciding the need for neoadjuvant treatment and determines the prognosis.Those with threatened or involved margins are offered long course chemoradiation to enable R0 surgical resection.Endoanal ultrasound (EUS) is useful for tumor (T) staging;hence EUS is a useful imaging modality for early rectal cancer.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful for assessing the mesorectum and the mesorectal fascia which has useful prognostic significance and for early identification of local recurrence.Computerized tomography (CT) of the chest,abdomen and pelvis is used to rule out distant metastasis.Identification of the malignant nodes using EUS,CT and MRI is based on the size,morphology and internal characteristics but has drawbacks.Most of the common imaging techniques are suboptimal for imaging following chemoradiation as they struggle to differentiate fibrotic changes and tumor.In this situation,EUS and MRI may provide complementary information to decide further treatment.Functional imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) is useful,particularly PET/CT fusion scans to identify areas of the functionally hot spots.In the current state,imaging has enabled the multidisciplinary team of surgeons,oncologists,radiologists and pathologists to decide on the patient centered management of rectal cancer.In future,functional imaging may play an active role in identifying patients with lymph node metastasis and those with residual and recurrent disease following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

  13. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    OpenAIRE

    Axelrod Felicia B; Gold-von Simson Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that iden...

  14. Challenges in the multimodality treatment of rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swellengrebel, Hendrik Albert Maurits

    2013-01-01

    Remaining questions and current goals in the treatment of rectal cancer include optimizing staging accuracy, establishing the optimal neoadjuvant strategy to be implemented in the different stages of rectal cancer and possibly leading to the evidence-based introduction of organ sparing and non-opera

  15. Rectal prolapse: in search of the holy grail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, Jan Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of (internal and external) rectal prolapse (IRP/ERP), and its affiliated rectocele and enterocele, has become an increasingly important part of health care over the years. Although benign, rectal prolapse is associated with a myriad of debilitating symptoms including fecal incontinence

  16. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer (COLOR II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Pas, Martijn Hgm; Haglind, Eva; Cuesta, Miguel A;

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery as an alternative to open surgery in patients with rectal cancer has not yet been shown to be oncologically safe. The aim in the COlorectal cancer Laparoscopic or Open Resection (COLOR II) trial was to compare laparoscopic and open surgery in patients with rectal cancer....

  17. Rectal perforation with an intrauterine device: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichengreen, Courtney; Landwehr, Haley; Goldthwaite, Lisa; Tocce, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented for routine examination 1 year after intrauterine device (IUD) placement; strings were not visualized. The device was found to be penetrating through the rectal mucosa. It was removed easily through the rectum during an examination under anesthesia. Perforated IUDs with rectal involvement require thoughtful surgical planning to optimize outcomes.

  18. Management of locally advanced primary and recurrent rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.W. de Wilt (Johannes); M. Vermaas (Maarten); F.T.J. Ferenschild (Floris); C. Verhoef (Kees)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTreatment for patients with locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer differs significantly from patients with rectal cancer restricted to the mesorectum. Adequate preoperative imaging of the pelvis is therefore important to identify those patients who are candidates for multimodality

  19. [Pathophysiology of sensory ataxic neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, G

    1996-12-01

    The main lesions of sensory ataxic neuropathy such as chronic idiopathic sensory ataxic neuropathy, (ISAN), carcinomatous neuropathy, Sjögren syndrome-associated neuropathy and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy (AASN) are the large-diameter sensory neurons and dosal column of the spinal cord and the large myelinated fibers in the peripheral nerve trunks. In addition, afferent fibers to the Clarke's nuclei are also severely involved, suggesting Ia fibers being involved in these neuropathies. In NT-3 knockout mouse, an animal model of sensory ataxia, large-sized la neurons as well as muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organs are depleted, and are causative for sensory ataxia. Thus, the proprioceptive Ia neurons would play a role in pathogenesis of sensory ataxia in human sensory ataxic neuropathies, but the significance of dorsal column involvement in human sensory ataxia is still needed to evaluate.

  20. Rectal and appendiceal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddami, Maliheh; Sanae, Shahram; Nikkhoo, Bahram

    2006-07-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are neoplasms characterized by spindle cell proliferation and a fiboinflammatory vascular stroma. Herein, we presented the successful treatment of a rectal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in an 11-year-old boy who presented with diarrhea and abdominal pain of 1(1/2) months duration and an appendiceal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a 29-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain of two months duration with associated tenderness and rebound tenderness in the right lower abdomen. Histologically, our cases had inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors very similar to that of other sites; the spindle cells were positive for vimentin and muscle-specific actin.

  1. Cryptogenic sensory polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause, and are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms progress slowly. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable, as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain and physical therapy for balance training, and, occasionally, assistive devices.

  2. Predictive Biomarkers to Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Conde-Muíño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a high local recurrence rate in rectal cancer. Besides improvements in surgical techniques, both neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiation improve oncological results. Approximately 40–60% of rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation achieve some degree of pathologic response. However, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond to neoadjuvant treatment. Recent studies have evaluated the potential of genetic biomarkers to predict outcome in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The articles produced by the PubMed search were reviewed for those specifically addressing a genetic profile’s ability to predict response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer. Although tissue gene microarray profiling has led to promising data in cancer, to date, none of the identified signatures or molecular markers in locally advanced rectal cancer has been successfully validated as a diagnostic or prognostic tool applicable to routine clinical practice.

  3. Predictive Biomarkers to Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Muíño, Raquel; Cuadros, Marta; Zambudio, Natalia; Segura-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Cano, Carlos; Palma, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There has been a high local recurrence rate in rectal cancer. Besides improvements in surgical techniques, both neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiation improve oncological results. Approximately 40-60% of rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation achieve some degree of pathologic response. However, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond to neoadjuvant treatment. Recent studies have evaluated the potential of genetic biomarkers to predict outcome in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The articles produced by the PubMed search were reviewed for those specifically addressing a genetic profile's ability to predict response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer. Although tissue gene microarray profiling has led to promising data in cancer, to date, none of the identified signatures or molecular markers in locally advanced rectal cancer has been successfully validated as a diagnostic or prognostic tool applicable to routine clinical practice.

  4. Immunological Landscape and Clinical Management of Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elísabeth ePérez-Ruiz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical management of rectal cancer and colon cancer differs due to increased local relapses in rectal cancer. However, the current molecular classification does not differentiate rectal cancer and colon cancer as two different entities. In recent years, the impact of the specific immune microenvironment in cancer has attracted renewed interest, and is currently recognized as one of the major determinants of clinical progression in a wide range of tumors. In colorectal cancer, the density of lymphocytic infiltration is associated with better overall survival. Due to the need for biomarkers of response to conventional treatment with chemoradiotherapy in rectal tumors, the immune status of rectal cancer emerges as a useful tool to improve the management of patients.

  5. Rectal dexmedetomidine in rats: evaluation of sedative and mucosal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hanci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the anesthetic and mucosal effects of the rectal application of dexmedetomidine to rats. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats weighing 250-300 g were divided into four groups: Group S (n = 8 was a sham group that served as a baseline for the normal basal values; Group C (n = 8 consisted of rats that received the rectal application of saline alone; Group IPDex (n = 8 included rats that received the intraperitoneal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1; and Group RecDex (n = 8 included rats that received the rectal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1. For the rectal drug administration, we used 22 G intravenous cannulas with the stylets removed. We administered the drugs by advancing the cannula 1 cm into the rectum, and the rectal administration volume was 1 mL for all the rats. The latency and anesthesia time (min were measured. Two hours after rectal administration, 75 mg kg-1 ketamine was administered for intraperitoneal anesthesia in all the groups, followed by the removal of the rats' rectums to a distal distance of 3 cm via an abdominoperineal surgical procedure. We histopathologically examined and scored the rectums. RESULTS: Anesthesia was achieved in all the rats in the Group RecDex following the administration of dexmedetomidine. The onset of anesthesia in the Group RecDex was significantly later and of a shorter duration than in the Group IPDEx (p < 0.05. In the Group RecDex, the administration of dexmedetomidine induced mild-moderate losses of mucosal architecture in the colon and rectum, 2 h after rectal inoculation. CONCLUSION: Although 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine administered rectally to rats achieved a significantly longer duration of anesthesia compared with the rectal administration of saline, our histopathological evaluations showed that the rectal administration of 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine led to mild-moderate damage to the mucosal structure of the

  6. Laparoscopic rectopexy for solitary rectal ulcer syndrome without overt rectal prolapse: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menekse, Ebru; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Karateke, Faruk; Ozyazici, Sefa; Demirturk, Pelin; Kuvvetli, Adnan

    2014-02-20

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a rare clinical entity. Several treatment options has been described. However, there is no consensus yet on treatment algorithm and standard surgical procedure. Rectopexy is one of the surgical options and it is generally performed in patients with solitary rectal ulcer accompanied with overt prolapse. Various outcomes have been reported for rectopexy in the patients with occult prolapse or rectal intussusception. In the literature; outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection rectopexy procedure have been reported in the limited number of case or case series. No study has emphasized the outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection rectopexy procedure in the patients with solitary rectal ulcer without overt prolapse. In this report we aimed to present clinical outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection posterior suture rectopexy procedure in a 21-year-old female patient with solitary rectal ulcer without overt prolapse.

  7. Laparoscopic rectopexy for solitary rectal ulcer syndrome without overt rectal prolapse. A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menekse, Ebru; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Karateke, Faruk; Ozyazici, Sefa; Demirturk, Pelin; Kuvvetli, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a rare clinical entity. Several treatment options has been described. However, there is no consensus yet on treatment algorithm and standard surgical procedure. Rectopexy is one of the surgical options and it is generally performed in patients with solitary rectal ulcer accompanied with overt prolapse. Various outcomes have been reported for rectopexy in the patients with occult prolapse or rectal intussusception. In the literature; outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection rectopexy procedure have been reported in the limited number of case or case series. No study has emphasized the outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection rectopexy procedure in the patients with solitary rectal ulcer without overt prolapse. In this report we aimed to present clinical outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection posterior suture rectopexy procedure in a 21-year-old female patient with solitary rectal ulcer without overt prolapse.

  8. Transcendence and Sensoriness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Protestant theology and culture are known for a reserved, at times skeptical, attitude to the use of art and aesthetic forms of expression in a religious context. In Transcendence and Sensoriness, this attitude is analysed and discussed both theoretically and through case studies considered...

  9. Rectal HSV-2 Infection May Increase Rectal SIV Acquisition Even in the Context of SIVΔnef Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Pérez, Natalia; Aravantinou, Meropi; Veglia, Filippo; Goode, Diana; Truong, Rosaline; Derby, Nina; Blanchard, James; Grasperge, Brooke; Gettie, Agegnehu; Robbiani, Melissa; Martinelli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Prevalent HSV-2 infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition both in men and women even in asymptomatic subjects. Understanding the impact of HSV-2 on the mucosal microenvironment may help to identify determinants of susceptibility to HIV. Vaginal HSV-2 infection increases the frequency of cells highly susceptible to HIV in the vaginal tissue of women and macaques and this correlates with increased susceptibility to vaginal SHIV infection in macaques. However, the effect of rectal HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition remains understudied. We developed a model of rectal HSV-2 infection in macaques in combination with rectal SIVmac239Δnef (SIVΔnef) vaccination and our results suggest that rectal HSV-2 infection may increase the susceptibility of macaques to rectal SIVmac239 wild-type (wt) infection even in SIVΔnef-infected animals. Rectal SIVΔnef infection/vaccination protected 7 out of 7 SIVΔnef-infected macaques from SIVmac239wt rectal infection (vs 12 out of 16 SIVΔnef-negative macaques), while 1 out of 3 animals co-infected with SIVΔnef and HSV-2 acquired SIVmac239wt infection. HSV-2/SIVmac239wt co-infected animals had increased concentrations of inflammatory factors in their plasma and rectal fluids and a tendency toward higher acute SIVmac239wt plasma viral load. However, they had higher blood CD4 counts and reduced depletion of CCR5+ CD4+ T cells compared to SIVmac239wt-only infected animals. Thus, rectal HSV-2 infection generates a pro-inflammatory environment that may increase susceptibility to rectal SIV infection and may impact immunological and virological parameters during acute SIV infection. Studies with larger number of animals are needed to confirm these findings.

  10. Health-related Quality of Life after complex rectal surgery for primary advanced rectal cancer and locally recurrent rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Henriette Vind

    2013-01-01

    L after treatment with COMP-RCS. Seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Different aspects of HRQoL seemed to be impaired for a shorter or longer period of time after surgery, in disease free patients treated for PARC and LRRC. However, the included studies all had methodological problems, which...... in the study was 164 (86%) patients treated with standard rectal cancer surgery (STAN-RCS). The Danish version showed satisfactory psychometric properties for the scales concerning body image, sexual functioning, male sexual problems and defecations problems. Reduced psychometric properties were found....... The majority of the scales improved or remained stable during the first year after surgery, a decrease was seen only for body image. One year after surgery HRQoL in patients with COMP-RSC was comparable to patients with STAN-RCS and NORM-data with exception of a poorer physical and emotional role function...

  11. Rectal and colon cancer: Not just a different anatomic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, K; Walenkamp, A M E; de Vries, E G E; van Vugt, M A T M; Beets-Tan, R G; van Etten, B; de Groot, D J A; Hospers, G A P

    2015-09-01

    Due to differences in anatomy, primary rectal and colon cancer require different staging procedures, different neo-adjuvant treatment and different surgical approaches. For example, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is administered solely for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer might be responsible in part for the differing effect of adjuvant systemic treatment on overall survival, which is more evident in colon cancer than in rectal cancer. Apart from anatomic divergences, rectal and colon cancer also differ in their embryological origin and metastatic patterns. Moreover, they harbor a different composition of drug targets, such as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), which is preferentially mutated in proximal colon cancers, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is prevalently amplified or overexpressed in distal colorectal cancers. Despite their differences in metastatic pattern, composition of drug targets and earlier local treatment, metastatic rectal and colon cancer are, however, commonly regarded as one entity and are treated alike. In this review, we focused on rectal cancer and its biological and clinical differences and similarities relative to colon cancer. These aspects are crucial because they influence the current staging and treatment of these cancers, and might influence the design of future trials with targeted drugs.

  12. COMPARISON OF PREOPERATIVE RECTAL DICLOFENAC AND RECTAL PARACETAMOL FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute postoperative pain has adverse effects on the patients moral as well as various physiological functions of the body. We conducted a prospective randomized study to compare the efficacy of preoperative rectal diclofenac and paracetamol for postoperative analgesia in pediatric age group. Sixty children (3 – 13 yrs. undergoing minor surgical procedures were randomly alloc ated into 2 groups, group I comprising of 30 children who received diclofenac suppository post induction and group II comprising of 30 children who received paracetamol suppository post induction. Pain was assessed by the “Hanallah pain scale” which catego rizes pain based on 5 parameters, viz, systolic blood pressure, crying, movements, agitation (confused, excited, and complaints of pain 1 . We concluded that though both, diclofenac sodium and paracetamol are good postoperative analgesics when given by rect al route in pediatric patients undergoing minor surgeries, diclofenac sodium provides better analgesia than paracetamol when given by rectal route in pediatric patients.

  13. Multimodal sensory testing of the rectum and rectosigmoid: development and reproducibility of a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, C; Nissen, T D; Gravesen, F H; Frøkjaer, J B; Omar, H; Gale, J; Gregersen, H; Svendsen, O; Drewes, A M

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation of rectal and rectosigmoid sensation is important in basic, clinical and pharmacological studies. New methods to evoke and assess multimodal (electrical, thermal and mechanical) experimental pain of the upper gut activate distinct pathways and mimics clinical pain. The aims of the current study were to characterize the sensory response and reproducibility to multimodal stimulation of rectum and the rectosigmoid. A multimodal rectal probe was developed. Mucosal electrostimulation was delivered at the recto-sigmoid junction. In Rectum, impedance planimetry was used for measurement of cross-sectional area (CSA) during distension. Circulation of water within the bag at either 4 or 60 degrees C was applied for thermal stimulation. The method was tested in 12 healthy volunteers (six men mean age 32 years) on two subsequent days. Mechanical and sensory responses and referred pain areas were assessed. Stimulation with electrical, thermal and mechanical modalities resulted in different sensory perceptions. The relationship between stimulus intensity and sensory response was linear for all modalities. Sensory response to different modalities did not differ between investigation days (all P-values > 0.1). Approximately 75% of subjects felt referred pain in distinct skin locations. Between-days reproducibility was good for all modalities [intra-class correlation (ICC) > or = 0.6]. At sensory threshold, CSA showed best reproducibility (ICC > or = 0.9). At pain detection threshold stretch ratio, CSA and electrostimulation showed best reproducibility (ICC = 1.0; 0.9; 0.9). The present model was easily implemented, robust and showed good reproducibility. It can be used to study pathophysiology or pharmacological interventions in healthy controls and in patients with diseases involving the distal hindgut.

  14. Disseminated lung cancer presenting as a rectal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Mia M; Stamp, Inger M H; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, and approximately 50% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rectal mass and unintended weight loss are common manifestations of rectal cancer. Our case presented with a rectal mass, but workup revealed...... a metastatic lesion from lung cancer. Lung cancer metastases to the lower gastrointestinal tract imply reduced survival compared with the already poor mean survival of stage IV lung cancer. Despite relevant therapy, the patient died 5 months after referral....

  15. Benign (solitary) ulcer of the rectum -- another cause for rectal stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, H J; Smith, H J; Dickinson, T A

    1981-01-15

    Benign rectal ulcer syndrome is an uncommon cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients may present with mild, often recurrent, rectal bleeding frequently ascribed to hemorrhoids. Barium enema may be normal during the early, nonulcerative phase of proctitis. Single (or multiple) ulcers with or without rectal stricture are the hallmarks of the radiographic diagnosis. Radiologic demonstration of the ulcer(s) is not required, however, for the diagnosis. Benign rectal ulcer should be included in the differential diagnosis of benign-appearing rectal strictures.

  16. Instabilities in sensory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  17. UFT (tegafur-uracil) in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casado, E; Pfeiffer, P; Feliu, J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Major achievements in the treatment of localised rectal cancer include the development of total mesorectal excision and the perioperative administration of radiotherapy in combination with continuous infusion (CI) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). This multimodal approach has resulted in extended...... survival and lower local relapse rates, with the potential for sphincter-preserving procedures. However, CI 5-FU is inconvenient for patients and is costly. Oral fluoropyrimidines like UFT (tegafur-uracil) offer a number of advantages over 5-FU. METHODS: We undertook a review of published articles...... in the preoperative setting, while adjuvant UFT improved survival and reduced distant relapse compared with surgery alone. The efficacy of UFT appears comparable with that of 5-FU and capecitabine and its side-effect profile is favourable. CONCLUSION: Clinical experience to date suggests that UFT is a valuable...

  18. Significance of thermoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ike, Hideyuki; Fukano, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Sigeki [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1997-05-01

    In patients with rectal cancer, results of 27 cases receiving thermoradiotherapy and of 68 cases, radiotherapy before operation were compared with those of 119 cases receiving expanded radical operation. Radiotherapy was done with 10 MV X-ray generated by linear-accelerator at 2.0 Gy x 5/week and 60 Gy in total. Hyperthermotherapy was performed with the capacitive heating method with 8 MHz radiofrequency (Thermotoron RF8) twice/week x 5. Every thermotherapy was done for 40 min at 42degC-43degC within 1 hr after the radiotherapy. Good results were observed in cases whose cancer was disappeared by either preoperative therapy. However, results in survival and recurrence rates were not always improved when compared with those receiving surgery alone. (K.H.)

  19. Pouch Techniques in Rectal Cancer Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph A. Maurer

    2009-01-01

    Rectal cancer of the middle and distal third of the rectum are nowadays managed by low or ultra-low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision and coloanal anastomosis. Following straight coloanal anastomosis, patients often suffer from high stool frequency, urgency and, occasionally, fecal incontinence. To overcome these problems, several types of colonic reservoirs (pouches) have been proposed. The following article elucidates the indications and contraindications for the creation of a pouch. Furthermore, the paper gives a short overview of the different pouch designs that are widely accepted and currently in use, with special emphasis of the typical advantages, disadvantages and feasibility. Current guide-lines recommend to perform a colonic pouch since it provides functional benefits over straight coloanal anastomosis with no increase in postoperative complications.

  20. Expression of p53 and p21 Protein in Transitional Mucosa Adjacent to Rectal Carcinoma and Its Clinical Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To study the biopathological characteristics of the transitional mucosa adjacent to rectal carcinoma, 34 cases were subjected to mucin histochemical and immunohistochemical study to observe the expression of p53 and p21 protein in distal mucosa adjacent to rectal carcinoma and its relationship to the mucin change. The expression of p53 protein was found in 29. 4 % (10/34) of distal transitional mucosa in the cytoplasm of goblet cells, and its positive staining was within 4 cm from carcinoma margin. A11 p53 positive mucosa was transitional mucosa. Overexpression of p21 protein was found in 26.5 % (9/34) of distal transitional mucosa in cytoplasm of crypt cells, and its positive staining was within 2 cm from carcinoma margin. There was no relationship between the expression of p53 and p21 protein in carcinoma and that in transitional mucosa (P>0.05). These findings indicated that there was aberrant alteration of p53 and p21 genes in transitional mucosa adjacent to colorectal carcinoma, which provided further evidence that transitional mucosa was an unstable pre-cancerous change. The aberrant mucin change and genetic alteration in distal mucosa of rectal cancer is within 4 cm.

  1. Management of rectal cancer: Times they are changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Cravo

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we critically examine recent advances in staging, surgery, and chemoradiation in the management of patients with rectal cancer which have not typically been incorporated in published treatment guidelines.

  2. Rectal Carcinoma with Heterotopic Bone: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Nagao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic bone is rarely present in malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. We herein report a case of rectal adenocarcinoma with heterotopic bone. A 46-year-old Japanese male presented to our hospital with abdominal distension and constipation. Colonoscopic examination showed an ulcerated polypoid tumor of the rectum which nearly obstructed the rectal lumen. Abdominal computed tomography showed a tumor of the rectum with calcified deposits. Low anterior resection with lateral lymph node dissection was performed under the tentative diagnosis of rectal cancer. Histological examination of the resected specimen showed mucinous carcinoma of the rectum with heterotopic bone. One of the metastatic lymph nodes dissected also showed heterotopic bone. In the present report, we describe this rare tumor and briefly review the pertinent literature regarding rectal cancer with heterotopic bone.

  3. Rectal bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvede, M; Tinggaard, M; Helms, M

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections. Among other alternatives to standard treatment with vancomycin for recurrent infection are faecal microbiota transplantation and rectal bacteriotherapy with a fixed mixture of intestinal bacterial strains isolated from...

  4. Laparoscopic resection for low rectal cancer: evaluation of oncological efficacy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Diarmaid C

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopic resection of low rectal cancer poses significant technical difficulties for the surgeon. There is a lack of published follow-up data in relation to the surgical, oncological and survival outcomes in these patients.

  5. Simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for rectal and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongbo; Master, Jiafeng Fang; Chen, Tufeng; Zheng, Zongheng; Wei, Bo; Huang, Yong; Huang, Jianglong; Master, Haozhong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopy-assisted surgery for either rectal or gastric cancer has been increasingly performed. However, simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for synchronous rectal and gastric cancer is rarely reported in the literature. In our study, 3 cases of patients who received simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for synchronous rectal and gastric cancer were recorded. The results showed that all 3 patients recovered well, with only 253 minutes of mean operation time, 57 mL of intraoperative blood loss, 5 cm of assisted operation incision, 4 days to resume oral intake, 12 days' postoperative hospital stay, and no complication or mortality. No recurrence or metastasis was found within the follow-up period of 22 months. When performed by surgeons with plentiful experience in laparoscopic technology, simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for synchronous rectal and gastric cancer is safe and feasible, with the benefits of minimal trauma, fast recovery, and better cosmetic results, compared with open surgery.

  6. RECTAL DUPLICATION CYST IN PREVIOUS ANORECTAL MALFORMATION AND DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Burgio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI tract duplications are rare congenital malformations. Most of them occur in the ileum and only 1-5%, of all duplication, were in the rectum. Different clinical features including chronic constipation, rectal prolapsed or polips. We report on a 4-years-old girl with Down syndrome and anorectal malformation (ARM who was found to have a rectal duplication cyst.

  7. US and CT findings of rectal amebian abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelek, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Adana Numune Teaching Hospital, Gar-Adana (Turkey); Oenel, S. [Dept. of General Surgery, Adana Numune Teaching Hospital, Gar-Adana (Turkey)

    1999-05-01

    An interesting case of rectal amebic abscess is presented. Ultrasound and CT images provided the diagnosis of a cystic intramural mass at the rectal wall of a young man, who complained of pelvic pain, constipation, and fever. His clinical history of amebiasis and the finding of trophozoids and cysts at the stool swap confirmed the diagnosis. Intravenous metronidazole therapy cured the disease and led to total disappearance of the mass, and clinical well-being. (orig.) With 4 figs., 6 refs.

  8. Chronic sensory stroke with and without central pain is associated with bilaterally distributed sensory abnormalities as detected by quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Thomas; Asseyer, Susanna; Geisler, Frederik; Fiebach, Jochen B; Oeltjenbruns, Jochen; Kopf, Andreas; Villringer, Kersten; Villringer, Arno; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients suffering from stroke with pure or predominant sensory symptoms (referred to as sensory stroke patients) develop central poststroke pain (CPSP). It is largely unknown what distinguishes these patients from those who remain pain free. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST), we analyzed the somatosensory profiles of 50 patients with chronic sensory stroke, of which 25 suffered from CPSP. As compared with reference data from healthy controls, patients with CPSP showed alterations of thermal and mechanical thresholds on the body area contralateral to their stroke (P pain sensory stroke [NPSS] patients) exhibited similar albeit less pronounced contralesional changes. Paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) and dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) showed higher values in CPSP, and an elevated cold detection threshold (CDT) was seen more often in CPSP than in patients with NPSS (P pain summation (wind-up ratio) each correlated with the presence of pain (P < 0.05). On the homologous ipsilesional body area, both patient groups showed additional significant abnormalities as compared with the reference data, which strongly resembled the contralesional changes. In summary, our analysis reveals that CPSP is associated with impaired temperature perception and positive sensory signs, but differences between patients with CPSP and NPSS are subtle. Both patients with CPSP and NPSS show considerable QST changes on the ipsilesional body side. These results are in part paralleled by recent findings of bilaterally spread cortical atrophy in CPSP and might reflect chronic maladaptive cortical plasticity, particularly in patients with CPSP.

  9. Sensory syndromes in parietal stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, C; Bogousslavsky, J; Regli, F

    1993-10-01

    We studied 20 patients with an acute parietal stroke with hemisensory disturbances but no visual field deficit and no or only slight motor weakness, without thalamic involvement on CT or MRI and found three main sensory syndromes. (1) The pseudothalamic sensory syndrome consists of a faciobrachiocrural impairment of elementary sensation (touch, pain, temperature, vibration). All patients have an inferior-anterior parietal stroke involving the parietal operculum, posterior insula, and, in all but one patient, underlying white matter. (2) The cortical sensory syndrome consists of an isolated loss of discriminative sensation (stereognosis, graphesthesia, position sense) involving one or two parts of the body. These patients show a superior-posterior parietal stroke. (3) The atypical sensory syndrome consists of a sensory loss involving all modalities of sensation in a partial distribution. Parietal lesions of different topography are responsible for this clinical picture, which probably represents a minor variant of the two previous sensory syndromes. Neuropsychological dysfunction was present in 17 patients. The only constant association was between conduction aphasia and right-sided pseudothalamic sensory deficit. We conclude that parietal stroke can cause different sensory syndromes depending on the topography of the underlying lesion. Sensory deficits can be monosymptomatic but never present as a "pure sensory stroke" involving face, arm, leg, and trunk together.

  10. Laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery: Where do we stand?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukta K Krane; Alessandro Fichera

    2012-01-01

    Large comparative studies and multiple prospective randomized control trials (RCTs) have reported equivalence in short and long-term outcomes between the open and laparoscopic approaches for the surgical treatment of colon cancer which has heralded widespread acceptance for laparoscopic resection of colon cancer.In contrast,laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) for the treatment of rectal cancer has been welcomed with significantly less enthusiasm.While it is likely that patients with rectal cancer will experience the same benefits of early recovery and decreased postoperative pain from the laparoscopic approach,whether the same oncologic clearance,specifically an adequate TME can be obtained is of concern.The aim of the current study is to review the current level of evidence in the literature on laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery with regard to short-term and long-term oncologic outcomes.The data from 8 RCTs,3 metaanalyses,and 2 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was reviewed.Current data suggests that laparoscopic rectal cancer resection may benefit patients with reduced blood loss,earlier retum of bowel function,and shorter hospital length of stay.Concerns that laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery compromises shortterm oncologic outcomes including number of lymph nodes retrieved and circumferential resection margin and jeopardizes long-term oncologic outcomes has not conclusively been refuted by the available literature.Laparoscopic rectal cancer resection is feasible but whether or not it compromises short-term or long-term results still needs to be further studied.

  11. Rectal cancer profiling identifies distinct subtypes in India based on age at onset, genetic, epigenetic and clinicopathological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Ruhina Shirin; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Talukdar, Fazlur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Rectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that develops through multiple pathways characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations. India has a comparatively higher proportion of rectal cancers and early-onset cases. We analyzed genetic (KRAS, TP53 and BRAF mutations, and MSI), epigenetic alterations (CpG island methylation detection of 10 tumor-related genes/loci), the associated clinicopathological features and survival trend in 80 primary rectal cancer patients from India. MSI was detected using BAT 25 and BAT 26 mononucleotide markers and mutation of KRAS, TP53, and BRAF V600E was detected by direct sequencing. Methyl specific polymerase chain reaction was used to determine promoter methylation status of the classic CIMP panel markers (P16, hMLH1, MINT1, MINT2, and MINT31) as well as other tumor specific genes (DAPK, RASSF1, BRCA1, and GSTP1). MSI and BRAF mutations were uncommon but high frequencies of overall KRAS mutations (67.5%); low KRAS codon 12 and a novel KRAS G15S mutation with concomitant RASSF1 methylation in early onset cases were remarkable. Hierarchical clustering as well as principal component analysis identified three distinct subgroups of patients having discrete age at onset, clinicopathological, molecular and survival characteristics: (i) a KRAS associated CIMP-high subgroup; (ii) a significantly younger MSS, CIMP low, TP53 mutant group having differential KRAS mutation patterns, and (iii) a CIMP-negative, TP53 mutated group. The early onset subgroup exhibited the most unfavorable disease characteristics with advanced stage, poorly differentiated tumors and had the poorest survival compared to the other subgroups. Genetic and epigenetic profiling of rectal cancer patients identified distinct subtypes in Indian population.

  12. Sensory signaling-dependent remodeling of olfactory cilia architecture in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai; Sengupta, Piali

    2008-05-01

    Nonmotile primary cilia are sensory organelles composed of a microtubular axoneme and a surrounding membrane sheath that houses signaling molecules. Optimal cellular function requires the precise regulation of axoneme assembly, membrane biogenesis, and signaling protein targeting and localization via as yet poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we show that sensory signaling is required to maintain the architecture of the specialized AWB olfactory neuron cilia in C. elegans. Decreased sensory signaling results in alteration of axoneme length and expansion of a membraneous structure, thereby altering the topological distribution of a subset of ciliary transmembrane signaling molecules. Signaling-regulated alteration of ciliary structures can be bypassed by modulation of intracellular cGMP or calcium levels and requires kinesin-II-driven intraflagellar transport (IFT), as well as BBS- and RAB8-related proteins. Our results suggest that compensatory mechanisms in response to altered levels of sensory activity modulate AWB cilia architecture, revealing remarkable plasticity in the regulation of cilia structure.

  13. Effects of repeated consumption on sensory-enhanced satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; McCrickerd, Keri; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Chambers, Lucy

    2014-03-28

    Previous research has suggested that sensory characteristics of a drink modify the acute satiating effects of its nutrients, with enhanced satiety being evident when a high-energy drink was thicker and tasted creamier. The present study tested whether this modulation of satiety by sensory context was altered by repeated consumption. Participants (n 48) consumed one of four drinks mid-morning on seven non-consecutive days, with satiety responses being measured pre-exposure (day 1), post-exposure (day 6) and at a 1-month follow-up. The drinks combined two levels of energy (lower energy (LE), 326 kJ and higher energy, 1163 kJ) with two levels of satiety-predictive sensory characteristics (low sensory (LS) or enhanced sensory). Test lunch intake 90 min after drink consumption depended on both the energy content and sensory characteristics of the drink before exposure, but on the energy content alone after exposure and at the follow-up. The largest change was an increase in test meal intake over time in the LE/LS condition. The effects on intake were reflected in appetite ratings, with rated hunger and expected filling affected by sensory characteristics and energy content pre-exposure, but were largely determined by energy content post-exposure and at the follow-up. In contrast, a measure of expected satiety reflected sensory characteristics regardless of energy content on all the three test days. Overall, these data suggest that some aspects of the sensory modulation of satiety are changed by repeated consumption, with covert energy becoming more effective in suppressing appetite over time, but also suggest that these behavioural changes are not readily translated into expectations of satiety.

  14. Sensory Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin STEVENS; Guest Editor

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Sensory ecology deals with how animals capture in formation from their environment, and the sensory sys tems involved in doing so (Hailman, 1977; Lythgoe, 1979; Dusenbery, 1992; Mappes and Stevens 2010). Although the term sensory ecology itself is compara tively recent, its basis has a long history, in part due to numerous links with subjects such as neurobiology, physiology, ethology, and evolutionary behavioral ecology.

  15. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  16. Multi-sensory Sculpting (MSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Maria

    2013-01-01

    -conscious and modality-specific level and use multi-sensory metaphors to express embodied knowledge. Retrieving embodied brand knowledge requires methods that (a) stimulate various senses that have been involved in brand knowledge formation and (b) give consumers the opportunity to express themselves metaphorically...... in a format similar to their cognitive representations. This article introduces multi-sensory sculpting (MSS) as a method that allows retrieving embodied brand knowledge via multi-sensory metaphors and proposes a multi-layered metaphor analysis procedure to interpret these multi-sensory data. The paper...

  17. A COMPARISON OF RECTAL DICLOFENAC WITH CAUDAL LEVOBUPIVACAINE FOR POST OPERATIVE PAIN RELIEF IN CHILDREN FOLLOWING LOWER ABDOMINAL OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya De

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. . Adequate pain relief reduces the stress response and pain relief through epidural route. Caudal epidural analgesia is very commonly practiced technique in children with levobupivacaine. Rectal administration of diclofenac in children is safe and convenient route and su s tained action of this drug provides analgesia in early and late post - operative period. AIMS: The aim of the study is to compare post - operative analgesic effect of rectal diclofenac with caudal levobupivacaine. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Hundred children were a llocated randomly in two groups in equal numbers using generated randomisation chart. All the patients underwent general anaesthesia. At the conclusion of surgery group A (n=50 received caudal injection of 1ml/kg of 0.25% levobupivacaine. The patients we re put left lateral and 23 gauge 25 mm long , short bevelled needle was used for this purpose. Group B (N=50 received a suppository of diclofenac sodium 2.5mg/kg. All anaesthesia , caudal block and suppository insertion was performed by the same anaesthet ist. No information on the method of analgesia or the study group to which the children belong was given to the ward nurse for post - operative observation. Syr. Paracetamol was as post - operative rescue analgesic as 15 mg/kg orally. The ward nurse assessed pain according to the observer pain scale. Assessment was undertaken in four occasions , 1 , 3 and 6 hours post operatively and overnight. If the patient were comfortable without any complain , they were discharged in the in following morning after completion of 24 hours. RESULT AND ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis of the data for pain and use of post - operative analgesic was done by chi - square test analysis with yati’s correction. Intergroup comparision of parametricv data were made by using student un paired t test. P<0.05 was considered to be significant.100 patients were grouped as Group C

  18. Cruciferous vegetables and colo-rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Anthony; Collins, Andrew; Fuller, Zoë; Hillman, Kevin; Ratcliffe, Brian

    2006-02-01

    Cruciferous vegetables have been studied extensively for their chemoprotective effects. Although they contain many bioactive compounds, the anti-carcinogenic actions of cruciferous vegetables are commonly attributed to their content of glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are relatively biologically inert but can be hydrolysed to a range of bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates (ITC) and indoles by the plant-based enzyme myrosinase, or less efficiently by the colonic microflora. A number of mechanisms whereby ITC and indoles may protect against colo-rectal cancer have been identified. In experimental animals cruciferous vegetables have been shown to inhibit chemically-induced colon cancer. However, the results of recent epidemiological cohort studies have been inconsistent and this disparity may reflect a lack of sensitivity of such studies. Possible explanations for the failure of epidemiological studies to detect an effect include: assessment of cruciferous vegetable intake by methods that are subject to large measurement errors; the interaction between diet and genotype has not been considered: the effect that post-harvest treatments may have on biological effects of cruciferous vegetables has not been taken into account.

  19. Atypical perinatal sensory stimulation and early perceptual development: insights from developmental psychobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, R

    2000-12-01

    Comparative studies utilizing avian and mammalian embryos and neonates have proven particularly useful in exploring how alterations in sensory experience during the perinatal period can affect subsequent development. This article reviews research drawn from comparative developmental psychobiology and concludes that the effects of modified sensory stimulation on perceptual and behavioral development depend on several related factors, including the timing of stimulation relative to the developmental stage of the young organism, the overall amount of sensory stimulation provided or denied, and the type of sensory stimulation presented. Directions for future research on the care of the high-risk infant are discussed.

  20. Sensory Dominance in Product Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    People perceive the material world around them with their five senses. Information from different sensory modalities is integrated in the brain to create a stable and meaningful experience of objects, including industrial products that accompany us in our everyday life. Some of the sensory systems p

  1. Iatrogenic Rectal Injury During Radical Prostatectomy: Is Colostomy Inevitable End?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Topaktas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Radical prostatectomy (RP is the gold standard treatment method for localized prostate cancer, because of its high oncological success. Iatrogenic rectal injury (IRI during RP is rarely seen, but it may causes serious complications because of the close anatomic relationship between the prostate and rectum. Aim is to present our series about management of IRI without colostomy. Material and Method: Between June 1999 and June 2013, radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP was performed to 372 patients by a single surgeon. 10 cases (%2,6 were complicated by a rectal injury during RRP. Instant rectal closure was performed in 3 layers without a diverting colostomy, at the time of surgery. Omental vascular flap was placed between rectum and vesicourethral anastomosis. Results: The clinical stages of IRI cases were T1c, T2a and T2c in 2, 3 and 5 patients, respectively. Their preoperative Gleason scores were 6, 7 and 8 in 3, 5 and 2 patient, respectively. None of the 10 had undergone previous prostatic or rectal surgery, or received preoperative radiotherapy or hormonal therapy. Discussion: Instant diagnosis and rectal wall closures by three layers are essential for successful repair. Our technique seems as a safe, minimal invasive and highly effective option for the management of IRI.

  2. Simultaneous laparoscopic excision for rectal carcinoma and synchronous hepatic metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai-yun; XIANG Guo-an; WANG Han-ning; XIAO Fang-lian

    2011-01-01

    Background Rectal carcinoma patients are often accompanied by hepatic metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of simultaneous laparoscopic excision for rectal carcinoma with synchronous hepatic metastasis.Methods A total of 41 patients with rectal carcinoma and synchronous hepatic metastasis detected by CT scan were included in this study. Among them, 23 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery and 18 patients underwent traditional open surgery to simultaneously remove the rectal tumor and hepatic metastasis lesions. All patients received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. All the patients were followed up from 36 to 72 months (mean 45.3 months).Results All the operations were performed successfully and no patient was turned to open surgery in laparoscopic group. The mean blood loss, the mean postoperative hospital stay, the mean blood transfusion and the mean intestinal functional recovery time showed a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 82.6%, 43.5% and 8.6% in the laparoscopic group, without significant difference compared with the open group (77.8%, 38.9% and 0) (P>0.05).Conclusions Simultaneous laparoscopic excision for rectal carcinoma and synchronous hepatic metastasis is safe and effective with similar survival achieved by the traditional open abdominal surgery.

  3. Intersphincteric Resection for Low Rectal Cancer – Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russu Cristian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical treatment for low rectal cancer represents a challenge: to perform a radical resection and to preserve the sphincter’s function. We report a case of intersphincteric resection in a combined multimodality treatment for low rectal cancer, with good oncologic and functional outcome. Case presentation: We report a case of a 73 years old woman admitted in April 2014 in surgery, for low rectal cancer. The diagnostic was established by colonoscopy and malignancy confirmed by biopsy. Complete imaging was done using computed tomography and magnetic resonance to establish the exact stage of the disease. The interdisciplinary individualized treatment began with radiotherapy (total dose of 50 Gy, administered in 25 fractions followed by surgery after eight weeks. We performed intersphincteric rectal resection by a modified Schiessel technique. There were no postoperative complications and the oncologic and functional results were very good at one year follow up. Conclusions: Intersphincteric resection, in this selected case of low rectal cancer, represented an efficient surgical treatment, with good functional results and quality of life for the patient. A multidisciplinary team is an invaluable means of assessing and further managing the appropriate, tailored to the case, treatment in the aim of achieving best results.

  4. Recent advances in robotic surgery for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Soichiro; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Junichiro; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-08-01

    Robotic technology, which has recently been introduced to the field of surgery, is expected to be useful, particularly in treating rectal cancer where precise manipulation is necessary in the confined pelvic cavity. Robotic surgery overcomes the technical drawbacks inherent to laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer through the use of multi-articulated flexible tools, three-dimensional stable camera platforms, tremor filtering and motion scaling functions, and greater ergonomic and intuitive device manipulation. Assessments of the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have reported similar operation times, blood loss during surgery, rates of postoperative morbidity, and circumferential resection margin involvement when compared with laparoscopic surgery. Furthermore, rates of conversion to open surgery are reportedly lower with increased urinary and male sexual functions in the early postoperative period compared with laparoscopic surgery, demonstrating the technical advantages of robotic surgery for rectal cancer. However, long-term outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have not been fully evaluated yet; therefore, large-scale clinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this new technology.

  5. Patterns of metastasis in colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, Matias; Hemminki, Akseli; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2016-07-15

    Investigating epidemiology of metastatic colon and rectal cancer is challenging, because cancer registries seldom record metastatic sites. We used a population based approach to assess metastatic spread in colon and rectal cancers. 49,096 patients with colorectal cancer were identified from the nationwide Swedish Cancer Registry. Metastatic sites were identified from the National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. Rectal cancer more frequently metastasized into thoracic organs (OR = 2.4) and the nervous system (1.5) and less frequently within the peritoneum (0.3). Mucinous and signet ring adenocarcinomas more frequently metastasized within the peritoneum compared with generic adenocarcinoma (3.8 [colon]/3.2 [rectum]), and less frequently into the liver (0.5/0.6). Lung metastases occurred frequently together with nervous system metastases, whereas peritoneal metastases were often listed with ovarian and pleural metastases. Thoracic metastases are almost as common as liver metastases in rectal cancer patients with a low stage at diagnosis. In colorectal cancer patients with solitary metastases the survival differed between 5 and 19 months depending on T or N stage. Metastatic patterns differ notably between colon and rectal cancers. This knowledge should help clinicians to identify patients in need for extra surveillance and gives insight to further studies on the mechanisms of metastasis.

  6. MRI demonstration of the effect of neoadjuvant radiotherapy on rectal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, Audrey E.T.; Rockall, Andrea G.; Alijani, Mandana; Hughes, John; Ba bar, Syed; Chin Aleong, Jo-Anne; Cottrill, Chris; Dorudi, Sina; Reznek, Rodney H . [St Bartholomews' Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Background and purpose. In patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, neoadjuvant long course (45-54 Gy in 25-30 fractions) chemoradiotherapy (CRT) may reduce tumour size and result in downstaging. In patients with primary resectable tumour short course (25 Gy in 5 fractions) radiotherapy (SCRT) reduces local recurrence but downstaging the disease or altering tumour size has not been described. We aimed to assess change in tumour size on MRI after SCRT or CRT. Material and methods. Nineteen patients with rectal carcinoma underwent MRI before and after SCRT or CRT. In each case, tumour length and width were documented and number of locoregional lymph nodes recorded. Total mesorectal excision was performed in 15 patients and MR findings correlated with histopathology. Results. Ten patients received SCRT and nine CRT. Tumour length reduced by 19% overall (15% following SCRT, 23% following CRT). Significant reduction in overall tumour thickness of 27% was seen (25% following SCRT, 29% following CRT). Greater than 30% reduction (partial response) in maximum tumour thickness was seen in 4/10 (40%) following SCRT and 5/9 (56%) following CRT. Conclusions. Significant reduction in tumour size can be achieved with preoperative long course CRT and SCRT. This unexpected finding following SCRT has not been previously described.

  7. Nanocytology of rectal colonocytes to assess risk of colon cancer based on field cancerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K; Subramanian, Hariharan; Weinberg, David S; Rex, Douglas K; Goldberg, Michael J; Muldoon, Joseph; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Zhu, Yuanjia; Bianchi, Laura K; Shah, Dhiren; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Borkar, Monica; Lynch, Henry; Backman, Vadim

    2012-06-01

    Developing a minimally invasive and cost-effective prescreening strategy for colon cancer is critical because of the impossibility of conducting colonoscopy on the entire at-risk population. The concept of field carcinogenesis, in which normal-appearing tissue away from a tumor has molecular and, consequently, nano-architectural abnormalities, offers one attractive approach to identify high-risk patients. In this study, we investigated whether the novel imaging technique partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy could risk-stratify patients harboring precancerous lesions of the colon, using an optically measured biomarker (L(d)) obtained from microscopically normal but nanoscopically altered cells. Rectal epithelial cells were examined from 146 patients, including 72 control patients, 14 patients with diminutive adenomas, 20 patients with nondiminutive/nonadvanced adenomas, 15 patients with advanced adenomas/high-grade dysplasia, 12 patients with genetic mutation leading to Lynch syndrome, and 13 patients with cancer. We found that the L(d) obtained from rectal colonocytes was well correlated with colon tumorigenicity in our patient cohort and in an independent validation set of 39 additional patients. Therefore, our findings suggest that PWS-measured L(d) is an accurate marker of field carcinogenesis. This approach provides a potential prescreening strategy for risk stratification before colonoscopy.

  8. The Evolution of Sensory Placodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoise Mazet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate cranial sensory placodes are ectodermal embryonic patches that give rise to sensory receptor cells of the peripheral paired sense organs and to neurons in the cranial sensory ganglia. Their differentiation and the genetic pathways that underlay their development are now well understood. Their evolutionary history, however, has remained obscure. Recent molecular work, performed on close relatives of the vertebrates, demonstrated that some sensory placodes (namely the adenohypophysis, the olfactory, and accoustico-lateralis placodes first evolved at the base of the chordate lineage, while others might be specific to vertebrates. Combined with morphological and cellular fate data, these results also suggest that the sensory placodes of the ancestor of all chordates differentiated into a wide range of structures, most likely to fit the lifestyle and environment of each species.

  9. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities.

  10. Yaw sensory rearrangement alters pitch vestibulo-ocular reflex responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, A. E.; Wall, C. 3rd; Oman, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Ten male subjects underwent two types of adaptation paradigm designed either to enhance or to attenuate the gain of the canal-ocular reflex (COR), before undergoing otolith-ocular reflex (OOR) testing with constant velocity, earth horizontal axis and pitch rotation. The adaptation paradigm paired a 0.2 Hz sinusoidal rotation about an earth vertical axis with a 0.2 Hz optokinetic stimulus that was deliberately mismatched in peak velocity or phase and was designed to produce short-term changes in the COR. Preadaptation and postadaptation OOR tests occurred at a constant velocity of 60 degrees/sec in the dark and produced a modulation component of the slow phase velocity with a frequency of 0.16 Hz due to otolithic stimulation by the sinusoidally changing gravity vector. Of the seven subjects who showed enhancement of the COR gain, six also showed enhancement of the OOR modulation component. Of the seven subjects who showed attenuation of the COR gain, five also showed attenuation of the OOR modulation component. The probability that these two cross-axis adaptation effects would occur by chance is less than 0.02. This suggests that visual-vestibular conditioning of the yaw axis COR also induced changes in the pitch axis OOR. We thus postulate that the central nervous system pathways that process horizontal canal yaw stimuli have elements in common with those processing otolithic stimuli about the pitch axis.

  11. Childhood chronic gastritis and duodenitis: Role of altered sensory neuromediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islek, Ali; Yilmaz, Aygen; Elpek, Gulsum Ozlem; Erin, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the roles of the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in chronic gastritis and duodenitis in children. METHODS Biopsy samples from the gastric and duodenal mucosa of 52 patients and 30 control subjects were obtained. Samples were taken for pathological examination, immunohistochemical staining, enzyme activity measurements and quantitative measurements of tissue peptide levels. RESULTS We observed differential effects of the disease on peptide levels, which were somewhat different from previously reported changes in chronic gastritis in adults. Specifically, SP was increased and CGRP and VIP were decreased in patients with gastritis. The changes were more prominent at sites where gastritis was severe, but significant changes were also observed in neighboring areas where gastritis was less severe. Furthermore, the degree of changes was correlated with the pathological grade of the disease. The expression of CD10, the enzyme primarily involved in SP hydrolysis, was also decreased in patients with duodenitis. CONCLUSION Based on these findings, we propose that decreased levels of VIP and CGRP and increased levels of SP contribute to pathological changes in gastric mucosa. Hence, new treatments targeting these molecules may have therapeutic and preventive effects. PMID:27729741

  12. Sensory deprivation: visual experience alters the mental number line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, Achille; Taya, Shuichiro; Proulx, Michael J

    2014-03-15

    Early studies on numeric cognition reported that numbers are spatially organised according to a left-to-right small-to-large 'number line'. We investigated whether this spatial-number organisation is dictated by visual experience. We tested congenitally and late blind, and blindfolded sighted participants in a random number generation task where in one block their heads were alternately turned left or right before uttering the number. We found that the 'random' number generation was biased according to the side where the head was turned to. Consistent with the standard number line, participants with visual experience generated smaller numbers for left turns, and larger numbers for right turns. In contrast, participants without any visual experience showed the opposite pattern of results. These results suggest a role for visual experience in the development of spatial and numerical representations, which is supported by cultural differences in number representation, and provide converging evidence for visually driven organisation of the parietal cortex.

  13. Results of radical surgery for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, R J; Karanjia, N D

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the hypothesis that a reduction in the distal mural margin during anterior resection for sphincter conservation in rectal cancer excision is safe, provided total mesorectal excision is undertaken with wash-out of the clamped rectum. One hundred ninety-two patients underwent anterior resection and 21 (less than 10%) patients underwent abdomino-perineal excision (APE) by one surgeon (RJH). Anterior resections were classified as "curative" (79%) and "non-curative" (21%); in the "curative" sub-group less than 4% of patients developed local recurrence. The series was retrospectively analyzed for the effect of mural margins on local recurrence with 152 patients undergoing "curative" anterior resections and 40 patients undergoing "non-curative" resections. In the 152 specimens from curative resections, 110 had a resection margin greater than 1 cm and 42 had a resection margin less than 1 cm. Four patients developed local recurrence in the greater than 1 cm margin group (95% confidence interval: 0.8%-7.8%) and no patients developed local recurrence in the less than or equal to 1 cm margin group (95% confidence interval: 0%-5.9%). In each patient with local recurrence a cause for failure was apparent. There was no statistically significant difference in local recurrence rate between the less than or equal to 1 cm margin group and the greater than 1 cm margin group. A reduction in resection margin therefore did not compromise survival after anterior resection. The significance of lateral resection margins is discussed. The role of deep radiotherapy and cytotoxics are considered.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Assessment of T staging and mesorectal fascia status using high-resolution MRI in rectal cancer with rectal distention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Xiang Rao; Meng-Su Zeng; Jian-Ming Xu; Xin-Yu Qin; Cai-Zhong Chen; Ren-Chen Li; Ying-Yong Hou

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the accuracy of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using phased-array coil for preoperative assessment of T staging and mesorectal fascia infiltration in rectal cancer with rectal distention.METHODS: In a prospective study of 67 patients with primary rectal cancer, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (in-plane resolution, 0.66 × 0.56)with phased-array coil were performed for T-staging and measurement of distance between the tumor and the mesorectal fascia. The assessment of MRI was compared with postoperative histopathologic findings. Sensitivity,specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were evaluated.RESULTS: The overall magnetic resonance accuracy was 85.1% for T staging and 88% for predicting mesorectal fascia involvement. Magnetic resonance sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value,and negative predictive value was 70%, 97.9%, 89.6%,93.3% and 88.5% for ≤ T2 tumors, 90.5%, 76%,85.1%, 86.4% and 82.6% for T3 tumors, 100%, 95.2%,95.5%, 62.5% and 100% for T4 tumors, and 80%,90.4%, 88%, 70.6% and 94% for predicting mesorectal fascia involvement, respectively.CONCLUSION: High-resolution MRI enables accurate preoperative assessment for T staging and mesorectal fascia infiltration in rectal cancer with rectal distention.

  15. Comparison between two perineal procedures for treatment of rectal prolaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Abozid, Nabila Mohamed A. Shams, , Yahia Hassan

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimal surgical procedures for the management of rectal prolapse is still under debate so comparison between two operations were done in our series. Eighteen patients with complete rectal prolaps were treated surgically through the perineum they were divided into two groups. First group were treated by recto-segmoidectomy and levatroplasty to fortify the pelvic floor, the second group were treated by rectopexy using prolene mesh and levetroplasty to fortify the pelvic floor, the mesh was inserted between the rectum and sacrum and fixed through perineal incision. The recurrence rate !""#$$!%$ &significant difference in hospital stay among both groups. Also there were no other cases of postoperative complications such as anastomotic leak or stricture, affection of the bladder dysfunction in both groups. Aim of work The aim of this work was to compare the short-term outcome of two different perineal operative procedures in patients with full thickness rectal prolaps.

  16. Treatment of advanced rectal cancer after renal transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yi Liu; Xiao-Bo Liang; Yao-Ping Li; Yi Feng; Dong-Bo Liu; Wen-Da Wang

    2011-01-01

    Renal transplantation is a standard procedure for end-stage renal disease today. Due to immunosuppressive drugs and increasing survival time after renal trans-plantation, patients with transplanted kidneys carry an increased risk of developing malignant tumors. In this case report, 3 patients with advanced rectal can-cer after renal transplantation for renal failure were treated with anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection plus total mesorectal excision, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. One patient eventually died of metastasized cancer 31 mo after therapy, although his organ grafts functioned well until his death. The other 2 patients were well during the 8 and 21 mo follow-up periods after rectal resection. We therefore strongly argue that patients with advanced rectal cancer should receive standard oncology treatment, including opera-tion and adjuvant treatment after renal transplantation. Colorectal cancer screening in such patients appears justified.

  17. Variability of marker-based rectal dose evaluation in HDR cervical brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhou; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Malhotra, Harish K; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2010-01-01

    In film-based intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer, position of the rectal markers may not accurately represent the anterior rectal wall. This study was aimed at analyzing the variability of rectal dose estimation as a result of interfractional variation of marker placement. A cohort of five patients treated with multiple-fraction tandem and ovoid high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy was studied. The cervical os point and the orientation of the applicators were matched among all fractional plans for each patient. Rectal points obtained from all fractions were then input into each clinical treated plan. New fractional rectal doses were obtained and a new cumulative rectal dose for each patient was calculated. The maximum interfractional variation of distances between rectal dose points and the closest source positions was 1.1 cm. The corresponding maximum variability of fractional rectal dose was 65.5%. The percentage difference in cumulative rectal dose estimation for each patient was 5.4%, 19.6%, 34.6%, 23.4%, and 13.9%, respectively. In conclusion, care should be taken when using rectal markers as reference points for estimating rectal dose in HDR cervical brachytherapy. The best estimate of true rectal dose for each fraction should be determined by the most anterior point among all fractions.

  18. The Clinical Utility of Rectal Gas Distension F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of rectal gas distension F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging for the differentiation of the rectal focal uptake lesions. Twenty four patients (M:F=11:13, Age 62.8{+-}12.4 years) underwent rectal gas distension F-18 FDG PET/CT, prospectively: initial image at 50-60 min after the intravenous injection of F-18 FDG and rectal distension image after the infusion of air through the anus. Focally increased uptake lesions on initial images but disappeared on rectal distension images defined a physiological uptake. For the differential evaluation of persistent focal uptake lesions on rectal distension images, colonoscopy and histopathologic examination were performed. Among the 24 patients, 27 lesions of focal rectal uptake were detected on initial images of F-18 FDG PET/CT. Of these, 7 lesions were able to judge with physiological uptake because the focal increased uptake disappeared from rectal distension image. Remaining 3 lesions were non-rectal lesions (2 lesions: rectovesical space, 1 lesion: uterine myoma). Among 17 lesions which was showed persistent increased uptake in rectal distension image, 15 lesions were confirmed as the malignant tumor (SUVmax=15.9{+-}6.8) and 2 lesions were confirmed as the benign lesions including adenoma and inflammatory disease. The rectal distension F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging could be an important noninvasive method for the differentiation of malignant and benign focal rectal uptake lesions including physiologic uptake.

  19. Rectal diaphragm in a patient with imperforate anus and rectoprostatic fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Ashokanand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of rectal diaphragm in an imperforate anus has not been reported until now. A 1-year-old male presented with right transverse colostomy for high anorectal malformation. The patient had imperforate anus and a recto-prostatic fistula with rectal diaphragm. We managed the case by an ano-rectal pull through with excision of the diaphragm.

  20. Perioperative Colonic Evaluation in Patients with Rectal Cancer; MR Colonography Versus Standard Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael Patrick; Løgager, Vibeke; Lund Rasmussen, Vera;

    2015-01-01

    was to prospectively evaluate the completion rate of preoperative colonic evaluation and the quality of perioperative colonic evaluation using magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) in patients with rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer were randomized to either group A: standard...... is a valuable tool and is recommended as part of the standard preoperative evaluation for patients with rectal cancer....

  1. Correction of rectal sacculation through lateral resection in dogs with perineal hernia - technique description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Moraes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of perineal hernias in dogs during routine clinical surgery is frequent. The coexistence of rectal diseases that go undiagnosed or are not correctly treated can cause recurrence and postoperative complications. The objective of this report is to describe a surgical technique for treatment of rectal sacculation through lateral resection in dogs with perineal hernia, whereby restoring the rectal integrity.

  2. Rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases: Do we have a clear direction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S; Nunes, Q M; Daniels, I R; Smart, N J; Poston, G J; Påhlman, L

    2015-12-01

    Rectal cancer is a common entity and often presents with synchronous liver metastases. There are discrepancies in management guidelines throughout the world regarding the treatment of advanced rectal cancer, which are further compounded when it presents with synchronous liver metastases. The following article examines the evidence regarding treatment options for patients with synchronous rectal liver metastases and suggests potential treatment algorithms.

  3. Changes in NAD/ADP-ribose metabolism in rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yalcintepe

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The extent of ADP-ribosylation in rectal cancer was compared to that of the corresponding normal rectal tissue. Twenty rectal tissue fragments were collected during surgery from patients diagnosed as having rectal cancer on the basis of pathology results. The levels of ADP-ribosylation in rectum cancer tissue samples (95.9 ± 22.1 nmol/ml was significantly higher than in normal tissues (11.4 ± 4 nmol/ml. The level of NAD+ glycohydrolase and ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities in rectal cancer and normal tissue samples were measured. Cancer tissues had significantly higher NAD+ glycohydrolase and ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities than the control tissues (43.3 ± 9.1 vs 29.2 ± 5.2 and 6.2 ± 1.6 vs 1.6 ± 0.4 nmol mg-1 min-1. Approximately 75% of the NAD+ concentration was consumed as substrate in rectal cancer, with changes in NAD+/ADP-ribose metabolism being observed. When [14C]-ADP-ribosylated tissue samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE, autoradiographic analysis revealed that several proteins were ADP-ribosylated in rectum tissue. Notably, the radiolabeling of a 113-kDa protein was remarkably greater than that in control tissues. Poly(ADP-ribosylation of the 113-kDa protein in rectum cancer tissues might be enhanced with its proliferative activity, and poly(ADP-ribosylation of the same protein in rectum cancer patients might be an indicator of tumor diagnosis.

  4. Modern management of rectal cancer: A 2006 update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Glen C Balch; Alex De Meo; Jose G Guillem

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this review is to outline some of the important surgical issues surrounding the management of patients with early (T1/T2 and NO), as well as locally advanced (T3/T4 and/or N1) rectal cancer. Surgery for rectal cancer continues to develop towards the ultimate goals of improved local control and overall survival, maintaining quality of life, and preserving sphincter, genitourinary, and sexual function. Information concerning the depth of tumor penetration through the rectal wall, lymph node involvement, and presence of distant metastatic disease is of crucial importance when planning a curative rectal cancer resection.Preoperative staging is used to determine the indication for neoadjuvant therapy as well as the indication for local excision versus radical cancer resection. Local excision is likely to be curative in most patients with a primary tumor which is limited to the submucosa (T1NOM0), without high-risk features and in the absence of metastatic disease. In appropriate patients, minimally invasive procedures, such as local excision, TEM, and laparoscopic resection allow for improved patient comfort, shorter hospital stays, and earlier return to preoperative activity level. Once the tumor invades the muscularis propria (T2), radical rectal resection in acceptable operative candidates is recommended.In patients with transmural and/or node positive disease (T3/T4 and/or N1) with no distant metastases,preoperative chemoradiation followed by radical resection according to the principles of TME has become widely accepted. During the planning and conduct of a radical operation for a locally advanced rectal cancer, a number of surgical management issues are considered,including: (1) total mesorectal excision (TME); (2)autonomic nerve preservation (ANP); (3) circumferential resection margin (CRM); (4) distal resection margin;(5) sphincter preservation and options for restoration of bowel continuity; (6) laparoscopic approaches; and (7)postoperative quality

  5. Dual-Energy CT of Rectal Cancer Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Madsen, Gunvor;

    2016-01-01

    %; specificity, 88%; and accuracy, 91%), and 4) iodine concentration at 2.58 μg/mL (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 92%; and accuracy, 89%). LIMITATIONS: The investigation is conducted on isolated surgical specimens from rectal cancer operations. CONCLUSIONS: Dual-energy CT can be performed on rectal specimens......BACKGROUND: An accurate method to assess malignant lymph nodes in the mesorectum is needed. Dual-energy CT scans simultaneously with 2 levels of energy and thereby provides information about tissue composition based on the known effective Z value of different tissues. Each point investigated...

  6. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Joakim; Engholm, Gerda; Ehrnrooth, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates for patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based on cancer register data, differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries in Eur...... and detailed data in order to understand international survival differences, and cautions comparisons between large national samples and those of smaller areas........ Age standardized 5-year relative survival and multiplicative regression models for the relative excess mortality were calculated. 3888 patients were included in the survival study. Men in Denmark, Finland and Iceland had lower 5-year relative survival and poorer stage distribution compared to Norway...

  7. Perineal rectosigmoidectomy for incarcerated rectal prolapse (Altemeier’s procedure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Mesut; Arslan, Ergin; Börekçi, Hasan; Aytekin, Faruk Önder; Külah, Bahadır; Banlı, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Perineal procedures have higher recurrence and lower mortality rates than abdominal alternatives for the treatment of rectal prolapse. Presence of incarceration and strangulation also influences treatment choice. Perineal rectosigmoidectomy is one of the treatment options in patients with incarceration and strangulation, with low mortality and acceptable recurrence rates. This operation can be performed especially to avoid general anesthesia in old patients with co-morbidities. We aimed to present perineal rectosigmoidectomy and diverting loop colostomy in a patient with neurological disability due to spinal trauma and incarcerated rectal prolapse. PMID:27528816

  8. Medical image of the week: pulmonary metastases of rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insel M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old woman with known rectal cancer currently receiving systemic chemotherapy presented with 2 weeks of worsening dyspnea on exertion. The day prior to admission she developed persistent inspiratory and expiratory wheeze. CT scan demonstrated right main stem endobronchial mass and a heterogeneous mass comprising the entire left hemithorax (Figure 1. Flexible bronchoscopy demonstrated a fungating mass at the carina extending down both main stems (Figure 2. The mass was snared and removed with cryotherapy and pathology was consistent with metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma.

  9. The rectal cancer microRNAome - microRNA expression in rectal cancer and matched normal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaedcke, Jochen; Grade, Marian; Camps, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: miRNAs play a prominent role in a variety of physiologic and pathologic biologic processes, including cancer. For rectal cancers, only limited data are available on miRNA expression profiles, whereas the underlying genomic and transcriptomic aberrations have been firmly established. We...... therefore, aimed to comprehensively map the miRNA expression patterns of this disease. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor biopsies and corresponding matched mucosa samples were prospectively collected from 57 patients with locally advanced rectal cancers. Total RNA was extracted, and tumor and mucosa mi......RNA expression profiles were subsequently established for all patients. The expression of selected miRNAs was validated using semi-quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Forty-nine miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (log(2)-fold difference >0.5 and P cancer and normal rectal...

  10. Analyzing sensory data with R

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Descriptive Approaches When panelists rate products according to one single list of attributes Data, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Measuring the impact of the experimental design on the perception of the products? When products are rated according to one single list of attributesData, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Adding supplementary information to the product space When products are rated according to several lists

  11. Spinal sensory circuits in motion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The role of sensory feedback in shaping locomotion has been long debated. Recent advances in genetics and behavior analysis revealed the importance of proprioceptive pathways in spinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying peripheral mechanosensation enabled to unravel the networks that feedback to spinal circuits in order to modulate locomotion. Sensory inputs to the vertebrate spinal cord were long thought to originate from the periphery. Recent studies challenge this ...

  12. Decreasing the Dose to the Rectal Wall by Using a Rectal Retractor during Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer: A Comparative Treatment Planning Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Nilsson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to examine the dosimetric effect of rectal retraction, using a rectal retractor, by performing a comparative treatment planning study. Material and Methods. Treatment plans using volumetric arc therapy (VMAT were produced for ten patients both with and without rectal retraction. A hypofractionation scheme of 42.7 Gy in seven fractions was used. The dose to the rectal wall was evaluated for both methods (with and without retraction using four dose-volume criteria: V40.1 Gy, V38.3 Gy, V36.5 Gy, and V32.6 Gy. Results. The retraction of the rectal wall increased the distance between the rectal wall and the prostate. The rectal wall volume was reduced to zero for all dose-volume values except for V32.6 Gy, which was 0.2 cm3 in average when the rectal retractor was used. Conclusion. There was a significant decrease of V40.1 Gy, V38.3 Gy, V36.5 Gy, and V32.6 Gy when the rectal retractor was used without compromising the dose coverage of planning target volume (PTV.

  13. Priapism secondary to penile metastasis of rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Chan Park; Wook Hyun Lee; Min Kyu Kang; Suk Young Park

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic penile carcinoma is rare and usually originates from genitourinary tumors. The presenting symptoms or signs have been described as nonspecific except for priapism. Rectal adenocarcinoma is a very unusual source of metastatic penile carcinoma. We report a case of metastatic penile carcinoma that originated from the rectum. Symptomatic improvement occurred with palliative radiotherapy.

  14. Multicenter evaluation of rectal cancer reimaging post neoadjuvant (MERRION) therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanly, Ann M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of reimaging rectal cancer post-CRT (chemoradiotherapy) with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pelvis for local staging and computed tomography of thorax, abdomen, and pelvis (CT TAP) to identify distant metastases.

  15. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children: A literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mohsen Dehghani; Abdorrasoul Malekpour; Mahmood Haghighat

    2012-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign and chronic disorder well known in young adults and less in children.It is often related to prolonged excessive straining or abnormal defecation and clinically presents as rectal bleeding,copious mucus discharge,feeling of incomplete defecation,and rarely rectal prolapse.SRUS is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histological findings.The current treatments are suboptimal,and despite correct diagnosis,outcomes can be unsatisfactory.Some treatment protocols for SRUS include conservative management such as family reassurance,regulation of toilet habits,avoidance of straining,encouragement of a high-fiber diet,topical treatments with salicylate,sulfasalazine,steroids and sucralfate,and surgery.In children,SRUS is relatively uncommon but troublesome and easily misdiagnosed with other common diseases,however,it is being reported more than in the past.This condition in children is benign; however,morbidity is an important problem as reflected by persistence of symptoms,especially rectal bleeding.In this review,we discuss current diagnosis and treatment for SRUS.

  16. Three-dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy Techniques for Rectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M.E. Nuyttens (Joost)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The third most common malignancy in the Netherlands is colorectal cancer. Rectal cancer affects every year around 2000 new patients. The highest incidence is found at an age above 70 years, and in men (sex ratio: 1.48). In Europe, the treatment of preference for locally

  17. Patient factors may predict anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Hayden

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study identifies preoperative anemia as possible risk factor for anastomotic leak and neoadjuvant chemoradiation may lead to increased risk of complications overall. Further prospective studies will help to elucidate these findings as well as identify amenable factors that may decrease risk of anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery.

  18. Late Laparoscopic Management of Traumatic Rectal Injury Without Protective Colostomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travassos, Daisy V.; Chrzan, Rafal; van der Zee, David

    2009-01-01

    The gold standard of treatment in the case of fecal peritonitis in association with traumatic rectal perforation is closure of the perforation in combination with a diverting colostomy. In this paper, we report the successful laparoscopic management of such a trauma without colostomy 24 hours after

  19. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  20. Rectal angiolipoma: A case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabite Kacar; Sedef Kuran; Tulay Temucin; Bulent Odemis; Nilufer Karadeniz; Nurgul Sasmaz

    2007-01-01

    Angiolipoma is a rare vascular variant of the benign lipomatous tumors and is generally seen in subcutaneous tissues. We report a 70-year-old female with abdominal distension not related to rectal small polypoid mass with peduncule described as angiolipoma by histologically,and review the literature.

  1. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: A single-center case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz I AlGhulayqah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS is a benign, chronic defecation disorder with varied presentations. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinical features, endoscopic findings, histological appearance, and treatment strategies associated with SRUS. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with SRUS at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh from January 2003 to December 2013. Cases were identified using the Department of Pathology database. Data were obtained from medical records that included clinical manifestation, endoscopic findings, and histopathological features. Results: Twenty patients were identified. The mean age was 42.5 years (±18.5 and 55% were females. Most of the patients presented with bleeding per rectum (85%, constipation (75%, and straining (50%, with a mean symptom duration of 26.7 months. The most common associated factors identified were constipation (75%, history of rectal surgery (25%, digital rectal manipulation (20%, and rectal prolapse (20%. Endoscopic findings included a single ulcer (50% and multiple ulcers (30%; 55% had a polypoidal appearance. On histopathology, there was surface ulceration (95%, fibrosis of the lamina propria (60%, distorted architecture (55%, and muscle hypertrophy with increased mucin production (50%. Patients were treated conservatively and none required surgery. Conclusion: SRUS is a rare disorder with variable clinical presentations. Stool softeners, a high fiber diet in addition to topical mesalamine, and biofeedback proved to be effective in this patient population.

  2. Single-Access Laparoscopic Rectal Surgery Is Technically Feasible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Sirikurnpiboon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Single-access laparoscopic surgery (SALS has been successfully introduced for colectomy surgery; however, for mid to low rectum procedures such as total mesorectal excision, it can be technically complicated. In this study, we introduced a single-access technique for rectum cancer operations without the use of other instruments. Aims. To show the short-term results of single-access laparoscopic rectal surgery in terms of pathologic results and immediate complications. Settings and Design. Prospective study. Materials and Methods. We selected middle rectum to anal canal cancer patients to undergo single-access laparoscopic rectal resection for rectal cancer. All patients had total mesorectal excisions. An umbilical incision was made for the insertion of a single multichannel port, and a mesocolic window was created to identify the inferior mesenteric artery and vein. Total mesorectal excision was performed. There were no perioperative complications. The mean operative time was 269 minutes; the median hospital stay was 7 days; the mean wound size was 5.5 cm; the median number of harvested lymph nodes was 15; and all patients had intact mesorectal capsules. Statistical Analysis Used. Mean, minimum–maximum. Conclusion. Single-access laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer is feasible while oncologic principles and patient safety are maintained.

  3. Sexual function in females after radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruheim, Kjersti; Tveit, Kjell Magne; Guren, Marianne G. (The Cancer Centre, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway)), E-mail: Kjersti.bruheim@medisin.uio.no; Fossaa, Sophie D. (Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)); Skovlund, Eva (School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)); Balteskard, Lise (Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital of Northern Norway, Tromsoe (Norway)); Carlsen, Erik (Dept. of Clinical Cancer Research, Oslo Univ. Hospital, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway))

    2010-08-15

    Background. Knowledge about female sexual problems after pre- or postoperative (chemo-)radiotherapy and radical resection of rectal cancer is limited. The aim of this study was to compare self-rated sexual functioning in women treated with or without radiotherapy (RT+ vs. RT?), at least two years after surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and materials. Female patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2003 were identified from a national database, the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Eligible patients were without recurrence or metastases at the time of the study. The Sexual function and Vaginal Changes Questionnaire (SVQ) was used to measure sexual functioning. Results. Questionnaires were returned from 172 of 332 invited and eligible women (52%). The mean age was 65 years (range 42-79) and the time since surgery for rectal cancer was 4.5 years (range 2.6-12.4). Sexual interest was not significantly impaired in RT+ (n=62) compared to RT? (n=110) women. RT+ women reported more vaginal problems in terms of vaginal dryness (50% vs. 24%), dyspareunia (35% vs. 11%) and reduced vaginal dimension (35% vs. 6%) compared with RT? patients; however, they did not have significantly more worries about their sex life. Conclusion. An increased risk of dyspareunia and vaginal dryness was observed in women following surgery combined with (chemo-)radiotherapy compared with women treated with surgery alone. Further research is required to determine the effect of adjuvant therapy on female sexual function

  4. Value of intraoperative radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferenschild, Floris T. J.; Vermaas, Maarten; Nuyttens, Joost J. M. E.; Graveland, Wilfried J.; Marinelli, Andreas W. K. S.; van der Sijp, Joost R.; Wiggers, Theo; Verhoef, Cornelis; Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; de Wilt, Johannes H. W.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to analyze the results of a multimodality treatment using preoperative radiotherapy, followed by surgery and intraoperative radiotherapy in patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: Between 1987 and 2002, 123 patients with initial unresectable an

  5. Whither papillon? Future directions for contact radiotherapy in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, J; Gerard, J P; Sun Myint, A;

    2007-01-01

    Although contact radiotherapy was developed 70 years ago, and is highly effective with cure rates of over 90% for early rectal cancer, there are few centres that offer this treatment today. One reason is the lack of replacement of ageing contact X-ray machines, many of which are now over 30 years...

  6. Anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer: risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, C A; Andreasen, A H; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify risk factors for clinical anastomotic leakage (AL) after anterior resection for rectal cancer in a consecutive national cohort. METHOD: All patients with an initial first diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma were prospectively registered in a national...

  7. Prototype of a rectal wall ultrasound image analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Ng, Wan S.; Abeyratne, Udantha R.; Tsang, Charles B.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a software system prototype for rectal wall ultrasound image processing, image display and 3D reconstruction and visualization of the rectal wall structure, which is aimed to help surgeons cope with large quantities of rectal wall ultrasound images. On the core image processing algorithm part, a novel multigradient field active contour model proposed by authors is used to complete the multi-layer boundary detection of the rectal wall. A novel unifying active contour model, which combines region information, gradient information and contour's internal constraint, is developed for tumor boundary detection. The region statistical information is described accurately by Gaussian Mixture Model, whose parameter solution is computed by Expectation-Maximization algorithm. The whole system is set up on Java platform. Java JAI technology is used for 2D image display, Java3D technology is employed for 3D reconstruction and visualization. The system prototype is currently composed of three main modules: image processing, image display and 3D visualization.

  8. Association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and human rectal tumor or liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohong Jiang; Limin Lun; Liyuan Cong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rectal carcinoma and hepatocarcinoma genesis. Methods: The PAHs in the human rectal cancer and liver cancer tissues, the adjacent tissues and homologous tissues without rectal cancer or liver cancer were extracted by ultrasonic wave. The extracts were then cleaned up and enriched by solid phase extraction, analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence spectroscopy. Results: Four kinds of PAHs were detected in human rectal and hepatic tissues. The contents of pyrene, 2-methylanthracene and benzo (a) pyrene in both rectal cancer tissues and adjacent homologous tissues were higher than rectal tissues without rectal cancer, the differences were statistically significant (P 0.05). The differences of the content of each PAHs between rectal cancer and adjacent tissue were not significant (P > 0.05). The contents of the four PAHs in the three kinds of liver tis-sues were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: PAHs are found in human rectal tissues or hepatic tissues. The contents of PAHs in human rectal tissue may have an effect on the occurrence of human rectal cancer while the contents of PAHs in human hepatic tissues may have not ones.

  9. Gastric heterotopia of rectum in a child: a mimicker of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Lone, Khurram; Al-Sofyani, Medhat; El Bagir, Asim

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding per rectum is an uncommon presentation in pediatric patients. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum is a rare cause of rectal bleeding. Here, we report a 3-year-old child with a bleeding rectal ulcer that was initially diagnosed and managed as a solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. After 1 month, the patient persisted to have intermittent rectal bleed and severe anal pain. Repeat colonoscopy showed the worsening of the rectal ulcer in size. Pediatric surgeon excised the ulcer, and histopathological examination revealed a gastric fundic-type mucosa consistent with the diagnosis of gastric heterotopia of the rectum. Over the following 18 months, our patient had experienced no rectal bleeding and remained entirely asymptomatic. In conclusion, heterotopic gastric mucosa of the rectum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a bleeding rectal ulcer.

  10. Pre-slaughter rectal temperature as an indicator of pork meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Geers, R

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates whether rectal temperature of pigs, prior to slaughter, can give an indication of the risk of developing pork with PSE characteristics. A total of 1203 pigs were examined, measuring the rectal temperature just before stunning, of which 794 rectal temperatures were measured immediately after stunning. pH30LT (M. Longissimus thoracis) and temperature of the ham (Temp30Ham) were collected from about 530 carcasses, 30 min after sticking. The results present a significant positive linear correlation between rectal temperature just before and after slaughter, and Temp30Ham. Moreover, pH30LT is negatively correlated with rectal temperature and Temp30Ham. Finally, a linear mixed model for pH30LT was established with the rectal temperature of the pigs just before stunning and the lairage time. This model defines that measuring rectal temperature of pigs just before slaughter allows discovery of pork with PSE traits, taking into account pre-slaughter conditions.

  11. An Introduction to Intelligent Sensory Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪奕; 丁永生

    2004-01-01

    Sensory evaluation is the evaluation of signals that a buman receives via its sensory organs. Nowadays sensory evaluation is widely used in quality inspection and quality control of products. and many other fields. Actually sensory evaluation always give. uncertain and inprecise results, therefore it derivates many problems. we reviews in detail these problem and give some cumputing methods to resolve them.

  12. Rectal premedication in pediatric anesthesia: midazolam versus ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirian N

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premedication is widely used in pediatric anesthesia to reduce emotional trauma and ensure smooth induction. The rectal route is one of the most commonly accepted means of drug administration. The aim of our study was to investigate and compare the efficacy of rectally administered midazolam versus that of ketamine as a premedication in pediatric patients.Methods: We performed a prospective randomized double-blinded clinical trial in 64 children, 1 to 10 years of age, randomly allocated into two groups. The midazolam group received 0.5 mg/kg rectal midazolam and the ketamine group received 5 mg/kg rectal ketamine. The preoperative sedation scores were evaluated on a three-point scale. The anxiolysis and mask acceptance scores were evaluated separately on a four-point scale, with ease of parental separation, based on the presence or lack of crying, evaluated on a two-point scale. Results: Neither medication showed acceptable sedation (>75%, with no significant difference in sedation score between the two groups (P=0.725. Anxiolysis and mask acceptance using either midazolam or ketamine were acceptable, with  midazolam performing significantly better than ketamine (P=0.00 and P=0.042, respectively. Ease of parental separation was seen in both groups without significant difference (P=0.288 and no major adverse effects, such as apnea, occurred in either group.Conclusions: Rectal midazolam is more effective than ketamine in anxiolysis and mask acceptance. Although they both can ease separation anxiety in children before surgery, we found neither drug to be acceptable for sedation.

  13. Focal Dystonia and the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePerruchoud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing accurate movements requires preparation, execution, and monitoring mechanisms. The first two are coded by the motor system, and the latter by the sensory system. To provide an adaptive neural basis to overt behaviors, motor and sensory information has to be properly integrated in a reciprocal feedback loop. Abnormalities in this sensory-motor loop are involved in movement disorders such as focal dystonia, a hyperkinetic alteration affecting only a specific body part and characterized by sensory and motor deficits in the absence of basic motor impairments. Despite the fundamental impact of sensory-motor integration mechanisms on daily life, the general principles of healthy and pathological anatomic-functional organization of sensory-motor integration remain to be clarified. Based on the available data from experimental psychology, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging, we propose a bio-computational model of sensory-motor integration: the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE. Aiming at direct therapeutic implementations and with the final target of implementing novel intervention protocols for motor rehabilitation, our main goal is to provide the information necessary for further validating the SMILE model. By translating neuroscientific hypotheses into empirical investigations and clinically relevant questions, the prediction based on the SMILE model can be further extended to other pathological conditions characterized by impaired sensory-motor integration.

  14. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin;

    2010-01-01

    =-8, pressure). Hyperalgesia for various modalities were found in 80% of patients, with pressure hyperalgesia in approximately 65%, and cutaneous (mechanical or thermal) hyperalgesia in approximately 35% of patients. The paradoxical combination of tactile hypoesthesia and hyperalgesia was seen...... patients with pain related impairment of everyday activities were compared with normative data from 40 pain-free postherniotomy patients operated>1 year previously. Z-values showed a large variation in sensory disturbances ranging from pronounced detection hypoesthesia (Z=6, cold) to pain hyperalgesia (Z...... in approximately 25% of patients. Increased pain from repetitive tactile and/or brush stimulation was found in 51%, suggesting a role of altered central nociceptive function in this subpopulation. A high incidence (26%) of pressure hyperalgesia was found in the contralateral groin, with a significant correlation...

  15. Effect of rectal enemas on rectal dosimetric parameters during high-dose-rate vaginal cuff brachytherapy. A prospective trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabater, Sebastia; Andres, Ignacio; Sevillano, Marimar; Berenguer, Roberto; Aguayo, Manuel; Villas, Maria Victoria [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete (CHUA), Department of Radiation Oncology, Albacete (Spain); Gascon, Marina; Arenas, Meritxell [Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Reus (Spain); Rovirosa, Angeles; Camacho-Lopez, Cristina [University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Gynecological Cancer Unit, Radiation Oncology Department, ICMHO, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the effects of rectal enemas on rectal doses during postoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB). This prospective trial included 59 patients. Two rectal cleansing enemas were self-administered before the second fraction, and fraction 1 was considered the basal status. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) values were generated for the rectum and correlated with rectal volume variation. Statistical analyses used paired and unpaired t-tests. Despite a significant 15 % reduction in mean rectal volume (44.07 vs. 52.15 cc, p = 0.0018), 35.6 % of patients had larger rectums after rectal enemas. No significant rectal enema-related DVH differences were observed compared to the basal data. Although not statistically significant, rectal cleansing-associated increases in mean rectal DVH values were observed: D{sub 0.1} {sub cc}: 6.6 vs. 7.21 Gy; D{sub 1} {sub cc}: 5.35 vs. 5.52 Gy; D{sub 2} {sub cc}: 4.67 vs. 4.72 Gy, before and after rectal cleaning, respectively (where D{sub x} {sub cc} is the dose to the most exposed x cm {sup 3}). No differences were observed in DVH parameters according to rectal volume increase or decrease after the enema. Patients whose rectal volume increased also had significantly larger DVH parameters, except for D{sub 5} {sub %}, D{sub 25} {sub %}, and D{sub 50} {sub %}. In contrast, in patients whose rectal volume decreased, significance was only seen for D{sub 25} {sub %} and D{sub 50} {sub %} (D{sub x} {sub %} dose covering x % of the volume). In the latter patients, nonsignificant reductions in D{sub 2} {sub cc}, D{sub 5} {sub cc} and V{sub 5} {sub Gy} (volume receiving at least 5 Gy) were observed. The current rectal enemas protocol was ineffective in significantly modifying rectal DVH parameters for HDR-VCB. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung der Auswirkungen von rektalen Dosen waehrend postoperativer High-Dose-Rate-(HDR-)Brachytherapie an der Scheidenmanschette (''vaginal cuff brachytherapy'', VCB). An

  16. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  17. The Prognostic Value of Circumferential Resection Margin Involvement in Patients with Extraperitoneal Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Woo; Shin, Jin Yong; Oh, Sung Jin; Park, Jong Kwon; Yu, Hyeon; Ahn, Min Sung; Bae, Ki Beom; Hong, Kwan Hee; Ji, Yong Il

    2016-04-01

    The prognostic influence of circumferential resection margin (CRM) status in extraperitoneal rectal cancer probably differs from that of intraperitoneal rectal cancer because of its different anatomical and biological behaviors. However, previous reports have not provided the data focused on extraperitoneal rectal cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the prognostic significance of the CRM status in patients with extraperitoneal rectal cancer. From January 2005 to December 2008, 248 patients were treated for extraperitoneal rectal cancer and enrolled in a prospectively collected database. Extraperitoneal rectal cancer was defined based on tumors located below the anterior peritoneal reflection, as determined intraoperatively by a surgeon. Cox model was used for multivariate analysis to examine risk factors of recurrence and mortality in the 248 patients, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of recurrence and mortality in 135 patients with T3 rectal cancer. CRM involvement for extraperitoneal rectal cancer was present in 29 (11.7%) of the 248 patients, and was the identified predictor of local recurrence, overall recurrence, and death by multivariate Cox analysis. In the 135 patients with T3 cancer, CRM involvement was found to be associated with higher probability of local recurrence and mortality. In extraperitoneal rectal cancer, CRM involvement is an independent risk factor of recurrence and survival. Based on the results of the present study, it seems that CRM involvement in extraperitoneal rectal cancer is considered an indicator for (neo)adjuvant therapy rather than conventional TN status.

  18. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  19. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSN/HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system that predominantly affect the sensory and autonomic neurons. Hallmark features comprise not only prominent sensory signs and symptoms and ulcerative mutilations but also variable autonomic and motor disturbances. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance has been reported. Molecular genetics studies have identified disease-causing mutations in 11 genes. Some of the affected proteins have nerve-specific roles but underlying mechanisms have also been shown to involve sphingolipid metabolism, vesicular transport, structural integrity, and transcription regulation. Genetic and functional studies have substantially improved the understanding of the pathogenesis of the HSN/HSAN and will help to find preventive and causative therapies in the future.

  20. Sensory nerve conduction studies in neuralgic amyotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alfen, Nens; Huisman, Willem J; Overeem, S; van Engelen, B G M; Zwarts, M J

    2009-11-01

    Neuralgic amyotrophy is a painful, episodic peripheral nerve disorder localized to the brachial plexus. Sensory symptoms occur in 80% of the patients. We assessed the frequency of abnormalities in sensory nerve conduction studies of the lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous, radial sensory, median sensory, and ulnar sensory nerves in 112 patients. Sensory nerve conduction studies showed abnormalities in nerves, even when the nerve was clinically affected. The lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves were most often abnormal, in 15% and 17% of nerves. No correlation with the presence or localization of clinical deficits was found. Brachial plexus sensory nerve conduction studies seem to be of little diagnostic value in neuralgic amyotrophy. Our findings also indicate that some sensory lesions may be in the nerve roots instead of the plexus. An examination of normal sensory nerve conduction studies does not preclude neuralgic amyotrophy as a diagnosis.

  1. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yasuyuki, E-mail: onoyasy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: kariyas@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Miyuki, E-mail: nakatanm@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rie, E-mail: yagir@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kono, Yumiko, E-mail: kohnoy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kan, Naoki, E-mail: kanna@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Ueno, Yutaka, E-mail: uenoyut@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: komemush@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru, E-mail: tanigano@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.

  2. Synchronous rectal and gastric cancer in a fighter pilot: aeromedical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guo-Li; Wei, Xue-Ming; Xu, Xian-Rong; Li, De-Chang; Wang, Shi-Lin; Gu, Jin

    2013-06-01

    Synchronous cancer of the stomach and rectum is very rare. In a special population of pilots, especially fighter pilots, synchronous rectal and gastric cancer is much more uncommon. We herein report a case of synchronous carcinoma of the rectum and stomach. The patient was a 44-year-old male fighter pilot who complained with bloody stool and altered bowel habits. He was diagnosed with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer with a definite family history, and subsequently he underwent simultaneous low anterior resection and distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy. Postoperative pathologic assessment showed a poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with signet ring cell components (pT2N1M0; stage IIb) and a moderately differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma with myxoid components (pT3N0M0; stage IIa). Both tumors showed positive expression of p53, Ki-67, VEGF, carcinoembryonic antigen, MRP, TS, P-gp, and TopoII, and negative expression of c-erbB2, CD34, CD31, D2-40, S-100, FVIII, MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 oncoproteins. Six cycles of XELOX chemotherapy and 50 Gy/25 f radiotherapy were delivered postoperatively. Now, he has returned to his work under medical observation for about 6 months. From this patient's diagnosis and treatment, we think that the gene screening should be used in pilot selection. According to the result of gene screening, we can give pertinence examinations to the target organ of genes. It is very necessary for pilots to keep keen vigilance at gastrointestinal tumors because they have to face many high-risk factors in working. As to pilots, the selection of operation should be individualized.

  3. Congenital cutis laxa with rectal and uterovaginal prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv V Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-month-old female infant born of a consanguineous marriage, presented with loose, wrinkled and inelastic skin over the neck, axillae, trunk, inguinal region and thighs with slow elastic recoil. Patient also had systemic manifestations in the form of bilateral apical lobe consolidation of lung, bilateral inguinal hernia, rectal and uterovaginal prolapse. Histopathological examination of skin biopsy with special stain for elastic tissue revealed absence of dermal elastic tissue. Genital abnormalities in patients with congenital cutis laxa have been reported rarely. But rectal and uterovaginal prolapse have not been reported at an early age of two months. In the absence of mutational screening, with history and clinical findings our case is likely to be Type I autosomal recessive form of congenital cutis laxa.

  4. Personalized surgery for rectal tumours: the patient's opinion counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audisio, R A; Filiberti, A; Geraghty, J G; Andreoni, B

    1997-01-01

    In recent times there have been many important changes in the surgical management of rectal cancer. The general thrust of these changes has been towards a less invasive approach with preservation of intestinal continuity and avoidance of the psychological sequelae of a stoma. It is also becoming increasingly apparent that profound sexual and autonomic dysfunction can be associated with abdominoperineal resection. This paper highlights these issues and the conflict between performing an adequate oncological procedure and reducing the incidence of postoperative psychological morbidity. It outlines the great changes there have been in surgical technique and their relevance to psychological problems after surgery for rectal cancer. The need for auditing psychological morbidity when assessing the outcome of surgical series is emphasised, as is the importance of involving the patient in the medical decision making.

  5. Differential radiodiagnosis of draining pararectal cysts and rectal fistulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushnikova, V.N.; Savvateeva, N.Yu.; Arablinskij, V.M.

    Proceeding from an analysis of multimodality examination and treatment of patients with difficulties in differential diagnosis, it has been established that proctography and fistulography play the most important role in radiodiagnosis. The presence of a multichamber cavity with clear even contours at the level of the medium- or lower ampullar region of the rectum is characteristic of draining pararectal cysts. The fustulous passage is single and unramified. Usually there is no connection between the cavity and fistula with the rectum. In rectal fistulas as a result of chronic periproctites the cavity is single, of uneven shape with unclear irregular contours at the level of the anal canal or lower ampullar region of the rectum. The fustulous passage is ramified, frequently connected with the rectal lumen.

  6. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, J.; Engholm, G.; Ehrnrooth, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates four patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based oil cancer register data. differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries ill ...... for high quality and detailed data in order to understand international survival differences, and cautions comparisons between large national samples and those of smaller areas. (C) 2009 UICC Udgivelsesdato: 2009/11/15...... included. Age standardized 5-year relative survival and multiplicative regression models for the relative excess mortality were calculated. 3888 patients were included in the survival study. Men in Denmark, Finland and Iceland hall lower 5-year relative survival and poorer stage distribution compared...

  7. Management of stage Ⅳ rectal cancer:Palliative options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sean M Ronnekleiv-Kelly; Gregory D Kennedy

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with rectal cancer present with metastatic disease.Many of these patients have symptoms of bleeding or obstruction.Several treatment options are available to deal with the various complications that may afflict these patients.Endorectal stenting,laser ablation,and operative resection are a few of the options available to the patient with a malignant large bowel obstruction.A thorough understanding of treatment options will ensure the patient is offered the most effective therapy with the least amount of associated morbidity.In this review,we describe various options for palliation of symptoms in patients with metastatic rectal cancer.Additionally,we briefly discuss treatment for asymptomatic patients with metastatic disease.

  8. Treatment tactics in patient with rectal cancer complicating ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Barsukov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A successful treatment of a young patient with a 15-year anamnesis of ulcerative colitis, who has been diagnosed with rectal cancer, is presented in this case report. A non-standard surgical intervention has been performed following all principles of oncologic surgery. A subtotal colectomy has been performed with ultra-low anterior resection of rectum. Ascendoanal anastomosis has been performed forming the neo-rectum. There were no complications in postoperative period. Considering disease stage (T3N1M0 adjuvant XELOX was administered for 6 months along with 2 cycles of prophylactic treatment with 5-aminosalycilic acid. During 2-years follow-up there are no signs of rectal cancer and ulcerative colitis progression. After pelvic electrostimulation defecation frequency decreased to 3–4 times per day, a patient has complete social rehabilitation.

  9. The influence of hormone therapies on colon and rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Keiding, Niels;

    2016-01-01

    followed 1995-2009. Information on HT exposures was from the National Prescription Register and updated daily, while information on colon (n = 8377) and rectal cancers (n = 4742) were from the National Cancer Registry. Potential confounders were obtained from other national registers. Poisson regression...... analyses with 5-year age bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. Use of estrogen-only therapy and combined therapy were associated with decreased risks of colon cancer (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.77, 95 % confidence interval 0.68-0.86 and 0.88, 0.80-0.96) and rectal cancer (0......Exogenous sex hormones seem to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Little is known about the influence of different types or durations of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on colorectal cancer risk. A nationwide cohort of women 50-79 years old without previous cancer (n = 1,006,219) were...

  10. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: A clinicopathological study of 13 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Brahim Nabeel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS is a rare disorder that has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation and variable endoscopic findings. To further characterize the clinical and pathological features, a retrospective, hospital-based clinicopathological study was conducted. Materials and Methods: All cases of SRUS diagnosed at Farwania Hospital, Kuwait, between 2002 and 2007 were retrieved from the computerized filing system. The histological slides were reviewed by two authors to confirm the diagnosis. Immunohistochemical stain for smooth muscle actin (SMA was performed. The clinical files were reviewed for clinical features and endoscopic findings. Results: Thirteen cases were identified: 8 males and 5 females. The age range was 15-85. Rectal bleeding, constipation, and abdominal pain were the most common presenting symptoms and were seen, either alone or in various combinations, in 12 of the 13 cases. Rectal ulceration was the most common endoscopic finding, being seen in 9 of the13 cases; 3 of these cases had multiple ulcerations. Two patients had rectal polyps, with one of them having multiple polyps. The histological examination revealed surface serration, fibromuscular obliteration of the lamina propria, and crypts′ distortion in all the cases. Seven of the cases had diamond crypts. Ectatic mucosal vessels were a common finding. Positivity for SMA in the lamina propria was seen in all examined cases. Conclusion: SRUS is a rare disorder and only 13 cases were diagnosed in Farwania hospital over a 6-year period. The clinical presentation of our patients was variable. The presence of polyps and multiple ulcerations on endoscopy is further evidence that SRUS is a misnomer. Surface serration, fibromuscular obliteration, and crypts′ distortion are the most characteristic features. The presence of diamond crypts is an additional diagnostic feature.

  11. The immunohistochemical demonstration of Helicobacter pylori in rectal ectopia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrigan, Mark Anthony

    2009-08-01

    The finding of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum is rare, with less than 40 reported cases in the literature. A condition of unknown etiology, several hypotheses exist including infectious and congenital. We report a case of ectopic gastric tissue in the rectum of a 47-year-old female, and her subsequent clinical course. Furthermore for the first time, we present immunohistologic evidence of the presence of Helicobacter pylori in rectal ectopic gastric tissue.

  12. Post hemorrhoidectomy pain control: rectal Diclofenac versus Acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Anal surgeries are prevalent, but they didn't perform as outpatient surgeries because of concerns about postoperative pain. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of rectal acetaminophen and diclofenac on postoperative analgesia after anal surgeries in adult patients. "nMethods: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study 60 ASA class I or II scheduled for haemorrhoidectomy, anal fissure or fistula repair, were randomized (with block randomization method to receive either a single dose of 650 mg rectal acetaminophen (n=20, 100 mg rectal diclofenac (n=20 or placebo suppositories (n=20 after the operation. The severity of pain, time to first request of analgesic agent after administration of suppositories and complications were compared between three groups. Pain scores were evaluated in patients by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS in 0 (after complete consciousness in recovery, 2, 4, 12 and 24 hours after surgery. The period between administration of the suppositories and the patients' first request to receive analgesic was compared between groups. "nResults: Pain scores were lower significantly in rectal diclofenac than the other groups. The period between administration of the suppositories and the patients' first request to receive analgesic in diclofenac group was 219±73 minutes, was significantly longer compared with placebo (153±47 minutes and acetaminophen (178±64 minutes groups. No complications were reported. "nConclusions: Diclofenac suppository is more effective than acetaminophen suppository in post hemorrhoidectomy pain management.

  13. Robotic anterior resection of rectal cancer: technique and early outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiao-hui; SHEN Di; LI Rong; LI Song-yan; NING Ning; ZHAO Yun-shan; ZOU Zhen-yu

    2013-01-01

    Background The Da Vinci system is a newly developed device for colorectal surgery.With advanced stereoscopic vision,lack of tremor,and the ability to rotate the instruments surgeons find that robotic systems are ideal laparoscopic tools.Since conventional laparoscopic total mesorectal excision is a challenging procedure,we have sought to assess the utility of the Da Vinci robotic system in anterior resections for rectal cancer.Methods Between November 2010 and December 2011,a total of 22 patients affected by rectal cancer were operated on with robotic technique,using the Da Vinci robot.Data regarding the outcome and pathology reports were prospectively collected in a dedicated database.Results There were no conversions to open surgery and no postoperative mortality of any patient.Mean operative time was (220±46) minutes (range,152-286 minutes).The median number of lymph nodes harvested was (14.6±6.5) (range,8-32),and the circumferential margin was negative in all cases.The distal margin was (2.6±1.2) cm (range,1.0-5.5 cm).The mean length of hospital stay was (7.8+2.6) days (range,7.0-13.0 days).Macroscopic grading of the specimen was complete in 19 cases and neady complete in three patients.Conclusions Robotic anterior resection for rectal surgery is safe and feasible in experienced hands.Outcome and pathology findings are comparable with those observed in open and laparoscopy procedures.This technique may facilitate minimally invasive radical rectal surgery.

  14. Transcriptomic Profiles Differentiate Normal Rectal Epithelium and Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is a histologic diagnosis based on subjective findings. Transcriptional profiles have been used to differentiate normal tissue from disease and could provide a means of identifying malignancy. The goal of this study was to generate and test transcriptomic profiles that differentiate normal from adenocarcinomatous rectum. Comparisons were made between cDNA microarrays derived from normal epithelium and rectal adenocarcinoma. Results were filtered according to standard deviation ...

  15. The effect of hysterectomy on ano-rectal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J L

    2012-02-03

    Hysterectomy is associated with severe constipation in a subgroup of patients, and an adverse effect on colonic motility has been described in the literature. The onset of irritable bowel syndrome and urinary bladder dysfunction has also been reported after hysterectomy. In this prospective study, we investigated the effect of simple hysterectomy on ano-rectal physiology and bowel function. Thirty consecutive patients were assessed before and 16 weeks after operation. An abdominal hysterectomy was performed in 16 patients, and a vaginal procedure was performed in 14. The parameters measured included the mean resting, and maximal forced voluntary contraction anal pressures, the recto-anal inhibitory reflex, and rectal sensation to distension. In 8 patients, the terminal motor latency of the pudendal nerve was assessed bilaterally. Pre-operatively, 8 patients were constipated. This improved following hysterectomy in 4, worsened in 2, and was unchanged in 2. Symptomatology did not correlate with changes in manometry. Although, the mean resting pressure was reduced after hysterectomy (57 mmHg-53 mmHg, P = 0.0541), the maximal forced voluntary contraction pressure was significantly decreased (115 mmHg-105 mmHg, P = 0.029). This effect was more pronounced in those with five or more previous vaginal deliveries (P = 0.0244, n = 9). There was no significant change in the number of patients with an intact ano-rectal inhibitory reflex after hysterectomy. There was no change in rectal sensation to distension, and the right and left pudendal nerve terminal motor latencies were unaltered at follow-up. Our results demonstrate that hysterectomy causes a decrease in the maximal forced voluntary contraction and pressure, and this appears to be due to a large decrease in a small group of patients with previous multiple vaginal deliveries.

  16. Female urogenital dysfunction following total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ashraf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of Total Mesorectal Excision (TME on sexual function in the male is well documented. However, there is little literature in female patients. The aim of this study was to review the pelvic autonomic nervous anatomy in the female and to perform a retrospective audit of urinary and sexual function in women following surgery for rectal cancer where TME had been performed. Urogenital dysfunction was assessed through interview and questionnaire. Method Twenty-three questionnaires, eighteen returned, were sent to women with a mean age 65.5 yrs (range 34–86. All had undergone total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer between 1998–2001. Mean follow-up was 18.8 months (range 3–35. Results Preoperatively 5/18 (28% were sexually active, 3/18 (17% of patients described urinary frequency and nocturia and 7/18 (39% described symptoms of stress incontinence prior to surgery. Postoperatively all sexually active patients remained active although all described some discomfort with penetration. Two of the patients sexually active described reduced libido secondary to the stoma. Postoperative urinary symptoms developed with 59% reporting the development of nocturia, 18% developed stress incontinence and one patient required a permanent catheter. Of those with symptoms, 80% persisted longer than three months from surgery. Symptoms were predominant in those patients with low rectal cancers, particularly those undergoing abdomino-perineal excision and in those who had previously undergone abdominal hysterectomy. Conclusion The treatment of rectal cancer involves surgery to the pelvic floor. Despite nerve preservation this is associated with the development of worsening nocturia and stress incontinence. This is most marked in those patients who had previously undergone a hysterectomy. Further studies are warranted to assess the interaction with previous gynaecological surgery.

  17. Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Branden M; Brunell, Marla K; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature is a common physiologic parameter measured in both clinical and research settings, with rectal thermometry being implied as the ‘gold standard.’ However, rectal thermometry usually requires physical or chemical restraint, potentially causing falsely elevated readings due to animal stress. A less stressful method may eliminate this confounding variable. The current study compared 2 types of digital rectal thermometers—a calibrated digital thermometer and a common digital thermometer—with an implantable subcutaneous transponder microchip. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously between the shoulder blades of 16 ferrets (8 male, 8 female), and temperatures were measured twice from the microchip reader and once from each of the rectal thermometers. Results demonstrated the microchip temperature readings had very good to good correlation and agreement to those from both of the rectal thermometers. This study indicates that implantable temperature-sensing microchips are a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for monitoring body temperature in ferrets. PMID:27177569

  18. Clinical application of multimodality imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Yang; Zhe, Hong

    2013-12-11

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of rectal cancer. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy are mainstay techniques of radiotherapy for rectal cancer. However, the success of these techniques is heavily reliant on accurate target delineation and treatment planning. Computed tomography simulation is a cornerstone of rectal cancer radiotherapy, but there are limitations, such as poor soft-tissue contrast between pelvic structures and partial volume effects. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) can overcome these limitations and provide additional information for rectal cancer treatment planning. PET can also reduce the interobserver variation in the definition of rectal tumor volume. However, there is a long way to go before these image modalities are routinely used in the clinical setting. This review summarizes the most promising studies on clinical applications of multimodality imaging in target delineation and treatment planning for rectal cancer radiotherapy.

  19. GLUT-1 expression and response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Sarah; Sheehan, Katherine M; McNamara, Deborah A; Deasy, Joseph; Bouchier-Hayes, David J; Kay, Elaine W

    2009-12-15

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is used in locally advanced rectal cancer to reduce local recurrence and improve operability, however a proportion of tumors do not undergo significant regression. Identification of predictive markers of response to chemoradiotherapy would improve patient selection and may allow response modification by targeting of specific pathways. The aim of this study was to determine whether expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and p53 in pretreatment rectal cancer biopsies was predictive of tumor response to chemoradiotherapy. Immunohistochemical staining for GLUT-1 and p53 was performed on 69 pretreatment biopsies and compared to tumor response in the resected specimen as determined by the tumor regression grade (TRG) scoring system. GLUT-1 expression was significantly associated with reduced response to chemoradiotherapy and increasing GLUT expression correlated with poorer response (p=0.02). GLUT-1 negative tumors had a 70% probability of good response (TRG3/4) compared to a 31% probability of good response in GLUT-1 positive tumors. GLUT-1 may be a useful predictive marker of response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer.

  20. GLUT-1 expression and response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brophy, Sarah

    2009-12-15

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is used in locally advanced rectal cancer to reduce local recurrence and improve operability, however a proportion of tumors do not undergo significant regression. Identification of predictive markers of response to chemoradiotherapy would improve patient selection and may allow response modification by targeting of specific pathways. The aim of this study was to determine whether expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and p53 in pretreatment rectal cancer biopsies was predictive of tumor response to chemoradiotherapy. Immunohistochemical staining for GLUT-1 and p53 was performed on 69 pretreatment biopsies and compared to tumor response in the resected specimen as determined by the tumor regression grade (TRG) scoring system. GLUT-1 expression was significantly associated with reduced response to chemoradiotherapy and increasing GLUT expression correlated with poorer response (p=0.02). GLUT-1 negative tumors had a 70% probability of good response (TRG3\\/4) compared to a 31% probability of good response in GLUT-1 positive tumors. GLUT-1 may be a useful predictive marker of response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer.

  1. Ostomies in rectal cancer patients: what is their psychosocial impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenderian, S; Stephens, E K; Jatoi, A

    2014-05-01

    The resection of a low-lying rectal cancer can lead to the creation of an ostomy to discharge fecal material. In view of this reconfiguration of anatomy and life-changing modification of daily bodily functions, it is not surprising that a rapidly growing literature has examined ostomy patients' psychosocial challenges. The current study was designed (1) to systematically review the published literature on these psychosocial challenges and (2) to explore, in a single-institution setting, whether medical oncologists appear to acknowledge the existence of an ostomy during their post-operative evaluations of rectal cancer patients. This systematic review identified that social isolation, sleep deprivation; financial concerns; sexual inhibition; and other such issues are common among patients. Surprisingly, however, in our review of 66 consecutive rectal cancer patients, in 17%, the ostomy was not mentioned at all in the medical record during the first medical oncology visit; and, in one patient, it was never mentioned at all during months of adjuvant chemotherapy. Even in the setting of ostomy complications, the ostomy was not always mentioned. This study underscores the major psychosocial issues cancer patients confront after an ostomy and suggests that healthcare providers of all disciplines should work to remain sensitive to such issues.

  2. Metachronous penile metastasis from rectal cancer after total pelvic exenteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuta Kimura; Dai Shida; Keiichi Nasu; Hiroki Matsunaga; Masahiro Warabi; Satoru Inoue

    2012-01-01

    Despite its abundant vascularization and extensive circulatory communication with neighboring organs,metastases to the penis are a rare event.A 57-yearold male,who had undergone total pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer sixteen months earlier,demonstrated an abnormal uptake within his penis by positron emission tomography/computed tomography.A single elastic nodule of the middle penis shaft was noted deep within Bucks fascia.No other obvious recurrent site was noted except the penile lesion.Total penectomy was performed as a curative resection based on a diagnosis of isolated penile metastasis from rectal cancer.A histopathological examination revealed an increase of well differentiated adenocarcinoma in the corpus spongiosum consistent with his primary rectal tumor.The immunohistochemistry of the tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for cytokeratin 20 and negative staining for cytokeratin 7,which strongly supported a diagnosis of penile metastasis from the rectum.The patient is alive more than two years without any recurrence.

  3. URINARY DYSFUNCTION AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR RECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bray BERALDO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe impact on quality of life attributed to treatment for rectal cancer remains high. Deterioration of the urinary function is a relevant complication within that context.ObjectiveTo detect the presence of urinary dysfunction and its risk factors among individuals underwent surgical treatment for rectal cancer.MethodsThe present prospective study analyzed 42 patients from both genders underwent surgical treatment for rectal adenocarcinoma with curative intent. The version of the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS questionnaire validated for the Portuguese language was applied at two time-points: immediately before and 6 months after surgery. Risk factors for urinary dysfunction were analysed by means of logistic regression and Student’s t-test.ResultsEight (19% participants exhibited moderate-to-severe urinary dysfunction 6 months after surgery; the average IPSS increased from 1.43 at baseline to 4.62 six months after surgery (P<0.001. None of the variables assessed as potential risk factors exhibited statistical significance, i.e., age, gender, distance from tumour to anal margin, neoadjuvant therapy, adjuvant therapy, type of surgery, surgical approach (laparoscopy or laparotomy, and duration of surgery.ConclusionThis study identified an incidence of 19% of moderate to severe urinary dysfuction after 6 months surveillance. No risk factor for urinary dysfunction was identified in this population.

  4. Rectal swabs for analysis of the intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Andries E; Grasman, Matthijs E; Eck, Anat; Bogaards, Johannes A; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with various disease states, most notably inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and malnutrition. This underlines that analysis of intestinal microbiota is potentially an interesting target for clinical diagnostics. Currently, the most commonly used sample types are feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Because sampling method, storage and processing of samples impact microbiota analysis, each sample type has its own limitations. An ideal sample type for use in routine diagnostics should be easy to obtain in a standardized fashion without perturbation of the microbiota. Rectal swabs may satisfy these criteria, but little is known about microbiota analysis on these sample types. In this study we investigated the characteristics and applicability of rectal swabs for gut microbiota profiling in a clinical routine setting in patients presenting with various gastro-intestinal disorders. We found that rectal swabs appeared to be a convenient means of sampling the human gut microbiota. Swabs can be performed on demand, whenever a patient presents; swab-derived microbiota profiles are reproducible, whether they are gathered at home by patients or by medical professionals in an outpatient setting and may be ideally suited for clinical diagnostics and large-scale studies.

  5. Rectal swabs for analysis of the intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries E Budding

    Full Text Available The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with various disease states, most notably inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and malnutrition. This underlines that analysis of intestinal microbiota is potentially an interesting target for clinical diagnostics. Currently, the most commonly used sample types are feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Because sampling method, storage and processing of samples impact microbiota analysis, each sample type has its own limitations. An ideal sample type for use in routine diagnostics should be easy to obtain in a standardized fashion without perturbation of the microbiota. Rectal swabs may satisfy these criteria, but little is known about microbiota analysis on these sample types. In this study we investigated the characteristics and applicability of rectal swabs for gut microbiota profiling in a clinical routine setting in patients presenting with various gastro-intestinal disorders. We found that rectal swabs appeared to be a convenient means of sampling the human gut microbiota. Swabs can be performed on demand, whenever a patient presents; swab-derived microbiota profiles are reproducible, whether they are gathered at home by patients or by medical professionals in an outpatient setting and may be ideally suited for clinical diagnostics and large-scale studies.

  6. Critical appraisal of laparoscopic vs open rectal cancer surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Winson Jianhong Tan; Min Hoe Chew; Angela Renayanti Dharmawan; Manraj Singh; Sanchalika Acharyya; Carol Tien Tau Loi; Choong Leong Tang

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the long-term clinical and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic rectal resection(LRR) and the impact of conversion in patients with rectal cancer.METHODS:An analysis was performed on a prospective database of 633 consecutive patients with rectal cancer who underwent surgical resection.Patients were compared in three groups:Open surgery(OP),laparoscopic surgery,and converted laparoscopic surgery.Short-term outcomes,long-term outcomes,and survival analysis were compared.RESULTS:Among 633 patients studied,200 patients had successful laparoscopic resections with a conversion rate of 11.1%(25 out of 225).Factors predictive of survival on univariate analysis include the laparoscopic approach(P = 0.016),together with factors such as age,ASA status,stage of disease,tumor grade,presence of perineural invasion and vascular emboli,circumferential resection margin < 2 mm,and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.The survival benefit of laparoscopic surgery was no longer significant on multivariateanalysis(P = 0.148).Neither 5-year overall survival(70.5% vs 61.8%,P = 0.217) nor 5-year cancer free survival(64.3% vs 66.6%,P = 0.854) were significantly different between the laparoscopic group and the converted group.CONCLUSION:LRR has equivalent long-term oncologic out c ome s w he n c ompare d t o OP.Laparos c opic conversion does not confer a worse prognosis.

  7. Synchronous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectal Carcinoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamshidhar Vootla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary colonic adenocarcinoma and synchronous rectal carcinoids are rare tumors. Whenever a synchronous tumor with a nonmetastatic carcinoid component is encountered, its prognosis is determined by the associate malignancy. The discovery of an asymptomatic gastrointestinal carcinoid during the operative treatment of another malignancy will usually only require resection without additional treatment and will have little effect on the prognosis of the individual. This article reports a synchronous rectal carcinoid in a patient with hepatic flexure adenocarcinoma. We present a case of a 46-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of hypothyroidism, uterine fibroids and hypercholesterolemia presenting with a 2-week history of intermittent abdominal pain, mainly in the right upper quadrant. She had no family history of cancers. Physical examination was significant for pallor. Laboratory findings showed microcytic anemia with a hemoglobin of 6.6 g/dl. CT abdomen showed circumferential wall thickening in the ascending colon near the hepatic flexure and pulmonary nodules. Colonoscopy showed hepatic flexure mass and rectal nodule which were biopsied. Pathology showed a moderately differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma of the colon (hepatic flexure mass and a low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm (carcinoid of rectum. The patient underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and chemotherapy. In patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum, carcinoids could be missed due to their submucosal location, multicentricity and indolent growth pattern. Studies suggest a closer surveillance of the GI tract for noncarcinoid synchronous malignancy when a carcinoid tumor is detected and vice versa.

  8. Synchronous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectal Carcinoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vootla, Vamshidhar; Ahmed, Rafeeq; Niazi, Masooma; Balar, Bhavna; Nayudu, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Primary colonic adenocarcinoma and synchronous rectal carcinoids are rare tumors. Whenever a synchronous tumor with a nonmetastatic carcinoid component is encountered, its prognosis is determined by the associate malignancy. The discovery of an asymptomatic gastrointestinal carcinoid during the operative treatment of another malignancy will usually only require resection without additional treatment and will have little effect on the prognosis of the individual. This article reports a synchronous rectal carcinoid in a patient with hepatic flexure adenocarcinoma. We present a case of a 46-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of hypothyroidism, uterine fibroids and hypercholesterolemia presenting with a 2-week history of intermittent abdominal pain, mainly in the right upper quadrant. She had no family history of cancers. Physical examination was significant for pallor. Laboratory findings showed microcytic anemia with a hemoglobin of 6.6 g/dl. CT abdomen showed circumferential wall thickening in the ascending colon near the hepatic flexure and pulmonary nodules. Colonoscopy showed hepatic flexure mass and rectal nodule which were biopsied. Pathology showed a moderately differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma of the colon (hepatic flexure mass) and a low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm (carcinoid of rectum). The patient underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and chemotherapy. In patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum, carcinoids could be missed due to their submucosal location, multicentricity and indolent growth pattern. Studies suggest a closer surveillance of the GI tract for noncarcinoid synchronous malignancy when a carcinoid tumor is detected and vice versa. PMID:27920648

  9. Sensory imagination and narrative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2013-01-01

    I argue that we can clarify and explain an important form of focalization or narrative perspective by the structure of perspective in sensory imagination. Understanding focalization in this way enables us to see why one particular form of focalization has to do with the representation of perceptu...

  10. Sensory Dissonance Using Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use...

  11. Pyridoxine-Induced Sensory Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    An 18-year-old man with seizures from birth was followed in the Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, and was found to have developed a sensory neuropathy by 2 years of age following treatment with pyridoxine in doses up to 2000 mg/day.

  12. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome presenting as polypoid mass lesions in a young girl

    OpenAIRE

    Saadah, Omar I; Al-Hubayshi, Maram S; Ghanem, Ahmad T

    2010-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare condition in children. We report a case of SRUS in an 8-year old Saudi girl who presented with recurrent rectal bleeding, intermittent mucosal prolapse, and passage of mucus per rectum. Colonoscopy revealed multiple polypoid mass lesions with histopathological features of SRUS. The polypoid variant of SRUS is very rare in children and may be confused with rectal malignant or inflammatory conditions.

  13. Quantification of organ motion during chemoradiotherapy of rectal cancer using cone-beam computed tomography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chong, Irene

    2011-11-15

    There has been no previously published data related to the quantification of rectal motion using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) during standard conformal long-course chemoradiotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the interfractional changes in rectal movement and dimensions and rectal and bladder volume using CBCT and to quantify the bony anatomy displacements to calculate the margins required to account for systematic (Σ) and random (σ) setup errors.

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life after surgery for primary advanced rectal cancer and recurrent rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Henriette Vind; Jess, Per; Laurberg, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A review of the literature was undertaken to provide an overview of Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after surgery for primary advanced or recurrent rectal cancer and to outline proposals for future HRQoL studies in this area. Method: A systematic literature search was undertaken. Only...... studies concerning surgery for primary advanced or recurrent rectal cancer and describing methods used for measuring HRQoL were considered. Results Seven studies were identified including two prospective longitudinal, three cross-sectional and two based on qualitative data. Global quality of life...... cancer. Larger prospective longitudinal studies are needed to improve information on the effects of this extensive surgery on quality of life....

  15. Thermodynamic costs of information processing in sensory adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological sensory systems react to changes in their surroundings. They are characterized by fast response and slow adaptation to varying environmental cues. Insofar as sensory adaptive systems map environmental changes to changes of their internal degrees of freedom, they can be regarded as computational devices manipulating information. Landauer established that information is ultimately physical, and its manipulation subject to the entropic and energetic bounds of thermodynamics. Thus the fundamental costs of biological sensory adaptation can be elucidated by tracking how the information the system has about its environment is altered. These bounds are particularly relevant for small organisms, which unlike everyday computers, operate at very low energies. In this paper, we establish a general framework for the thermodynamics of information processing in sensing. With it, we quantify how during sensory adaptation information about the past is erased, while information about the present is gathered. This process produces entropy larger than the amount of old information erased and has an energetic cost bounded by the amount of new information written to memory. We apply these principles to the E. coli's chemotaxis pathway during binary ligand concentration changes. In this regime, we quantify the amount of information stored by each methyl group and show that receptors consume energy in the range of the information-theoretic minimum. Our work provides a basis for further inquiries into more complex phenomena, such as gradient sensing and frequency response.

  16. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  17. Sensory information and encounter rates of interacting species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Hein

    Full Text Available Most motile organisms use sensory cues when searching for resources, mates, or prey. The searcher measures sensory data and adjusts its search behavior based on those data. Yet, classical models of species encounter rates assume that searchers move independently of their targets. This assumption leads to the familiar mass action-like encounter rate kinetics typically used in modeling species interactions. Here we show that this common approach can mischaracterize encounter rate kinetics if searchers use sensory information to search actively for targets. We use the example of predator-prey interactions to illustrate that predators capable of long-distance directional sensing can encounter prey at a rate proportional to prey density to the [Formula: see text] power (where [Formula: see text] is the dimension of the environment when prey density is low. Similar anomalous encounter rate functions emerge even when predators pursue prey using only noisy, directionless signals. Thus, in both the high-information extreme of long-distance directional sensing, and the low-information extreme of noisy non-directional sensing, encounter rate kinetics differ qualitatively from those derived by classic theory of species interactions. Using a standard model of predator-prey population dynamics, we show that the new encounter rate kinetics derived here can change the outcome of species interactions. Our results demonstrate how the use of sensory information can alter the rates and outcomes of physical interactions in biological systems.

  18. Sensory neurobiological analysis of neuropeptide modulation of meal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary J; Azzara, Anthony V

    2004-08-01

    Gerry Smith's emphasis on the meal as the functional unit of ingestion spurred experiments designed to (1) identify oral and postoral stimuli that affect meal size, and (2) identify peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in the processing of sensory signals generated by these stimuli. His observations that gut-brain peptides can limit meal size were important in formulating the idea that neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake modulate the peripheral and central neural processing of meal-stimulated sensory signals. This focus on meal size continues to foster the development of hypotheses and the design of experiments that characterize the sites and modes of action of feeding modulatory neuropeptides. These investigations have focused attention on the gut-brain neuraxis as a critical sensory pathway in the control of ingestive behavior, and have revealed important integrative properties of peripheral and central neurons along this axis. The neuromodulatory function of peptides that alter food intake is supported by their ability to recruit the activation of neurons at multiple central nodes of the gut-brain axis and to affect the neural processing and behavioral potency of meal-related gastrointestinal signals important in the negative feedback control of meal size. This sensory neurobiological perspective may also be applied to determine whether feeding modulatory neuropeptides affect the neural and behavioral potency of oral positive feedback signals that promote ingestion.

  19. Sensory information and encounter rates of interacting species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Andrew M; McKinley, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Most motile organisms use sensory cues when searching for resources, mates, or prey. The searcher measures sensory data and adjusts its search behavior based on those data. Yet, classical models of species encounter rates assume that searchers move independently of their targets. This assumption leads to the familiar mass action-like encounter rate kinetics typically used in modeling species interactions. Here we show that this common approach can mischaracterize encounter rate kinetics if searchers use sensory information to search actively for targets. We use the example of predator-prey interactions to illustrate that predators capable of long-distance directional sensing can encounter prey at a rate proportional to prey density to the [Formula: see text] power (where [Formula: see text] is the dimension of the environment) when prey density is low. Similar anomalous encounter rate functions emerge even when predators pursue prey using only noisy, directionless signals. Thus, in both the high-information extreme of long-distance directional sensing, and the low-information extreme of noisy non-directional sensing, encounter rate kinetics differ qualitatively from those derived by classic theory of species interactions. Using a standard model of predator-prey population dynamics, we show that the new encounter rate kinetics derived here can change the outcome of species interactions. Our results demonstrate how the use of sensory information can alter the rates and outcomes of physical interactions in biological systems.

  20. Amyloid Beta Peptide Slows Down Sensory-Induced Hippocampal Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peña-Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD progresses with a deterioration of hippocampal function that is likely induced by amyloid beta (Aβ oligomers. Hippocampal function is strongly dependent on theta rhythm, and disruptions in this rhythm have been related to the reduction of cognitive performance in AD. Accordingly, both AD patients and AD-transgenic mice show an increase in theta rhythm at rest but a reduction in cognitive-induced theta rhythm. We have previously found that monomers of the short sequence of Aβ (peptide 25–35 reduce sensory-induced theta oscillations. However, considering on the one hand that different Aβ sequences differentially affect hippocampal oscillations and on the other hand that Aβ oligomers seem to be responsible for the cognitive decline observed in AD, here we aimed to explore the effect of Aβ oligomers on sensory-induced theta rhythm. Our results show that intracisternal injection of Aβ1–42 oligomers, which has no significant effect on spontaneous hippocampal activity, disrupts the induction of theta rhythm upon sensory stimulation. Instead of increasing the power in the theta band, the hippocampus of Aβ-treated animals responds to sensory stimulation (tail pinch with an increase in lower frequencies. These findings demonstrate that Aβ alters induced theta rhythm, providing an in vivo model to test for therapeutic approaches to overcome Aβ-induced hippocampal and cognitive dysfunctions.

  1. Correlation of chromosomal instability, telomere length and telomere maintenance in microsatellite stable rectal cancer: a molecular subclass of rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Boardman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+. However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-. MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: MSS rectal cancers from patients ≤50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]. Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH. RESULTS: Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN- and chromosomally instable (CIN+ by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6 had fewer copy number changes (<17% of their clones with DNA copy number changes than CIN+ tumors (65%; n=13 which had high levels of copy number changes in 20% to 49% of clones. Telomere lengths were longer in CIN- compared to CIN+ tumors (p=0.0066 and in those in which telomerase was not activated (p=0.004. Tumors exhibiting activation of telomerase had shorter tumor telomeres (p=0.0040; and tended to be CIN+ (p=0.0949. CONCLUSIONS: MSS rectal cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase.

  2. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  3. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  4. Development and characterization of chitosan-polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex-based 5-fluorouracil formulations for buccal, vaginal and rectal application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendekal Mohamed S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background of the study The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-fluorouracil (5-FU matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer and surpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC. Methods Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH, ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies. Results FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit. 3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU. Conclusion The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal

  5. Development and Characterization of Chitosan-Polycarbophil Interpolyelectrolyte Complex-Based 5-Flurouracil Formulations for Buccal, Vaginal and Rectal Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Pendekal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background of the study:The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-flurouracil(5-FU matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer andsurpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPECMethods:Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability,weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH, ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies.Results:FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit.3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU.Conclusion:The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal, vaginal and

  6. Age-related changes in human posture control: Sensory organization tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1989-01-01

    Postural control was measured in 214 human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. Sensory organization tests measured the magnitude of anterior-posterior body sway during six 21 s trials in which visual and somatosensory orientation cues were altered (by rotating the visual surround and support surface in proportion to the subject's sway) or vision eliminated (eyes closed) in various combinations. No age-related increase in postural sway was found for subjects standing on a fixed support surface with eyes open or closed. However, age-related increases in sway were found for conditions involving altered visual or somatosensory cues. Subjects older than about 55 years showed the largest sway increases. Subjects younger than about 15 years were also sensitive to alteration of sensory cues. On average, the older subjects were more affected by altered visual cues whereas younger subjects had more difficulty with altered somatosensory cues.

  7. Presacral retroperitoneal hematoma after blunt trauma presents with rectal bleeding — A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Jensen Dich

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Rectal bleed after trauma, in a patient receiving anticoagulant treatment, should raise suspicion of a penetrating hematoma, and such patients should be managed at highly specialized facilities.

  8. Complex rectal polyps: other treatment modalities required when offering a transanal endoscopic microsurgery service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Joyce, Myles R

    2011-09-01

    Complex rectal polyps may present a clinical challenge. The study aim was to assess different treatment modalities required in the management of patients referred for transanal endoscopic microsurgery.

  9. Clinical and therapeutic considerations of rectal lymphoma: A case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yilmaz Bilsel; Emre Balik; Sumer Yamaner; Dursun Bugra

    2005-01-01

    Primary rectal lymphoma is a rare presentation of gastrointestinal lymphomas. Its clinical presentation is indistinguishable from that of rectal carcinoma. Although surgical resection is often technically feasible, optimal therapy for colorectal lymphoma has not yet been identified.We report a case of primary rectal lymphoma (nonHodgkin's large cell lymphoma of type B) with high-grade features that disappeared completely after chemoradiotherapy. This case underlines that primary treatment with systemic chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy can be successful for rectal lymphoma, with surgery reserved for complications and chemotherapy failures.

  10. Social inequalities in stage at diagnosis of rectal but not in colonic cancer: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    among colon cancer patients. The social gradient found in rectal cancer patients was significantly different from the lack of association found among colon cancer patients. There are socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis of a rectal, but not a colonic, cancer....... A reduction in the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis was seen in elderly rectal cancer patients with high income, living in owner-occupied housing and living with a partner. Among younger rectal cancer patients, a reduced risk was seen in those having long education. No social gradient was found...

  11. Subclinical sensory involvement in monomelic amyotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jenny P; Waclawik, Andrew J; Lotz, Barend P

    2005-12-01

    An 18-year-old woman presented with weakness and atrophy in her hand without associated sensory symptoms, preceding events, or structural abnormalities on neuroimaging. No sensory deficits were detected on neurologic examination. Electrophysiological studies showed not only the expected motor findings for monomelic amyotrophy (MA) in the affected limb, but also markedly reduced sensory nerve action potentials when compared with the unaffected side. These findings suggest that subclinical sensory involvement can exist in patients with otherwise classic presentations of MA.

  12. Sensorial analysis of peanuts processed by e-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Salum, Debora C.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The development of the sensorial analysis was influenced by frequent changes in the technology of production and distribution of foods. Currently the sensorial analysis has represented a decisive part in some sectors of the nourishing industry with the purpose to improve the quality of its products. The food irradiation has as purpose to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate the diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. The process of irradiation in the recommended doses causes very few chemical alterations in some foods, the nutritional losses are considered insignificant and some of the alterations known found in irradiated foods is not harmful or dangerous. The present study evaluated the sensorial characteristics of peanuts processed by electron beam machine and was made a test of acceptance using a hedonic scale. Samples of peanut had been processed in the doses of 0, 5 and 7 kGy. Thirty volunteer panelists had participated of that acceptance study. The evaluating parameters were: appearance, odor and flavor. The result showed that the consumers had approved the peanut in the dose of 5 and 7 kGy, not having significant difference between the samples controlled and irradiated. (author)

  13. Improvements of sensorimotor processes during action cascading associated with changes in sensory processing architecture-insights from sensory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Krutika; Hahne, Anja; Beste, Christian

    2016-06-20

    In most everyday situations sensorimotor processes are quite complex because situations often require to carry out several actions in a specific temporal order; i.e. one has to cascade different actions. While it is known that changes to stimuli affect action cascading mechanisms, it is unknown whether action cascading changes when sensory stimuli are not manipulated, but the neural architecture to process these stimuli is altered. In the current study we test this hypothesis using prelingually deaf subjects as a model to answer this question. We use a system neurophysiological approach using event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization techniques. We show that prelingually deaf subjects show improvements in action cascading. However, this improvement is most likely not due to changes at the perceptual (P1-ERP) and attentional processing level (N1-ERP), but due to changes at the response selection level (P3-ERP). It seems that the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is important for these effects to occur, because the TPJ comprises overlapping networks important for the processing of sensory information and the selection of responses. Sensory deprivation thus affects cognitive processes downstream of sensory processing and only these seem to be important for behavioral improvements in situations requiring complex sensorimotor processes and action cascading.

  14. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  15. Sensory nerve conduction studies in neuralgic amyotrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfen, N. van; Huisman, W.J.; Overeem, S.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Zwarts, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Neuralgic amyotrophy is a painful, episodic peripheral nerve disorder localized to the brachial plexus. Sensory symptoms occur in 80% of the patients. We assessed the frequency of abnormalities in sensory nerve conduction studies of the lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous, radial sensory, medi

  16. CONGENITAL SENSORY NEUROPATHY (HSAN II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Chalam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 5 year old girl having hereditary sensory neuropathy, type II manifesting as congenital absence of pain sensation and trophic changes in the skin is reported. This child presented with presented with multiple ulcers over hands and feet since 2 years of age. The ulcers were non - healing type with serosanguineous discharge. There is abnormal gait and weakness in upper and lower limbs. On examination there are deep ulcers measuring 5x7x2cms over left feet. Fingers of both hands and feet were mutilated with loss of phalanges, sensations to fine touch, pain and temperature are decreased bilaterally below the mid arm and feet, vibration sensations were normal, proprioception could not be tested due to deformities. Sensory and motor nerve conduction studies showed evidence of sensorimotor axonal neuropathy.

  17. Sensory feedback in interlimb coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gervasio, Sabata; Voigt, Michael; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2017-01-01

    direct communication between the two sides without the need for the involvement of higher centers. These may also exist in humans since sensory feedback elicited by tibial nerve stimulation on one side (ipsilateral) can affect the muscles activation in the opposite side (contralateral), provoking short......-latency crossed responses (SLCRs). The current study investigated whether contralateral afferent feedback contributes to the mechanism controlling the SLCR in human gastrocnemius muscle. Surface electromyogram, kinematic and kinetic data were recorded from subjects during normal walking and hybrid walking (with.......04). Moreover, estimated spindle secondary afferent and Golgi tendon organ activity were significantly different (P ≤ 0.01) when opposite responses have been observed, that is during normal (facilitation) and hybrid walking (inhibition) conditions. Contralateral sensory feedback, specifically spindle secondary...

  18. Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Iben; Hagstrøm, Søren; Siggaard, Charlotte

    Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study......Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study...

  19. Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.S. Carneiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.

  20. Methodology of oral sensory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R; Wu, C-H; Van Loven, K; Desnyder, M; Kolenaar, B; Van Steenberghed, D

    2002-08-01

    Different methods of oral sensory tests including light touch sensation, two-point discrimination, vibrotactile function and thermal sensation were compared. Healthy subjects were tested to assess the results obtained from two psychophysical approaches, namely the staircase and the ascending & descending method of limits for light touch sensation and two-point discrimination. Both methods appeared to be reliable for examining oral sensory function. The effect of topical anaesthesia was also evaluated but no conclusion could be drawn as too few subjects were involved. Newly developed simple testing tools for two-point discrimination and thermal sensation in a clinical situation were developed prior to this study and tested for their reproducibility. Thermal sensation could be reliably detected in repeated trials. Although the hand-held instruments have some drawbacks, the outcome of these instruments in a clinical environment is suitable for assessing oral sensory function. Three different frequencies (32, 128 and 256 Hz) were used to estimate the vibrotactile function. Different threshold levels were found at different frequencies.

  1. Local and distant recurrences in rectal cancer patients are predicted by the nonspecific immune response; specific immune response has only a systemic effect - a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder-Stapel Adri

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasion and metastasis is a complex process governed by the interaction of genetically altered tumor cells and the immunological and inflammatory host reponse. Specific T-cells directed against tumor cells and the nonspecific inflammatory reaction due to tissue damage, cooperate against invasive tumor cells in order to prevent recurrences. Data concerning involvement of individual cell types are readily available but little is known about the coordinate interactions between both forms of immune response. Patients and methods The presence of inflammatory infiltrate and eosinophils was determined in 1530 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma from a multicenter trial. We selected 160 patients to analyze this inflammatory infiltrate in more detail using immunohistochemistry. The association with the development of local and distant relapses was determined using univariate and multivariate log rank testing. Results Patients with an extensive inflammatory infiltrate around the tumor had lower recurrence rates (3.4% versus 6.9%, p = 0.03, showing the importance of host response against tumor cells. In particular, peritumoral mast cells prevent local and distant recurrence (44% versus 15%, p = 0.007 and 86% versus 21%, p Conclusions We showed that next to properties of tumor cells, the amount and type of inflammation is also relevant in the control of rectal cancer. Knowledge of the factors involved may lead to new approaches in the management of rectal cancer.

  2. Bioinspired Sensory Systems for Shear Flow Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin K.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic organisms such as copepods exhibit remarkable responses to changes in ambient flows, especially shear gradients, when foraging, mating and escaping. To accomplish these tasks, the sensory system of the organism must decode the local sensory measurements to detect the flow properties. Evidence suggests that organisms sense differences in the hydrodynamic signal rather than absolute values of the ambient flow. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for shear flow detection using a bioinspired sensory system that measures only differences in velocity. We show that the sensory system is capable of reconstructing the properties of the ambient shear flow under certain conditions on the flow sensors. We discuss these conditions and provide explicit expressions for processing the sensory measurements and extracting the flow properties. These findings suggest that by combining suitable velocity sensors and physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements, we obtain a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  3. Effect of Suboptimal Chemotherapy on Preoperative Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Kang, Hyun Cheol; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Park, Jae Gahb; Oh, Do Youn; Im, Seock Ah; Kim, Tae You; Bang, Yung Jue; Ha, Sung Whan [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    To examine the effect of suboptimal chemotherapy in patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy for the treatment of rectal cancer. The medical records of 43 patients who received preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy, followed by radical surgery for the treatment of pathologically proven adenocarcinoma of the rectum from April 2003 to April 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The delivered radiation dose ranged from 41.4 to 50.4 Gy. The standard group consisted of patients receiving two cycles of a 5-FU bolus injection for three days on the first and fifth week of radiotherapy or twice daily with capecitabine. The standard group included six patients for each regimen. The non-standard group consisted of patients receiving one cycle of 5-FU bolus injection for three days on the first week of radiotherapy. The non-standard group included 31 patients. Radical surgery was performed at a median of 58 days after the end of radiotherapy. A low anterior resection was performed in 36 patients, whereas an abdominoperineal resection was performed in 7 patients. No significant difference was observed between the groups with respect to pathologic responses ranging from grades 3 to 5 (83.3% vs. 67.7%, p=0.456), downstaging (75.0% vs. 67.7%, p=0.727), and a radial resection margin greater than 2 mm (66.7% vs. 83.9%, p=0.237). The sphincter-saving surgery rate in low-lying rectal cancers was lower in the non-standard group (100% vs. 75%, p=0.068). There was no grade 3 or higher toxicity observed in all patients. Considering that the sphincter-saving surgery rate in low-lying rectal cancer was marginally lower for patients treated with non-standard, suboptimal chemotherapy, and that toxicity higher than grade 2 was not observed in the both groups, suboptimal chemotherapy should be avoided in this setting.

  4. Palliative Treatment of Rectal Carcinoma Recurrence Using Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylona, Sophia, E-mail: mylonasophia@yahoo.com; Karagiannis, Georgios, E-mail: gekaragiannis@yahoo.gr; Patsoura, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.patsoura@yahoo.gr [Hellenic Red Cross Hospital ' Korgialenio-Benakio' (Greece); Galani, Panagiota, E-mail: gioulagalani@yahoo.com [Amalia Fleming Hospital (Greece); Pomoni, Maria, E-mail: marypomoni@gmail.com [Evgenidion Hospital (Greece); Thanos, Loukas, E-mail: loutharad@yahoo.com [Sotiria Hospital (Greece)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the palliative treatment of recurrent unresectable rectal tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed with the patient under conscious sedation with a seven- or a nine-array expandable RF electrode for 8-10 min at 80-110 Degree-Sign C and a power of 90-110 W. All patients went home under instructions the next day of the procedure. Brief Pain Inventory score was calculated before and after (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) treatment. Results: Complete tumor necrosis rate was 77.8% (21 of a total 27 procedures) despite lesion location. BPI score was dramatically decreased after the procedure. The mean preprocedure BPI score was 6.59, which decreased to 3.15, 1.15, and 0.11 at postprocedure day 1, week 1, and month 1, respectively, after the procedure. This decrease was significant (p < 0.01 for the first day and p < 0.001 for the rest of the follow-up intervals (paired Student t test; n - 1 = 26) for all periods during follow-up. Six patients had partial tumor necrosis, and we were attempted to them with a second procedure. Although the necrosis area showed a radiographic increase, no complete necrosis was achieved (secondary success rate 65.6%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. Conclusion: CT-guided RF ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective technique for treatment of malignant rectal recurrence. The method is well tolerated by patients, and pain relief is quickly achieved.

  5. Causes and outcomes of emergency presentation of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Harry; Sharp, Linda; de Camargo Cancela, Marianna; Haase, Trutz; Johnson, Howard; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Emergency presentation of rectal cancer carries a relatively poor prognosis, but the roles and interactions of causative factors remain unclear. We describe an innovative statistical approach which distinguishes between direct and indirect effects of a number of contextual, patient and tumour factors on emergency presentation and outcome of rectal cancer. All patients diagnosed with rectal cancer in Ireland 2004-2008 were included. Registry information, linked to hospital discharge data, provided data on patient demographics, comorbidity and health insurance; population density and deprivation of area of residence; tumour type, site, grade and stage; treatment type and optimality; and emergency presentation and hospital caseload. Data were modelled using a structural equation model with a discrete-time survival outcome, allowing us to estimate direct and mediated effects of the above factors on hazard, and their inter-relationships. Two thousand seven hundred and fifty patients were included in the analysis. Around 12% had emergency presentations, which increased hazard by 80%. Affluence, private patient status and being married reduced hazard indirectly by reducing emergency presentation. Older patients had more emergency presentations, while married patients, private patients or those living in less deprived areas had fewer than expected. Patients presenting as an emergency were less likely to receive optimal treatment or to have this in a high caseload hospital. Apart from stage, emergency admission was the strongest determinant of poor survival. The factors contributing to emergency admission in this study are similar to those associated with diagnostic delay. The socio-economic gradient found suggests that patient education and earlier access to endoscopic investigation for public patients could reduce emergency presentation.

  6. Rectal temperature-based death time estimation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igari, Yui; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Funayama, Masato

    2016-03-01

    In determining the time of death in infants based on rectal temperature, the same methods used in adults are generally used. However, whether the methods for adults are suitable for infants is unclear. In this study, we examined the following 3 methods in 20 infant death cases: computer simulation of rectal temperature based on the infinite cylinder model (Ohno's method), computer-based double exponential approximation based on Marshall and Hoare's double exponential model with Henssge's parameter determination (Henssge's method), and computer-based collinear approximation based on extrapolation of the rectal temperature curve (collinear approximation). The interval between the last time the infant was seen alive and the time that he/she was found dead was defined as the death time interval and compared with the estimated time of death. In Ohno's method, 7 cases were within the death time interval, and the average deviation in the other 12 cases was approximately 80 min. The results of both Henssge's method and collinear approximation were apparently inferior to the results of Ohno's method. The corrective factor was set within the range of 0.7-1.3 in Henssge's method, and a modified program was newly developed to make it possible to change the corrective factors. Modification A, in which the upper limit of the corrective factor range was set as the maximum value in each body weight, produced the best results: 8 cases were within the death time interval, and the average deviation in the other 12 cases was approximately 80min. There was a possibility that the influence of thermal isolation on the actual infants was stronger than that previously shown by Henssge. We conclude that Ohno's method and Modification A are useful for death time estimation in infants. However, it is important to accept the estimated time of death with certain latitude considering other circumstances.

  7. Techniques and technology evolution of rectal cancer surgery: a history of more than a hundred years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirici, Marco Maria; Hüscher, Cristiano G S

    2016-10-01

    History of rectal cancer surgery has shown a continuous evolution of techniques and technologies over the years, with the aim of improving both oncological outcomes and patient's quality of life. Progress in rectal cancer surgery depended on a better comprehension of the disease and its behavior, and also, it was strictly linked to advances in technologies and amazing surgical intuitions by some surgeons who pioneered in rectal surgery, and this marked a breakthrough in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer. Rectal surgery with radical intent was first performed by Miles in 1907 and the procedure he developed, abdomino-perineal resection, became a gold standard for many years. In the following years and over the last century other procedures were introduced which became new gold standards: Hartmann's procedure, anterior rectal resection, total mesorectal excision (TME); the last one, developed by Heald in 1982, is the present gold standard treatment of rectal cancer. At the same time, new technologies were developed and introduced into the clinical practice, which enhanced results of surgery and even made possible performing new operations: leg-rests, stapling devices, instruments, appliances and platforms for laparoscopic surgery and transanal rectal surgery. In more recent years the transanal approach to TME has been introduced, which might improve oncologic results of surgery of the rectum. Ongoing randomized studies, future systematic reviews and metanalyses will show whether the transanal approach to TME will become a new gold standard.

  8. High tie versus low tie in rectal surgery: comparison of anastomotic perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, N.; Slieker, J.; Kort, P. de; Wilt, J.H. de; Harst, E. van der; Coene, P.P.; Gosselink, M.P.; Tetteroo, G.; Graaf, E. de; Beek, T. van; Toom, R. den; Bockel, W. van; Verhoef, C.; Lange, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Both "high tie" (HT) and "low tie" (LT) are well-known strategies in rectal surgery. The aim of this study was to compare colonic perfusion after HT to colonic perfusion after LT. METHODS: Patients undergoing rectal resection for malignancy were included. Colonic perfusion was measured with

  9. The "liver-first approach" for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, C.; Pool, A.E. van der; Nuyttens, J.J.; Planting, A.S.; Eggermont, A.M.M.; Wilt, J.H.W. de

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the outcome of "the liver-first" approach in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases. METHODS: Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases were primarily treated for their liver me

  10. Level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery: Low tie preferred over high tie. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Lange (Marilyne); M. Buunen (Mark); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractConsensus does not exist on the level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery. From oncologic considerations, many surgeons apply high tie arterial ligation (level of inferior mesenteric artery). Other strategies include ligation at the level of the superior rectal artery, just cau

  11. Relation between anal electrosensitivity and rectal filling sensation and the influence of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, PMA; Penninckx, FM

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of age and sex on the rectal filling sensation and anal electrosensitivity and to explore the relation between anal electrosensitivity and the parameters of the rectal filling sensation. METHODS: Anal mucosal electrosensitivity and anorectal ma

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HIF-1α gene and chemoradiotherapy of locally advanced rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Ploen, John

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive impact of polymorphisms in the HIF-1α gene on the response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in rectal cancer. This study included two cohorts of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving long-course CRT. The HIF-1α C1772T (rs11549465...

  13. Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer: a single-centre experience of 120 cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W

    2011-10-01

    For colorectal surgeons, laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery poses a new challenge. The defence of the questionable oncological safety tempered by the impracticality of the long learning curve is rapidly fading. As a unit specialising in minimally invasive surgery, we have routinely undertaken rectal cancer surgery laparoscopically since 2005.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous propacetamol vs rectal paracetamol in children after major craniofacial surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Sandra A.; Van Dijk, Monique; Van Leeuwen, Pim; Searle, Susan; Anderson, Brian J.; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous and rectal paracetamol were compared in nonventilated infants after craniofacial surgery in a double-blind placebo controlled study. Methods: During surgery all infants (6 months-2 years) received a rectal loading dose of 40 mg.kg

  15. Risk factors for anastomotic failure after total mesorectal excision of rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, KCMJ; Tollenaar, RAEM; Marijnen, CAM; Kranenbarg, EK; Steup, WH; Wiggers, T; Rutten, HJ; van de Velde, CJH

    2005-01-01

    Background: Anastomotic leakage is a major complication of rectal cancer surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with symptomatic anastomotic leakage after total mesorectal excision (TME). Methods: Between 1996 and 1999, patients with operable rectal cancer were ran

  16. Development of a Self-contained, Indwelling Rectal Temperature Probe for Cattle Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A device was developed to automatically monitor rectal temperature (RT) of cattle for application in research settings. Compared with manual measurement of rectal temperature, this device decreases labor and time requirements, and allows data collection without the influence of animal handling or re...

  17. Sentinel node detection after preoperative short-course radiotherapy in rectal carcinoma is not reliable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, AE; Moll, FCP; de Vries, JE; Wiggers, T

    2005-01-01

    Background: Seninel node (SN) detection may be used in patients with colonic carcinoma. However, its use in patients with rectal carcinoma may be unreliable. To address this, SN detection was evaluated in patients with rectal carcinoma after short-course preoperative radiotherapy. Methods: Patent Bl

  18. Transrectal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of rectal cancer. Effect of experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren R; Sørensen, Torben; Jakobsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of experience on preoperative staging of rectal cancer using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 2002 to May 2006, 134 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven rectal cancer were examined with a 1....... In addition to this supervision, the person responsible for staging should be trained through a defined training programme....

  19. Transposition of the rectus abdominis muscle for complicated pouch and rectal fistulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, KTC; Kuijpers, HC; van Nieuwenhoven, EJ; van Goor, Harry; Spauwen, PH

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Operative repair for complicated pouch and rectal fistulas is often difficult. We present our experience with ten consecutive patients operated on for complicated pouch and rectal fistulas by transposition of the rectus abdominis muscle. METHODS: Ten patients with high and complex pouch and

  20. Preoperative chemoradiation of locally advanced T3 rectal cancer combined with an endorectal boost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders; Mortensen, John P; Bisgaard, Claus

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect and feasibility of concurrent radiation and chemotherapy combined with endorectal brachytherapy in T3 rectal cancer with complete pathologic remission as end point. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study included 50 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. All patients had...

  1. Robot-assisted laparoscopic rectovaginopexy for rectal prolapse: a prospective cohort study on feasibility and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaisma, W.A.; Nieuwenhuis, D.H.; Janssen, L.W.M.; Broeders, I.A.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Robotic systems may be particularly supportive for procedures requiring careful pelvic dissection and suturing in the Douglas pouch, as in surgery for rectal prolapse. Studies reporting robot-assisted laparoscopic rectovaginopexy for rectal prolapse, however, are scarce. This prospective cohort stud

  2. Early Closure of a Temporary Ileostomy in Patients With Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne K; Park, Jennifer; Jansen, Jens E;

    2016-01-01

    .0001. CONCLUSIONS: It is safe to close a temporary ileostomy 8 to 13 days after rectal resection and anastomosis for rectal cancer in selected patients without clinical or radiological signs of anastomotic leakage.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution...

  3. Robot-assisted rectopexy is a safe and feasible option for treatment of rectal prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Camilla; Jakobsen, Henrik Loft; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rectal prolapse is seen in up to one in 100 elderly women and results in symptoms such as incontinence, mucus secretion and constipation. The aim of this study was to present short- and longterm outcomes after robot-assisted rectopexy in patients with rectal prolapse. MATERIAL AND M...

  4. A COX-2 inhibitor combined with chemoradiation of locally advanced rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders; Mortensen, John Pløen; Bisgaard, Claus;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effect of a COX-2 inhibitor in addition to chemoradiation of locally advanced rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 35 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. All patients had a tumor localised....

  5. Lactate concentrations in the rectal lumen in patients in early septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Michael; Tenhunen, J.; Wiis, J.;

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we observed that rectal luminal lactate was higher in non-survivors compared with survivors of severe sepsis or septic shock persisting >24 h. The present study was initiated to further investigate this tentative association between rectal luminal lactate and mortality in a larger...

  6. Rectal ulcer with an elusive diagnosis: all that ulcers is not Crohn disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single rectal ulcer is an uncommon finding in children with gastrointestinal disease. Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is foremost among the differential diagnoses, a primary immunological defect should not be forgotten. Because of the paucity of literature on the association of rectal ul...

  7. Systematic review of outcomes after intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, S T

    2012-05-01

    For a select group of patients proctectomy with intersphincteric resection (ISR) for low rectal cancer may be a viable alternative to abdominoperineal resection, with good oncological outcomes while preserving sphincter function. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence regarding oncological outcomes, morbidity and mortality, and functional outcomes after ISR for low rectal cancer.

  8. The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Kemerink, G.J.; Heidendal, G.A.K.; Sanders, D.G.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Cisapride has an established prokinetic effect in patients with delayed gastric emptying. However, rectal administration of the drug might be preferred in patients with either dysphagia or nausea due to gast

  9. Giant Rectal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dickhoff

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs of the rectum are rare and often difficult to remove surgically. At the time metastases are found, GISTs are considered to be incurable and until recently no adequate therapy was of any value for these patients. Recently, imatinib was introduced: a signal transducing inhibitor acting specifically on the KIT-tyrosine kinase, which can be used to downsize giant GIST (neo-adjuvant before surgery or induce stable disease in case of metastases with few minor side-effects. Two patients with giant rectal GIST are presented, one of which was treated before the imatinib era, the other when imatinib was available.

  10. [Death in the bathtub--rectal drug administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, F; Dettmeyer, R; Madea, B

    1998-01-01

    A young nurse was found dead in a bathtub. An autopsy revealed the following results: pulmonary emphysema, severe edema of both lungs, transudation in both pleural cavities. Conspicuous were skin sticks of a white wax material. In chemical-toxicological analysis diazepam, tetrazepam and phenobarbital were detected in this material. After anal-rectal and additionally oral ingestion the following blood concentrations were determined: BAC 0.03/1000; diazepam 500 ng/ml; nordiazepam 65 ng/ml; tetrazepam 180 ng/ml; phenobarbital 9.4 mg/l. In connection with this drug effects an acute, multifocal, suppurating bronchopneumonia in both lungs was revealed as the cause of death.

  11. Sensory abnormalities and pain in Parkinson disease and its modulation by treatment of motor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, R G; Galhardoni, R; Fonoff, E T; Perez Lloret, S; Dos Santos Ghilardi, M G; Barbosa, E R; Teixeira, M J; Ciampi de Andrade, D

    2016-02-01

    Pain and sensory abnormalities are present in a large proportion of Parkinson disease (PD) patients and have a significant negative impact in quality of life. It remains undetermined whether pain occurs secondary to motor impairment and to which extent it can be relieved by improvement of motor symptoms. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge on the mechanisms behind sensory changes and pain in PD and to assess the modulatory effects of motor treatment on these sensory abnormalities. A comprehensive literature search was performed. We selected studies investigating sensory changes and pain in PD and the effects of levodopa administration and deep brain stimulation (DBS) on these symptoms. PD patients have altered sensory and pain thresholds in the off-medication state. Both levodopa and DBS improve motor symptoms (i.e.: bradykinesia, tremor) and change sensory abnormalities towards normal levels. However, there is no direct correlation between sensory/pain changes and motor improvement, suggesting that motor and non-motor symptoms do not necessarily share the same mechanisms. Whether dopamine and DBS have a real antinociceptive effect or simply a modulatory effect in pain perception remain uncertain. These data may provide useful insights into a mechanism-based approach to pain in PD, pointing out the role of the dopaminergic system in pain perception and the importance of the characterization of different pain syndromes related to PD before specific treatment can be instituted.

  12. Top-down influence on the visual cortex of the blind during sensory substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew C; Nau, Amy C; Fisher, Christopher; Kim, Seong-Gi; Schuman, Joel S; Chan, Kevin C

    2016-01-15

    Visual sensory substitution devices provide a non-surgical and flexible approach to vision rehabilitation in the blind. These devices convert images taken by a camera into cross-modal sensory signals that are presented as a surrogate for direct visual input. While previous work has demonstrated that the visual cortex of blind subjects is recruited during sensory substitution, the cognitive basis of this activation remains incompletely understood. To test the hypothesis that top-down input provides a significant contribution to this activation, we performed functional MRI scanning in 11 blind (7 acquired and 4 congenital) and 11 sighted subjects under two conditions: passive listening of image-encoded soundscapes before sensory substitution training and active interpretation of the same auditory sensory substitution signals after a 10-minute training session. We found that the modulation of visual cortex activity due to active interpretation was significantly stronger in the blind over sighted subjects. In addition, congenitally blind subjects showed stronger task-induced modulation in the visual cortex than acquired blind subjects. In a parallel experiment, we scanned 18 blind (11 acquired and 7 congenital) and 18 sighted subjects at rest to investigate alterations in functional connectivity due to visual deprivation. The results demonstrated that visual cortex connectivity of the blind shifted away from sensory networks and toward known areas of top-down input. Taken together, our data support the model of the brain, including the visual system, as a highly flexible task-based and not sensory-based machine.

  13. Identification and genotyping of bacteria from paired vaginal and rectal samples from pregnant women indicates similarity between vaginal and rectal microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmerman Marleen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaginal microflora is important for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections of the reproductive tract. The rectum has been suggested as the major source for the colonisation of the vaginal econiche. Methods To establish whether the rectum can serve as a possible bacterial reservoir for colonisation of the vaginal econiche, we cultured vaginal and rectal specimens from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, identified the isolates to the species level with tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis (tDNA-PCR and genotyped the isolates for those subjects from which the same species was isolated simultaneously vaginally and rectally, by RAPD-analysis. One vaginal and one rectal swab were collected from a total of each of 132 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Swabs were cultured on Columbia CNA agar and MRS agar. For each subject 4 colonies were selected for each of both sites, i.e. 8 colonies in total. Results Among the 844 isolates that could be identified by tDNA-PCR, a total of 63 bacterial species were present, 9 (14% only vaginally, 26 (41% only rectally, and 28 (44% in both vagina and rectum. A total of 121 (91.6% of 132 vaginal samples and 51 (38.6% of 132 rectal samples were positive for lactobacilli. L. crispatus was the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species from the vagina (40% of the subjects were positive, followed by L. jensenii (32%, L. gasseri (30% and L. iners (11%. L. gasseri was the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species from the rectum (15%, followed by L. jensenii (12%, L. crispatus (11% and L. iners (2%. A total of 47 pregnant women carried the same species vaginally and rectally. This resulted in 50 vaginal/rectal pairs of the same species, for a total of eight different species. For 34 of the 50 species pairs (68%, isolates with the same genotype were present vaginally and rectally and a high level of genotypic diversity within species per subject was also

  14. The early response of p53-dependent proteins during radiotherapy in human rectal carcinoma and in adjacent normal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stift, A; Prager, G; Selzer, E; Widder, J; Kandioler, D; Friedl, J; Teleky, B; Herbst, F; Wrba, F; Bergmann, M

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the activation of the p53 pathway and the induction of apoptosis during preoperative radiotherapy in normal human rectal tissue and in rectal carcinoma. Twelve patients with rectal cancer of the lower third were enrolled in this study. Tumor specimens and adj

  15. Irinotecan-Eluting Beads in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  16. Cost-effectiveness of pre-referral antimalarial, antibacterial, and combined rectal formulations for severe febrile illness.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, J.; Mihaylova, B.; Gray, A; White, N

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria and bacterial infections account for most infectious disease deaths in developing countries. Prompt treatment saves lives, but rapid deterioration often prevents the use of oral therapies; delays in reaching health facilities providing parenteral interventions are common. Rapidly and reliably absorbed antimalarial/antibacterial rectal formulations used in the community could prevent deaths and disabilities. Rectal antimalarial treatments are currently available; rectal ant...

  17. Combined endorectal ultrasonography and strain elastography for the staging of early rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waage, Jo Erling Riise; Bach, Simon P; Pfeffer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Strain elastography is a novel approach to rectal tumour evaluation. Primary aim of this study was to correlate elastography to pT-stages of rectal tumours and to assess the ability of the method to differentiate rectal adenomas (pT0) from early rectal cancer (pT1-2). Secondary aims were...... to compare elastography with endorectal ultrasonography (ERUS) and to propose a combined strain elastography and ERUS staging algorithm. METHOD: 120 consecutive patients with a suspected rectal tumour were examined in this staging study. Patients receiving surgery without neo-adjuvant radiotherapy were...... included (n=59). All patients were examined with ERUS and elastography. Treatment decisions were made by multidisciplinary team (MDT) assessment, without considering the strain elastography examination. RESULTS: Histopathology identified 21 adenomas, 13 pT1, 9 pT2, 15 pT3 and one pT4. Mean elastography...

  18. Irradiation of low rectal cancers; Radiotherapie des carcinomes du bas rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardiet, J.M.; Coquard, R.; Romestaing, P.; Fric, D.; Baron, M.H.; Rocher, F.P.; Sentenac, I.; Gerard, J.P. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, 69 -Pierre-Benite (France)

    1994-12-31

    The low rectal cancers are treated by anorectal amputation and pose the problem of the sphincter conservation. Some authors extend the clinical definition to developed injuries until 12 cm from the anal margin. The rectal cancer is a frequent tumour which remains serious. When the tumour is low, the treatment consists in an anorectal amputation with a permanent colostomy. The radical non preserving surgery is the usual treatment of these injuries. Until 1960 the rectal adenocarcinoma was considered as a radioresistant tumour because of the impossibility to deliver an enough dose to the tumour by external radiotherapy. But other studies showed that those lesions were radiosensitive and often radiocurable. The medical treatments haven`t yet demonstrated their efficiency in the treatment of the rectal cancer. We`ll study the radiotherapy in the treatment of the low rectal cancer, solely radiotherapy, radiosurgical associations. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children: a report of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgancı, Nafiye; Kalyoncu, Derya; Eken, Kamile Gulcin

    2013-11-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare, benign disorder in children that usually presents with rectal bleeding, constipation, mucous discharge, prolonged straining, tenesmus, lower abdominal pain, and localized pain in the perineal area. The underlying etiology is not well understood, but it is secondary to ischemic changes and trauma in the rectum associated with paradoxical contraction of the pelvic floor and the external anal sphincter muscles; rectal prolapse has also been implicated in the pathogenesis. This syndrome is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histological findings, but SRUS often goes unrecognized or is easily confused with other diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, amoebiasis, malignancy, and other causes of rectal bleeding such as a juvenile polyps. SRUS should be suspected in patients experiencing rectal discharge of blood and mucus in addition to previous disorders of evacuation. We herein report six pediatric cases with SRUS.

  20. Methylene blue injection into the rectal artery as a simple method to improve lymph node harvest in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märkl, Bruno; Kerwel, Therese G; Wagner, Theodor; Anthuber, Matthias; Arnholdt, Hans M

    2007-07-01

    Adequate lymph node assessment in colorectal cancer is crucial for prognosis estimation and further therapy stratification. However, there is still an ongoing debate on required minimum lymph node numbers and the necessity of advanced techniques such as immunohistochemistry or PCR. It has been proven in several studies that lymph node harvest is often inadequate under routine analysis. Lymph nodes smaller than 5 mm are especially concerning as they can carry the majority of metastases. These small, but affected lymph nodes may escape detection in routine analysis. Therefore, fat-clearing protocols and sentinel techniques have been developed to improve accuracy of lymph node staging. We describe a novel and simple method of ex vivo methylene blue injection into the superior rectal artery of rectal cancer specimens, which highlights lymph nodes and makes them easy to detect during manual dissection. Initially, this method was developed for proving accuracy of total mesorectal excision. We performed a retrospective study comparing lymph node recovery of 12 methylene blue stained and an equal number of unstained cases. Lymph node recovery differed significantly with average lymph node numbers of 27+/-7 and 14+/-4 (Pmethylene blue and the unstained group, respectively. The largest difference was found in size groups between 1 and 4 mm causing a shift in size distribution toward smaller nodes. Metastases were confirmed in 21 and 19 lymph nodes occurring in five and four cases, respectively. Hence, we conclude that methylene blue injection technique improves accuracy of lymph node staging by heightening the lymph node harvest in rectal resections. In our experience, it is a very simple time and cost effective method that can be easily established under routine circumstances.

  1. Plasticity of TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons mediating autonomic dysreflexia following spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne M Ramer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI triggers profound changes in visceral and somatic targets of sensory neurons below the level of injury. Despite this, little is known about the influence of injury to the spinal cord on sensory ganglia. One of the defining characteristics of sensory neurons is the size of their cell body: for example, nociceptors are smaller in size than mechanoreceptors or proprioceptors. In these experiments, we first used a comprehensive immunohistochemical approach to characterize the size distribution of sensory neurons after high- and low-thoracic SCI. Male Wistar rats (300g received a spinal cord transection (T3 or T10 or sham injury. At 30 days post-injury, dorsal root ganglia (DRGs and spinal cords were harvested and analyzed immunohistochemically. In a wide survey of primary afferents, only those expressing the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1 exhibited somal hypertrophy after T3 SCI. Hypertrophy only occurred caudal to SCI and was pronounced in ganglia far distal to SCI (i.e., in L4-S1 DRGs. Injury-induced hypertrophy was accompanied by a small expansion of central territory in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn and by evidence of TRPV1 upregulation. Importantly, hypertrophy of TRPV1-positive neurons was modest after T10 SCI. Given the specific effects of T3 SCI on TRPV1-positive afferents, we hypothesized that these afferents contribute to autonomic dysreflexia (AD. Rats with T3 SCI received vehicle or capsaicin via intrathecal injection at 2 or 28 days post-SCI; at 30 days, AD was assessed by recording intra-arterial blood pressure during colo-rectal distension. In both groups of capsaicin-treated animals, the severity of AD was dramatically reduced. While AD is multi-factorial in origin, TRPV1-positive afferents are clearly involved in AD elicited by colo-rectal distension. These findings implicate TRPV1-positive afferents in the initiation of AD and suggest that TRPV1 may be a therapeutic target for amelioration or prevention of AD

  2. Role of the enteric nervous plexus in rectal motile activity: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafik, A; El-Sibai, O

    2001-01-01

    The gut innervation is formed by an intrinsic and an extrinsic component. The former is responsible for the intestinal contractions that occur in the total absence of extrinsic innervation. We hypothesize that the intrinsic plexuses do not produce local contraction, but mediate reflex actions of the gut musculature. This hypothesis was investigated in the rectum of the experimental animal. In 16 anesthetized mongrel dogs, the rectum was exposed, and 3 monopolar silver-silver chloride electrodes were sutured serially to the rectal wall and connected to a rectilinear pen recorder. The rectal electric activity was recorded at rest and on rectal inflation while the anal pressure was synchronously registered. The tests were repeated after separate drug administration using phentolamine, propranolol (adrenoceptor blocking agents), atropine (cholinergic blocking agent), drotaverine (direct smooth muscle relaxant), and nitroglycerine. (NO donor, inhibitory noncholinergic, nonadrenergic mediator). Slow waves or pacesetter potentials (PPs) and action potentials (APs) were recorded from the three electrodes. Rectal balloon distension caused an increase of frequency, amplitude, and conduction velocity of these waves, as well as a decrease of anal pressure. Repetition of the test after administration of phentolamine, propranotol, and atropine effected no change in rectal electromyelographic (EMG) activity or anal pressure, while drotaverine and nitroglycerine administration aborted both the electric activity and the anal pressure response. We conclude that the rectal electric activity, presumably responsible for rectal motility, was not aborted by enteric nervous plexus block but by direct muscle relaxant. This suggests that the enteric plexus has no direct action on the rectal motile activity but mediates the rectal reflex actions. This concept might explain some of the hitherto unknown mechanisms of rectal dyssynergia syndromes.

  3. [A case of pseudomembranous colitis associated with rifampicin therapy in a patient with rectal cancer and gastrointestinal tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Jun; Kim, Hyung Gil; Choi, Yun Ah; Joo, Woo Chul; Son, Dong Wook; Kim, Chul Hyun; Shin, Yong Woon; Kim, Young Soo

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) is known to be associated with the administration of antibiotics which alter normal gastrointestinal flora and allow overgrowth of Clostridium difficile. Most cases of rifampicin-induced PMC are seen in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, but not with gastrointestinal tuberculosis. We report a case of PMC associated with rifampicin therapy in a patient with gastrointestinal tuberculosis. A 65-year-old female patient with rectal cancer and gastrointestinal tuberculosis was admitted due to abdominal pain and diarrhea. She was treated with anti-tuberculosis agents containing rifampicin. On colonoscopic examination, mucoid exudates and yellowish plaque lesions were observed. Anti-tuberculosis agents were stopped, and the patient was treated with metronidazole. Symptoms were relieved and did not recur when all the anti-tuberculosis agents except rifampicin were started again. When a patient complains of abdominal pain or diarrhea while taking rifampicin, the physician should consider the possibility of rifampicin-associated PMC.

  4. Preoperative rectal cancer staging with phased-array MR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusti Sabina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We retrospectively reviewed magnetic resonance (MR images of 96 patients with diagnosis of rectal cancer to evaluate tumour stage (T stage, involvement of mesorectal fascia (MRF, and nodal metastasis (N stage. Our gold standard was histopathology. Methods All studies were performed with 1.5-T MR system (Symphony; Siemens Medical System, Erlangen, Germany by using a phased-array coil. Our population was subdivided into two groups: the first one, formed by patients at T1-T2-T3, N0, M0 stage, whose underwent MR before surgery; the second group included patients at Tx N1 M0 and T3-T4 Nx M0 stage, whose underwent preoperative MR before neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and again 4-6 wks after the end of the treatment for the re-staging of disease. Our gold standard was histopathology. Results MR showed 81% overall agreement with histological findings for T and N stage prediction; for T stage, this rate increased up to 95% for pts of group I (48/96, while for group II (48/96 it decreased to 75%. Preoperative MR prediction of histologically involved MRF resulted very accurate (sensitivity 100%; specificity 100% also after chemoradiation (sensitivity 100%; specificity 67%. Conclusions Phased-array MRI was able to clearly estimate the entire mesorectal fat and surrounding pelvic structures resulting the ideal technique for local preoperative rectal cancer staging.

  5. Parasitological diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni: fecal examination and rectal biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Teles Rabello

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Even with all progress in the search of sensitive and methods for the immunological diagnosis of schistosomiasis, the microscopic detection of eggs of the parasite in the stool still remains the most widely used tool for the actual diagnosis of active infection. Among the coproscopic methods, Kato's technic modified by Katz et al (Kato/Katz has the advantages of higher sensitivity, the possibility of egg quantification, its low operational cost and its feasibility in areas with minimal infra-structure. The oorgram of the rectal mucosa is valuable in initial clinical trials of schistosomicides, when it is needed to observe egg morphology in tissue. It could be an alternative method for individual diagnosis, being more sensitive than a single stool exam in low intensity infection. However, the increased sensitivity of a higher number of fecal exams makes that invasiveprocedure unnecessary. In the assessment of cure of schistosomiasis, Kato/Katz method (three fecal samples in one, three and six months after treatment and the rectal biopsy four months after treatment, are equally reliable.

  6. Presacral venous bleeding during mobilization in rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal Núñez, Jose Enrique; Vigorita, Vincenzo; Ruano Poblador, Alejandro; Gay Fernández, Ana María; Toscano Novella, Maria Ángeles; Cáceres Alvarado, Nieves; Pérez Dominguez, Lucinda

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze the anatomy of sacral venous plexus flow, the causes of injuries and the methods for controlling presacral hemorrhage during surgery for rectal cancer. METHODS A review of the databases MEDLINE® and Embase™ was conducted, and relevant scientific articles published between January 1960 and June 2016 were examined. The anatomy of the sacrum and its venous plexus, as well as the factors that influence bleeding, the causes of this complication, and its surgical management were defined. RESULTS This is a review of 58 published articles on presacral venous plexus injury during the mobilization of the rectum and on techniques used to treat presacral venous bleeding. Due to the lack of cases published in the literature, there is no consensus on which is the best technique to use if there is presacral bleeding during mobilization in surgery for rectal cancer. This review may provide a tool to help surgeons make decisions regarding how to resolve this serious complication. CONCLUSION A series of alternative treatments are described; however, a conventional systematic review in which optimal treatment is identified could not be performed because few cases were analyzed in most publications.

  7. Intranasal midazolam vs rectal diazepam in acute childhood seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Madhumita; Kalra, Veena; Gulati, Sheffali

    2006-05-01

    One hundred eighty-eight seizure episodes in 46 children were randomly assigned to receive treatment with rectal diazepam and intranasal midazolam with doses of 0.3 mg/kg body weight and 0.2 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Efficacy of the drugs was assessed by drug administration time and seizure cessation time. Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation were measured before and after 5, 10, and 30 minutes following administration of the drugs in both groups. Mean time from arrival of doctor to drug administration was 68.3 +/- 55.12 seconds in the diazepam group and 50.6 +/- 14.1 seconds in the midazolam group (P = 0.002). Mean time from drug administration to cessation of seizure was significantly less in the midazolam group than the diazepam group (P = 0.005). Mean heart rate and blood pressure did not vary significantly between the two drug groups. However, mean respiratory rate and oxygen saturation differed significantly between the two drug groups at 5, 10, and 30 minutes after drug administration. Intranasal midazolam is preferable to rectal diazepam in the treatment of acute seizures in children. Its administration is easy, it has rapid onset of action, has no significant effect on respiration and oxygen saturation, and is socially acceptable.

  8. Anus-rectum defects. Malformaciones ano-rectales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia López Martín

    Full Text Available Anorectal malformations are one of big causes of de intestinal obstruction in newborns. They constitute around 25% of digestive malformations. Have a frequency of 1 in 4000 born alive. They are more frequent in the male (1.4:1 and 40 to 70% of the patients have one or more associate anomalies. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Anorectal malformations, approved by consensus in the 2nd National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Manzanillo, Cuba, September 31 - October 3, 2002.
    Las malformaciones ano rectales son unas de las grandes causas de obstrucción intestinal en neonatos. Constituyen el 25 % de las malformaciones digestivas. Tiene una frecuencia de 1 x 4 000 nacidos vivos. Son más frecuentes en el varón (1.4:1 y del 40 al 70 % de los pacientes presentan una o más anomalías asociadas. Se presenta la Guía de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas para Malformaciones ano rectales, aprobada por consenso en el 2º Taller Nacional de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas en Cirugía Pediátrica (Manzanillo, 31 de septiembre al 3 de octubre del 2002.

  9. Acute myelogenous leukemia following chemotherapy and radiation for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Teijiro; Hirota, Yuichi; Kondou, Seiji; Matsumoto, Isao; Matsuzaka, Toshimitsu; Iwashita, Akinori

    1989-03-01

    In August 1982, a 44-year-old man was diagnosed as having rectal cancer, histologically diagnosed as well differentiated adenocarcinoma, and abdominoperineal resection and colostomy were performed. Postoperatively, he received chemotherapy with mitomycin C up to a total dose of 100 mg. In September 1986, lung metastasis occurred and he was treated with a combination chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, pirarubicin and 5-fluorouracil. In the following year, radiation treatment (total: 6900 rad) was given for a recurrent pelvic lesion. Peripheral blood on April 30, 1988, showed anemia, thrombocytopenia and appearance of myeloblasts, and a diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (FAB: M1) was made. Combination chemotherapy (including aclarubicin, vincristine, behenoyl ara-C, daunorubicin, 6-mercaptopurine, cytarabine, etoposide and prednisolone) failed to induce remission and the patient died in June 1988. This case was thought to be one of secondary leukemia occurring after chemotherapy and radiation treatment for rectal cancer. This case clearly indicates the need for a careful follow-up of long-term survivors who have received cancer therapy. (author).

  10. Prognostic Aspects of DCE-MRI in Recurrent Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollub, M.J.; Gultekin, D.H.; Sohn, M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Cao, K. [Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Kuk, D.; Gonen, M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Schwartz, L.H. [Columbia University Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weiser, M.R.; Temple, L.K.; Nash, G.M.; Guillem, J.G.; Garcia-Aguilar, J.; Paty, P.B. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Wang, M. [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Colorectal Surgery, Shanghai (China); Goodman, K. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, New York, NY (United States)

    2013-12-15

    To explore whether pre-reoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI findings correlate with clinical outcome in patients who undergo surgical treatment for recurrent rectal carcinoma. A retrospective study of DCE-MRI in patients with recurrent rectal cancer was performed after obtaining an IRB waiver. We queried our PACS from 1998 to 2012 for examinations performed for recurrent disease. Two radiologists in consensus outlined tumour regions of interest on perfusion images. We explored the correlation between K{sup trans}, K{sub ep}, V{sub e}, AUC90 and AUC180 with time to re-recurrence of tumour, overall survival and resection margin status. Univariate Cox PH models were used for survival, while univariate logistic regression was used for margin status. Among 58 patients with pre-treatment DCE-MRI who underwent resection, 36 went directly to surgery and 18 had positive margins. K{sup trans} (0.55, P = 0.012) and K{sub ep} (0.93, P = 0.04) were inversely correlated with positive margins. No significant correlations were noted between K{sup trans}, K{sub ep}, V{sub e}, AUC90 and AUC180 and overall survival or time to re-recurrence of tumour. K{sup trans} and K{sub ep} were significantly associated with clear resection margins; however overall survival and time to re-recurrence were not predicted. Such information might be helpful for treatment individualisation and deserves further investigation. (orig.)

  11. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Friederike; Roedel, Franz; Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Roedel, Claus [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  12. Current debate in the oncologic management of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Trish; Kunk, Paul R; Ramsdale, Erika; Rahma, Osama E

    2016-10-15

    Despite the considerable amount of research in the field, the management of locally advanced rectal cancer remains a subject to debate. To date, effective treatment centers on surgical resection with the standard approach of total mesorectal resection. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been incorporated in order to decrease local and systemic recurrence. While it is accepted that a multimodality treatment regimen is indicated, there remains significant debate for how best to accomplish this in regards to order, dosing, and choice of agents. Preoperative radiation is the standard of care, yet remains debated with the option for chemoradiation, short course radiation, and even ongoing studies looking at the possibility of leaving radiation out altogether. Chemotherapy was traditionally incorporated in the adjuvant setting, but recent reports suggest the possibility of improved efficacy and tolerance when given upfront. In this review, the major studies in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer will be discussed. In addition, future directions will be considered such as the role of immunotherapy and ongoing trials looking at timing of chemotherapy, inclusion of radiation, and non-operative management.

  13. Watch and wait approach to rectal cancer: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcos; E; Pozo; Sandy; H; Fang

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, there were an estimated 136800 new cases of colorectal cancer, making it the most common gastrointestinal malignancy. It is the second leadingcause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States and over one-third of newly diagnosed patients have stage Ⅲ(node-positive) disease. For stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ colorectal cancer patients, the mainstay of curative therapy is neoadjuvant therapy, followed by radical surgical resection of the rectum. However, the consequences of a proctectomy, either by low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection, can lead to very extensive comorbidities, such as the need for a permanent colostomy, fecal incontinence, sexual and urinary dysfunction, and even mortality. Recently, trends of complete regression of the rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy have been confirmed by clinical and radiographic evaluationthis is known as complete clinical response(cC R). The "watch and wait" approach was first proposed by Dr. Angelita Habr-Gama in Brazil in 2009. Those patients with c CR are followed with close surveillance physical examinations, endoscopy, and imaging. Here, we review management of rectal cancer, the development of the "watch and wait" approach and its outcomes.

  14. Análisis Sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Barris Vilor, Jacinto

    2010-01-01

    En nuestro caso queremos desarrollar un programa que nos facilite la labor de preparar las pruebas de los alimentos y su recogida de datos para el Laboratorio de la Fundación Miquel Agustí. En el laboratorio actualmente el análisis sensorial de los datos se obtiene a partir de análisis realizados por catadores entrenados en una sala especialmente diseñada para este tipo de análisis. Actualmente la toma de datos se realiza a través de unas fichas de cata en formato papel. ...

  15. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer-Grumbach Michaela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7 identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra

  16. What is your diagnosis? Rectal scraping from a dog with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Seth; Thompson, Craig; Wilcox, Angela; Russell, Karen

    2009-03-01

    A 3-year-old, spayed female, mixed-breed dog was evaluated for chronic diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss. A marked inflammatory leukogram, mild regenerative anemia, and marked hypoalbuminemia were noted. Cytologic evaluation of a rectal scraping revealed numerous round to ovoid protozoal cysts, 5-25 microm in diameter, with small to moderate amounts of pale blue cytoplasm and round eosinophilic nuclei. A distinct, variably sized, round to oval vacuole was often seen within the cytoplasm and frequently displaced the nucleus. The cysts were morphologically similar to Blastocystis sp., an amoeba-like protozoal parasite found in both diseased and asymptomatic humans and animals. Histologic findings in endoscopic biopsies from the stomach, duodenum, ileum, and colon were unremarkable and protozoal organisms were not observed. The dog was diagnosed with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency based on markedly decreased serum levels of trypsin-like immunoreactivity. Alteration of gastrointestinal flora secondary to the underlying pancreatic disease likely allowed overgrowth of the protozoa, which were considered an incidental finding. Their identification was important in avoiding an incorrect diagnosis and unwarranted treatment.

  17. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L A; Hills, P J; Dick, K M; Jones, S P; Bright, P

    2016-02-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification.

  18. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species...

  19. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  20. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  1. Hirschsprung’s disease: Role of rectal suction biopsy - data on 216 specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zillur; Hannan, Jafrul; Islam, Saiful

    2010-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung’s disease (HD) is dependent on the histological study of rectal ganglion cells, and an open rectal biopsy was the mainstay that required general anaesthesia (GA) and carried risk of postoperative rectal bleeding. Suction rectal biopsy later gained wide acceptance and became the choice as there is no requirement of GA and virtual absence of any complications. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the histological findings of 216 rectal suction biopsies studied from 2005 to 2009. Results: There were 143 male and 73 female children. 196 (90.7%) children were within 1 year of age. Among 216 rectal suction biopsies 181 (83.80%) were aganglionic, 27 (12.5%) were ganglionic and 8 (3.7%) were inadequate. Majority of patients were of less than 1 year of age (94.47%). Conclusions: The rectal suction biopsy is a bed side procedure, safe, cheap and time saving. There is high degree of accuracy, simplicity and absence of complications. PMID:20975783

  2. Hirschsprung′s disease: Role of rectal suction biopsy - data on 216 specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Zillur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung′s disease (HD is dependent on the histological study of rectal ganglion cells, and an open rectal biopsy was the mainstay that required general anaesthesia (GA and carried risk of postoperative rectal bleeding. Suction rectal biopsy later gained wide acceptance and became the choice as there is no requirement of GA and virtual absence of any complications. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the histological findings of 216 rectal suction biopsies studied from 2005 to 2009. Results: There were 143 male and 73 female children. 196 (90.7% children were within 1 year of age. Among 216 rectal suction biopsies 181 (83.80% were aganglionic, 27 (12.5% were ganglionic and 8 (3.7% were inadequate. Majority of patients were of less than 1 year of age (94.47%. Conclusions : The rectal suction biopsy is a bed side procedure, safe, cheap and time saving. There is high degree of accuracy, simplicity and absence of complications.

  3. Comparison of rectal, tympanic membrane and axillary temperature measurement methods in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, V; McBrearty, A R

    2013-11-30

    The aim of this study was to compare axillary and tympanic membrane (TM) temperature measurements to rectal temperature in a large group of clinical canine patients. We also sought to ascertain whether certain factors affected the differences between the measurements and to compare the ease of measurement. Axillary temperatures were easy to obtain but tended to be lower than rectal readings (median difference 0.6°C). In 54.7 per cent of dogs there was a difference of >0.5°C between the two readings. Weight, coat length, body condition score and breed size were significantly associated with the difference between the rectal and axillary temperature. TM temperatures were more similar to rectal temperatures (median difference 0°C) but in 25 per cent of dogs, there was a difference of >0.5°C between rectal and TM readings. TM measurements were less well tolerated than axillary measurements. None of the factors assessed were associated with the difference between the rectal and TM temperature. As a difference of >0.5°C has previously been described as unacceptable for different methods of temperature measurement, neither axillary nor TM temperatures are interchangeable with rectal temperatures for the measurement of body temperature.

  4. A Simple and Safe Procedure to Repair Rectal Prolapse Perineally Using Stapling Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitake Hata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal prolapses are not life-threatening, however the bleeding and fecal incontinence associated with them significantly erode quality of life and can cause concern among patients' caregivers in nursing homes. Many procedures have been reported that repair rectal prolapses, and the procedure used depends on the severity of the prolapse; however, the treatments are yet to be established. Here we report a simple and safe procedure to repair rectal prolapse perineally using stapling devices. We performed this procedure on 5 patients within a short time. All patients were followed up for over 24 months and none had any recurrences of their rectal prolapses. No complications occurred during the operations and postoperative periods. Most patients who have prolapses are elderly and fragile, so the treatment must be easy, safe, and rapid. While rectal prolapse is not life-threatening, the goal of treatment is to alleviate its symptoms. The procedure we describe is consistent with this concept. We suggest that this procedure, which uses surgical stapling devices, might be a better option for the treatment of complete rectal prolapse. We will continue to surgically correct complete rectal prolapses and investigate the long-term outcomes of the procedure.

  5. Hereditary motor-sensory, motor, and sensory neuropathies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrieu, Pierre; Baets, Jonathan; De Jonghe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathies (HN) are categorized according to clinical presentation, pathogenic mechanism based on electrophysiology, genetic transmission, age of occurrence, and, in selected cases, pathological findings. The combination of these parameters frequently orients towards specific genetic disorders. Ruling out a neuropathy secondary to a generalized metabolic disorder remains the first pediatric concern. Primary, motor-sensory are the most frequent HN and are dominated by demyelinating AD forms (CMT1). Others are demyelinating AR forms, axonal AD/AR forms, and forms with "intermediate" electrophysiological phenotype. Pure motor HN represent40 genes with various biological functions have been found responsible for HN. Many are responsible for various phenotypes, including some without the polyneuropathic trait: for the pediatric neurologist, phenotype/genotype correlations constitute a permanent bidirectional exercise.

  6. Distance between the rectal wall and mesorectal fascia measured by MRI: Effect of rectal distension and implications for preoperative prediction of a tumour-free circumferential resection margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, A. [Department of Specialist Radiology, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, S. [Department of Specialist Radiology, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, S.A. [Department of Specialist Radiology, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Marshall, M. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Northwick Park, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    Aim: To determine the effect of rectal distension, used by some workers to facilitate staging, on mesorectal tissues. Subjects and methods: Ninety-seven consecutive rectal cancer staging MRI examinations were identified of which 76 were analysable: 48 studies were performed using rectal insufflation of 100 ml room air and 28 were performed without distension. Median age was 69 and 72 years, respectively. In each patient a single experienced observer measured the distance from the outer rectal wall to the inner margin of the mesorectal fascia at four locations (12, 3, 6 and 9 o'clock), excluding sites of tumour involvement, from the T1-weighted axial image at the level of the sacro-coccygeal junction. The two groups of measurements were compared using Mann-Whitney test statistic, and frequencies then categorized into <5 mm or {>=}5 mm, and compared using Fisher's exact test. Results: The median distance between the rectal wall and mesorectal fascia in the distended group was approximately half that found in the non-distended group, and significantly lower at the 3, 6 and 9 o'clock positions (p<0.001). 68/167 (41%) of measurements were 5 mm or less, compared with 19/104 (18%) in the non-distended group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Rectal distension before MRI significantly reduces the distance between the rectal wall and mesorectal fascia. Although this is advocated to facilitate visualization of the primary tumour, it potentially affects the accuracy with which a clear circumferential resection margin can be predicted.

  7. Uncertainty in anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension is modulated by the autonomic nervous system--a fMRI study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Amandine; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Pellissier, Sonia; Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; de Micheaux, Hugo Lafaye; Tack, Jan; Dantzer, Cécile; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-02-15

    The human brain responds both before and during the application of aversive stimuli. Anticipation allows the organism to prepare its nociceptive system to respond adequately to the subsequent stimulus. The context in which an uncomfortable stimulus is experienced may also influence neural processing. Uncertainty of occurrence, timing and intensity of an aversive event may lead to increased anticipatory anxiety, fear, physiological arousal and sensory perception. We aimed to identify, in healthy volunteers, the effects of uncertainty in the anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension, and the impact of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and anxiety-related psychological variables on neural mechanisms of anticipation of rectal distension using fMRI. Barostat-controlled uncomfortable rectal distensions were preceded by cued uncertain or certain anticipation in 15 healthy volunteers in a fMRI protocol at 3T. Electrocardiographic data were concurrently registered by MR scanner. The low frequency (LF)-component of the heart rate variability (HRV) time-series was extracted and inserted as a regressor in the fMRI model ('LF-HRV model'). The impact of ANS activity was analyzed by comparing the fMRI signal in the 'standard model' and in the 'LF-HRV model' across the different anticipation and distension conditions. The scores of the psychological questionnaires and the rating of perceived anticipatory anxiety were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis. Our experiments led to the following key findings: 1) the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is the only activation site that relates to uncertainty in healthy volunteers and is directly correlated to individual questionnaire score for pain-related anxiety; 2) uncertain anticipation of rectal distension involved several relevant brain regions, namely activation of sgACC and medial prefrontal cortex and deactivation of amygdala, insula, thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex, supplementary

  8. Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer – The impact of MRI on incidence and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturludóttir, Margrét, E-mail: margret.sturludottir@karolinska.se [Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Martling, Anna, E-mail: anna.martling@ki.se [Center of Surgical Gastroenterology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden); Carlsson, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.carlsson@ki.se [Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden); Blomqvist, Lennart, E-mail: lennart.k.blomqvist@ki.se [Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Prostate and rectal cancers are two of the most common cancers in male. •Synchronous diagnosis of prostate and rectal cancer is a rare identity. •Strong increase in the synchronous diagnosis likely due to improved diagnostic methods. •Pre-treatment MRI for rectal cancer has led to increased synchronous diagnosis. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the incidence of synchronous diagnosis of rectal and prostate cancer and to identify how the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative staging of rectal cancer has affected the incidence. Methods: Regional data from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and the Regional Cancer Registry in Stockholm-Gotland area (two million inhabitants) between the years 1995–2011 were used. Patients were included when the rectal cancer was diagnosed prior to the prostate cancer. Medical records and pre-treatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 29,849 patients diagnosed with either disease, synchronous diagnosis was made in 29 patients (0.1%). Two patients were diagnosed in the years 1995–1999, seven patients between the years 2000–2005 and 20 patients between the years 2006–2011. The most common presentation, for the prostate cancer was incidental finding during staging for rectal cancer, n = 20, and of those led MRI to the diagnosis in 14 cases. At retrospective review, all patients had focal lesions in the prostate on MRI and patients with higher suspicion of malignancy on MRI had more locally advanced disease. Conclusion: Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer are a rare entity, but a strong increase in synchronous diagnosis is seen which may be attributed to improved diagnostic methods, including the use of pre-treatment MRI in routine work-up for rectal cancer.

  9. Predictive Factors and Management of Rectal Bleeding Side Effects Following Prostate Cancer Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Jeremy G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.Stock@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To report on the incidence, nature, and management of rectal toxicities following individual or combination brachytherapy following treatment for prostate cancer over a 17-year period. We also report the patient and treatment factors predisposing to acute ≥grade 2 proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 2752 patients were treated for prostate cancer between October 1990 and April 2007 with either low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with androgen depletion therapy (ADT) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and were followed for a median of 5.86 years (minimum 1.0 years; maximum 19.19 years). We investigated the 10-year incidence, nature, and treatment of acute and chronic rectal toxicities following BT. Using univariate, and multivariate analyses, we determined the treatment and comorbidity factors predisposing to rectal toxicities. We also outline the most common and effective management for these toxicities. Results: Actuarial risk of ≥grade 2 rectal bleeding was 6.4%, though notably only 0.9% of all patients required medical intervention to manage this toxicity. The majority of rectal bleeding episodes (72%) occurred within the first 3 years following placement of BT seeds. Of the 27 patients requiring management for their rectal bleeding, 18 underwent formalin treatment and nine underwent cauterization. Post-hoc univariate statistical analysis revealed that coronary artery disease (CAD), biologically effective dose, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (RV100), and treatment modality predict the likelihood of grade ≥2 rectal bleeding. Only CAD, treatment type, and RV100 fit a Cox regression multivariate model. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is very well tolerated and rectal bleeding toxicities are either self-resolving or effectively managed by medical intervention. Treatment planning incorporating adjuvant ADT while minimizing RV100 has yielded the best toxicity-free survival following

  10. State-dependent sculpting of olfactory sensory neurons is attributed to sensory enrichment, odor deprivation, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Melissa Ann; Powell, Katelyn; Biju, K C; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2010-10-11

    Gene-targeted deletion of the predominant Shaker potassium channel, Kv1.3, in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, decreases the number of presynaptic, odorant receptor (OR)-identified olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and alters the nature of their postsynaptic connections to mitral cell targets. The current study examined whether OSN density was state-dependent by examining the impact of (1) odor enrichment, (2) sensory deprivation, and (3) aging upon the number of P2- or M72-expressing neurons. Histological approaches were used to quantify the number of OSNs across entire epithelia for wildtype (WT) vs. Kv1.3-null (KO) mice bred onto an ORtauLacZ reporter background. Following either odor enrichment or early unilateral naris-occlusion, the number of M72-expressing OSNs was significantly decreased in WT mice, but was unchanged in KO animals. Following naris-occlusion, the number of P2-expressing OSNs was decreased regardless of genotype. Animals that were reared to 2 years of age demonstrated loss of both P2- and M72-expressing OSNs in WT mice and a concomitant loss of only M72-expressing neurons in KO mice. These findings suggest that voltage-gated activity of the mitral cells is important for OSN plasticity, and can prevent neuronal loss via sensory- and OR-dependent mechanisms.

  11. Pelvic lymphoscintigraphy: contribution to the preoperative staging of rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva José Hyppolito da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Preservation of the anal sphincter in surgery for cancer of the distal rectum in an attempt to avoid colostomy has been a main concern of colorectal surgeons. Various proposed procedures contradict oncological principles, especially with respect to pelvic lymphadenectomy. Therefore, prior knowledge of pelvic lymph node involvement is an important factor in choosing the operative technique, i.e., radical or conservative resection. Introduction of ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance have made preoperative study of the area possible. Nevertheless, these resources offer information of an anatomical nature only. Lymphoscintigraphy enables the morphological and functional evaluation of the pelvic area and contributes toward complementing the data obtained with the other imaging techniques. The objective of this prospective study is twofold: to standardize the lymphoscintigraphy technique and to use it to differentiate patients with rectal cancer from those with other coloproctologic diseases. CASUISTIC AND METHODS: Sixty patients with various coloproctologic diseases were studied prospectively. Ages ranged from 21 to 96 years (average, 51 and median, 55 years. Twenty-six patients were male and 34 were female. Thirty patients had carcinoma of the distal rectum as diagnosed by proctologic and anatomic-pathologic examinations, 20 patients had hemorrhoids, 5 had chagasic megacolon, 2 had diverticular disease, 2 had neoplasm of the right colon, and 1 had ulcerative colitis as diagnosed by proctologic exam and/or enema. The lymphoscintigraphy method consisted of injecting 0.25 mL of a dextran solution marked with radioactive technetium-99m into the right and left sides of the perianal region and obtaining images with a gamma camera. The results were analyzed statistically with a confidence level of 95% (P < .05 using the following statistical techniques: arithmetic and medium average, Fisher exact test, chi-square test

  12. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  13. Rectal neuroendocrine tumor with uncommon metastaticspread: A case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract arerare neoplasms. Rectal neuroendocrine tumors consistapproximately the 5%-14% of all neuroendocrine neoplasmsin Europe. These tumors are diagnosed in relativelyyoung patients, with a mean age at diagnosis of 56years. Distant metastases from rectal neuroendocrinetumors are not very common. Herein we describe a caseof a rectal neuroendocrine tumor which metastasized tothe lung, mediastinum and orbit. This case underscoresthe importance of early identification and optimalmanagement to improve patient's prognosis. Therefore,the clinical significance of this case is the necessityof physicians' awareness and education regardingneuroendocrine tumors' diagnosis and management.

  14. Strong PMSA Radioligand Uptake by Rectal Carcinoma: Who Put the "S" in PSMA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykow, Christian; Huber-Schumacher, Sabine; Almanasreh, Nadja; Jilg, Cordula; Ruf, Juri

    2017-03-01

    We present a case of a 71-year-old patient with newly diagnosed rectal adenocarcinoma and hepatic metastases. Restaging after chemotherapy revealed a good response of the rectal primary while liver metastases were progressive. As the patient also had a history of prostate cancer, a Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT scan was performed to noninvasively further assess hepatic metastases. However, a definite differentiation between tumor entities was not possible because not only the liver metastases but also the rectal primary showed radioligand uptake (moderate and strong, respectively). Consecutive liver biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of intestinal origin.

  15. Rectal neuroendocrine tumor with uncommon metastatic spread: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, Nikolaos; Galanopoulos, Michail; Tolia, Maria; Kiakou, Maria; Nakos, Georgios; Papakostidi, Aristoula; Koumakis, Georgios

    2016-02-15

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are rare neoplasms. Rectal neuroendocrine tumors consist approximately the 5%-14% of all neuroendocrine neoplasms in Europe. These tumors are diagnosed in relatively young patients, with a mean age at diagnosis of 56 years. Distant metastases from rectal neuroendocrine tumors are not very common. Herein we describe a case of a rectal neuroendocrine tumor which metastasized to the lung, mediastinum and orbit. This case underscores the importance of early identification and optimal management to improve patient's prognosis. Therefore, the clinical significance of this case is the necessity of physicians' awareness and education regarding neuroendocrine tumors' diagnosis and management.

  16. Neurofibromatosis: The role of guanosine triphosphatase activating proteins in sensory neuron function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cynthia M. Hingtgen

    2008-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant disease characterized by formation of multiple benign and malignant tumors. People with this disorder also experience chronic pain, which can be disabling. Neurofibromin, the protein product of the Nfl gene, is a gnanosine triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) for p21Ras (Ras). Loss of Nfl results in an increase in activity of the Ras transduction cascade. Because of the growing evidence suggesting involvement of downstream components of the Ras transduction cascade in the sensitization of nociceptive sensory neurons, we examined the stimulus-evoked release of the neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), from primary sensory neurons of mice with a mutation of the Nfl gene (NfI+1-). Measuring the levels of SP and CGRP by radioimmunoassay, we demonstrated that capsaicin-stimulated release of neuropep-tides is 3-5 folds higher in spinal cord slices from Nfl+1-mice than that from wildtype mouse tissue. In addition, the potassium- and capsaicin-stimulated release of CGRP from the culture of sensory neurons isolated from Nfl+1- mice was more than double that from the culture of wildtype neurons. Using patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques, we also examined the excitability of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons. It was found that the number of action potentials generated by the neurons from Nfl+1- mice, responsing to a ramp of depolarizing current, was more than three times of that generated by wildtype neurons. Consistent with that observation, neurons from Nfl+1- mice had lower firing thresholds, lower rheobase currents and shorter firing latencies compared with wildtype neurons. These data clearly demonstrate that GAPs, such as neurofihromin, can alter the excitability of nociceptive sensory neurons. The augmented response of sensory neurons with altered Ras signaling may explain the abnormal pain sensations experienced by people with NFI and suggests an important

  17. pANCA-vasculitis associated with rectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, C; Rihova, Z; Mokaddem, F; Libotte, B

    2014-12-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old male patient who was admitted for fever, dry cough, recurrent sinusitis with epistaxis, anorexia with weight loss of 20 kg over a 3-month period, myalgia, and mononeuritis multiplex. He was diagnosed with pANCA/anti-MPO associated vasculitis and rectal adenocarcinoma. The tumor was treated by surgical resection. Recurrence of vasculitis occurred during steroid tapering which prompted us to add Mycophenolate mofetyl. A complete remission was achieved. We conclude that in the present case the vasculitis was an independent disease, not a paraneoplastic phenomenon. We discuss the value of different ANCA serologies for diagnostics and follow-up, the epidemiology of vasculitis associated with malignancy, and the concept of vasculitis as a paraneoplastic syndrome.

  18. Rectal carcinosarcoma: A case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitrios Konstantinos Tsekouras; Stylianos Katsaragakis; Dimitrios Theodorou; Georgia Kafiri; Fotis Archontovasilis; Panagiotis Giannopoulos; Panagiotis Drimousis; John Bramis

    2006-01-01

    A 60-years old male was admitted to our department for investigation of constipation and hypogastric discomfort intensified during defecation of a few weeks duration.The cause proved to be a rectal carcinosarcoma that was treated by abdominoperineal resection and postoperative chemo-radiotherapy. The patient died 6 months later due to hepatic failure, showing evidence of disseminated disease. In general colonic carcinosarcomas constitute a rare category of malignant neoplasms whose nature is still incompletely understood. No specific treatment guidelines exist. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment and regardless of the addition of adjuvant therapy the prognosis is very poor. Systematic genetic analysis may be the clue for understanding the pathogenesis of these mysterious tumors.

  19. Pancreatic Metastasis from Rectal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Ebrahimian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract that originate from all areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Metastases to the liver, peritoneum, bones, lungs and soft tissues have been reported. We present the case of a 47- year-old woman with rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor that underwent wide local excision. She was treated with imatinib for a few months after surgery. After eight months, she was admitted to the emergency service with complaints of epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. Imaging studies showed the presence of a pancreatic head tumor and three hepatic masses. The patient underwent exploratory laparatomy. Excisional biopsy of one hepatic mass and core needle biopsy of the pancreatic head mass revealed metastases to the liver and pancreas. During the hospital course the patient's condition deteriorated and she subsequently expired.

  20. Radiotherapy of presacral recurrence following radical surgery for rectal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowsky, W.; Schmid, A.P.

    1985-12-01

    The records of 58 patients treated by radiotherapy for presacral recurrent rectal cancers between 1975 and 1982 were evaluated. Pain was one of the most distressing symptoms, occurring in 38 of 58 patients (66 percent) which, in 90 percent (34 of 38) of patients could be controlled by radiotherapy. Side effects were mild, and could be treated conservatively. The crude survival of the patients was 19.8 months (range, 3 to 71 months). Only 3 percent of those treated survived five years. The dose-survival study showed increased survival of patients treated with more than 44 Gy. Because of negative selection of patients irradiated with lower doses, certain conclusions cannot be made. Surgery, if performed radically, is the treatment of choice. But patients with inoperable disease treated with radiotherapy benefit symptomatically, and might have increased survivals with a small chance of cure.

  1. Combined modality preoperative therapy for unresectable rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percarpio, B; Bitterman, J; Sabbath, K; Alfano, F; Ruszkowski, R; Bowen, J

    1992-01-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer has been a surgical challenge because of fixation of the primary tumor to the boney pelvis or to other pelvic soft tissues. During a 12-month period seven patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum were treated preoperatively with simultaneous pelvic irradiation (4500-5040 cGy) and infusion chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil 1000 mg per m2 per day over 96 hours and mitomycin 10 mg per m2. Tolerance was reasonable and all patients underwent successful resection of the primary lesion. Two patients had a complete response to preoperative combined modality therapy with no cancer found in the surgical specimen. With a short follow-up period, all patients have experienced satisfactory healing and none have suffered local or distant recurrence. The results of this limited series are encouraging for future clinical trials.

  2. Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Shaddox, Kent F.; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, Reid; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.; Tabb, David L.; Coffey, Robert J.; Slebos, Robbert; Liebler, Daniel

    2014-09-18

    We analyzed proteomes of colon and rectal tumors previously characterized by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and performed integrated proteogenomic analyses. Protein sequence variants encoded by somatic genomic variations displayed reduced expression compared to protein variants encoded by germline variations. mRNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein expression differences between tumors. Proteomics identified five protein expression subtypes, two of which were associated with the TCGA "MSI/CIMP" transcriptional subtype, but had distinct mutation and methylation patterns and associated with different clinical outcomes. Although CNAs showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA expression, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. Our analyses identified HNF4A, a novel candidate driver gene in tumors with chromosome 20q amplifications. Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords novel insights into cancer biology.

  3. Neural correlates of abnormal sensory discrimination in laryngeal dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichet Termsarasab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD, who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms. We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder.

  4. An assessment of the anatomical relationship between the pelvic plexus and the rectal wall to determine the indications for its preservation in surgery for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, H; Ike, H; Oki, S; Hara, M; Shimada, H

    1997-01-01

    Preservation of the pelvic plexus in surgery for rectal cancer could shorten the distance between the cancer and the lateral resection margin, whereby the curability of the operation may be reduced. To clarify the indications for preserving the pelvic plexus in such surgery, the relationship of the pelvic plexus to the rectum and rectal cancer was investigated anatomically in 12 autopsied specimens and 12 surgical specimens. The rectum and anus were dissected with all the pelvic organs from autopsied cadavers and transverse sections were prepared at 10-mm intervals after fixation. The location of the pelvic plexus was then measured on the tissue preparations, and compared to that of surgical specimens from rectal cancers with concurrent resection of the pelvic plexus. The pelvic plexus was located from 3.3 +/- 1.2 cm above to 2.3 +/- 1.9 cm below the peritoneal reflection in the autopsied specimens. The average distances between the muscularis propria and the pelvic plexus in the autopsied specimens and surgical specimens were 8.3 +/- 3.5 mm and 14.7 +/- 4.5 mm, respectively, showing a significant difference (P Pelvic plexuses were located about 10 mm from the outer margin of rectal muscularis propria. These findings indicate that concurrent resection of the pelvic plexus may be required to secure sufficient surgical clearance in pT3 rectal cancers, especially those invading deeply beyond the muscularis propria (a2).

  5. Sensory Discrimination as Related to General Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, G. Scott; Schroeder, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to replicate the pitch discrimination findings of previous research and expand them to the modality of color discrimination in a sample of 899 teenagers and adults by correlating 2 sensory discrimination measures with the general factor from a battery of 13 cognitive ability tests. Results suggest that sensory discrimination is…

  6. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  7. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and mo

  8. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution...

  9. WHAT IS LACKING, STATEMENT ON SENSORY DEPRIVATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    REGAN, J.

    THIS PAPER, WHICH ANNOUNCES THE THEME OF A SEMINAR ON THEORIES OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING, QUESTIONS THE VIEW THAT A CHILD'S POOR SCHOOL PERFORMANCE DERIVES FROM AN IMPOVERISHED SENSORY EXPERIENCE. A DEPRIVED TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT IS DEPICTED TO CAST DOUBTS ON THIS THEORY. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE EFFECTS OF SENSORY DEPRIVATION IS INCLUDED. THIS…

  10. Review of the clinical pharmacokinetics of artesunate and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin following intravenous, intramuscular, oral or rectal administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Chang-Sik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Artesunate (AS is a clinically versatile artemisinin derivative utilized for the treatment of mild to severe malaria infection. Given the therapeutic significance of AS and the necessity of appropriate AS dosing, substantial research has been performed investigating the pharmacokinetics of AS and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA. In this article, a comprehensive review is presented of AS clinical pharmacokinetics following administration of AS by the intravenous (IV, intramuscular (IM, oral or rectal routes. Intravenous AS is associated with high initial AS concentrations which subsequently decline rapidly, with typical AS half-life estimates of less than 15 minutes. AS clearance and volume estimates average 2 - 3 L/kg/hr and 0.1 - 0.3 L/kg, respectively. DHA concentrations peak within 25 minutes post-dose, and DHA is eliminated with a half-life of 30 - 60 minutes. DHA clearance and volume average between 0.5 - 1.5 L/kg/hr and 0.5 - 1.0 L/kg, respectively. Compared to IV administration, IM administration produces lower peaks, longer half-life values, and higher volumes of distribution for AS, as well as delayed peaks for DHA; other parameters are generally similar due to the high bioavailability, assessed by exposure to DHA, associated with IM AS administration (> 86%. Similarly high bioavailability of DHA (> 80% is associated with oral administration. Following oral AS, peak AS concentrations (Cmax are achieved within one hour, and AS is eliminated with a half-life of 20 - 45 minutes. DHA Cmax values are observed within two hours post-dose; DHA half-life values average 0.5 - 1.5 hours. AUC values reported for AS are often substantially lower than those reported for DHA following oral AS administration. Rectal AS administration yields pharmacokinetic results similar to those obtained from oral administration, with the exceptions of delayed AS Cmax and longer AS half-life. Drug interaction studies conducted with oral AS

  11. Review of the clinical pharmacokinetics of artesunate and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin following intravenous, intramuscular, oral or rectal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carrie A; Duparc, Stephan; Borghini-Fuhrer, Isabelle; Jung, Donald; Shin, Chang-Sik; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2011-09-13

    Artesunate (AS) is a clinically versatile artemisinin derivative utilized for the treatment of mild to severe malaria infection. Given the therapeutic significance of AS and the necessity of appropriate AS dosing, substantial research has been performed investigating the pharmacokinetics of AS and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA). In this article, a comprehensive review is presented of AS clinical pharmacokinetics following administration of AS by the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), oral or rectal routes. Intravenous AS is associated with high initial AS concentrations which subsequently decline rapidly, with typical AS half-life estimates of less than 15 minutes. AS clearance and volume estimates average 2 - 3 L/kg/hr and 0.1 - 0.3 L/kg, respectively. DHA concentrations peak within 25 minutes post-dose, and DHA is eliminated with a half-life of 30 - 60 minutes. DHA clearance and volume average between 0.5 - 1.5 L/kg/hr and 0.5 - 1.0 L/kg, respectively. Compared to IV administration, IM administration produces lower peaks, longer half-life values, and higher volumes of distribution for AS, as well as delayed peaks for DHA; other parameters are generally similar due to the high bioavailability, assessed by exposure to DHA, associated with IM AS administration (> 86%). Similarly high bioavailability of DHA (> 80%) is associated with oral administration. Following oral AS, peak AS concentrations (Cmax) are achieved within one hour, and AS is eliminated with a half-life of 20 - 45 minutes. DHA Cmax values are observed within two hours post-dose; DHA half-life values average 0.5 - 1.5 hours. AUC values reported for AS are often substantially lower than those reported for DHA following oral AS administration. Rectal AS administration yields pharmacokinetic results similar to those obtained from oral administration, with the exceptions of delayed AS Cmax and longer AS half-life. Drug interaction studies conducted with oral AS suggest that AS does not

  12. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2010-01-01

    to be more applicable for studying results of extensive data sets by handling missing values and estimating the significance of sensory attributes. The practical use of the paper is also a quantitative descriptive analysis vocabulary, which may be used as a basis for other studies with cod. It may also...... atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...... storage methods had minor influence on sensory characteristics of cod fillets after short storage time, but after extended storage, the groups were different with regard to most attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This paper presents different ways of analyzing sensory data. The process of analysis...

  13. Mismatch Negativity and P50 Sensory Gating in Abstinent Former Cannabis Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Broyd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged heavy exposure to cannabis is associated with impaired cognition and brain functional and structural alterations. We recently reported attenuated mismatch negativity (MMN and altered P50 sensory gating in chronic cannabis users. This study investigated the extent of brain functional recovery (indexed by MMN and P50 in chronic users after cessation of use. Eighteen ex-users (median 13.5 years prior regular use; median 3.5 years abstinence and 18 nonusers completed (1 a multifeature oddball task with duration, frequency, and intensity deviants and (2 a P50 paired-click paradigm. Trend level smaller duration MMN amplitude and larger P50 ratios (indicative of poorer sensory gating were observed in ex-users compared to controls. Poorer P50 gating correlated with prior duration of cannabis use. Duration of abstinence was positively correlated with duration MMN amplitude, even after controlling for age and duration of cannabis use. Impaired sensory gating and attenuated MMN amplitude tended to persist in ex-users after prolonged cessation of use, suggesting a lack of full recovery. An association with prolonged duration of prior cannabis use may indicate persistent cannabis-related alterations to P50 sensory gating. Greater reductions in MMN amplitude with increasing abstinence (positive correlation may be related to either self-medication or an accelerated aging process.

  14. Sensory extinction and sensory reinforcement principles for programming multiple adaptive behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, A; Cook, R; Peoples, A; Packard, D

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory reinforcement was examined in programming multiple treatment gains in self-stimulation and spontaneous play for developmentally disabled children. Two phases were planned. First, we attempted to identify reinforcers maintaining self-stimulation. Sensory Extinction procedures were implemented in which auditory, proprioceptive, or visual sensory consequences of self-stimulatory behavior were systematically removed and reintroduced in a reversal design. When self-stimulation was decreased or eliminated as a result of removing one of these sensory consequences, the functional sensory consequence was designated as a child's preferred sensory reinforcer. In Phase 2, we assessed whether children would play selectively with toys producing the preferred kind of sensory stimulation. The results showed the following. (1) Self-stimulatory behavior was found to be maintained by sensory reinforcement. When the sensory reinforcer was removed, self-stimulation extinguished. (2) The sensory reinforcers identified for self-stimulatory behavior also served as reinforcers for new, appropriate toy play. (3) The multiple treatment gains observed appeared to be relatively durable in the absence of external reinforcers for play or restraints on self-stimulation. These results illustrate one instance in which multiple behavior change may be programmed in a predictable, lawful fashion by using "natural communities of sensory reinforcement."

  15. Inhibition of Rho-kinase differentially affects axon regeneration of peripheral motor and sensory nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhijeet R; Bobylev, Ilja; Zhang, Gang; Sheikh, Kazim A; Lehmann, Helmar C

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA and its down-stream effector Rho-kinase (ROCK) are important effector molecules of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Modulation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway has been shown to promote axonal regeneration, however in vitro and animal studies are inconsistent regarding the extent of axonal outgrowth induced by pharmacological inhibition of ROCK. We hypothesized that injury to sensory and motor nerves result in diverse activation levels of RhoA, which may impact the response of those nerve fiber modalities to ROCK inhibition. We therefore examined the effects of Y-27632, a chemical ROCK inhibitor, on the axonal outgrowth of peripheral sensory and motor neurons grown in the presence of growth-inhibiting chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). In addition we examined the effects of three different doses of Y-27632 on nerve regeneration of motor and sensory nerves in animal models of peripheral nerve crush. In vitro, sensory neurons were less responsive to Y-27632 compared to motor neurons in a non-growth permissive environment. These differences were associated with altered expression and activation of RhoA in sensory and motor axons. In vivo, systemic treatment with high doses of Y-27632 significantly enhanced the regeneration of motor axons over short distances, while the regeneration of sensory fibers remained largely unchanged. Our results support the concept that in a growth non-permissive environment, the regenerative capacity of sensory and motor axons is differentially affected by the RhoA/ROCK pathway, with motor neurons being more responsive compared to sensory. Future treatments, that are aimed to modulate RhoA activity, should consider this functional diversity.

  16. Choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyoshi Tei

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: This is the first report of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. We consider it important to enforce systemic chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy for choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer.

  17. Selection Criteria for the Radical Treatment of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansel Leigh Davies

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are over 14,000 newly diagnosed rectal cancers per year in the United Kingdom of which between 50 and 64 percent are locally advanced (T3/T4 at presentation. Pelvic exenterative surgery was first described by Brunschwig in 1948 for advanced cervical cancer, but early series reported high morbidity and mortality. This approach was later applied to advanced primary rectal carcinomas with contemporary series reporting 5-year survival rates between 32 and 66 percent and to recurrent rectal carcinoma with survival rates of 22–42%. The Swansea Pelvic Oncology Group was established in 1999 and is involved in the assessment and management of advanced pelvic malignancies referred both regionally and UK wide. This paper will set out the selection, assessment, preparation, surgery, and outcomes from pelvic exenterative surgery for locally advanced primary rectal carcinomas.

  18. A randomized pilot study on single-port versus conventional laparoscopic rectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, O; Aslak, K K; Levic, K;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potential benefits of single-port laparoscopic surgery may include improved cosmetic results, less postoperative pain, surgical trauma and faster recovery. Results of randomized prospective studies with a focus on single-port rectal surgery have not yet been presented. The aim...... of the present study was to compare single-port and conventional laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer in terms of short-term outcomes including postoperative pain and trauma-induced changes in certain bioactive substances. METHODS: Patients with non-metastasized rectal cancer were prospectively randomized...... to single-port (n = 20) or conventional laparoscopic rectal surgery (n = 20). Postoperative pain was assessed at rest, at coughing and during mobilization, with a numeric pain ranking score and was recorded at 6 h after the operation and subsequently every morning daily for 4 days. Levels of C...

  19. Reduced Circumferential Resection Margin Involvement in Rectal Cancer Surgery: Results of the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, L.; Wouters, M.W.; Tanis, P.J.; Deken, M.M.; Berge, M.G. Ten; Tollenaar, R.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Noo, M.E. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a significant prognostic factor for local recurrence, distant metastasis, and survival after rectal cancer surgery. Therefore, availability of this parameter is essential. Although the Dutch total mesorectal excision trial raised awareness ab

  20. Rectal complication after remote afterloading intracavitary therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, T.; Chatani, M.; Hata, K.; Inoue, Ta.; Inoue, To.; Suzuki, T.

    1985-06-01

    From August 1978 through December 1980, 119 patients of previously untreated carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated using RALS, remote afterloading high dose rate intracavitary therapy at our department. The data from 92 out of 119 patients were available for analysis of rectal complication. The incidence of major rectal complications was only 2% (2/92). Uni- and multivariate analyses were used based on the external criterion variable of rectal complication which included even minor injuries. By using these methods, it was clearly indicated that these factors such as TDF of rectum, Z-coordinate of weighted geometric center (WGC-Z), the dose of whole pelvic irradiation, history of chemotherapy and Treponema pallidum hemoagglutination test (TPHA) were important for occurrence of rectal complication. According to discriminant score, 71 out of 92 cases (77%) could be correctly discriminated.

  1. Comparison of trans-anal endoscopic operation and trans-anal excision of rectal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hussain Al Bandar

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: TEO treatment of local rectal tumors is safe and feasible and can achieve an adequate resection margin. Local recurrence was similar in both groups. However, the numbers of salvage operations and minor complications were higher in the TEO group.

  2. Comparative bioavailability of a morphine suppository given rectally and in a colostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, J; Rubeck-Petersen, K; Rask, H;

    1990-01-01

    In eight patients with a colostomy, plasma morphine levels were followed for 8 h after administration of 20 mg morphine chloride as a suppository, first rectally and after at least 48 h via the colostomy. The bioavailability after administration in the colostomy showed very great variation......; the mean value compared to rectal bioavailability was only 43% (range 0.1-127%). In four patients the plasma concentrations of morphine after colostomy administration were lower at all times than after rectal administration, and in three only small amounts of morphine were detectable. One patient showed...... higher plasma concentrations after colostomy application than after rectal administration. It is concluded that administration of morphine suppositories in a colostomy cannot be recommended....

  3. A multidisciplinary clinical treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer complicated with rectovesical fistula: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Tiancheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rectal cancer with rectovesical fistula is a rare and difficult to treat entity. Here, we describe a case of rectal cancer with rectovesical fistula successfully managed by multimodality treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case report in the literature. Case presentation A 51-year-old Chinese man was diagnosed as having rectal cancer accompanied by rectovesical fistula. He underwent treatment with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy combined with total pelvic excision and adjuvant chemotherapy, as recommended by a multimodality treatment team. Post-operative pathology confirmed the achievement of pathological complete response. Conclusions This case suggests that a proactive multidisciplinary treatment is needed to achieve complete cure of locally advanced rectal cancer even in the presence of rectovesical fistula.

  4. Rectal Visceral Sensitivity in Women with Irritable Bowel Syndrome without Psychiatric Comorbidity Compared with Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Spetalen

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions. Non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had increased visceral sensitivity regarding volume thresholds but normal pressure thresholds. Our study suggests that the lowered volume threshold was due to increased rectal tone.

  5. Endoclipping treatment of life-threatening rectal bleeding after prostate biopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panagiotis Katsinelos,; Jannis Kountouras,; Georgios Dimitriadis,; Grigoris Chatzimavroudis,; Christos Zavos,; Ioannis Pilpilidis,; George Paroutoglou,; George Germanidis,; Kostas Mimidis

    2009-01-01

    Rectal bleeding is frequently seen in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided multiple biopsy of the prostate, but is usually mild and stops spontaneously. We report what is believed to be the first case of life-threatening rectal bleeding following this procedure, which was successfully treated by endoscopic intervention through placement of three clips on the sites of bleeding. This case emphasizes endoscopic intervention associated with endoclipping as a safe and effective method to achieve hemostasis in massive rectal bleeding after prostate biopsy. Additionally, current data on the complications of the TRUS-guided multiple biopsy of the prostate and the options for treating fulminant rectal bleeding, a consequence of this procedure, are described.

  6. International preoperative rectal cancer management: staging, neoadjuvant treatment, and impact of multidisciplinary teams.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Augestad, Knut M

    2010-11-01

    Little is known regarding variations in preoperative treatment and practice for rectal cancer (RC) on an international level, yet practice variation may result in differences in recurrence and survival rates.

  7. Evaluation of Sexual and Urinary Function After Implementation of Robot-assisted Surgery for Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Amalie F T; Broholm, Malene; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our objective was to report postoperative urogenital dysfunction after rectal cancer surgery, identifying possible predictors including conventional laparoscopic total mesorectal excision and robot-assisted total mesorectal excision laparoscopic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... dysfunction (OD). On multivariate analyses, older age was the only predictor for ED (P=0.0012). Older age (P=0.007) and having a rectal extirpation procedure (P=0.013) were predictors of OD. CONCLUSIONS: ED and OD are common after rectal cancer surgery. Robotic surgery was seemingly not associated with ED......: Questionnaires were mailed to 184 patients who underwent laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery between January 2009 and May 2013. Single questions were used to retrospectively assess preoperative urogenital dysfunction. Surgical data were collected from hospital records. Postoperative urinary and sexual function...

  8. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. METHODS: 193,306 children......, born from 1936 to 1972, from the Copenhagen School Health Record Register were followed prospectively in Danish health registers. Colon and rectal cancer cases were defined using the International Classification of Disease version 10 (colon: C18.0-18.9, rectal: 19.9 and 20.9). Only cancers classified....... No significant sex differences were observed; therefore combined results are presented. Birth weight was positively associated with colon cancers with a HR of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26) per kilogram of birth weight. For rectal cancer a significant association was not observed for birth weights below 3.5kg. Above 3...

  9. [Rectal anaesthesia with diazepam added to ketamine for preschool child (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, J P; Brille, P; Starobinsky, E; Buffet, J P; Milhaud, A

    1981-01-01

    The authors relate their experience of 61 rectal anesthesias with ketamine (10 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.25-0.5 mg/kg). Rectal anesthesia is well accepted by children who are afraid of percutaneous injection. When ketamine is used alone, they obtained only 76 p. cent good result. When diazepam is associated, good results arise to 95 p. cent. Diazepam added to ketamine allows surface surgery during 10 to 15 minutes.

  10. Can 5-aminosalicylic acid suppository decrease the pain after rectal band ligation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burcak Kayhan; Digdem Ozer; Meral Akdogan; Ersan Ozaslan; Osman Yuksel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) suppositories on rectal band ligation-induced pain.METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized into two treatment groups.RESULTS: Our results showed that there was no difference between 5-ASA suppository group and the control group for pain control.CONCLUSION: 5-ASA may be an alternative treatment for hemorrhoids; however, it does not affect the rectal band ligation-induced pain.

  11. Neoadjuvant bevacizumab and chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer: early outcome and technical impact on toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chia-Chun; Liang, Jin-Tung; Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Lin; Shun, Chia-Tung; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate early clinical and pathological results for treating locally advanced rectal cancer with bevacizumab and neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy using the technique of prone-position volumetric modulated arc therapy and to compare the toxicity of volumetric modulated arc therapy with that of supine-position four-field box radiotherapy. Methods Twelve patients with stage IIA to IVA rectal adenocarcinoma, treated with neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (45...

  12. Metachronous Bilateral Isolated Adrenal Metastasis from Rectal Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Moukhlissi, M.; Akssim, M.; Guensi, A.; Kadiri, B.; Bouchbika, Z.; Taleb, A.; Benchekroun, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Sahraoui, S.; Zamiati, S.; Benider, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer in a 54-year-old woman. Nine months after resection for advanced rectal carcinoma, a computed tomography scan revealed bilateral adrenal metastasis. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen was normal. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed after chemotherapy. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. Adrenal metastasis should be considered in the patients' follow-up for colorectal cancer. PMID:24860684

  13. Metachronous bilateral isolated adrenal metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, H; Tawfiq, N; Moukhlissi, M; Akssim, M; Guensi, A; Kadiri, B; Bouchbika, Z; Taleb, A; Benchekroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Zamiati, S; Benider, A

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer in a 54-year-old woman. Nine months after resection for advanced rectal carcinoma, a computed tomography scan revealed bilateral adrenal metastasis. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen was normal. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed after chemotherapy. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. Adrenal metastasis should be considered in the patients' follow-up for colorectal cancer.

  14. Lack of prophylactic efficacy of oral maraviroc in macaques despite high drug concentrations in rectal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massud, Ivana; Aung, Wutyi; Martin, Amy; Bachman, Shanon; Mitchell, James; Aubert, Rachael; Solomon Tsegaye, Theodros; Kersh, Ellen; Pau, Chou-Pong; Heneine, Walid; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2013-08-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) is a potent CCR5 coreceptor antagonist that is in clinical testing for daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. We used a macaque model consisting of weekly SHIV162p3 exposures to evaluate the efficacy of oral MVC in preventing rectal SHIV transmission. MVC dosing was informed by the pharmacokinetic profile seen in blood and rectal tissues and consisted of a human-equivalent dose given 24 h before virus exposure, followed by a booster postexposure dose. In rectal secretions, MVC peaked at 24 h (10,242 ng/ml) with concentrations at 48 h that were about 40 times those required to block SHIV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Median MVC concentrations in rectal tissues at 24 h (1,404 ng/g) were 30 and 10 times those achieved in vaginal or lymphoid tissues, respectively. MVC significantly reduced macrophage inflammatory protein 1β-induced CCR5 internalization in rectal mononuclear cells, an indication of efficient binding to CCR5 in rectal lymphocytes. The half-life of CCR5-bound MVC in PBMCs was 2.6 days. Despite this favorable profile, 5/6 treated macaques were infected during five rectal SHIV exposures as were 3/4 controls. MVC treatment was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of CD3(+)/CCR5(+) cells in blood. We show that high and durable MVC concentrations in rectal tissues are not sufficient to prevent SHIV infection in macaques. The increases in CD3(+)/CCR5(+) cells seen during MVC treatment point to unique immunological effects of CCR5 inhibition by MVC. The implications of these immunological effects on PrEP with MVC require further evaluation.

  15. A comparison of tympanic and rectal temperatures in term NIGERIAN neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duru Chika O

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tympanic thermometry has come as a suitable alternative to traditional thermometry because of its safety and ease of use. However, it is still yet to gain wide acceptance in African settings due to conflicting results on its accuracy, thus rectal thermometry remains the gold standard in the newborn. The aim of this study was to compare tympanic and rectal temperatures in term Nigerian neonates. Methods Rectal and tympanic temperatures were measured simultaneously in 300 consecutive term neonates between the ages of 37 and 42 weeks gestation using mercury-in-glass and the Infrared tympanic thermometers respectively. Paired t test, Pearson correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot were used to compute data. Using rectal thermometry as gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of tympanic thermometry at various rectal temperature cut-offs were determined. Receiver Operating Curves (ROC were constructed and the Areas Under the Curves (AUC were compared. Results The mean rectal temperature (37.34 ± 0.55°C was significantly higher than the mean tympanic temperature (37.25 ± 0.56°C (p  Conclusions The sensitivity of tympanic thermometry was relatively low in detecting rectal temperatures despite the good correlation and agreement between them. The specificities and predictive values of tympanic temperatures in detecting rectal temperatures were high and accuracy increased with higher temperatures. Though using the tympanic route for measuring temperature in the newborn is relatively safe and non-invasive, its low sensitivity limits its use. Further studies would be required to further assess the accuracy of tympanic temperature measurements in the newborn.

  16. SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF SQUAMOUS-CELL RECTAL CANCER: А CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Barsukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term results of conservative squamous-cell rectal cancer treatment (12 cm above anal verge are presented in the article. Squamous-cell rectal cancer is a rare disease with only 73 cases described in the literature. Patient received a novel chemoradiotherapy scheme. Complete response was achieved and no surgery performed. Patient is disease-free and has good quality of life with 4 years followup.

  17. Endocavitary radiotherapy in patients with rectal carcinoma. Endokavitaer straalebehandling ved cancer recti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanum, G.; Tveit, K.M.; Giercksky, K.E. (Det Norske Radiumhospital, Oslo (Norway))

    1992-05-01

    Most patients with rectal carcinomas undergo surgery, either a resection with anastomosis or Miles' operation with permanent colostomy. Endocavitary radiotherapy is an alternative to surgery in patients with small carcinomas (Dukes' A) or adenovillous adenomas. The treatment is cheap, simple, gives good local tumour control, has low morbidity and does not require hosptialization. The Norwegian Radium Hospital has recently startet to use this method in selected cases of rectal carcinomas. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Differences in survival between colon and rectal cancer from SEER data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chien Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? OBJECTIVES: The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. PATIENTS: A total of 372,130 patients with a median follow-up of 32 months were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean survival of patients with the same stage of colon and rectal cancer was evaluated. RESULTS: Around 35% of patients had stage information. Among them, colon cancer patients had better survival than those with rectal cancer, by a margin of 4 months in stage IIB. In stage IIIC and stage IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer patients, by about 3 months. Stage IIB colorectal cancer patients had a poorer prognosis than those with stage IIIA and IIIB colorectal cancer. After adjustment of age, sex and race, colon cancer patients had better survival than rectal cancer of stage IIB, but in stage IIIC and IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer. LIMITATIONS: The study is limited by its retrospective nature. CONCLUSION: This was a population-based study. The prognosis of rectal cancer was not worse than that of colon cancer. Local advanced colorectal cancer had a poorer prognosis than local regional lymph node metastasis. Stage IIB might require more aggressive chemotherapy, and no less than that for stage III.

  19. Differences in Survival between Colon and Rectal Cancer from SEER Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Chien Lee; Yen-Lin Lee; Jen-Pin Chuang; Jenq-Chang Lee

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? OBJECTIVES: The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. PATIENTS: A total of 372,1...

  20. Metachronous Bilateral Isolated Adrenal Metastasis from Rectal Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jabir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer in a 54-year-old woman. Nine months after resection for advanced rectal carcinoma, a computed tomography scan revealed bilateral adrenal metastasis. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen was normal. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed after chemotherapy. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. Adrenal metastasis should be considered in the patients’ follow-up for colorectal cancer.

  1. Experiences from treatment-predictive KRAS testing; high mutation frequency in rectal cancers from females and concurrent mutations in the same tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Mats; Ekstrand, Anna; Edekling, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: KRAS mutations represent key alterations in colorectal cancer development and lead to constitutive EGFR signaling. Since EGFR inhibition represents a therapeutic strategy in advanced colorectal cancer, KRAS mutation analysis has quickly been introduced as a treatment-predictive test. ...... therapies, whereas the observation of concurrent KRAS mutations imply that repeated KRAS targeting may occur during tumor progression in a subset of colorectal cancers.......BACKGROUND: KRAS mutations represent key alterations in colorectal cancer development and lead to constitutive EGFR signaling. Since EGFR inhibition represents a therapeutic strategy in advanced colorectal cancer, KRAS mutation analysis has quickly been introduced as a treatment-predictive test...... carried Gly12Cys/Gly12Asp in an adenomatous component and additionally acquired Gly12Val in the invasive component. CONCLUSION: The demonstration of a particularly high KRAS mutation frequency among female rectal cancer patients suggests that this subset is the least likely to respond to anti-EGFR...

  2. Identification of the differential expressive tumor associated genes in rectal cancers by cDNA microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Qin Gao; Jin-Xiang Han; Zhong-Fa Xu; Wei-Dong Zhang; Hua-Ning Zhang; Hai-Yan Huang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To identify tumor associated genes of rectal cancer and to probe the application possibility of gene expression profiles for the classification of tumors.METHODS: Rectal cancer tissues and their paired normal mucosa were obtained from patients undergoing surgical resection of rectal cancer. Total RNA was extracted using Trizol reagents. First strand cDNA synthesis was indirectly labeled with aminoallyl-dUTP and coupled with Cy3 or Cy5 dye NHS mono-functional ester. After normalization to total spots, the genes which background subtracted intensity did not exceed 2 SD above the mean blank were excluded. The data were then sorted to obtain genes differentially expressed by≥ 2 fold up or down in at least 5 of the 21 patients.RESULTS: In the 21 rectal cancer patients, 23 genes were up-regulated in at least 5 samples and 15 genes were down-regulated in at least 5 patients. Hierachical cluster analysis classified the patients into two groups according to the clinicopathological stage, with one group being all above stage Ⅱ and one group all below stage Ⅱ.CONCLUSION: The up-regulated genes and downregulated genes may be molecular markers of rectal cancer. The expression profiles can be used for classification of rectal cancer.

  3. Development of a clinically-precise mouse model of rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kishimoto

    Full Text Available Currently-used rodent tumor models, including transgenic tumor models, or subcutaneously growing tumors in mice, do not sufficiently represent clinical cancer. We report here development of methods to obtain a highly clinically-accurate rectal cancer model. This model was established by intrarectal transplantation of mouse rectal cancer cells, stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, followed by disrupting the epithelial cell layer of the rectal mucosa by instilling an acetic acid solution. Early-stage tumor was detected in the rectal mucosa by 6 days after transplantation. The tumor then became invasive into the submucosal tissue. The tumor incidence was 100% and mean volume (±SD was 1232.4 ± 994.7 mm(3 at 4 weeks after transplantation detected by fluorescence imaging. Spontaneous lymph node metastasis and lung metastasis were also found approximately 4 weeks after transplantation in over 90% of mice. This rectal tumor model precisely mimics the natural history of rectal cancer and can be used to study early tumor development, metastasis, and discovery and evaluation of novel therapeutics for this treatment-resistant disease.

  4. Rectal nitric oxide as biomarker in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: Responders versus nonresponders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tryggve Ljung; Sofie Lundberg; Mark Varsanyi; Catharina Johansson; Peter T Schmidt; Max Herulf; Jon O Lundberg; Per M Hellstr(o)m

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore rectal nitric oxide (NO) as biomarker of treatment response in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), and examine relationships between rectal NO, mucosal expression of NO synthases (NOS), and pro-inflammatory cytokines.METHODS: Twenty-two patients with UC and 24 with CD were monitored during steroid treatment. Rectal NO levels were measured and clinical activities were assessed on days 1, 3, 7 and 28. Mucosal presence of NOS and pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR.RESULTS: Active UC and CD displayed markedly increased rectal NO levels (10950 ± 7610 and 5 040 ±1 280 parts per billion (ppb), respectively) as compared with the controls (154 ± 71 ppb, P < 0.001). Rectal NO correlated weakly with disease activity in both UC and CD (r = 0.34 for UC and r = 0.48 for CD, P < 0.01). In 12 patients, a steroid-refractory course led to colectomy.These patients had only slightly increased NO levels (UC:620 ± 270 ppb; CD: 1260 ± 550 ppb) compared to those with a therapeutic response (UC: 18860 ± 530 ppb, P <0.001; CD: 10060 ± 3200 ppb, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Rectal NO level is a useful biomarker of treatment response in IBD as low NO levels predicts a poor clinical response to steroid treatment.

  5. A comparison of axillary with rectal thermometry in under 5 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B O Edelu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body temperature measurement is a crucial clinical assessment in the care of an acutely ill child, especially the under fives. Most temperature measurements in our hospital are done from the axilla. Objective: To study the relationship between temperatures taken in the axilla with those taken in the rectum in febrile and afebrile children less than 5 years. Materials and Methods: Rectal and axillary temperatures were taken concurrently in 400 febrile and 400 afebrile children aged less than 5 years using mercury-in-glass thermometers. Result: The rectal temperature measurements ranged from 38.0 to 41.4°C and 36.4 to 37.9°C in the febrile and afebrile groups of children respectively while the axillary temperatures ranged from 36.7 to 41.0°C and 35.9 to 37.5°C in the febrile and afebrile groups of children, respectively. There were significant differences between the temperatures measured at the two sites in all the age groups studied. There was good positive correlation between the rectal and axillary temperatures. A linear relationship between axillary and rectal temperatures was derived using the simple regression analysis. The equation is: rectal temperature = 0.94×axillary temperature+2.92. Conclusion: Although there′s good correlation between axillary and rectal temperatures, significant difference exits between them that cannot be explained by the addition of any single value or any particular equation.

  6. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition before pelvic radiation in rectal cancer patient: safety and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Asari Sami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility due to pelvic radiation for advanced rectal cancer treatment is a major concern particularly in young patients. Pre-radiation laparoscopic ovarian transposition may offer preservation of ovarian function during the treatment however its use is limited. Aim The study investigates the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of pre-radiation laparoscopic ovarian transposition and its effect on ovarian function in the treatment o locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods Charts review of all young female patients diagnosed with locally advanced rectal cancer, underwent laparoscopic ovarian transposition, then received preoperative radiotherapy at king Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 2003–2007. Results During the period studied three single patients age between 21–27 years underwent pre-radiation laparoscopic ovarian transposition for advanced rectal cancer. All required pretreatment laparoscopic diversion stoma due to rectal stricture secondary to tumor that was performed at the same time. One patient died of metastatic disease during treatment. The ovarian hormonal levels (FSH and LH were normal in two patients. One has had normal menstrual period and other had amenorrhoea after 4 months follow-up however her ovarian hormonal level were within normal limits. Conclusions Laparoscopic ovarian transposition before pelvic radiation in advanced rectal cancer treatment is an effective and feasible way of preservation of ovarian function in young patients at risk of radiotherapy induced ovarian failure. However, this procedure is still under used and it is advisable to discuss and propose it to suitable patients.

  7. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Clavo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n=12 previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil. Ten (83% patients had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up after ozone therapy was 104 months (range: 52–119. Results. Following ozone therapy, the median grade of toxicity improved from 3 to 1 (p<0.001 and the number of endoscopy treatments from 37 to 4 (p=0.032. Hemoglobin levels changed from 11.1 (7–14 g/dL to 13 (10–15 g/dL, before and after ozone therapy, respectively (p=0.008. Ozone therapy was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted, except soft and temporary flatulence for some hours after each session. Conclusions. Ozone therapy was effective in radiation-induced rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients without serious adverse events. It proved useful in the management of rectal bleeding and merits further evaluation.

  8. FXYD-3 expression in relation to local recurrence of rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftas, Per; Arbman, Gunnar; Sun, Xiao Feng; Hallbook, Olof [Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoping University, Norrkoping (Sweden); Edler, David [Dept. of Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Syk, Erik [Dept. of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    In a previous study, the transmembrane protein FXYD-3 was suggested as a biomarker for a lower survival rate and reduced radiosensitivity in rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy. The purpose of preoperative irradiation in rectal cancer is to reduce local recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of FXYD-3 as a biomarker for increased risk for local recurrence of rectal cancer. FXYD-3 expression was immunohistochemically examined in surgical specimens from a cohort of patients with rectal cancer who developed local recurrence (n = 48). The cohort was compared to a matched control group without recurrence (n = 81). Weak FXYD-3 expression was found in 106/129 (82%) of the rectal tumors and strong expression in 23/129 (18%). There was no difference in the expression of FXYD-3 between the patients with local recurrence and the control group. Furthermore there was no difference in FXYD-3 expression and time to diagnosis of local recurrence between patients who received preoperative radiotherapy and those without. Previous findings indicated that FXYD-3 expression may be used as a marker of decreased sensitivity to radiotherapy or even overall survival. We were unable to confirm this in a cohort of rectal cancer patients who developed local recurrence.

  9. Quality of life estimate in stomach, colon, and rectal cancer patients in a hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Muhong; Lan, Yanhong; Luo, Shali

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the outcome and coping patterns of patients with stomach, colon, and rectal cancer in a hospital in China. Health-related quality of life was assessed in 118 stomach, colon, and rectal cancer patients in Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China, using the generic version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (QOL) Questionnaire Core 30 Items, Self-rated Anxiety Scores (SAS), Self-rated Depression Scores (SDS), Medical Coping Modes of Questionnaire (MCMQ), and Social Support Requirement Scale (SSRS) questionnaires. The overall QOL was 50.7 ± 6.5, 48.1 ± 7.7, and 47.6 ± 6.4, respectively, for stomach, colon, and rectal cancer groups. Correlations between QOL and SAS and SDS in stomach cancer patients were significantly higher than observed in the cohort of colon or rectal cancer patients (Spearman coefficient of 0.366 and 0.129, respectively). Cluster analysis of MCMQ data revealed four identifiable patterns (resign, confront, avoid-confront, and avoid-resign) of coping in the study group. Subjective support was significantly higher than objective support (p Stomach, colon, and rectal cancer patients had anxiety and depression stemming from their cancer diagnosis and postdiagnosis treatment, and sex dependency was prevalent in SSRS response. Coping patterns were reliable indicators of psychosocial side effects in patients with stomach, colon, and rectal cancers.

  10. A case of metastatic carcinoma of anal fistula caused by implantation from rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Rina; Ichikawa, Ryosuke; Ito, Singo; Mizukoshi, Kosuke; Ishiyama, Shun; Sgimoto, Kiichi; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Yao, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    This case involved an 80-year-old man who was seen for melena. Further testing revealed a tubular adenocarcinoma 50 mm in size in the rectum. In addition, an anal fistula was noted behind the anus along with induration. A biopsy of tissue from the external (secondary) opening of the fistula also revealed adenocarcinoma. Nodules suspected of being metastases were noted in both lung fields. The patient was diagnosed with rectal cancer, a cancer arising from an anal fistula, and a metastatic pulmonary tumor, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy was begun. A laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection was performed 34 days after 6 cycles of mFOLFOX-6 therapy. Based on pathology, the rectal cancer was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, and this adenocarcinoma had lymph node metastasis (yp T3N2aM1b). There was no communication between the rectal lesion and the anal fistula, and a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma resembling the rectal lesion was noted in the anal fistula. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that both the rectal lesion and anal fistula were cytokeratin 7 (CK7) (-) and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) (+), and the patient's condition was diagnosed as implantation of rectal cancer in an anal fistula.In instances where an anal fistula develops in colon cancer, cancer implantation in that fistula must also be taken into account, and further testing should be performed prior to surgery.

  11. Human rectal mucosal gene expression after consumption of digestible and non-digestible carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauber, Jürgen; Weiler, Frank; Gostner, Andrea; Melcher, Ralph; Kudlich, Theodor; Lührs, Hardi; Scheppach, Wolfgang

    2006-11-01

    The effect of regular consumption of the low-digestible and prebiotic isomalt versus the digestible sucrose on gene expression in rectal mucosa was examined in a randomized double-blind crossover trial. Nineteen healthy volunteers received 30 g isomalt per day or 30 g sucrose as part of a controlled diet over two 4-week test periods with a 4-week washout period in between. At the end of each test phase rectal biopsies were obtained. After RNA extraction mucosal gene expression was assayed using GeneChip microarrays. In addition, expression of cathelicidin hCap18/LL37, cellular detoxification enzymes GSTpi, UGT1A1 and CYP3A4, cyclooxygenase 2 and barrier factors MUC2 and ZO-1 were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Microbiological analyses of fecal samples revealed a shift of the gut flora towards an increase of bifidobacteria following consumption of the diet containing isomalt. Isomalt consumption did not affect rectal mucosal gene expression in microarray analyses as compared to sucrose. In addition, the expression of cathelicidin LL37, GSTpi, UGT1A1, CYP3A4, COX-2, MUC2 and ZO-1 was not changed in rectal biopsies. We conclude that gene expression of the human rectal mucosa can reliably be measured in biopsy material taken at endoscopy. Dietary intervention with the low digestible isomalt compared with the digestible sucrose did not affect gene expression in the lining rectal mucosa.

  12. Comparison of hydrocolonic sonograpy accuracy in preoperative staging between colon and rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye Won Chung; Jae Bock Chung; Seung Woo Park; Si Young Song; Jin Kyung Kang; Chan Il Park

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the accuracy of hydrocolonic sonography (HUS) in determining the depth of invasion (T stage) in colon and rectal cancer.METHODS: A total of 1 000-2 000 mL of saline was instilled per rectum using a system for barium enemas, and then ultrasonography was conducted by a SSA-270A (Toshiba Co, Japan) sonolayer unit with a 3.75 MHz for 17 patients with colon cancer and 13 patients with rectal cancer before operation. After operation, T stage in HUS was compared with postoperative histological findings.RESULTS: Overall, the accuracy of T stage was 70%. It was 88% in colon cancer and 46% in rectal cancer. In evaluating nodal state, the accuracy of HUS was low in both colon (71%) and rectal cancers (46%) compared with conventional CT or MRI. The overall accuracy of N staging was 60%.CONCLUSION: HUS is valuable to evaluate the depth of invasion in colon cancer, but is less valuable in rectal cancer. Because HUS is low-cost, noninvasive, and readily available at any place, this technique seems to be useful to determine the preoperative staging in colon cancer, but not in rectal cancer.

  13. Transabdominal ultrasound measurement of rectal diameter is dependent on time to defecation in constipated children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Dalby, Kasper; Walsted, Anne-Mette;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study whether diurnal variations and time in relation to defecation has to be taken into account when measurements of rectal diameter are used to determine faecal impaction in constipated children. METHODS: Repeated ultrasound measures of rectal diameter were performed in 28 children (14...... constipated/14 healthy, aged between 4 and 12 years) every third hour during 24 h. After defecation, three additional scans were performed at 1-h intervals. RESULTS: No diurnal variation in rectal diameter was found in the healthy group. In the constipated group, mean rectal diameter was significantly larger...... at 2 pm (P = 0.038) and 5 pm (P = 0.006). There were significant differences between rectal diameter in the healthy group and the constipated group at 2 pm (P = 0.016) and 5 pm (P = 0.027). When we omitted the rectal diameter of five constipated children who had their first bowel movement after 5 pm...

  14. Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J; Brown, David J; Pasqualotto, Achille; Meijer, Peter

    2014-04-01

    One of the most exciting recent findings in neuroscience has been the capacity for neural plasticity in adult humans and animals. Studies of perceptual learning have provided key insights into the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the changes in functional neuroanatomy that it affords. Key questions in this field of research concern how practice of a task leads to specific or general improvement. Although much of this work has been carried out with a focus on a single sensory modality, primarily visual, there is increasing interest in multisensory perceptual learning. Here we will examine how advances in perceptual learning research both inform and can be informed by the development and advancement of sensory substitution devices for blind persons. To allow 'sight' to occur in the absence of visual input through the eyes, visual information can be transformed by a sensory substitution device into a representation that can be processed as sound or touch, and thus give one the potential to 'see' through the ears or tongue. Investigations of auditory, visual and multisensory perceptual learning can have key benefits for the advancement of sensory substitution, and the study of sensory deprivation and sensory substitution likewise will further the understanding of perceptual learning in general and the reverse hierarchy theory in particular. It also has significant importance for the developing understanding of the brain in metamodal terms, where functional brain areas might be best defined by the computations they carry out rather than by their sensory-specific processing role.

  15. Prospective comparison between two different magnetic resonance defecography techniques for evaluating pelvic floor disorders: air-balloon versus gel for rectal filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francesca, Maccioni; Najwa, Al Ansari; Valeria, Buonocore; Fabrizio, Mazzamurro; Carlo, Catalano [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome (Italy); Marileda, Indinnimeo; Massimo, Mongardini [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Surgical Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    to prospectively compare two rectal filling techniques for dynamic MRI of pelvic floor disorders (PFD). Twenty-six patients with PFD underwent the two techniques during the same procedure, one based on rectal placement of a balloon-catheter filled with saline and air insufflation (air-balloon technique or AB); another based on rectal filling with 180 cc of gel (gel-filling technique or GF). The examinations were compared for assessment and staging of PFD, including rectal-descent, rectocele, cystocele, colpocele, enterocele, rectal invagination. Surgery and clinical examinations were the gold standard. AB showed sensitivity of 96 % for rectal descent, 100 % for both rectocele and colpocele, 86 % for rectal invagination and 100 % for enterocele; understaged 11 % of rectal descents and 19 % of rectoceles. GF showed sensitivity of 100 % for rectal descent, 91 % for rectocele, 83 % for colpocele, 100 % for rectal invagination and 73 % for enterocele; understaged 3.8 % of rectal descent and 11.5 % of rectoceles. Both techniques showed 100 % of specificity. Agreement between air-balloon and gel filling was 84 % for rectal descent, 69 % for rectocele, 88 % for rectal invagination, 84 % for enterocele, 88 % for cystocele and 92 % for colpocele. Both techniques allowed a satisfactory evaluation of PFD. The gel filling was superior for rectal invagination, the air-balloon for rectocele and anterior/middle compartment disorders. (orig.)

  16. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  17. Sensory Marketing:Designing Pleasurable Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lageat Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Luxury products, household appliances, cosmetics and products for the general public all use the techniques of sensory marketing in the very first phases of conception to specify or give a distinct character to the way they are perceived. Creating the visio-tactile qualities of a mobile phone or dashboard, designing the acoustics used in a lipstick tube closure: these considerations offer industry a way of managing and mastering the sensorial identity which will set their products apart from those of their competitors. Sensory marketing is based upon the objective definition, the analysis and the mastering of the qualitative characteristics of the object to be conceived.

  18. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin;

    2010-01-01

    hinders evaluation of potential subgroups for further investigation and/or treatment allocation. Thus we used a standardized QST protocol to evaluate sensory functions in PPP and pain-free control patients, to allow individual sensory characterization of pain patients from calculated Z-values. Seventy PPP...... subpopulations in PPP, which may be used in selecting surgical and/or pharmacological treatment strategies.......Previous studies on sensory function in persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) have only identified pressure pain threshold to be significantly different from pain-free patients despite several patients reporting cutaneous pain and wind-up phenomena. However the limited number of patients studied...

  19. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure...... sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without...... sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043) and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039) compared to controls...

  20. Pre-referral rectal artesunate in severe malaria: flawed trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premji Zulfiqarali G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immediate injectable treatment is essential for severe malaria. Otherwise, the afflicted risk lifelong impairment or death. In rural areas of Africa and Asia, appropriate care is often miles away. In 2009, Melba Gomes and her colleagues published the findings of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rectal artesunate for suspected severe malaria in such remote areas. Enrolling nearly 18,000 cases, the aim was to evaluate whether, as patients were in transit to a health facility, a pre-referral artesunate suppository blocked disease progression sufficiently to reduce these risks. The affirmative findings of this, the only trial on the issue thus far, have led the WHO to endorse rectal artesunate as a pre-referral treatment for severe malaria. In the light of its public health importance and because its scientific quality has not been assessed for a systematic review, our paper provides a detailed evaluation of the design, conduct, analysis, reporting, and practical features of this trial. Results We performed a checklist-based and an in-depth evaluation of the trial. The evaluation criteria were based on the CONSORT statement for reporting clinical trials, the clinical trial methodology literature, and practice in malaria research. Our main findings are: The inclusion and exclusion criteria and the sample size justification are not stated. Many clearly ineligible subjects were enrolled. The training of the recruiters does not appear to have been satisfactory. There was excessive between center heterogeneity in design and conduct. Outcome evaluation schedule was not defined, and in practice, became too wide. Large gaps in the collection of key data were evident. Primary endpoints were inconsistently utilized and reported; an overall analysis of the outcomes was not done; analyses of time to event data had major flaws; the stated intent-to-treat analysis excluded a third of the randomized subjects; the design

  1. Rectal temperature as an indicator for heat tolerance in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing Y; Wei, Pei P; Xu, Shen Y; Geng, Zhao Y; Jiang, Run S

    2013-11-01

    High environmental temperature is perhaps the most important inhibiting factor to poultry production in hot regions. The objective of this study was to test adaptive responses of chickens to high ambient temperatures and identify suitable indicators for selection of heat-tolerant individuals. Full-sib or half-sib Anak-40 pullets (n = 55) with similar body weights were raised in a room with a temperature ranging from 24°C to 28°C, and relative humidity of 50% from 61 to 65 days of age. On day 66, the ambient temperature was increased within 60 min to 35 ± 1°C which was defined as the initial of heat stress (0 h). Rectal temperature (RT) was measured on each pullet at 0, 6, 18, 30, 42, 54 and 66 h. After 66 h the ambient temperature was increased within 30 min to 41 ± 1°C and survival time (HSST) as well as lethal rectal temperatures (LRT) were recorded for each individual. The gap between the RT and initial RT was calculated as ΔTn (ΔT6, ΔT18, ΔT30, ΔT42, ΔT54 and ΔT66), and the interval between LRT and initial RT as ΔTT, respectively. A negative correlation was found between HSST and ΔTn as well as ΔTT (rΔ T 18  = -0.28 and rΔ TT  = -0.31, respectively, P < 0.05; rΔT30  = -0.36, rΔ T 42  = -0.38, rΔT54  = -0.56, P < 0.01). Importantly, pullets with low ΔT18 showed a longer HSST (256.0 ± 208.4 min) than those with high ΔT18 (HSST = 123.7 ± 78.3 min). This observation suggested that the ΔT18 or early increment of RT under heat stress might be considered as a reliable indicator for evaluation of heat resistance in chickens.

  2. Sphincter-Sparing Surgery in Patients with Low-Lying Rectal Cancer: Techniques, Oncologic Outcomes, and Functional Results

    OpenAIRE

    Bordeianou, Liliana; Maguire, Lillias Holmes; Alavi, Karim; Sudan, Ranjan; Wise, Paul E.; Kaiser, Andreas M

    2014-01-01

    Background Rectal cancer management has evolved into a complex multimodality approach with survival, local recurrence, and quality of life parameters being the relevant endpoints. Surgical treatment for low rectal cancer has changed dramatically over the past 100 years. Discussion Abdominoperineal resection, once the standard of care for all rectal cancers, has become much less frequently utilized as surgeons devise and test new techniques for preserving the sphincters, maintaining continuity...

  3. Timing of moderate level prenatal alcohol exposure influences gene expression of sensory processing behavior in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Schneider

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing disorder (SPD, characterized by over- or under-responsivity to non-noxious environmental stimuli, is a common but poorly understood disorder. We examined the role of prenatal alcohol exposure, serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region variation (rh5-HTTLPR, and striatal dopamine (DA function on behavioral measures of sensory responsivity to repeated non-noxious sensory stimuli in macaque monkeys. Results indicated that early gestation alcohol exposure induced behavioral under-responsivity to environmental stimuli in monkeys carrying the short (s rh5-HTTLPR allele compared to both early-exposed monkeys homozygous for the long (l allele and monkeys from middle-to-late exposed pregnancies and controls, regardless of genotype. Moreover, prenatal timing of alcohol exposure altered the relationship between sensory scores and DA D2R availability. In early-exposed monkeys, a positive relationship was shown between sensory scores and DA D2R availability, with low or blunted DA function associated with under-responsive sensory function. The opposite pattern was found for the middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed group. These findings raise questions about how the timing of prenatal perturbation and genotype contributes to effects on neural processing and possibly alters neural connections.

  4. Sensory feedback synchronizes motor and sensory neuronal networks in the neonatal rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Ana R; Nasretdinov, Azat; Lebedeva, Julia; Khazipov, Roustem

    2016-10-07

    Early stages of sensorimotor system development in mammals are characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous movements. Whether and how these movements support correlated activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits remains unknown. Here we show highly correlated activity in sensory and motor zones in the spinal cord of neonatal rats in vivo. Both during twitches and complex movements, movement-generating bursts in motor zones are followed by bursts in sensory zones. Deafferentation does not affect activity in motor zones and movements, but profoundly suppresses activity bursts in sensory laminae and results in sensorimotor uncoupling, implying a primary role of sensory feedback in sensorimotor synchronization. This is further supported by largely dissociated activity in sensory and motor zones observed in the isolated spinal cord in vitro. Thus, sensory feedback resulting from spontaneous movements is instrumental for coordination of activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits.

  5. Alteration of consciousness in focal epilepsy: the global workspace alteration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of consciousness (AOC) is an important clinical manifestation of partial seizures that greatly impacts the quality of life of patients with epilepsy. Several theories have been proposed in the last fifty years. An emerging concept in neurology is the global workspace (GW) theory that postulates that access to consciousness (from several sensorial modalities) requires transient coordinated activity from associative cortices, in particular the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal associative cortex. Several lines of evidence support the view that partial seizures alter consciousness through disturbance of the GW. In particular, a nonlinear relation has been shown between excess of synchronization in the GW regions and the degree of AOC. Changes in thalamocortical synchrony occurring during the spreading of the ictal activity seem particularly involved in the mechanism of altered consciousness. This link between abnormal synchrony and AOC offers new perspectives in the treatment of the AOC since means of decreasing consciousness alteration in seizures could improve patients' quality of life.

  6. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna; Vlachou, Maria; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Larsson, Henrik B W; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure in a large group of MA patients with and without sensory aura (i.e. gradually developing, transient unilateral sensory disturbances). We included 60 patients suffering from migraine with typical visual aura and 60 individually age and sex-matched controls. Twenty-nine of the patients additionally experienced sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043) and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039) compared to controls. These differences were not correlated to the clinical characteristics. Our results suggest that sensory migraine aura is not associated with altered grey matter structure and that patients with visual aura have normal cortical structure of areas involved in visual processing. The observed decreased grey matter volume of the cingulate gyrus in patients compared to controls have previously been reported in migraine with and without aura, but also in a wide range of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Most likely, this finding reflects general bias between patients and healthy controls.

  7. Degeneration of proprioceptive sensory nerve endings in mice harboring amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-causing mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Sydney K; Kemp, Zachary; Hatzipetros, Theo; Vieira, Fernando; Valdez, Gregorio

    2015-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily targets the motor system. Although much is known about the effects of ALS on motor neurons and glial cells, little is known about its effect on proprioceptive sensory neurons. This study examines proprioceptive sensory neurons in mice harboring mutations associated with ALS, in SOD1(G93A) and TDP43(A315T) transgenic mice. In both transgenic lines, we found fewer proprioceptive sensory neurons containing fluorescently tagged cholera toxin in their soma five days after injecting this retrograde tracer into the tibialis anterior muscle. We asked whether this is due to neuronal loss or selective degeneration of peripheral nerve endings. We found no difference in the total number and size of proprioceptive sensory neuron soma between symptomatic SOD1(G93A) and control mice. However, analysis of proprioceptive nerve endings in muscles revealed early and significant alterations at Ia/II proprioceptive nerve endings in muscle spindles before the symptomatic phase of the disease. Although these changes occur alongside those at α-motor axons in SOD1(G93A) mice, Ia/II sensory nerve endings degenerate in the absence of obvious alterations in α-motor axons in TDP43(A315T) transgenic mice. We next asked whether proprioceptive nerve endings are similarly affected in the spinal cord and found that nerve endings terminating on α-motor neurons are affected during the symptomatic phase and after peripheral nerve endings begin to degenerate. Overall, we show that Ia/II proprioceptive sensory neurons are affected by ALS-causing mutations, with pathological changes starting at their peripheral nerve endings.

  8. Positive Effect of Noises on Sensory Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Guang Li

    2004-01-01

    Stochastic resonance phenomenon in the biological sensory systems has been studied through the signal detection theories and the psychophysical experiments. In this paper, sensory systems are considered as a threshold detector including the receiver part and the classifier part. Compared with conventional models regarding the receiver part of sensory system as a linear or single non-linear system, a summing network was constructed by MacCulloch-Pitts neurons to simulate the receiver part. The simulation results show that the relevant index of the detectability of signal exhibit the stochastic resonance behaviours. The psychophysical experiments were carried out through the 2IFC (two interval two alternative forced choice) method. The experimental results qualitatively verify the conclusion in accordance with the theoretical model.These works give a proof that stochastic resonance is not only epiphenonmenon in sensory systems.

  9. [Sensory illusions in hang-gliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, F; Bizeau, A; Resche-Rigon, P; Taillemite, J P; De Rotalier

    1997-01-01

    Sensory illusions in hang-gliding and para-gliding. Hang-gliding and para-gliding are at the moment booming sports. Sensory illusions are physiological phenomena sharing the wrong perception of the pilote's real position in space. These phenomena are very familiar to aeroplane pilotes, they can also be noticed on certain conditions with hang-gliding pilotes. There are many and various sensory illusions, but only illusions of vestibular origin will be dealt with in this article. Vestibular physiology is reminded with the working principle of a semicircular canal. Physiology and laws of physics explain several sensory illusions, especially when the pilote loses his visual landmarks: flying through a cloud, coriolis effect. Also some specific stages of hang-gliding foster those phenomena: spiraling downwards, self-rotation, following an asymetric closing of the parachute, spin on oneself. Therefore a previous briefing for the pilotes seems necessary.

  10. Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues.

  11. Recognition, perceptions and treatment practices for severe malaria in rural Tanzania: implications for accessing rectal artesunate as a pre-referral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Warsame

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Preparatory to a community trial investigating how best to deliver rectal artesunate as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria; local understanding, perceptions of signs/symptoms of severe malaria and treatment-seeking patterns for and barriers to seeking biomedical treatment were investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 19 key informant interviews, 12 in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions targeting care-givers, opinion leaders, and formal and informal health care providers were conducted. Monthly fever episodes and danger signs or symptoms associated with severe malaria among under-fives were recorded. Respondents recognized convulsions, altered consciousness and coma, and were aware of their risks if not treated. But, these symptoms were perceived to be caused by supernatural forces, and traditional healers were identified as primary care providers. With some delay, mothers eventually visited a health facility when convulsions were part of the illness, despite pressures against this. Although vomiting and failure to eat/suck/drink were associated with malaria, they were not considered as indicators of danger signs unless combined with another more severe symptom. Study communities were familiar with rectal application of medicines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Communities' recognition and awareness of major symptoms of severe malaria could encourage action, but perceptions of their causes and poor discrimination of other danger signs - vomiting and failure to feed - might impede early treatment. An effective health education targeting parents/guardians, decision-makers/advisors, and formal and informal care providers might be a prerequisite for successful introduction of rectal artemisinins as an emergency treatment. Role of traditional healers in delivering such medication to the community should be explored.

  12. EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL LYSINE ON PERFORMANCE, ANTIBODY TITER AND RECTAL TEMPERATURE IN RESPONSE TO A MODIFIED-LIVE VIRAL VACCINE IN NEONATAL CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR, caused by bovine herpesvirus-1, contributes significantly to economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industry. Lysine has been shown reduce virulence of herpesviruses in felids and humans. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of supplemental lysine on serum IBR antibody titer and rectal temperature in response to a modified-live Intranasal (IN or Intramuscular (IM respiratory-virus vaccination. Sixty-four neonatal Holstein bull calves (7±2 d of age; BW = 37±4.2 kg were used in a completely randomized design. Calves were fed milk replacer supplemented with either 17 g/d L-lysine monohydrochloride (LYS; 28 calves or an equivalent amount of casein (CAS; 28 calves for 42 d. Calves were then vaccinated with either an IN IBR-Parainfluenza virus-3 (PI3 or an IM (IBR-PI3-bovine viral diarrhea type I and II, bovine respiratory syncytial virus modified-live vaccine on d 36. A control group (8 calves received no supplement or vaccination. All calves were housed in individual calf pens (1.2×2.1 m. Daily feed intakes were monitored and BW measured weekly. Calves were bled on d 0, 35, 36, 37 and 42. Temperature data loggers were attached to rectal probes and temperatures were recorded every 5 min from d 28 to d 42. No significant differences were determined for average performance, rectal temperature, or IBR antibody titers with either IN or IM vaccinations between LYS and CAS treated calves (p>0.10. However, serum urea nitrogen and the ratio of serum lysine: Arginine increased (p<0.05 for LYS compared to CAS calves. These results suggest that supplementing lysine impacts nitrogen metabolism but does not alter the response to IBR vaccination or animal performance in neonatal Holstein calves.

  13. Successful treatment of giant rectal varices by modified percutaneous transhepatic obliteration with sclerosant:Report of a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirotoshi Okazaki; Kazunari Tominaga; Toshio Watanabe; Yasuhiro Fujiwara; Kenji Nakamura; Tetsuo Arakawa; Kazuhide Higuchi; Masatsugu Shiba; Shirou Nakamura; Tomoko Wada; Kazuki Yamamori; Ai Machida; Kaori Kadouchi; Akihiro Tamori

    2006-01-01

    We present a female patient with continuous melena,diagnosed with rectal variceal bleeding. She had a history of esophageal varices, which were treated with endoscopic therapy. Five years after the treatment of esophageal varices, continuous melena occurred. Since colonoscopy showed that the melena was caused by giant rectal varices, we thought that they were not suitable to receive endoscopic treatment. We chose the modified percutaneous transhepatic obliteration with sclerosant, which is one of the interventional radiology techniques but a new clinical procedure for rectal varices.After the patient received this therapy, her condition of rectal varices was markedly improved.

  14. P50 sensory gating in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn

    2013-12-26

    Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations.

  15. Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy with iatrogenic sensory neuronopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, R S; Brown, W F

    1995-02-01

    An 18-year-old man was treated from birth with chronic high dose pyridoxine (vitamin B6) up to 2000 mg per day for pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Within two years of onset of treatment, he developed a sensory neuropathy which did not progress over the following 16 years. Electrophysiological studies were consistent with a pure sensory neuronopathy expressed as centripetal degeneration of processes of the dorsal root ganglion cells.

  16. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, L. A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S. P.; Bright, P

    2015-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants addit...

  17. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy for rectal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, M.W.T.; Lim-Joon, M.; Wada, M. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Division of Radiation Oncology; Byram, D.; Vaughan, S.; McLennan, R.; Joseph, D. [Geelong Hospital, Geelong, VIC (Australia). Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology; Bell, R.; Bond, R. [St John of God Hospital, Ballarat, VIC (Australia). Department of Medical Oncology

    1998-02-01

    Postoperative combined modality therapy with radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) chemotherapy is an effective adjuvant approach that reduces locoregional and distant metastatic disease in patients with high-risk rectal carcinoma. However, this approach results in a treatment regimen of at least 6 months` duration. The present prospective study investigates the integration of radiotherapy and 5FU chemotherapy in a protocol designed to minimize toxicity and reduce the overall treatment time. A total of 40 patients with TNM stage 11 or 111 disease receives postoperative radiotherapy at four fractions per week with weekly 5FU bolus injections delivered on the fifth non radiotherapy day. Patients also received systemic chemotherapy with leucovorin both before and after pelvic irradiation, with the total treatment duration extending for only 18 weeks. Patients were able to complete radiotherapy in 90% of cases, while the delivery of full-dose chemotherapy was achievable in the vast majority. The incidence of haematologic and gastrointestinal toxicities requiring the cessation of treatment was acceptable. With a median follow-up of 20.9 months among surviving patients, the estimated progression-free and overall survival at 2 years were 71% and 79%, respectively. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 15 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Seatbelt syndrome associated with an isolated rectal injury: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefny, Ashraf F; Al-Ashaal, Yousef I; Bani-Hashem, Ahmed M; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2010-02-04

    Seatbelt syndrome is defined as a seatbelt sign associated with a lumbar spine fracture and a bowel perforation. An isolated rectal perforation due to seatbelt syndrome is extremely rare. There is only one case reported in the Danish literature and non in the English literature. A 48-year old front seat restrained passenger was involved in a head-on collision. He had lower abdominal pain and back pain. Seatbelt mark was seen across the lower abdomen. Initial trauma CT scan was normal except for a burst fracture of L5 vertebra which was operated on by internal fixation on the same day. The patient continued to have abdominal pain. A repeated abdominal CT scan on the third day has shown free intraperitoneal air. Laparotomy has revealed a perforation of the proximal part of the rectum below the recto sigmoid junction. Hartmann's procedure was performed. The abdomen was left open. Gradual closure of the abdominal fascia over a period of two weeks was performed. Postoperatively, the patient had temporary urinary retention due to quada equina injury which resolved 10 months after surgery. The presence of a seatbelt sign and a lumbar fracture should raise the possibility of a bowel injury.

  19. Seatbelt syndrome associated with an isolated rectal injury: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani-Hashem Ahmed M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seatbelt syndrome is defined as a seatbelt sign associated with a lumbar spine fracture and a bowel perforation. An isolated rectal perforation due to seatbelt syndrome is extremely rare. There is only one case reported in the Danish literature and non in the English literature. A 48-year old front seat restrained passenger was involved in a head-on collision. He had lower abdominal pain and back pain. Seatbelt mark was seen across the lower abdomen. Initial trauma CT scan was normal except for a burst fracture of L5 vertebra which was operated on by internal fixation on the same day. The patient continued to have abdominal pain. A repeated abdominal CT scan on the third day has shown free intraperitoneal air. Laparotomy has revealed a perforation of the proximal part of the rectum below the recto sigmoid junction. Hartmann's procedure was performed. The abdomen was left open. Gradual closure of the abdominal fascia over a period of two weeks was performed. Postoperatively, the patient had temporary urinary retention due to quada equina injury which resolved 10 months after surgery. The presence of a seatbelt sign and a lumbar fracture should raise the possibility of a bowel injury.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of tramadol hydrochloride rectal suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal suppositories of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared using different bases and polymers like PEG, cocoa butter, agar and the effect of different additives on in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride was studied. The agar-based suppositories were non-disintegrating/non-dissolving, whereas PEGs were disintegrating/dissolving and cocoa butter were melting suppositories. All the prepared suppositories were evaluated for various physical parameters like weight variation, drug content and hardness. The PEG and cocoa butter suppositories were evaluated for macromelting range, disintegration and liquefaction time. In vitro release study was performed by USP type I apparatus. The prepared suppositories were within the permissible range of all physical parameters. In vitro drug release was in the order of PEG>Agar>cocoa butter. Addition of PVP, HPMC in agar suppositories retards the release. The mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled and follows first order kinetics. The results suggested that blends of PEG of low molecular weight (1000 with high molecular weight (4000 and 6000 in different percentage and agar in 10% w/w as base used to formulate rapid release suppositories. The sustained release suppositories can be prepared by addition of PVP, HPMC in agar-based suppositories and by use of cocoa butter as base.

  1. Intratumoral Heterogeneity of MicroRNA Expression in Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Anne Haahr Mellergaard; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Nielsen, Boye Schnack

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of studies have investigated microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential markers of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. So far, agreement between studies has been minimal, which may in part be explained by intratumoral heterogeneity of miRNA expression. The aim of the present...... study was to assess the heterogeneity of a panel of selected miRNAs in rectal cancer, using two different technical approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of the investigated miRNAs was analysed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH...... using Spearman's correlation. RESULTS: ICCsingle (one sample from each patient) was higher than 50% for miRNA-21 and miRNA-31. For miRNA-125b, miRNA-145, and miRNA-630, ICCsingle was lower than 50%. The ICCmean (mean of three samples from each patient) was higher than 50% for miRNA-21(RT-qPCR and ISH...

  2. Initially unresectable rectal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendenhall, W.M.; Million, R.R.; Bland, K.I.; Pfaff, W.W.; Copeland, E.M. 3d.

    1987-01-01

    This is an analysis of 23 patients with clinically and/or surgically unresectable adenocarcinoma of the rectum on initial evaluation who were treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery between March 1970 and April 1981. All patients have had follow-up for at least 5 years. Five patients (22%) had exploratory laparotomy and diverting colostomy before irradiation. All patients were irradiated with megavoltage equipment to the pelvis at 180 rad/fraction, continuous-course technique. Total doses ranged from 3500 to 6000 rad with a mean of 4800 rad and a median of 5000 rad. All patients had surgery 2-11 weeks (mean: 4.9 weeks; median: 4 weeks) after radiation therapy. Twelve patients (52%) had lesions that were incompletely resected because of positive margins (7 patients), distant metastasis (1 patient), or both (4 patients). All of these patients died of cancer within 5 years of treatment. Eleven patients had an apparent complete excision of their rectal cancer; six patients (55%) subsequently had a local recurrence. The 5-year absolute survival rate for patients who had complete resection was 18% (2 of 11 patients). The 5-year absolute and determinate survival rates for the entire study were 9% (2 of 23 patients) and 9% (2 of 22 patients), respectively. One patient (in the incomplete resection group) died after operation secondary to sepsis and diffuse intravascular coagulation.

  3. Preoperative hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy for patients with rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Shimono, Reishi; Inoue, Tetsuya; Mori, Masaki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Sugimachi, Keizo

    1989-04-01

    Between April 1986 and February 1988, 17 patients with rectal cancer were treated with preoperative hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy (HCR). Hyperthermia was given 4 or 5 times over a 2-week period before irradiation. X-ray irradiation was given 20 times in 1.5 Gy x 2/day to a total dose of 30 Gy. Two hundred and fifty milligrams of 5 FU was intravenously injected or 400-600 mg of HCFU was orally administered. Of evaluable 16 patients, 6 were roentgenologically evaluated as partial response, 3 as moderate response, and 7 as non-response. Histological examination revealed complete response in 9 (53%), moderate response in 4 (24%), and slight response in 4 (24%). In 9 patients seropositive for CEA, CEA tended to decrease after HCR. Early side effects of HCR was not encountered. Although some of the patients complained of fever in the anal site, defecation desire, and micturition desire attributable to hyperthermia, these complaints were not so severe as to discontinue the treatment. (Namekawa, K).

  4. Framework for 3D TransRectal Ultrasound

    CERN Document Server

    Mozer, Pierre; Chevreau, G; Daanen, Vincent; Moreau-Gaudry, Alexandre; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    Prostate biopsies are mainly performed under 2D TransRectal UltraSound (TRUS) control by sampling the prostate according to a predefined pattern. In case of first biopsies, this pattern follows a random systematic plan. Sometimes, repeat biopsies can be needed to target regions unsampled by previous biopsies or resample critical regions (for example in case of cancer expectant management or previous prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia findings). From a clinical point of view, it could be useful to control the 3D spatial distribution of theses biopsies inside the prostate. Modern 3D-TRUS probes allow acquiring high-quality volumes of the prostate in few seconds. We developed a framework to track the prostate in 3D TRUS images. It means that if one acquires a reference volume at the beginning of the session and another during each biopsy, it is possible to determine the relationship between the prostate in the reference and the others volumes by aligning images. We used this tool to evaluate the ability of a si...

  5. The endo-rectal probe prototype for the TOPEM project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musico, Paolo, E-mail: Paolo.Musico@ge.infn.it

    2016-07-11

    The TOPEM project was funded by INFN with the aim of studying the design of a TOF-PET system dedicated to prostate imaging. During last year a big effort was put into building the prototype of the endo-rectal probe from all point of view: mechanical, thermal, electrical. A dedicated integrated circuit was adopted to have the minimum dimensions: the TOFPET ASIC. The system is composed by a LYSO pixellated crystal which is seen by a 128 SiPM matrix on both surfaces: this permits Depth Of Interaction (DOI) measurement. The 4 needed ASICs are handled by a FPGA board which transmits the acquired data over an UDP connection. The external container was made using 3-D printing technology: internal channels on the external surface permit the flowing of controlled temperature (≈35 °C) water. Electronic components power is dissipated using an internal air flow kept at lower temperature (≈20 °C). The probe is MR compatible: a dedicated small antenna can be accommodated in the container. This will permit simultaneous imaging in MRI and PET systems.

  6. The endo-rectal probe prototype for the TOPEM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musico, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The TOPEM project was funded by INFN with the aim of studying the design of a TOF-PET system dedicated to prostate imaging. During last year a big effort was put into building the prototype of the endo-rectal probe from all point of view: mechanical, thermal, electrical. A dedicated integrated circuit was adopted to have the minimum dimensions: the TOFPET ASIC. The system is composed by a LYSO pixellated crystal which is seen by a 128 SiPM matrix on both surfaces: this permits Depth Of Interaction (DOI) measurement. The 4 needed ASICs are handled by a FPGA board which transmits the acquired data over an UDP connection. The external container was made using 3-D printing technology: internal channels on the external surface permit the flowing of controlled temperature (≈35 °C) water. Electronic components power is dissipated using an internal air flow kept at lower temperature (≈20 °C). The probe is MR compatible: a dedicated small antenna can be accommodated in the container. This will permit simultaneous imaging in MRI and PET systems.

  7. Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma with liver metastasis of rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiyoto Takehara; Hideki Aoki; Yuko Takehara; Rie Yamasaki; Kohji Tanakaya; Hitoshi Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma is a particularly rare tumor with a poor prognosis.Curative resection is currently the only effective treatment,and the efficacy of chemotherapy is unclear.This represents the first case report of a patient with primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma co-existing with metastatic liver carcinoma.We present a 59-year-old man who was diagnosed preoperatively with rectal cancer with multiple liver metastases.He underwent a curative hepatectomy after a series of chemotherapy regimens with modified FOLFOX6 consisting of 5-fluorouracil,leucovorin and oxaliplatin plus bevacizumab,FOLFIRI consisting of 5-fluorouracil,leucovorin and irinotecan plus bevacizumab,and irinotecan plus cetuximab.One of the liver tumors showed a different response to chemotherapy and was diagnosed as a leiomyosarcoma following histopathological examination.This case suggests that irinotecan has the potential to inhibit the growth of hepatic leiomyosarcomas.The possibility of comorbid different histological types of tumors should be suspected when considering the treatment of multiple liver tumors.

  8. Neonatal sensory nerve injury-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2016-01-01

    Sensory deprivation studies in neonatal mammals, such as monocular eye closure, whisker trimming, and chemical blockade of the olfactory epithelium have revealed the importance of sensory inputs in brain wiring during distinct critical periods. But very few studies have paid attention to the effects of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage on synaptic wiring of the central nervous system (CNS) circuits. Peripheral somatosensory nerves differ from other special sensory afferents in that they are more prone to crush or severance because of their locations in the body. Unlike the visual and auditory afferents, these nerves show regenerative capabilities after damage. Uniquely, damage to a somatosensory peripheral nerve does not only block activity incoming from the sensory receptors but also mediates injury-induced neuro- and glial chemical signals to the brain through the uninjured central axons of the primary sensory neurons. These chemical signals can have both far more and longer lasting effects than sensory blockade alone. Here we review studies which focus on the consequences of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage in the principal sensory nucleus of the brainstem trigeminal complex.

  9. Assessment of paclitaxel induced sensory polyneuropathy with "Catwalk" automated gait analysis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Huehnchen

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain as a symptom of sensory nerve damage is a frequent side effect of chemotherapy. The most common behavioral observation in animal models of chemotherapy induced polyneuropathy is the development of mechanical allodynia, which is quantified with von Frey filaments. The data from one study, however, cannot be easily compared with other studies owing to influences of environmental factors, inter-rater variability and differences in test paradigms. To overcome these limitations, automated quantitative gait analysis was proposed as an alternative, but its usefulness for assessing animals suffering from polyneuropathy has remained unclear. In the present study, we used a novel mouse model of paclitaxel induced polyneuropathy to compare results from electrophysiology and the von Frey method to gait alterations measured with the Catwalk test. To mimic recently improved clinical treatment strategies of gynecological malignancies, we established a mouse model of dose-dense paclitaxel therapy on the common C57Bl/6 background. In this model paclitaxel treated animals developed mechanical allodynia as well as reduced caudal sensory nerve action potential amplitudes indicative of a sensory polyneuropathy. Gait analysis with the Catwalk method detected distinct alterations of gait parameters in animals suffering from sensory neuropathy, revealing a minimized contact of the hind paws with the floor. Treatment of mechanical allodynia with gabapentin improved altered dynamic gait parameters. This study establishes a novel mouse model for investigating the side effects of dose-dense paclitaxel therapy and underlines the usefulness of automated gait analysis as an additional easy-to-use objective test for evaluating painful sensory polyneuropathy.

  10. Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms.

  11. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  12. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2 profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD among substance dependents; and (3 examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to drugs/alcohol and had been clean for over three months. The control group included 145 individuals who were not exposed to drugs or alcohol on a regular basis and did not suffer from addictive behavior. All participants filled a demographic questionnaire. Those who met the inclusion criteria completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP so that their sensory processing patterns could be assessed. Results: When comparing both groups, the study group showed greater sensory sensitivity and significantly higher prevalence of SPD. Significant group/gender interaction was found in regard to sensation seeking. Discussion: SPD among substance dependents may be expressed in daily life by either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. The behavioral outcomes reflected by the AASP support neurophysiological manifestations about SPD of substance dependents. The evaluation process of substance dependents should refer to their sensory processing abilities. In case SPD is diagnosed, Occupational Therapy and specific sensory–based interventions should be considered in order to fit the specific needs of individuals and enhance their performance, meaningful participation, and quality of life.

  13. Automatically-generated rectal dose constraints in intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Yong Nam; Kim, Soo Kon; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Park, Soah; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Meyeon; Kim, Kyoung-Joo; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2015-06-01

    The dose constraint during prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization should be patient-specific for better rectum sparing. The aims of this study are to suggest a novel method for automatically generating a patient-specific dose constraint by using an experience-based dose volume histogram (DVH) of the rectum and to evaluate the potential of such a dose constraint qualitatively. The normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) of the rectum with respect to V %ratio in our study were divided into three groups, where V %ratio was defined as the percent ratio of the rectal volume overlapping the planning target volume (PTV) to the rectal volume: (1) the rectal NTCPs in the previous study (clinical data), (2) those statistically generated by using the standard normal distribution (calculated data), and (3) those generated by combining the calculated data and the clinical data (mixed data). In the calculated data, a random number whose mean value was on the fitted curve described in the clinical data and whose standard deviation was 1% was generated by using the `randn' function in the MATLAB program and was used. For each group, we validated whether the probability density function (PDF) of the rectal NTCP could be automatically generated with the density estimation method by using a Gaussian kernel. The results revealed that the rectal NTCP probability increased in proportion to V %ratio , that the predictive rectal NTCP was patient-specific, and that the starting point of IMRT optimization for the given patient might be different. The PDF of the rectal NTCP was obtained automatically for each group except that the smoothness of the probability distribution increased with increasing number of data and with increasing window width. We showed that during the prostate IMRT optimization, the patient-specific dose constraints could be automatically generated and that our method could reduce the IMRT optimization time as well as maintain the

  14. B1a lymphocytes in the rectal mucosa of ulcerative colitis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lino Polese; Stefano Merigliano; Riccardo Boetto; Giuseppe De Franchis; Imerio Angriman; Andrea Porzionato; Lorenzo Norberto; Giacomo Carlo Sturniolo; Veronica Macchi; Raffaele De Caro

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess B1a cell expression in the rectal mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients in comparison with healthy controls. METHODS: Rectal mucosa biopsies were collected from 15 UC patients and 17 healthy controls. CD5+ B cells were analysed by three colour flow cytometry from rectal mucosal samples after mechanical disaggregation by Medimachine?. Immunohistochemical analysis of B and T lymphocytes was also performed. Correlations between, on the one hand, rectal B1a cell concentrations and, on the other, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels and clinical, endoscopic and histological disease activity indices were evaluated.RESULTS: Rectal B-lymphocyte (CD19+/CD45+) rate and concentration were higher in UC patients compared with those in healthy controls (47.85% ± 3.12% vs 26.10% ± 3.40%, P = 0.001 and 501 ± 91 cells/ mm2 vs 117 ± 18 cells/mm2, P < 0.001); Rectal B1a cell density (CD5+CD19+) was higher in UC patients than in healthy controls (85 ± 15 cells/mm2 vs 31 ± 6.7 cells/mm2, P = 0.009). Rectal B1a cell (CD5/CD19+) rate correlated inversely with endoscopic classification (Rs = -0.637, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: B1a lymphocytes seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of UC, however, the role they play in its early phases and in disease activity, have yet to be defined.

  15. Enriched and Deprived Sensory Experience Induces Structural Changes and Rewires Connectivity during the Postnatal Development of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Harkaitz; Ortuzar, Naiara; Bulnes, Susana; Rico-Barrio, Irantzu; Lafuente, José Vicente; Argandoña, Enrike G.

    2012-01-01

    During postnatal development, sensory experience modulates cortical development, inducing numerous changes in all of the components of the cortex. Most of the cortical changes thus induced occur during the critical period, when the functional and structural properties of cortical neurons are particularly susceptible to alterations. Although the time course for experience-mediated sensory development is specific for each system, postnatal development acts as a whole, and if one cortical area is deprived of its normal sensory inputs during early stages, it will be reorganized by the nondeprived senses in a process of cross-modal plasticity that not only increases performance in the remaining senses when one is deprived, but also rewires the brain allowing the deprived cortex to process inputs from other senses and cortices, maintaining the modular configuration. This paper summarizes our current understanding of sensory systems development, focused specially in the visual system. It delineates sensory enhancement and sensory deprivation effects at both physiological and anatomical levels and describes the use of enriched environment as a tool to rewire loss of brain areas to enhance other active senses. Finally, strategies to apply restorative features in human-deprived senses are studied, discussing the beneficial and detrimental effects of cross-modal plasticity in prostheses and sensory substitution devices implantation. PMID:22848849

  16. Enriched and Deprived Sensory Experience Induces Structural Changes and Rewires Connectivity during the Postnatal Development of the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkaitz Bengoetxea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, sensory experience modulates cortical development, inducing numerous changes in all of the components of the cortex. Most of the cortical changes thus induced occur during the critical period, when the functional and structural properties of cortical neurons are particularly susceptible to alterations. Although the time course for experience-mediated sensory development is specific for each system, postnatal development acts as a whole, and if one cortical area is deprived of its normal sensory inputs during early stages, it will be reorganized by the nondeprived senses in a process of cross-modal plasticity that not only increases performance in the remaining senses when one is deprived, but also rewires the brain allowing the deprived cortex to process inputs from other senses and cortices, maintaining the modular configuration. This paper summarizes our current understanding of sensory systems development, focused specially in the visual system. It delineates sensory enhancement and sensory deprivation effects at both physiological and anatomical levels and describes the use of enriched environment as a tool to rewire loss of brain areas to enhance other active senses. Finally, strategies to apply restorative features in human-deprived senses are studied, discussing the beneficial and detrimental effects of cross-modal plasticity in prostheses and sensory substitution devices implantation.

  17. In vivo quantitative proteomics of somatosensory cortical synapses shows which protein levels are modulated by sensory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butko, Margaret T; Savas, Jeffrey N; Friedman, Beth; Delahunty, Claire; Ebner, Ford; Yates, John R; Tsien, Roger Y

    2013-02-19

    Postnatal bilateral whisker trimming was used as a model system to test how synaptic proteomes are altered in barrel cortex by sensory deprivation during synaptogenesis. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we quantified more than 7,000 synaptic proteins and identified 89 significantly reduced and 161 significantly elevated proteins in sensory-deprived synapses, 22 of which were validated by immunoblotting. More than 95% of quantified proteins, including abundant synaptic proteins such as PSD-95 and gephyrin, exhibited no significant difference under high- and low-activity rearing conditions, suggesting no tissue-wide changes in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic density. In contrast, several proteins that promote mature spine morphology and synaptic strength, such as excitatory glutamate receptors and known accessory factors, were reduced significantly in deprived synapses. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the reduction in SynGAP1, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, was restricted largely to layer I of barrel cortex in sensory-deprived rats. In addition, protein-degradation machinery such as proteasome subunits, E2 ligases, and E3 ligases, accumulated significantly in deprived synapses, suggesting targeted synaptic protein degradation under sensory deprivation. Importantly, this screen identified synaptic proteins whose levels were affected by sensory deprivation but whose synaptic roles have not yet been characterized in mammalian neurons. These data demonstrate the feasibility of defining synaptic proteomes under different sensory rearing conditions and could be applied to elucidate further molecular mechanisms of sensory development.

  18. Plasticity in developing rat uterine sensory nerves: the role of NGF and TrkA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalar, C; Richeri, A; Viettro, L; Chávez-Genaro, R; Bianchimano, P; Marmol, N M; Crutcher, K; Burnstock, G; Cowen, T; Brauer, M M

    2003-11-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of infantile/prepubertal chronic oestrogen treatment, chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine and combined sympathectomy and chronic oestrogen treatment on developing sensory nerves of the rat uterus. Changes in sensory innervation were assessed quantitatively on uterine cryostat tissue sections stained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Uterine levels of NGF protein, using immunohistochemistry and ELISA, and mRNA, using Northern blots and in situ hybridization, were also measured. Finally, levels of TrkA NGF receptor in sensory neurons of T13 and L1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), which supply the uterus, were assessed using densitometric immunohistochemistry. These studies showed that: (1) chronic oestrogen treatment led to an 83% reduction in the intercept density of CGRP-immunoreactive nerves; (2) sympathectomy had no effect on the density of uterine sensory nerves or on the pattern of oestrogen-induced changes; (3) NGF mRNA and protein increased following sympathectomy or chronic oestrogen treatment; and (4) oestrogen produced increased intensity of labelling (28%) for TrkA receptors in small-diameter sensory neurons, but decreased labelling (13%) in medium-sized neurons, which represent the large majority of the DRG neurons supplying the upper part of the uterine horn. Contrary to expectations, increased levels of NGF after sympathectomy and oestrogen treatment did not lead to increased sensory innervation of the uterus. The possibility that alterations in neuronal levels of TrkA contribute to the lack of response of uterine sensory nerves to the oestrogen-induced increase in NGF levels is discussed.

  19. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-10-03

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  20. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Felicia B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating. Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III, which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  1. Dopamine receptor type 5 in the primary cilia has dual chemo- and mechano-sensory roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Majeed, Shakila; Nauli, Surya M

    2011-08-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is characterized by cardiovascular irregularities, including hypertension. Dopamine, a circulating hormone, is implicated in essential hypertension in humans and animal models. Vascular endothelial primary cilia are known to function as mechano-sensory organelles. Although both primary cilia and dopamine receptors play important roles in vascular hypertension, their relationship has never been explored. To determine the roles of the dopaminergic system and mechano-sensory cilia, we studied the effects of dopamine on ciliary length and function in wild-type and mechano-insensitive polycystic mutant cells (Pkd1(-/)(-) and Tg737(orpk/orpk)). We show for the first time that mouse vascular endothelia exhibit dopamine receptor-type 5 (DR5), which colocalizes to primary cilia in cultured cells and mouse arteries in vivo. DR5 activation increases cilia length in arteries and endothelial cells through cofilin and actin polymerization. DR5 activation also restores cilia function in the mutant cells. In addition, silencing DR5 completely abolishes mechano-ciliary function in WT cells. We found that DR5 plays very important roles in ciliary length and function. Furthermore, the chemo-sensory function of cilia can alter the mechano-sensory function through changes in sensitivity to fluid-shear stress. We propose that ciliary DR5 has functional chemo- and mechano-sensory roles in endothelial cells.

  2. PLCγ-activated signalling is essential for TrkB mediated sensory neuron structural plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-Sanchez Sonia M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vestibular system provides the primary input of our sense of balance and spatial orientation. Dysfunction of the vestibular system can severely affect a person's quality of life. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of vestibular neuron survival, maintenance, and innervation of the target sensory epithelia is fundamental. Results Here we report that a point mutation at the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ docking site in the mouse neurotrophin tyrosine kinase receptor TrkB (Ntrk2 specifically impairs fiber guidance inside the vestibular sensory epithelia, but has limited effects on the survival of vestibular sensory neurons and growth of afferent processes toward the sensory epithelia. We also show that expression of the TRPC3 cation calcium channel, whose activity is known to be required for nerve-growth cone guidance induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, is altered in these animals. In addition, we find that absence of the PLCγ mediated TrkB signalling interferes with the transformation of bouton type afferent terminals of vestibular dendrites into calyces (the largest synaptic contact of dendrites known in the mammalian nervous system on type I vestibular hair cells; the latter are normally distributed in these mutants as revealed by an unaltered expression pattern of the potassium channel KCNQ4 in these cells. Conclusions These results demonstrate a crucial involvement of the TrkB/PLCγ-mediated intracellular signalling in structural aspects of sensory neuron plasticity.

  3. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  5. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument (panel

  6. Endoscopic findings of rectal mucosal damage after pelvic radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma: correlation of rectal mucosal damage with radiation dose and clinical symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    To describe chronic rectal mucosal damage after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for cervical cancer and correlate these findings with clinical symptoms and radiation dose. Thirty-two patients who underwent pelvic RT were diagnosed with radiation-induced proctitis based on endoscopy findings. The median follow-up period was 35 months after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR). The Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) was used to describe the endoscopic findings and compared to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) morbidity score and the dosimetric parameters of RT (the ratio of rectal dose calculated at the rectal point [RP] to the prescribed dose, biologically effective dose [BED] at the RP in the ICR and EBRT plans, {alpha}/{beta} = 3). Rectal symptoms were noted in 28 patients (rectal bleeding in 21 patients, bowel habit changes in 6, mucosal stools in 1), and 4 patients had no symptoms. Endoscopic findings included telangiectasia in 18 patients, congested mucosa in 20, ulceration in 5, and stricture in 1. The RP ratio, BEDICR, BEDICR+EBRT was significantly associated with the VRS (RP ratio, median 76.5%; BEDICR, median 37.1 Gy3; BEDICR+EBRT, median 102.5 Gy3; p < 0.001). The VRS was significantly associated with the EORTC/RTOG score (p = 0.038). The most prevalent endoscopic findings of RT-induced proctitis were telangiectasia and congested mucosa. The VRS was significantly associated with the EORTC/RTOG score and RP radiation dose.

  7. Sensory integration regulating male courtship behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrije Krstic

    Full Text Available The courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster serves as an excellent model system to study how complex innate behaviors are controlled by the nervous system. To understand how the underlying neural network controls this behavior, it is not sufficient to unravel its architecture, but also crucial to decipher its logic. By systematic analysis of how variations in sensory inputs alter the courtship behavior of a naïve male in the single-choice courtship paradigm, we derive a model describing the logic of the network that integrates the various sensory stimuli and elicits this complex innate behavior. This approach and the model derived from it distinguish (i between initiation and maintenance of courtship, (ii between courtship in daylight and in the dark, where the male uses a scanning strategy to retrieve the decamping female, and (iii between courtship towards receptive virgin females and mature males. The last distinction demonstrates that sexual orientation of the courting male, in the absence of discriminatory visual cues, depends on the integration of gustatory and behavioral feedback inputs, but not on olfactory signals from the courted animal. The model will complement studies on the connectivity and intrinsic properties of the neurons forming the circuitry that regulates male courtship behavior.

  8. Deficits in Top-Down Sensory Prediction in Infants At Risk due to Premature Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Lauren L; Boldin, Alex M; Riccio, Julie E; Guillet, Ronnie; Aslin, Richard N

    2017-02-06

    A prominent theoretical view is that the brain is inherently predictive [1, 2] and that prediction helps drive the engine of development [3, 4]. Although infants exhibit neural signatures of top-down sensory prediction [5, 6], in order to establish that prediction supports development, it must be established that deficits in early prediction abilities alter trajectories. We investigated prediction in infants born prematurely, a leading cause of neuro-cognitive impairment worldwide [7]. Prematurity, independent of medical complications, leads to developmental disturbances [8-12] and a broad range of developmental delays [13-17]. Is an alteration in early prediction abilities the common cause? Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we measured top-down sensory prediction in preterm infants (born identification of infants at risk and could guide early intervention regimens.

  9. The Efficiency of Sensory Integration Interventions in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekçetin, Serkan; Akı, Esra; Üstünyurt, Zeynep; Kayıhan, Hülya

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of individualized sensory integration interventions on the sensory processing functions of preterm infants. Thirty-four preterm infants (intervention group) at a corrected age of seven months and 34 term infants (control group) were included. The preterm infants underwent an eight-week sensory integration intervention. Before and after the intervention, the preterm infants' sensory processing functions were evaluated using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants and compared with those of term infants. Preterm infants had significantly poorer sensory processing function preintervention when compared with term infants. There was a significant improvement in preterm infants' sensory processing functions after the sensory integration intervention. In conclusion, preterm infants should be evaluated for sensory processing disorders and individualized sensory integration interventions should be implemented.

  10. Sensory Conflict Disrupts Activity of the Drosophila Circadian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E.F. Harper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Periodic changes in light and temperature synchronize the Drosophila circadian clock, but the question of how the fly brain integrates these two input pathways to set circadian time remains unanswered. We explore multisensory cue combination by testing the resilience of the circadian network to conflicting environmental inputs. We show that misaligned light and temperature cycles can lead to dramatic changes in the daily locomotor activities of wild-type flies during and after exposure to sensory conflict. This altered behavior is associated with a drastic reduction in the amplitude of PERIOD (PER oscillations in brain clock neurons and desynchronization between light- and temperature-sensitive neuronal subgroups. The behavioral disruption depends heavily on the phase relationship between light and temperature signals. Our results represent a systematic quantification of multisensory integration in the Drosophila circadian system and lend further support to the view of the clock as a network of coupled oscillatory subunits.

  11. Multicompartmental Pharmacokinetic Model of Tenofovir Delivery to the Rectal Mucosa by an Enema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yajing; Katz, David F.

    2017-01-01

    Rectal enemas that contain prophylactic levels of anti-HIV microbicides such as tenofovir have emerged as a promising dosage form to prevent sexually transmitted HIV infections. The enema vehicle is promising due to its likely ability to deliver a large amount of drug along the length of the rectal canal. Computational models of microbicide drug delivery by enemas can help their design process by determining key factors governing drug transport and, more specifically, the time history and degree of protection. They can also inform interpretations of experimental pharmacokinetic measures such as drug concentrations in biopsies. The present work begins rectal microbicide PK modeling, for enema vehicles. Results here show that a paramount factor in drug transport is the time of enema retention; direct connectivity between enema fluid and the fluid within rectal crypts is also important. Computations of the percentage of stromal volume protected by a single enema dose indicate that even with only a minute of enema retention, protection of 100% can be achieved after around 14 minutes post dose. Concentrations in biopsies are dependent on biopsy thickness; and control and/or knowledge of thickness could improve accuracy and decrease variability in biopsy measurements. Results here provide evidence that enemas are a promising dosage form for rectal microbicide delivery, and offer insights into their rational design. PMID:28114388

  12. Rectal cancer: future directions and priorities for treatment, research and policy in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher; Ehrenberg, Nieves; Frizelle, Frank; Sarfati, Diana; Balasingam, Adrian; Pearse, Maria; Parry, Susan; Print, Cristin; Findlay, Michael; Bissett, Ian

    2014-06-06

    New Zealand has one of the highest incidences of rectal cancer in the world, and its optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A National Rectal Cancer Summit was convened in August 2013 to discuss management of rectal cancer in the New Zealand context, to highlight controversies and discuss domestic priorities for the future. This paper summarises the priorities for treatment, research and policy for rectal cancer services in New Zealand identified as part of the Summit in August. The following priorities were identified: - Access to high-quality information for service planning, review of outcomes, identification of inequities and gaps in provision, and quality improvement; - Engagement with the entire sector, including private providers; - Focus on equity; - Emerging technologies; - Harmonisation of best practice; - Importance of multidisciplinary team meetings. In conclusion, improvements in outcomes for patients with rectal cancer in New Zealand will require significant engagement between policy makers, providers, researchers, and patients in order to ensure equitable access to high quality treatment, and strategic incorporation of emerging technologies into clinical practice. A robust clinical information framework is required in order to facilitate monitoring of quality improvements and to ensure that equitable care is delivered.

  13. Endoscopically observable white nodule caused by distal intramural lymphatic spread of rectal cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura Ayako

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report describes a case of rectal cancer with endoscopically observable white nodules caused by distal intramural lymphatic spread. A 57-year-old female presented to our hospital with frequent diarrhea and hemorrhoids. Computed tomography showed bilateral ovarian masses and three hepatic tumors diagnosed as rectal cancer metastases, and also showed multiple lymph node involvement. The patient was preoperatively diagnosed with stage IV rectal cancer. Colonoscopy demonstrated that primary rectal cancer existed 15 cm from the anal verge and that there were multiple white small nodules on the anal side of the primary tumor extending to the dentate line. Biopsies of the white spots were performed, and they were identified as adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent Hartmann’s procedure because of the locally advanced primary tumor. The white nodules were ultimately diagnosed as being caused by intramural lymphatic spreading because lymphatic permeation was strongly positive at the surrounding area. Small white nodules near a primary rectal cancer should be suspected of being intramural spreading. Endoscopic detection of white nodules may be useful for the diagnosis of distal intramural spread.

  14. Impact of diabetes on oncologic outcome of colorectal cancer patients: colon vs. rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Y Jeon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of diabetes on outcomes in colorectal cancer patients and to examine whether this association varies by the location of tumor (colon vs. rectum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study includes 4,131 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients, treated between 1995 and 2007 (12.5% diabetic, 53% colon, 47% rectal in South Korea. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine the prognostic influence of DM on survival endpoints. RESULTS: Colorectal cancer patients with DM had significantly worse disease-free survival (DFS [hazard ratio (HR 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.00-1.37] compared with patients without DM. When considering colon and rectal cancer independently, DM was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS (HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.11-1.92, DFS (HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.84 and recurrence-free survival (RFS (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.98-1.76 in colon cancer patients. No association for OS, DFS or RFS was observed in rectal cancer patients. There was significant interaction of location of tumor (colon vs. rectal cancer with DM on OS (P = 0.009 and DFS (P = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that DM negatively impacts survival outcomes of patients with colon cancer but not rectal cancer.

  15. CLINICAL OUTCOME OF INTERSPHINCTERIC RESECTION FOR ULTRA-LOW RECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin L. Ignatov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery has been reported to be one of the approaches for total mesorectal excision (TME in rectal cancer surgery. Intersphincteric resection (ISR has been reported as a promising method for sphincter-preserving operation in selected patients with very low rectal cancer. METHODS: We try to underline the important surgical issues surrounding the management of patients with low rectal cancer indicated to laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (ISR. From January 2007 till now, 35 patients with very low rectal cancer underwent laparoscopic TME with ISR. We report and analyze the results from them RESULTS: Conversion to open surgery was necessary in one (3% patient. The median operation time was 293 min and median estimated blood loss was 40 ml. The pelvic plexus was completely preserved in 32 patients. There was no mortality. Postoperative complications occurred in three (9% patients. The median length of postoperative hospital stay was 11 days. Macroscopic complete mesorectal excision was achieved in all cases. Complete resection (R0 was achieved in 21 (91% patients.CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic TME with ISR is technically feasible and a safe alternative to laparotomy with favorable short-term postoperative outcomes. The literature research made by us found that the laparoscopic approach can be underwent in most patients with low rectal cancer in which laparoscopic ISR represents a feasible alternative to conventional open surgery.

  16. The importance of rectal cancer MRI protocols on iInterpretation accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholm Johan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is used for preoperative local staging in patients with rectal cancer. Our aim was to retrospectively study the effects of the imaging protocol on the staging accuracy. Patients and methods MR-examinations of 37 patients with locally advanced disease were divided into two groups; compliant and noncompliant, based on the imaging protocol, without knowledge of the histopathological results. A compliant rectal cancer imaging protocol was defined as including T2-weighted imaging in the sagittal and axial planes with supplementary coronal in low rectal tumors, alongside a high-resolution plane perpendicular to the rectum at the level of the primary tumor. Protocols not complying with these criteria were defined as noncompliant. Histopathological results were used as gold standard. Results Compliant rectal imaging protocols showed significantly better correlation with histopathological results regarding assessment of anterior organ involvement (sensitivity and specificity rates in compliant group were 86% and 94%, respectively vs. 50% and 33% in the noncompliant group. Compliant imaging protocols also used statistically significantly smaller voxel sizes and fewer number of MR sequences than the noncompliant protocols Conclusion Appropriate MR imaging protocols enable more accurate local staging of locally advanced rectal tumors with less number of sequences and without intravenous gadolinium contrast agents.

  17. Presacral retroperitoneal hematoma after blunt trauma presents with rectal bleeding - A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Sanne Jensen; El-Hussuna, Alaa Abdul-Hussein Hmood

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We present a case of a presacral hematoma, which penetrated into the rectum resulting in rectal bleeding. This is an unusual presentation of a presacral hematoma. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE: A 76-year-old woman, using warfarin anticoagulant prophylaxis, presented with a rectal bleed t......: Rectal bleed after trauma, in a patient receiving anticoagulant treatment, should raise suspicion of a penetrating hematoma, and such patients should be managed at highly specialized facilities....... in the gastrointestinal tract. In this report the patient's anticoagulant treatment has likely contributed to bleeding and the formation of the hematoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a presacral hematoma acutely penetrating into the rectum and causing lower gastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSION......INTRODUCTION: We present a case of a presacral hematoma, which penetrated into the rectum resulting in rectal bleeding. This is an unusual presentation of a presacral hematoma. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE: A 76-year-old woman, using warfarin anticoagulant prophylaxis, presented with a rectal bleed two...

  18. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding after low anterior resection for middle rectal cancer -case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mircea Beuran; Ionut Negoi; Sorin Paun; Valentina Negoita; Bogdan Stoica; Ioan Tanase; Mihaela Vartic; Ruxandra Irina Negoi; Sorin Hostiuc

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To emphasize the value of emergency diagnostic angiography and angioembolization in massive postoperative bleeding. Methods:A case report was presented and electronic search of U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, to identify original articles and reviews about the subject. Results: A 55 year-old male patient was addmited for rectal bleeding. ECOG index=2, digital rectal examination revealed the inferior pole of a middle rectal tumor. Colonoscopy exam validated the presence of a middle rectal tumor, 8 cm from the anal verge. CT scan showed rectal wall thickening up to 3 cm, that extends 9 cm proximally, whit infiltration of the perirectal fatty tissue and multiple enlarged lymph nodes up to 12 mm in dimension. There was a laparoscopic converted to open approach, with low anterior resection of the rectum and total mesorectal excision, an end to end stapled colorectal anastomosis and protective loop ileostomy. In the 5th postoperative day a massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding occured, with hypovolemic shock and a decrease in hemoglobin. Emergency angiography was performed. This revealed active bleeding from an internal iliac branch that was successfully angioembolized. Conclusions: Angiography with angioembolization is an effective tool in emergency setting, avoiding the morbidity and associated mortality of a surgical reinervention. In early postoperative hemorrhages, only a rapid clinical recognition, a personalized diagnostic workup and an agressive intervention may offer the patient the best chances for cure.

  19. A key mechanism underlying sensory experience-dependent maturation of neocortical GABAergic circuits in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Chunzhao; Wang, Xinjun; Sakata, Kazuko; Lu, Bai; Sun, Qian-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying experience-dependent refinement of cortical connections, especially GABAergic inhibitory circuits, are unknown. By using a line of mutant mice that lack activity-dependent BDNF expression (bdnf-KIV), we show that experience regulation of cortical GABAergic network is mediated by activity-driven BDNF expression. Levels of endogenous BDNF protein in the barrel cortex are strongly regulated by sensory inputs from whiskers. There is a severe alteration of excitation and inhi...

  20. The Modern Obesity Epidemic, Ancestral Hunter-Gatherers, and the Sensory/Reward Control of Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become a true pandemic. In the United States, over two thirds of adults are obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980. The increase in the prevalence of obese and overweight individuals has happened too rapidly for it to be due to an alteration in the genome. The gastrointestinal, sensory (taste and…