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Sample records for altered neuromuscular control

  1. Altered neuromuscular control mechanisms of the trapezius muscle in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Stefan J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background fibromyalgia is a relatively common condition with widespread pain and pressure allodynia, but unknown aetiology. For decades, the association between motor control strategies and chronic pain has been a topic for debate. One long held functional neuromuscular control mechanism is differential activation between regions within a single muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in neuromuscular control, i.e. differential activation, between myalgic trapezius in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Methods 27 fibromyalgia patients and 30 healthy controls performed 3 minutes bilateral shoulder elevations with different loads (0-4 Kg with a high-density surface electromyographical (EMG grid placed above the upper trapezius. Differential activation was quantified by the power spectral median frequency of the difference in EMG amplitude between the cranial and caudal parts of the upper trapezius. The average duration of the differential activation was described by the inverse of the median frequency of the differential activations. Results the median frequency of the differential activations was significantly lower, and the average duration of the differential activations significantly longer in fibromyalgia compared with controls at the two lowest load levels (0-1 Kg (p Conclusion these findings illustrate a different neuromuscular control between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls during a low load functional task, either sustaining or resulting from the chronic painful condition. The findings may have clinical relevance for rehabilitation strategies for fibromyalgia.

  2. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, N; Thorlund, J B;

    2015-01-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-......Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single...... compensatory Gastrocnemius Medialis activity. Reduced pre and post-activation of the Semitendinosus may present a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries as ACL ruptures in GJH with knee hypermobility...

  3. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15 year old children with generalised joint hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Juul-Kristensen, B; Bloch Thorlund, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-......Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single...... compensatory Gastrocnemius Medialis activity. Reduced pre and post-activation of the Semitendinosus may present a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries as ACL ruptures in GJH with knee hypermobility...

  4. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15 year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Søgaard, Karen; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2015-06-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score⩾5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was recorded from the quadriceps, the hamstring and the calf muscles, presented relative to Maximum Voluntary Electrical activity (MVE). There was no difference in jump length between groups. Before landing, GJH had 33% lower Semitendinosus, but 32% higher Gastrocnemius Medialis activity and 39% higher co contraction of the lateral knee muscles, than controls. After landing, GJH had 36% lower Semitendinosus activity than controls, all significant findings. Although the groups performed equally in SLHD, GJH had a Gastrocnemius Medialis dominated neuromuscular strategy before landing, plausibly caused by reduced Semitendinosus activity. Reduced Semitendinosus activity was seen in GJH after landing, but with no compensatory Gastrocnemius Medialis activity. Reduced pre and post-activation of the Semitendinosus may present a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries as ACL ruptures in GJH with knee hypermobility. PMID:25801907

  5. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL IN LUMBAR DISORDERS

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    Ville Leinonen

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Impaired motor and sensory functions have been associated with low back pain (LBP. This includes disturbances in a wide range of sensorimotor control e.g. sensory dysfunctions, impaired postural responses and psychomotor control. However, the physiological mechanisms, clinical relevance and characteristics of these findings in different spinal pathologies require further clarification. The purposes of this study were to investigate postural control, lumbar muscle function, movement perception and associations between these findings in healthy volunteers (n=35, patients with lumbar disc herniation (n=20 and lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS, n=26. Paraspinal muscle responses for sudden upper limb loading and muscle activation during flexion-extension movement and the lumbar endurance test were measured by surface electromyography (EMG. Postural stability was measured on a force platform during two- and one-footed standing. Lumbar movement perception was assessed in a motorised trunk rotation unit in the seated position. In addition, measurements of motor-(MEP and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP and needle EMG examination of lumbar multifidus muscles were performed in the LSS patients. Clinical and questionnaire data were also recorded. A short latency paraspinal muscle response (~50 ms for sudden upper limb loading was observed. The latency of the response was shortened by expectation (p=0.017. The response latency for unexpected loading was similar in healthy persons and disc herniation patients but the latency was not shortened by expectation in the patients (p = 0.014. Also impaired postural control (p < 0.05 and lumbar movement perception (p = 0.012 were observed in disc herniation patients. The impaired lumbar movement perception (p=0.054 and anticipatory muscle activation (p = 0.043 tended to be restored after successful surgery but postural control had still not recovered after 3 months of follow-up. The majority of LSS patients were unable

  6. A feedback inclusive neuromuscular training program alters frontal plane kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greska, Eric K; Cortes, Nelson; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Oñate, James A

    2012-06-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) neuromuscular training programs have demonstrated beneficial effects in reducing ACL injuries, yet further evaluation of their effects on biomechanical measures across a sports team season is required to elucidate the specific factors that are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 10-week off-season neuromuscular training program on lower extremity kinematics. Twelve Division I female soccer players (age: 19.2 ± 0.8 years, height: 1.67 ± 0.1 m, weight: 60.2 ± 6.5 kg) performed unanticipated dynamic trials of a running stop-jump task pretraining and posttraining. Data collection was performed using an 8-camera Vicon system (Los Angeles, CA, USA) and 2 Bertec (Columbus, OH, USA) force plates. The 10-week training program consisted of resistance training 2 times per week and field training, consisting of plyometric, agility, and speed drills, 2 times per week. Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to assess the differences between pretraining and posttraining kinetics and kinematics of the hip, knee, and ankle at initial contact (IC), peak knee flexion (PKF), and peak stance. Repeated measures ANOVAs were also used to assess isometric strength differences pretraining and posttraining. The alpha level was set at 0.05 a priori. The training program demonstrated significant increases in left hip extension, left and right hip flexion, and right hip adduction isometric strength. At IC, knee abduction angle moved from an abducted to an adducted position (-1.48 ± 3.65° to 1.46 ± 3.86°, p = 0.007), and hip abduction angle increased (-6.05 ± 4.63° to -10.34 ± 6.83°, p = 0.007). Hip abduction angle at PKF increased (-2.23 ± 3.40° to 6.01 ± 3.82°, p = 0.002). The maximum knee extension moment achieved at peak stance increased from pretraining to posttraining (2.02 ± 0.32 to 2.38 ± 0.75 N·m·kg⁻¹, p = 0.027). The neuromuscular training program demonstrated a potential

  7. Influence of Fatigue in Neuromuscular Control of Spinal Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Granata, Kevin P.; Slota, Greg P.; Wilson, Sara E.

    2004-01-01

    Lifting-induced fatigue may influence neuromuscular control of spinal stability. Stability is primarily controlled by muscle recruitment, active muscle stiffness, and reflex response. Fatigue has been observed to affect each of these neuromuscular parameters and may therefore affect spinal stability. A biomechanical model of spinal stability was implemented to evaluate the effects of fatigue on spinal stability. The model included a 6-degree-of-freedom representation of the spine controlled b...

  8. Ultrastructural muscle and neuro-muscular junction alterations in polymyositis

    OpenAIRE

    L. L. Babakova; O. M. Pozdnyakov

    2015-01-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of 7 biopsies from m.palmaris longus and m.deltoideus in patients with confirmed polymyositis revealed alterationand degeneration of muscle fibers and anomalies of neuro-muscular junction (NMJ). The NMJ abnormalities and following denervation ofmuscle fibers in polymyositis start with subsynaptic damages. The occurance of regeneration features in muscle fibers at any stage is characteristic for PM.

  9. Ultrastructural muscle and neuro-muscular junction alterations in polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Babakova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural analysis of 7 biopsies from m.palmaris longus and m.deltoideus in patients with confirmed polymyositis revealed alterationand degeneration of muscle fibers and anomalies of neuro-muscular junction (NMJ. The NMJ abnormalities and following denervation ofmuscle fibers in polymyositis start with subsynaptic damages. The occurance of regeneration features in muscle fibers at any stage is characteristic for PM.

  10. Alterations of Neuromuscular Function after the World's Most Challenging Mountain Ultra-Marathon.

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    Jonas Saugy

    Full Text Available We investigated the physiological consequences of the most challenging mountain ultra-marathon (MUM in the world: a 330-km trail run with 24000 m of positive and negative elevation change. Neuromuscular fatigue (NMF was assessed before (Pre-, during (Mid- and after (Post- the MUM in experienced ultra-marathon runners (n = 15; finish time  = 122.43 hours ±17.21 hours and in Pre- and Post- in a control group with a similar level of sleep deprivation (n = 8. Blood markers of muscle inflammation and damage were analyzed at Pre- and Post-. Mean ± SD maximal voluntary contraction force declined significantly at Mid- (-13±17% and -10±16%, P<0.05 for knee extensor, KE, and plantar flexor muscles, PF, respectively, and further decreased at Post- (-24±13% and -26±19%, P<0.01 with alteration of the central activation ratio (-24±24% and -28±34% between Pre- and Post-, P<0.05 in runners whereas these parameters did not change in the control group. Peripheral NMF markers such as 100 Hz doublet (KE: -18±18% and PF: -20±15%, P<0.01 and peak twitch (KE: -33±12%, P<0.001 and PF: -19±14%, P<0.01 were also altered in runners but not in controls. Post-MUM blood concentrations of creatine kinase (3719±3045 Ul·(1, lactate dehydrogenase (1145±511 UI·L(-1, C-Reactive Protein (13.1±7.5 mg·L(-1 and myoglobin (449.3±338.2 µg·L(-1 were higher (P<0.001 than at Pre- in runners but not in controls. Our findings revealed less neuromuscular fatigue, muscle damage and inflammation than in shorter MUMs. In conclusion, paradoxically, such extreme exercise seems to induce a relative muscle preservation process due likely to a protective anticipatory pacing strategy during the first half of MUM and sleep deprivation in the second half.

  11. Neuromuscular control and rehabilitation of the unstable ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, You-jou

    2015-01-01

    Lateral ankle sprain is a common orthopedic injury with a very high recurrence rate in athletes. After decades of research, it is still unclear what contributes to the high recurrence rate of ankle sprain, and what is the most effective intervention to reduce the incident of initial and recurrent injuries. In addition, clinicians often implement balance training as part of the rehabilitation protocol in hopes of enhancing the neuromuscular control and proprioception of the ankle joint. Howeve...

  12. Prolonged mental exertion does not alter neuromuscular function of the knee extensors

    OpenAIRE

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that prolonged mental exertion i) reduces maximal muscle activation and ii) increases the extent of central fatigue induced by subsequent endurance exercise. Methods: Neuromuscular function of the knee extensor muscles was assessed in 10 male subjects in two different conditions: i) before and after prolonged mental exertion leading to mental fatigue; ii) before and after an easy cognitive task (control). Both cognitive tasks lasted 90...

  13. Time course and dimensions of postural control changes following neuromuscular training in youth field hockey athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zech, Astrid; Klahn, Philipp; Hoeft, Jon; Eulenburg, Christine Zu; Steib, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Injury prevention effects of neuromuscular training have been partly attributed to postural control adaptations. Uncertainty exists regarding the magnitude of these adaptations and on how they can be adequately monitored. The objective was to determine the time course of neuromuscular traini

  14. Neuromuscular training and the risk of leg injuries in female floorball players: cluster randomised controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Pasanen, Kati; Parkkari, Jari; Pasanen, Matti; Hiilloskorpi, Hannele; Mäkinen, Tanja; Järvinen, Markku; Kannus, Pekka

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme is effective in preventing non-contact leg injuries in female floorball players. Design Cluster randomised controlled study. Setting 28 top level female floorball teams in Finland. Participants 457 players (mean age 24 years)—256 (14 teams) in the intervention group and 201 (14 teams) in the control group—followedup for one league season (six months). Intervention A neuromuscular training programme to enhance players’ motor s...

  15. Alterations in body composition and spasticity following subtetanic neuromuscular electrical stimulation training in spinal cord injury

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    Louis Crowe, MB, BCh, BAO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate alterations in body composition variables and spasticity following subtetanic neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES training in an adult population with spinal cord injury (SCI. Fourteen sedentary adults with SCI (thoracic [T]4–T11; American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A/B; time since injury: 10.17 +/– 11.17 yr were recruited from the National SCI database. Four adhesive electrodes (175 cm2 each were placed bilaterally on the proximal and distal quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups and subtetanic contractions were elicited using a handheld NMES device. Lean body mass (LBM and other body composition variables were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Spasticity was measured using the Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes (SCATs and visual analog scales. Verbal and written feedback was obtained to subjectively evaluate spasticity. LBM and spasticity measurements were taken before and after an 8 wk NMES training program in order to assess change. A statistically significant increase in lower-limb LBM, i.e., muscle tissue (p > 0.001, and a reduction in SCATs (p < 0.001 score, indicating reduced spasticity, was observed. Subjective responses were positive. Improvements in body composition and SCATs scores indicate that subtetanic NMES training elicits favorable responses and may have important clinical implications for an SCI population.

  16. Neuromuscular function during stair descent in meniscectomized patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M; Aagaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in knee range of motion (ROM), movement speed, ground reaction forces (GRF) profile, neuromuscular activity, and muscle coactivation during the transition between stair descent and level walking in meniscectomized patients at high risk of knee...

  17. Propiocepción y control neuromuscular en el fútblo infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Zarza, Cristían

    2014-01-01

    En el fútbol profesional la escasa utilización de la pierna no hábil hace que muchas situaciones de juego no se resuelvan eficazmente, además de predisponer a la aparición de lesiones. El presente estudio se concentró en determinar la influencia del entrenamiento propioceptivo y del control neuromuscular en las cualidades físicas y técnicas del miembro no hábil. Objetivo: Indagar el nivel propioceptivo y de control neuromuscular del miembro inferior no hábil en chicos que re...

  18. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch;

    2015-01-01

    -Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score⩾5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was recorded from the quadriceps, the hamstring and the calf muscles, presented relative to Maximum Voluntary...... Electrical activity (MVE). There was no difference in jump length between groups. Before landing, GJH had 33% lower Semitendinosus, but 32% higher Gastrocnemius Medialis activity and 39% higher co contraction of the lateral knee muscles, than controls. After landing, GJH had 36% lower Semitendinosus activity...

  19. Valoració i entrenament del control neuromuscular per a la millora del rendiment esportiu

    OpenAIRE

    Fort Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara

    2010-01-01

    El control neuromuscular ha estat descrit com un important factor per a l'èxit en el rendiment esportiu. De la mateixa manera, també s'ha identificat com a clau en la prevenció i readaptació de les lesions esportives. El principal objectiu d'aquesta tesi doctoral és avaluar l'eficàcia de diferents tipus d'entrenament neuromuscular en esportistes.S'ha utilitzat una mostra de 81 esportistes sans entre els diferents estudis que s'hi presenten. Les diferents avaluacions realitzades han registrat ...

  20. An acoustic startle alters knee joint stiffness and neuromuscular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, A I; Needle, A R; Kaminski, T W; Royer, T R; Knight, C A; Swanik, C B

    2015-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the nervous system contributes to non-contact knee ligament injury, but limited evidence has measured the effect of extrinsic events on joint stability. Following unanticipated events, the startle reflex leads to universal stiffening of the limbs, but no studies have investigated how an acoustic startle influences knee stiffness and muscle activation during a dynamic knee perturbation. Thirty-six individuals were tested for knee stiffness and muscle activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings. Subjects were seated and instructed to resist a 40-degree knee flexion perturbation from a relaxed state. During some trials, an acoustic startle (50 ms, 1000 Hz, 100 dB) was applied 100 ms prior to the perturbation. Knee stiffness, muscle amplitude, and timing were quantified across time, muscle, and startle conditions. The acoustic startle increased short-range (no startle: 0.044 ± 0.011 N·m/deg/kg; average startle: 0.047 ± 0.01 N·m/deg/kg) and total knee stiffness (no startle: 0.036 ± 0.01 N·m/deg/kg; first startle 0.027 ± 0.02 N·m/deg/kg). Additionally, the startle contributed to decreased [vastus medialis (VM): 13.76 ± 33.6%; vastus lateralis (VL): 6.72 ± 37.4%] but earlier (VM: 0.133 ± 0.17 s; VL: 0.124 ± 0.17 s) activation of the quadriceps muscles. The results of this study indicate that the startle response can significantly disrupt knee stiffness regulation required to maintain joint stability. Further studies should explore the role of unanticipated events on unintentional injury. PMID:25212407

  1. Neuromechanical evidence of improved neuromuscular control around knee joint in volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Gizzi, Leonardo; Bellotti, Pasquale; Felici, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to verify that skilled volleyball players present specific adaptations in both neuromuscular control and movement biomechanics, showing an improved neuromuscular control around the knee joint than in non-jumper athletes. Seven male volleyball players and seven male non-jumper athletes were recruited for this study. The following tests were performed in a random order: single countermovement jump (CMJ), single squat jump. At the end of the series, subjects performed a repetitive CMJ test. Electromyographic signals were recorded from vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles on both sides. Ground reaction forces and moments were measured with a force plate. Volleyball athletes performed better in all tests and were more resistant to fatigue than non-jumper athletes. Furthermore, volleyball athletes showed a reduced co-activation of knee flexor/extensor muscles. The present results seem to stand for a neural adaptation of the motor control scheme to training. PMID:19826834

  2. Plyometric type neuromuscular exercise is a treatment to postural control deficits of volleyball players: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The effects of exercise protocols on postural control changes have been supported, but the influence of a common and specific type neuromuscular exercise such as plyometric on postural control is not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of plyometric type neuromuscular exercise on balance or postural control performance of young male volleyball players. Method: Ten professional young male volleyball players participated in this study and performed p...

  3. Single leg jumping neuromuscular control is improved following whole body, long-axis rotational training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, John; Burden, Robert; Krupp, Ryan; Caborn, David N M

    2011-04-01

    Improved lower extremity neuromuscular control during sports may decrease injury risk. This prospective study evaluated progressive resistance, whole body, long-axis rotational training on the Ground Force 360 device. Our hypothesis was that device training would improve lower extremity neuromuscular control based on previous reports of kinematic, ground reaction force (GRF) or electromyographic (EMG) evidence of safer or more efficient dynamic knee stability during jumping. Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either training (Group 1) or control (Group 2) groups. Using a pre-test, post-test study design data were collected from three SLVJ trials. Unpaired t-tests with adjustments for multiple comparisons were used to evaluate group mean change differences (P≤0.05/25≤0.002). During propulsion Group 1 standardized EMG amplitude mean change differences for gluteus maximus (-21.8% vs. +17.4%), gluteus medius (-28.6% vs. +15.0%), rectus femoris (-27.1% vs. +11.2%), vastus medialis (-20.2% vs. +9.1%), and medial hamstrings (-38.3% vs. +30.3%) differed from Group 2. During landing Group 1 standardized EMG amplitude mean change differences for gluteus maximus (-32.9% vs. +11.1%) and rectus femoris (-33.3% vs. +29.0%) also differed from Group 2. Group 1 peak propulsion vertical GRF (+0.24N/kg vs. -0.46N/kg) and landing GRF stabilization timing (-0.68 vs. +0.05s) mean change differences differed from Group 2. Group 1 mean hip (-16.3 vs. +7.8°/s) and knee (-21.4 vs. +18.5°/s) flexion velocity mean change differences also differed from Group 2. Improved lower extremity neuromuscular efficiency, increased peak propulsive vertical GRF, decreased mean hip and knee flexion velocities during landing, and earlier landing stabilization timing in the training group suggests improved lower extremity neuromuscular control. PMID:21123083

  4. Acceleromyography and mechanomyography for establishing potency of neuromuscular blocking agents: a randomized-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Viby-Mogensen, J; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acceleromyography (AMG) is increasingly being used in neuromuscular research, including in studies establishing the potency of neuromuscular blocking and reversal agents. However, AMG is insufficiently validated for use interchangeably with the gold standard, mechanomyography (MMG) for...... this purpose. The aim of this study was to compare AMG and MMG for establishing dose-response relationship and potency, using rocuronium as an example. METHODS: We included 40 adult patients in this randomized-controlled single-dose response study. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol......-response relationships were determined for both recording methods using log (dose) against probit (maximum block). The obtained slopes of the regression lines, ED(50), ED(95) and the maximum block were compared. RESULTS: The ED(50) and ED(95) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for AMG were 185 microg/kg(167-205 microg...

  5. Proactive and reactive neuromuscular control in subjects with chronic ankle instability: evidence from a pilot study on landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin, O.; Vanwanseele, B.; Thijsen, J.R.; Helsen, W.F.; Staes, F.F.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    To understand why subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have frequent sprains, one must study the preparation/reactions of these subjects to situations related to ankle inversion in real life. In the present pilot study, we examined whether subjects with CAI altered their neuromuscular contr

  6. Time course of central and peripheral alterations after isometric neuromuscular electrical stimulation-induced muscle damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fouré

    Full Text Available Isometric contractions induced by neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES have been shown to result in a prolonged force decrease but the time course of the potential central and peripheral factors have never been investigated. This study examined the specific time course of central and peripheral factors after isometric NMES-induced muscle damage. Twenty-five young healthy men were subjected to an NMES exercise consisting of 40 contractions for both legs. Changes in maximal voluntary contraction force of the knee extensors (MVC, peak evoked force during double stimulations at 10 Hz (Db(10 and 100 Hz (Db(100, its ratio (10:100, voluntary activation, muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed before, immediately after and throughout four days after NMES session. Changes in knee extensors volume and T2 relaxation time were also assessed at two (D2 and four (D4 days post-exercise. MVC decreased by 29% immediately after NMES session and was still 19% lower than the baseline value at D4. The decrease in Db(10 was higher than in Db(100 immediately and one day post-exercise resulting in a decrease (-12% in the 10:100 ratio. On the contrary, voluntary activation significantly decreased at D2 (-5% and was still depressed at D4 (-5%. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity increased after NMES and peaked at D2 and D4, respectively. T2 was also increased at D2 (6% and D4 (9%. Additionally, changes in MVC and peripheral factors (e.g., Db(100 were correlated on the full recovery period, while a significant correlation was found between changes in MVC and VA only from D2 to D4. The decrease in MVC recorded immediately after the NMES session was mainly due to peripheral changes while both central and peripheral contributions were involved in the prolonged force reduction. Interestingly, the chronological events differ from what has been reported so far for voluntary exercise-induced muscle damage.

  7. Time Course of Central and Peripheral Alterations after Isometric Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation-Induced Muscle Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouré, Alexandre; Nosaka, Kazunori; Wegrzyk, Jennifer; Duhamel, Guillaume; Le Troter, Arnaud; Boudinet, Hélène; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Vilmen, Christophe; Jubeau, Marc; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Isometric contractions induced by neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) have been shown to result in a prolonged force decrease but the time course of the potential central and peripheral factors have never been investigated. This study examined the specific time course of central and peripheral factors after isometric NMES-induced muscle damage. Twenty-five young healthy men were subjected to an NMES exercise consisting of 40 contractions for both legs. Changes in maximal voluntary contraction force of the knee extensors (MVC), peak evoked force during double stimulations at 10 Hz (Db10) and 100 Hz (Db100), its ratio (10∶100), voluntary activation, muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed before, immediately after and throughout four days after NMES session. Changes in knee extensors volume and T2 relaxation time were also assessed at two (D2) and four (D4) days post-exercise. MVC decreased by 29% immediately after NMES session and was still 19% lower than the baseline value at D4. The decrease in Db10 was higher than in Db100 immediately and one day post-exercise resulting in a decrease (−12%) in the 10∶100 ratio. On the contrary, voluntary activation significantly decreased at D2 (−5%) and was still depressed at D4 (−5%). Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity increased after NMES and peaked at D2 and D4, respectively. T2 was also increased at D2 (6%) and D4 (9%). Additionally, changes in MVC and peripheral factors (e.g., Db100) were correlated on the full recovery period, while a significant correlation was found between changes in MVC and VA only from D2 to D4. The decrease in MVC recorded immediately after the NMES session was mainly due to peripheral changes while both central and peripheral contributions were involved in the prolonged force reduction. Interestingly, the chronological events differ from what has been reported so far for voluntary exercise-induced muscle damage. PMID:25215511

  8. Proactive and reactive neuromuscular control in subjects with chronic ankle instability: evidence from a pilot study on landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Oron; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Thijsen, Jo R J; Helsen, Werner F; Staes, Filip F; Duysens, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    To understand why subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have frequent sprains, one must study the preparation/reactions of these subjects to situations related to ankle inversion in real life. In the present pilot study, we examined whether subjects with CAI altered their neuromuscular control and reflex responses during and after ankle perturbations in landing. EMG signals were collected from the tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and gluteus medius (GLM) of both legs in 9 subjects with CAI and 9 subjects with intact ankles (control). A trapdoor was used to produce an ankle inversion of 25° with the left leg (control) or the affected leg (CAI) in 0%, 50% or 100% of the landing trials. As compared to controls, subjects with CAI had increased proactive activity in the contralateral side prior to touchdown during landing trials with 50% (PL) and 100% (PL and MG) chance of inversion (all, p proactive control on the contralateral side could be part of a strategy to smooth the impact of landing on the affected side in subjects with CAI. Following touchdown, the CAI group showed decreased ipsilateral short latency reflex (SLR) responses in all test conditions both in distal (PL and MG) and in proximal muscles (GLM) on the affected side (all, p strategies from controls while landing. PMID:25439444

  9. No effect on performance tests from a neuromuscular warm-up programme in youth female football: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblom, Hanna; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present randomised controlled trial was to study the effect of a neuromuscular warm-up programme on performance tests in youth female football. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanFour youth female football teams with players aged 12-16 years were randomised into an intervention group and control group. The intervention was a 15-min neuromuscular warm-up programme carried out twice a week during the 11-week study period. Baseline and follow-up measurements of p...

  10. Delayed effect of Kinesio Taping on neuromuscular performance, balance, and lower limb function in healthy individuals: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Caio A. A. Lins; Daniel T. Borges; Liane B. Macedo; Karinna S. A. Costa; Jamilson S. Brasileiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Kinesio Taping (KT) is an elastic bandage that aims to improve neuromuscular performance, although there is no consensus as to its benefits. Objective To analyze the immediate and delayed effects of KT on the neuromuscular performance of the femoral quadriceps, on balance, and lower limb function in healthy subjects. Method This is a randomized controlled trial. Thirty-six women with a mean age of 22.2±3.6 years and BMI of 22.5±2.3 Kg/m2 were divided into three groups: ...

  11. High-fat diet-induced obesity alters nitric oxide-mediated neuromuscular transmission and smooth muscle excitability in the mouse distal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Yogesh; Fried, David; Gulbransen, Brian; Kadrofske, Mark; Fernandes, Roxanne; Xu, Hui; Galligan, James

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that colonic enteric neurotransmission and smooth muscle cell (SMC) function are altered in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). We used wild-type (WT) mice and mice lacking the β1-subunit of the BK channel (BKβ1 (-/-)). WT mice fed a HFD had increased myenteric plexus oxidative stress, a 28% decrease in nitrergic neurons, and a 20% decrease in basal nitric oxide (NO) levels. Circular muscle inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) were reduced in HFD WT mice. The NO synthase inhibitor nitro-l-arginine (NLA) was less effective at inhibiting relaxations in HFD compared with control diet (CD) WT mice (11 vs. 37%, P < 0.05). SMCs from HFD WT mice had depolarized membrane potentials (-47 ± 2 mV) and continuous action potential firing compared with CD WT mice (-53 ± 2 mV, P < 0.05), which showed rhythmic firing. SMCs from HFD or CD fed BKβ1 (-/-) mice fired action potentials continuously. NLA depolarized membrane potential and caused continuous firing only in SMCs from CD WT mice. Sodium nitroprusside (NO donor) hyperpolarized membrane potential and changed continuous to rhythmic action potential firing in SMCs from HFD WT and BKβ1 (-/-) mice. Migrating motor complexes were disrupted in colons from BKβ1 (-/-) mice and HFD WT mice. BK channel α-subunit protein and β1-subunit mRNA expression were similar in CD and HFD WT mice. We conclude that HFD-induced obesity disrupts inhibitory neuromuscular transmission, SMC excitability, and colonic motility by promoting oxidative stress, loss of nitrergic neurons, and SMC BK channel dysfunction. PMID:27288421

  12. The Effect of Plyometric Training on Trunk Muscle Pre-activation in Active Females with Trunk Neuromuscular Control Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    M Hadadnezhad; R. Rajabi; A Ashraf Jamshidi; E Shirzad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Plyometric training via neuromuscular adaptations to the stretch reflex, elasticity of muscle and Golgi tendon organs has an important role in pre-activation of muscles. Due to lack of research in regard to effect of plyometric training on lumbo pelvic muscle, this study aimed to investigate the effect of plyometric training on lumbo pelvic muscle pre-activation in active females with trunk control deficit. Methods: Twenty-five active females who suffered from trunk control de...

  13. Delayed effect of Kinesio Taping on neuromuscular performance, balance, and lower limb function in healthy individuals: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio A. A. Lins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Kinesio Taping (KT is an elastic bandage that aims to improve neuromuscular performance, although there is no consensus as to its benefits. Objective To analyze the immediate and delayed effects of KT on the neuromuscular performance of the femoral quadriceps, on balance, and lower limb function in healthy subjects. Method This is a randomized controlled trial. Thirty-six women with a mean age of 22.2±3.6 years and BMI of 22.5±2.3 Kg/m2 were divided into three groups: control, with ten minutes of rest (control, n=12, application of Kinesio Taping without tension (placebo, n=12 and with tension (KT, n=12 on the quadriceps. The primary outcome was isokinetic performance, while secondary outcomes were the single-hop test, one-footed static balance, and electromyographic activity. The evaluations were carried out in five stages: 1 before application of KT, 2 immediately after the application of KT, 3 after 24h, 4 after 48h, and 5 after 72h. Mixed ANOVA was used to determine differences between groups. Results There was no change in one-footed static balance, electromyographic activity of the VL in the lower limb function, nor in isokinetic performance between groups. Conclusion KT promotes neither immediate nor delayed changes in neuromuscular performance of the femoral quadriceps in healthy women.

  14. Sympathetic innervation controls homeostasis of neuromuscular junctions in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muzamil Majid; Lustrino, Danilo; Silveira, Willian A; Wild, Franziska; Straka, Tatjana; Issop, Yasmin; O'Connor, Emily; Cox, Dan; Reischl, Markus; Marquardt, Till; Labeit, Dittmar; Labeit, Siegfried; Benoit, Evelyne; Molgó, Jordi; Lochmüller, Hanns; Witzemann, Veit; Kettelhut, Isis C; Navegantes, Luiz C C; Pozzan, Tullio; Rudolf, Rüdiger

    2016-01-19

    The distribution and function of sympathetic innervation in skeletal muscle have largely remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that sympathetic neurons make close contact with neuromuscular junctions and form a network in skeletal muscle that may functionally couple different targets including blood vessels, motor neurons, and muscle fibers. Direct stimulation of sympathetic neurons led to activation of muscle postsynaptic β2-adrenoreceptor (ADRB2), cAMP production, and import of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A) into myonuclei. Electrophysiological and morphological deficits of neuromuscular junctions upon sympathectomy and in myasthenic mice were rescued by sympathicomimetic treatment. In conclusion, this study identifies the neuromuscular junction as a target of the sympathetic nervous system and shows that sympathetic input is crucial for synapse maintenance and function. PMID:26733679

  15. Effect of 1-year regular Tai Chi on neuromuscular reaction in elderly women: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Cui; Song, Qipeng; Li, Weiping; Cong, Yan; Chang, Shuwan; Mao, Dewei; Hong, Youlian

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of 1-year regular Tai Chi (TC) on neuromuscular reaction in elderly women. A total of 41 elderly women (55 years-68 years) completed the study. The TC group (n = 21) performed the 24-form TC, while the control group (C, n = 20) was instructed to read newspapers or watch television when the TC group practised. Electromyogram measurements were conducted before and after intervention. After a year-long intervention, the post-test results of between-group neuromuscular reaction time showed significant differences in the rectus femoris (t = 3.607, p = 0.001), semitendinosus (t = 2.678, p = 0.011), anterior tibialis (t = 3.455, p = 0.001), and gastrocnemius muscles (t = 4.061, p = 0.000). Within-group results showed that the TC group had significantly shorter neuromuscular reaction time compared to its baseline value in the rectus femoris (t = 3.066, p = 0.006), semitendinosus (t = 2.485, p = 0.022), anterior tibialis (t = 2.311, p = 0.032), and gastrocnemius muscles (t = 2.462, p = 0.023). Results suggested that year-long regular TC can improve neuromuscular reaction function in elderly women. PMID:27161956

  16. Neuromuscular control of scapula muscles during a voluntary task in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C M; Søgaard, Karen; Chreiteh, S S; Holtermann, Andreas; Juul-Kristensen, B

    2013-01-01

    Imbalance of neuromuscular activity in the scapula stabilizers in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SIS) is described in restricted tasks and specific populations. Our aim was to compare the scapular muscle activity during a voluntary movement task in a general population with and w...

  17. Upper airway neuromuscular compensation during sleep is defective in obstructive sleep apnea

    OpenAIRE

    McGinley, Brian M.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P.; Smith, Philip L; Patil, Susheel P.

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is the result of repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Recent evidence indicates that alterations in upper airway anatomy and disturbances in neuromuscular control both play a role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. We hypothesized that subjects without sleep apnea are more capable of mounting vigorous neuromuscular responses to upper airway obstruction than subjects with sleep apnea. To address this hypothesis we lowered nasal pressu...

  18. Hybrid Neuroprosthesis for the Upper Limb: Combining Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation with a Multi-Joint Arm Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Florian; Walter, Armin; Spüler, Martin; Naros, Georgios; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI) neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion (ROM) and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related ROM and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton) in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. NMES was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD) and electromyography (EMG) activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e., induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p = 0.028) or EMG (p = 0.021) modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related ROM (p = 0.009) and the movement-related brain modulation (p = 0.019). Combining a hybrid BMI with neuromuscular stimulation

  19. Arm-cycling sprints induce neuromuscular fatigue of the elbow flexors and alter corticospinal excitability of the biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcey, Gregory E P; Bradbury-Squires, David J; Monks, Michael; Philpott, Devin; Power, Kevin E; Button, Duane C

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of arm-cycling sprints on maximal voluntary elbow flexion and corticospinal excitability of the biceps brachii. Recreationally trained athletes performed ten 10-s arm-cycling sprints interspersed with 150 s of rest in 2 separate experiments. In experiment A (n = 12), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the elbow flexors was measured at pre-sprint 1, post-sprint 5, and post-sprint 10. Participants received electrical motor point stimulation during and following the elbow flexor MVCs to estimate voluntary activation (VA). In experiment B (n = 7 participants from experiment A), supraspinal and spinal excitability of the biceps brachii were measured via transcranial magnetic and transmastoid electrical stimulation that produced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs), respectively, during a 5% isometric MVC at pre-sprint 1, post-sprint 1, post-sprint 5, and post-sprint 10. In experiment A, mean power output, MVC force, potentiated twitch force, and VA decreased 13.1% (p increased 40.1% (p = 0.038) from post-sprint 5 to post-sprint 10 and (ii) CMEPs increased 28.5% (p = 0.045) from post-sprint 1 to post-sprint 10. Overall, arm-cycling sprints caused neuromuscular fatigue of the elbow flexors, which corresponded with decreased supraspinal and increased spinal excitability of the biceps brachii. The different post-sprint effects on supraspinal and spinal excitability may illustrate an inhibitory effect on supraspinal drive that reduces motor output and, therefore, decreases arm-cycling sprint performance. PMID:26799694

  20. Central alterations of neuromuscular function and feedback from group III-IV muscle afferents following exhaustive high-intensity one-leg dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Angius, Luca; Hopker, James G; Lepers, Romuald; Marcora, Samuele M

    2015-06-15

    The aims of this investigation were to describe the central alterations of neuromuscular function induced by exhaustive high-intensity one-leg dynamic exercise (OLDE, study 1) and to indirectly quantify feedback from group III-IV muscle afferents via muscle occlusion (MO, study 2) in healthy adult male humans. We hypothesized that these central alterations and their recovery are associated with changes in afferent feedback. Both studies consisted of two time-to-exhaustion tests at 85% peak power output. In study 1, voluntary activation level (VAL), M-wave, cervicomedullary motor evoked potential (CMEP), motor evoked potential (MEP), and MEP cortical silent period (CSP) of the knee extensor muscles were measured. In study 2, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and leg muscle pain were measured during MO. Measurements were performed preexercise, at exhaustion, and after 3 min recovery. Compared with preexercise values, VAL was lower at exhaustion (-13 ± 13%, P < 0.05) and after 3 min of recovery (-6 ± 6%, P = 0.05). CMEP area/M area was lower at exhaustion (-38 ± 13%, P < 0.01) and recovered after 3 min. MEP area/M area was higher at exhaustion (+25 ± 27%, P < 0.01) and after 3 min of recovery (+17 ± 20%, P < 0.01). CSP was higher (+19 ± 9%, P < 0.01) only at exhaustion and recovered after 3 min. Markers of afferent feedback (MAP and leg muscle pain during MO) were significantly higher only at exhaustion. These findings suggest that the alterations in spinal excitability and CSP induced by high-intensity OLDE are associated with an increase in afferent feedback at exhaustion, whereas central fatigue does not fully recover even when significant afferent feedback is no longer present. PMID:25855308

  1. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt: braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhagen Evert ALM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. Methods/Design This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. Discussion The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive

  2. Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation to Drive Neural Plasticity and Functional Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C.; Gallego, J.A.; Miller, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that appropriately timed neuromuscular stimulation can induce neural plasticity and generate functional recovery from motor disorders. This review addresses the idea that coordinating stimulation with a patient’s voluntary effort might further enhance neurorehabilitation. Studies in cell cultures and behaving animals have delineated the rules underlying neural plasticity when single neurons are used as triggers. However, the rules governing more complex stimuli and larger networks are less well understood. We argue that functional recovery might be optimized if stimulation were modulated by a brain machine interface, to matched the details of the patient’s voluntary intent. The potential of this novel approach highlights the need for a better understanding of the complex rules underlying this form of plasticity. PMID:25827275

  3. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: 'SCOPEX', a randomised control trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V;

    2012-01-01

    to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have...

  4. The effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint motor control during sidecutting in female elite soccer and handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    and 8 female elite team handball players aged 26 +/- 3 years at the start of the study. INTERVENTION: The subjects participated in a specific neuromuscular training program previously shown to reduce non-contact ACL injury. METHODS: Neuromuscular activity at the knee joint, joint angles at the hip and...

  5. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation combined with effortful swallowing on post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-S; Oh, D-H; Hwang, N-K; Lee, J-H

    2016-06-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used as a therapeutic intervention for dysphagia. However, the therapeutic effects of NMES lack supporting evidence. In recent years, NMES combined with traditional swallowing therapy has been used to improve functional recovery in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. This study aimed to investigate the effects of effortful swallowing combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on hyoid bone movement and swallowing function in stroke patients. Fifty stroke patients with mild dysphagia who were able to swallow against the resistance applied by using NMES and cooperate actively in training were included. This study was designed as a 6-week single-blind, randomised, controlled study. In the experimental group, two pairs of electrodes were placed horizontally in the infrahyoid region to depress the hyoid bone. The NMES intensity was increased gradually until the participants felt a grabbing sensation in their neck and performed an effortful swallow during the stimulation. In the placebo group, the same procedure was followed except for the intensity, which was increased gradually until the participants felt an electrical sensation. All participants underwent this intervention for 30 min per session, 5 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) were carried out before and after the intervention and kinematics of the hyoid bone and swallowing function were analysed based on the VFSS. The experimental group revealed a significant increase in anterior and superior hyoid bone movement and the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing function. This intervention can be used as a novel remedial approach in dysphagic stroke patients. PMID:26969528

  6. “Warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture alters acetylcholine receptor expression in the neuromuscular junction of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-peng; Pan, Hong; Wang, Hong-feng

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. “Warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following “warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10), Zusanli (ST36), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23) once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that “warming yang and invigorating qi” acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. PMID:27127487

  7. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture alters acetylcholine receptor expression in the neuromuscular junction of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Peng; Pan, Hong; Wang, Hong-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10), Zusanli (ST36), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23) once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. PMID:27127487

  8. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture alters acetylcholine receptor expression in the neuromuscular junction of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-peng Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10, Zusanli (ST36, Pishu (BL20, and Shenshu (BL23 once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

  9. Effects of home-based resistance training and neuromuscular electrical stimulation in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce-Brand Robert A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM weakness is a feature of knee osteoarthritis (OA and exercise programs that strengthen this muscle group can improve function, disability and pain. Traditional supervised resistance exercise is however resource intensive and dependent on good adherence which can be challenging to achieve in patients with significant knee OA. Because of the limitations of traditional exercise programs, interest has been shown in the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES to strengthen the QFM. We conducted a single-blind, prospective randomized controlled study to compare the effects of home-based resistance training (RT and NMES on patients with moderate to severe knee OA. Methods 41 patients aged 55 to 75 years were randomised to 6 week programs of RT, NMES or a control group receiving standard care. The primary outcome was functional capacity measured using a walk test, stair climb test and chair rise test. Additional outcomes were self-reported disability, quadriceps strength and cross-sectional area. Outcomes were assessed pre- and post-intervention and at 6 weeks post-intervention (weeks 1, 8 and 14 respectively. Results There were similar, significant improvements in functional capacity for the RT and NMES groups at week 8 compared to week 1 (p≤0.001 and compared to the control group (p  Conclusions Home-based NMES is an acceptable alternative to exercise therapy in the management of knee OA, producing similar improvements in functional capacity. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN85231954

  10. Changes in Balance Strategy and Neuromuscular Control during a Fatiguing Balance Task-A Study in Perturbed Unilateral Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Freyler, Kathrin; Werkhausen, Amelie; Gollhofer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue impairs sensorimotor performance, reduces spinal reflexes and affects the interaction of antagonistic muscles in complex motor tasks. Although there is literature dealing with the interference of fatigue and postural control, the interpretation is confounded by the variety of paradigms used to study it. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of postural fatigue on balance control and strategy, as well as on neuromuscular modulation, in response to postural perturbation (PERT) during a fatiguing balance task. A fatigue protocol consisting of continuous exposure to perturbations until exhaustion was executed in 24 subjects. Number of failed attempts, paths of center of pressure displacement (COP), ankle, knee, and hip joint kinematics, electromyographic activity of the soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), and gluteus maximus muscles (GM) and spinal excitability of SOL at the peak of the short-latency responses (SLR) were recorded after posterior PERT. The co-contraction index (CCI) was calculated for TA_SOL, VL_BF and RF_GM. (1) The number of failed attempts significantly increased while COP amplitude and velocity, as well as angular excursion at the ankle, knee and hip joints, decreased with fatigue (P < 0.05). (2) Concomitantly, CCI of SOL_TA, VL_BF and RF_GM increased and spinal excitability in SOL declined. (3) Adaptations progressively augmented with progressing exhaustion and occurred in the distal prior to proximal segment. Distinctly deteriorated balance ability was accompanied by a modified neuromuscular control-the increase in co-contraction reflected by simultaneously activated antagonists is accompanied by smaller knee and hip joint excursions, indicating an elevated level of articular stiffness. These changes may be associated with an exaggerated postural rigidity and could have caused the delayed and reduced postural reactions that are reflected in the changes in COP

  11. Changes in Balance Strategy and Neuromuscular Control during a Fatiguing Balance Task—A Study in Perturbed Unilateral Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Freyler, Kathrin; Werkhausen, Amelie; Gollhofer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue impairs sensorimotor performance, reduces spinal reflexes and affects the interaction of antagonistic muscles in complex motor tasks. Although there is literature dealing with the interference of fatigue and postural control, the interpretation is confounded by the variety of paradigms used to study it. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of postural fatigue on balance control and strategy, as well as on neuromuscular modulation, in response to postural perturbation (PERT) during a fatiguing balance task. A fatigue protocol consisting of continuous exposure to perturbations until exhaustion was executed in 24 subjects. Number of failed attempts, paths of center of pressure displacement (COP), ankle, knee, and hip joint kinematics, electromyographic activity of the soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), and gluteus maximus muscles (GM) and spinal excitability of SOL at the peak of the short-latency responses (SLR) were recorded after posterior PERT. The co-contraction index (CCI) was calculated for TA_SOL, VL_BF and RF_GM. (1) The number of failed attempts significantly increased while COP amplitude and velocity, as well as angular excursion at the ankle, knee and hip joints, decreased with fatigue (P < 0.05). (2) Concomitantly, CCI of SOL_TA, VL_BF and RF_GM increased and spinal excitability in SOL declined. (3) Adaptations progressively augmented with progressing exhaustion and occurred in the distal prior to proximal segment. Distinctly deteriorated balance ability was accompanied by a modified neuromuscular control—the increase in co-contraction reflected by simultaneously activated antagonists is accompanied by smaller knee and hip joint excursions, indicating an elevated level of articular stiffness. These changes may be associated with an exaggerated postural rigidity and could have caused the delayed and reduced postural reactions that are reflected in the changes in COP

  12. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: ‘SCOPEX’ a randomised control trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Michelle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meniscectomy is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial joint loading a likely contributor to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in this group. Therefore, post-surgical rehabilitation or interventions that reduce medial knee joint loading have the potential to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have recently undergone a partial medial meniscectomy. Methods/design 62 people aged 30–50 years who have undergone an arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy within the previous 3 to 12 months will be recruited and randomly assigned to a neuromuscular exercise or control group using concealed allocation. The neuromuscular exercise group will attend 8 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and will perform 6 exercises at home, at least 3 times per week for 12 weeks. The control group will not receive the neuromuscular training program. Blinded assessment will be performed at baseline and immediately following the 12-week intervention. The primary outcomes are change in the peak external knee adduction moment measured by 3-dimensional analysis during normal paced walking and one-leg rise. Secondary outcomes include the change in peak external knee adduction moment during fast pace walking and one-leg hop and change in the knee adduction moment impulse during walking, one-leg rise and one-leg hop, knee and hip muscle strength, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, objective measures of physical function, as well as self-reported measures of physical function and symptoms and additional biomechanical parameters. Discussion The findings from this trial will provide evidence regarding the effect of a home

  13. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  14. Effect of upper extremity proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with elastic resistance bands on respiratory muscle strength: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme P. T. Areas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elastic resistance bands (ERB combined with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF are often used in resistance muscle training programs, which have potential effects on peripheral muscle strength. However, the effects of the combination of ERB and PNF on respiratory muscle strength warrant further investigation. OBJECTIVES: The assessment of the effects of PNF combined with ERB on respiratory muscle strength. METHOD: Twenty healthy, right-handed females were included. Subjects were randomized to either the resistance training program group (TG, n=10 or the control group (CG, n=10. Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP and inspiratory pressure (MIP were measured before and after four weeks of an upper extremity resistance training program. The training protocol consisted of upper extremity PNF combined with ERB, with resistance selected from 1 repetition maximum protocol. RESULTS: PNF combined with ERB showed significant increases in MIP and MEP (p<0.05. In addition, there were significant differences between the TG and CG regarding ∆MIP (p=0.01 and ∆MEP (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: PNF combined with ERB can have a positive impact on respiratory muscle strength. These results may be useful with respect to cardiopulmonary chronic diseases that are associated with reduced respiratory muscle strength.

  15. Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation Controlled by Surface Electromyographic Signals Produced by Volitional Activation of the Same Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Søren; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Andersen, Ole Trier; Hansen, Steffen Duus

    1997-01-01

    In order to use the volitional electromyography (EMG) as a control signal for the stimulation of the same muscle, it is necessary to eliminate the stimulation artifacts and the muscle responses caused by the stimulation. The stimulation artifacts, caused by the electric field in skin and tissue g...

  16. A technique for sequential segmental neuromuscular stimulation with closed loop feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonnevijlle, Erik D H; Abadia, Gustavo Perez; Somia, Naveen N; Kon, Moshe; Barker, John H; Koenig, Steven; Ewert, D L; Stremel, Richard W

    2002-01-01

    In dynamic myoplasty, dysfunctional muscle is assisted or replaced with skeletal muscle from a donor site. Electrical stimulation is commonly used to train and animate the skeletal muscle to perform its new task. Due to simultaneous tetanic contractions of the entire myoplasty, muscles are deprived of perfusion and fatigue rapidly, causing long-term problems such as excessive scarring and muscle ischemia. Sequential stimulation contracts part of the muscle while other parts rest, thus significantly improving blood perfusion. However, the muscle still fatigues. In this article, we report a test of the feasibility of using closed-loop control to economize the contractions of the sequentially stimulated myoplasty. A simple stimulation algorithm was developed and tested on a sequentially stimulated neo-sphincter designed from a canine gracilis muscle. Pressure generated in the lumen of the myoplasty neo-sphincter was used as feedback to regulate the stimulation signal via three control parameters, thereby optimizing the performance of the myoplasty. Additionally, we investigated and compared the efficiency of amplitude and frequency modulation techniques. Closed-loop feedback enabled us to maintain target pressures within 10% deviation using amplitude modulation and optimized control parameters (correction frequency = 4 Hz, correction threshold = 4%, and transition time = 0.3 s). The large-scale stimulation/feedback setup was unfit for chronic experimentation, but can be used as a blueprint for a small-scale version to unveil the theoretical benefits of closed-loop control in chronic experimentation. PMID:12028619

  17. Low vitamin D levels in healthy controls and patients with autoimmune neuromuscular disorders in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroni, Elisabeth; Dimisianos, Nikolaos; Punga, Anna Rostedt

    2016-03-01

    Normal autoimmune function is dependent on adequate levels of activated vitamin D, 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D]. A recent study presented deficiency of 25(OH)D levels in Swedish MG patients. We aimed to study 25(OH)D levels in patients with MG and autoimmune polyneuropathies (PNP) at a southern latitude in Greece. Plasma levels of 25(OH)D were analyzed in Greek patients with MG (n = 19), immune-mediated PNP (N = 11) and in 30 Greek healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Ten MG patients received supplementation with vitamin D3. The MG Composite Score (MGC) and MG quality of life assessed disease severity in MG patients, whereas the INCAT Disability Scale assessed clinical features in the PNP patients. MG patients with and without vitamin D3 supplementation had higher 25(OH)D levels (mean 58.8 ± 16.3 and 62.0 ± 22.4 nmol/L, respectively) than PNP patients (mean 42.1 ± 11.5 nmol/L, p = 0.01) and healthy controls (mean 45.7 ± 13.8 nmol/L, p = 0.01). Plasma 25(OH)D levels was lower with age in all groups. There were no correlations between 25(OH)D and disease duration, MGC score, or INCAT score. Vitamin D deficiency was found in all Greek patient groups and healthy controls. Levels of 25(OH)D were higher in MG patients with as well as without vitamin D supplementation compared to healthy controls, whereas CIDP/GBS patients had levels similar to controls. PMID:26183131

  18. Load Dependency of Postural Control - Kinematic and Neuromuscular Changes in Response to over and under Load Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Freyler, Kathrin; Weltin, Elmar; Krause, Anne; Gollhofer, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Load variation is associated with changes in joint torque and compensatory reflex activation and thus, has a considerable impact on balance control. Previous studies dealing with over (OL) and under loading (UL) used water buoyancy or additional weight with the side effects of increased friction and inertia, resulting in substantially modified test paradigms. The purpose of this study was to identify gravity-induced load dependency of postural control in comparable experimental conditions and to determine the underlying neuromuscular mechanisms. Methods Balance performance was recorded under normal loading (NL, 1g), UL (0.16g; 0.38g) and OL (1.8g) in monopedal stance. Center of pressure (COP) displacement and frequency distribution (low 0.15-0.5Hz (LF), medium 0.5-2Hz (MF), high 2-6Hz (HF)) as well as ankle, knee and hip joint kinematics were assessed. Soleus spinal excitability was determined by H/M-recruitment curves (H/M-ratios). Results Compared to NL, OL caused an increase in ankle joint excursion, COP HF domain and H/M-ratio. Concomitantly, hip joint excursion and COP LF decreased. Compared to NL, UL caused modulations in the opposite direction: UL decreased ankle joint excursions, COP HF and H/M-ratio. Collaterally, hip joint excursion and COP LF increased. COP was augmented both in UL and in OL compared to NL. Conclusion Subjects achieved postural stability in OL and UL with greater difficulty compared to NL. Reduced postural control was accompanied by modified balance strategies and compensatory reflex activation. With increasing load, a shift from hip to ankle strategy was observed. Accompanying, COP frequency distribution shifted from LF to HF and spinal excitability was enhanced. It is suggested that in OL, augmented ankle joint torques are compensated by quick reflex-induced postural reactions in distal muscles. Contrarily, UL is associated with diminished joint torques and thus, postural equilibrium may be controlled by the proximal

  19. EEG controlled neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the upper limb for stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hock Guan; Shee, Cheng Yap; Kong, Keng He; Guan, Cuntai; Ang, Wei Tech

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system and the experiments to allow post-acute (Aided by visual feedback, subjects then trained to regulate their mu-rhythm EEG to operate the BCI to trigger NMES of the wrist/finger. 6 post-acute stroke patients successfully completed the training, with 4 able to learn to control and use the BCI to initiate NMES. This result is consistent with the reported BCI literacy rate of healthy subjects. Thereafter, without the loss of generality, the controller of the NMES is developed and is based on a model of the upper limb muscle (biceps/triceps) groups to determine the intensity of NMES required to flex or extend the forearm by a specific angle. The muscle model is based on a phenomenological approach, with parameters that are easily measured and conveniently implemented.

  20. A device for investigating neuromuscular control in the human masticatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, K S; Brinkworth, R S A; Abolfathi, P; Linke, I R; Nazeran, H

    2004-07-30

    A new apparatus has been developed to study the control of mastication in humans. The subject places his/her teeth on fixed upper and mobile lower bite plates; the device then enables opening and closing movements of the lower jaw against a controlled resistance. It is also possible to vary the number of teeth in contact with the device during an experiment from the entire dental arcade to a single tooth. The specially designed lower bite plate is dynamic and allows for both rotation and translation of the lower jaw during movement, thus, permitting the natural curvilinear trajectory of the jaw. The lower bite plate can follow chewing initiated by the subject without resisting the movement ('no force' mode) via a dedicated microprocessor controlled compensation mechanism. Another function of the device is to inject a constant predetermined load onto the lower bite plate so that the subject 'chews' against a fixed resistance simulating rapidly yielding food bolus ('fixed force' mode). The device can be programmed to increase or decrease the force during the closing or opening phase of chewing by feeding the position information into the force compensation system so both position and force change in parallel, hence, simulating a bite onto a non-yielding, or sticky, food bolus ('normal chewing' mode). By use of a jaw position compensation mechanism, the device can actively move the lower jaw, following any imposed position pattern ('position controlled' mode). The chewing simulator also has a mode that holds the position at a fixed level and allows the force to change ('position hold' mode). Furthermore, the device can inject additional rapid or slow forces or displacements onto the lower bite plate in order to elicit reflexes so that the response of jaw muscles to such stimuli can be examined at various jaw positions, force levels, phases of motion and velocities. The different modes of the apparatus can be used to study the operation and feedback control of human

  1. Genetics and Neuromuscular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dermatomyositis Inclusion-body myositis Diseases of Neuromuscular Junction Myasthenia gravis Lambert-Eaton (myasthenic) syndrome Congenital myasthenic syndromes Diseases of Peripheral Nerve Charcot-Marie- ...

  2. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennell Kim L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. Methods/Design 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis, pain, and self

  3. The Effects of Plyometric Type Neuromuscular Training on Postural Control Performance of Male Team Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity. PMID:25563677

  4. Doenças neuromusculares Neuromuscular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Umbertina C. Reed

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo: apresentar os dados essenciais para o diagnóstico diferencial entre as principais doenças neuromusculares, denominação genérica sob a qual agrupam-se diferentes afecções, decorrentes do acometimento primário da unidade motora (motoneurônio medular, raiz nervosa, nervo periférico, junção mioneural e músculo). Fontes dos dados: os aspectos clínicos fundamentais para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial entre as diferentes doenças neuromusculares, bem como entre estas e as causas de h...

  5. Feedback Control of arm movements using Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES combined with a lockable, passive exoskeleton for gravity compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eKlauer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the European project MUNDUS, an assistive framework was developed for the support of arm and hand functions during daily life activities in severely impaired people. Potential users of this system are patients with high-level spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative neuromuscular diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich ataxia, and multiple sclerosis. This contribution aims at designing a feedback control system for Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES to enable reaching functions in people with no residual voluntary control of the arm due to upper motor neuron lesions after spinal cord injury. NMES is applied to the deltoids and the biceps muscles and integrated with a three degrees of freedom (DoFs passive exoskeleton, which partially compensates gravitational forces and allows to lock each DOF. The user is able to choose the target hand position and to trigger actions using an eyetracker system. The target position is selected by using the eyetracker and determined by a marker-based tracking system using Microsoft Kinect. A central controller, i.e. a finite state machine, issues a sequence of basic movement commands to the real-time arm controller. The NMES control algorithm sequentially controls each joint angle while locking the other DoFs. Daily activities, such as drinking, brushing hair, pushing an alarm button, etc., can be supported by the system. The robust and easily tunable control approach was evaluated with five healthy subjects during a drinking task. Subjects were asked to remain passive and to allow NMES to induce the movements. In all of them, the controller was able to perform the task, and a mean hand positioning error of less than five centimeters was achieved. The average total time duration for moving the hand from a rest position to a drinking cup, for moving the cup to the mouth and back, and for finally returning the arm to the rest position was 71 seconds.

  6. Doenças neuromusculares Neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbertina C. Reed

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os dados essenciais para o diagnóstico diferencial entre as principais doenças neuromusculares, denominação genérica sob a qual agrupam-se diferentes afecções, decorrentes do acometimento primário da unidade motora (motoneurônio medular, raiz nervosa, nervo periférico, junção mioneural e músculo. Fontes dos dados: os aspectos clínicos fundamentais para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial entre as diferentes doenças neuromusculares, bem como entre estas e as causas de hipotonia muscular secundária ao comprometimento do sistema nervoso central ou a doenças sistêmicas não-neurológicas, são enfatizados, com base na experiência clínica vinda do atendimento a crianças com doenças neuromusculares durante os últimos 12 anos, no ambulatório de doenças neuromusculares do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina, da Universidade de São Paulo. A revisão bibliográfica foi efetuada através do Medline e do periódico Neuromuscular Disorders, publicação oficial da World Muscle Society. Síntese dos dados: nas crianças, a maior parte destas afecções é geneticamente determinada, sendo as mais comuns a distrofia muscular progressiva ligada ao sexo, de Duchenne, a amiotrofia espinal infantil, a distrofia muscular congênita, a distrofia miotônica de Steinert, e as miopatias congênitas, estruturais e não estruturais. Polineuropatias hereditárias, síndrome miastênica congênita e miopatias metabólicas são menos comuns, porém mostram correlação geno-fenotípica cada vez mais precisa. Conclusões: na década passada, inúmeros avanços da genética molecular facilitaram imensamente o diagnóstico e o aconselhamento genético das doenças neuromusculares mais comuns das crianças, inclusive possibilitando diagnóstico fetal e, adicionalmente, vieram permitir melhor caracterização fenotípica e classificação mais objetiva.Objective: to discuss the most important aspects for performing a

  7. Neuromuscular complications in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisold, W; Grisold, A; Löscher, W N

    2016-08-15

    Cancer is becoming a treatable and even often curable disease. The neuromuscular system can be affected by direct tumor invasion or metastasis, neuroendocrine, metabolic, dysimmune/inflammatory, infections and toxic as well as paraneoplastic conditions. Due to the nature of cancer treatment, which frequently is based on a DNA damaging mechanism, treatment related toxic side effects are frequent and the correct identification of the causative mechanism is necessary to initiate the proper treatment. The peripheral nervous system is conventionally divided into nerve roots, the proximal nerves and plexus, the peripheral nerves (mono- and polyneuropathies), the site of neuromuscular transmission and muscle. This review is based on the anatomic distribution of the peripheral nervous system, divided into cranial nerves (CN), motor neuron (MND), nerve roots, plexus, peripheral nerve, the neuromuscular junction and muscle. The various etiologies of neuromuscular complications - neoplastic, surgical and mechanic, toxic, metabolic, endocrine, and paraneoplastic/immune - are discussed separately for each part of the peripheral nervous system. PMID:27423586

  8. Bracing superior to neuromuscular training for the prevention of self-reported recurrent ankle sprains: a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Kasper W.; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2014-01-01

    Background Ankle sprain is the most common sports-related injury with a high rate of recurrence and associated costs. Recent studies have emphasised the effectiveness of both neuromuscular training and bracing for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of combined bracing and neuromuscular training, or bracing alone, against the use of neuromuscular training on recurrences of ankle sprain after usual care. Methods 384 athletes, aged 18–70, who had sustain...

  9. Hereditary neuromuscular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezsarlak, O. E-mail: ozkan.ozsarlak@uza.be; Schepens, E.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W. van; Vanhoenacker, F.; Schepper, A.M. de; Martin, J.J

    2001-12-01

    This article presents the actual classification of neuromuscular diseases based on present expansion of our knowledge and understanding due to genetic developments. It summarizes the genetic and clinical presentations of each disorder together with CT findings, which we studied in a large group of patients with neuromuscular diseases. The muscular dystrophies as the largest and most common group of hereditary muscle diseases will be highlighted by giving detailed information about the role of CT and MRI in the differential diagnosis. The radiological features of neuromuscular diseases are atrophy, hypertrophy, pseudohypertrophy and fatty infiltration of muscles on a selective basis. Although the patterns and distribution of involvement are characteristic in some of the diseases, the definition of the type of disease based on CT scan only is not always possible.

  10. Electrodiagnosis in neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Bethany M; Han, Jay J

    2012-08-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is an important diagnostic tool for the assessment of individuals with various neuromuscular diseases. It should be an extension of a thorough history and physical examination. Some prototypical characteristics and findings of EMG and nerve conduction studies are discussed; however, a more thorough discussion can be found in the textbooks and resources sited in the article. With an increase in molecular genetic diagnostics, EMG continues to play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with neuromuscular diseases and also provides a cost-effective diagnostic workup before ordering a battery of costly genetic tests. PMID:22938876

  11. Splicing therapy for neuromuscular disease ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew G. L. Douglas; Wood, Matthew J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are two of the most common inherited neuromuscular diseases in humans. Both conditions are fatal and no clinically available treatments are able to significantly alter disease course in either case. However, by manipulation of pre-mRNA splicing using antisense oligonucleotides, defective transcripts from the DMD gene and from the SMN2 gene in SMA can be modified to once again produce protein and restore function. A large numb...

  12. [Fatigue in neuromuscular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engelen, B G M; Kalkman, J S; Schillings, M L; Van Der Werf, S P; Bleijenberg, G; Zwarts, M J

    2004-07-01

    Chronic fatigue is a symptom of diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's and cerebrovascular disease. Fatigue can also be present in people with no demonstrable somatic disease. If certain criteria are met, chronic-fatigue syndrome may be diagnosed in these cases. Fatigue is a multi-dimensional concept with physiological and psychological dimensions. The 'Short Fatigue Questionnaire' consisting of 4 questions is a tool to measure fatigue with a high degree of reliability and validity. Within the group of neuromuscular disorders, fatigue has been reported by patients with post-polio syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The percentage of neuromuscular patients suffering from severe fatigue (64%) is comparable with that of patients with multiple sclerosis, a disease in which fatigue is an acknowledged symptom. Now that reliable psychological and clinical neurophysiological techniques are available, a multidisciplinary approach to fatigue in patients with well-defined neuromuscular disorders may contribute towards the elucidation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic fatigue, with the ultimate goal being to develop methods of treatment for fatigue in neuromuscular patients. PMID:15283024

  13. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Grindstaff, Terry L.; Hammill, Robert R; Tuzson, Ann E.; Hertel, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the numbers needed to treat (NNT) and relative risk reduction (RRR) associated with neuromuscular training programs aimed at preventing noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes.

  14. Effects of Tai Chi versus Proprioception Exercise Program on Neuromuscular Function of the Ankle in Elderly People: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Liu; Xue-Qiang Wang; Jie-Jiao Zheng; Yu-Jian Pan; Ying-Hui Hua; Shang-Min Zhao; Li-Yan Shen; Shuai Fan; Jiu-Gen Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Background. Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese medicine exercise used for improving neuromuscular function. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Tai Chi versus proprioception exercise program on neuromuscular function of the ankle in elderly people. Methods. Sixty elderly subjects were randomly allocated into three groups of 20 subjects per group. For 16 consecutive weeks, subjects participated in Tai Chi, proprioception exercise, or no structured exercise. Primary outcome measures in...

  15. [What are the effects of the aging of the neuromuscular system on postural stability?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattagni, Thomas; Scaglioni, Gil; Cornu, Christophe; Berrut, Gilles; Martin, Alain

    2015-12-01

    Aging is frequently associated with a decreased postural stability, essentially after 60 years, leading to an increased risk of falling. In this article we propose to highlight the influence of the aging of the neuromuscular system on postural stability when standing upright. To maintain balance while standing upright, human needs to control the activity of ankle muscles and particularly the plantar flexors. During the aging process, the performance of these muscles are strongly altered. It is commonly observed large deficits in elderly people with history of falls. Some authors reported an inverse correlation between the amplitude of postural sway and the capacity of force production of ankle muscles suggesting that the assessment of neuromuscular function could be an index of postural stability or even of the falling risk. Finally, enhance the strength of ankle muscles in elderly through physical exercise could be an adequate intervention to improve postural stability and reduce the incidence of falls. PMID:26707554

  16. Neuromuscular blockade in children Bloqueadores neuromusculares em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fernando Lourenço de Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs have been widely used to control patients who need to be immobilized for some kind of medical intervention, such as an invasive procedure or synchronism with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this monograph is to review the pharmacology of the NMBAs, to compare the main differences between the neuromuscular junction in neonates, infants, toddlers and adults, and moreover to discuss their indications in critically ill pediatric patients. Continuous improvement of knowledge about NMBAs pharmacology, adverse effects, and the many other remaining unanswered questions about neuromuscular junction and neuromuscular blockade in children is essential for the correct use of these drugs. Therefore, the indication of these agents in pediatrics is determined with extreme judiciousness. Computorized (Medline 1990-2000 and active search of articles were the mechanisms used in this review.Os bloqueadores neuromusculares têm sido amplamente utilizados para controlar pacientes que necessitem imobilidade para algum tipo de intervenção médica, desde a realização de procedimentos invasivos até a obtenção de sincronismo com a ventilação mecânica. O objetivo básico desta monografia é revisar a farmacologia dos principais bloqueadores neuromusculares, analisar as diferenças existentes na junção neuromuscular de neonatos, lactentes, pré-escolares e adultos, além de discutir suas indicações em pacientes criticamente enfermos internados em unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Revisão computadorizada da literatura (Medline 1990-2000 associado a busca ativa de artigos compuseram o mecanismo de busca dos dados desta revisão.

  17. Neuromuscular junctional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, A S; Ashraf, V V

    2008-07-01

    Neuromuscular junctional disorders (NMJ) in children are distinct entity. They may be acquired or hereditary. They pose problem in diagnosis because of the higher occurrence of sero negative Myasthenia Gravis (MG) cases in children. The identity of MusK antibody positivity in a good percentage of sero negative cases further adds to problems in diagnosis. The Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome (CMS) which are rare disorders of hereditary neuromuscular transmission (NMT) has to be differentiated because immunotherapy has no benefit in this group. Molecular genetic studies of these diseases helps to identify specific type of CMS which is important as other drugs like Fluoxetine, Quinidine are found to be effective in some. In infancy, all can manifest as floppy infant syndrome. The important key to diagnosis is by detailed electrophysiological studies including repetitive nerve stimulation at slow and high rates and its response to anticholinesterases and estimation of Acetyl choline receptor antibodies. Other causes of neuromuscular transmission defects viz. snake venom poisoning and that due to drugs are discussed. PMID:18716738

  18. The role of multisensor data fusion in neuromuscular control of a sagittal arm with a pair of muscles using actor-critic reinforcement learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkhou, V; Parnianpour, M; Lucas, C

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we consider the role of multisensor data fusion in neuromuscular control using an actor-critic reinforcement learning method. The model we use is a single link system actuated by a pair of muscles that are excited with alpha and gamma signals. Various physiological sensor information such as proprioception, spindle sensors, and Golgi tendon organs have been integrated to achieve an oscillatory movement with variable amplitude and frequency, while achieving a stable movement with minimum metabolic cost and coactivation. The system is highly nonlinear in all its physical and physiological attributes. Transmission delays are included in the afferent and efferent neural paths to account for a more accurate representation of the reflex loops. This paper proposes a reinforcement learning method with an Actor-Critic architecture instead of middle and low level of central nervous system (CNS). The Actor in this structure is a two layer feedforward neural network and the Critic is a model of the cerebellum. The Critic is trained by the State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA) method. The Critic will train the Actor by supervisory learning based on previous experiences. The reinforcement signal in SARSA is evaluated based on available alternatives concerning the concept of multisensor data fusion. The effectiveness and the biological plausibility of the present model are demonstrated by several simulations. The system showed excellent tracking capability when we integrated the available sensor information. Addition of a penalty for activation of muscles resulted in much lower muscle coactivation while keeping the movement stable. PMID:15671597

  19. Efflux Pump Control Alters Synthetic Gene Circuit Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Junchen; Charlebois, Daniel A; Nevozhay, Dmitry; Bódi, Zoltán; Pál, Csaba; Balázsi, Gábor

    2016-07-15

    Synthetic biology aims to design new biological systems for predefined purposes, such as the controlled secretion of biofuels, pharmaceuticals, or other chemicals. Synthetic gene circuits regulating an efflux pump from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family could achieve this. However, ABC efflux pumps can also drive out intracellular inducer molecules that control the gene circuits. This will introduce an implicit feedback that could alter gene circuit function in ways that are poorly understood. Here, we used two synthetic gene circuits inducible by tetracycline family molecules to regulate the expression of a yeast ABC pump (Pdr5p) that pumps out the inducer. Pdr5p altered the dose-responses of the original gene circuits substantially in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. While one aspect of the change could be attributed to the efflux pumping function of Pdr5p, another aspect remained unexplained. Quantitative modeling indicated that reduced regulator gene expression in addition to efflux pump function could fully explain the altered dose-responses. These predictions were validated experimentally. Overall, we highlight how efflux pumps can alter gene circuit dynamics and demonstrate the utility of mathematical modeling in understanding synthetic gene circuit function in new circumstances. PMID:27111147

  20. MRI in neuromuscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuromuscular disorders are caused by damage of the skeletal muscles or supplying nerves, in many cases due to a genetic defect, resulting in progressive disability, loss of ambulation and often a reduced life expectancy. Previously only supportive care and steroids were available as treatments, but several novel therapies are under development or in clinical trial phase. Muscle imaging can detect specific patterns of involvement and facilitate diagnosis and guide genetic testing. Quantitative MRT can be used to monitor disease progression either to monitor treatment or as a surrogate parameter for clinical trails. Novel imaging sequences can provide insights into disease pathology and muscle metabolism. (orig.)

  1. Limb neurovascular control during altered otolithic input in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin D.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    Head-down rotation (HDR), which activates the vestibulosympathetic reflex, increases leg muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and produces calf vasoconstriction with no change in either cardiac output or arterial blood pressure. Based on animal studies, it was hypothesized that differential control of arm and leg MSNA explains why HDR does not alter arterial blood pressure. Fifteen healthy subjects were studied. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, forearm and calf blood flow, and leg MSNA responses were measured during HDR in these subjects. Simultaneous recordings of arm and leg MSNA were obtained from five of the subjects. Forearm and calf blood flow, vascular conductances, and vascular resistances were similar before HDR, as were arm and leg MSNA. HDR elicited similar significant increases in leg (Delta 6 +/- 1 bursts min(-1); 59 +/- 16 % from baseline) and arm MSNA (Delta 5 +/- 1 bursts min(-1); 80 +/- 28 % from baseline). HDR significantly decreased calf (-19 +/- 2 %) and forearm vascular conductance (-12 +/- 2 %) and significantly increased calf (25 +/- 4 %) and forearm vascular resistance (15 +/- 2 %), with 60 % greater vasoconstriction in the calf than in the forearm. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were not altered by HDR. These results indicate that there is no differential control of MSNA in the arm and leg during altered feedback from the otolith organs in humans, but that greater vasoconstriction occurs in the calf than in the forearm. These findings indicate that vasodilatation occurs in other vascular bed(s) to account for the lack of increase in arterial blood pressure during HDR.

  2. Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation Controlled by Surface Electromyographic Signals Produced by the Volitional Activation of the Same Muscle:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Søren; Fin, Biering-Sørensen; Andersen, Ole Trier; Hansen, Steffen Duus

    1997-01-01

    Using the voluntary EMG as a control signal for the stimulation of the same muscle necessitates elimination of stimulus artifacts and the muscle response caused by the stimulation. The stimulus artifacts are easily eliminated by shutting down the amplifier during stimulation. The muscle response ...

  3. Plyometric type neuromuscular exercise is a treatment to postural control deficits of volleyball players: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Asadi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: It can be recommend that strength and conditioning professionals in the field of volleyball do not perform other type of landing exercise in plyometric training sessions because of postural control impaired and consequently the probability of lower extremity injuries will increase.

  4. Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation Controlled by Surface Electromyographic Signals Produced by the Volitional Activation of the Same Muscle:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Søren; Fin, Biering-Sørensen; Andersen, Ole Trier; Hansen, Steffen Duus

    1997-01-01

    Using the voluntary EMG as a control signal for the stimulation of the same muscle necessitates elimination of stimulus artifacts and the muscle response caused by the stimulation. The stimulus artifacts are easily eliminated by shutting down the amplifier during stimulation. The muscle response is...... a non-stationary signal, therefore an adaptive linear prediction filter is proposed. The filter is derived and tested for three filter lengths on both simulated and real data. The performance is compared with a conventional fixed comb filter. The simulations indicate that the adaptive filter is...... comparable with the background noise. It is thus possible to extract the voluntary EMG from a partly paralysed muscle and use it for controlling the stimulation of the same muscle....

  5. Splicing therapy for neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Andrew G L; Wood, Matthew J A

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are two of the most common inherited neuromuscular diseases in humans. Both conditions are fatal and no clinically available treatments are able to significantly alter disease course in either case. However, by manipulation of pre-mRNA splicing using antisense oligonucleotides, defective transcripts from the DMD gene and from the SMN2 gene in SMA can be modified to once again produce protein and restore function. A large number of in vitro and in vivo studies have validated the applicability of this approach and an increasing number of preliminary clinical trials have either been completed or are under way. Several different oligonucleotide chemistries can be used for this purpose and various strategies are being developed to facilitate increased delivery efficiency and prolonged therapeutic effect. As these novel therapeutic compounds start to enter the clinical arena, attention must also be drawn to the question of how best to facilitate the clinical development of such personalised genetic therapies and how best to implement their provision. PMID:23631896

  6. The Effect of Plyometric Training on Trunk Muscle Pre-activation in Active Females with Trunk Neuromuscular Control Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hadadnezhad

    2014-02-01

    Results: the results of independent sample T-test indicated that there are significant differences between post-test of control and experimental groups in regard to Gluteus Medius (p=0.021, Quadratus Lumborum (p=0.011, Transverse Abdominis/Internal oblique (p=0.006, External Oblique (p=0.023 muscles activations which reveals effectiveness of plyometric training on pre-activation of muscles. Conclusion: Based on the study results, plyometric training affects the activation of muscles and thus improving the pre-activation can prevent mechanisms related to anterior cruciate ligament injury. Therefore, plyometric training can reduce incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  7. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of patients with developing osteoarthritis is accompanied by a growing scientific interest in non-operative early treatment strategies. It is generally believed that laterally wedged insoles can change the distribution of knee loading. However, the importance of footwear...... three-dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analysed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full-length laterally wedged insole. Results: There were significant shoe wedge interactions on the first......: Lateral wedging is effective regardless of shoe design. Differences between the three neutral walking conditions underline the importance of footwear choice in individuals. It is safe to apply lateral wedges without jeopardising muscular control during walking regardless of shoe type. Possible effects of...

  8. Man-Machine Interface System for Neuromuscular Training and Evaluation Based on EMG and MMG Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Fernández; Albano Carrera; Ramon Durán; Ramon de la Rosa; Alonso Alonso

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System), a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is c...

  9. Effects of neuromuscular electrostimulation in patients with heart failure admitted to ward

    OpenAIRE

    de Araújo Carlos José Soares; Gonçalves Fernanda Souza; Bittencourt Hugo Souza; dos Santos Noélia Gonçalves; Junior Sérgio Vitor Mecca; Neves Júlio Leal Bandeira; Fernandes André Maurício Souza; Junior Roque Aras; dos Reis FranciscoJoséFariasBorges; Guimarães Armênio Costa; Junior ErenaldodeSouzaRodrigues; Carvalho Vitor Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Neuromuscular electrostimulation has become a promising issue in cardiovascular rehabilitation. However there are few articles published in the literature regarding neuromuscular electrostimulation in patients with heart failure during hospital stay. Methods This is a randomized controlled pilot trial that aimed to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrostimulation in the walked distance by the six-minute walking test in 30 patients admitted to ward for heart failu...

  10. Alterations of Eye Movement Control in Neurodegenerative Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gorges

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the fovea centralis, the most central part of the retina and the area of the highest visual accuracy, requires humans to shift their gaze rapidly (saccades to bring some object of interest within the visual field onto the fovea. In addition, humans are equipped with the ability to rotate the eye ball continuously in a highly predicting manner (smooth pursuit to hold a moving target steadily upon the retina. The functional deficits in neurodegenerative movement disorders (e.g., Parkinsonian syndromes involve the basal ganglia that are critical in all aspects of movement control. Moreover, neocortical structures, the cerebellum, and the midbrain may become affected by the pathological process. A broad spectrum of eye movement alterations may result, comprising smooth pursuit disturbance (e.g., interrupting saccades, saccadic dysfunction (e.g., hypometric saccades, and abnormal attempted fixation (e.g., pathological nystagmus and square wave jerks. On clinical grounds, videooculography is a sensitive noninvasive in vivo technique to classify oculomotion function alterations. Eye movements are a valuable window into the integrity of central nervous system structures and their changes in defined neurodegenerative conditions, that is, the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem together with their directly activating supranuclear centers and the basal ganglia as well as cortical areas of higher cognitive control of attention.

  11. Neuromuscular Ultrasound of Cranial Nerves

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, Eman A.; Walker, Francis O.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few re...

  12. Effects of evidence-based prevention training on neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in adolescent female athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K.; Andersen, Lars L.; Brandt, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent female football and handball players are among the athletes with the highest risk of sustaining anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. AIM: This study evaluated the effects of evidence-based lower extremity injury prevention training on neuromuscular and biomechanical...... risk factors for non-contact ACL injury. METHODS: 40 adolescent female football and handball players (15-16 years) were randomly allocated to a control group (CON, n=20) or neuromuscular training group (NMT, n=20). The NMT group performed an injury prevention programme as a warm-up before their usual....... CONCLUSIONS: A 12-week injury prevention programme in addition to training and match play in adolescent females altered the pattern of agonist-antagonist muscle preactivity during side cutting. This may represent a more ACL-protective motor strategy....

  13. Altered baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance during simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Vernikos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Reflex peripheral vasoconstriction induced by activation of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors in response to reduced central venous pressure (CVP) is a basic mechanism for elevating systemic vascular resistance and defending arterial blood pressure during orthostatically-induced reductions in cardiac filling and output. The sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex response [defined as the slope of the relationship between changes in forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and CVP] and the resultant vasoconstriction are closely and inversely associated with the amount of circulating blood volume. Thus, a high-gain FVR response will be elicited by a hypovolemic state. Exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in reduced plasma volume. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the FVR response to cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading would be accentuated following adaptation to microgravity. Such data could provide better insight about the physiological mechanisms underlying alterations in blood pressure control following spaceflight. We therefore exposed eleven men to 6 degrees head-down bedrest for 7 days and measured specific hemodynamic responses to low levels of the lower body negative pressure to determine if there are alterations in cardiopulmonary baroreceptor stimulus-FVR reflex response relationship during prolonged exposure to an analog of microgravity.

  14. Effects of carbohydrates-BCAAs-caffeine ingestion on performance and neuromuscular function during a 2-h treadmill run: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Sébastien L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrates (CHOs, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and caffeine are known to improve running performance. However, no information is available on the effects of a combination of these ingredients on performance and neuromuscular function during running. Methods The present study was designed as a randomized double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled trial. Thirteen trained adult males completed two protocols, each including two conditions: placebo (PLA and Sports Drink (SPD: CHOs 68.6 g.L-1, BCAAs 4 g.L-1, caffeine 75 mg.L-1. Protocol 1 consisted of an all-out 2 h treadmill run. Total distance run and glycemia were measured. In protocol 2, subjects exercised for 2 h at 95% of their lowest average speeds recorded during protocol 1 (whatever the condition. Glycemia, blood lactate concentration and neuromuscular function were determined immediately before and after exercise. Oxygen consumption (V˙O2, heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded during the exercise. Total fluids ingested were 2 L whatever the protocols and conditions. Results Compared to PLA, ingestion of SPD increased running performance (p = 0.01, maintained glycemia and attenuated central fatigue (p = 0.04, an index of peripheral fatigue (p = 0.04 and RPE (p = 0.006. Maximal voluntary contraction, V˙O2, and HR did not differ between the two conditions. Conclusions This study showed that ingestion of a combination of CHOs, BCAAs and caffeine increased performance by about 2% during a 2-h treadmill run. The results of neuromuscular function were contrasted: no clear cut effects of SPD were observed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00799630

  15. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  16. Degeneration of Neuromuscular Junction in Age and Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger eRudolf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional denervation is a hallmark of aging sarcopenia as well as of muscular dystrophy. It is thought to be a major factor reducing skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the case of sarcopenia. Neuromuscular junctions serve as the interface between the nervous and skeletal muscular systems, and thus they may receive pathophysiological input of both pre- and postsynaptic origin. Consequently, neuromuscular junctions are good indicators of motor health on a systemic level. Indeed, upon sarcopenia and dystrophy, neuromuscular junctions morphologically deteriorate and exhibit altered characteristics of primary signaling molecules, such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and agrin. Since a remarkable reversibility of these changes can be observed by exercise, there is significant interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic deterioration upon aging and dystrophy and how synapses are reset by the aforementioned treatments. Here, we review the literature that describes the phenomena observed at the neuromuscular junction in sarcopenic and dystrophic muscle as well as to how these alterations can be reversed and to what extent. In a second part, the current information about molecular machineries underlying these processes is reported.

  17. Neuromuscular disruption with ultrashort electrical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Andrei; Kolb, Juergen F.; Joshi, Ravindra P.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Dayton, Thomas; Comeaux, James; Ashmore, John; Beason, Charles

    2006-05-01

    Experimental studies on single cells have shown that application of pulsed voltages, with submicrosecond pulse duration and an electric field on the order of 10 kV/cm, causes sudden alterations in the intracellular free calcium concentration, followed by immobilization of the cell. In order to examine electrical stimulation and incapacitation with such ultrashort pulses, experiments on anesthetized rats have been performed. The effect of single, 450 nanosecond monopolar pulses have been compared with that of single pulses with multi-microsecond duration (TASER pulses). Two conditions were explored: 1. the ability to elicit a muscle twitch, and, 2. the ability to suppress voluntary movement by using nanosecond pulses. The second condition is relevant for neuromuscular incapacitation. The preliminary results indicate that for stimulation microsecond pulses are advantageous over nanosecond pulses, whereas for incapacitation, the opposite seems to apply. The stimulation effects seem to scale with electrical charge, whereas the disruption effects don't follow a simple scaling law. The increase in intensity (time of incapacitation) for a given pulse duration, is increasing with electrical energy, but is more efficient for nanosecond than for microsecond pulses. This indicates different cellular mechanisms for incapacitation, most likely subcellular processes, which have been shown to become increasingly important when the pulse duration is shortened into the nanosecond range. If further studies can confirm these initial results, consequences of reduced pulse duration are a reduction in weight and volume of the pulse delivery system, and likely, because of the lower required energy for neuromuscular incapacitation, reduced safety risks.

  18. Neuromuscular Exercise Post Partial Medial Meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a 12-week, home-based, physiotherapist-guided neuromuscular exercise program on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral knee load distribution) in people with a medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the past 3-12 months. METHODS...... or a control group with no exercise. The exercise program included eight individual sessions with one of seven physiotherapists in private clinics, together with home exercises. Primary outcomes were the peak external knee adduction moment during normal pace walking and during a one-leg sit-to-stand. Secondary...

  19. Dengue-associated neuromuscular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Kumar Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evolving course; benign nature; excellent response to potassium; and, often leads to diagnostic confusion with other dengue-associated neuromuscular disorders. Rhabdomyolysis is the most severe form of muscle involvement and may be life-threatening. Guillain-Barrι syndrome is another frequent neuromuscular dengue-associated complication. Dengue-associated Guillain-Barrι syndrome responds very well to intravenous immunoglobulins. Predominant spinal gray matter involvement has been reported in a patient presenting with areflexic paraparesis. Mononeuropathies often manifest with paralysis of the diaphragm due to phrenic nerve dysfunction. Brachial plexopathy, in the form of neuralgic amyotrophy, has been described much more frequently than lumbo-sacral plexopathy. Early recognition of these neuromuscular complications is needed for successful treatment and to prevent further disabilities.

  20. Dengue-associated neuromuscular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Jain, Amita; Malhotra, Kiran Preet

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evolving course; benign nature; excellent response to potassium; and, often leads to diagnostic confusion with other dengue-associated neuromuscular disorders. Rhabdomyolysis is the most severe form of muscle involvement and may be life-threatening. Guillain-Barrι syndrome is another frequent neuromuscular dengue-associated complication. Dengue-associated Guillain-Barrι syndrome responds very well to intravenous immunoglobulins. Predominant spinal gray matter involvement has been reported in a patient presenting with areflexic paraparesis. Mononeuropathies often manifest with paralysis of the diaphragm due to phrenic nerve dysfunction. Brachial plexopathy, in the form of neuralgic amyotrophy, has been described much more frequently than lumbo-sacral plexopathy. Early recognition of these neuromuscular complications is needed for successful treatment and to prevent further disabilities. PMID:26238884

  1. Neuromuscular activity and knee kinematics in adolescents with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, Jens L.;

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the neuromuscular control of the knee during stair descent among female adolescents with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and to report its association with self-reported clinical status assessed by the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)....

  2. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Improves Breathing-Swallowing Interaction of Ventilator Dependent Neuromuscular Patients: A Prospective Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Marine Garguilo; Michèle Lejaille; Isabelle Vaugier; David Orlikowski; Nicolas Terzi; Frédéric Lofaso; Hélène Prigent

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory involvement in neuromuscular disorders may contribute to impaired breathing-swallowing interactions, swallowing disorders and malnutrition. We investigated whether the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) controlled by the patient could improve swallowing performances in a population of neuromuscular patients requiring daytime NIV. Methods Ten neuromuscular patients with severe respiratory failure requiring extensive NIV use were studied while swallowing without and wi...

  3. Diaphragm Unloading via Controlled Mechanical Ventilation Alters the Gene Expression Profile

    OpenAIRE

    DeRuisseau, Keith C.; Shanely, R Andrew; Akunuri, Nagabhavani; Hamilton, Marc T.; Van Gammeren, Darin; Zergeroglu, A. Murat; McKenzie, Michael; Powers, Scott K.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation results in diaphragmatic inactivity and promotes oxidative injury, atrophy, and contractile dysfunction in this important inspiratory muscle. However, the impact of controlled mechanical ventilation on global mRNA alterations in the diaphragm remains unknown.

  4. Neuromuscular dressing effects: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calero PA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The kinesio taping is a technique that was created in 1979 by Doctor Kenzo Kase I’m looking through it that could generate a new therapeutic option to control pain, improve athletic performance and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal disorders. From the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, this technique as a therapeutic alternative PTO and is composed of health professionals in the field of sport and physical rehabilitation.Objetive: This article aims to identify theoretical approaches on the bandage neuromuscular. Material and methods: held today, for which conducted a literature search of databases such as como Proquest, Ovid, Cochraine, PEDro, Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical, Sciencedirect, Pubmed y Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs.The paper proposes a scheme of contextualization of the current landscape of the use and effects of kinesio taping in the management of different pathologies of the musculo-skeletal system in sports. Conclusion: it is concluded that currently many health professionals, and take the neuromuscular bandage a good therapeutic option in the management of diseases affecting the human body is investigated and every day more about the subject, which makes these new therapeutic methods to acquire a scientific value and transcends knowledge.

  5. Dengue-associated neuromuscular complications

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Kumar Garg; Hardeep Singh Malhotra; Amita Jain; Kiran Preet Malhotra

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evo...

  6. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect of a......Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor in...... neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  7. The clinical examination for neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Eric N; Kent, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Neuromuscular disease can present even the most astute clinician with a challenging diagnostic dilemma. This article focuses on the neuroanatomy and the historical, physical, and neurologic examination findings observed in many of the neuromuscular disorders affecting dogs and cats. In addition, some common laboratory tests and imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease, including routine radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, are discussed. A brief discussion of sensory nerve disorders is also presented. PMID:11785724

  8. Wrist range of motion and motion frequency during toy and game play with a joint-specific controller specially designed to provide neuromuscular therapy: A proof of concept study in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany; Brideau, Holly; Basseches, Benjamin; Kerman, Karen

    2015-08-20

    Upper extremities affected by hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromuscular disorders have been demonstrated to benefit from therapy, and the greater the duration of the therapy, the greater the benefit. A great motivator for participating in and extending the duration of therapy with children is play. Our focus is on active motion therapy of the wrist and forearm. In this study we examine the wrist motions associated with playing with two toys and three computer games controlled by a specially-designed play controller. Twenty children (ages 5-11) with no diagnosis of a muscular disorder were recruited. The play controller was fitted to the wrist and forearm of each child and used to measure and log wrist flexion and extension. Play activity and enjoyment were quantified by average wrist range of motion (ROM), motion frequency measures, and a discrete visual scale. We found significant differences in the average wrist ROM and motion frequency among the toys and games, yet there were no differences in the level of enjoyment across all toys and games, which was high. These findings indicate which toys and games may elicit the greater number of goal-directed movements, and lay the foundation for our long-term goal to develop and evaluate innovative motion-specific play controllers that are engaging rehabilitative devices for enhancing therapy and promoting neural plasticity and functional recovery in children with CP. PMID:25935686

  9. Musculoskeletal complications of neuromuscular disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Sherilyn W; Skinner, Joline

    2008-02-01

    A wide variety of neuromuscular diseases affect children, including central nervous system disorders such as cerebral palsy and spinal cord injury; motor neuron disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy; peripheral nerve disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; neuromuscular junction disorders such as congenital myasthenia gravis; and muscle fiber disorders such as Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. Although the origins and clinical syndromes vary significantly, outcomes related to musculoskeletal complications are often shared. The most frequently encountered musculoskeletal complications of neuromuscular disorders in children are scoliosis, bony rotational deformities, and hip dysplasia. Management is often challenging to those who work with children who have neuromuscular disorders. PMID:18194756

  10. Neuromuscular Risk Factors for Knee and Ankle Ligament Injuries in Male Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2016-08-01

    Injuries reported in male youth soccer players most commonly occur in the lower extremities, and include a high proportion of ligament sprains at the ankle and knee with a lower proportion of overuse injuries. There is currently a paucity of available literature that examines age- and sex-specific injury risk factors for such injuries within youth soccer players. Epidemiological data have reported movements that lead to non-contact ligament injury include running, twisting and turning, over-reaching and landing. Altered neuromuscular control during these actions has been suggested as a key mechanism in females and adult populations; however, data available in male soccer players is sparse. The focus of this article is to review the available literature and elucidate prevalent risk factors pertaining to male youth soccer players which may contribute to their relative risk of injury. PMID:26856339

  11. Impaired Axonal Na(+) Current by Hindlimb Unloading: Implication for Disuse Neuromuscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzrai, Chimeglkham; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Higashi, Saki; Okada, Ryo; Mori, Atsuko; Shimatani, Yoshimitsu; Osaki, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the excitability changes in peripheral motor axons caused by hindlimb unloading (HLU), which is a model of disuse neuromuscular atrophy. HLU was performed in normal 8-week-old male mice by fixing the proximal tail by a clip connected to the top of the animal's cage for 3 weeks. Axonal excitability studies were performed by stimulating the sciatic nerve at the ankle and recording the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) from the foot. The amplitudes of the motor responses of the unloading group were 51% of the control amplitudes [2.2 ± 1.3 mV (HLU) vs. 4.3 ± 1.2 mV (Control), P = 0.03]. Multiple axonal excitability analysis showed that the unloading group had a smaller strength-duration time constant (SDTC) and late subexcitability (recovery cycle) than the controls [0.075 ± 0.01 (HLU) vs. 0.12 ± 0.01 (Control), P < 0.01; 5.4 ± 1.0 (HLU) vs. 10.0 ± 1.3 % (Control), P = 0.01, respectively]. Three weeks after releasing from HLU, the SDTC became comparable to the control range. Using a modeling study, the observed differences in the waveforms could be explained by reduced persistent Na(+) currents along with parameters related to current leakage. Quantification of RNA of a SCA1A gene coding a voltage-gated Na(+) channel tended to be decreased in the sciatic nerve in HLU. The present study suggested that axonal ion currents are altered in vivo by HLU. It is still undetermined whether the dysfunctional axonal ion currents have any pathogenicity on neuromuscular atrophy or are the results of neural plasticity by atrophy. PMID:26909041

  12. Computed tomography of muscles in neuromuscular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    137 patients with neuromuscular diseases were studied by CT scan. Four levels were chosen: mid-calf, mid-thigh, pelvic girdle, and spinal muscles. The scans were compared with normal control scans taken from the same sites. The patients were divided into those with myogenic diseases and those with neurogenic diseases. Of the 102 patients with myogenic changes, 17 had X-linked dystrophy, 13 had facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy, 22 had limb girdle dystrophy, 19 had myotonic dystrophy, 14 had inflammatory muscle diseases, and 17 had miscellaneous muscular diseases. Of the 35 patients with neurogenic changes, 8 had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 16 had chronic spinal amyotrophies, 9 had peripheral neuropathies, and 2 had Friedreich's disease. The analysis of muscles changes (volume, outline, density) was established on the following muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus, soleus, gastrocnemius mediale, gastrocnemius laterale, quadriceps, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, sartorius, adductor, gracilis, gluteus, spine extensors, and psoas

  13. Integrated Insect Control May Alter Pesticide Use Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of predators, parasites, bacteria, viruses, hormones, pheromones, and sterile-male release and insect-resistance imparting techniques in pest control. Concludes with comments from chemical pesticide companies as popular attitudes toward the integrated pest management. (CC)

  14. Animal models for genetic neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainzof, Mariz; Ayub-Guerrieri, Danielle; Onofre, Paula C G; Martins, Poliana C M; Lopes, Vanessa F; Zilberztajn, Dinorah; Maia, Lucas S; Sell, Karen; Yamamoto, Lydia U

    2008-03-01

    The neuromuscular disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, caused by mutations in genes coding sarcolemmal, sarcomeric, and citosolic muscle proteins. Deficiencies or loss of function of these proteins leads to variable degree of progressive loss of motor ability. Several animal models, manifesting phenotypes observed in neuromuscular diseases, have been identified in nature or generated in laboratory. These models generally present physiological alterations observed in human patients and can be used as important tools for genetic, clinic, and histopathological studies. The mdx mouse is the most widely used animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although it is a good genetic and biochemical model, presenting total deficiency of the protein dystrophin in the muscle, this mouse is not useful for clinical trials because of its very mild phenotype. The canine golden retriever MD model represents a more clinically similar model of DMD due to its larger size and significant muscle weakness. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle MD forms models include the SJL/J mice, which develop a spontaneous myopathy resulting from a mutation in the Dysferlin gene, being a model for LGMD2B. For the human sarcoglycanopahties (SG), the BIO14.6 hamster is the spontaneous animal model for delta-SG deficiency, whereas some canine models with deficiency of SG proteins have also been identified. More recently, using the homologous recombination technique in embryonic stem cell, several mouse models have been developed with null mutations in each one of the four SG genes. All sarcoglycan-null animals display a progressive muscular dystrophy of variable severity and share the property of a significant secondary reduction in the expression of the other members of the sarcoglycan subcomplex and other components of the Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mouse models for congenital MD include the dy/dy (dystrophia-muscularis) mouse and the allelic mutant dy(2J)/dy(2J) mouse

  15. Reactive Balance Control in Response to Perturbation in Unilateral Stance: Interaction Effects of Direction, Displacement and Velocity on Compensatory Neuromuscular and Kinematic Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Freyler

    Full Text Available Unexpected sudden perturbations challenge postural equilibrium and require reactive compensation. This study aimed to assess interaction effects of the direction, displacement and velocity of perturbations on electromyographic (EMG activity, centre of pressure (COP displacement and joint kinematics to detect neuromuscular characteristics (phasic and segmental and kinematic strategies of compensatory reactions in an unilateral balance paradigm. In 20 subjects, COP displacement and velocity, ankle, knee and hip joint excursions and EMG during short (SLR, medium (MLR and long latency response (LLR of four shank and five thigh muscles were analysed during random surface translations varying in direction (anterior-posterior (sagittal plane, medial-lateral (frontal plane, displacement (2 vs. 3 cm and velocity (0.11 vs. 0.18 m/s of perturbation when balancing on one leg on a movable platform. Phases: SLR and MLR were scaled to increased velocity (P<0.05; LLR was scaled to increased displacement (P<0.05. Segments: phasic interrelationships were accompanied by segmental distinctions: distal muscles were used for fast compensation in SLR (P<0.05 and proximal muscles to stabilise in LLR (P<0.05. Kinematics: ankle joints compensated for both increasing displacement and velocity in all directions (P<0.05, whereas knee joint deflections were particularly sensitive to increasing displacement in the sagittal (P<0.05 and hip joint deflections to increasing velocity in the frontal plane (P<0.05. COP measures increased with increasing perturbation velocity and displacement (P<0.05. Interaction effects indicate that compensatory responses are based on complex processes, including different postural strategies characterised by phasic and segmental specifications, precisely adjusted to the type of balance disturbance. To regain balance after surface translation, muscles of the distal segment govern the quick regain of equilibrium; the muscles of the proximal limb

  16. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cherian, Ajith; Baheti, Neeraj N.; Iype, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS). SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability i...

  17. Diagnostic NGS for Severe Neuromuscular Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Dhamija; Chelsea Chambers

    2015-01-01

    Investigators from the University of Western Australia report the diagnostic yield of performing next generation sequencing (NGS; whole exome and targeted capture of 277 neuromuscular genes) in a heterogenous cohort of patients with neuromuscular disorders (NMD) presenting at or before birth.

  18. Common complications of pediatric neuromuscular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalsky, Andrew J; Dalal, Pritha B

    2015-02-01

    Children with pediatric neuromuscular disorders experience common complications, primarily due to immobility and weakness. Musculoskeletal complications include hip dysplasia with associated hip subluxation or dislocation, neuromuscular scoliosis, and osteoporosis and resulting fractures. Constipation, gastroesophageal reflux, and obesity and malnutrition are commonly experienced gastrointestinal complications. Disordered sleep also is frequently observed, which affects both patients and caregivers. PMID:25479776

  19. Diagnostic NGS for Severe Neuromuscular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Dhamija

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the University of Western Australia report the diagnostic yield of performing next generation sequencing (NGS; whole exome and targeted capture of 277 neuromuscular genes in a heterogenous cohort of patients with neuromuscular disorders (NMD presenting at or before birth.

  20. Tidal circulation alteration for salt marsh mosquito control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resh, Vincent H.; Balling, Steven S.

    1983-01-01

    Mosquito control ditches designed to increase tidal circulation are widely used as a physical control alternative to insecticidal applications The impact of such ditching on Pacific Coast marshlands was largely unknown before this five-year study of impact in two types of San Francisco Bay salt marshes, a Salicornia virginica (pickleweed) monoculure and a mixed vegetation marsh Results of our studies suggest that ditches cause less environmental disturbance than insecticidal applications The article describes the following environmental consequences of ditching for mosquito control: increased tidal flushing of soils occurs adjacent to ditches compared with that in the open marsh, thereby reducing ground water and soil surface salinities and water table height; primary productivity of S. virginica, as determined by both the harvest method and infrared photographic analysis, is higher directly adjacent to ditches than in the open marsh, distribution of selected arthropod populations is similar at ditches and natural channels, although arthropod community response differs seasonally; aquatic invertebrate biomass is similar within ditched and natural ponds, but diversity is lower in ditched habitats, ditching increases fish diversity and density by improving fish access from tidal channels; ditches provide additional salt marsh song sparrow habitat, although ditches are less preferred than natural channels or sloughs. Management criteria can be used to design ditches that provide effective mosquito control and reduced environmental impact

  1. Combined heat and mental stress alters neurovascular control in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Jenna C.; Crandall, Craig G.; Matthew Brothers, R.; Carter, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of combined heat and mental stress on neurovascular control. We hypothesized that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and forearm vascular responses to mental stress would be augmented during heat stress. Thirteen subjects performed 5 min of mental stress during normothermia (Tcore; 37 ± 0°C) and heat stress (38 ± 0°C). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), MSNA, forearm vascular conductance (FVC; venous occlusion plethysmography), and forearm skin vasc...

  2. LRP4 Is Critical for Neuromuscular Junction Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Barik, Arnab; Lu, Yisheng; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Bowman, Andrew; Shen, Chengyong; Li, Lei(Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing, 102617, People's Republic of China); Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers, and is critical for control of muscle contraction. Its formation requires neuronal agrin that acts by binding to LRP4 to stimulate MuSK. Mutations have been identified in agrin, MuSK, and LRP4 in patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome, and patients with myasthenia gravis develop antibodies against agrin, LRP4, and MuSK. However, it remains unclear whether the agrin signaling pathway is critic...

  3. The effects of Duvernoy's gland secretion from the xenodontine colubrid Philodryas olfersii on striated muscle and the neuromuscular junction: partial characterization of a neuromuscular fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Franceschi, J; Hyslop, S; Cogo, J C; Andrade, A L; Assakura, M; Cruz-Höfling, M A; Rodrigues-Simioni, L

    1996-04-01

    The effect of Philodryas olfersii Duvernoy's secretion was studied in vivo in mice and chicks as well as in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm and the chick biventer cervicis preparations. The whole secretion (20-40 micrograms/ml) increased the creatine kinase (CK) levels in mice but had no effect on the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. In the chick, the secretion caused head drop and paresia as well as irreversible blockade of the twitch-tension evoked by indirect stimulation in the chick biventer cervicis preparation (50% paralysis in 34.5 +/- 2.7 min, n = 4). The secretion also caused muscle contracture (30% of the maximal twitch-tension generated) after a latency of nearly 9 min. Following fractionation on a Superose 12 FPLC column, the neuromuscular activity was recovered in the high mol. wt fraction (Peak I). At a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml in the chick biventer cervicis preparation, Peak I caused 50% paralysis within 18.5 +/- 3.0 min (n = 4), and evoked a strong contracture (70% of the maximal twitch-tension generated). The contractile responses of the chick preparation to ACh and KCL were partially blocked (90%) by the whole secretion and totally blocked by Peak I. CK release was increased by the whole secretion but not by Peak I. The whole secretion also produced various degrees of muscle cell lysis and extensive widening of the intercellular spaces. The latter showed a loosely arranged membranous network. In general, Peak I caused only minor morphological alterations compared with the whole secretion, although these were still significantly different from those observed in the control preparations. The changes principally involved hypercontraction of the muscle fibers. Based on the above results, we conclude that Peak I contains the factor(s) responsible for the in vitro effects on neuromuscular transmission, whereas the direct myotoxic effect is apparently caused by at least one other component of the Duvernoy's secretion. PMID:8735245

  4. Obesity and upper airway control during sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Alan R.; Patil, Susheel P.; Squier, Samuel; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P.; Smith, Philip L

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms linking obesity with upper airway dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea are reviewed. Obstructive sleep apnea is due to alterations in upper airway anatomy and neuromuscular control. Upper airway structural alterations in obesity are related to adipose deposition around the pharynx, which can increase its collapsibility or critical pressure (Pcrit). In addition, obesity and, particularly, central adiposity lead to reductions in resting lung volume, resulting in loss of caudal trac...

  5. Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation in neuromuscular scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzolla, Andrea; Solarino, G; De Giorgi, S; Mori, C M; Moretti, L; De Giorgi, G

    2011-05-01

    The study design is retrospective. The aim is to describe our experience about the treatment of patients with neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) using Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation. Neuromuscular scoliosis are difficult deformities to treat. A careful assessment and an understanding of the primary disease and its prognosis are essential for planning treatment which is aimed at maximizing function. These patients may have pelvic obliquity, dislocation of the hip, limited balance or ability to sit, back pain, and, in some cases, a serious decrease in pulmonary function. Spinal deformity is difficult to control with a brace, and it may progress even after skeletal maturity has been reached. Surgery is the main stay of treatment for selected patients. The goals of surgery are to correct the deformity producing a balanced spine with a level pelvis and a solid spinal fusion to prevent or delay secondary respiratory complications. The instrumented spinal fusion (ISF) with second-generation instrumentation (e.g., Luque-Galveston and unit rod constructs), are until 1990s considered the gold standard surgical technique for neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS). Still in 2008 Tsirikos et al. said that "the Unit rod instrumentation is a common standard technique and the primary instrumentation system for the treatment of pediatric patients with cerebral palsy and neuromuscular scoliosis because it is simple to use, it is considerably less expensive than most other systems, and can achieve good deformity correction with a low loss of correction, as well as a low prevalence of associated complications and a low reoperation rate." In spite of the Cotrel-Dubousset (CD) surgical technique, used since the beginning of the mid 1980s, being already considered the highest level achieved in correction of scoliosis by a posterior approach, Teli et al., in 2006, said that reports are lacking on the results of third-generation instrumentation for the treatment of NMS. Patients with neuromuscular

  6. Neuromuscular Highlights-AAN 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Zahid; Saperstein, David; Jackson, Carolyn; Newman, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    Summary of Neuromuscular Presentations at the 57 Annual AAN 2005 meeting in Miami Florida on topics of Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Diabetic Neuropathy, Charco Marie Tooth disease (CMT), Comparison of injected steroids versus Surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome, Rituximab in Anti-MAG associated polyneuropathy, Cannabis based medicine (CBM) in the treatment of neuropathic pain, utility of skin biopsy with intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) in sensory complaints, comparing sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) and skin biopsy in diagnosing small fiber sensory neuropathy, Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) clinical and electrophysiologic predictors, affect of limb warming in mild ulnar nerve conduction study (NCS) abnormalities, Tamoxifen affect in ALS, open label study of 3,4 DAP, Pyridostigmine and Ephedrine in fast channel syndrome, Mexilitine as an antimyotonia treatment in myotonic dystrophy (DM1), frontal lobe impairment evaluation in DM1 and DM2 patients and phenotype-genotype correlation in patients with dysferlinopathy. PMID:19078809

  7. Theory of multichannel magnetic stimulation: toward functional neuromuscular rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen, J; Ravazzani, P; Grandori, F; Ilmoniemi, R J

    1999-06-01

    Human excitable cells can be stimulated noninvasively with externally applied time-varying electromagnetic fields. The stimulation can be achieved either by directly driving current into the tissue (electrical stimulation) or by means of electro-magnetic induction (magnetic stimulation). While the electrical stimulation of the peripheral neuromuscular system has many beneficial applications, peripheral magnetic stimulation has so far only a few. This paper analyzes theoretically the use of multiple magnetic stimulation coils to better control the excitation and also to eventually mimic electrical stimulation. Multiple coils allow electronic spatial adjustment of the shape and location of the stimulus without moving the coils. The new properties may enable unforeseen uses for peripheral magnetic stimulation, e.g., in rehabilitation of patients with neuromuscular impairment. PMID:10356871

  8. Evaluation of neuromuscular activity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea using chin surface electromyography of polysomnography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Guo-ping; YE Jing-ying; HAN De-min; WANG Xiao-yi; ZHANG Yu-huan; LI Yan-ru

    2013-01-01

    Background It is believed that defects in upper airway neuromuscular control play a role in sleep apnea pathogenesis.Currently,there is no simple and non-invasive method for evaluating neuromuscular activity for the purpose of screening in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.This study was designed to assess the validity of chin surface electromyography of routine polysomnography in evaluating the neuromuscular activity of obstructive sleep apnea subjects and probe the neuromuscular contribution in the pathogenesis of the condition.Methods The chin surface electromyography of routine polysomnography during normal breathing and obstructive apnea were quantified in 36 male patients with obstructive sleep apnea.The change of chin surface electromyography from normal breathing to obstructive apnea was expressed as the percent compensated electromyography value,where the percent compensated electromyography value =(normal breath surface electromyography-apnea surface electromyography)/normal breath surface electromyography,and the percent compensated electromyography values among subjects were compared.The relationship between sleep apnea related parameters and the percent compensated electromyography value was examined.Results The percent compensated electromyography value of the subjects varied from 1% to 90% and had a significant positive correlation with apnea hypopnea index (R2=0.382,P <0.001).Conclusions Recording and analyzing chin surface electromyography by routine polysomnography is a valid way of screening the neuromuscular activity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.The neuromuscular contribution is different among subjects with obstructive sleep apnea.

  9. Human neuromuscular structure and function in old age: A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Geoffrey A.; Dalton, Brian H.; Rice, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Natural adult aging is associated with many functional impairments of the human neuromuscular system. One of the more observable alterations is the loss of contractile muscle mass, termed sarcopenia. The loss of muscle mass occurs primarily due to a progressive loss of viable motor units, and accompanying atrophy of remaining muscle fibers. Not only does the loss of muscle mass contribute to impaired function in old age, but alterations in fiber type and myosin heavy chain isoform expression ...

  10. Tracheal intubation without neuromuscular block in children

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Safiya I; Bellagali, Vijayalaxmi P

    2010-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation has been performed during the administration of Propofol anaesthesia without neuromuscular blockade. In the study, we have assessed tracheal intubating conditions and haemodynamic responses in children aged 4 to12 years by using combination of either Fentanyl and Propofol; or Propofol and a neuromuscular blocker, suxamethonium. Intubating conditions were assessed on a 1-4 scale based on ease of laryngoscopy, position of vocal cords, degree of coughing and jaw relaxatio...

  11. Pelvic fixation for neuromuscular scoliosis deformity correction

    OpenAIRE

    Dayer, Romain; Ouellet, Jean Albert; Saran, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic fixation is most frequently indicated in the pediatric population for the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis with significant pelvic obliquity. Neuromuscular scoliosis surgery is associated with a high risk of complications, and this is further increased by extension of fusion to the sacrum. Numerous techniques have been described for pelvic fixation associated with a long spine fusion each with its own set of specific benefits and risks. This article reviews the contemporary surgica...

  12. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Skeletal Muscle Function

    OpenAIRE

    Doucet, Barbara M.; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical ...

  13. [Molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of neuromuscular junction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Osamu; Yamanashi, Yuji

    2011-07-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. The contraction of skeletal muscle is controlled by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), which is released from the motor nerve terminal. To achieve efficient neuromuscular transmission, acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) must be densely clustered on the muscle membrane of the NMJ. Failure of AChR clustering is associated with disorders of neuromuscular transmission such as congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) and myasthenia gravis (MG). Motoneuronal agrin and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) are known to play essential roles in the formation and maintenance of NMJs in the central region of each muscle. However, it had been unclear how agrin activates MuSK. Recent studies have elucidated the roles of several key molecules, including the cytoplasmic adaptor protein Dok-7 and LDL receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4), in agrin-induced MuSK activation. Moreover, new evidence indicates that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) regulates postsynaptic differentiation. In this review, we summarize the latest developments in molecular mechanisms underlying NMJ formation in vertebrates. PMID:21747134

  14. Presynaptic elements involved in the maintenance of the neuromuscular junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    Alterations in the neuromuscular junction were observed in rats preceding loss of muscle mass. In view of the possibility that these alterations involve changes in the secretion of myotrophic agents by presynaptic motor neurons, an investigation was undertaken to characterize a neuronall factor which is thought to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of cholinergic synapses. This factor, which is secreted into the incubation medium by NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells, induces the aggregation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on primary cultures of rat hindlimb myotubes. Previous attempts to purify this factor failed. Extensive washing of the NG108-15 cells with hepes-buffered salt solution followed by short (4 hour) collection times resulted in the collection of incubation medium containing maximal aggregation activity with as little as 5 ug secreted protein per ml of fresh medium. A three-fold increase in specific activity was obtained after anion exchange chromatography.

  15. Neuromuscular patterns of stereotypic hindlimb behaviors in the first two postnatal months. III. Scratching and the paw-shake response in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, N S; Smith, J L

    1988-01-01

    Neuromuscular patterns of scratching and the paw-shake response were studied in normal kittens from birth to postnatal day 60. Onset of both behaviors coincided with the development of secure weight-bearing posture and occurred on postnatal day 21 for scratching and postnatal day 26 for paw shaking. At onset, cycle periods for scratching (5-6 Hz) and paw shaking (8-10 Hz) were similar to that for adult cats, and EMG patterns were adult-like. The scratch cycle consisted of reciprocal flexor and extensor bursts of equal duration, while the shake cycle consisted of coactive knee extensor and ankle flexor bursts alternately active with ankle extensor bursts. The lack of scratching and paw shaking during the first 3 postnatal weeks and the adult-like EMG patterns at onset are consistent with the hypothesis that pattern-generating circuits within lumbosacral segments are available early in development but inhibited by the rostral neuraxis until postural control is sufficient to accommodate the response. To eliminate rostral inputs, including descending input critical for postural control, kittens were spinalized at the T12 level, and onset of paw shaking was accelerated. In kittens spinalized at birth, paw-shake onset occurred on postnatal day 14, while in kittens spinalized on postnatal day 14, onset occurred 48 h after spinalization. In all spinal kittens, however, knee extensor activity was disrupted and not normal by postnatal day 60. Mature neuromuscular patterns for scratching and paw shaking are available at onset of the behavior during normal development. Spinalization hastens the onset of paw shaking but the normal neuromuscular synergy is disrupted as well as the temporal structure of the multi-cycle response. Disruptions following spinalization may be due to altered development of spinal pattern generators or aberrant feedback from atypical hindlimb motions due to a retardation of hindlimb growth and an alteration of muscle contractile properties in spinal

  16. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  17. Neuromuscular control of the point to point and oscillatory movements of a sagittal arm with the actor-critic reinforcement learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkhou, Vahid; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Lucas, Caro

    2005-04-01

    In this study, we have used a single link system with a pair of muscles that are excited with alpha and gamma signals to achieve both point to point and oscillatory movements with variable amplitude and frequency.The system is highly nonlinear in all its physical and physiological attributes. The major physiological characteristics of this system are simultaneous activation of a pair of nonlinear muscle-like-actuators for control purposes, existence of nonlinear spindle-like sensors and Golgi tendon organ-like sensor, actions of gravity and external loading. Transmission delays are included in the afferent and efferent neural paths to account for a more accurate representation of the reflex loops.A reinforcement learning method with an actor-critic (AC) architecture instead of middle and low level of central nervous system (CNS), is used to track a desired trajectory. The actor in this structure is a two layer feedforward neural network and the critic is a model of the cerebellum. The critic is trained by state-action-reward-state-action (SARSA) method. The critic will train the actor by supervisory learning based on the prior experiences. Simulation studies of oscillatory movements based on the proposed algorithm demonstrate excellent tracking capability and after 280 epochs the RMS error for position and velocity profiles were 0.02, 0.04 rad and rad/s, respectively. PMID:16154874

  18. Effects of neuromuscular electrostimulation in patients with heart failure admitted to ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Araújo Carlos José Soares

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuromuscular electrostimulation has become a promising issue in cardiovascular rehabilitation. However there are few articles published in the literature regarding neuromuscular electrostimulation in patients with heart failure during hospital stay. Methods This is a randomized controlled pilot trial that aimed to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrostimulation in the walked distance by the six-minute walking test in 30 patients admitted to ward for heart failure treatment in a tertiary cardiology hospital. Patients in the intervention group performed a conventional rehabilitation and neuromuscular electrostimulation. Patients underwent 60 minutes of electrostimulation (wave frequency was 20 Hz, pulse duration of 20 us two times a day for consecutive days until hospital discharge. Results The walked distance in the six-minute walking test improved 75% in the electrostimulation group (from 379.7 ± 43.5 to 372.9 ± 46.9 meters to controls and from 372.9 ± 62.4 to 500 ± 68 meters to electrostimulation, p Conclusion The neuromuscular electrostimulation group showed greater improvement in the walked distance in the six-minute walking test in patients admitted to ward for compensation of heart failure.

  19. Employment profiles in neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, W M; Abresch, R T; Koch, T R; Brewer, M L; Bowden, R K; Wanlass, R L

    1997-01-01

    Consumer and rehabilitation provider factors that might limit employment opportunities for 154 individuals with six slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases (NMD) were investigated. The NMDs were spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), hereditary motor sensory neuropathy (HMSN), Becker's muscular dystrophy (BMD), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD), and limb-girdle syndrome (LGS). Forty percent were employed in the competitive labor market at the time of the study, 50% had been employed in the past, and 10% had never been employed. The major consumer barrier to employment was education. Other important factors were type of occupation, intellectual capacity, psychosocial adjustment, and the belief by most individuals that their physical disability was the only or major barrier to obtaining a job. Psychological characteristics were associated with level of unemployment. However, physical impairment and disability were not associated with level of unemployment. There also were differences among the types of NMDs. Compared with the SMA, HMSN, BMD, and FSHD groups, the MMD and LGS groups had significantly higher levels of unemployment, lower educational levels, and fewer employed professional, management, and technical workers. Nonphysical impairment factors such as a low percentage of college graduates, impaired intellectual function in some individuals, and poor psychological adjustment were correlated with higher unemployment levels in the MMD group. Unemployment in the LGS group was correlated with a failure to complete high school. Major provider barriers to employment were the low level of referrals to Department of Rehabilitation by physicians and the low percentage of acceptance into the State Department of Rehabilitation. The low rate of acceptance was primarily attributable to the low number of referrals compounded by a lack of counselor experience with individuals with NMD. Both consumer and provider barriers may

  20. Protein defects in neuromuscular diseases

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    Vainzof M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetically determined progressive disorders of the muscle with a primary or predominant involvement of the pelvic or shoulder girdle musculature. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from severe congenital forms with rapid progression to milder forms with later onset and a slower course. In recent years, several proteins from the sarcolemmal muscle membrane (dystrophin, sarcoglycans, dysferlin, caveolin-3, from the extracellular matrix (alpha2-laminin, collagen VI, from the sarcomere (telethonin, myotilin, titin, nebulin, from the muscle cytosol (calpain 3, TRIM32, from the nucleus (emerin, lamin A/C, survival motor neuron protein, and from the glycosylation pathway (fukutin, fukutin-related protein have been identified. Mutations in their respective genes are responsible for different forms of neuromuscular diseases. Protein analysis using Western blotting or immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies is of the utmost importance for the differential diagnosis and elucidation of the physiopathology of each genetic disorder involved. Recent molecular studies have shown clinical inter- and intra-familial variability in several genetic disorders highlighting the importance of other factors in determining phenotypic expression and the role of possible modifying genes and protein interactions. Developmental studies can help elucidate the mechanism of normal muscle formation and thus muscle regeneration. In the last fifteen years, our research has focused on muscle protein expression, localization and possible interactions in patients affected by different forms of muscular dystrophies. The main objective of this review is to summarize the most recent findings in the field and our own contribution.

  1. Tracheal intubation without neuromuscular block in children

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    Safiya I Shaikh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation has been performed during the administration of Propofol anaesthesia without neuromuscular blockade. In the study, we have assessed tracheal intubating conditions and haemodynamic responses in children aged 4 to12 years by using combination of either Fentanyl and Propofol; or Propofol and a neuromuscular blocker, suxamethonium. Intubating conditions were assessed on a 1-4 scale based on ease of laryngoscopy, position of vocal cords, degree of coughing and jaw relaxation. Tracheal intubation was successful in 95% of patients receiving Fentanyl-Propofol and 100% of patients receiving Propofol-suxamethonium. Fentanyl-Propofol provided better haemodynamic stability than Propofol-suxamethonium. We conclude that Propofol-Fentanyl combination could be a useful alternative technique for tracheal intubation when neuromuscular blocking drugs are contraindicated or need to be avoided.

  2. Research highlights of partial neuromuscular disorders

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    Cheng ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the latest progression on neuromuscular disorders for clinicians, this review screened and systemized the papers on neuromuscular disorders which were collected by PubMed from January 2013 to February 2014. This review also introduced the clinical diagnosis and treatment hightlights on glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ (GSD Ⅱ, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. The important references will be useful for clinicians. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.004

  3. Regulation and restoration of motoneuronal synaptic transmission during neuromuscular regeneration in the pulmonate snail Helisoma trivolvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M B; Szabo-Maas, T M; Poyer, J C; Zoran, M J

    2011-08-01

    Regeneration of motor systems involves reestablishment of central control networks, reinnervation of muscle targets by motoneurons, and reconnection of neuromodulatory circuits. Still, how these processes are integrated as motor function is restored during regeneration remains ill defined. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying motoneuronal regeneration of neuromuscular synapses related to feeding movements in the pulmonate snail Helisoma trivolvis. Neurons B19 and B110, although activated during different phases of the feeding pattern, innervate similar sets of muscles. However, the percentage of muscle fibers innervated, the efficacy of excitatory junction potentials, and the strength of muscle contractions were different for each cell's specific connections. After peripheral nerve crush, a sequence of transient electrical and chemical connections formed centrally within the buccal ganglia. Neuromuscular synapse regeneration involved a three-phase process: the emergence of spontaneous synaptic transmission (P1), the acquisition of evoked potentials of weak efficacy (P2), and the establishment of functional reinnervation (P3). Differential synaptic efficacy at muscle contacts was recapitulated in cell culture. Differences in motoneuronal presynaptic properties (i.e., quantal content) were the basis of disparate neuromuscular synapse function, suggesting a role for retrograde target influences. We propose a homeostatic model of molluscan motor system regeneration. This model has three restoration events: (1) transient central synaptogenesis during axonal outgrowth, (2) intermotoneuronal inhibitory synaptogenesis during initial neuromuscular synapse formation, and (3) target-dependent regulation of neuromuscular junction formation. PMID:21876114

  4. Mitochondrial control region alterations and breast cancer risk: a study in South Indian population.

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    Nageswara Rao Tipirisetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop is the hot spot for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA alterations which influence the generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Association of D-loop alterations with breast cancer has been reported in few ethnic groups; however none of the reports were documented from Indian subcontinent. METHODOLOGY: We screened the entire mitochondrial D-loop region (1124 bp of breast cancer patients (n = 213 and controls (n = 207 of south Indian origin by PCR-sequencing analysis. Haplotype frequencies for significant loci, the standardized disequilibrium coefficient (D' for pair-wise linkage disequilibrium (LD were assessed by Haploview Software. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 7 novel mutations and 170 reported polymorphisms in the D-loop region of patients and/or controls. Polymorphisms were predominantly located in hypervariable region I (60% than in II (30% of D-loop region. The frequencies of 310'C' insertion (P = 0.018, T16189C (P = 0.0019 variants and 310'C'ins/16189C (P = 0.00019 haplotype were significantly higher in cases than in controls. Furthermore, strong LD was observed between nucleotide position 310 and 16189 in controls (D' = 0.49 as compared to patients (D' = 0.14. CONCLUSIONS: Mitochondrial D-loop alterations may constitute inherent risk factors for breast cancer development. The analysis of genetic alterations in the D-loop region might help to identify patients at high risk for bad progression, thereby helping to refine therapeutic decisions in breast cancer.

  5. An Eight Month Randomized Controlled Exercise Intervention Alters Resting State Synchrony in Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Krafft, Cynthia E.; Pierce, Jordan E.; Schwarz, Nicolette F.; Chi, Lingxi; Weinberger, Abby L.; Schaeffer, David J.; Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Camchong, Jazmin; Allison, Jerry D.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L.; McDowell, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) children 8–11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional...

  6. The alteration of gray matter volume and cognitive control in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei eWang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Internet gaming disorder (IGD has been investigated by many behavioral and neuroimaging studies, for it has became one of the main behavior disorders among adolescents. However, few studies focused on the relationship between alteration of gray matter volume (GMV and cognitive control feature in IGD adolescents. Methods: Twenty-eight participants with IAD and twenty-eight healthy age and gender matched controls participated in the study. Brain morphology of adolescents with IGD and healthy controls was investigated using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM technique. Cognitive control performances were measured by Stroop task, and correlation analysis was performed between brain structural change and behavioral performance in IGD group. Results: The results showed that GMV of the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, precuneus, supplementary motor area (SMA, superior parietal cortex, left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, left insula, and bilateral cerebellum decreased in the IGD participants compared with healthy controls. Moreover, GMV of the ACC was negatively correlated with the incongruent response errors of Stroop task in IGD group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the alteration of GMV is associated with the performance change of cognitive control in adolescents with IGD, which indicating substantial brain image effects induced by IGD.

  7. An eight month randomized controlled exercise intervention alters resting state synchrony in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, C E; Pierce, J E; Schwarz, N F; Chi, L; Weinberger, A L; Schaeffer, D J; Rodrigue, A L; Camchong, J; Allison, J D; Yanasak, N E; Liu, T; Davis, C L; McDowell, J E

    2014-01-01

    Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) children 8-11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Independent components analysis identified several networks, with four chosen for between-group analysis: salience, default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks. The default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks showed more spatial refinement over time in the exercise group compared to controls. The motor network showed increased synchrony in the exercise group with the right medial frontal gyrus compared to controls. Exercise behavior may enhance brain development in children. PMID:24096138

  8. Attenuation of age-related changes in mouse neuromuscular synapses by caloric restriction and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, G; Tapia, J; Kang, H; Clemenson, G.D.; Gage, F.H.; Lichtman, Jeff; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular basis of age-related behavioral decline remains obscure but alterations in synapses are likely candidates. Accordingly, the beneficial effects on neural function of caloric restriction and exercise, which are among the most effective anti-aging treatments known, might also be mediated by synapses. As a starting point in testing these ideas, we studied the skeletal neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a large, accessible peripheral synapse. Comparison of NMJs in young adult and aged mice...

  9. A neuromuscular monitoring system based on a personal computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D A; Hull, M

    1992-07-01

    We have developed a computerized neuromuscular monitoring system (NMMS) using commercially available subsystems, i.e., computer equipment, clinical nerve stimulator, force transducer, and strip-chart recorder. This NMMS was developed for acquisition and analysis of data for research and teaching purposes. Computer analysis of the muscle response to stimulation allows graphic and numeric presentation of the twitch response and calculated ratios. Since the system can store and recall data, research data can be accessed for analysis and graphic presentation. An IBM PC/AT computer is used as the central controller and data processor. The computer controls timing of the nerve stimulator output, initiates data acquisition, and adjusts the paper speed of the strip chart recorder. The data processing functions include establishing control response values (when no neuromuscular blockade is present), displaying force versus time and calculated data graphically and numerically, and storing these data for further analysis. The general purpose nature of the computer and strip chart recording equipment allow modification of the system primarily by changes in software. For example, new patterns of nerve stimulation, such as the posttetanic count, can be programmed into the computer system along with appropriate data display and analysis routines. The NMMS has functioned well in the operating room environment. We have had no episodes of electrocautery interference with the computer functions. The automated features have enhanced the utility of the NMMS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1322977

  10. Neuromuscular hamartoma arising in the brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case brachial plexus neuromuscular hamartoma (choristoma) in a 28-year-old man who complained of numbness of the left hand and forearm for several years. MRI revealed a circumscribed, rounded mass in the left brachial plexus. The patient is well 2 years after surgery, with no neurological deficit. (orig.)

  11. Neuromuscular hamartoma arising in the brachial plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, P.H.; Chen, C.; Yeh, L.R.; Pan, H.B. [Department of Radiology, Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung, 386 Ta-Chung First Rd, 813, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Ho, J.T.; Hsu, S.S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung, 386 Ta-Chung First Rd, 813, Kaosiung (Taiwan); Lin, S.L. [Department of Pathology, Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung, 386 Ta-Chung First Rd, 813, Kaohsiung (Taiwan)

    2004-03-01

    We report a case brachial plexus neuromuscular hamartoma (choristoma) in a 28-year-old man who complained of numbness of the left hand and forearm for several years. MRI revealed a circumscribed, rounded mass in the left brachial plexus. The patient is well 2 years after surgery, with no neurological deficit. (orig.)

  12. Pregnancy and Childbirth with Neuromuscular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get a little bit Teamwork makes the difference weaker during Coordination and communication Having a neuromuscular disease can pose special anesthesia-related risks. the pregnancy and, unfortu- among the pregnant woman, her neurologist and a team experienced — local anesthesia. ( ...

  13. Alteration in plasma lipid profile in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

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    Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipids are major cell membrane components essential for various biological functions including cell growth and division of normal and malignant tissue. They are also required for maintenance of structural and functional integrity of all biological membranes. Alteration in the plasma lipid profile has been associated with a variety of cancers and precancerous conditions including those of the head and neck region. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the alteration in plasma lipid profile in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients were included in the study, 20 with oral submucous fibrosis and 10 healthy controls. Fasting plasma lipid profile including Total Cholesterol (TC, Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL, Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL, High Density Lipoproteins (HDL and Tri-Glycerides (TG were measured using semiautomatic analyser. The data obtained were analysed using independent sample ′t′ test. Results: A statistically significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, LDL and HDL was observed in patients with OSMF as compared to the controls, but it was not statistically significant for VLDL and TG values. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that there is an inverse relationship between lipid profile and the presence of oral submucous fibrosis. Hence, alteration in plasma lipid profile may have a diagnostic role in the future and can be used as a biochemical indicator to detect the initial changes seen in the neoplastic process..

  14. Clinical use of creatine in neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Many of the neuromuscular (e.g., muscular dystrophy) and neurometabolic (e.g., mitochondrial cytopathies) disorders share similar final common pathways of cellular dysfunction that may be favorably influenced by creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation. Studies using the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy have found evidence of enhanced mitochondrial function, reduced intra-cellular calcium and improved performance with CrM supplementation. Clinical trials in patients with Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy have shown improved function, fat-free mass, and some evidence of improved bone health with CrM supplementation. In contrast, the improvements in function in myotonic dystrophy and inherited neuropathies (e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth) have not been significant. Some studies in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies have shown improved muscle endurance and body composition, yet other studies did not find significant improvements in patients with mitochondrial cytopathy. Lower-dose CrM supplementation in patients with McArdle's disease (myophosphorylase deficiency) improved exercise capacity, yet higher doses actually showed some indication of worsened function. Based upon known cellular pathologies, there are potential benefits from CrM supplementation in patients with steroid myopathy, inflammatory myopathy, myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, and fatty acid oxidation defects. Larger randomized control trials (RCT) using homogeneous patient groups and objective and clinically relevant outcome variables are needed to determine whether creatine supplementation will be of therapeutic benefit to patients with neuromuscular or neurometabolic disorders. Given the relatively low prevalence of some of the neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders, it will be necessary to use surrogate markers of potential clinical efficacy including markers of oxidative stress, cellular energy charge, and gene expression patterns. PMID:18652078

  15. Neuromuscular function in different stages of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morat, Tobias; Gilmore, Kevin J; Rice, Charles L

    2016-08-01

    This study applied the screening tool developed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) on seniors aged over 65years and concurrently tested various laboratory-based indices of neuromuscular function. Twenty-four healthy and independent living older adults (9 men, 15 women) with a mean age of 79.1±5.8years participated. Based on gait speed, handgrip strength and muscle mass all subjects were categorized into one of the three conceptual sarcopenia stages (pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia, severe sarcopenia). Maximal strength of dorsiflexors in the left leg was measured and voluntary activation was assessed by the interpolated twitch technique. In addition, isometric evoked contractile properties were recorded. Skeletal muscle mass was assessed by ultrasound from nine sites. There were roughly equal number of subjects in each sarcopenic category, and age was not different among the 3 groups. There were no differences in handgrip strength and skeletal muscle mass index among the 3 groups. Gait speed was significantly slower (psarcopenia group, and 51% slower (p=0.03) compared with the pre-sarcopenia group, but when normalized to peak torques there were no statistical differences. The laboratory tests found neuromuscular differences among the 3 groups which generally supported the classification scheme and helped to illustrate some key factors that could explain differences in functional capacities. These initial findings support the assumption that this categorization is relevant for identifying older adults with different neuromuscular properties. However, further studies are needed to provide more insight into the specific neuromuscular changes in the three sarcopenia stages, and how these changes relate to functional capacity. Such studies could ultimately contribute to identifying optimal interventions to improve neuromuscular functioning. PMID:27108183

  16. O uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares no Brasil El uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares en Brasil Neuromuscular blockers in Brazil

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    Maria Cristina Simões de Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Dados estatísticos referentes ao uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares no Brasil são desconhecidos. Este trabalho se propõe a análise estatística desse tópico. MÉTODO: Foram compiladas 831 respostas de um questionário preenchido em parte por anestesiologistas presentes ao 48º Congresso Brasileiro de Anestesiologia em Recife, 2001 e em parte via Internet, por anestesiologistas cujos endereços eletrônicos constam na página da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (www.sba.com.br. Foram analisados os seguintes dados: tempo de contato com a especialidade, região onde atuam os anestesiologistas, uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares (BNM em ordem de preferência, indicações do uso de succinilcolina, uso do monitor da transmissão neuromuscular, critérios para se considerar o paciente descurarizado, uso de neostigmina, forma de administração dos BNM e descrição de complicações observadas. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos anestesiologistas em questão exerce a profissão há mais de 11 anos e o maior número de respostas foi proveniente da região sudeste do Brasil. O BNM mais empregado é o atracúrio, seguido de pancurônio e succinilcolina. A succinilcolina é mais empregada na indução rápida e em crianças (80% e 25% respectivamente. Monitores da transmissão neuromuscular, 53% dos anestesiologistas nunca usam, e como critério de recuperação, 92% consideram o paciente descurarizado mediante sinais clínicos. Em 45% das vezes os profissionais empregam a neostigmina de forma rotineira, e 94% administra os BNM sob forma de bolus. Cerca de 30% registra ter havido complicação decorrente do uso de BNM. As complicações mais apontadas foram o bloqueio prolongado, o broncoespasmo grave e a curarização residual. CONCLUSÕES: O atracúrio é o bloqueador neuromuscular mais empregado no Brasil, há percentual alto de uso da succinilcolina em situações não emergenciais, o uso de monitores da transmiss

  17. Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: A Case report

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    O'Driscoll Jeremiah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle joint sprain and the subsequent development of chronic ankle instability (CAI are commonly encountered by clinicians involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. It has recently been advocated that ankle joint post-sprain rehabilitation protocols should incorporate dynamic neuromuscular training to enhance ankle joint sensorimotor capabilities. To date no studies have reported on the effects of dynamic neuromuscular training on ankle joint positioning during landing from a jump, which has been reported as one of the primary injury mechanisms for ankle joint sprain. This case report details the effects of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function in an athlete with CAI. Methods The athlete took part in a progressive 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme which incorporated postural stability, strengthening, plyometric, and speed/agility drills. The outcome measures chosen to assess for interventional efficacy were: 1 Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT scores, 2 Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT reach distances, 3 ankle joint plantar flexion during drop landing and drop vertical jumping, and 4 ground reaction forces (GRFs during walking. Results CAIT and SEBT scores improved following participation in the programme. The angle of ankle joint plantar flexion decreased at the point of initial contact during the drop landing and drop vertical jumping tasks, indicating that the ankle joint was in a less vulnerable position upon landing following participation in the programme. Furthermore, GRFs were reduced whilst walking post-intervention. Conclusions The 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme improved parameters of ankle joint sensorimotor control in an athlete with CAI. Further research is now required in a larger cohort of subjects to determine the effects of neuromuscular training on ankle joint injury risk factors.

  18. Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: A Case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Driscoll, Jeremiah

    2011-06-09

    Abstract Background Ankle joint sprain and the subsequent development of chronic ankle instability (CAI) are commonly encountered by clinicians involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. It has recently been advocated that ankle joint post-sprain rehabilitation protocols should incorporate dynamic neuromuscular training to enhance ankle joint sensorimotor capabilities. To date no studies have reported on the effects of dynamic neuromuscular training on ankle joint positioning during landing from a jump, which has been reported as one of the primary injury mechanisms for ankle joint sprain. This case report details the effects of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function in an athlete with CAI. Methods The athlete took part in a progressive 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme which incorporated postural stability, strengthening, plyometric, and speed\\/agility drills. The outcome measures chosen to assess for interventional efficacy were: 1 Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) scores, 2 Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances, 3 ankle joint plantar flexion during drop landing and drop vertical jumping, and 4 ground reaction forces (GRFs) during walking. Results CAIT and SEBT scores improved following participation in the programme. The angle of ankle joint plantar flexion decreased at the point of initial contact during the drop landing and drop vertical jumping tasks, indicating that the ankle joint was in a less vulnerable position upon landing following participation in the programme. Furthermore, GRFs were reduced whilst walking post-intervention. Conclusions The 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme improved parameters of ankle joint sensorimotor control in an athlete with CAI. Further research is now required in a larger cohort of subjects to determine the effects of neuromuscular training on ankle joint injury risk factors.

  19. Man-Machine Interface System for Neuromuscular Training and Evaluation Based on EMG and MMG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System, a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is composed of a custom signal conditioning front-end and a computer. The front-end electronics is described thoroughly as well as the overall features of the custom software implementation. The software system is composed of a set of graphical training tools and a processing core. The UVa-NTS works with two classes of neuromuscular signals: the classic myoelectric signals (MES and, as a novelty, the myomechanic signals (MMS. In order to evaluate the performance of the processing core, a complete analysis has been done to classify its efficiency and to check that it fulfils with the real-time constraints. Tests were performed both with healthy and selected impaired subjects. The adaptation was achieved rapidly, applying a predefined protocol for the UVa-NTS set of training tools. Fine voluntary control was demonstrated to be reached with the myoelectric signals. And the UVa-NTS demonstrated to provide a satisfactory voluntary control when applying the myomechanic signals.

  20. Prominent pancreatic endocrinopathy and altered control of food intake disrupt energy homeostasis in prion diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.D.; Berardinelli, J.G.; Rocke, T.E.; Bessen, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that can induce endocrinopathies. The basis of altered endocrine function in prion diseases is not well understood, and the purpose of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal relationship between energy homeostasis and prion infection in hamsters inoculated with either the 139H strain of scrapie agent, which induces preclinical weight gain, or the HY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), which induces clinical weight loss. Temporal changes in body weight, feed, and water intake were measured as well as both non-fasted and fasted concentrations of serum glucose, insulin, glucagon, ??-ketones, and leptin. In 139H scrapie-infected hamsters, polydipsia, hyperphagia, non-fasted hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia, and fasted hyperleptinemia were found at preclinical stages and are consistent with an anabolic syndrome that has similarities to type II diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome X. In HY TME-infected hamsters, hypodipsia, hypersecretion of glucagon (in both non-fasted and fasted states), increased fasted ??-ketones, fasted hypoglycemia, and suppressed non-fasted leptin concentrations were found while feed intake was normal. These findings suggest a severe catabolic syndrome in HY TME infection mediated by chronic increases in glucagon secretion. In both models, alterations of pancreatic endocrine function were not associated with PrPSc deposition in the pancreas. The results indicate that prominent endocrinopathy underlies alterations in body weight, pancreatic endocrine function, and intake of food. The prion-induced alterations of energy homeostasis in 139H scrapie- or HY TME-infected hamsters could occur within areas of the hypothalamus that control food satiety and/or within autonomic centers that provide neural outflow to the pancreas. ?? 2008 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Oral drug delivery systems comprising altered geometric configurations for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Kovanya; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Kumar, Pradeep; Cooppan, Shivaan; Bawa, Priya

    2012-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix(®) multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise(®), which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix(®) as well as "release modules assemblage", which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments. PMID:22312236

  2. Desarrollo neuromuscular en la atrofia muscular espinal

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Hernàndez, Rebeca

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by degeneration and loss of spinal cord motor neurons leading to denervation and muscular atrophy. It is caused by defects in the Survival Motor Neuron 1 gene (SMN1) and it is classified by age of onset and motor milestones into three main types which strongly correlate with the copy number of its homologous gene, SMN2. SMN2 expresses markedly less full‐length protein than SMN1, provoking disease manifestations...

  3. Neuromuscular Impairment Following Backpack Load Carriage

    OpenAIRE

    Blacker, Sam D.; Fallowfield, Joanne L; Bilzon, James L.J.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Load Carriage using backpacks is an occupational task and can be a recreational pursuit. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for changes in neuromuscular function of the m. quadriceps femoris following load carriage. The physiological responses of 10 male participants to voluntary and electrically stimulated isometric contractions were measured before and immediately after two hours of treadmill walking at 6.5 km•h −1 during level walking with no load [LW], and...

  4. The emerging diversity of neuromuscular junction disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Newsom-Davis, J

    2007-01-01

    Research advances over the last 30 years have shown that key transmembrane proteins at the neuromuscular junction are vulnerable to antibody-mediated autoimmune attack These targets are acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and muscle specific kinase (MuSK) in myasthenia gravis, voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), and voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) in neuromyotonia. In parallel with these immunological advances, mutations identified in g...

  5. Acute neuromuscular responses to car racing

    OpenAIRE

    Backman, Jani

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine racing car drivers’ acute neuromuscular responses to race driving. The secondary purpose was to compare the cardiovascular loading of driving to that of maximal rowing action. Methods: The subjects of the present cross-sectional study (n = 9) were international level karting drivers. The study was performed in two parts; the laboratory tests and driving test. All subjects took part to the laboratory tests and five of the subjects per...

  6. Altered resting-state frontoparietal control network in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Matsuo, Kayako; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-01

    The frontoparietal control network, anatomically and functionally interposed between the dorsal attention network and default mode network, underpins executive control functions. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly exhibit deficits in executive functions, which are mainly mediated by the frontoparietal control network. Involvement of the frontoparietal control network based on the anterior prefrontal cortex in neurobiological mechanisms of ADHD has yet to be tested. We used resting-state functional MRI and seed-based correlation analyses to investigate functional connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in a sample of 25 children with ADHD (7-14 years; mean 9.94 ± 1.77 years; 20 males), and 25 age-, sex-, and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children. All participants had limited in-scanner head motion. Spearman's rank correlations were used to test the associations between altered patterns of functional connectivity with clinical symptoms and executive functions, measured by the Conners' Continuous Performance Test and Spatial Span in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Compared with TD children, children with ADHD demonstrated weaker connectivity between the right anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right ventrolateral PFC, and between the left anterior PFC and the right inferior parietal lobule. Furthermore, this aberrant connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in ADHD was associated with symptoms of impulsivity and opposition-defiance, as well as impaired response inhibition and attentional control. The findings support potential integration of the disconnection model and the executive dysfunction model for ADHD. Atypical frontoparietal control network may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. PMID:25928822

  7. Influence of intense neuromuscular blockade on surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Donatsky, Anders Meller; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    2015-01-01

    neuromuscular block on surgical conditions with a subjective rating scale, force needed to close the fascia, incidences of abdominal contractions while suctioning the lungs, width of the wound diastase and operating time as outcome parameters. RESULTS: In all six pigs no abdominal contractions occurred while...... neuromuscular block suctioning the lungs elicited brief periods of abdominal EMG activity. No difference was found in the force needed to close the fascia when comparing no neuromuscular block with intense neuromuscular block. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in the width of the diastase...... influence the force needed to close the fascia....

  8. Urgencias en patología neuromuscular Emergencies in neuromuscular pathology

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ayuso; I. Jericó

    2008-01-01

    La debilidad muscular aguda (DMA) es el síntoma predominante de las urgencias neuromusculares, especialmente si afecta a la musculatura respiratoria u orofaríngea. La DMA es un síndrome plurietiológico y con distintos niveles lesionales en la unidad motora. Dentro del amplio grupo de enfermedades neuromusculares, las que con mayor frecuencia provocan DMA e insuficiencia respiratoria son el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) y la miastenia gravis (MG). El SGB constituye la causa más frecuente de...

  9. Degeneration of neuromuscular junction in age and dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Rüdiger; Khan, Muzamil Majid; Labeit, Siegfried; Deschenes, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Functional denervation is a hallmark of aging sarcopenia as well as of muscular dystrophy. It is thought to be a major factor reducing skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the case of sarcopenia. Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) serve as the interface between the nervous and skeletal muscular systems, and thus they may receive pathophysiological input of both pre- and post-synaptic origin. Consequently, NMJs are good indicators of motor health on a systemic level. Indeed, upon sarcopenia and dystrophy, NMJs morphologically deteriorate and exhibit altered characteristics of primary signaling molecules, such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and agrin. Since a remarkable reversibility of these changes can be observed by exercise, there is significant interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic deterioration upon aging and dystrophy and how synapses are reset by the aforementioned treatments. Here, we review the literature that describes the phenomena observed at the NMJ in sarcopenic and dystrophic muscle as well as to how these alterations can be reversed and to what extent. In a second part, the current information about molecular machineries underlying these processes is reported. PMID:24904412

  10. Explicit Control of Implicit Responses: Simple Directives can alter IAT Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallaert, Matthew; Ward, Andrew; Mann, Traci

    2010-03-01

    Research has begun to reveal the malleability of implicit prejudice. One measure of this construct, the race Implicit Association Test (IAT), represents a widely-used tool to assess individuals' positive and negative associations with different racial groups. In two studies, we demonstrate the capacity of salient pressures to alter implicit racial responses. In Study 1, an enhancement of promoting pressures through an explicit instruction to stereotype was sufficient to increase pro-White bias on the IAT. In Study 2, an enhancement of inhibiting pressures through a simple instruction to avoid stereotyping was sufficient to reduce pro-White bias. Taken together, the studies suggest that implicit prejudice is amenable to voluntary control through the use of simple, direct means. PMID:21769299

  11. O uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares no Brasil El uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares en Brasil Neuromuscular blockers in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Simões de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Dados estatísticos referentes ao uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares no Brasil são desconhecidos. Este trabalho se propõe a análise estatística desse tópico. MÉTODO: Foram compiladas 831 respostas de um questionário preenchido em parte por anestesiologistas presentes ao 48º Congresso Brasileiro de Anestesiologia em Recife, 2001 e em parte via Internet, por anestesiologistas cujos endereços eletrônicos constam na página da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (www....

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING FOR BASKET BALL PLAYERS ON PERFORMANCE OF STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava Kumar Bhaskar; Vinod Babu. K *; Sai Kumar. N; Vikas Kadam V

    2013-01-01

    Background and introduction:To determine the effect of neuromuscular training program (NMTP) focused oncore stability and lower extremity strength on performance of star excursion balance test (SEBT) inbasketballplayers.Method:: Pre to post test experimental study design randomisedthirty Basketball players each 15 into NMTPand control group. Players trained together as a team in which NMTP group participated 4 weeks of NMTPtwice a week and Control group followed their regular protocol as guid...

  13. Neuromuscular induced phonation in a human ex vivo perfused larynx preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Berke, Gerald; Mendelsohn, Abie H; Scott Howard, Nelson; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Considering differences in laryngeal anatomy, degree of control, and range of voice qualities between animals and humans, investigations of the neuromuscular process of voice control are better conducted using a living human larynx in which parametric stimulation of individual laryngeal muscles is possible. Due to difficulties in access and monitoring of laryngeal muscle activities, such investigations are impossible in living human subject experiments. This study reports the recent success i...

  14. Neurovascular alterations in chronic hepatitis C: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vedovetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C is a major health problem: approximately 170 million people are infected with the hepatitis C virus worldwide. It is unclear whether chronic hepatitis C affects atherosclerosis and whether it can cause endothelial and/or autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction. Materials and methods: From April 2008 through April 2009, we studied 76 patients with biopsyconfirmed chronic hepatitis C and no evidence of cirrhosis, ascites, portal hypertension, encephalopathy, or hepatocellular carcinoma. The age-, sex-, BMI- and cardiovascular risk factor- matched control group comprised 76 healthy, HCV-negative individuals with no evidence of liver, autoimmune, or immunoproliferative diseases and no history of cardiovascular events. Twenty five of the hepatitis C patients were treatment-naive; the other 51 had been treated with interferon (but only 25 had persistent virological responses. Color Doppler sonography was used to measure the intima-media-thickness (IMT of the common and internal carotid arteries. Endothelial function was assessed in the brachial artery with the flow-mediated-dilatation (FMD test. The ANS was assessed with the tilt, laying to standing, Valsalva, hand grip, deep breath, and stroop tests. Results: The case group (mean age 52 + 13 years had a significantly higher internal carotid IMT (0.86 + 0.3 vs 0.67 + 0.1 mmfor controls; p = 0.002. Chronic hepatitis C was also associated with an odds ratio for carotid plaque formation (reflected by an IMT > 1.3 mm of 2.15. Cases also had significantly reduced FMD in the brachial artery (0.46 + 0.9 vs 0.76 + 0.7 for controls; p = 0.005 and significantly altered sympathetic and parasympathetic function (p = 0.001 vs controls in the Valsalva, hand grip, deep breath, and stroop tests. Within the case group, all alterations were more severe in patients with significant viremia. Discussion: Our findings suggest that chronic hepatitis C may be a nonclassic cardiovascular risk

  15. Active zone stability:insights from fly neuromuscular junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin Tian; Chunlai Wu

    2015-01-01

    The presynaptic active zone is a dynamic structure that orchestrates regulated release of neurotrans-mitters. Developmental and aging processes, and changes in neuronal network activity can all modulate the number, size and composition of active zone and thereby synaptic efifcacy. However, very little is known about the mechanism that controls the structural stability of active zone. By study-ing a model synapse, theDrosophila neuromuscular junction, our recent work shed light on how two scaffolding proteins at the active zone regulate active zone stability by promoting a localized dephos-phorylation event at the nerve terminal. Here we discuss the major insights from our ifndings and their implications for future research.

  16. Cross-disease comparison of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy reveals conservation of selective vulnerability but differential neuromuscular junction pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comley, Laura H; Nijssen, Jik; Frost-Nylen, Johanna; Hedlund, Eva

    2016-05-01

    Neuromuscular junctions are primary pathological targets in the lethal motor neuron diseases spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Synaptic pathology and denervation of target muscle fibers has been reported prior to the appearance of clinical symptoms in mouse models of both diseases, suggesting that neuromuscular junctions are highly vulnerable from the very early stages, and are a key target for therapeutic intervention. Here we examined neuromuscular pathology longitudinally in three clinically relevant muscle groups in mouse models of ALS and SMA in order to assess their relative vulnerabilities. We show for the first time that neuromuscular junctions of the extraocular muscles (responsible for the control of eye movement) were resistant to degeneration in endstage SMA mice, as well as in late symptomatic ALS mice. Tongue muscle neuromuscular junctions were also spared in both animal models. Conversely, neuromuscular junctions of the lumbrical muscles of the hind-paw were vulnerable in both SMA and ALS, with a loss of neuronal innervation and shrinkage of motor endplates in both diseases. Thus, the pattern of selective vulnerability was conserved across these two models of motor neuron disease. However, the first evidence of neuromuscular pathology occurred at different timepoints of disease progression, with much earlier evidence of presynaptic involvement in ALS, progressing to changes on the postsynaptic side. Conversely, in SMA changes appeared concomitantly at the neuromuscular junction, suggesting that mechanisms of neuromuscular disruption are distinct in these diseases. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1424-1442, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26502195

  17. Acute neuromuscular weakness associated with dengue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanjit Singh Hira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete hemogram, kidney and liver functions, serum electrolytes, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK were tested. In addition, two patients underwent nerve conduction velocity (NCV test and electromyography. Results: Twelve patients were included in the present study. Their age was between 18 and 34 years. Fever, myalgia, and motor weakness of limbs were most common presenting symptoms. Motor weakness developed on 2 nd to 4 th day of illness in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient, it developed on 10 th day of illness. Ten of 12 showed hypokalemia. One was of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other suffered from myositis; they underwent NCV and electromyography. Serum CPK and SGOT raised in 8 out of 12 patients. CPK of patient of myositis was 5098 IU. All of 12 patients had thrombocytopenia. WBC was in normal range. Dengue virus was isolated in three patients, and it was of serotype 1. CSF was normal in all. Within 24 hours, those with hypokalemia recovered by potassium correction. Conclusions: It was concluded that the dengue virus infection led to acute neuromuscular weakness because of hypokalemia, myositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It was suggested to look for presence of hypokalemia in such patients.

  18. Controlled meal frequency without caloric restriction alters peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF improves healthy lifespan in animals by a mechanism involving reduced oxidative damage and increased resistance to stress. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of controlled meal frequency on immune responses in human subjects. Objective A study was conducted to establish the effects of controlled diets with different meal frequencies, but similar daily energy intakes, on cytokine production in healthy male and female subjects. Design In a crossover study design with an intervening washout period, healthy normal weight middle-age male and female subjects (n = 15 were maintained for 2 months on controlled on-site one meal per day (OMD or three meals per day (TMD isocaloric diets. Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs culture supernatants from subjects were analyzed for the presence of inflammatory markers using a multiplex assay. Results There were no significant differences in the inflammatory markers in the serum of subjects on the OMD or TMD diets. There was an increase in the capacity of PBMCs to produce cytokines in subjects during the first month on the OMD or TMD diets. Lower levels of TNF-α, IL-17, MCP-1 and MIP-1β were produced by PBMCs from subjects on the OMD versus TMD diet. Conclusions PBMCs of subjects on controlled diets exhibit hypersensitivities to cellular stimulation suggesting that stress associated with altered eating behavior might affect cytokine production by immune cells upon stimulation. Moreover, stimulated PBMCs derived from healthy individuals on a reduced meal frequency diet respond with a reduced capability to produce cytokines.

  19. Recent achievements in restorative neurology: Progressive neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 27 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Computed Tomography of Muscles in Neuromuscular Disease; Mapping the Genes for Muscular Dystrophy; Trophic Factors and Motor Neuron Development; Size of Motor Units and Firing Rate in Muscular Dystrophy; Restorative Possibilities in Relation to the Pathology of Progressive Neuromuscular Disease; and An Approach to the Pathogenesis of some Congenital Myopathies

  20. Stress in Families of Children With Neuromuscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Jean; Guthrie, Donald

    1979-01-01

    This study compared parents of children with neuromuscular diseases to parents of children with psychiatric diagnoses, using the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress. The groups showed different patterns of stress relating to child care. Within the neuromuscular group, parental stress increased with the severity of the child's illness.…

  1. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  2. Repetitive Daily Point of Choice Prompts and Occupational Sit-Stand Transfers, Concentration and Neuromuscular Performance in Office Workers: An RCT

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Donath; Oliver Faude; Yannick Schefer; Ralf Roth; Lukas Zahner

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Prolonged office sitting time adversely affects neuromuscular and cardiovascular health parameters. As a consequence, the present study investigated the effects of prompting the use of height-adjustable working desk (HAWD) on occupational sitting and standing time, neuromuscular outcomes and concentration in office workers. Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) with parallel group design was conducted. Thirty-eight office workers were supplied with HAWDs and r...

  3. Noninvasive Assessment of Neuromuscular Disease in Dogs: Use of the 6‐minute Walk Test to Assess Submaximal Exercise Tolerance in Dogs with Centronuclear Myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda‐Gonzalez, S.; Talarico, L.; Todhunter, R

    2016-01-01

    Background Noninvasive methods of quantitating exercise tolerance in dogs with neuromuscular disease are needed both for clinical and research use. The 6‐minute walk test (6MWT) has been validated as a reliable test of exercise tolerance in dogs with pulmonary and cardiac disease, but not in dogs with neuromuscular disease. Hypothesis/Objectives Distance walked and number of steps taken during 6MWT will differ between Labrador retriever dogs with centronuclear myopathy (CNM) and control (ie, ...

  4. Rapid alterations of cell cycle control proteins in human T lymphocytes in microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiel Cora S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In our study we aimed to identify rapidly reacting gravity-responsive mechanisms in mammalian cells in order to understand if and how altered gravity is translated into a cellular response. In a combination of experiments using "functional weightlessness" provided by 2D-clinostats and real microgravity provided by several parabolic flight campaigns and compared to in-flight-1g-controls, we identified rapid gravity-responsive reactions inside the cell cycle regulatory machinery of human T lymphocytes. In response to 2D clinorotation, we detected an enhanced expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 protein within minutes, less cdc25C protein expression and enhanced Ser147-phosphorylation of cyclinB1 after CD3/CD28 stimulation. Additionally, during 2D clinorotation, Tyr-15-phosphorylation occurred later and was shorter than in the 1 g controls. In CD3/CD28-stimulated primary human T cells, mRNA expression of the cell cycle arrest protein p21 increased 4.1-fold after 20s real microgravity in primary CD4+ T cells and 2.9-fold in Jurkat T cells, compared to 1 g in-flight controls after CD3/CD28 stimulation. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT inhibitor curcumin was able to abrogate microgravity-induced p21 mRNA expression, whereas expression was enhanced by a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor. Therefore, we suppose that cell cycle progression in human T lymphocytes requires Earth gravity and that the disturbed expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins could contribute to the breakdown of the human immune system in space.

  5. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Ajith; Baheti, Neeraj N; Iype, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS). SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability is limited to a few centers. For RNS supramaximal stimulation is essential and so is display of the whole waveform of each muscle response at maximum amplitude. The amplitudes of the negative phase of the first and fourth responses are measured from baseline to negative peak, and the percent change of the fourth response compared with the first represents the decrement or increment. A decrement greater than 10% is accepted as abnormal and smooth progression of response amplitude train and reproducibility form the crux. In suspected LEMS the effect of fast rates of stimulation should be determined after RNS response to slow rates of stimulation. Caution is required to avoid misinterpretation of potentiation and pseudofacilitation. PMID:23661960

  6. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Cherian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS. SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability is limited to a few centers. For RNS supramaximal stimulation is essential and so is display of the whole waveform of each muscle response at maximum amplitude. The amplitudes of the negative phase of the first and fourth responses are measured from baseline to negative peak, and the percent change of the fourth response compared with the first represents the decrement or increment. A decrement greater than 10% is accepted as abnormal and smooth progression of response amplitude train and reproducibility form the crux. In suspected LEMS the effect of fast rates of stimulation should be determined after RNS response to slow rates of stimulation. Caution is required to avoid misinterpretation of potentiation and pseudofacilitation.

  7. Neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattjes, Mike P. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1117, HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kley, Rudolf A. [Klinken Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University, Department of Neurology, Neuromuscular Centre Ruhrgebiet, Bochum (Germany); Fischer, Dirk [University Hospital of Basel, Department of Neurology, Basel (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Basel, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    Driven by increasing numbers of newly identified genetic defects and new insights into the field of inherited muscle diseases, neuromuscular imaging in general and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in particular are increasingly being used to characterise the severity and pattern of muscle involvement. Although muscle biopsy is still the gold standard for the establishment of the definitive diagnosis, muscular imaging is an important diagnostic tool for the detection and quantification of dystrophic changes during the clinical workup of patients with hereditary muscle diseases. MRI is frequently used to describe muscle involvement patterns, which aids in narrowing of the differential diagnosis and distinguishing between dystrophic and non-dystrophic diseases. Recent work has demonstrated the usefulness of muscle imaging for the detection of specific congenital myopathies, mainly for the identification of the underlying genetic defect in core and centronuclear myopathies. Muscle imaging demonstrates characteristic patterns, which can be helpful for the differentiation of individual limb girdle muscular dystrophies. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of current methods and applications as well as future perspectives in the field of neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases. We also provide diagnostic algorithms that might guide us through the differential diagnosis in hereditary myopathies. (orig.)

  8. Contribución del soporte nutricional al tratamiento de las alteraciones neuro-musculares del paciente crítico Contribution of nutritional support to treatment neuromuscular impairments of critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Montejo González

    2006-01-01

    Las alteraciones neuromusculares que tienen lugar en el paciente crítico han sido atribuidas a factores como la situación séptica, la liberación de mediadores inflamatorioso el empleo de fármacos que afectan desfavorablemente a la función neuro-muscular. El papel de factores metabólicos y nutricionales en el desarrollo de esta patología ha recibido poca atención. En la actualidad, el empleo de protocolos de control intensivo de la glucemia podría tener gran interés en la prevención de las alt...

  9. LRP4 is critical for neuromuscular junction maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Arnab; Lu, Yisheng; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Bowman, Andrew; Shen, Chengyong; Li, Lei; Xiong, Wen-cheng; Mei, Lin

    2014-10-15

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers, and is critical for control of muscle contraction. Its formation requires neuronal agrin that acts by binding to LRP4 to stimulate MuSK. Mutations have been identified in agrin, MuSK, and LRP4 in patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome, and patients with myasthenia gravis develop antibodies against agrin, LRP4, and MuSK. However, it remains unclear whether the agrin signaling pathway is critical for NMJ maintenance because null mutation of any of the three genes is perinatal lethal. In this study, we generated imKO mice, a mutant strain whose LRP4 gene can be deleted in muscles by doxycycline (Dox) treatment. Ablation of the LRP4 gene in adult muscle enabled studies of its role in NMJ maintenance. We demonstrate that Dox treatment of P30 mice reduced muscle strength and compound muscle action potentials. AChR clusters became fragmented with diminished junctional folds and synaptic vesicles. The amplitude and frequency of miniature endplate potentials were reduced, indicating impaired neuromuscular transmission and providing cellular mechanisms of adult LRP4 deficiency. We showed that LRP4 ablation led to the loss of synaptic agrin and the 90 kDa fragments, which occurred ahead of other prejunctional and postjunctional components, suggesting that LRP4 may regulate the stability of synaptic agrin. These observations demonstrate that LRP4 is essential for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the NMJ and that loss of muscle LRP4 in adulthood alone is sufficient to cause myasthenic symptoms. PMID:25319686

  10. Mouse Brain PSA-NCAM Levels Are Altered by Graded-Controlled Cortical Impact Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S. Budinich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a worldwide endemic that results in unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. Secondary injury processes following primary injury are composed of intricate interactions between assorted molecules that ultimately dictate the degree of longer-term neurological deficits. One comparatively unexplored molecule that may contribute to exacerbation of injury or enhancement of recovery is the posttranslationally modified polysialic acid form of neural cell adhesion molecule, PSA-NCAM. This molecule is a critical modulator of central nervous system plasticity and reorganization after injury. In this study, we used controlled cortical impact (CCI to produce moderate or severe TBI in the mouse. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis were used to track the early (2, 24, and 48 hour and late (1 and 3 week time course and location of changes in the levels of PSA-NCAM after TBI. Variable and heterogeneous short- and long-term increases or decreases in expression were found. In general, alterations in PSA-NCAM levels were seen in the cerebral cortex immediately after injury, and these reductions persisted in brain regions distal to the primary injury site, especially after severe injury. This information provides a starting point to dissect the role of PSA-NCAM in TBI-related pathology and recovery.

  11. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects. PMID:26048176

  12. EFFECT OF TRAINING WITH NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON ELBOW FLEXION STRENGTH

    OpenAIRE

    Holcomb, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be used to prevent strength loss associated with post-surgical immobilization. Most studies testing the effectiveness of NMES have trained the knee extensors. The purpose of this investigation was to test the effectiveness of NMES when training the elbow flexors. Twenty-four students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: NMES training, isometric training or control. Testing and training were completed using a Biodex™ dynamometer. After ...

  13. The Effects on the Pulmonary Function of Normal Adults Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Respiration Pattern Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, Misuk

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test ...

  14. The Role of MuSK in Synapse Formation and Neuromuscular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Burden, Steven J.; Yumoto, Norihiro; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) is essential for each step in neuromuscular synapse formation. Before innervation, MuSK initiates postsynaptic differentiation, priming the muscle for synapse formation. Approaching motor axons recognize the primed, or prepatterned, region of muscle, causing motor axons to stop growing and differentiate into specialized nerve terminals. MuSK controls presynaptic differentiation by causing the clustering of Lrp4, which functions as a direct retrograde signal for p...

  15. The effects of band exercise using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on muscular strength in lower extremity

    OpenAIRE

    Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Kim, Su-Hyun; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a six-week elastic band exercise program using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) can increase isotonic strength of abductor muscles in the lower extremity. Twenty-eight healthy students from S university were divided into an experimental group and control group. Each group was participated in pre and post-measurement in isotonic strength using an isotonic analyzer, En-treeM. Experimental group performed elastic band exercise using...

  16. Evaluation of skeletal muscular involvement in neuromuscular disorders with thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent as well as severity of pathologic changes of skeletal muscles were analyzed with thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy (WBS) in 29 cases of various types of neuromuscular diseases (18 cases of myogenic and 11 cases of neurogenic muscular diseases) and 14 cases of normal controls. After intravenous injection of 2 mCi of thallium-201 chloride, WBS was performed for 15 minutes using a gamma camera with twin-opposed large rectangular detectors. Counts at brachia, forearms, thighs, and calves were assessed after reconstruction of the scintigram of the whole body by taking the geometric mean of the anterior and posterior data. WBS showed uniform tracer activities in the 4 extremities in 12 cases among 14 controls. Laterality in distribution of counts of both legs and arms was noted in the remaining 2 controls. WBS revealed decrease of perfusion in the extremities with muscular atrophy and/or weakness in neuromuscular diseases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of WBS for evaluation of skeletal muscle involvement was 75 to 80 % except for the bilateral brachia for which it decreased to 65 %. All of the three cases of muscular dystrophy with pseudohypertrophy of the calves or thighs showed unequivocal decrease of perfusion of those regions in WBS. In conclusion, thallium-201 WBS was considered to be a useful clinical means in evaluating the extent and severity of muscular involvement of various types of neuromuscular disorders. (author)

  17. Neuromuscular blockade in cardiac surgery: An update for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmerling Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been great advancements in cardiac surgery over the last two decades; the widespread use of off-pump aortocoronary bypass surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and robotic surgery have also changed the face of cardiac anaesthesia. The concept of "Fast-track anaesthesia" demands the use of nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs with short duration of action, combining the ability to provide (if necessary sufficiently profound neuromuscular blockade during surgery and immediate re-establishment of normal neuromuscular transmission at the end of surgery. Postoperative residual muscle paralysis is one of the major hurdles for immediate or early extubation after cardiac surgery. Nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs for cardiac surgery should therefore be easy to titrate, of rapid onset and short duration of action with a pathway of elimination independent from hepatic or renal dysfunction, and should equally not affect haemodynamic stability. The difference between repetitive bolus application and continuous infusion is outlined in this review, with the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of vecuronium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and cisatracurium. Kinemyography and acceleromyography are the most important currently used neuromuscular monitoring methods. Whereas monitoring at the adductor pollicis muscle is appropriate at the end of surgery, monitoring of the corrugator supercilii muscle better reflects neuromuscular blockade at more central, profound muscles, such as the diaphragm, larynx, or thoraco-abdominal muscles. In conclusion, cisatracurium or rocuronium is recommended for neuromuscular blockade in modern cardiac surgery.

  18. Activation of fast skeletal muscle troponin as a potential therapeutic approach for treating neuromuscular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Alan J.; Hartman, James J.; Hinken, Aaron C; Muci, Alexander R; Kawas, Raja; Driscoll, Lena; Godinez, Guillermo; Lee, Kenneth H; Marquez, David; Browne, William F; Chen, Michael M.; Clarke, David; Collibee, Scott E; Garard, Marc; Hansen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Limited neuromuscular input results in muscle weakness in neuromuscular disease either because of a reduction in the density of muscle innervation, the rate of neuromuscular junction activation or the efficiency of synaptic transmission 1 . We developed a small molecule fast skeletal troponin activator, CK-2017357, as a means to increase muscle strength by amplifying the response of muscle when neuromuscular input is diminished secondary to a neuromuscular disease. Binding selectively to the ...

  19. Neuromuscular synaptogenesis: coordinating partners with multiple functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabid, Houssam; Perez-Gonzalez, Anna P; Robitaille, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The formation of highly efficient and reliable synapses at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) relies on dynamic molecular interactions. Studies of the development and maturation of the NMJ have focused on events that are dependent on synaptic activity and that require the coordinated actions of nerve- and muscle-derived molecules with different targets and effects. More recently, perisynaptic Schwann cells--the glial cells at NMJs--have become an important focus of research. These glia concomitantly contribute to pre- and postsynaptic maturation while undergoing maturation themselves. Thus, an intricate 'danse à trois’'regulates the maturation of the NMJ to form a highly efficient communication unit, in which fine glial processes lie in close proximity to a highly concentrated population of postsynaptic receptors and perfectly aligned presynaptic release sites. PMID:25493308

  20. Anormalidades neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia

    OpenAIRE

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1993-01-01

    É feita revisão de literatura sobre as principais alterações do sistema neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia no ser humano e em modelos animais. A diminuição do diâmetro das fibras musculares após período de inatividade/imobilidade (desuso) deve-se à perda de miofibrilas periféricas não ocorrendo formação de core-targetóides ou diminuição da atividade da miofosforilase, próprias da desnervação; mantêm-se a liberação espontânea de acetilcolina e fatores tróficos na junção mio-neural;...

  1. Prevalence of complications in neuromuscular scoliosis surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Shallu; Wu, Chunsen; Andersen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our objectives were primarily to review the published literature on complications in neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) surgery and secondarily, by means of a meta-analysis, to determine the overall pooled rates (PR) of various complications associated with NMS surgery. METHODS: PubMed and...... Embase databases were searched for studies reporting the outcomes and complications of NMS surgery, published from 1997 to May 2011. We focused on NMS as defined by the Scoliosis Research Society's classification. We measured the pooled estimate of the overall complication rates (PR) using a random...... have moderate to high variability. The studies were heterogeneous in methodology and outcome types, which are plausible explanations for the variability; sensitivity analysis with respect to age at surgery, sample size, publication year and diagnosis could also partly explain this variability. In...

  2. Enhancement of neuromuscular activity by natural specimens and cultured mycelia of Cordyceps Sinensis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05 enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency.

  3. Neuromuscular impairment following backpack load carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Sam D; Fallowfield, Joanne L; Bilzon, James L J; Willems, Mark E T

    2013-01-01

    Load Carriage using backpacks is an occupational task and can be a recreational pursuit. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for changes in neuromuscular function of the m. quadriceps femoris following load carriage. The physiological responses of 10 male participants to voluntary and electrically stimulated isometric contractions were measured before and immediately after two hours of treadmill walking at 6.5 km•h(-1) during level walking with no load [LW], and level walking with load carriage (25 kg backpack) [LC]. Maximal voluntary contraction force decreased by 15 ± 11 % following LC (p=0.006), with no change following LW (p=0.292). Voluntary activation decreased after LW and LC (p=0.033) with no difference between conditions (p=0.405). Doublet contraction time decreased after both LW and LC (p=0.002), with no difference between conditions (p=0.232). There were no other changes in electrically invoked doublet parameters in either condition. The 20:50 Hz ratio did not change following LW (p=0.864) but decreased from 0.88 ± 0.04 to 0.84 ± 0.04 after LC (p=0.011) indicating reduced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during excitation contraction coupling. In conclusion, two hours of load carriage carrying a 25 kg back pack caused neuromuscular impairment through a decrease in voluntary activation (i.e. central drive) and fatigue or damage to the peripheral muscle, including impairment of the excitation contraction coupling process. This may reduce physical performance and increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury. PMID:24146709

  4. Exercise mitigates mitochondrial permeability transition pore and quality control mechanisms alterations in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Inês O; Passos, Emanuel; Diogo, Cátia V; Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Santos-Alves, Estela; Oliveira, Paulo J; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial quality control and apoptosis have been described as key components in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); exercise is recognized as a nonpharmacological strategy to counteract NASH-associated consequences. We aimed to analyze the effect of voluntary physical activity (VPA) and endurance training (ET) against NASH-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and mitochondrial and cellular quality control deleterious alterations. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into standard-diet sedentary (SS, n = 16), standard-diet VPA (n = 8), high-fat diet sedentary (HS, n = 16), and high-fat diet VPA (n = 8). After 9 weeks of diet treatment, half of the SS and HS groups were engaged in an ET program for 8 weeks, 5 days/week, 1 h/day. Liver mPTP susceptibility through osmotic swelling, mPTP-related proteins (cyclophilin D, Sirtuin3, Cofilin-1), markers of mitochondrial biogenesis ((mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator protein (PGC-1α)), dynamics (Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), Dynamin related protein 1, and Optic atrophy 1)), auto/mitophagy (Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, p62, PINK1, and Parkin), and apoptotic signaling (Bax, Bcl-2) and caspases-like activities were assessed. HS animals showed an increased susceptibility to mPTP, compromised expression of Tfam, Mfn1, PINK1, and Parkin and an increase in Bax content (HS vs. SS). ET and VPA improved biogenesis-related proteins (PGC-1α) and autophagy signaling (Beclin-1 and Beclin-1/Bcl-2 ratio) and decreased apoptotic signaling (caspases 8 activity, Bax content, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio). However, only ET decreased mPTP susceptibility and positively modulated Bcl-2, Tfam, Mfn1, Mfn2, PINK1, and Parkin content. In conclusion, exercise reduces the increased susceptibility to mPTP induced by NASH and promotes the increase of auto/mitophagy and mitochondrial

  5. DNA methylation changes separate allergic patients from healthy controls and may reflect altered CD4+ T-cell population structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm E Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered DNA methylation patterns in CD4(+ T-cells indicate the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in inflammatory diseases. However, the identification of these alterations is complicated by the heterogeneity of most inflammatory diseases. Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR is an optimal disease model for the study of DNA methylation because of its well-defined phenotype and etiology. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation (N(patients = 8, N(controls = 8 and gene expression (N(patients = 9, Ncontrols = 10 profiles of CD4(+ T-cells from SAR patients and healthy controls using Illumina's HumanMethylation450 and HT-12 microarrays, respectively. DNA methylation profiles clearly and robustly distinguished SAR patients from controls, during and outside the pollen season. In agreement with previously published studies, gene expression profiles of the same samples failed to separate patients and controls. Separation by methylation (N(patients = 12, N(controls = 12, but not by gene expression (N(patients = 21, N(controls = 21 was also observed in an in vitro model system in which purified PBMCs from patients and healthy controls were challenged with allergen. We observed changes in the proportions of memory T-cell populations between patients (N(patients = 35 and controls (N(controls = 12, which could explain the observed difference in DNA methylation. Our data highlight the potential of epigenomics in the stratification of immune disease and represents the first successful molecular classification of SAR using CD4(+ T cells.

  6. Genetics of Pediatric-Onset Motor Neuron and Neuromuscular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy; Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease; Muscular Dystrophy; Spinal Muscular Atrophy With Respiratory Distress 1; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Motor Neuron Disease; Neuromuscular Disease; Peroneal Muscular Atrophy; Fragile X Syndrome

  7. [Neuromuscular relaxation and CCMDP. The Zilgrei and Feldenkrais methods 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, F; Maiorana, C; Faccin, C

    1989-10-31

    The Authors show two neuromuscular release methods employed in the treatment of cranio-cervico-mandibular syndrome; these methods work at the place of origin of the pathology resolving the symptoms in different districts of the body. PMID:2701432

  8. Neuromuscular blockade in cardiac surgery: An update for clinicians

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmerling Thomas; Russo Gianluca; Bracco David

    2008-01-01

    There have been great advancements in cardiac surgery over the last two decades; the widespread use of off-pump aortocoronary bypass surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and robotic surgery have also changed the face of cardiac anaesthesia. The concept of "Fast-track anaesthesia" demands the use of nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs with short duration of action, combining the ability to provide (if necessary) sufficiently profound neuromuscular blockade during surgery and i...

  9. Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway Mutations Cause Neuromuscular Transmission Defect

    OpenAIRE

    Senderek, Jan; Müller, Juliane S.; Dusl, Marina; Strom, Tim M.; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Diepolder, Irmgard; Laval, Steven H.; Maxwell, Susan; Cossins, Judy; Krause, Sabine; Muelas, Nuria; Vilchez, Juan J.; Colomer, Jaume; Mallebrera, Cecilia Jimenez; Nascimento, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are synapses that transmit impulses from motor neurons to skeletal muscle fibers leading to muscle contraction. Study of hereditary disorders of neuromuscular transmission, termed congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS), has helped elucidate fundamental processes influencing development and function of the nerve-muscle synapse. Using genetic linkage, we find 18 different biallelic mutations in the gene encoding glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1)...

  10. Monitoring of neuromuscular function in the clinical setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, D; Brull, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will review the basics of neurostimulation in the perioperative period. Following a brief overview of neuromuscular physiology, the mechanism of action of depolarizing and non-depolarizing relaxants will be discussed. The principles of neurostimulation will then be applied clinically when different patterns of stimulation (single twitch, train-of-four, post-tetanic twitch count, double burst) are described. Clinical assessment of neuromuscular function will then be compared with bo...

  11. Degeneration of Neuromuscular Junction in Age and Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Rüdiger eRudolf; Muzamil Majid Khan; Siegfried eLabeit; Deschenes, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Functional denervation is a hallmark of aging sarcopenia as well as of muscular dystrophy. It is thought to be a major factor reducing skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the case of sarcopenia. Neuromuscular junctions serve as the interface between the nervous and skeletal muscular systems, and thus they may receive pathophysiological input of both pre- and postsynaptic origin. Consequently, neuromuscular junctions are good indicators of motor health on a systemic level. Indeed, upon sarco...

  12. Altered functional interaction hub between affective network and cognitive control network in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-li; Yang, Shu-zhen; Sun, Wei-li; Shi, Yu-zhong; Duan, Hui-feng

    2016-02-01

    Emotional and cognitive dysregulation in major depressive disorder (MDD) have been consistently considered to be attributed to structural and functional abnormalities in affective network (AN) and cognitive control network (CCN). This study was to investigate the functional connectivity (FC) patterns and altered functional interactions between both networks in MDD. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging in the AN and the CCN in 25 MDD and 35 healthy controls (HC). The seeds were from voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis results. Then FC within the AN was assessed from a seed placed in the left amygdala (AMG) and FC within CCN was determined by placing seeds in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Compared with HC, MDD showed reduced FC between left AMG and bilateral precuneus and right anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) within AN and reduced FC between right DLPFC and left cuneus, left lingual gyrus, and right ACC within CCN. An interaction hub of altered FC in MDD between AN and CCN located in the right ACC. Interestingly, the altered FC between right ACC and left AMG was negatively correlated with depressive symptom score while the altered FC between right ACC and DLPFC was positively correlated the executive function in MDD. The right ACC not only supports the cognitive and emotional processes, but also is an altered functional interaction hub between AN and CCN in MDD. It further suggest multiple sources of dysregulation in AN and CCN implicate both top-down cognitive control and bottom-up emotional expression dysfunction in MDD. PMID:26519557

  13. Recovery from mivacurium-induced neuromuscular blockade is not affected by anticonvulsant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellish, W S; Thalji, Z; Brundidge, P K; Tempelhoff, R

    1996-01-01

    Long-term chronic anticonvulsant therapy produces a resistance to the effects of all nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents studied to date. Since the metabolism of mivacurium is unique among the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, the effect of anticonvulsants on its recovery parameters was examined. Forty-five patients were separated into three groups based on the number of chronic anticonvulsant medications the subjects were taking: subjects in group 1, the control group, took no anticonvulsant medication; group 2 subjects took one medication; and group 3 subjects took two medications. Mivacurium, 0.15 mg/kg i.v., was administered after induction of general anesthesia with thiopental sodium, 4-6 mg/kg, and fentanyl 2-4 micrograms/kg i.v. Maintenance anesthesia consisted of N2O in O2. 0.2-0.3% end-tidal isoflurane, and a fentanyl infusion. The evoked compound electromyograph (ECEMG) of the adductor pollicis-brevis muscle was measured for time of onset, T-1 (time at which ECEMG signal reaches 5, 25, 50, and 75% of baseline), TR (TOF ratio), and recovery index. T-1 at 25% was 18.2 +/- 1.8, 20.7 +/- 1.9, and 21.5 +/- 1.4 min for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with TR at 25% being 23.7 +/- 2.3, 26.9 +/- 2.4, and 27.3 +/- 2.3 min. No significant differences were noted in neuromuscular recovery between groups at any time point. These results fail to demonstrate the resistance to the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade of mivacurium that has been observed with other nondepolarizing agents. PMID:8719185

  14. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Improves Breathing-Swallowing Interaction of Ventilator Dependent Neuromuscular Patients: A Prospective Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garguilo, Marine; Lejaille, Michèle; Vaugier, Isabelle; Orlikowski, David; Terzi, Nicolas; Lofaso, Frédéric; Prigent, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory involvement in neuromuscular disorders may contribute to impaired breathing-swallowing interactions, swallowing disorders and malnutrition. We investigated whether the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) controlled by the patient could improve swallowing performances in a population of neuromuscular patients requiring daytime NIV. Methods Ten neuromuscular patients with severe respiratory failure requiring extensive NIV use were studied while swallowing without and with NIV (while ventilated with a modified ventilator allowing the patient to withhold ventilation as desired). Breathing-swallowing interactions were investigated by chin electromyography, cervical piezoelectric sensor, nasal flow recording and inductive plethysmography. Two water-bolus sizes (5 and 10ml) and a textured yogurt bolus were tested in a random order. Results NIV use significantly improved swallowing fragmentation (defined as the number of respiratory interruption of the swallowing of a single bolus) (p = 0.003) and breathing-swallowing synchronization (with a significant increase of swallows followed by an expiration) (p <0.0001). Patient exhibited piecemeal swallowing which was not influenced by NIV use (p = 0.07). NIV use also significantly reduced dyspnea during swallowing (p = 0.04) while preserving swallowing comfort, regardless of bolus type. Conclusion The use of patient controlled NIV improves swallowing parameters in patients with severe neuromuscular respiratory failure requiring daytime NIV, without impairing swallowing comfort. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01519388 PMID:26938617

  15. Algorithms Based on CWT and Classifiers to Control Cardiac Alterations and Stress Using an ECG and a SCR

    OpenAIRE

    Amaia Méndez Zorrilla; Begoña García Zapirain; María Viqueira Villarejo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of using a commercial pulsimeter as an electrocardiogram (ECG) for wireless detection of cardiac alterations and stress levels for home control. For these purposes, signal processing techniques (Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and J48) have been used, respectively. The designed algorithm analyses the ECG signal and is able to detect the heart rate (99.42%), arrhythmia (93.48%) and extrasystoles (99.29%). The detection of stress level is complemented with Ski...

  16. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state...

  17. Neuromuscular strain as a contributor to cognitive and other symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome: hypothesis and conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Peter C; Fontaine, Kevin R; Violand, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have heightened sensitivity and increased symptoms following various physiologic challenges, such as orthostatic stress, physical exercise, and cognitive challenges. Similar heightened sensitivity to the same stressors in fibromyalgia (FM) has led investigators to propose that these findings reflect a state of central sensitivity. A large body of evidence supports the concept of central sensitivity in FM. A more modest literature provides partial support for this model in CFS, particularly with regard to pain. Nonetheless, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction have not been explained by the central sensitivity data thus far. Peripheral factors have attracted attention recently as contributors to central sensitivity. Work by Brieg, Sunderland, and others has emphasized the ability of the nervous system to undergo accommodative changes in length in response to the range of limb and trunk movements carried out during daily activity. If that ability to elongate is impaired-due to movement restrictions in tissues adjacent to nerves, or due to swelling or adhesions within the nerve itself-the result is an increase in mechanical tension within the nerve. This adverse neural tension, also termed neurodynamic dysfunction, is thought to contribute to pain and other symptoms through a variety of mechanisms. These include mechanical sensitization and altered nociceptive signaling, altered proprioception, adverse patterns of muscle recruitment and force of muscle contraction, reduced intra-neural blood flow, and release of inflammatory neuropeptides. Because it is not possible to differentiate completely between adverse neural tension and strain in muscles, fascia, and other soft tissues, we use the more general term "neuromuscular strain." In our clinical work, we have found that neuromuscular restrictions are common in CFS, and that many symptoms of CFS can be reproduced by selectively adding neuromuscular strain during the

  18. Caffeine ingestion reverses the circadian rhythm effects on neuromuscular performance in highly resistance-trained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mora-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate whether caffeine ingestion counteracts the morning reduction in neuromuscular performance associated with the circadian rhythm pattern. METHODS: Twelve highly resistance-trained men underwent a battery of neuromuscular tests under three different conditions; i morning (10:00 a.m. with caffeine ingestion (i.e., 3 mg kg(-1; AM(CAFF trial; ii morning (10:00 a.m. with placebo ingestion (AM(PLAC trial; and iii afternoon (18:00 p.m. with placebo ingestion (PM(PLAC trial. A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo controlled experimental design was used, with all subjects serving as their own controls. The neuromuscular test battery consisted in the measurement of bar displacement velocity during free-weight full-squat (SQ and bench press (BP exercises against loads that elicit maximum strength (75% 1RM load and muscle power adaptations (1 m s(-1 load. Isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC(LEG and isometric electrically evoked strength of the right knee (EVOK(LEG were measured to identify caffeine's action mechanisms. Steroid hormone levels (serum testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone were evaluated at the beginning of each trial (PRE. In addition, plasma norepinephrine (NE and epinephrine were measured PRE and at the end of each trial following a standardized intense (85% 1RM 6 repetitions bout of SQ (POST. RESULTS: In the PM(PLAC trial, dynamic muscle strength and power output were significantly enhanced compared with AM(PLAC treatment (3.0%-7.5%; p≤0.05. During AM(CAFF trial, muscle strength and power output increased above AM(PLAC levels (4.6%-5.7%; p≤0.05 except for BP velocity with 1 m s(-1 load (p = 0.06. During AM(CAFF, EVOK(LEG and NE (a surrogate of maximal muscle sympathetic nerve activation were increased above AM(PLAC trial (14.6% and 96.8% respectively; p≤0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that caffeine ingestion reverses the morning neuromuscular declines in highly resistance

  19. Neuromuscular Fatigue During 200 M Breaststroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Conceição

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were: i to analyze activation patterns of four upper limb muscles (duration of the active and non-active phase in each lap of 200m breaststroke, ii quantify neuromuscular fatigue, with kinematics and physiologic assessment. Surface electromyogram was collected for the biceps brachii, deltoid anterior, pectoralis major and triceps brachii of nine male swimmers performing a maximal 200m breaststroke trial. Swimming speed, SL, SR, SI decreased from the 1st to the 3rd lap. SR increased on the 4th lap (35.91 ± 2.99 stroke·min-1. Peak blood lactate was 13.02 ± 1.72 mmol·l-1 three minutes after the maximal trial. The EMG average rectified value (ARV increased at the end of the race for all selected muscles, but the deltoid anterior and pectoralis major in the 1st lap and for biceps brachii, deltoid anterior and triceps brachii in the 4th lap. The mean frequency of the power spectral density (MNF decreased at the 4th lap for all muscles. These findings suggest the occurrence of fatigue at the beginning of the 2nd lap in the 200m breaststroke trial, characterized by changes in kinematic parameters and selective changes in upper limb muscle action. There was a trend towards a non-linear fatigue state.

  20. Explicit Control of Implicit Responses: Simple Directives can alter IAT Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wallaert, Matthew; Ward, Andrew; Mann, Traci

    2010-01-01

    Research has begun to reveal the malleability of implicit prejudice. One measure of this construct, the race Implicit Association Test (IAT), represents a widely-used tool to assess individuals’ positive and negative associations with different racial groups. In two studies, we demonstrate the capacity of salient pressures to alter implicit racial responses. In Study 1, an enhancement of promoting pressures through an explicit instruction to stereotype was sufficient to increase pro-White bia...

  1. Neuromuscular physiology of Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma (Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C S; Mettrick, D F

    1984-12-01

    The physiology of the neuromuscular systems in Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma was studied in vitro using intact, adult worm and strips of worm body wall. Intact worms were insensitive to ionic changes in the in vitro buffering system. However, strips of body wall containing longitudinal muscles were extremely sensitive to ionic manipulation. In intact worms tension generated in the strobila had two components; small brief tension peaks up to 500 mg amplitude are superimposed on larger, longer peaks of up to 1200 mg amplitude. Removal of the scolex and neck region either failed to show significant changes in tension, or showed a reduction in amplitude but not of frequency. Muscle contraction of both H. diminuta and H. microstoma were qualitatively similar. In split-worm preparations the concentration of Ca2+ in the bathing solution significantly affected both spontaneous and evoked contractions in H. diminuta and H. microstoma; the addition of CaCl2 greatly reduced the amplitude and frequency of the contractions. The chloride salts of cobalt, barium, cadmium and manganese elicited prolonged contractions of the longitudinal musculature of both H. diminuta and H. microstoma. While CoCl2 was the most effective in stimulating muscle contraction, the magnitude of the response varied with the concentration of Ca2+ in the bath. The results indicate that peripheral inhibition is extremely important in cestode motor control and that extracellular calcium ions may regulate the peripheral inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:6440096

  2. Using factor analysis to identify neuromuscular synergies during treadmill walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, L. A.; Layne, C. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Zhang, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    Neuroscientists are often interested in grouping variables to facilitate understanding of a particular phenomenon. Factor analysis is a powerful statistical technique that groups variables into conceptually meaningful clusters, but remains underutilized by neuroscience researchers presumably due to its complicated concepts and procedures. This paper illustrates an application of factor analysis to identify coordinated patterns of whole-body muscle activation during treadmill walking. Ten male subjects walked on a treadmill (6.4 km/h) for 20 s during which surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was obtained from the left side sternocleidomastoid, neck extensors, erector spinae, and right side biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius. Factor analysis revealed 65% of the variance of seven muscles sampled aligned with two orthogonal factors, labeled 'transition control' and 'loading'. These two factors describe coordinated patterns of muscular activity across body segments that would not be evident by evaluating individual muscle patterns. The results show that factor analysis can be effectively used to explore relationships among muscle patterns across all body segments to increase understanding of the complex coordination necessary for smooth and efficient locomotion. We encourage neuroscientists to consider using factor analysis to identify coordinated patterns of neuromuscular activation that would be obscured using more traditional EMG analyses.

  3. Movement-Related Cortical Potential Amplitude Reduction after Cycling Exercise Relates to the Extent of Neuromuscular Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Jérôme Nicolas; Place, Nicolas; Borrani, Fabio; Kayser, Bengt; Barral, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 s before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 min at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence. The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (-10 ± 8%) and the time trial (-21 ± 9%). The voluntary activation level (VAL; -6 ± 8 and -12 ± 10%), peak twitch (Pt; -21 ± 16 and -32 ± 17%), and paired stimuli (P100 Hz; -7 ± 11 and -12 ± 13%) were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100 Hz (r = 0.61), and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r = 0.64). In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction. PMID:27313522

  4. Altered Dynamic Postural Control during Step Turning in Persons with Early-Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooeun Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons with early-stage Parkinson’s disease (EPD do not typically experience marked functional deficits but may have difficulty with turning tasks. Studies evaluating turning have focused on individuals in advanced stages of the disease. The purpose of this study was to compare postural control strategies adopted during turning in persons with EPD to those used by healthy control (HC subjects. Fifteen persons with EPD, diagnosed within 3 years, and 10 HC participated. Participants walked 4 meters and then turned 90°. Dynamic postural control was quantified as the distance between the center of pressure (COP and the extrapolated center of mass (eCOM. Individuals with EPD demonstrated significantly shorter COP-eCOM distances compared to HC. These findings suggest that dynamic postural control during turning is altered even in the early stages of PD.

  5. Lumbopelvic flexibility modulates neuromuscular responses during trunk flexion-extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Artacho-Pérez, Carla; Biviá-Roig, Gemma

    2016-06-01

    Various stimuli such as the flexibility of lumbopelvic structures influence the neuromuscular responses of the trunk musculature, leading to different load sharing strategies and reflex muscle responses from the afferents of lumbopelvic mechanoreceptors. This link between flexibility and neuromuscular response has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lumbopelvic flexibility and neuromuscular responses of the erector spinae, hamstring and abdominal muscles during trunk flexion-extension. Lumbopelvic movement patterns were measured in 29 healthy women, who were separated into two groups according to their flexibility during trunk flexion-extension. The electromyographic responses of erector spinae, rectus abdominis and biceps femoris were also recorded. Subjects with greater lumbar flexibility had significantly less pelvic flexibility and vice versa. Subjects with greater pelvic flexibility had a higher rate of relaxation and lower levels of hamstring activation during maximal trunk flexion. The neuromuscular response patterns of the hamstrings seem partially modulated by pelvic flexibility. Not so with the lumbar erector spinae and lumbar flexibility, despite the assertions of some previous studies. The results of this study improve our knowledge of the relationships between trunk joint flexibility and neuromuscular responses, a relationship which may play a role in low back pain. PMID:27155332

  6. Using mouse cranial muscles to investigate neuromuscular pathology in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, L M; Gillingwater, T H; Parson, S H

    2010-11-01

    Neuromuscular pathology is a classic hallmark of many diseases such as muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. It is also a feature of many congenital and acquired myopathies and neuropathies such as diabetic neuropathy and toxin-exposure. The availability of experimentally accessible nerve-muscle preparations from rodent models in which pathological events can be studied in nerve and muscle, as well as at the neuromuscular junction, is therefore of fundamental importance for investigating neuromuscular disease. The group of small cranial muscles, which move the ear in the mouse provide ideal experimental preparations for the study of neuromuscular disease in vivo, but information regarding their anatomical and functional characteristics is currently lacking. Here, we provide a detailed description of the levator auris longus, auricularis superior, abductor auris longus and interscutularis muscles. In addition, we briefly review their differential fibre type and developmental characteristics, which can be exploited to aid our understanding of neuromuscular vulnerability and to provide preferable alternatives to more traditional muscle preparations such as gastrocnemius, soleus and diaphragm. PMID:20637618

  7. Steroidal Ammonium Compounds as New Neuromuscular Blocking Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhigang; Hu, Hao; Tang, Jiazhi; Liu, Zhiying; Yang, Yue; Qiu, Guofu; Xiao, Yuling; Liu, Peng; Hu, Xianming; Zhou, Xiaoju; Hong, Xuechuan

    2016-05-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents are widely used as an anesthesia auxiliary in surgery, which induce relaxation of skeletal muscles by blocking signal transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Many neuromuscular blocking agents s were developed over the past decades, but none of them fully meets the needs of the clinic by various reasons. In this study, a series of quaternary ammonium steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents were synthesized and evaluated on isolated mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragms for their bioactivities. The initial separation of mono- and bis-quaternary ammonium compounds turned out to be very challenging on regular silica gel chromatography. Therefore, a facile purification method, in which the silica gel was pretreated with methanolic sodium bromide solution, was finally achieved. Compounds 3g (0.36 μm) and 4g (0.37 μm) exhibited excellent neuromuscular blocking activities, which were about sixfold to sevenfold higher in potency than that of rocuronium (2.50 μm). In addition, other bis-quaternized compounds also showed good potencies close to that of rocuronium. Furthermore, the preliminary structure-activity relationship of this series was also elucidated. Benzyl group was found to be a promising quaternary group in this series. PMID:26684806

  8. Neuromuscular function and fatigue resistance of the plantar flexors following short-term cycling endurance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBehrens

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after eight weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0-100, 100-200 ms and isometric maximum voluntary contraction of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave, peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that the endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue

  9. Cultural and chemical pest control methods alter habitat suitability for biological control agents: An example from Wisconsin commercial cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated pest control program requires an in-depth understanding of the compatibility of all control strategies used. In Wisconsin commercial cranberry production, early-season control strategies may include either a broad-spectrum insecticide application or a corresponding spring flood, along ...

  10. Neuromuscular Fatigue Is Not Different between Constant and Variable Frequency Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaiordanidou, Maria; Billot, Maxime; Varray, Alain; Martin, Alain

    2014-01-01

    This study compared fatigue development of the triceps surae induced by two electrical stimulation protocols composed of constant and variable frequency trains (CFTs, VFTs, 450 trains, 30 Hz, 167 ms ON, 500 ms OFF and 146 ms ON, 500 ms OFF respectively). For the VFTs protocol a doublet (100 Hz) was used at the beginning of each train. The intensity used evoked 30% of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and was defined using CFTs. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and after each protocol. Changes in excitation-contraction coupling were assessed by analysing the M-wave [at rest (Mmax) and during MVC (Msup)] and associated peak twitch (Pt). H-reflex [at rest (Hmax) and during MVC (Hsup)] and the motor evoked potential (MEP) during MVC were studied to assess spinal and corticospinal excitability of the soleus muscle. MVC decrease was similar between the protocols (−8%, P<0.05). Mmax, Msup and Pt decreased after both protocols (P<0.01). Hmax/Mmax was decreased (P<0.05), whereas Hsup/Msup and MEP/Msup remained unchanged after both protocols. The results indicate that CFTs and VFTs gave rise to equivalent neuromuscular fatigue. This fatigue resulted from alterations taking place at the muscular level. The finding that cortical and spinal excitability remained unchanged during MVC indicates that spinal and/or supraspinal mechanisms were activated to compensate for the loss of spinal excitability at rest. PMID:24392155

  11. Setting Up PID DC Motor Speed Control Alteration Parameters Using Particle Swarm Optimization Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boumediène ALLAOUA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an intelligent controller of DC Motor drive is designed using particle swarm optimization (PSO method for formative the optimal proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller Tuning parameters. The proposed approach has superior feature, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristics and very good computational performances efficiency. The DC Motor Scheduling PID-PSO controller is modeled in MATLAB environment. Comparing with fuzzy logic controller using PSO intelligent algorithms, the planned method is more proficient in improving the speed loop response stability, the steady state error is reduced, the rising time is perfected and the disturbances do not affect the performances of driving motor with no overtaking.

  12. Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brueckmann, B; Sasaki, N; Grobara, P; Li, M K; Woo, T; de Bie, J; Maktabi, M; Lee, J; Kwo, J; Pino, R; Sabouri, A S; McGovern, F; Stæhr Rye, Anne Kathrine; Eikermann, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed...... residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission, defined as a train-of-four (TOF) ratio <0.9, using TOF-Watch® SX. Key secondary endpoint was time between reversal agent administration and operating room discharge-readiness; analysed with analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Of 154 patients randomized, 150...... evidence of partial paralysis. Time between reversal agent administration and operating room discharge-readiness was shorter for sugammadex vs usual care (14.7 vs 18.6 min respectively; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: After abdominal surgery, sugammadex reversal eliminated residual neuromuscular blockade in the PACU...

  13. Outcome measures in neuromuscular disease: is the world still flat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Michael P; Van den Bergh, Peter Y K

    2015-09-01

    Valid, responsive, and meaningful outcome measures for the measurement of the impairment, activity limitations, and quality of life in patients with neuromuscular disease are crucial to identify the natural history of disease and benefits of therapy in clinical practice and trials. Although understanding of many aspects of neuromuscular diseases has advanced dramatically, the development of outcome measures has received less attention. The scales developed from Rasch theory by the PeriNomS Group represent the biggest significant shift in thought in neuromuscular outcome measures for decades. There remain problems with many of them, and further developments are required. However, incorporating them into our outcome sets for daily use and in clinical trials will lead to the more efficient capture of meaningful change and will result in better assessment of individuals and groups of patients in both clinical trials and neurological practice. PMID:26114965

  14. Urgencias en patología neuromuscular Emergencies in neuromuscular pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ayuso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La debilidad muscular aguda (DMA es el síntoma predominante de las urgencias neuromusculares, especialmente si afecta a la musculatura respiratoria u orofaríngea. La DMA es un síndrome plurietiológico y con distintos niveles lesionales en la unidad motora. Dentro del amplio grupo de enfermedades neuromusculares, las que con mayor frecuencia provocan DMA e insuficiencia respiratoria son el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB y la miastenia gravis (MG. El SGB constituye la causa más frecuente de parálisis flácida aguda; puede ocasionar fallo respiratorio en un tercio de los casos precisando ventilación mecánica. El diagnóstico preciso de este síndrome permitirá iniciar tratamiento inmunomodulador, que ha demostrado que modifica el curso de la enfermedad. Además, la valoración clínica de los pacientes y el conocimiento de sencillos tests neurofisiológicos y de función respiratoria guiarán la decisión de ventilación mecánica evitando la intubación de urgencia. La urgencia más frecuente que ocasiona la MG es la crisis miasténica, definida por el deterioro en la función bulbar con insuficiencia respiratoria aguda y riesgo de parada respiratoria. Ocurre en un 15-20% de pacientes miasténicos y puede desencadenarse por múltiples factores. Además del diagnóstico preciso de la crisis es importante la supresión de los factores desencadenantes y medidas de soporte ventilatorio. Entre las medidas farmacológicas son la plasmaféresis y las inmunoglobulinas intravenosas los instrumentos más útiles en la actualidad; estos tratamientos no sustituyen la vigilancia intensiva y el reconocimiento de los signos inminentes de fallo respiratorio que implican soporte ventilatorio invasivo o no invasivo.Acute muscle weakness (AMW is the predominant symptom of neuromuscular emergencies, especially if it affects the respiratory or oropharyngeal musculature . AMW is a multi-etiological syndrome, with different lesion levels in the motor unit

  15. Anormalidades neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia Neuromuscular abnormalities in disuse, cachexia and ageing

    OpenAIRE

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1993-01-01

    É feita revisão de literatura sobre as principais alterações do sistema neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia no ser humano e em modelos animais. A diminuição do diâmetro das fibras musculares após período de inatividade/imobilidade (desuso) deve-se à perda de miofibrilas periféricas não ocorrendo formação de core-targetóides ou diminuição da atividade da miofosforilase, próprias da desnervação; mantêm-se a liberação espontânea de acetilcolina e fatores tróficos na junção mio-neural;...

  16. Neuromuscular disorders in acute leukemia and lymphoma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Politova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms of neuromuscular complications, their clinical presentation, methods of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment options arepresented. The material is presented according to the level of nervous system damage, with inclusion of different clinical entities. Authors revieweda wide range of disease – disease of the spinal cord, peripheral nerves and plexus, neuromuscular junction and muscle – as a result of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Systemic effects of drugs on peripheral nervous system, various departments of which can be simultaneously involved in the pathological process, were also highlighted.

  17. Neuromuscular exercise as treatment of degenerative knee disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is recommended as first-line treatment of degenerative knee disease. Our hypothesis is that neuromuscular exercise is feasible and at least as effective as tradionally used strength or aerobic training, but aims to more closely target the sensorimotor deficiencies and functional...... instability associated with the degenerative knee disease than traditionally used training methods.SUMMARY FOR TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGECurrent data suggests that the effect from neuromuscular exercise on pain and function is comparable to the effects seen from other forms of exercise....

  18. Effect of exercise therapy on neuromuscular activity and knee strength in female adolescents with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S.; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, Jens L.; Roos, Ewa M.; Rasmussen, Sten; Madeleine, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    random subsample of 57 female adolescents was included and tested at baseline and after 3months. Neuromuscular control of the knee was quantified as the complexity of surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis during stair descent. Secondary outcomes were complexity of knee...... during stair descent than those receiving patient education alone. This suggest that exercise therapy has an effect not only on self-reported outcome measures but also on objective measures of thigh muscle function in female adolescents with patellofemoral pain....

  19. Power spectrum scale invariance as a neural marker of cocaine misuse and altered cognitive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime S. Ide

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest disrupted connectivity dynamics in the fronto-parietal areas in association with post-signal behavioral adjustment in cocaine addicts. These new findings support PSSI as a neural marker of impaired cognitive control in cocaine addiction.

  20. Testosterone modulates altered prefrontal control of emotional actions in psychopathic offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Volman, I.A.C.; Borries, A.K.L. von; Bulten, B.H.; Verkes, R.J.; Toni, I.; Roelofs, K.

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathic individuals are notorious for their controlled goal-directed aggressive behavior. Yet, during social challenges, they often show uncontrolled emotional behavior. Healthy individuals can control their social emotional behavior through anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) downregulation of neural activity in the amygdala, with testosterone modulating aPFC–amygdala coupling. This study tests whether individual differences in this neuroendocrine system relate to the paradoxical lack of ...

  1. Testosterone Modulates Altered Prefrontal Control of Emotional Actions in Psychopathic Offenders 1,2,3

    OpenAIRE

    Volman, Inge; von Borries, Anna Katinka Louise; Bulten, Berend Hendrik; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Toni, Ivan; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychopathic individuals are notorious for their controlled goal-directed aggressive behavior. Yet, during social challenges, they often show uncontrolled emotional behavior. Healthy individuals can control their social emotional behavior through anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) downregulation of neural activity in the amygdala, with testosterone modulating aPFC–amygdala coupling. This study tests whether individual differences in this neuroendocrine system relate to the paradoxical...

  2. Influência do lítio no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio e pelo cisatracúrio: estudo em preparações nervo frênico-diafragma de rato Influencia del litio en el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el atracurio y por el cisatracurio: estudio en preparo nervio frénico-diafragma del ratón Influence of lithium on the neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium and cisatracurium: study on rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Cristina Antoniassi Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    ção pré-sináptica.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El litio, fármaco ampliamente utilizado en los disturbios bipolares, puede interactuar con los bloqueadores neuromusculares. Los mecanismos para explicar sus efectos en la transmisión neuromuscular y en la interacción con bloqueadores neuromusculares son controvertidos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar, en diafragma de ratón, los efectos del litio sobre la respuesta muscular al estímulo indirecto y la posible interacción con los bloqueadores neuromusculares. MÉTODO: Se utilizaron ratones con peso entre 250 y 300 g, sacrificados bajo anestesia con uretana. La preparación nervio frénico-diafragma se montó de acuerdo con la técnica de Bulbring. El diafragma se mantuvo bajo tensión, ligado a un transductor isométrico y sometido a la estimulación indirecta de 0,1 Hz de frecuencia. Las contracciones del diafragma fueron registradas en un fisiógrafo. Del análisis de la amplitud de las respuestas musculares se evaluaron los efectos de los fármacos: litio (1,5 mg.mL-1; atracurio (20 µg.mL-1 y cisatracurio (3 µg.mL-1 empleados aisladamente; de la asociación litio-bloqueadores neuromusculares; y del litio en el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el atracurio (35 µg.mL-1 y cisatracurio (5 µg.mL-1. Los efectos se evaluaron antes y 45 minutos después de la adición de los fármacos. También se estudiaron los efectos del litio en los potenciales de membrana (PM y potenciales de placa terminal en miniatura (PPTM. RESULTADOS: El litio aisladamente no alteró la amplitud de las respuestas musculares, pero sí que redujo significativamente el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el atracurio y el cisatracurio. No alteró el PM y ocasionó un aumento inicial de la frecuencia de los PPTM. CONCLUSIONES: El litio empleado aisladamente no comprometió la transmisión neuromuscular y aumentó la resistencia al efecto del atracurio y del cisatracurio. No mostró acción sobre la fibra muscular, siendo que las

  3. Anormalidades neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available É feita revisão de literatura sobre as principais alterações do sistema neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia no ser humano e em modelos animais. A diminuição do diâmetro das fibras musculares após período de inatividade/imobilidade (desuso deve-se à perda de miofibrilas periféricas não ocorrendo formação de core-targetóides ou diminuição da atividade da miofosforilase, próprias da desnervação; mantêm-se a liberação espontânea de acetilcolina e fatores tróficos na junção mio-neural; em geral são afetadas preferencialmente fibras II, que podem assumir forma angular. Existe um processo contínuo intrínseco de envelhecimento de nervos e músculos, com desnervação e reinervação lenta e progressiva; o número de unidades motoras se reduz após 60 anos, sem ocorrência de atividade elétrica desnervatória; a quantidade de acetilcolina liberada nos neurônios terminais e a capacidade máxima de utilização de oxigênio estão diminuídas; a redução da capacidade oxidativa mitocondrial pode explicar o aumento de fibras I, mantendo-se o equilíbrio energético. Após poucas semanas de caquexia as fibras musculares podem ter o diâmetro reduzido em 30%, essa redução ocorre em ordem decrescente nos músculos dos membros inferiores, superiores e tronco; existe atrofia II preferencial com fibras angulares ocasionais, redução de RNA/síntese proteica, mantendo-se DNA normal.

  4. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Alters Auditory-motor Integration For Voice Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Ziyi; Yan, Nan; Jones, Jeffery A.; Guo, Zhiqiang; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-refractory focal epilepsy in adults. Previous research has shown that patients with TLE exhibit decreased performance in listening to speech sounds and deficits in the cortical processing of auditory information. Whether TLE compromises auditory-motor integration for voice control, however, remains largely unknown. To address this question, event-related potentials (ERPs) and vocal responses to vocal pitch errors (1/2 or 2 semitones upward) heard in auditory feedback were compared across 28 patients with TLE and 28 healthy controls. Patients with TLE produced significantly larger vocal responses but smaller P2 responses than healthy controls. Moreover, patients with TLE exhibited a positive correlation between vocal response magnitude and baseline voice variability and a negative correlation between P2 amplitude and disease duration. Graphical network analyses revealed a disrupted neuronal network for patients with TLE with a significant increase of clustering coefficients and path lengths as compared to healthy controls. These findings provide strong evidence that TLE is associated with an atypical integration of the auditory and motor systems for vocal pitch regulation, and that the functional networks that support the auditory-motor processing of pitch feedback errors differ between patients with TLE and healthy controls. PMID:27356768

  5. P300 amplitude alterations during inhibitory control in persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A; Knoefel, Frank; Lord, Courtney; Breau, Michael; Sweet, Lisa; Goubran, Rafik; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Deficits in executive function are highly noticeable in Alzheimer's disease, and recent behavioral studies have shown that such deficits - particularly during inhibitory control - can also be found in persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control in persons with MCI. A group of persons with MCI and a group healthy older adults performed a Go/NoGo task while electroencephalogram was recorded. Our results revealed that persons with MCI performed less accurately than healthy controls during the Go and NoGo conditions. In addition, we found reduced P300 amplitudes during Go and NoGo conditions relative to healthy older adults. Our results suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms associated with target detection and evaluation (Go P300) and response inhibition (NoGo P300) are compromised in persons with MCI. PMID:27270233

  6. Brain Oscillatory Correlates of Altered Executive Functioning in Positive and Negative Symptomatic Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Barbara; Minarik, Tamas; Griesmayr, Birgit; Stelzig-Schoeler, Renate; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Sauseng, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Working Memory and executive functioning deficits are core characteristics of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Electrophysiological research indicates that altered patterns of neural oscillatory mechanisms underpinning executive functioning are associated with the psychiatric disorder. Such brain oscillatory changes have been found in local amplitude differences at gamma and theta frequencies in task-specific cortical areas. Moreover, interregional interactions are also disrupted as signified by decreased phase coherence of fronto-posterior theta activity in schizophrenia patients. However, schizophrenia is not a one-dimensional psychiatric disorder but has various forms and expressions. A common distinction is between positive and negative symptomatology but most patients have both negative and positive symptoms to some extent. Here, we examined three groups—healthy controls, predominantly negative, and predominantly positive symptomatic schizophrenia patients—when performing a working memory task with increasing cognitive demand and increasing need for executive control. We analyzed brain oscillatory activity in the three groups separately and investigated how predominant symptomatology might explain differences in brain oscillatory patterns. Our results indicate that differences in task specific fronto-posterior network activity (i.e., executive control network) expressed by interregional phase synchronization are able to account for working memory dysfunctions between groups. Local changes in the theta and gamma frequency range also show differences between patients and healthy controls, and more importantly, between the two patient groups. We conclude that differences in oscillatory brain activation patterns related to executive processing can be an indicator for positive and negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, changes in cognitive and especially executive functioning in patients are expressed by alterations in a task

  7. Effectiveness of teleassistance on the improvement of health related quality of life in people with neuromuscular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Martínez; Amaia Jometón; Esther Lázaro; Imanol Amayra; Juan Francisco López-Paz; Manuel Pérez; Patricia Caballero; Luís De Nicolás; Alberto Lasa; Jorge Roldán; Natalia Martín; Joseba Bárcena; Luís Varona

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuromuscular diseases are a group of pathologies characterized by the progressive loss of muscular strength, atrophy or hypertrophy, fatigue, muscle pain and degeneration of the muscles and the nerves controlling them (The French Muscular Dystrophy Association, 2004). Perceived isolation and health related quality of life are affected in the majority of cases due to the illness chronicity. Internet, and in this way, the use of chat and videoconferencing programs, is an alternative...

  8. Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by altering gas flow rate in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by varying gas flow rate is proposed in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma treatment. • Without employing additional reactive gas, requiring more plasma power and longer treatment time, hydrophilicity of polyimide films was improved after the low-gas-flow plasma treatment. • The gas flow rate affects the hydrophilic properties of polymer surface by changing the discharge atmosphere in the particular geometry of the reactor developed. • Low-gas-flow induced wettability control suggests effective and economical plasma treatment. - Abstract: This paper reports on controlling the hydrophilicity of polyimide films using atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasmas by changing only the gas flow rate. The gas flow changed the discharge atmosphere by mixing the feed gas with ambient air because of the particular geometry of the reactor developed for the study, and a low gas flow rate was found to be favorable because it generated abundant nitrogen or oxygen species that served as sources of hydrophilic functional groups over the polymer surface. After low-gas-flow plasma treatment, the polymer surface exhibited hydrophilic characteristics with increased surface roughness and enhanced chemical properties owing to the surface addition of functional groups. Without adding any reactive gases or requiring high plasma power and longer treatment time, the developed reactor with low-gas-flow operation offered effective and economical wettability control of polyimide films

  9. Control of Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Altering the Geometry of Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Fujita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is required for clinical applications. To control MSC differentiation, induction media containing different types of soluble factors have been used to date; however, it remains challenging to obtain a uniformly differentiated population of an appropriate quality for clinical application by this approach. We attempted to develop nanofiber scaffolds for effective MSC differentiation by mimicking anisotropy of the extracellular matrix structure, to assess whether differentiation of these cells can be controlled by using geometrically different scaffolds. We evaluated MSC differentiation on aligned and random nanofibers, fabricated by electrospinning. We found that induction of MSCs into adipocytes was markedly more inhibited on random nanofibers than on aligned nanofibers. In addition, adipoinduction on aligned nanofibers was also inhibited in the presence of mixed adipoinduction and osteoinduction medium, although osteoinduction was not affected by a change in scaffold geometry. Thus, we have achieved localized control over the direction of differentiation through changes in the alignment of the scaffold even in the presence of a mixed medium. These findings indicate that precise control of MSC differentiation can be attained by using scaffolds with different geometry, rather than by the conventional use of soluble factors in the medium.

  10. Kismet positively regulates glutamate receptor localization and synaptic transmission at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupa Ghosh

    Full Text Available The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ is a glutamatergic synapse that is structurally and functionally similar to mammalian glutamatergic synapses. These synapses can, as a result of changes in activity, alter the strength of their connections via processes that require chromatin remodeling and changes in gene expression. The chromodomain helicase DNA binding (CHD protein, Kismet (Kis, is expressed in both motor neuron nuclei and postsynaptic muscle nuclei of the Drosophila larvae. Here, we show that Kis is important for motor neuron synaptic morphology, the localization and clustering of postsynaptic glutamate receptors, larval motor behavior, and synaptic transmission. Our data suggest that Kis is part of the machinery that modulates the development and function of the NMJ. Kis is the homolog to human CHD7, which is mutated in CHARGE syndrome. Thus, our data suggest novel avenues of investigation for synaptic defects associated with CHARGE syndrome.

  11. Reliability of a Test Battery Designed for Quickly and Safely Assessing Diverse Indices of Neuromuscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason, R.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight affects nearly every physiological system. Spaceflight-induced alterations in physiological function translate to decrements in functional performance. Purpose: To develop a test battery for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular performance. I. Quickly: Battery of tests can be completed in approx.30-40 min. II. Safely: a) No eccentric muscle actions or impact forces. b) Tests present little challenge to postural stability. III. Diverse indices: a) Strength: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) b) Central activation: Very good reliability (ICC = 0.87) c) Power: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) d) Endurance: Total work has excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) e) Force steadiness: Poor reliability (ICC = 0.20 - 0.60) National

  12. [Mechanism of the development of neuromuscular disorders in Itsenko-Cushing disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, B V; Lahutina, T S; Deianova, A F

    1982-01-01

    The results of electromyographic studies indicate that the affection of the neuromuscular system is seen in all the patients with Icenko-Cushing's disease. Changes in different indices of the electromyogram (EMG), i.e. denervation activity, a character of the summary EMG alteration, mean duration of the motor unit action potentials (MUAP), the number of polyphase action potentials, their amplitude and the MUAP synchronization in different spheres indicate a neurogenic character of this affection. It was shown that both denervation and reinnervation processes are more pronounced in the foot muscles than in the hand ones. The denervation process is seemed to be primarily developed in the foot muscles, followed by the hand musculature injury. Therefore, the changes in several EMG parameters may be seen during several stages of the disease in some muscles and not to be observed in the others. PMID:7156070

  13. Neuromuscular block after intra-arterially injected acetylcholine. 1. Introduction, methods, and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonali, P; Gambi, D

    1973-04-01

    The neuromuscular depolarizing block induced by intra-arterially injected ACh was studied to determine the variability in the same subject and in different subjects without disorders at the motor end-plate. Amplitude of action potentials of the opponens pollicis muscle evoked by intermittent repetitive supramaximal stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist were recorded for one hour from the beginning of ACh injection. The features of prompt and late depression stages after the injection were analysed statistically. Re-testing of the same subjects after a while shows that, in spite of all efforts to maintain the same experimental conditions, variations do occur in late depression. Time course and duration are particularly affected, while the degree of depression is altered but slightly. The presence of such variations limits this test to evaluation of the influence of other factors only within their already established statistical limits. PMID:4350703

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING FOR BASKET BALL PLAYERS ON PERFORMANCE OF STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Kumar Bhaskar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and introduction:To determine the effect of neuromuscular training program (NMTP focused oncore stability and lower extremity strength on performance of star excursion balance test (SEBT inbasketballplayers.Method:: Pre to post test experimental study design randomisedthirty Basketball players each 15 into NMTPand control group. Players trained together as a team in which NMTP group participated 4 weeks of NMTPtwice a week and Control group followed their regular protocol as guided by their coach.Results:When means of post intervention compared using Independent‘t’between NMTP and Control groupthere is no statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in anterior, posterior-medial and posterior-Lateral directionreach distance of star Excursion test but there is a statistically significant difference in means of anterior, posterior-medial and posterior-Lateral direction reach distance when analyzed within in groups using Paired‘t’test andWilcoxon signed rank test.Conclusion:Neuromuscular Training program found to be effective for Basketball Players on Performance ofStar Excursion Balance Test and this improvement can significantly predict the prevention of injury.

  15. Bonfils Fiberscope: Intubating Conditions and Hemodynamic Changes without Neuromuscular Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Najafi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To compare intubating conditions and hemodynamic changes between Bonfils Intubation Fiberscope and Macintosh laryngoscopy without administering neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial,80 male and female patients, scheduled for elective surgery, aged 15 to 60 years, ASA class II or I, non-obese, non smokers, without anticipated difficult intubation; were randomly allocated into two groups of 40: Bonfils and Macintosh. Following adequate hydration and preoxygenation, midazolam 0.03 mg.kg-1 was administered, followed by intravenous alfentanil 20 µg.kg-1, lidocaine 1.0 mg.kg-1, and propofol 2 mg.kg-1 sequentially. Trachea was then intubated using Bonfils Intubation Fiberscope in the Bonfils group and conventional Macintosh laryngoscopy in the Macintosh group. Intubating condition, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, pulse oximetry, and success rate were measured. RESULTS: Clinically acceptable intubating condition scores did not differ significantly between the groups (P=0.465. Compared to the baseline values, heart rate rose significantly after intubation only in the Macintosh group (P<0.001. Although mean arterial blood pressure increased immediately after intubation in the Macintosh group (P=0.022, its post-intubation values were significantly less than baseline in both groups (P<0.001. Intubation time took much longer in the Bonfils group (40 s than the Macintosh group (11 s, P<0.001. In the absence of NMBDs, Bonfils Intubation Fiberscope compares well with Macintosh laryngoscopy in terms of success rate and intubating conditions, but with less mechanical stress and hemodynamic compromise and longer intubation time.

  16. Get Ready to Wnt: Prepatterning in Neuromuscular Junction Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bin; Xiong, Wen C.; Mei, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) in muscle fibers prior to innervation by motor neurons is thought to be involved in neuromuscular junction formation. Jing et al. now report in Neuron that this prepatterning of AChRs, via a novel MuSK-dependent Wnt pathway, may guide motor axons to the central region of muscle fibers for synapse formation in zebrafish.

  17. Exercise Therapy in Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy and Other Neuromuscular Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia Rebecka; Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    with muscle wasting due to neuromuscular conditions, however, a common belief has been that physical activity could accelerate degeneration of the diseased muscle and a careful approach to training has therefore been suggested. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about physical training...

  18. Drug Development and Challenges for Neuromuscular Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouelhi, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Drug development process faces many challenges, including those encountered in clinical trials for neuromuscular diseases. Drug development is a lengthy and highly costly process. Out of 10 compounds entering first study in man (phase 1), only one compound reaches the market after an average of 14 years with a cost of $2.7 billion. Nevertheless, according to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services, prescription drugs constituted only 9 % of each health care dollar spent in USA in 2013. Examples of challenges encountered in neuromuscular clinical trials include lack of validated patient-reported outcome tools, blinding issues, and the use of placebo in addition to lack of health authority guidance for orphan diseases. Patient enrollment challenge is the leading cause of missed clinical trial deadlines observed in about 80 % of clinical trials, resulting in delayed availability of potentially life-saving therapies. Another specific challenge introduced by recent technology is the use of social media and risk of bias. Sharing personal experiences while in the study could easily introduce bias among patients that would interfere with accurate interpretation of collected data. To minimize this risk, recent neuromuscular studies incorporate as an inclusion criterion the patient's agreement not to share any of study experiences through social media with other patients during the study conduct. Consideration of these challenges will allow timely response to the high unmet medical needs for many neuromuscular diseases. PMID:26691331

  19. Diagnostic value of CT scanning in neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of myopathies has become easier since the CT technique is available. In this article the possibilities of CT for diagnostic procedures of neuromuscular diseases are pointed out. Density measurements increase differentiation of atrophy or hypertrophy of muscles as well as other pathological changes. (orig.)

  20. Robust adaptive control modeling of human arm movements subject to altered gravity and mechanical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryfonidis, Michail

    It has been observed that during orbital spaceflight the absence of gravitation related sensory inputs causes incongruence between the expected and the actual sensory feedback resulting from voluntary movements. This incongruence results in a reinterpretation or neglect of gravity-induced sensory input signals. Over time, new internal models develop, gradually compensating for the loss of spatial reference. The study of adaptation of goal-directed movements is the main focus of this thesis. The hypothesis is that during the adaptive learning process the neural connections behave in ways that can be described by an adaptive control method. The investigation presented in this thesis includes two different sets of experiments. A series of dart throwing experiments took place onboard the space station Mir. Experiments also took place at the Biomechanics lab at MIT, where the subjects performed a series of continuous trajectory tracking movements while a planar robotic manipulandum exerted external torques on the subjects' moving arms. The experimental hypothesis for both experiments is that during the first few trials the subjects will perform poorly trying to follow a prescribed trajectory, or trying to hit a target. A theoretical framework is developed that is a modification of the sliding control method used in robotics. The new control framework is an attempt to explain the adaptive behavior of the subjects. Numerical simulations of the proposed framework are compared with experimental results and predictions from competitive models. The proposed control methodology extends the results of the sliding mode theory to human motor control. The resulting adaptive control model of the motor system is robust to external dynamics, even those of negative gain, uses only position and velocity feedback, and achieves bounded steady-state error without explicit knowledge of the system's nonlinearities. In addition, the experimental and modeling results demonstrate that

  1. Contribución del soporte nutricional al tratamiento de las alteraciones neuro-musculares del paciente crítico Contribution of nutritional support to treatment neuromuscular impairments of critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Montejo González

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Las alteraciones neuromusculares que tienen lugar en el paciente crítico han sido atribuidas a factores como la situación séptica, la liberación de mediadores inflamatorioso el empleo de fármacos que afectan desfavorablemente a la función neuro-muscular. El papel de factores metabólicos y nutricionales en el desarrollo de esta patología ha recibido poca atención. En la actualidad, el empleo de protocolos de control intensivo de la glucemia podría tener gran interés en la prevención de las alteraciones neuro-musculares de los pacientes críticos. Los mecanismos exactos de la implicación de la hiperglucemia en esta patología son, todavía, desconocidos, aunque la evidencia de los datos procedentes de la investigación es importante. La miopatía caquectizante (atrofia muscular tiene lugar de manera habitual como consecuencia de los cambios obligados por la respuesta metabólica al estrés. El efecto del aporte de nutrientes sobre la ganancia de masa muscular es muy limitado, por lo que deben estudiarse otras acciones dirigidas a recuperar, de manera más rápida, la masa muscular perdida. Deben evitarse pautas agresivas de renutrición con objeto de prevenir el síndrome de realimentación y el consiguiente mayor deterioro de la función muscular. El aporte de substratos específicos, como la glutamina, podría tener un efecto beneficioso en la recuperación de las alteraciones neuro-musculares del paciente crítico. No obstante, no existen aún datos para justificar su empleo si el único objetivo es la recuperación de la función neuro-muscular.Neuromuscular impairments occurring in the critically ill patient have been attributed to factors such as sepsis, release of inflammatory mediators, or the use of drugs unfavorably affecting neuromuscular function. The role of metabolic and nutritional factors in the development of this condition has received little attention. Currently, the use of protocols of intensive glycemia monitoring

  2. Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by altering gas flow rate in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo Seok; Hur, Min; Lee, Jae-Ok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on controlling the hydrophilicity of polyimide films using atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasmas by changing only the gas flow rate. The gas flow changed the discharge atmosphere by mixing the feed gas with ambient air because of the particular geometry of the reactor developed for the study, and a low gas flow rate was found to be favorable because it generated abundant nitrogen or oxygen species that served as sources of hydrophilic functional groups over the polymer surface. After low-gas-flow plasma treatment, the polymer surface exhibited hydrophilic characteristics with increased surface roughness and enhanced chemical properties owing to the surface addition of functional groups. Without adding any reactive gases or requiring high plasma power and longer treatment time, the developed reactor with low-gas-flow operation offered effective and economical wettability control of polyimide films.

  3. An evidence-based review of hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions to address dynamic lower extremity valgus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford KR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kevin R Ford,1 Anh-Dung Nguyen,2 Steven L Dischiavi,1 Eric J Hegedus,1 Emma F Zuk,2 Jeffrey B Taylor11Department of Physical Therapy, High Point University, High Point, NC, USA; 2Department of Athletic Training, School of Health Sciences, High Point University, High Point, NC, USAAbstract: Deficits in proximal hip strength or neuromuscular control may lead to dynamic lower extremity valgus. Measures of dynamic lower extremity valgus have been previously shown to relate to increased risk of several knee pathologies, specifically anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and patellofemoral pain. Therefore, hip-focused interventions have gained considerable attention and been successful in addressing these knee pathologies. The purpose of the review was to identify and discuss hip-focused exercise interventions that aim to address dynamic lower extremity valgus. Previous electromyography, kinematics, and kinetics research support the use of targeted hip exercises with non-weight-bearing, controlled weight-bearing, functional exercise, and, to a lesser extent, dynamic exercises in reducing dynamic lower extremity valgus. Further studies should be developed to identify and understand the mechanistic relationship between optimized biomechanics during sports and hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions.Keywords: dynamic lower extremity valgus, hip neuromuscular control, ACL injury rehabilitation, patellofemoral pain, hip muscular activation

  4. The medial frontal-prefrontal network for altered awareness and control of action in corticobasal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wolpe, Noham; Moore, James W.; Rae, Charlotte L.; Rittman, Timothy; Altena, Ellemarije; Haggard, Patrick; Rowe, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The volitional impairments of alien limb and apraxia are a defining feature of the corticobasal syndrome, but a limited under- standing of their neurocognitive aetiology has hampered progress towards effective treatments. Here we combined several key methods to investigate the mechanism of impairments in voluntary action in corticobasal syndrome. We used a quantitative measure of awareness of action that is based on well-defined processes of motor control; structural and functional anatomical...

  5. Early life trauma is associated with altered white matter integrity and affective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, Vincent; Amick, Melissa A; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2016-08-01

    Early life trauma (ELT) has been shown to impair affective control and attention well into adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have further shown that ELT was associated with decreased white matter integrity in the prefrontal areas in children and adults. However, no study to date has looked at the relationship between white matter integrity and affective control in individuals with and without a history of ELT. To examine this, we tested 240 Veterans with (ELT N = 80) and without (NoELT N = 160) a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse or family violence. Affective control was measured with the Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) and attention was indexed with the Test of Variable Attention (TOVA). White matter integrity was measured using fractional anisotropy (FA). Results showed greater number of errors on the AGN in ELT compared to NoELT. There was no difference on the TOVA. While there were no mean differences in FA, there was an interaction between FA and reaction time to positive stimuli on the AGN where the ELT group showed a positive relationship between FA and reaction time in right frontal and prefrontal areas, whereas the NoELT group showed a negative or no association between FA and reaction time. This suggests that ELT may be associated with a distinct brain-behavior relationship that could be related to other determinants of FA than those present in healthy adults. PMID:27214523

  6. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca S. M. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood and suboptimal (ASubopt asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ 0.75, n=7, and healthy controls (HC (n=9 were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL, fMLF (100 nM, and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL, R848 (1.5 μg/mL, and poly I:C (10 μg/mL surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV 16 (MOI1. Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control.

  7. Assessment of ventilatory neuromuscular drive in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R.A. Bittencourt

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of abnormalities of the respiratory center in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients and their correlation with polysomnographic data are still a matter of controversy. Moderately obese, sleep-deprived OSA patients presenting daytime hypersomnolence, with normocapnia and no clinical or spirometric evidence of pulmonary disease, were selected. We assessed the ventilatory control and correlated it with polysomnographic data. Ventilatory neuromuscular drive was evaluated in these patients by measuring the ventilatory response (VE, the inspiratory occlusion pressure (P.1 and the ventilatory pattern (VT/TI, TI/TTOT at rest and during submaximal exercise, breathing room air. These analyses were also performed after inhalation of a hypercapnic mixture of CO2 (DP.1/DPETCO2, DVE/DPETCO2. Average rest and exercise ventilatory response (VE: 12.2 and 32.6 l/min, respectively, inspiratory occlusion pressure (P.1: 1.5 and 4.7 cmH2O, respectively, and ventilatory pattern (VT/TI: 0.42 and 1.09 l/s; TI/TTOT: 0.47 and 0.46 l/s, respectively were within the normal range. In response to hypercapnia, the values of ventilatory response (DVE/DPETCO2: 1.51 l min-1 mmHg-1 and inspiratory occlusion pressure (DP.1/DPETCO2: 0.22 cmH2O were normal or slightly reduced in the normocapnic OSA patients. No association or correlation between ventilatory neuromuscular drive and ventilatory pattern, hypersomnolence score and polysomnographic data was found; however a significant positive correlation was observed between P.1 and weight. Our results indicate the existence of a group of normocapnic OSA patients who have a normal awake neuromuscular ventilatory drive at rest or during exercise that is partially influenced by obesity

  8. Professional Soccer Player Neuromuscular Responses and Perceptions to Acute Whole Body Vibration Differ from Amateur Counterparts

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    Ross Cloak, Andrew Lane, Matthew Wyon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute whole body vibration (WBV is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m. Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.22 in peak knee isometric force following acute WBV with no significant differences among amateur players. A significant difference (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.16 in PAP amongst professional players following acute WBVT was also reported. No significant differences amongst amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.27 compared to amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players.

  9. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls.

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    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7-19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27, offspring of patients with BD (N = 39 and offspring of community control parents (N = 40. We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence.

  10. The feasibility of producing oil palm with altered lignin content to control Ganoderma disease

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, R. R. M.; Moen, Sariah; Lima, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Oil palm is a major crop which is grown for the production of vegetable oil used in foods, cosmetics and biodiesel. The palm is of major economic importance in southeast Asia where it is grown extensively in Malaysia and Indonesia. There is concern about Ganoderma rots of oil palm which need to be controlled to prevent major infection. However, the basic mechanism of white-rot infection has been ignored. White rot implies that fungi attack the lignin component of woody tissue leaving the whit...

  11. Effects of neuromuscular training (NEMEX-TJR) on patient-reported outcomes and physical function in severe primary hip or knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Nilsdotter, Anna; Kosek, Eva;

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of exercise in mild and moderate knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA) are apparent, but the evidence in severe OA is less clear. We recently reported that neuromuscular training was well tolerated and feasible in patients with severe primary hip or knee OA. The aims of this controlled...

  12. Negative stereotype activation alters interaction between neural correlates of arousal, inhibition and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Cox, Christine L; Schmader, Toni; Ryan, Lee

    2012-10-01

    Priming negative stereotypes of African Americans can bias perceptions toward novel Black targets, but less is known about how these perceptions ultimately arise. Examining how neural regions involved in arousal, inhibition and control covary when negative stereotypes are activated can provide insight into whether individuals attempt to downregulate biases. Using fMRI, White egalitarian-motivated participants were shown Black and White faces at fast (32 ms) or slow (525 ms) presentation speeds. To create a racially negative stereotypic context, participants listened to violent and misogynistic rap (VMR) in the background. No music (NM) and death metal (DM) were used as control conditions in separate blocks. Fast exposure of Black faces elicited amygdala activation in the NM and VMR conditions (but not DM), that also negatively covaried with activation in prefrontal regions. Only in VMR, however, did amygdala activation for Black faces persist during slow exposure and positively covary with activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while negatively covarying with activation in orbitofrontal cortex. Findings suggest that contexts that prime negative racial stereotypes seem to hinder the downregulation of amygdala activation that typically occurs when egalitarian perceivers are exposed to Black faces. PMID:21954239

  13. Altered monocyte activation markers in Tourette’s syndrome: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matz Judith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections and immunological processes are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of Tourette’s syndrome (TS. To determine possible common underlying immunological mechanisms, we focused on innate immunity and studied markers of inflammation, monocytes, and monocyte-derived cytokines. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we used current methods to determine the number of monocytes and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP in 46 children, adolescents, and adult patients suffering from TS and in 43 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha, interleukin 6 (IL-6, soluble CD14 (sCD14, IL1-receptor antagonist (IL1-ra, and serum neopterin were detected by immunoassays. Results We found that CRP and neopterin levels and the number of monocytes were significantly higher in TS patients than in healthy controls. Serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, sIL1-ra, and sCD14 were significantly lower in TS patients. All measured values were within normal ranges and often close to detection limits. Conclusions The present results point to a monocyte dysregulation in TS. This possible dysbalance in innate immunity could predispose to infections or autoimmune reactions.

  14. Effects of Dynamic Neuromuscular Analysis Training on Static and Dynamic Balance in Indian Female Basketball Players

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    Archna Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of dynamic neuromuscular analysis on static and dynamic balance of Indian state level female athletes. It was hypothesized that the training protocol would improve both static and dynamic components of the balance, improving dynamic balance more than static. A total of 43 randomly selected state level female basketball players aged 16 -18 years participated in the study. The subjects were further divided into two groups, viz. Dynamic Neuromuscular Analysis (DNA group (n=23 and control group (n = 20. Pre and post static balance was tested to all the subjects by Stork Balance Test (SBT and Balance Error Scoring System (BESS, and dynamic balance was measured by Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. DNA intervention of 90 minutes was given for 6 weeks while the control group followed traditional training. Results showed a significant improvement both in static and dynamic balance (p<0.001. It might be concluded that 6 week DNA training designed for the prevention of ACL injuries could also improve both static and dynamic balance in Indian female basketball players.

  15. Respiratory motor training and neuromuscular plasticity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovechkin, Alexander V; Sayenko, Dimitry G; Ovechkina, Elena N; Aslan, Sevda C; Pitts, Teresa; Folz, Rodney J

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of a full-scale investigation of the neurophysiological mechanisms of COPD-induced respiratory neuromuscular control deficits. Characterization of respiratory single- and multi-muscle activation patterns using surface electromyography (sEMG) were assessed along with functional measures at baseline and following 21±2 (mean±SD) sessions of respiratory motor training (RMT) performed during a one-month period in four patients with GOLD stage II or III COPD. Pre-training, the individuals with COPD showed significantly increased (p<0.05) overall respiratory muscle activity and disorganized multi-muscle activation patterns in association with lowered spirometrical measures and decreased fast- and slow-twitch fiber activity as compared to healthy controls (N=4). Following RMT, functional and respiratory sEMG activation outcomes during quite breathing and forced expiratory efforts were improved suggesting that functional improvements, induced by task-specific RMT, are evidence respiratory neuromuscular networks re-organization. PMID:27137413

  16. Does perioperative tactile evaluation of the train-of-four response influence the frequency of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T; Viby-Mogensen, J; Bang, U;

    1990-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the usefulness of perioperative manual evaluation of the response to train-of-four (TOF) nerve stimulation. A total of 80 patients were divided into four groups of 20 each. For two groups (one given vecuronium and one...... evaluated the degree of neuromuscular blockade solely by clinical criteria. The use of a nerve stimulator was found to have no effect on the dose of relaxant given during anesthesia, on the need for supplementary doses of anticholinesterase in the recovery room, on the time from end of surgery to end of...... ratios were significantly higher than those found in the pancuronium groups, which wre 0.66 (0.06-0.90) and 0.63 (0.29-0.95), respectively. However, no difference was found between the vecuronium and pancuronium groups in the number of patients showing clinical signs of residual neuromuscular blockade...

  17. Alterations in leukocyte transcriptional control pathway activity associated with major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, S H; Wolkowitz, O M; Schonemann, M D; Epel, E S; Rosser, R; Burke, H B; Mahan, L; Reus, V I; Stamatiou, D; Liew, C-C; Cole, S W

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing serious medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, immune impairments, infection, dementia and premature death. Previous work has demonstrated immune dysregulation in subjects with MDD. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and promoter-based bioinformatic strategies, we assessed leukocyte transcription factor (TF) activity in leukocytes from 20 unmedicated MDD subjects versus 20 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls, before initiation of antidepressant therapy, and in 17 of the MDD subjects after 8 weeks of sertraline treatment. In leukocytes from unmedicated MDD subjects, bioinformatic analysis of transcription control pathway activity indicated an increased transcriptional activity of cAMP response element-binding/activating TF (CREB/ATF) and increased activity of TFs associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2, NFE2l2 or NRF2). Eight weeks of antidepressant therapy was associated with significant reductions in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and reduced activity of NRF2, but not in CREB/ATF activity. Several other transcriptional regulation pathways, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), early growth response proteins 1-4 (EGR1-4) and interferon-responsive TFs, showed either no significant differences as a function of disease or treatment, or activities that were opposite to those previously hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of MDD or effective treatment. Our results suggest that CREB/ATF and NRF2 signaling may contribute to MDD by activating immune cell transcriptome dynamics that ultimately influence central nervous system (CNS) motivational and affective processes via circulating mediators. PMID:27219347

  18. Influência da nifedipina no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio e pelo cisatracúrio: estudo em preparações nervo frênico-diafragma de rato Influencia de la nifedipina en el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por atracurio y cisatracurio: estudio en preparación nervio frénico diafragma de ratón Influence of nifedipine on the neuromuscular block produced by atracurium and cistracurium: study in rat phrenic-diaphragmatic nerve preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Rodrigues de Sousa

    2006-04-01

    neuromuscular del atracurio y del cisatracurio, no cambió el potencial de membrana y produjo el aumento inicial en la frecuencia de los PPTM, seguida de bloqueo. CONCLUSIONES: La nifedipina, en la concentración empleada, potenció el bloqueo neuromuscular que el atracurio e cisatracurio produjeron. Estudios electrofisiológicos demostraron una acción presináptica y la ausencia de acción despolarizante sobre la fibra muscular.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Calcium channel blockers may interact with neuromuscular blockers, increasing its effects. Research studies about this interaction display controversial results. In some studies these drugs produced neuromuscular blockage, or contracture, or no effect at all was proved over skeletal neuromuscular response. This study assessed the nifedipine effects over muscular responses and its possible interaction with neuromuscular blockers in rat diaphragm. METHODS: A number of 25 rats were used, weighing between 250 and 300 g and sacrificed under anesthesia with intraperitoneal pentobarbital (40 mg.kg-1. Preparation was mounted according to the technique described by Bulbring. Diaphragm was kept under tension, connected to an isometric transducer and subjected to an indirect stimulation of 0.1 Hz frequency. Diaphragm contractions were registered on a physiograph. In order to evaluate the effect of these drugs on neuromuscular transmission, they were added separately or associated to the preparation, on the following concentrations: nifedipine (4 µg.mL-1; atracurium (20 µg.mL-1; cistracurium (3 µg.mL-1. On phrenic-nerve preparation, the assessed items were: 1 the extent of diaphragm muscle response to indirect stimulation, before and 45 minutes after adding nifedipine and neuromuscular blockers separately and after the association of both drugs; 2 nifedipine effects on membrane potentials (MP and miniature end-plate potentials (MEPP. RESULTS: Employed separately, nifedipine did not alter the extent of muscular responses, but it did

  19. Algorithms Based on CWT and Classifiers to Control Cardiac Alterations and Stress Using an ECG and a SCR

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    Amaia Méndez Zorrilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of using a commercial pulsimeter as an electrocardiogram (ECG for wireless detection of cardiac alterations and stress levels for home control. For these purposes, signal processing techniques (Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT and J48 have been used, respectively. The designed algorithm analyses the ECG signal and is able to detect the heart rate (99.42%, arrhythmia (93.48% and extrasystoles (99.29%. The detection of stress level is complemented with Skin Conductance Response (SCR, whose success is 94.02%. The heart rate variability does not show added value to the stress detection in this case. With this pulsimeter, it is possible to prevent and detect anomalies for a non-intrusive way associated to a telemedicine system. It is also possible to use it during physical activity due to the fact the CWT minimizes the motion artifacts.

  20. Neuromuscular Retraining in Female Adolescent Athletes: Effect on Athletic Performance Indices and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates

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    Frank R. Noyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 years, and the noncontact ACL injury rate in 700 of these trained athletes was compared with that of 1120 control athletes. There were significant improvements in the drop-jump test, (p < 0.0001, effect size [ES] 0.97, the single-leg triple crossover hop (p < 0.0001, ES 0.47, the t-test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.64, the multi-stage fitness test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.57, hamstring strength (p < 0.0001, and quadriceps strength (p < 0.01. The trained athletes had a significant reduction in the noncontact ACL injury incidence rate compared with the controls (1 ACL injury in 36,724 athlete-exposures [0.03] and 13 ACL injuries in 61,244 exposures [0.21], respectively, p = 0.03. The neuromuscular retraining program was effective in reducing noncontact ACL injury rate and improving athletic performance indicators.

  1. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Mobility Support of Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Winfried

    2015-08-24

    The stimulator for neuromuscular electrical stimulation for mobility support of elderly is not very complicated, but for application within "MOBIL" we have some additional demands to fulfill. First we have specific safety issues for this user group. A powerful compliance management system is crucial not only to guide daily application, but for creating hard data for the scientific outcome. We also need to assure easy handling of the stimulator, because the subjects are generally not able to cope with too difficult and complex motor skills. So, we developed five generations of stimulators and optimizing solutions after field tests. We are already planning the sixth generation with wireless control of the stimulation units by the central main handheld control unit. In a prototype, we have implemented a newly available high capacity memory, a breakthrough in "compliance data storage" as they offer the necessary high storage capacity and fast data handling for an affordable prize. The circuit also contains a 3D accelerometer sensor which acts as a further important safety features: if the control unit drops, this event is detected automatically by the sensor and activates an emergency switch-off that disables the stimulation to avoid associated risks. Further, we have implemented a hardware emergence shutdown and other safety measures. Finally, in the last example muscle torque measurements are referenced with compliance data. In the study normalized maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and maximum stimulation induced contraction (MSC) were assessed in regular check-ups along the training period. With additional consideration of adjusted stimulation intensity for training out of the compliance data records we are able to estimate the induced contraction strength, which turned out to amount in average 11% of MVC. This value may seem on a first sight rather low, and ought to be considered in relation to the results at the end of the training period. Therefore the

  2. Neuromuscular strain as a contributor to cognitive and other symptoms in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Hypothesis and conceptual model.

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    Peter C. Rowe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS have heightened sensitivity and increased symptoms following various physiologic challenges, such as orthostatic stress, physical exercise, and cognitive challenges. Similar heightened sensitivity to the same stressors in fibromyalgia (FM has led investigators to propose that these findings reflect a state of central sensitivity. A large body of evidence supports the concept of central sensitivity in FM. A more modest literature provides partial support for this model in CFS, particularly with regard to pain. Nonetheless, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction have not been explained by the central sensitivity data thus far. Peripheral factors have attracted attention recently as contributors to central sensitivity. Work by Brieg, Sunderland, and others has emphasized the ability of the nervous system to undergo accommodative changes in length in response to the range of limb and trunk movements carried out during daily activity. If that ability to elongate is impaired—due to movement restrictions in tissues adjacent to nerves, or due to swelling or adhesions within the nerve itself—the result is an increase in mechanical tension within the nerve. This adverse neural tension, also termed neurodynamic dysfunction, is thought to contribute to pain and other symptoms through a variety of mechanisms. These include mechanical sensitization and altered nociceptive signaling, altered proprioception, adverse patterns of muscle recruitment and force of muscle contraction, reduced intra-neural blood flow, and release of inflammatory neuropeptides. Because it is not possible to differentiate completely between adverse neural tension and strain in muscles, fascia, and other soft tissues, we use the more general term neuromuscular strain. In our clinical work, we have found that neuromuscular restrictions are common in CFS, and that many symptoms of CFS can be reproduced by selectively adding neuromuscular strain

  3. Altered control of cellular proliferation in the absence of mammalian brahma (SNF2alpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J C; Barra, J; Muchardt, C; Camus, A; Babinet, C; Yaniv, M

    1998-12-01

    The mammalian SWI-SNF complex is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-subunit machine, involved in chromatin remodelling during transcriptional activation. Within this complex, the BRM (SNF2alpha) and BRG1 (SNF2beta) proteins are mutually exclusive subunits that are believed to affect nucleosomal structures using the energy of ATP hydrolysis. In order to characterize possible differences in the function of BRM and BRG1, and to gain further insights into the role of BRM-containing SWI-SNF complexes, the mouse BRM gene was inactivated by homologous recombination. BRM-/- mice develop normally, suggesting that an observed up-regulation of the BRG1 protein can functionally replace BRM in the SWI-SNF complexes of mutant cells. Nonetheless, adult mutant mice were approximately 15% heavier than control littermates. This may be caused by increased cell proliferation, as demonstrated by a higher mitotic index detected in mutant livers. This is supported further by the observation that mutant embryonic fibroblasts were significantly deficient in their ability to arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle in response to cell confluency or DNA damage. These studies suggest that BRM participates in the regulation of cell proliferation in adult mice. PMID:9843504

  4. Temporal variation of nitrate and phosphate transport in headwater catchments: the hydrological controls and landuse alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-Y. Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Oceania Rivers are hotspots of high DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen and DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphorus transport. However, the effects of hydrologic controls and land use alternation on the temporal variations of DIN and DIP are rarely documented. In this study, we monitored the nitrate and phosphate concentrations from three headwater catchments with different cultivation gradients at a 3-day interval. This sampling scheme was supplemented with a 3-h interval monitoring during typhoon periods. The results showed that the DIN and DIP yields in the pristine, moderately cultivated, and intensively cultivated watersheds were 7.52/0.31, 31.17/0.30, and 40.96/0.52 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively. The high DIN yields are comparable to the intensively and extensively disturbed large rivers around the world. These N yields may be due to a high level of nitrogen deposition, rainfall-runoff, and fertilizer application. The importance of event sampling was indicated by the contribution of the three typhoons to the annual DIN and DIP fluxes, which were 30% and 60%, respectively. Both DIN and DIP fluxes significantly increased as the cultivation gradient increased. The DIN and DIP ratio varied from 54 to 230 depending on the decrease of the cultivation gradient. This value is higher than the global mean of ~18. Thus, we speculate that nitrogen saturation occurs in the headwater catchments of Oceania Rivers. The results obtained provide fundamental clues of DIN and DIP yield of Oceania Rivers, which are helpful in understanding the impact of human disturbance on headwater watersheds.

  5. Pre-folding IκBα alters control of NF-κB signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlar, Stephanie M. E.; Mathes, Erika; Cervantes, Carla F.; Ghosh, Gourisankar

    2008-01-01

    Summary Transcription complex components frequently show coupled folding and binding but the functional significance of this mode of molecular recognition is unclear. IκBα binds to and inhibits the transcriptional activity of NF-κB via its ankyrin repeat (AR) domain. The β-hairpins in ARs 5–6 in IκBα are weakly folded in the free protein, and their folding is coupled to NF-κB binding. Here we show that introduction of two stabilizing mutations in IκBα AR 6 causes ARs 5–6 to cooperatively fold to a conformation similar to that in NF-κB-bound IκBα. Free IκBα is degraded by a proteasome-dependent but ubiquitin-independent mechanism, and this process is slower for the pre-folded mutants both in vitro and in cells. Interestingly, the pre-folded mutants bind NF-κB more weakly as shown by both SPR and ITC in vitro and immunoprecipitation experiments from cells. One consequence of the weaker binding is that resting cells containing these mutants show incomplete inhibition of NF-κB activation; they have significant amounts of nuclear NF-κB. Additionally, the weaker binding combined with the slower degradation rate of the free protein results in reduced levels of nuclear NF-κB upon stimulation. These data clearly demonstrate that the coupled folding and binding of IκBα is critical for its precise control of NF-κB transcriptional activity. PMID:18511071

  6. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness

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    Doug eRoberts-Wolfe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. memory biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions.Methods: Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years participated in either a 12-week course containing a "meditation laboratory" or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music. Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course.Results: Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .02. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56 = 6.6, p = .01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [(F(1, 56 = 3.0, p = .09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being [r = 0.31, p = .02] and decreased clinical symptoms [r = -0.29, p = .03].Conclusion: Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing.

  7. Efectos del vendaje neuromuscular sobre la flexibilidad del raquis lumbar

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    A.M. Labrador-Cerrato

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El vendaje neuromuscular es una técnica que produce una estimulación muy selectiva sobre la piel a través de la aplicación de unas vendas elásticas especiales con el fin de lograr cambios propioceptivos, aumento o inhibición del tono muscular y mitigación de algias, entre otros. Objetivos: Comprobar si la aplicación del vendaje neuromuscular permite aumentar la flexión del raquis lumbar comparándola con otras técnicas de vendaje placebo (esparadrapo rígido convencional; Omniplaste®-E; observar la concordancia entre la prueba sit-and-reach y el test de Schober en la valoración de la ganancia de flexión lumbar. Material y métodos: Estudio piloto experimental a triple ciego. Se distribuyeron aleatoriamente 45 sujetos sanos de 20-55 años en tres grupos: 1 esparadrapo convencional; 2 Omniplaste®-E; 3 vendaje neuromuscular. En todos los participantes se evaluó la flexión del raquis lumbar mediante la prueba sit-and-reach y el test de Schober antes y después de la intervención siguiendo el mismo protocolo. Resultados: Considerado un intervalo de confianza del 95% y grado de significación estadística p<0,05 en todos los casos, se obtuvo un incremento estadísticamente significativo de la flexión lumbar en todos los grupos según la prueba sit-and-reach, que fue mayor en el grupo del vendaje neuromuscular (1,5 cm de mediana; p=0,011. Según el test de Schober, solamente el vendaje neuromuscular se mostró eficiente (p<0,001, incrementándose el valor basal en un 6,25% (1 cm de mediana. Conclusiones: La aplicación del vendaje neuromuscular sobre la columna lumbar mejora la flexión lumbar respecto a técnicas placebo a partir de los resultados obtenidos mediante el test de Schober, así como una mayor flexión global del tronco que estas técnicas según la prueba sit-and-reach. El test de Schober parece ser más fiable y preciso que la prueba sit-and-reach para estudios de este tipo.

  8. Identification of Changing Lower Limb Neuromuscular Activation in Parkinson’s Disease during Treadmill Gait with and without Levodopa Using a Nonlinear Analysis Index

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    Amir Pourmoghaddam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of electromyographic (EMG data is a cornerstone of research related to motor control in Parkinson’s disease. Nonlinear EMG analysis tools have shown to be valuable, but analysis is often complex and interpretation of the data may be difficult. A previously introduced algorithm (SYNERGOS that provides a single index value based on simultaneous multiple muscle activations (MMA has been shown to be effective in detecting changes in EMG activation due to modifications of walking speeds in healthy adults. In this study, we investigated if SYNERGOS detects MMA changes associated with both different walking speeds and levodopa intake. Nine male Parkinsonian patients walked on a treadmill with increasing speed while on or off medication. We collected EMG data and computed SYNERGOS indices and employed a restricted maximum likelihood linear mixed model to the values. SYNERGOS was sensitive to neuromuscular modifications due to both alterations of gait speed and intake of levodopa. We believe that the current experiment provides evidence for the potential value of SYNERGOS as a nonlinear tool in clinical settings, by providing a single value index of MMA. This could help clinicians to evaluate the efficacy of interventions and treatments in Parkinson’s disease in a simple manner.

  9. Bayesian analysis of the kinetics of quantal transmitter secretion at the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Anatoly; Khuzakhmetova, Venera; Samigullin, Dmitry; Skorinkin, Andrey; Kovyazina, Irina; Nikolsky, Eugeny; Bukharaeva, Ellya

    2015-10-01

    The timing of transmitter release from nerve endings is considered nowadays as one of the factors determining the plasticity and efficacy of synaptic transmission. In the neuromuscular junction, the moments of release of individual acetylcholine quanta are related to the synaptic delays of uniquantal endplate currents recorded under conditions of lowered extracellular calcium. Using Bayesian modelling, we performed a statistical analysis of synaptic delays in mouse neuromuscular junction with different patterns of rhythmic nerve stimulation and when the entry of calcium ions into the nerve terminal was modified. We have obtained a statistical model of the release timing which is represented as the summation of two independent statistical distributions. The first of these is the exponentially modified Gaussian distribution. The mixture of normal and exponential components in this distribution can be interpreted as a two-stage mechanism of early and late periods of phasic synchronous secretion. The parameters of this distribution depend on both the stimulation frequency of the motor nerve and the calcium ions' entry conditions. The second distribution was modelled as quasi-uniform, with parameters independent of nerve stimulation frequency and calcium entry. Two different probability density functions for the distribution of synaptic delays suggest at least two independent processes controlling the time course of secretion, one of them potentially involving two stages. The relative contribution of these processes to the total number of mediator quanta released depends differently on the motor nerve stimulation pattern and on calcium ion entry into nerve endings. PMID:26129670

  10. Enteric neuromuscular junctions: comparison of ultrastructural features in different phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasy, K; Benedeczky, I; Fekete, E; Tóth, L; Gábriel, R

    1988-04-01

    The enteric neuromuscular junctions of snail (Helix pomatia), locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides), cockroach (Periplaneta americana), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tench (Tinca tinca) were studied by means of different light and electron microscopic methods. The nitroblue tetrazolium staining revealed that the myenteric plexuses of the above species are composed of nerve cells, a network of varicose nerves and nerve bundles. Instead of highly organized ganglia, single neurons or small groups of 2-4 cells are characteristic of the invertebrates and fish studied. Catecholaminergic fluorescence induced by glyoxylic acid was detected in the muscular layer of the entire alimentary tract in snail and the hindgut of tench. Fluorescent nerves and perikarya were frequent in the snail gut, while only nerves and no perikarya were found in tench. A close contact between enteric muscles and nerves is the most common form of enteric neuromuscular junction in both the smooth (i.e. the molluscan and fish gut) and the striated (i.e. the insect gut) musculature. The striated musculature (i.e. the insect gut, the oesophagus of carp, and the oesophagus, stomach and the midgut of tench) also receives a synaptic input. Cytochemical evidence is provided of the cholinergic character of fish motor endplates. The ultrastructural appearance and vesicle population of certain nerve terminals suggest a universal role of aminergic and peptidergic control in gut motility. PMID:3393275

  11. COMT val158met polymorphism and molecular alterations in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: Differences in controls and in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Abhay A; Jha, Manish; Birchfield, Thomas; Mukherjee, Shibani; Gleason, Kelly; Abdisalaam, Salim; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Tamminga, Carol A; Ghose, Subroto

    2016-05-01

    The single nucleotide val158met polymorphism in catechol o-methyltransferase (COMT) influences prefrontal cortex function. Working memory, dependent on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), has been repeatedly shown to be influenced by this COMT polymorphism. The high activity COMT val isoform is associated with lower synaptic dopamine levels. Altered synaptic dopamine levels are expected to lead to molecular adaptations within the synapse and within DLPFC neural circuitry. In this human post mortem study using high quality DLPFC tissue, we first examined the influence of the COMT val158met polymorphism on markers of dopamine neurotransmission, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits and glutamatic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), all known to be critical to DLPFC circuitry and function. Next, we compared target gene expression profiles in a cohort of control and schizophrenia cases, each characterized by COMT genotype. We find that the COMT val allele in control subjects is associated with significant upregulation of GluN2A and GAD67 mRNA levels compared to met carriers. Comparisons between control and schizophrenia groups reveal that GluN2A, GAD67 and DRD2 are differentially regulated between diagnostic groups in a genotype specific manner. Chronic antipsychotic treatment in rodents did not explain these differences. These data demonstrate an association between COMTval158met genotype and gene expression profile in the DLPFC of controls, possibly adaptations to maintain DLPFC function. In schizophrenia val homozygotes, these adaptations are not seen and could reflect pathophysiologic mechanisms related to the known poorer performance of these subjects on DLPFC-dependent tasks. PMID:27021555

  12. Early appearance and possible roles of non-neuromuscular cholinesterases.

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    Carla eFalugi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The biological function of the cholinesterase (ChE enzymes is well known and has been studied since the beginning of the XXth century; in particular, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, E.C. 3.1.1.7 is an enzyme playing a key role in the modulation of neuromuscular impulse transmission. However, in the past decades, there has been increasing interest concerning its role in regulating non-neuromuscular cell-to-cell interactions mediated by intracellular ion concentration changes, like the ones occurring during gamete interaction and embryonic development. An understanding of the mechanisms of the cholinergic regulation of these events can help us foresee the possible impact on environmental and human health, including gamete efficiency and possible teratogenic effects on different models, and help elucidate the extent to which exposure to ChE inhibitors may affect human health.

  13. The effect of a Lucia jig for 30 minutes on neuromuscular re-programming, in normal subjects

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    Mariangela Salles Pereira Nassar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lucia jig is a technique that promotes neuromuscular reprogramming of the masticatory system and allows the stabilization of the mandible without the interference of dental contacts, maintaining the mandible position in harmonic condition with the musculature in normal subjects or in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD. This study aimed to electromyographically analyze the activity (RMS of the masseter and temporal muscles in normal subjects (control group during the use of an anterior programming device, the Lucia jig, in place for 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes to demonstrate its effect on the stomatognathic system. Forty-two healthy dentate individuals (aged 21 to 40 years with normal occlusion and without parafunctional habits or temporomandibular dysfunction (RDC/TMD were evaluated on the basis of the electromyographic activity of the masseter and temporal muscles before placement of a neuromuscular re-programming device, the Lucia jig, on the upper central incisors. There were no statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 in the electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles in the different time periods. The Lucia jig changed the electromyographic activity by promoting a neuromuscular reprogramming. In most of the time periods, it decreased the activation of the masticatory muscles, showing that this device has wide applicability in dentistry. The use of a Lucia jig over 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes did not promote any statistically significant increase in muscle activity despite differences in the data, thus showing that this intra-oral device can be used in dentistry.

  14. Anormalidades neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia Neuromuscular abnormalities in disuse, cachexia and ageing

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    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available É feita revisão de literatura sobre as principais alterações do sistema neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia no ser humano e em modelos animais. A diminuição do diâmetro das fibras musculares após período de inatividade/imobilidade (desuso deve-se à perda de miofibrilas periféricas não ocorrendo formação de core-targetóides ou diminuição da atividade da miofosforilase, próprias da desnervação; mantêm-se a liberação espontânea de acetilcolina e fatores tróficos na junção mio-neural; em geral são afetadas preferencialmente fibras II, que podem assumir forma angular. Existe um processo contínuo intrínseco de envelhecimento de nervos e músculos, com desnervação e reinervação lenta e progressiva; o número de unidades motoras se reduz após 60 anos, sem ocorrência de atividade elétrica desnervatória; a quantidade de acetilcolina liberada nos neurônios terminais e a capacidade máxima de utilização de oxigênio estão diminuídas; a redução da capacidade oxidativa mitocondrial pode explicar o aumento de fibras I, mantendo-se o equilíbrio energético. Após poucas semanas de caquexia as fibras musculares podem ter o diâmetro reduzido em 30%, essa redução ocorre em ordem decrescente nos músculos dos membros inferiores, superiores e tronco; existe atrofia II preferencial com fibras angulares ocasionais, redução de RNA/síntese proteica, mantendo-se DNA normal.Cachexia, ageing and disuse and their effects on the human and animals neuromuscular system are reviewed. Disuse induces reduction of muscle fibers (mainly II diameter with peripheral myofibrils lost; there is no core-targetoid or even reduction on myophosphorilase activity, both typical of denervation; the acetylcholine spontaneous release and trophic factors on myoneural junction are maintained; muscle fibers could change to angular shape. Ageing affects nerve and muscle by a continuous and progressive process of denervation and reinner

  15. Neuromuscular exercise prior to joint arthroplasty in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadsen, Allan

    2016-04-01

    neuromuscular exercise prior to TJA result in further improvement in self-reported outcomes during the first three months? To answer this, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) enrolling patients with severe symptomatic OA scheduled for TJA was conducted. Self-reported ADL was the primary outcome of the trial and self-reported pain and quality of life were the main secondary outcomes. A test battery of three functional performance measures and four lower extremity muscle power tests was chosen to complement the questionnaires and to explore the physical function in these patients. In the first study, the test battery was evaluated with regard to agreement and reliability. Identification of the smallest detectable differences in the tests was needed to assist in the interpretation of the RCT results and aid clinicians in future evaluation of patients in their daily clinical practice. A cohort of 20 patients with severe symptomatic OA of the hip or knee (56-79 years, 50% women) was evaluated in the test battery on two occasions separated by one week. We found that muscle power can safely be evaluated with poor to good agreement and good to excellent reliability. Hence, some measures (20 m walk, chair stands) are more reliable to detect change over time, e.g. longitudinal research, whereas others may be useful in a daily clinical setting to evaluate to what extent the patient's muscle function is affected  (single- and multi-joint muscle power). Seen as a whole, the entire test battery is time-consuming (1½-2 hours) and not suited for evaluation of larger cohorts. The enrollment of patients in the RCT began in January 2010. A cohort of 165 hip and knee OA patients (43-89 years, 56% women, 84 hip OA) was enrolled after approximately one year. This sample size would also allow stratified analysis, e.g. evaluation of possible differences in the treatment effect between hip or knee OA patients. The intervention group participated in an eight week neuromuscular exercise programme prior

  16. Cardiac involvement in children with neuro-muscular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Arkhipova

    2015-01-01

    Many inherited neuromuscular disorders include cardiac involvement as a typical clinical feature. Among the most common of them is the group of muscular dystrophies. Dilated cardiomyopathy, ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillations, atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction abnormalities, and sudden cardiac death are well known pathological findings in Duchenne muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy type I and 2, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophies and different types of limb-gir...

  17. Acetylcholinesterase Clustering at the Neuromuscular Junction Involves Perlecan and Dystroglycan

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, H. Benjamin; Xie, Hongbo; Rossi, Susanna G.; Rotundo, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Formation of the synaptic basal lamina at vertebrate neuromuscular junction involves the accumulation of numerous specialized extracellular matrix molecules including a specific form of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the collagenic-tailed form. The mechanisms responsible for its localization at sites of nerve– muscle contact are not well understood. To understand synaptic AChE localization, we synthesized a fluorescent conjugate of fasciculin 2, a snake α-neurotoxin that tightly binds to the ca...

  18. Computed tomography of skeletal muscles in neuromuscular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodiek, S.O.; Kuether, G.

    1985-06-01

    CT-documentation of skeletal muscular lesions caused by neuromuscular diseases implies an essential contribution to conventional techniques in the macroscopic field. Size, distribution and degree of lesions as well as compensatory mechanisms are proved thereby. We report about the different effects on muscle appearance referring to 106 patients of our own experience in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, poliomyelitis, polyradiculitis, polyneuropathy as well as peripheral traumatic nerve lesions.

  19. Progress in therapeutic antisense applications for neuromuscular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are a frequent cause of chronic disability in man. They often result from mutations in single genes and are thus, in principle, well suited for gene therapy. However, the tissues involved (muscle and the central nervous system) are post-mitotic, which poses a challenge for most viral vectors. In some cases, alternative approaches may use small molecules, for example, antisense oligonucleotides (AONs). These do not deliver a new gene, but rather modulate existing gene p...

  20. Myasthenia and related disorders of the neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Spillane, Jennifer; Beeson, David J; Kullmann, Dimitri M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Our understanding of transmission at the neuromuscular junction has increased greatly in recent years. We now recognise a wide variety of autoimmune and genetic diseases that affect this specialised synapse, causing muscle weakness and fatigue. These disorders greatly affect quality of life and rarely can be fatal. Myasthenia Gravis is the most common disorder and is most commonly caused by auto-antibodies targeting postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Antibodie...

  1. Degeneration of Neuromuscular Junction in Age and Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, Rüdiger; Khan, Muzamil Majid; Labeit, Siegfried; Deschenes, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Functional denervation is a hallmark of aging sarcopenia as well as of muscular dystrophy. It is thought to be a major factor reducing skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the case of sarcopenia. Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) serve as the interface between the nervous and skeletal muscular systems, and thus they may receive pathophysiological input of both pre- and post-synaptic origin. Consequently, NMJs are good indicators of motor health on a systemic level. Indeed, upon sarcopenia and d...

  2. Effect of Dex medetomidine on Neuromuscular Blockade in Patients Undergoing Complex Major Abdominal or Pelvic Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dex medetomidine is a highly selective α2 agonist with anesthetic, analgesic and sympatholytic properties. Its neuromuscular effects in humans are unknown. This study evaluates the effect of dex medetomidine on neuromuscular block and hemodynamics during thiopental/ isoflurane anesthesia for patients with complex abdominal or pelvic surgery. Patients and methods: During thiopental/isoflurane anesthesia, the rocuronium infusion rate was adjusted in 20 complex surgery patients to maintain a stable first response (T1) in the train of four sequence of 50% ± 3 of the pre-rocuronium value. Dex medetomidine was then administered by infusion pump, targeting a plasma dex medetomidine concentration of 0.6 ng/dL for 45 min. The evoked mechanical responses of the adductor pollicis responses (T1 response and T4/T1 ratio), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were measured during the dex medetomidine infusion using repeated measures analysis of variance. Plasma levels ranged from 0.73 to 1.38 ng/mL. Results: T1 values decreased during the infusion from 55(ρ2 to 38±9 ((ρ< 0.05). T4/Tl values did not change during the infusion. Dex medetomidine increased SBP (ρ< 0.001) and decreased HR ((ρ< 0.05) (10 min median values) during the infusion compared with values before the infusion. This study demonstrated that dex medetomidine decreased T1, increased SBP and decreased HR during thiopental/isoflurane anesthesia. Conclusion: We conclude that dex medetomidine induced direct vasoconstriction may alter pharmacokinetics of rocuronium, therefore increasing plasma rocuronium concentration. Although these effects were statistically significant, further studies should be held for understanding and characterizing the peripheral vasoconstrictive effects of a2 agonists that allow better management and determination of drug dosing regimens

  3. Fatty replacement of lower paraspinal muscles: normal and neuromuscular disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hader, H.; Gadoth, N.; Heifetz, H.

    1983-11-01

    The physiologic replacement of the lower paraspinal muscles by fat was evaluated in 157 patients undergoing computed tomography for reasons unrelated to abnormalities of the locomotor system. Five patients with neuromuscular disorders were similarly evaluated. The changes were graded according to severity at three spinal levels: lower thoracic-upper lumbar, midlumbar, and lumbosacral. The results were analyzed in relation to age and gender. It was found that fatty replacement of paraspinal muscles is a normal age-progressive phenomenon most prominent in females. It progresses down the spine, being most advanced in the lumbosacral region. The severest changes in the five patients with neuromuscular disorders (three with poliomyelitis and two with progressive muscular dystrophy) consisted of complete muscle group replacement by fat. In postpoliomyelitis atrophy, the distribution was typically asymmetric and sometimes lacked clinical correlation. In muscular dystrophy, fatty replacement was symmetric, showing relative sparing of the psoas and multifidus muscles. In patients with neuromuscular diseases, computed tomography of muscles may be helpful in planning a better rehabilitation regimen.

  4. Neuromuscular conditions for physicians - what you need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura; Phillips, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    The Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and the British Society of Rehabilitation Medicine co-hosted a meeting entitled 'Neuromuscular conditions for physicians - what you need to know' at the RCP on 30 November 2015. There was a series of talks, ranging from in-depth genetic and molecular descriptions of pathology to multidisciplinary management of chronic neuromuscular conditions, which stimulated lively debate and discussion. Some overarching themes emerged from the day, most notably: i) the changing expectations and survival rates in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which are transforming this disorder into an adult as much as a paediatric condition; ii) the need for integrated management and good communication -between services - whether primary, secondary and tertiary care, medical teams and intensivists, or the multiple teams involved in providing treatment to neuromuscular patients; and iii) in line with the above, the essential need for streamlining care such that patients can avoid spending most of their time attending outpatient appointments, and instead concentrate on living full lives and exploring educational, occupational, leisure and social opportunities. PMID:27251916

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years imaging procedures became also important in the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases. We examined more than 150 patients with different neuromuscular diseases with MRI. Conventional diagnostic procedures like EMG, muscle biopsy can not be replaced by imaging procedures. MRI gives the chance to get additional diagnostic informations. It is possible to determine exact distribution and intensity of pathological changes in the muscle. Inflammatory muscle diseases can be differrentiated by T1/T2 values from atrophic/dystrophic diseases. The resolving power is very high and allows the exact detection of affected areas even in a single muscle. This can help to reduce false negative muscle biopsies. This is very useful in children and young adults. MRI can be used for the early detection of genetic myopathies and neuropathies. MRI allows to examine all muscles, including the heart, bone artefacts are absent. Heart muscle involvement in neuromuscular diseases can directly be shown by this method without any risk for the patient. In addition P-spectroscopy can be done for better understanding of pathogenesis, especially if the exact distribution of pathological changes is known. (author)

  6. Defective membrane remodeling in neuromuscular diseases: insights from animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda S Cowling

    Full Text Available Proteins involved in membrane remodeling play an essential role in a plethora of cell functions including endocytosis and intracellular transport. Defects in several of them lead to human diseases. Myotubularins, amphiphysins, and dynamins are all proteins implicated in membrane trafficking and/or remodeling. Mutations in myotubularin, amphiphysin 2 (BIN1, and dynamin 2 lead to different forms of centronuclear myopathy, while mutations in myotubularin-related proteins cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. In addition to centronuclear myopathy, dynamin 2 is also mutated in a dominant form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. While several proteins from these different families are implicated in similar diseases, mutations in close homologues or in the same protein in the case of dynamin 2 lead to diseases affecting different tissues. This suggests (1 a common molecular pathway underlying these different neuromuscular diseases, and (2 tissue-specific regulation of these proteins. This review discusses the pathophysiology of the related neuromuscular diseases on the basis of animal models developed for proteins of the myotubularin, amphiphysin, and dynamin families. A better understanding of the common mechanisms between these neuromuscular disorders will lead to more specific health care and therapeutic approaches.

  7. Adiposity, physical activity and neuromuscular performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A; Väistö, Juuso; Lintu, Niina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Brage, Soren; Westgate, Kate; Ekelund, Ulf; Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Sääkslahti, Arja; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the associations of body fat percentage (BF%), objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and different types of physical activity assessed by a questionnaire with neuromuscular performance. The participants were 404 children aged 6-8 years. BF% was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and physical activity by combined heart rate and movement sensing and a questionnaire. The results of 50-m shuttle run, 15-m sprint run, hand grip strength, standing long jump, sit-up, modified flamingo balance, box-and-block and sit-and-reach tests were used as measures of neuromuscular performance. Children who had a combination of higher BF% and lower levels of physical activity had the poorest performance in 50-m shuttle run, 15-m sprint run and standing long jump tests. Higher BF% was associated with slower 50-m shuttle run and 15-m sprint times, shorter distance jumped in standing long jump test, fewer sit-ups, more errors in balance test and less cubes moved in box-and-block test. Higher levels of physical activity and particularly MVPA assessed objectively by combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor were related to shorter 50-m shuttle run and 15-m sprint times. In conclusion, higher BF% and lower levels of physical activity and particularly the combination of these two factors were associated with worse neuromuscular performance. PMID:26734777

  8. Alterations in the steroid hormone receptor co-chaperone FKBPL are associated with male infertility: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case of FKBP52, this reflects an important role in potentiating Androgen Receptor (AR signalling in the prostate and accessory glands, but not the testis. In infertile men, no mutations of FKBP52 or FKBP6 have been found so far, but the gene for FKBP-like (FKBPL maps to chromosome 6p21.3, an area linked to azoospermia in a group of Japanese patients. Methods To determine whether mutations in FKBPL could contribute to the azoospermic phenotype, we examined expression in mouse and human tissues by RNA array blot, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and sequenced the complete gene from two azoospermic patient cohorts and matching control groups. FKBPL-AR interaction was assayed using reporter constructs in vitro. Results FKBPL is strongly expressed in mouse testis, with expression upregulated at puberty. The protein is expressed in human testis in a pattern similar to FKBP52 and also enhanced AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays. We examined sixty patients from the Japanese patient group and found one inactivating mutation and one coding change, as well as a number of non-coding changes, all absent in fifty-six controls. A second, Irish patient cohort of thirty showed another two coding changes not present in thirty proven fertile controls. Conclusions Our results describe the first alterations in the gene for FKBPL in azoospermic patients and indicate a potential role in AR-mediated signalling in the testis.

  9. Alterations in the steroid hormone receptor co-chaperone FKBPL are associated with male infertility: a case-control study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sunnotel, Olaf

    2010-03-08

    Abstract Background Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case of FKBP52, this reflects an important role in potentiating Androgen Receptor (AR) signalling in the prostate and accessory glands, but not the testis. In infertile men, no mutations of FKBP52 or FKBP6 have been found so far, but the gene for FKBP-like (FKBPL) maps to chromosome 6p21.3, an area linked to azoospermia in a group of Japanese patients. Methods To determine whether mutations in FKBPL could contribute to the azoospermic phenotype, we examined expression in mouse and human tissues by RNA array blot, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and sequenced the complete gene from two azoospermic patient cohorts and matching control groups. FKBPL-AR interaction was assayed using reporter constructs in vitro. Results FKBPL is strongly expressed in mouse testis, with expression upregulated at puberty. The protein is expressed in human testis in a pattern similar to FKBP52 and also enhanced AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays. We examined sixty patients from the Japanese patient group and found one inactivating mutation and one coding change, as well as a number of non-coding changes, all absent in fifty-six controls. A second, Irish patient cohort of thirty showed another two coding changes not present in thirty proven fertile controls. Conclusions Our results describe the first alterations in the gene for FKBPL in azoospermic patients and indicate a potential role in AR-mediated signalling in the testis.

  10. Magmatic-vapor expansion and the formation of high-sulfidation gold deposits: Chemical controls on alteration and mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, R.W.; Berger, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Large bulk-tonnage high-sulfidation gold deposits, such as Yanacocha, Peru, are the surface expression of structurally-controlled lode gold deposits, such as El Indio, Chile. Both formed in active andesite-dacite volcanic terranes. Fluid inclusion, stable isotope and geologic data show that lode deposits formed within 1500. m of the paleo-surface as a consequence of the expansion of low-salinity, low-density magmatic vapor with very limited, if any, groundwater mixing. They are characterized by an initial 'Sulfate' Stage of advanced argillic wallrock alteration ?? alunite commonly with intense silicification followed by a 'Sulfide' Stage - a succession of discrete sulfide-sulfosalt veins that may be ore grade in gold and silver. Fluid inclusions in quartz formed during wallrock alteration have homogenization temperatures between 100 and over 500 ??C and preserve a record of a vapor-rich environment. Recent data for El Indio and similar deposits show that at the commencement of the Sulfide Stage, 'condensation' of Cu-As-S sulfosalt melts with trace concentrations of Sb, Te, Bi, Ag and Au occurred at > 600 ??C following pyrite deposition. Euhedral quartz crystals were simultaneously deposited from the vapor phase during crystallization of the vapor-saturated melt occurs to Fe-tennantite with progressive non-equilibrium fractionation of heavy metals between melt-vapor and solid. Vugs containing a range of sulfides, sulfosalts and gold record the changing composition of the vapor. Published fluid inclusion and mineralogical data are reviewed in the context of geological relationships to establish boundary conditions through which to trace the expansion of magmatic vapor from source to surface and consequent alteration and mineralization. Initially heat loss from the vapor is high resulting in the formation of acid condensate permeating through the wallrock. This Sulfate Stage alteration effectively isolates the expansion of magmatic vapor in subsurface fracture arrays

  11. The effect of cognitive fatigue on prefrontal cortex correlates of neuromuscular fatigue in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Shortz, Ashley E.; Pickens, Adam; Zheng, Qi; Mehta, Ranjana K.

    2015-01-01

    Background As the population of adults aged 65 and above is rapidly growing, it is crucial to identify physical and cognitive limitations pertaining to daily living. Cognitive fatigue has shown to adversely impact neuromuscular function in younger adults, however its impact on neuromuscular fatigue, and associated brain function changes, in older adults is not well understood. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of cognitive fatigue on neuromuscular fatigue and associated prefronta...

  12. PICU EXTUBATION FAILURE: THE ROLE OF NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Billan MD,

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNeuromuscular disorders (diseases of the motor unit, can cause respiratory problems such as impaired cough reflex, chest deformity, recurrent pneumonia and acute respiratory failure; these are the worst most common complications of these diseases and the leading cause of death in such patients (1, 2. Their management hence, very often, entails admission to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU (3,4 and during this phase, endotracheal intubation is almost always necessary, to maintain the patency of airways and to apply Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV. However, endotracheal intubation is always temporary, and its success or failure depends on the timely decision of its termination to restore the normal respiration or to avoid the risk of recurring respiratory failure (5, 6. We designed this study to evaluate the role of neuromuscular disorders in causing extubation failure as compared to that of other risk factors.Materials & MethodsIn an analytical cross-sectional study, the risk factors of reintubation and duration of mechanical ventilation in two groups of 30 patients each, was compared, the first successful extubation and the second with extubation failure.ResultsNeuromuscular disorders (including Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Guillain- Barre' Syndrome, Congenital Myopathies and Muscular Dystrophies were the main underlying diseases in extubation-failure group (P= 0.0002. Hypercapnia (PaCO2>50mmHg was shown to be the most common cause of both the first intubation (P=0.001 and reintubation (P=0.004 in the group of patients who failed extubation. The mean duration of intubation and mechanical ventilation was longer in patients with neuromuscular disorders who had extubation failure (P= 0.01.ConclusionThis study showed that, as underlying problems, neuromuscular disorders are the most common causes of prolonged intubation which defeat weaning from the ventilator and result in reintubation by inducing hypercapnia. Therefore the weaning

  13. Effects of a single whole body cryotherapy (-110°C) bout on neuromuscular performance of the elbow flexors during isokinetic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Junior, J B; Vieira, C A; Soares, S R S; Guedes, R; Rocha Junior, V A; Simoes, H G; Brown, L E; Bottaro, M

    2014-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that body cooling may decrease neuromuscular performance. However, the effect of a single session of whole body cryotherapy (-110°C) on neuromuscular performance has not been well documented. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single exposure of WBC on elbow flexor neuromuscular performance. Thirteen physically active, healthy young men (age=27.9±4.2 years, mass=79.4±9.7 kg, height=176.7±5.2 cm) were randomly exposed to 2 different experimental conditions separated by a minimum of 72 h: 1) whole body cryotherapy- 3 min at -110°C; 2) control- 3 min at 21°C. All subjects were tested for maximal isokinetic elbow flexion at 60°.s(-1) 30 min before and 10 min after each condition. There were no significant differences in peak torque, average power, total work or muscle activity between conditions. Peak torque was lower at post-test compared to pre-test in both conditions (F=6.58, p=0.025). However, there were no differences between pre-test and post-test for any other variables. These results indicate that strength specialists, athletic trainers and physical therapists might utilize whole body cryotherapy before training or rehabilitation without compromising neuromuscular performance of the elbow flexors. PMID:25254899

  14. FUNCTIONAL AND NEUROMUSCULAR CHANGES IN THE HAMSTRINGS AFTER DROP JUMPS AND LEG CURLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production, kinaesthesia (active torque tracking and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles

  15. Agrin and synaptic laminin are required to maintain adult neuromuscular junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Samuel

    Full Text Available As synapses form and mature the synaptic partners produce organizing molecules that regulate each other's differentiation and ensure precise apposition of pre- and post-synaptic specializations. At the skeletal neuromuscular junction (NMJ, these molecules include agrin, a nerve-derived organizer of postsynaptic differentiation, and synaptic laminins, muscle-derived organizers of presynaptic differentiation. Both become concentrated in the synaptic cleft as the NMJ develops and are retained in adulthood. Here, we used mutant mice to ask whether these organizers are also required for synaptic maintenance. Deletion of agrin from a subset of adult motor neurons resulted in the loss of acetylcholine receptors and other components of the postsynaptic apparatus and synaptic cleft. Nerve terminals also atrophied and eventually withdrew from muscle fibers. On the other hand, mice lacking the presynaptic organizer laminin-α4 retained most of the synaptic cleft components but exhibited synaptic alterations reminiscent of those observed in aged animals. Although we detected no marked decrease in laminin or agrin levels at aged NMJs, we observed alterations in the distribution and organization of these synaptic cleft components suggesting that such changes could contribute to age-related synaptic disassembly. Together, these results demonstrate that pre- and post-synaptic organizers actively function to maintain the structure and function of adult NMJs.

  16. Neuromuscular dressing effects: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Calero PA; Cañón GA

    2012-01-01

    The kinesio taping is a technique that was created in 1979 by Doctor Kenzo Kase I’m looking through it that could generate a new therapeutic option to control pain, improve athletic performance and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal disorders. From the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, this technique as a therapeutic alternative PTO and is composed of health professionals in the field of sport and physical rehabilitation.Objetive: This article aims to identify theoretical approaches on the bandage...

  17. Effects of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation on Baseball Pitching Velocity and Electromechanical Reaction Times of the Teres Major of Young Amateur Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Peng; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of baseball pitching velocity and electromechanical reaction times (EMG-RT) of the teres major of young amateur baseball players after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy males who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a control group. The NJF group consisted of 10 subjects, and the control group consisted of 8 subjects. [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received ...

  18. Magmatic-vapor expansion and the formation of high-sulfidation gold deposits: Structural controls on hydrothermal alteration and ore mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, B.R.; Henley, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    High-sulfidation copper-gold lode deposits such as Chinkuashih, Taiwan, Lepanto, Philippines, and Goldfield, Nevada, formed within 1500. m of the paleosurface in volcanic terranes. All underwent an early stage of extensive advanced argillic silica-alunite alteration followed by an abrupt change to spatially much more restricted stages of fracture-controlled sulfide-sulfosalt mineral assemblages and gold-silver mineralization. The alteration as well as ore mineralization stages of these deposits were controlled by the dynamics and history of syn-hydrothermal faulting. At the Sulfate Stage, aggressive advanced argillic alteration and silicification were consequent on the in situ formation of acidic condensate from magmatic vapor as it expanded through secondary fracture networks alongside active faults. The reduction of permeability at this stage due to alteration decreased fluid flow to the surface, and progressively developed a barrier between magmatic-vapor expansion constrained by the active faults and peripheral hydrothermal activity dominated by hot-water flow. In conjunction with the increased rock strength resulting from alteration, subsequent fault-slip inversion in response to an increase in compressional stress generated new, highly permeable fractures localized by the embrittled, altered rock. The new fractures focused magmatic-vapor expansion with much lower heat loss so that condensation occurred. Sulfide Stage sulfosalt, sulfide, and gold-silver deposition then resulted from destabilization of vapor phase metal species due to vapor decompression through the new fracture array. The switch from sulfate to sulfide assemblages is, therefore, a logical consequence of changes in structural permeability due to the coupling of alteration and fracture dynamics rather than to changes in the chemistry of the fluid phase at its magmatic source. ?? 2010.

  19. Poor ability to resist tempting calorie rich food is linked to altered balance between neural systems involved in urge and self-control

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qinghua; Xiao, Lin; XUE, Gui; Wong, Savio; Ames, Susan L.; Schembre, Susan M.; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Background The loss of self-control or inability to resist tempting/rewarding foods, and the development of less healthful eating habits may be explained by three key neural systems: (1) a hyper-functioning striatum system driven by external rewarding cues; (2) a hypo-functioning decision-making and impulse control system; and (3) an altered insula system involved in the translation of homeostatic and interoceptive signals into self-awareness and what may be subjectively experienced as a feel...

  20. Neuromuscular function in patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and clinical assessment of scapular kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie

    2014-01-01

    voluntary arm movement task and 2) selective activation tasks during sessions with and without on-line biofeedback, in a general population consisting of 16 SIS patients and 15 controls (No-SIS). Furthermore, 3) a systematic review was conducted of all available clinical scapular assessment methods and......Neuromuscular function in patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and clinical assessment of scapular kinematics Larsen CM1, Juul-Kristensen B1,2 Holtermann A3, Lund H1,2, Søgaard K1 1University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, DK 2Institute of...... patient sample with SIS, and to assess the clinimetric properties of clinical assessment methods of scapular kinematics as important aspects for optimising effect measures of treatment in order to improve clinical guidelines in this area. METHODS: Scapular muscle activity was examined, 1) during a...

  1. Immediate Efficacy of Neuromuscular Exercise in Patients with Severe Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Overgaard, Søren; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire. The secondary outcomes were the HOOS/KOOS subscales Pain, Symptoms, Sport and Recreation, and Joint-related Quality of Life. Exploratory outcomes were functional performance measures and lower limb......OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about the effects of exercise in severe and endstage osteoarthritis (OA) is limited. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a neuromuscular exercise program in patients with clinically severe hip or knee OA. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled assessor-blinded trial...... muscle power. RESULTS: Included were 165 patients, 56% female, average age 67 years (SD ± 8), and a body mass index of 30 (SD ± 5), who were scheduled for primary hip or knee replacement. The postintervention difference between mean changes in ADL was 7.2 points (95% CI 3.5 to 10.9, p = 0.0002) in favor...

  2. Effects of intensive physical rehabilitation on neuromuscular adaptations in adults with poststroke hemiparesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R;

    2011-01-01

    outpatients with hemiparesis after stroke participated in 12 weeks of intensive physical rehabilitation comprising unilateral high-intensity strength training with near-maximal loads (4-12 repetition maximum) and body weight supported treadmill training. At baseline and 12-week follow-up, the patients went...... changes were observed in the nonparetic control leg. Gait performance increased 52-68%. In conclusion, intensive physical rehabilitation after stroke leads to clinically relevant neuromuscular improvements, leading to increased voluntary strength during a wide range of contraction modes and velocities......Hemiparesis-disability and muscle weakness of 1 side of the body-is a common consequence of stroke. High-intensity strength training may be beneficial to regain function, but strength coaches in the field of rehabilitation need evidence-based guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate...

  3. Whole grain products, fish and bilberries alter glucose and lipid metabolism in a randomized, controlled trial: the Sysdimet study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lankinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, new dietary solutions are needed to help improve glucose and lipid metabolism in persons at high risk of developing the disease. Herein we investigated the effects of low-insulin-response grain products, fatty fish, and berries on glucose metabolism and plasma lipidomic profiles in persons with impaired glucose metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Altogether 106 men and women with impaired glucose metabolism and with at least two other features of the metabolic syndrome were included in a 12-week parallel dietary intervention. The participants were randomized into three diet intervention groups: (1 whole grain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish three times a week, and bilberries three portions per day (HealthyDiet group, (2 Whole grain enriched diet (WGED group, which includes principally the same grain products as group (1, but with no change in fish or berry consumption, and (3 refined wheat breads (Control. Oral glucose tolerance, plasma fatty acids and lipidomic profiles were measured before and after the intervention. Self-reported compliance with the diets was good and the body weight remained constant. Within the HealthyDiet group two hour glucose concentration and area-under-the-curve for glucose decreased and plasma proportion of (n-3 long-chain PUFAs increased (False Discovery Rate p-values <0.05. Increases in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid associated curvilinearly with the improved insulin secretion and glucose disposal. Among the 364 characterized lipids, 25 changed significantly in the HealthyDiet group, including multiple triglycerides incorporating the long chain (n-3 PUFA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the diet rich in whole grain and low insulin response grain products, bilberries, and fatty fish improve glucose metabolism and alter the lipidomic profile. Therefore, such a diet may have a

  4. Neuromuscular Responses to Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Fights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa da Silva Bruno Victor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest. Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre and after the last one (Post. Blood lactate (LA was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VCMJ performance (40.8 ± 5.5 cm Pre vs. 42.0 ± 5.8 cm Post, but no significant changes in the BPT (814 ± 167 W Pre vs. 835 ± 213 W Post were observed. LA concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05 at Post, both in the 1st min and the 15th min of recovery. We concluded that successive simulated BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power was observed.

  5. Nerve excitability testing and its clinical application to neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodera, Hiroyuki; Kaji, Ryuji

    2006-09-01

    Non-invasive nerve excitability testing measures the membrane polarization, ion channel function and paranodal/internodal condition of peripheral nerves. This technique has been recently used for various neuromuscular disorders, such as pure motor conduction block in multifocal motor neuropathy, conduction block in carpal tunnel syndrome and Na(+) channel function disorders in diabetic neuropathy, to shed light on their pathophysiology. Here, we review the basics of ion channel functions and membrane properties that influence nerve excitability, the basic principles of nerve excitability testing and the reported findings in various disorders. PMID:16631406

  6. Cardiac involvement in children with neuro-muscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Arkhipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many inherited neuromuscular disorders include cardiac involvement as a typical clinical feature. Among the most common of them is the group of muscular dystrophies. Dilated cardiomyopathy, ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillations, atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction abnormalities, and sudden cardiac death are well known pathological findings in Duchenne muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy type I and 2, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophies and different types of limb-girdle muscular dystrophies and other disorders. Detection of cardiac pathology in patients with different muscular dystrophies is possible with ECG, echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, which are recommended for screening and early cardioprotective treatment.

  7. Assembly and regulation of acetylcholinesterase at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Rotundo, R. L.; Ruiz, C.A.; Marrero, E.; Kimbell, L. M.; Rossi, S.G.; Rosenberry, T.; Darr, A; Tsoulfas, P.

    2008-01-01

    The collagen-tailed form of acetylcholinesterase (ColQ-AChE) is the major if not unique form of the enzyme associated with the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This enzyme form consists of catalytic and non-catalytic subunits encoded by separate genes, assembled as three enzymatic tetramers attached to the three-stranded collagen-like tail (ColQ). This synaptic form of the enzyme is tightly attached to the basal lamina associated with the glycosaminoglycan perlecan. Fasciculin-2 is a snake toxin...

  8. Resúmenes de los trabajos sobre las Enfermedades Neuromusculares

    OpenAIRE

    Congreso Nacional de Neurología

    2010-01-01

    Las enfermedades neuromusculares constituyen un conjunto de afectaciones que afectan las neuronas motoras periférica, las vías motoras eferentes o los efectores (músculos esqueléticos). Sus manifestaciones clínicas son muy variadas y dependen de la causa y de los niveles de afectación. En este acápite se pueden encontrar los resúmenes de trabajos relacionados con el síndrome de Guillain Barre, polineuropatía diabética, Atrofia Muscular Espinal, Distrofia miotónica y otros todos presentados en...

  9. Optimising abdominal space with deep neuromuscular blockade in gynaecologic laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Gätke, M R; Springborg, H H;

    2015-01-01

    neuromuscular blockade (NMB) would enlarge surgical space, measured as the distance from the sacral promontory to the trocar in patients undergoing gynaecologic laparoscopy. METHODS: Fourteen patients were randomised in an assessor-blinded crossover design. The distance from the sacral promontory to the trocar...... resulted in significantly better ratings of surgical conditions during suturing of the fascia (P=0.03, Mann-Whitney U-test). CONCLUSION: Deep NMB enlarged surgical space measured as the distance from the sacral promontory to the trocar. The enlargement, however, was minor and the clinical significance is...

  10. MRI in neuromuscular disorders; MRT bei neuromuskulaeren Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischmann, Arne [Klinik St. Anna, Luzern (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Fischer, Dirk [Kantonsspital Bruderholz (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Neuromuscular disorders are caused by damage of the skeletal muscles or supplying nerves, in many cases due to a genetic defect, resulting in progressive disability, loss of ambulation and often a reduced life expectancy. Previously only supportive care and steroids were available as treatments, but several novel therapies are under development or in clinical trial phase. Muscle imaging can detect specific patterns of involvement and facilitate diagnosis and guide genetic testing. Quantitative MRT can be used to monitor disease progression either to monitor treatment or as a surrogate parameter for clinical trails. Novel imaging sequences can provide insights into disease pathology and muscle metabolism. (orig.)

  11. Diagnostics of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography is treated. Computerized tomography of skeletal muscles give no information which is pathognomonic for particular diseases. But the technique can be used in the following aspects: to choose a muscle for a biopsy; when it is not possible to examine the function of a muscle, a CT scan can visualize morphological deviations; in the differentiation of muscle hypertrophy and pseudo-hypertrophy. For some cases as Becker-type muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and Kugelberg-Welander type spinal muscular atrophy computerized tomography gives characteristic images. 10 refs.; 6 figs

  12. Plantar flexor neuromuscular adjustments following match-play football in hot and cool conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girard, O; Nybo, Lars; Mohr, Magni;

    2015-01-01

    We assessed neuromuscular fatigue and recovery of the plantar flexors after playing football with or without severe heat stress. Neuromuscular characteristics of the plantar flexors were assessed in 17 male players at baseline and ∼30 min, 24, and 48 h after two 90-min football matches in temperate...

  13. Pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents : Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viby-Mogensen, J; Ostergaard, D; Donati, F; Fisher, D; Hunter, J; Kampmann, JP; Kopman, A; Proost, JH; Rasmussen, SN; Skovgaard, LT; Varin, F; Wright, PMC

    2000-01-01

    In September 1997, an international consensus conference on standardization of studies of neuromuscular blocking agents was held in Copenhagen, Denmark. Based on the conference, a set of guidelines fur good clinical research practice (GCRT) in pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents

  14. Estudio electrofisiológico de la funcion neuromuscular en una poblacion intoxicada con plomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Genovese

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Un grupo de 12 pacientes con cifras elevadas de plombemia y disminuidas de ALA D fueron estudiados electrofisiológicamente. Se efectuaron las siguientes determinaciones: amplitud de potencial evocado muscular; latencia distal motora; velocidad de conducción motora en los nervios mediano, ciático poplíteo externo y radial; velocidad de conducción sensitiva y amplitud del potencial evocado sensitivo de nervio en el mediano; exploración electromiográfica convencional; estudio de la transmisión neuromuscular, mediante estimulación repetitiva del nervio ciático popliteo externo a diversas frecuencias, con registro de la amplitud del potencial en músculo tibial anterior. Los datos obtenidos fueron comparados con controles. Se buscaron correlaciones entre las determinaciones bioquímicas y los diferentes hallazgos electrofisiológicos que a su vez se correlacionaron entre si y también con el tiempo de evolución de la intoxicación. Los hallazgos pusieron de manifiesto la presencia de neuropatía axonal junto a moderada desmielinización. La exploración de la transmisión neuromuscular mostró ocasional decremento o incremento de la amplitud del potencial muscular evocado, hechos que suponen cierta participación de la unión neuromuscular. Se halló correlación solamente entre disminución de ALA D y la disminución de las amplitudes del potencial sensitivo del mediano y el evocado muscular del mismo nervio y con la disminución de la VCM del nervio radial. Una débil relación se observó entre el tiempo de exposición y la disminución de la VCS del nervio mediano y VCM del radial. Las determinaciones bioquímicas y el tiempo de exposición transcurridos no probaron ser parámetros sensibles para determinar el grado de afectación del sistema nervioso periférico. El conjunto do hallazgos sugiere que el desarrollo de la neuropatía puede estar ligado a factores individuales de predisposición al daño nervioso.

  15. The Wnt and BMP Families of Signaling Morphogens at the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Henríquez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuromuscular junction has been extensively employed in order to identify crucial determinants of synaptogenesis. At the vertebrate neuromuscular synapse, extracellular matrix and signaling proteins play stimulatory and inhibitory roles on the assembly of functional synapses. Studies in invertebrate species have revealed crucial functions of early morphogens during the assembly and maturation of the neuromuscular junction. Here, we discuss growing evidence addressing the function of Wnt and Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling pathways at the vertebrate neuromuscular synapse. We focus on the emerging role of Wnt proteins as positive and negative regulators of postsynaptic differentiation. We also address the possible involvement of BMP pathways on motor neuron behavior for the assembly and/or regeneration of the neuromuscular junction.

  16. An evidence-based review of hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions to address dynamic lower extremity valgus

    OpenAIRE

    Ford KR; Nguyen AD; Dischiavi SL; Hegedus EJ; Zuk EF; Taylor JB

    2015-01-01

    Kevin R Ford,1 Anh-Dung Nguyen,2 Steven L Dischiavi,1 Eric J Hegedus,1 Emma F Zuk,2 Jeffrey B Taylor11Department of Physical Therapy, High Point University, High Point, NC, USA; 2Department of Athletic Training, School of Health Sciences, High Point University, High Point, NC, USAAbstract: Deficits in proximal hip strength or neuromuscular control may lead to dynamic lower extremity valgus. Measures of dynamic lower extremity valgus have been previously shown to relate to increased risk of se...

  17. Effect of Low Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Glucose Profile of Persons with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Jabbour; Lise Belliveau; David Probizanski; Ian Newhouse; Jim McAuliffe; Jennifer Jakobi; Michel Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of low-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on glucose profile in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Eight persons with T2DM (41 to 65 years) completed a glucose tolerance test with and without NMES delivered to the knee extensors for a 1-hour period at 8 Hz. Three blood samples were collected: at rest, and then 60 and 120 minutes after consumption of a glucose load on the NMES and control days. In NMES groups glu...

  18. Influência da procainamida sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio e investigação sobre o mecanismo de ação da procainamida na junção neuromuscular Influencia de la procainamida sobre el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio e investigación sobre el mecanismo de acción de la procainamida en la junción neuromuscular Influence of procainamide on the neuromuscular blockade caused by rocuronium and investigation on the mechanism of action of procainamide on the neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Duque Martins

    2007-02-01

    el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por la d-tubocurarina ya está comprobada, pero sin embargo el mecanismo es controvertido. El objetivo del estudio fue el de evaluar la influencia de la procainamida en el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio e investigar los mecanismos de esa interacción. MÉTODO: Se utilizaron 15 ratones (250 a 300 g en preparación descrita por Bülbring. Se formaron los siguientes grupos (n = 5 cada: procainamida - 20 µg.mL-1 (Grupo I; rocuronio - 4 µg.mL-1 (Grupo II y rocuronio - 4µg.mL-1 y procainamida - 20µg.mL-1 (Grupo III. Se evaluó: 1 la amplitud de las contracciones musculares bajo la estimulación indirecta en cada grupo, antes y después de la adición de los fármacos; 2 los potenciales de placa terminal en miniatura (PPTM; 3 la eficacia de la 4-aminopiridina en la reversión del bloqueo neuromuscular. El mecanismo de la interacción se estudió en Biventer cervicis (n = 5 y diafragma de ratón desnervado (n = 5, observándose la influencia de la procainamida en la respuesta a la acetilcolina antes y después de la adición de la procainamida. RESULTADOS: De forma aislada, la procainamida no alteró las respuestas neuromusculares. El bloqueo producido con el Grupo III fue de 68,6% ± 7,1%, con una diferencia significativa (p = 0,0067 con relación al Grupo II (10,4% ± 4,5%, revertido por la 4-aminopiridina. La procainamida ocasionó un aumento en la frecuencia de los PPTM, seguido de bloqueo revertido por la 4-aminopiridina. En Biventer cervicis, la procainamida aumentó la respuesta a la acción de contracción de la acetilcolina, resultado no observado con el diafragma desnervado. CONCLUSIONES: La procainamida potenció el bloqueo producido por el rocuronio. Las alteraciones observadas con PPTM y Biventer cervicis identificaron una acción presináptica. El antagonismo de la 4-aminopiridina sobre el bloqueo de los PPTMs sugirió la desensibilización de los receptores por la procainamida.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

  19. Circuit modeling of the electrical impedance: I. Neuromuscular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifrequency electrical impedance myography (MFEIM) in the 3–300 kHz range was applied to 68 subjects representing 19 different neuromuscular diseases, and the impedances analyzed using the 5-element circuit model. Depending on severity, the ‘cellular’ parameters r2, r3, 1/c1 and 1/c2 were found to be as much as 10- to 20-fold larger than for normal subjects (taking age and girth into account), but in almost every case the extracellular fluid parameter r1 was at most only marginally affected. Strong correlations are found between r2 and 1/c1, but in the case of ALS that breaks down when c1 (representing the muscle fiber membrane capacitance) falls below half the normal value. Also, c2 (tentatively associated with intracellular organelle membranes) was found to be the most sensitive to disease progress in ALS, about three times more so than the 50 kHz phase, already suggested for use in clinical drug testing. We conclude that following parameters obtained using the combined MFEIM/5-element circuit analysis scheme offer a reliable, non-invasive and objective way of characterizing muscle in neuromuscular disease or during clinical drug testing. (paper)

  20. Myasthenia and related disorders of the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Jennifer; Beeson, David J; Kullmann, Dimitri M

    2010-08-01

    Our understanding of transmission at the neuromuscular junction has increased greatly in recent years. We now recognise a wide variety of autoimmune and genetic diseases that affect this specialised synapse, causing muscle weakness and fatigue. These disorders greatly affect quality of life and rarely can be fatal. Myasthenia gravis is the most common disorder and is most commonly caused by autoantibodies targeting postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors. Antibodies to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) are detected in a variable proportion of the remainder. Treatment is symptomatic and immunomodulatory. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is caused by antibodies to presynaptic calcium channels, and approximately 50% of cases are paraneoplastic, most often related to small cell carcinoma of the lung. Botulism is an acquired disorder caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, impairing acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft. In addition, several rare congenital myasthenic syndromes have been identified, caused by inherited defects in presynaptic, synaptic basal lamina and postsynaptic proteins necessary for neuromuscular transmission. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. PMID:20547629

  1. Effects of organophosphate,carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides and their mixtures on neuromuscular junction transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeFS; XiaoC

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effects of organophosphorus (OP),carbamate (Carb),pyrehroid (Pyr) insecticides and their mixtures on neuromuscular junction transmission (NMJT),dimethoate(D) and phoxim(P),methomyl(M),and fenvalerate(F) were selected.Rats were intraperitoneally intoxicated by D,P,M,F,D+M,D+F,P+M,or P+F with the dosage of each LD50 respectively.The function of the NMJT was assessed with the mean consecutive differences (MCD) of the latencies of single fiber action potentials detected by stimulation single fiber electromyography(SSFEMG) at the stimulus frequency of 20 Hz.The SSFEMG was also applied to detect the function of NMJT in 40 patients with OPs and their mixtures poisoning in this study.The results showed that (1)the myasthenia occurred only in rats with OPs and their mixtures poisoning,but not in F,M intoxicated rats.The increase of MCD shown by SSFEMG and induced by OP and their mixtures indicating a post-synaptic block was well correlated with the occurrence of myasthenia both in rats and patients(P<0.001);(2)the increase of MCD in rats of OP poisoning was significant in comparison with the control and F,M intoxicated rats;but was not significantly different from those in rats intoxicated by OP mixtures;(3)the MCDs were significantly increased in IMS patients of both acute OP poisoning and OP mixtures poisoning,but showing no significant difference between the two groups of patients.It is concluded that OP is the only responsible agent for the dysfunction of neuromuscular transmission induced by single OP and OP mixture insecticides which could be sensitively detected by SSFEMG.

  2. High adherence to a neuromuscular injury prevention programme (FIFA 11+) improves functional balance and reduces injury risk in Canadian youth female football players: A cluster randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Kathrin; Emery, Carolyn; Romiti, Maria; Kang, Jian; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri; Finch, Caroline; Meeuwisse, Willem

    2013-01-01

    A protective effect on injury risk in youth sports through neuromuscular warm-up training routines has consistently been demonstrated. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the quantity and quality of coach-led injury prevention programmes and its impact on the physical performance of players. The aim of this cluster-randomised controlled trial was to assess whether different delivery methods of an injury prevention programme (FIFA 11+) to coaches could improve player performan...

  3. Cell Cycle Control and Adhesion Molecule Expression in Cells of the Immune System are Sensitive to Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, O.; Paulsen, K.; Thiel, C.; Herrmann, K.; Sang, C.; Han, G.; Hemmersbach, R.; von der Wiesche, M.; Kroll, H.; Zhuang, F.; Grote, K. H.; Cogoli, A.; Zipp, F.; Engelmann, F.

    2008-06-01

    Life on earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Thus, it is a fundamental biological question, whether gravity is required for cellular functions and signal transduction in mammalian cells. Since the first Spacelab-Mission 20 years ago, it is known that activation and function of T lymphocytes is severely suppressed in microgravity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not elucidated. Experiments have been performed using ground-based facilities such as fast-rotating clinostat and hyper-g-centrifuges, and real microgravity provided by parabolic flights. We found that 1.) cells of the immune system responded cell type specifically to altered gravity, 2.) microgravity induced a multitude of initial alterations in signal transduction, whereas 3.) hypergravity of 1.8g did not induce any changes of the pathways tested, and that 4.) most of the initially altered pathways in microgravity adapted to "normal" levels within 15min. However, some pathways remained altered and could explain cell cycle arrest of T lymphocytes as observed in several long-term space experiments.

  4. Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lipopolysaccharide and COX-2 mediators on human colonic neuromuscular function and epithelial permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, B K; Sia, T C; Wattchow, D A; Smid, S D

    2016-07-01

    Chronic colitis is associated with decreased colonic muscle contraction and loss of mucosal barrier function. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are important in the generation and maintenance of inflammation. While colitis is associated with upregulated COX-2 -derived prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO), the direct activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines on human colonic neuromuscular function is less clear. This study investigated the effects of IBD-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17, TNF-α, IL-1β and LPS on human colonic muscle strip contractility, alone and following inhibition of COX-2 or nitric oxide production. In addition, human colonic epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers were treated with LPS or COX-2 mediators including prostaglandins (PGE2, PGF2α) or their corresponding ethanolamides (PGE2-EA or PGF2α-EA) over 48h and trans-epithelial electrical resistance used to record permeability changes. Longitudinal muscle strips were obtained from healthy colonic resection margins and mounted in organ baths following IL-17, TNF-α, IL-1β and bacterial LPS incubations in an explant setting over 20h. Contraction in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was then measured, before and after either COX-2 inhibition (nimesulide; 10(-5)M) or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition (l-NNA; 10(-4)M). None of the cytokine or LPS explant incubations affected the potency or maximum cholinergic contraction in vitro, and subsequent COX-2 blockade with nimesulide revealed a significant but similar decrease in potency of ACh-evoked contraction in control, LPS and cytokine-incubated muscle strips. Pre-treatment with l-NNA provided no functional differences in the potency or maximum contractile responses to ACh in cytokine or LPS-incubated colonic longitudinal smooth muscle. Only PGE2 transiently increased Caco-2 monolayer permeability at 24h, while LPS (10μg/ml) increased permeability over 24-48h. These findings indicate that cholinergic

  5. Time-Course of Neuromuscular Changes during and after Maximal Eccentric Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doguet, Valentin; Jubeau, Marc; Dorel, Sylvain; Couturier, Antoine; Lacourpaille, Lilian; Guével, Arnaud; Guilhem, Gaël

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the relationship between the magnitude of muscle damage and both central and peripheral modulations during and after eccentric contractions of plantar flexors. Eleven participants performed 10 sets of 30 maximal eccentric contractions of the plantar flexors at 45°·s−1. Maximal voluntary torque, evoked torque (peripheral component) and voluntary activation (central component) were assessed before, during, immediately after (POST) and 48 h after (48 h) the eccentric exercise. Voluntary eccentric torque progressively decreased (up to −36%) concomitantly to a significant alteration of evoked torque (up to −34%) and voluntary activation (up to −13%) during the exercise. Voluntary isometric torque (−48 ± 7%), evoked torque (−41 ± 14%) and voluntary activation (−13 ± 11%) decreased at POST, but only voluntary isometric torque (−19 ± 6%) and evoked torque (−10 ± 18%) remained depressed at 48 h. Neither changes in voluntary activation nor evoked torque during the exercise were related to the magnitude of muscle damage markers, but the evoked torque decrement at 48 h was significantly correlated with the changes in voluntary activation (r = −0.71) and evoked torque (r = 0.77) at POST. Our findings show that neuromuscular responses observed during eccentric contractions were not associated with muscle damage. Conversely, central and peripheral impairments observed immediately after the exercise reflect the long-lasting reduction in force-generating capacity.

  6. Presynaptic effects of d-tubocurarine on neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction of the frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzner, H; Parnas, H; Parnas, I

    1988-01-01

    1. Presynaptic effects of d-tubocurarine on neurotransmitter release were examined at the frog neuromuscular junction, using intracellular and extracellular recording techniques. 2. d-Tubocurarine in concentrations of 10(-7)-10(-6) M decreased the quantal content (m) measured by the coefficient of variation and failure methods. 3. d-Tubocurarine produced a shift to the right of the curve relating log quantal content to log [Ca2+]o without changing the slope. 4. The duration of twin-impulse facilitation was not affected by 5 x 10(-7) M-d-tubocurarine. Early facilitation was higher in d-tubocurarine. 5. d-Tubocurarine altered the synaptic delay histogram. The peak of the histogram was shifted to longer delays. Prolongation of the minimal delay was seen in most but not all experiments. 6. These results suggest that d-tubocurarine inhibits release of neurotransmitter by affecting a stage in the process of release, which occurs after the entry of Ca2+ ions. PMID:2899171

  7. Effects of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging on the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium bromide in neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of intraoperative magnetic resonance (iMR) imaging on the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium bromide were investigated in neurosurgery. Fifty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I-II scheduled for craniotomy operation were divided into two groups (n=25 each) with no difference in demographic data: the iMR imaging group and control group. Train-of-four (TOF) stimulation through an accelerometer was used to monitor onset, maintenance, and recovery of muscle relaxation caused by vecuronium. Vecuronium bromide was intravenously injected after anesthesia induction. The dosage of vecuronium bromide in the iMR imaging group was larger than in the control group, but not significantly. Duration of vecuronium bromide administration and operation time were significantly longer in the iMR imaging group than in the control group. Time from drug discontinuation to operation termination, and to return to neurosurgery intensive care unit were not different. Time taken by first twitch (T1) in response to TOF stimulation to recover by 25%, and muscle relaxant recovery index were significantly greater in the control group than in the iMR imaging group. The body temperature of the patients increased gradually in the iMR imaging group but decreased in the control group. iMR imaging can prolong the operation time, increase the body temperature of the patient, and remarkably shorten the clinical action time and muscle relaxation recovery index of vecuronium. (author)

  8. A celiac cellular phenotype, with altered LPP sub-cellular distribution, is inducible in controls by the toxic gliadin peptide P31-43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin Nanayakkara

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a frequent inflammatory intestinal disease, with a genetic background, caused by gliadin-containing food. Undigested gliadin peptides P31-43 and P57-68 induce innate and adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses, respectively. Alterations in the cell shape and actin cytoskeleton are present in celiac enterocytes, and gliadin peptides induce actin rearrangements in both the CD mucosa and cell lines. Cell shape is maintained by the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions, sites of membrane attachment to the extracellular matrix. The locus of the human Lipoma Preferred Partner (LPP gene was identified as strongly associated with CD using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. The LPP protein plays an important role in focal adhesion architecture and acts as a transcription factor in the nucleus. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that a constitutive alteration of the cell shape and the cytoskeleton, involving LPP, occurs in a cell compartment far from the main inflammation site in CD fibroblasts from skin explants. We analyzed the cell shape, actin organization, focal adhesion number, focal adhesion proteins, LPP sub-cellular distribution and adhesion to fibronectin of fibroblasts obtained from CD patients on a Gluten-Free Diet (GFD and controls, without and with treatment with A-gliadin peptide P31-43. We observed a "CD cellular phenotype" in these fibroblasts, characterized by an altered cell shape and actin organization, increased number of focal adhesions, and altered intracellular LPP protein distribution. The treatment of controls fibroblasts with gliadin peptide P31-43 mimics the CD cellular phenotype regarding the cell shape, adhesion capacity, focal adhesion number and LPP sub-cellular distribution, suggesting a close association between these alterations and CD pathogenesis.

  9. Comparative adaptations of lower limb biomechanics during unilateral and bilateral landings after different neuromuscular-based ACL injury prevention protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyler N; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; McLean, Scott G

    2014-10-01

    Potentially valuable anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention strategies are lengthy, limiting training success. Shorter protocols that achieve beneficial biomechanical adaptations may improve training effectiveness. This study examined whether core stability/balance and plyometric training can modify female landing biomechanics compared with the standard neuromuscular and no training models. Forty-three females had lower limb biomechanics analyzed during unilateral and bilateral landings immediately before and after a 6-week neuromuscular or no training programs. Sagittal and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics and kinetics were submitted to 3-way repeated-measures analyses of variance to test for the main and interaction effects of training group, landing type, and testing time. Greater peak knee flexion was evident in the standard neuromuscular group following training, during both bilateral (p = 0.027) and unilateral landings (p = 0.076 and d = 0.633). The plyometric group demonstrated reduced hip adduction (p = 0.010) and greater knee flexion (p = 0.065 and d = 0.564) during bilateral landings following training. The control group had significant reduction in peak stance knee abduction moment (p = 0.003) posttraining as compared with pretraining. The current outcomes suggest that significant biomechanical changes are possible by an isolated plyometric training component. The benefits, however, may not be evident across all landing types, seemingly limited to simplistic, bilateral landings. Integrated training protocols may still be the most effective training model, currently improving knee flexion posture during both bilateral and unilateral landings following training. Future prevention efforts should implement integrated training protocols that include plyometric exercises to reduce ACL injury risk of female athletes. PMID:24714537

  10. Comparative studies of the structural and alteration controls on gold mineralization in the Wa-Lawra region, NW Ghana.

    OpenAIRE

    Amponsah, Prince Ofori

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to perform a detailed structural, mineralization and associated alteration studies of three gold deposits located in northwest Ghana, on the eastern margin of the West African Craton. Thus, the Kunche and Bepkong deposits, located in the Wa-Lawra belt and Julie deposit located in the Julie belt. These three deposits have multiple differences in terms of geological, structural, tectonic and geochemical characteristics but gold mineralization in these deposits a...

  11. Mindfulness Training Alters Emotional Memory Recall Compared to Active Controls: Support for an Emotional Information Processing Model of Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts-Wolfe, Douglas; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Hastings, Elizabeth; Roth, Harold; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e., m...

  12. Mindfulness training alters emotional memory recall compared to active controls: support for an emotional information processing model of mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Doug eRoberts-Wolfe; Matthew eSacchet; Elizabeth eHastings; Harold eRoth; Willoughby eBritton

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. ...

  13. Zebrafish calls for reinterpretation for the roles of P/Q calcium channels in neuromuscular transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Hua WEN; Linhoff, Michael W.; Hubbard, Jeffrey M; Nelson, Nathan R.; Stensland, Donald; Dallman, Julia; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A long-held tenet of neuromuscular transmission is that calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release is mediated by N-type calcium channels in frog but P/Q-type channels in mammals. The N-type assignment in frog is based principally on pharmacological sensitivity to ω-conotoxin GVIA. Our studies show that zebrafish neuromuscular transmission is also sensitive to ω-conotoxin GVIA. However, positional cloning of a mutant line with compromised neuromuscular function identified a mutation in a P/Q-...

  14. The Role of Chest Physiotherapy in Prevention of Postextubation Atelectasis in Pediatric Patients with Neuromuscular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat BILAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThere are controversial findings in the literature on the effects of chest physiotherapy on postextubation lung collapse in pediatric age group. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of chest physiotherapy in prevention of postextubation atelectasis in pediatric patients.Materials & MethodsIn a case-control study from March 2007 to March 2011, two groups of patients (35 patients in each group susceptible to lung collapse were enrolled in the study. The studied patients had neuromuscular diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy, and cerebral palsy. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (case and control; The case group underwent daily chest physiotherapy through vibrator and chest percussion and the control group was under supervision. In the latter group, the underlying disease was treated and the lung collapse was managed, if occurred.ResultsThe frequency of atelectasis was lower in the case group who received prophylactic chest physiotherapy compared to the control group (16.6% vs. 40%.ConclusionChest physiotherapy as well as appropriate and regular change of position can considerably reduce the rate of pulmonary collapse in pediatric patients.

  15. Effects of extreme-duration heavy load carriage on neuromuscular function and locomotion: a military-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordane G Grenier

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Trekking and military missions generally consist of carrying heavy loads for extreme durations. These factors have been separately shown to be sources of neuromuscular (NM fatigue and locomotor alterations. However, the question of their combined effects remains unresolved, and addressing this issue required a representative context. PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate the effects of extreme-duration heavy load carriage on NM function and walking characteristics. METHODS: Ten experienced infantrymen performed a 21-h simulated military mission (SMM in a middle-mountain environment with equipment weighing ∼27 kg during battles and ∼43 kg during marches. NM function was evaluated for knee extensors (KE and plantar flexors (PF pre- and immediately post-SMM using isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC measurement, neural electrical stimulation and surface EMG. The twitch-interpolation method was used to assess central fatigue. Peripheral changes were examined by stimulating the muscle in the relaxed state. The energy cost, mechanical work and spatio-temporal pattern of walking were also evaluated pre-/post-SMM on an instrumented treadmill in three equipment conditions: Sportswear, Battle and March. RESULTS: After the SMM, MVC declined by -10.2±3.6% for KE (P<0.01 and -10.7±16.1% for PF (P = 0.06. The origin of fatigue was essentially peripheral for both muscle groups. A trend toward low-frequency fatigue was detected for KE (5.5%, P = 0.08. These moderate NM alterations were concomitant with a large increase in perceived fatigue from pre- (rating of 8.3±2.2 to post-SMM (15.9±2.1, P<0.01. The SMM-related fatigue did not alter walking energetics or mechanics, and the different equipment carried on the treadmill did not interact with this fatigue either. CONCLUSION: this study reports the first data on physiological and biomechanical consequences of extreme-duration heavy load carriage. Unexpectedly, NM function

  16. Resúmenes de los trabajos sobre las Enfermedades Neuromusculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congreso Nacional de Neurología

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades neuromusculares constituyen un conjunto de afectaciones que afectan las neuronas motoras periférica, las vías motoras eferentes o los efectores (músculos esqueléticos. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son muy variadas y dependen de la causa y de los niveles de afectación. En este acápite se pueden encontrar los resúmenes de trabajos relacionados con el síndrome de Guillain Barre, polineuropatía diabética, Atrofia Muscular Espinal, Distrofia miotónica y otros todos presentados en el salón que abordó estas enfermedades.

  17. Effect of ionizing radiation on neuromuscular junctions in mouse tongues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation damage to neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in mouse tongues was studied using local x-irradiation of the tongues with the rest of the body shielded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed no significant morphological changes in fine structures and organelles of the NMJs given 4Gy. A dose of 8Gy produced degenerative morphological changes associated with axon terminal sprouting as early as 2 and 7 days following irradiation. Subsequently, 1-11 weeks later, severe degenerative changes were observed. The number of mitochondria was significantly decreased with increased occurrence of degenerative membranal features. The number of synaptic footplates without terminals or with multiple small terminals within one groove increased gradually with time. Most changes persisted for at least 3 months after irradiation. However, the myofibres, blood vessels and interstitial cells appeared unaffected throughout the period follow-up. (author)

  18. Pain trajectory and exercise-induced pain flares during 8 weeks of neuromuscular exercise in individuals with knee and hip pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, L F; Roos, E M; Bøgesvang, S J;

    2016-01-01

    acute exercise-induced pain flares in persons with knee or hip pain. DESIGN: Individuals above 35 years self-reporting persistent knee or hip pain for the past 3 months were offered 8 weeks of supervised NEMEX, performed in groups twice weekly. The program consisted of 11 exercises focusing on joint......OBJECTIVE: Patients considering or engaged in exercise as treatment may expect or experience transient increases in joint pain, causing fear of exercise and influencing compliance. This study investigated the pain trajectory during an 8-week neuromuscular exercise (NEMEX) program together with...... stability and neuromuscular control. Participants self-reported joint pain on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) at baseline and 8-weeks follow-up. NRS pain ratings were also collected before and immediately after every attended exercise session. RESULTS: Joint pain was reduced from baseline (NRS 3.6; 95...

  19. [Genetic defects and disorders at the neuromuscular junction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Kinji

    2011-07-01

    Genetic defects in molecules expressed at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) cause congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs), which are characterized by muscle weakness, abnormal fatigability, amyotrophy, and minor facial anomalies. Muscle weakness mostly develops under 2 years but is also sometimes seen in adults. Mutations identified to date include (i) muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits, (ii) rapsyn that anchors and clusters AChRs at the neuromuscular junction, (iii) agrin that is released from the nerve terminal and induces AChR clustering by stimulating the downstream LRP4/MuSK/Dok-7/rapsyn/AChR pathway, (iv) muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) that transmits the AChR-clustering signal from agrin/LRP4 to rapsyn/AChR, (v) Dok-7 that transmits the AChR-clustering signal from agrin/LRP4/MuSK to rapsyn/AChR, (vi) skeletal muscle sodium channel type 1.4 (Nav1.4) that spreads the depolarization potential from the endplate throughout muscle fibers, (vii) collagen Q that anchors acetylcholinesterase to the synaptic basal lamina, and (viii) choline acetyltransferase that resynthesizes acetylcholine from recycled choline at the nerve terminal. In addition, mutations in the heparin sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, which binds to many molecules including collagen Q and dystroglycan, causes Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Interestingly, mutations in LRP4 cause Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome but not CMS. AChR, MuSK, and LRP4 are also targets of auto-antibodies in myasthenia gravis. In addition, molecules at the NMJ are targets of many other disease states AChRs are blocked by the snake toxin alpha-bungarotoxin and the plant poison curare. The presynaptic SNARE complex is attacked by botulinum toxin. Acetylcholinesterase is inhibited by the nerve gas sarin and by organophosphate pesticides. This review focuses on the molecular bases underlying defects of AChR, rapsyn, Nav1.4, collagen Q, and choline acetyltransferase. PMID:21747136

  20. Variation in Dube3a expression affects neurotransmission at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Valdez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in UBE3A expression levels in neurons can cause neurogenetic disorders ranging from Angelman syndrome (AS (decreased levels to autism (increased levels. Here we investigated the effects on neuronal function of varying UBE3A levels using the Drosophila neuromuscular junction as a model for both of these neurogenetic disorders. Stimulations that evoked excitatory junction potentials (EJPs at 1 Hz intermittently failed to evoke EJPs at 15 Hz in a significantly higher proportion of Dube3a over-expressors using the pan neuronal GAL4 driver C155-GAL4 (C155-GAL4>UAS-Dube3a relative to controls (C155>+ alone. However, in the Dube3a over-expressing larval neurons with no failures, there was no difference in EJP amplitude at the beginning of the train, or the rate of decrease in EJP amplitude over the course of the train compared to controls. In the absence of tetrodotoxin (TTX, spontaneous EJPs were observed in significantly more C155-GAL4>UAS-Dube3a larva compared to controls. In the presence of TTX, spontaneous and evoked EJPs were completely blocked and mEJP amplitude and frequency did not differ among genotypes. These data suggest that over-expression of wild type Dube3a, but not a ubiquitination defective Dube3a-C/A protein, compromises the ability of motor neuron axons to support closely spaced trains of action potentials, while at the same time increasing excitability. EJPs evoked at 15 Hz in the absence of Dube3a (Dube3a15b homozygous mutant larvae decayed more rapidly over the course of 30 stimulations compared to w1118 controls, and Dube3a15b larval muscles had significantly more negative resting membrane potentials (RMP. However, these results could not be recapitulated using RNAi knockdown of Dube3a in muscle or neurons alone, suggesting more global developmental defects contribute to this phenotype. These data suggest that reduced UBE3A expression levels may cause global changes that affect RMP and neurotransmitter release from

  1. The effects on the pulmonary function of normal adults proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation respiration pattern exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

  2. 10 Hz rTMS over right parietal cortex alters sense of agency during self-controlled movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Karabanov, Anke N; Christensen, Mark Schram;

    2014-01-01

    task. 12 healthy, right-handed adults were included. The effects of rTMS on subjects' SoA during self-controlled movements were explored. The experiment consisted of 1/3 self-controlled movements and (2)/3 computer manipulated movements that introduced uncertainty as to whether the subjects were agents......-perturbed movements. Following IPC stimulation subjects were more likely to experience self-controlled movements as being externally perturbed compared to the control site (P = 0.002) and the stimulation-free control (P = 0.042). The data support the importance of IPC activation during sensorimotor comparison in...

  3. Neuromuscular paralysis induced in insect larvae by the proteinic venom of a parasitic wasp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel

    New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2012 - (Berhardt, L.), s. 195-212 ISBN 978-1-62100-889-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : neuromuscular paralysis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  4. Structural health monitoring (vibration) as a tool for identifying structural alterations of the lumbar spine: a twin control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawchuk, Gregory N; Hartvigsen, Jan; Edgecombe, Tiffany; Prasad, Narasimha; van Dieen, Jaap H

    2016-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an engineering technique used to identify mechanical abnormalities not readily apparent through other means. Recently, SHM has been adapted for use in biological systems, but its invasive nature limits its clinical application. As such, the purpose of this project was to determine if a non-invasive form of SHM could identify structural alterations in the spines of living human subjects. Lumbar spines of 10 twin pairs were visualized by magnetic resonance imaging then assessed by a blinded radiologist to determine whether twin pairs were structurally concordant or discordant. Vibration was then applied to each subject's spine and the resulting response recorded from sensors overlying lumbar spinous processes. The peak frequency, area under the curve and the root mean square were computed from the frequency response function of each sensor. Statistical analysis demonstrated that in twins whose structural appearance was discordant, peak frequency was significantly different between twin pairs while in concordant twins, no outcomes were significantly different. From these results, we conclude that structural changes within the spine can alter its vibration response. As such, further investigation of SHM to identify spinal abnormalities in larger human populations is warranted. PMID:26964507

  5. Invasive home mechanical ventilation, mainly focused on neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börger, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and background: Invasive home mechanical ventilation is used for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. This elaborate and technology-dependent ventilation is carried out via an artificial airway (tracheal cannula to the trachea. Exact numbers about the incidence of home mechanical ventilation are not available. Patients with neuromuscular diseases represent a large portion of it. Research questions: Specific research questions are formulated and answered concerning the dimensions of medicine/nursing, economics, social, ethical and legal aspects. Beyond the technical aspect of the invasive home, mechanical ventilation, medical questions also deal with the patient’s symptoms and clinical signs as well as the frequency of complications. Economic questions pertain to the composition of costs and the differences to other ways of homecare concerning costs and quality of care. Questions regarding social aspects consider the health-related quality of life of patients and caregivers. Additionally, the ethical aspects connected to the decision of home mechanical ventilation are viewed. Finally, legal aspects of financing invasive home mechanical ventilation are discussed. Methods: Based on a systematic literature search in 2008 in a total of 31 relevant databases current literature is viewed and selected by means of fixed criteria. Randomized controlled studies, systematic reviews and HTA reports (health technology assessment, clinical studies with patient numbers above ten, health-economic evaluations, primary studies with particular cost analyses and quality-of-life studies related to the research questions are included in the analysis. Results and discussion: Invasive mechanical ventilation may improve symptoms of hypoventilation, as the analysis of the literature shows. An increase in life expectancy is likely, but for ethical reasons it is not confirmed by premium-quality studies. Complications (e. g. pneumonia are rare

  6. Cardiac, pulmonary and neuromuscular effects of clenbuterol and terbutaline compared with placebo.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitsett, T L; Manion, C V; Wilson, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    1 Cardiac, neuromuscular (tremor) and pulmonary effects of multiple single oral doses of clenbuterol (40, 60 and 80 micrograms) and terbutaline (2.5 and 5 mg) were compared with placebo in thirteen patients with reversible obstructive airways disease. 2 The percent change in the bronchodilator and neuromuscular effects of clenbuterol and terbutaline were greater than that of the cardiac activity. 3 Both drugs decreased T wave amplitude and occasionally caused J point ST segment depression. Th...

  7. Reduced gap junctional coupling leads to uncorrelated motor neuron firing and precocious neuromuscular synapse elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Personius, Kirkwood E.; Chang, Qiang; Mentis, George Z.; O'Donovan, Michael J.; Rita J Balice-Gordon

    2007-01-01

    During late embryonic and early postnatal life, neuromuscular junctions undergo synapse elimination that is modulated by patterns of motor neuron activity. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced spinal neuron gap junctional coupling decreases temporally correlated motor neuron activity that, in turn, modulates neuromuscular synapse elimination, by using mutant mice lacking connexin 40 (Cx40), a developmentally regulated gap junction protein expressed in motor and other spinal neurons. In C...

  8. Modulating Neuromuscular Junction Density Changes in Botulinum Toxin–Treated Orbicularis Oculi Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Andrew R; Berbos, Zachary; Zaldivar, Renzo A.; Anderson, Brian C.; Semmer, Mollie; Lee, Michael S.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    While botulinum toxin injections are effective in reducing muscle spasms in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm patients, they have a relatively short duration of action due to formation of new functional neuromuscular junctions. Co-injection of botulinum toxin–treated eyelids with corticotrophin-releasing factor or antibody to insulin growth factor–receptor prevented neuromuscular junction increases. The long-term goal is to increase the duration of effectiveness of botulinum toxin and reduce...

  9. Premature awakening and underuse of neuromuscular monitoring in a registry of patients with butyrylcholinesterase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J L; Nielsen, C V; Palmqvist, D F; Gätke, M R

    , neuromuscular monitoring, and postoperative respiratory complications, defined as arterial oxygen desaturation <90%, assisted ventilation, reintubation of the trachea, and pulmonary aspiration. Patients were classified as prematurely awakened if anaesthesia had been terminated while the patient was still...... paralysed. RESULTS: We included 123 patients. Neuromuscular monitoring was applied before awakening in 48 (39%) patients. A nerve stimulator was never used or only after attempted awakening in the remaining 75 (61%) patients. Premature awakening occurred in 75 (100%) and 14 (29%) of the unmonitored and...

  10. Physical complications in anorexia nervosa. Haematological and neuromuscular changes in 12 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, R; Shur, E; Obrecht, R; Russell, G F

    1988-07-01

    Of twelve patients consecutively admitted to the Maudsley Hospital Eating Disorders Unit, four had neuromuscular abnormality, eight haematological abnormality, and four no abnormality. All those having neuromuscular signs had concomitant haematological dysfunction. Vomiting, and food restriction with vegetarianism, appeared more likely to lead to complications than either food restriction alone or laxative abuse. The physical status of severely underweight patients admitted for refeeding needs to be carefully monitored. PMID:3224253

  11. Neuromuscular activation strategies of voluntary andelectrically elicited muscle fatigue: Underlying mechanisms and clinicalimplications

    OpenAIRE

    Doix, Aude-Clémence

    2013-01-01

    The clinical care of muscle fatigue with exercise therapies aim at quality of life improvement and usually involve unilateral exercises or neuromuscular electrical stimulation to compensate impaired muscle function in both healthy and health-compromised people. The overall objective of this thesis was to study the effect of neuromuscular activation strategies during muscle fatigue, endurance and muscle performance after unilateral fatiguing voluntary and electrically evoked contractions (NMES...

  12. Update on the approach of respiratory therapy in patients with neuromuscular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Barreto Paula; Laura Maria de Lima Belizário Facury Lasmar; Maria Teresa Mohallem Fonseca; Marina Belisário Carvalhais; Maria da Glória Rodrigues Machado

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of physiotherapy in approaching neuromuscular disease (NMD), with emphasis on preventive and therapeutic aspects of respiratory therapy. Methods: A nonsystematic literature review covering the past twenty years, using the databases MEDLINE and LILACS through the following descriptors: neuromuscular diseases, physical therapy, vital capacity and respiratory failure. Results: The studies reviewed show the need to establish a routine periodic evaluation of respirato...

  13. Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: A Case report

    OpenAIRE

    O'Driscoll Jeremiah; Kerin Fearghal; Delahunt Eamonn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ankle joint sprain and the subsequent development of chronic ankle instability (CAI) are commonly encountered by clinicians involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. It has recently been advocated that ankle joint post-sprain rehabilitation protocols should incorporate dynamic neuromuscular training to enhance ankle joint sensorimotor capabilities. To date no studies have reported on the effects of dynamic neuromuscular training on ankle joi...

  14. Neuromuscular activity of Bothrops alcatraz snake venom in chick biventer cervicis preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Delkia Seabra; Aparecido de Abreu, Valdemir; Rostelato-Ferreira, Sandro; Leite, Gildo B; Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Maria; Travaglia-Cardoso, Silvia R; Hyslop, Stephen; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2012-02-01

    Venom (10-100 μg/ml) from Bothrops alcatraz, a pitviper from the Alcatrazes Archipelago off the coast of southeastern Brazil, caused progressive, irreversible neuromuscular blockade in chick isolated biventer cervicis preparations. The venom also inhibited contractures to exogenous ACh (110 μM) and KCl (20 mM), caused myofiber damage and increased creatine kinase release. Commercial bothropic antivenom raised against mainland Bothrops species neutralized the neuromuscular activity, depending on the venom concentration. PMID:22155137

  15. Can hyperbaric oxygen be used to prevent deep infections in neuro-muscular scoliosis surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Inanmaz, Mustafa Erkan; Kose, Kamil Cagri; Isik, Cengiz; Atmaca, Halil; Basar, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of postoperative wound infection in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis surgery is significantly higher than that in patients with other spinal surgery. Hyperbaric oxygen has been used as a supplement to treat postsurgical infections. Our aim was to determine beneficiary effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in terms of prevention of postoperative deep infection in this specific group of patients in a retrospective study. Methods Forty two neuromuscular scoliosis ...

  16. Development of a Neuromuscular Junction Model on Surfaces Modified by Plasma Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    E. Zuñiga-Aguilar; R. Godínez; O. Ramírez-Fernández; Morales, J.; R. Olayo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to implement a biological model of neuromuscular junctions to study the mechanisms involved in intra and inter cellular processes using cell co-cultures. To optimize growth and development of the neuromuscular junction, cells were seeded on plasma polymerized pyrrole which has proven suitable for other types of cell cultures. The cell lines used were motor neuron NG108-15 and skeletal muscle C2C12. Cells were evaluated according to their morphology and elect...

  17. Effect of the neuromuscular activation of knee extensors on vertical jump by using electrostimulation method

    OpenAIRE

    Bílý, Jiří; Cacek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is one of the methods of strength development during which there is no voluntary muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the neuromuscular activation of knee extensors on vertical jump by using electrostimulation method. Ten healthy trained male students in sports-sciences, aged 21-25 years, perform Sargent jump test. They perform two kinds of jump - squat jump and drop jump (42 cm heigh bench) immediately after electr...

  18. Identification of an intracellular postsynaptic antigen at the frog neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A layer of amorphous, electron-dense material is situated at the cytoplasmic surface of the postsynaptic membrane of vertebrate neuromuscular synapses. The function of this structure is not clear, but its location suggests that it may have an important role in the formation and/or maintenance of the synapse. This paper demonstrates that a monoclonal antibody raised against antigens from Torpedo electric organ binds to an intracellular, postsynaptic protein at the frog neuromuscular synapse. I...

  19. The Immediate Effect of Lumbar Spine Patterns of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation in Young Amateur Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Takasumi; Naito, Daiki; Koiso, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in baseball pitching velocity, the functional reach test (FR) and the simple reaction times (SRT) in young amateur baseball players after lumbar spine patterns of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 young amateur baseball players. An NJF intervention and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) intervention were performed. The interventions were performed one after the other wi...

  20. Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Clement, Gilles R.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Taylor, Laura C..

    2015-01-01

    Control of vehicles and other complex systems is a high-level integrative function of the central nervous system (CNS). It requires well-functioning subsystem performance, including good visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial and geographic orientation perception, and cognitive function. Evidence from space flight research demonstrates that the function of each of these subsystems is altered by removing gravity, a fundamental orientation reference, which is sensed by vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic receptors and used by the CNS for spatial orientation, posture, navigation, and coordination of movements. The available evidence also shows that the degree of alteration of each subsystem depends on a number of crew- and mission-related factors. There is only limited operational evidence that these alterations cause functional impacts on mission-critical vehicle (or complex system) control capabilities. Furthermore, while much of the operational performance data collected during space flight has not been available for independent analysis, those that have been reviewed are somewhat equivocal owing to uncontrolled (and/or unmeasured) environmental and/or engineering factors. Whether this can be improved by further analysis of previously inaccessible operational data or by development of new operational research protocols remains to be seen. The true operational risks will be estimable only after we have filled the knowledge gaps and when we can accurately assess integrated performance in off-nominal operational settings (Paloski et al. 2008). Thus, our current understanding of the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space flight is limited primarily to extrapolation of scientific research findings, and, since there are limited ground-based analogs of the sensorimotor and vestibular changes associated with space flight, observation of their functional

  1. Routine and specialized laboratory testing for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, G Diane

    2010-09-01

    The diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases can be challenging. The first step is recognition that the disease involves the neuromuscular system (muscle, neuromuscular junction, peripheral nerve, and ventral horn cells of the spinal cord). Many neuromuscular diseases share clinical signs and cannot be distinguished based on clinical examination. Routine laboratory screening, including a CBC, biochemical profile, and urinalysis, can identify some of the most common systemic abnormalities that cause muscle weakness and myalgia, such as hypo- and hyperglycemia, electrolyte disorders, or thyroid abnormalities, and may suggest a specific diagnosis, such as diabetes mellitus, hypo- or hyperadrenocorticism, renal failure, or hypothyroidism. Increased creatine kinase activity, increased cardiac troponin I concentration, and myoglobinuria are useful in detecting skeletal and cardiac muscle damage. Identification of acetylcholine receptor antibodies is diagnostic for acquired myasthenia gravis. For primary muscle or peripheral nerve diseases, tissue biopsy is the most direct way to determine specific pathology, correctly classify the disease, and determine the course of additional laboratory testing. For example, inflammatory, necrotizing, dystrophic, metabolic, or congenital myopathies require different laboratory testing procedures for further characterization. Many neuromuscular diseases are inherited or breed-associated, and DNA-based tests may already be established or may be feasible to develop after the disorder has been accurately characterized. This review focuses on both routine and specialized laboratory testing necessary to reach a definitive diagnosis and determine an accurate prognosis for neuromuscular diseases. PMID:20726955

  2. Effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Jun-Ho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 adults who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction and neuromuscular training. The Lysholm scale was used to assess functional disorders on the affected knee joint. A KT-2000 arthrometer was used to measure anterior displacement of the tibia against the femur. Surface electromyography was used to detect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus before and after neuromuscular training. [Results] There was significant relaxation in tibial anterior displacement of the affected and sound sides in the supine position before neuromuscular training. Furthermore, the difference in the tibial anterior displacement of the affected knee joints in the standing position was reduced after neuromuscular training. Moreover, the variation of the muscle activation evoked higher muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular training may improve functional joint stability in patients with orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries in the postoperative period. PMID:26834316

  3. Altered plasma lysophosphatidylcholines and amides in non-obese and non-diabetic subjects with borderline-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Young Lee

    Full Text Available Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG is a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD. We investigated alterations in plasma metabolites associated with borderline-to-moderate HTG (triglycerides (TG 150-500 mg/dL. Using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis, the metabolomics profiles of 111 non-diabetic and non-obese individuals with borderline-to-moderate HTG were compared with those of 111 age- and sex-matched controls with normotriglyceridemia (NTG, TG <150 mg/dL. When compared to the NTG control group, the HTG group exhibited higher plasma levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs, including C14:0 (q = 0.001 and C16:0 (q = 1.8E-05, and several amides, including N-ethyldodecanamide (q = 2.9E-05, N-propyldodecanamide (q = 3.5E-05, palmitoleamide (q = 2.9E-06, and palmitic amide (q = 0.019. The metabolomic profiles of the HTG group also exhibited lower plasma levels of cis-4-octenedioic acid (q<1.0E-9 and docosanamide (q = 0.002 compared with those of the NTG controls. LysoPC 16:0 and palmitoleamide emerged as the primary metabolites able to discriminate the HTG group from the NTG group in a partial least-squares discriminant analysis and were positively associated with the fasting triglyceride levels. We identified alterations in lysoPCs, amides, and cis-4-octenedioic acid among non-diabetic and non-obese individuals with borderline-to-moderate HTG. These results provide novel insights into the metabolic alterations that occur in the early metabolic stages of HTG. This information may facilitate the design of early interventions to prevent disease progression.

  4. Physiological and Histological Alterations in Rats Liver Induced by Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC, an Insecticide Used in Dengue Fever Vector Control in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hepatotoxicity of Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC, a new formulated organophosphorous insecticide used in dengue fever vector (Aedes aegypti) control in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), was studied in albino rats. Both levels of GPT, GOT and ALP, and the combined histological alterations were assessed after treatment. Rats were daily injected intraperitoneally for two and four weeks with 80 and 200 mg/kg of body weight (1/10 and 1/4 of the LD50, respectively). Significant increase in GPT, GOT and ALP levels relative to the increase of treatment dose and duration time was observed. The time factor effect was remarkably noticed in ALP level fluctuation. These results indicate a remarkable defect in the liver functions induced by Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC. Also, histological alterations in the treated animal's liver were observed including: blood congestion, fatty degeneration, hepatocytes swelling and necrosis. The liver syndrome's intensity correlated with the increase in dose and duration time. The present results could prove the hepatotoxicity of Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC and its ability to cause severe physiological and histopathological defects in the liver. Therefore, the chemical control of Aedes aegypti must be reduced and other recommended control strategies should be promoted. (author)

  5. Repetitive Daily Point of Choice Prompts and Occupational Sit-Stand Transfers, Concentration and Neuromuscular Performance in Office Workers: An RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prolonged office sitting time adversely affects neuromuscular and cardiovascular health parameters. As a consequence, the present study investigated the effects of prompting the use of height-adjustable working desk (HAWD on occupational sitting and standing time, neuromuscular outcomes and concentration in office workers. Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT with parallel group design was conducted. Thirty-eight office workers were supplied with HAWDs and randomly assigned (Strata: physical activity (PA, BMI, gender, workload to a prompt (INT or non-prompt (CON group. INT received three daily screen-based prompts within 12 weeks. CON was only instructed once concerning the benefits of using HAWDs prior to the start of the study. Sitting and standing times were objectively assessed as primary outcomes for one entire working week using the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT at baseline (pre, after 6 (mid and 12 weeks (post. Concentration (d2-test, postural sway during upright stance (under single, dual and triple task and lower limb strength endurance (heel-rise were collected as secondary outcomes. Results: With large but not statistically significant within group effects from pre to post, INT increased weekly standing time at work by 9% (p = 0.22, d = 0.8 representing an increase from 7.2 h (4.8 to 9.7 (6.6 h (p = 0.07. Concentration and neuromuscular performance did not change from pre to post testing (0.23 < p < 0.95; 0.001 < ηp² < 0.05. Conclusion: Low-frequent and low cost screen-based point of choice prompts (3 per day within 12 weeks already result in notable increases of occupational standing time of approx. daily 30 min. These stimuli, however, did not relevantly affect neuromuscular outcomes.

  6. Predictors of health-related quality of life in adult ambulatory independence neuromuscular disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of totally independent ambulatory neuromuscular disease (NMD) patients in comparison with age matched healthy control subjects, and to assess associations between socio demographic variables and HRQoL in totally independent NMD patients. Ninety-nine adult patients with a diagnosis of NMD referred to the Physical Therapy Department of the Health Sciences Faculty of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey between 2007 and 2009 were included in the study. The Functional Independence Measurement and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were the main outcomes to assess independence level in activities of daily living and quality of life. The HRQoL score as measured by NHP was high (worse) in patients than healthy controls, and the difference between the 2 groups was significant for energy, physical mobility, and total score. Employed NMD patients scored significantly lower (better) than those unemployed in the majority of NHP domains. The genders and duration of illness displayed no significant difference in all dimension scores. All NMD patients had a poorer HRQoL than with healthy subjects with respect to energy, physical mobility dimensions, and total score. Furthermore, occupation was found to be a main factor that affects HRQoL in adult ambulatory NMD patients. (author)

  7. Ghrelin Does not Alter Aortic Intima-Media Thickness and Adipose Tissue Characteristics in Control and Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Tahergorabi; Bahman Rashidi; Majid Khazaei

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Atherosclerosis is a chronic immune-inflammatory disease that generally leads to ischemic heart disease. Ghrelin has several modulatory effects on cardiovascular system. In this study, we investigated the effect of ghrelin on aortic intima-media thickness, size and the number of adipocyte cells in obese and control mice. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 24 male C57BL/6 mice. The animals were divided into four groups: control, obese (received high fat diet), con...

  8. Deficits in foot skin sensation are related to alterations in balance control in chronic low back patients experiencing clinical signs of lumbar nerve root impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Lydia R; Bijman, Marc; Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Bent, Leah R; Brown, Stephen H M

    2015-05-01

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) patients with radiculopathy, or sciatica, experience pain, tingling or numbness radiating down their leg due to compression of the lumbar nerve root. The resulting reduction in somatosensory information from the foot sole may contribute to deficits in standing balance control. This work was designed to investigate the relationship between foot skin sensitivity and standing balance control in chronic LBP patients with associated radiculopathy. Patients (n=9) and matched healthy controls (n=9) were recruited to the study, and were tested for balance control in both quiet standing as well as during rapid arm raise perturbation trials on a force plate. Foot skin sensitivity was tested bilaterally for vibratory threshold (3, 40 and 250 Hz) and touch (monofilament) threshold. Results demonstrate that patients had reduced sensitivity to 250 Hz vibration in their affected compared to unaffected foot (at the great toe and heel), as well as compared to controls (at the great toe), but there were no differences with lower frequency vibratory testing or with monofilament testing. While there were no significant between-group differences in balance measures, moderate statistically significant correlations between 250 Hz sensitivity and quiet standing balance parameters were uncovered. Thus, patients demonstrate reduced high-frequency vibratory sensitivity at the foot sole, and correlations with quiet standing balance measures indicate a connection between these foot skin sensitivity deficits and alterations in balance control. Clinically, this identifies high frequency vibration testing as an important measure of skin sensitivity in patients with radiculopathy. PMID:25887249

  9. Estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em cães com atrofia muscular induzida Neuromuscular electric stimulation in dogs with induced muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pelizzari

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Empregou-se a estimulação elétrica neuromuscular (EENM de baixa freqüência no músculo quadríceps femoral de cães com atrofia induzida e avaliou-se a ocorrência de ganho de massa nessa musculatura. Foram utilizados oito cães com pesos entre 15 e 30kg, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos denominados de I ou controle e II ou tratado. A articulação femorotibiopatelar esquerda foi imobilizada por 30 dias pelo método de transfixação percutânea tipo II, com retirada de aparelho de imobilização após esse período. Decorridas 48 horas da remoção, foi realizada a EENM nos cães do grupo II, cinco vezes por semana, com intervalo de 24 horas cada sessão, pelo período de 60 dias. Foram avaliadas a circunferência da coxa, a goniometria do joelho, a análise clínica da marcha, as enzimas creatina-quinase (CK e aspartato-amino-transferase (AST e a morfometria das fibras musculares em cortes transversais do músculo vasto lateral colhido mediante biópsia muscular. A EENM foi empregada no músculo quadríceps femoral na freqüência de 50Hz, duração de pulso de 300 milisegundos e relação de tempo on/off de 1:2. Quanto à morfometria das fibras do músculo vasto lateral, no grupo tratado houve aumento significativo (PLow frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES was used on the femoral quadriceps of dogs with induced muscular atrophy and the occurrence of gain in mass in these muscles was evaluated. Eight dogs from 15 to 30kg were randomly distributed in two groups named I, or control; and II, or treated. For the induction of muscular atrophy, the left femoral-tibial-patellar joint was immobilized for 30 days by percutaneous transfixation type II. After 30 days, the immobilization device was removed. The NMES treatment began 48 hours after the removal of the immobilization device of the dogs of group II, and it was carried out five times per week with an interval of 24 hours between each session, for 60 days. The

  10. Effect of L-arginine on neuromuscular transmission of the chick biventer cervicis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Esfandiar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available biventer cervicis muscleD. Effect of L-arginine on neuromuscular transmission of the chick EsfandiarAbstractBackground and Purpose: NO is a short-lived gas molecule generated by degradation of L-arg to citrulline and by the activation of enzyme NOS Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent. There are multiple NOS isoforms that strongly are expressed in skeletal muscle, suggesting the crucial role of NO in regulating muscular metabolism and function. In this study, the effect of L-arginine was examined at the neuromuscular junction of the chick biventer cervicis muscle.Materials and Methods: Biventer cervicis muscle preparations from chick’s age of 3 weeks were set up in the organ bath. The organ bath had a vessel with volume of about 70 ml; it contained Tyrode solution aerated with oxygen and was kept at 37º C. NO levels was also measured in the chick biventer cervicis muscle homogenates, using spectrophotometer method for the direct detection of NO, nitrite and nitrate. Total nitrite (nitrite+nitrate was measured by a spectrophotometer at 540 nm after the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by copperized cadmium granules.Results: L-Arginine at 500 µg/ml, decreased twitch response to electrical stimulation, and produced rightward shift of the dose-response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol. L-arginine at 1000 µg/ml produced a strong shift to the right of the dose-response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol with a reduction in efficacy. The inhibitory effect of L-arginine on the twitch response was blocked by caffeine (200 µg/ml. NO levels were found to be significantly increased in concentrations 500 and 1000 µg/ml of L-arginine in comparison with the control group (p < 0.001.Conclusion: These findings indicate a possible role of increased NO levels in the suppressive action of L-arginie on the twitch response. In addition, the results indicate that the post-junctional antagonistic action of L-arginine is probably the result of impaired sarcoplasmic

  11. Neuromuscular disorders: genes, genetic counseling and therapeutic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatz, Mayana; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Vainzof, Mariz

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders (NMD) are a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions, with autosomal dominant, recessive, or X-linked inheritance. They are characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness. Here, we are presenting our major contributions to the field during the past 30 years. We have mapped and identified several novel genes responsible for NMD. Genotype-phenotype correlations studies enhanced our comprehension on the effect of gene mutations on related proteins and their impact on clinical findings. The search for modifier factors allowed the identification of a novel "protective"; variant which may have important implication on therapeutic developments. Molecular diagnosis was introduced in the 1980s and new technologies have been incorporated since then. Next generation sequencing greatly improved our capacity to identify disease-causing mutations with important benefits for research and prevention through genetic counseling of patients' families. Stem cells researches, from and for patients, have been used as tools to study human genetic diseases mechanisms and for therapies development. The clinical effect of preclinical trials in mice and canine models for muscular dystrophies are under investigation. Finally, the integration of our researches and genetic services with our post-graduation program resulted in a significant output of new geneticists, spreading out this expertise to our large country. PMID:27575431

  12. An examination of neuromuscular and metabolic fatigue thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the relationships among the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWCFT), the power outputs associated with the gas exchange threshold (PGET) and the respiratory compensation point (PRCP), and critical power (CP) to identify possible physiological mechanisms underlying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue. Ten participants (mean ± SD age: 20 ± 1 years) performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test to determine the PWCFT, PGET, and PRCP. CP was determined from the 3 min all-out test. The PWCFT (197 ± 55 W), PRCP (212 ± 50 W), and CP (208 ± 63 W) were significantly greater than the PGET (168 ± 40 W), but there were no significant differences among the PWCFT, PRCP, and CP. All thresholds were significantly inter-4 (r = 0.794–0.958). The 17% greater estimates for the PWCFT than PGET were likely related to differences in the physiological mechanisms that underlie these fatigue thresholds, while the non-significant difference and high correlation between the PWCFT and the PRCP suggested that hyperkalemia may underlie both thresholds. Furthermore, it is possible that the 5% lower estimate of the PWCFT than CP could more accurately reflect the demarcation of the heavy from severe exercise intensity domains. (paper)

  13. Nocturnal hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in children with neuromuscular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersanini, Chiara; Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Lofaso, Frédéric; Aubertin, Guillaume; Beydon, Nicole; Mayer, Michèle; Maincent, Kim; Boulé, Michèle; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify daytime predictors of nocturnal gas exchange anomalies in children with neuromuscular disease (NMD) and normal daytime gas exchange. Lung function tests, respiratory muscle evaluation and nocturnal gas exchange were obtained as part of routine evaluation. We included 52 consecutive children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n = 20), spinal muscular atrophy (n = 10) and other NMD (n = 22). 20 patients had nocturnal hypoxaemia, defined as minimal arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (S(p,O(2))) carbon dioxide tension (P(tc,CO(2))) >50 mmHg for ≥ 2% of night time. Forced vital capacity and helium functional residual capacity correlated with minimal nocturnal S(p,O(2)) (p = 0.009 and p = 0.01, respectively). Daytime pH correlated negatively with maximal nocturnal P(tc,CO(2)) (p=0.005) and daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a,CO(2))) correlated with the percentage of time with a P(tc,CO(2)) >50 mmHg (p = 0.02). Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure correlated with minimal nocturnal S(p,O(2)) (p = 0.02). Daytime P(a,CO(2)) was a weak predictor of nocturnal hypercapnia (sensitivity 80%; specificity 57%). Daytime lung function and respiratory muscle parameters correlate poorly with nocturnal hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in children with NMD and normal daytime gas exchange, which necessitates more systematic sleep studies in these children. PMID:22135279

  14. Neuromuscular adjustments of the quadriceps muscle after repeated cycling sprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Girard

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the supraspinal processes of fatigue of the quadriceps muscle in response to repeated cycling sprints. METHODS: Twelve active individuals performed 10 × 6-s "all-out" sprints on a cycle ergometer (recovery = 30 s, followed 6 min later by 5 × 6-s sprints (recovery = 30 s. Transcranial magnetic and electrical femoral nerve stimulations during brief (5-s and sustained (30-s isometric contractions of the knee extensors were performed before and 3 min post-exercise. RESULTS: Maximal strength of the knee extensors decreased during brief and sustained contractions (~11% and 9%, respectively; P0.05. While cortical voluntary activation declined (P 40% reduced (P<0.001 following exercise. CONCLUSION: The capacity of the motor cortex to optimally drive the knee extensors following a repeated-sprint test was shown in sustained, but not brief, maximal isometric contractions. Additionally, peripheral factors were largely involved in the exercise-induced impairment in neuromuscular function, while corticospinal excitability was well-preserved.

  15. Synaptic dynamics at the neuromuscular junction: mechanisms and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, D C; Gordon, H; Soha, J M; Fraser, S E

    1990-01-01

    During development, the neuromuscular junction passes through a stage of extensive polyinnervation followed by a period of wholesale synapse elimination. In this report we discuss mechanisms and interactions that could mediate many of the key aspects of these important developmental events. Our emphasis is on (1) establishing an overall conceptual framework within which the role of many distinct cellular interactions and molecular factors can be evaluated, and (2) generating computer simulations that systematically test the adequacy of different models in accounting for a wide range of biological data. Our analysis indicates that several relatively simple mechanisms are each capable of explaining a variety of experimental observations. On the other hand, no one mechanism can account for the full spectrum of experimental results. Thus, it is important to consider models that are based on interactions among multiple mechanisms. A potentially powerful combination is one based on (1) a scaffold within the basal lamina or in the postsynaptic membrane which is induced by nerve terminals and which serves to stabilize terminals by a positive feedback mechanism; (2) a sprouting factor whose release by muscle fibers is down-regulated by activity and perhaps other factors; and (3) an intrinsic tendency of motor neurons to withdraw some connections while allowing others to grow. PMID:2181065

  16. Applications of shape memory alloys for neurology and neuromuscular rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaccio, Simone; Garavaglia, Lorenzo; Ceriotti, Carlo; Passaretti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE), shape memory effect (SME) and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous. PMID:26023790

  17. [Cellular therapy and gene therapy: perspectives in neuromuscular pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardeau, M

    1993-10-01

    Identification of the gene coding for the protein (dystrophin) which is lacking or abnormal in Duchenne or Becker type human muscular dystrophies was a decisive turning point in neuro-muscular pathology. Since that time, a considerable number of gene abnormalities have been identified or at least localized. The severity of these diseases, their steady evolution and the absence of any efficient drug therapy, have lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches based on restoring the genetic capacities of the muscle cell. There are two possibilities for therapy. The first is based on the transfer of myogenic cells derived from the 'satellite' cells normally present at the periphery of muscle fibers. The results obtained from a murine model of Duchenne dystrophy ('mdx' mouse) were very promising. However, the results from application of the same techniques to the canine model (GRMDX) or to affected children are, at the present time, disappointing. A number of biological questions remain to be solved before this technique can be more extensively applied to humans. The second possibility is based on gene transfer, through a viral vector. The adenovirus is presently a possible vector. The first experimental results, on 'mdx' mice, are again very encouraging. Extension of these studies to the canine model is a necessary prerequisite for any human application. It should be noted that these two approaches are complementary. Their future applications may depend on the diffuse or selective nature of the skeletal muscle atrophy, and on whether cardiac and respiratory muscles are involved. PMID:8290312

  18. Neurologic and neuromuscular functional disorders of the pharynx and esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurologic swallowing disorders are an increasing diagnostic problem in our overaged population. Undiagnosed chronic aspiration pneumonia is the cause of death in 20-40% of all inhabitants of nursing homes. In neurologic diseases of the pharynx, the physiologic interaction of pharyngeal contraction, closure of the pharynx, and esophageal motility are frequently disturbed. This may be due to cortical, bulbar, or cerebellar brain damage of ischemic or traumatic origin. Furthermore diseases or peripheral nerves, muscles, and synapses cause disturbances. The most life-threatening complication of these disturbances is tracheal aspiration, which requires an iso-osmolar contrast medium for imaging studies that cause no or minimal pulmonary problems. Utilizing fast dynamic documentation we can analyze the swallowing act in 35 images within the passage time of 0.7 s. This requires digital frame sequences from 15-50 images/s, which can be provided by DSI or videofluoroscopy. Neurologic and neuromuscular patterns are demonstrated with and without tracheal aspiration. The differentiation of aspiration in a so-called pre-, intra-, and postdeglutitive form is possible. We distinguish four grades of severity of aspiration, which is also of great clinical impact for the differential rehabilitation therapy. The efficiency of the rehabilitation protocol can be assessed by the dynamic swallowing studies. (orig.)

  19. Verifax: Biometric instruments measuring neuromuscular disorders/performance impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    VeriFax, founded in 1990 by Dr. Ruth Shrairman and Mr. Alex Landau, began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance. In the course of developing this VeriFax Autograph technology, two other related applications for the technologies under development at VeriFax became apparent. The first application was in the use of biometric measurements as clinical monitoring tools for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases (embodied in VeriFax's Neuroskill technology). The second application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.g., airline pilots, bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress, physiological disorders, alcohol, drug abuse, etc. (represented by VeriFax's Impairoscope prototype instrument). This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress, fatigue, excessive workload, build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat, etc. The three applications of VeriFax's patented technology are accomplished by application-specific modifications of the customized VeriFax software. Strong commercial market potentials exist for all three VeriFax technology applications, and market progress will be presented in more detail below.

  20. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Zijun Zhou; Changwen Du; Ting Li; Yazhen Shen; Jianmin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the ...

  1. AT1 receptor induced alterations in histone H2A reveal novel insights into GPCR control of chromatin remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaganapathi Jagannathan

    Full Text Available Chronic activation of angiotensin II (AngII type 1 receptor (AT(1R, a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR induces gene regulatory stress which is responsible for phenotypic modulation of target cells. The AT(1R-selective drugs reverse the gene regulatory stress in various cardiovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms are not clear. We speculate that activation states of AT(1R modify the composition of histone isoforms and post-translational modifications (PTM, thereby alter the structure-function dynamics of chromatin. We combined total histone isolation, FPLC separation, and mass spectrometry techniques to analyze histone H2A in HEK293 cells with and without AT(1R activation. We have identified eight isoforms: H2AA, H2AG, H2AM, H2AO, H2AQ, Q96QV6, H2AC and H2AL. The isoforms, H2AA, H2AC and H2AQ were methylated and H2AC was phosphorylated. The relative abundance of specific H2A isoforms and PTMs were further analyzed in relationship to the activation states of AT(1R by immunochemical studies. Within 2 hr, the isoforms, H2AA/O exchanged with H2AM. The monomethylated H2AC increased rapidly and the phosphorylated H2AC decreased, thus suggesting that enhanced H2AC methylation is coupled to Ser1p dephosphorylation. We show that H2A125Kme1 promotes interaction with the heterochromatin associated protein, HP1α. These specific changes in H2A are reversed by treatment with the AT(1R specific inhibitor losartan. Our analysis provides a first step towards an awareness of histone code regulation by GPCRs.

  2. Development of network-based multichannel neuromuscular electrical stimulation system for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hongen; Xie, Yongji; Liu, Xiaoxuan; He, Xin; Hao, Manzhao; Bao, Yong; Xie, Qing; Lan, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a promising assistive technology for stroke rehabilitation. Here we present the design and development of a multimuscle stimulation system as an emerging therapy for people with paretic stroke. A network-based multichannel NMES system was integrated based on dual bus architecture of communication and an H-bridge current regulator with a power booster. The structure of the system was a body area network embedded with multiple stimulators and a communication protocol of controlled area network to transmit muscle stimulation parameter information to individual stimulators. A graphical user interface was designed to allow clinicians to specify temporal patterns and muscle stimulation parameters. We completed and tested a prototype of the hardware and communication software modules of the multichannel NMES system. The prototype system was first verified in nondisabled subjects for safety, and then tested in subjects with stroke for feasibility with assisting multijoint movements. Results showed that synergistic stimulation of multiple muscles in subjects with stroke improved performance of multijoint movements with more natural velocity profiles at elbow and shoulder and reduced acromion excursion due to compensatory trunk rotation. The network-based NMES system may provide an innovative solution that allows more physiological activation of multiple muscles in multijoint task training for patients with stroke. PMID:27149687

  3. Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Muscle Stimulation on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Adults

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    Ya-Ju Chang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1, motor threshold (E2, and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3. Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject’s demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  4. The role of MuSK in synapse formation and neuromuscular disease.

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    Burden, Steven J; Yumoto, Norihiro; Zhang, Wei

    2013-05-01

    Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) is essential for each step in neuromuscular synapse formation. Before innervation, MuSK initiates postsynaptic differentiation, priming the muscle for synapse formation. Approaching motor axons recognize the primed, or prepatterned, region of muscle, causing motor axons to stop growing and differentiate into specialized nerve terminals. MuSK controls presynaptic differentiation by causing the clustering of Lrp4, which functions as a direct retrograde signal for presynaptic differentiation. Developing synapses are stabilized by neuronal Agrin, which is released by motor nerve terminals and binds to Lrp4, a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, stimulating further association between Lrp4 and MuSK and increasing MuSK kinase activity. In addition, MuSK phosphorylation is stimulated by an inside-out ligand, docking protein-7 (Dok-7), which is recruited to tyrosine-phosphorylated MuSK and increases MuSK kinase activity. Mutations in MuSK and in genes that function in the MuSK signaling pathway, including Dok-7, cause congenital myasthenia, and autoantibodies to MuSK, Lrp4, and acetylcholine receptors are responsible for myasthenia gravis. PMID:23637281

  5. Cold water immersion of the ankle decreases neuromuscular response of lower limb after inversion movement

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    Christiane S. G. Macedo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy has been associated with a significant decrease in nerve conduction velocity and muscle contraction with possible effects on exercise and physical training. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the electromyographic response of the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, rectus femoris and gluteus medius to ankle inversion following cold water immersion. METHOD: The peak values of the root mean square (RMS were obtained from 35 healthy and active university subjects after the use of a tilt platform to force the ankle into 30° of inversion before, immediately after, and 10, 20, and 30 minutes after water immersion at 4±2°C, for 20 minutes. The Shapiro-Wilk test, repeated measures analysis, Bonferroni's post-hoc, and linear regression analysis provided the results. RESULTS: Peak RMS was significantly lower at all times after cold water immersion, with residual effect of up to 30 minutes, when compared to pre-immersion for all muscles, except for immediate post-immersion for the gluteus medius. CONCLUSIONS: After cold water immersion of the ankle, special care should be taken in activities that require greater neuromuscular control.

  6. Resistance to atracurium-induced neuromuscular blockade in patients with intractable seizure disorders treated with anticonvulsants.

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    Tempelhoff, R; Modica, P A; Jellish, W S; Spitznagel, E L

    1990-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that, with the exception of atracurium, resistance to the neuromuscular blocking effects of various muscle relaxants develops in patients receiving anticonvulsant therapy. We studied the effects of 0.5 mg/kg IV atracurium in 53 neurosurgical patients: 21 nonepileptic patients receiving no anticonvulsant therapy (MED = 0); 14 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine for years (MED = 1); and 18 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine plus either phenytoin or valproic acid for years (MED = 2). The evoked compound electromyogram of the adductor pollicis brevis was recorded, and results were analyzed using analysis of covariance, with weight and age as covariables. The onset time was not significantly different among the three groups. Times for recovery of baseline and train-of-four responses to stimuli were significantly shorter in the MED = 1 and MED = 2 groups than in control patients (MED = 0). The recovery index (time between 25% and 75% recovery of baseline electromyogram values) was progressively shorter in the three groups (MED = 0: 8.02 min; MED = 1: 5.93 min; MED = 2: 1.96 min; P less than 0.001). This study demonstrates that atracurium, when used on epileptic patients requiring long-term (that is, years of) anticonvulsant therapy, has a shorter duration of action than when used in nonepileptic patients. PMID:2240640

  7. An Isoflavone from Dipteryx alata Vogel is Active against the in Vitro Neuromuscular Paralysis of Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom and Bothropstoxin I, and Prevents Venom-Induced Myonecrosis

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    Miriéle C. Ferraz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite is a neglected disease and serious health problem in Brazil, with most bites being caused by snakes of the genus Bothrops. Although serum therapy is the primary treatment for systemic envenomation, it is generally ineffective in neutralizing the local effects of these venoms. In this work, we examined the ability of 7,8,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (TM, an isoflavone from Dipteryx alata, to neutralize the neurotoxicity (in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations and myotoxicity (assessed by light microscopy of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom in vitro. The toxicity of TM was assessed using the Salmonella microsome assay (Ames test. Incubation with TM alone (200 μg/mL did not alter the muscle twitch tension whereas incubation with venom (40 μg/mL caused irreversible paralysis. Preincubation of TM (200 μg/mL with venom attenuated the venom-induced neuromuscular blockade by 84% ± 5% (mean ± SEM; n = 4. The neuromuscular blockade caused by bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I, the major myotoxic PLA2 of this venom, was also attenuated by TM. Histological analysis of diaphragm muscle incubated with TM showed that most fibers were preserved (only 9.2% ± 1.7% were damaged; n = 4 compared to venom alone (50.3% ± 5.4% of fibers damaged; n = 3, and preincubation of TM with venom significantly attenuated the venom-induced damage (only 17% ± 3.4% of fibers damaged; n = 3; p < 0.05 compared to venom alone. TM showed no mutagenicity in the Ames test using Salmonella strains TA98 and TA97a with (+S9 and without (−S9 metabolic activation. These findings indicate that TM is a potentially useful compound for antagonizing the neuromuscular effects (neurotoxicity and myotoxicity of B. jararacussu venom.

  8. Evaluation of strategies to improve village chicken production: controlled field trials to assess effects of Newcastle disease vaccination and altered chick rearing in Myanmar [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J; Morton, J; Pym, R; Hla, T; Meers, J

    2009-07-01

    Previous research identified Newcastle disease and poor management of chicks (birds younger than 6 weeks of age) as major constraints to village chicken production in Myanmar. Based on these findings, controlled trials were conducted in 124 randomly selected households in nine villages in Myanmar over a period of 12 months to evaluate strategies to enhance survival of village chickens. Two intervention strategies were assessed: Newcastle disease vaccination using the thermostable I-2 vaccine and changes to the management of chick rearing (confinement and supplementary feeding). These interventions were applied in two trials: (1) a randomised controlled trial to compare I-2 vaccination, altered chick management and no intervention (apart from placebo treatment) at household level and (2) nested within this trial, a double-blinded controlled trial at bird-level to compare serological titres between I-2 vaccinated and placebo-treated birds both between and within households. Outcomes measured in the first trial were crude incidence rate of mortality, proportional mortality rate for deaths due to disease stratified by age group of birds and mortality attributed to Newcastle disease, number of sales, income from sale of birds, consumption of birds and hatching of birds. Odds of having protective titres two weeks after vaccination were up to 125 times higher in I-2 vaccinated birds and up to 47 times higher in control birds in contact with I-2 vaccinates compared to birds without I-2 contact. Vaccination against Newcastle disease reduced the proportions of mortalities assumed to be caused by disease in growers and chicks. Crude mortality incidence was lower in households that applied management changes to chick rearing. In household-months when birds were sold, numbers sold were higher and income from sale of birds were about 2.50 US dollars per month higher in households allocated to altered chick management. Altered chick management resulted in more households having

  9. The effects of altering attentional demands of gait control on the variability of temporal and kinematic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Kenji; Anan, Masaya; Sawada, Tomonori; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive and visuomotor tasks on gait control in terms of the magnitude and temporal structure of the variability in stride time and lower-limb kinematics measured using inertial sensors. Fourteen healthy young subjects walked on a treadmill for 15min at a self-selected gait speed in the three conditions: normal walking without a concurrent task; walking while performing a cognitive task; and walking while performing a visuomotor task. The time series data of stride time and peak shank angular velocity were generated from acceleration and angular velocity data recorded from both shanks. The mean, coefficient of variation, and fractal scaling exponent α of the time series of these variables and the standard deviation of shank angular velocity over the entire stride cycle were calculated. The cognitive task had an effect on long-range correlations in stride time but not on lower-limb kinematics. The temporal structure of variability in stride time became more random in the cognitive task. The visuomotor task had an effect on lower-limb kinematics. Subjects controlled their swing limb with greater variability and had a more complex adaptive lower-limb movement pattern in the visuomotor task. The effects of the dual tasks on gait control were different for stride time and lower-limb kinematics. These findings suggest that the temporal structure of variability and lower-limb kinematics are useful parameters to detect a change in gait pattern and provide further insight into gait control. PMID:27264404

  10. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-09-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the polyacrylate membrane, and hence to analyze the mechanism of nutrient release, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed. The nutrient-release model of CRF post-treated at 30 °C was the inverse “L” curve, but an increased duration of the post-treatment had no effect. The nutrient-release model was “S” curve and nutrient-release period was enhanced at higher post-treatment temperatures, and increased post-treatment duration lengthened slowed nutrient release due to a more compact membrane and a smoother membrane surface as well as a promoted crosslinking action. CRF equipped with specified nutrient-release behaviors can be achieved by optimizing the thermal post-treatment parameters, which can contribute to the development and application of waterborne polymer-coated CRF and controlled-release technologies.

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and altered risk of lung cancer in a population-based case-control study.

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    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been consistently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, previous studies have had limited ability to determine whether the association is due to smoking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE population-based case-control study recruited 2100 cases and 2120 controls, of whom 1934 cases and 2108 controls reported about diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD (chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema, or asthma more than 1 year before enrollment. We estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using logistic regression. After adjustment for smoking, other previous lung diseases, and study design variables, lung cancer risk was elevated among individuals with a history of chronic bronchitis (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5, emphysema (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.8, or COPD (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 2.0-3.1. Among current smokers, association between chronic bronchitis and lung cancer was strongest among lighter smokers. Asthma was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in males (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the associations of personal history of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and COPD with increased risk of lung cancer are not entirely due to smoking. Inflammatory processes may both contribute to COPD and be important for lung carcinogenesis.

  12. The Role of Chest Physiotherapy in Prevention of Postextubation Atelectasis in Pediatric Patients with Neuromuscular Diseases

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    Nemat BILAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Bilan N, Poorshiri B.The Role of Chest Physiotherapy in Prevention of Postextubation Atelectasis in Pediatric Patients with Neuromuscular Diseases. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter; 7 (1:21-24. ObjectiveThere are controversial findings in the literature on the effects of chest physiotherapy on postextubation lung collapse in pediatric age group. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of chest physiotherapy in prevention of postextubation atelectasis in pediatric patients. Materials & Methods In a case-control study from March 2007 to March 2011, two groups of patients (35 patients in each group susceptible to lung collapse were enrolled in the study. The studied patients had neuromuscular diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy, and cerebral palsy. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (case and control; The case group underwent daily chest physiotherapy through vibrator and chest percussion and the control group was under supervision. In the latter group, the underlying disease was treated and the lung collapse was managed, if occurred. Results The frequency of atelectasis was lower in the case group who received prophylactic chest physiotherapy compared to the control group (16.6% vs. 40%. Conclusion Chest physiotherapy as well as appropriate and regular change of position can considerably reduce the rate of pulmonary collapse in pediatric patients.References Jorgensen J, Wei JL, Sykes KJ, Klem SA, Weatherly RA, Bruegger DE, Latz AD, Nicklaus PJ. Incidence of and risk factors for airway complications following endotracheal intubation for bronchiolitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007;137(3:394-9.Flenady VJ, Gray PH. Chest physiotherapy for preventing morbidity in babies being extubated from mechanical ventilation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;(2:CD000283.Odita JC, Kayyali M, Ammari A. Post-extubation atelectasis in ventilated

  13. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

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    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  14. Risk factors for local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for invasive carcinomas: a case-control study of histological factors and alterations in oncogene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Many studies have focused on histological risk factors for local recurrence (LR) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT). In addition to histological factors, we studied alterations in the expression of various proteins in relation to LR using a case-control approach. Methods and Materials: Ninety-nine LR occurred in a patient cohort of 1,481 tumors treated with BCT. These patients were randomly matched, each with two controls. Matching was performed for age group (≤ 50 and > 50 years), pN stage, and follow-up time. Histology slides were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the following proteins: bcl-2, CD31, cyclin D1, E-cadherin, EGF receptor, ER, PR, Ki-67, c-erbB2/neu, and p53. Statistical analyses were performed using conditional logistic regression. Results: Sixty-six cases and 139 controls with invasive carcinoma remained for analysis. The following variables were significant risk factors for LR: young age (p = 0.006), high nuclear grade (p = 0.04), high mitotic count (p = 0.03), extensive DCIS around the tumor (p = 0.02) but not within the tumor, poorly differentiated type of DCIS (p = 0.03), > 20% ki-67 positive cells (p = 0.006), and PR negativity (p = 0.03). When the analysis was performed for patients ≤ and > 50 years, these risk factors were found in the older patients, but not in the younger patients. Conclusion: High mitotic count and Ki-67 positivity are risk factors for LR. EDCIS surrounding the invasive tumor is a risk factor for LR, especially when of poorly differentiated type. Age is an important risk factor for LR independent of other risk factors, including alterations in oncogene expression

  15. Vitamin d deficiency in a multiethnic healthy control cohort and altered immune response in vitamin D deficient European-American healthy controls.

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    Lauren L Ritterhouse

    Full Text Available In recent years, vitamin D has been shown to possess a wide range of immunomodulatory effects. Although there is extensive amount of research on vitamin D, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or the mechanism by which vitamin D regulates the human immune system. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and the relationship between vitamin D and the immune system in healthy individuals.Healthy individuals (n = 774 comprised of European-Americans (EA, n = 470, African-Americans (AA, n = 125, and Native Americans (NA, n = 179 were screened for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels by ELISA. To identify the most noticeable effects of vitamin D on the immune system, 20 EA individuals with severely deficient (24.8 ng/mL vitamin D levels were matched and selected for further analysis. Serum cytokine level measurement, immune cell phenotyping, and phosphoflow cytometry were performed.Vitamin D sufficiency was observed in 37.5% of the study cohort. By multivariate analysis, AA, NA, and females with a high body mass index (BMI, >30 demonstrate higher rates of vitamin D deficiency (p<0.05. Individuals with vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher levels of serum GM-CSF (p = 0.04, decreased circulating activated CD4+ (p = 0.04 and CD8+ T (p = 0.04 cell frequencies than individuals with sufficient vitamin D levels.A large portion of healthy individuals have vitamin D deficiency. These individuals have altered T and B cell responses, indicating that the absence of sufficient vitamin D levels could result in undesirable cellular and molecular alterations ultimately contributing to immune dysregulation.

  16. RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL TO COMPARE THE INCIDENCE OF RESIDUAL NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCK FOLLOWING PANCURONIUM AND ATRACURIUM USING TRAIN OF FOUR RATIO

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    Nagesha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several clinical studies have reported that significant number of patients receiving non depolarizing muscle relaxants during general anesthesia show postoperative residual neuromuscular block when assessed by neuromuscular monitor in the recovery room. The degree of residual neuromuscular block produced by non-depolarizing muscle relaxants can be evaluated by clinical tests as well as by neuromuscular monitoring y neuromuscular monitor in the recovery room. A randomized double blind clinical trial to determine and compare the incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular block in patients receiving pancuronium and atracurium applying Train of Four ratio using Train of Four- Guard neuromuscular monitor. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular block following pancuronium and atracurium using Train of Four Ratio in the recovery room. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comparative randomized study done using 100 patients of age between 15-60 years belonging to either sex, ASA grade 1 and 2 with GROUP ‘P’ – Pancuronium was employed as the muscle relaxant, GROUP ‘A’ – Atracurium was employed as the muscle relaxant. Statistical analysis done using student “t” test. RESULTS: The mean duration required to attain Train of Four Ratio of 0.80 in patients with initial Train of four ratio <0.80 in group ‘P’ was 9.65±5.4413 min and in group ‘A’ was 2.8± 1.4832 min. CONCLUSION: 1. Our study concludes that the incidence of residual neuromuscular block in patients receiving pancuronium and atracurium were 40% and 10% respectively. Thus residual neuromuscular block can be a significant problem in recovery room, during the postoperative period. 2. The use of intermediate acting non depolarizing muscle relaxant like atracurium lowers the incidence of residual neuromuscular block but does not eliminate it.

  17. A Dutch guideline for the treatment of scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders

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    Titarsolej PJ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with neuromuscular disorders with a progressive muscle weakness such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Spinal Muscular Atrophy frequently develop a progressive scoliosis. A severe scoliosis compromises respiratory function and makes sitting more difficult. Spinal surgery is considered the primary treatment option for correcting severe scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders. Surgery in this population requires a multidisciplinary approach, careful planning, dedicated surgical procedures, and specialized after care. Methods The guideline is based on scientific evidence and expert opinions. A multidisciplinary working group representing experts from all relevant specialties performed the research. A literature search was conducted to collect scientific evidence in answer to specific questions posed by the working group. Literature was classified according to the level of evidence. Results For most aspects of the treatment scientific evidence is scarce and only low level cohort studies were found. Nevertheless, a high degree of consensus was reached about the management of patients with scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders. This was translated into a set of recommendations, which are now officially accepted as a general guideline in the Netherlands. Conclusion In order to optimize the treatment for scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders a Dutch guideline has been composed. This evidence-based, multidisciplinary guideline addresses conservative treatment, the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative care of scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders.

  18. Preventive effects of zinc sulfate on taste alterations in patients under irradiation for head and neck cancers: A randomized placebo-controlled trial

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    Nadia Najafizade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taste abnormalities are common among cancer patients after starting radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Considering the role of zinc and reports on its beneficial effects in taste perception, we evaluated the preventive effects of zinc sulfate on radiation-induced taste alterations. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with head and neck cancers who were on schedule for radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, were allocated to receive zinc sulfate (50 mg, three times a day or placebo; started with beginning of radiotherapy and continued for one month later. Taste acuity was determined by measuring detection and recognition thresholds for four taste qualities at baseline, at the end of radiotherapy, and a month later using the Henkin method. Results: Thirty-five patients (mean age = 59.2 ± 16.5, 60% male completed the trial. The two groups were similar at baseline. After radiotherapy, and one month later, there was a significant increase in taste perception threshold for bitter, salty, sweet, and sour tastes in the placebo group ( P = 0.001. In those who received zinc, there was only slight increase in threshold for perception of the salty taste ( P = 0.046. No relevant side effects due to zinc sulfate were reported. Conclusion: Zinc supplementation in head/neck cancer patients under radiotherapy can prevent radiation-induced taste alterations. Further studies with longer follow-ups and with different doses of zinc supplementation are warranted in this regard.

  19. Efeitos neuromusculares e cardiovasculares do pipecurônio: estudo comparativo entre diferentes doses Efectos neuromusculares y cardiovasculares del pipecuronio: estudio comparativo entre diferentes dosis Neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of pipecuronium: a comparative study between different dose

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    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga; Leandro Yoshioka; Franklin Sarmento da Silva Braga; Gloria Maria Braga Potério; José Aristeu F Frias; Rita de Cássia Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O pipecurônio é um bloqueador neuromuscular não-despolarizante, com propriedades similares as do pancurônio, mas desprovido de efeitos cardiovasculares. Foram avaliados os efeitos neuromusculares, as condições de intubação traqueal e as repercussões hemodinâmicas de duas diferentes doses de pipecurônio. MÉTODO: Pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com a dose de pipecurônio: Grupo I (0,04 mg.kg-1) e Grupo II (0,05 mg.kg-1). A medicação pré-anestésica...

  20. Lower Limb Neuromuscular Asymmetry in Volleyball and Basketball Players

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    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe Azahara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL (determined subjectively and the stronger leg (SL (determined via a functional test in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL and the SL vs the weaker (WL leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI were determined. Only 32 (40% of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (p<0.05 inter-limb differences were found in the total group of players. When comparing between sexes, significant differences (p<0.05 arose in the female group only. With regard to the WL vs. the SL, significant (p<0.05 differences were noted in the whole group and when stratified into males and females. The mean ASI ranged from 9.31% (males to 12.84% (females and from 10.49% (males to 14.26% (females, when comparing the DL vs. the NDL and the SL vs. the WL, respectively. Subjective expression of leg dominance cannot be used as a predictor of limb jump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.

  1. The effects of neurotoxins and radiation on the neuromuscular junction of the mouse: a physiological and morphological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the factors controlling axonal growth are studied by observing the effects of botulinum toxin, black widow spider venom and X-irradiation on teh neuromuscular junction in mice. Irradiation alone caused no changes since radiation is believed to affect only the Schwann cells. Irradiation prior to the administration of botulinum delayed the recovery of transmission and led to the failure of maturation and myelination of newly formed axons; this illustrates the importance of the Schwann cell for continued growth, functional maturation and myelination of axons. The effect of black widow spider venom on the end-plates was degeneration of the nerve terminals within a few hours but after a few days there was regeneration and restoration of normal transmission. The effects of black widow spider venom on muscles paralysed by botulinum were also studied; the recovery from the action of botulinum was greatly accelerated by the venom and axonal sprouting was either abolished or greatly reduced. (U.K.)

  2. Expecting ankle tilts and wearing an ankle brace influence joint control in an imitated ankle sprain mechanism during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Dominic; Wissler, Sabrina; Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the functional aspects of ankle joint control is essential to developing effective injury prevention. It is of special interest to understand how neuromuscular control mechanisms and mechanical constraints stabilize the ankle joint. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine how expecting ankle tilts and the application of an ankle brace influence ankle joint control when imitating the ankle sprain mechanism during walking. Ankle kinematics and muscle activity were assessed in 17 healthy men. During gait rapid perturbations were applied using a trapdoor (tilting with 24° inversion and 15° plantarflexion). The subjects either knew that a perturbation would definitely occur (expected tilts) or there was only the possibility that a perturbation would occur (potential tilts). Both conditions were conducted with and without a semi-rigid ankle brace. Expecting perturbations led to an increased ankle eversion at foot contact, which was mediated by an altered muscle preactivation pattern. Moreover, the maximal inversion angle (-7%) and velocity (-4%), as well as the reactive muscle response were significantly reduced when the perturbation was expected. While wearing an ankle brace did not influence muscle preactivation nor the ankle kinematics before ground contact, it significantly reduced the maximal ankle inversion angle (-14%) and velocity (-11%) as well as reactive neuromuscular responses. The present findings reveal that expecting ankle inversion modifies neuromuscular joint control prior to landing. Although such motor control strategies are weaker in their magnitude compared with braces, they seem to assist ankle joint stabilization in a close-to-injury situation. PMID:24365326

  3. Caloric restriction alters the metabolic response to a mixed-meal: results from a randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Huffman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine if caloric restriction (CR would cause changes in plasma metabolic intermediates in response to a mixed meal, suggestive of changes in the capacity to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability or metabolic flexibility, and to determine how any such changes relate to insulin sensitivity (S(I. METHODS: Forty-six volunteers were randomized to a weight maintenance diet (Control, 25% CR, or 12.5% CR plus 12.5% energy deficit from structured aerobic exercise (CR+EX, or a liquid calorie diet (890 kcal/d until 15% reduction in body weightfor six months. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were obtained at baseline, three, and six months. A targeted mass spectrometry-based platform was used to measure concentrations of individual free fatty acids (FFA, amino acids (AA, and acylcarnitines (AC. S(I was measured with an intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Over three and six months, there were significantly larger differences in fasting-to-postprandial (FPP concentrations of medium and long chain AC (byproducts of FA oxidation in the CR relative to Control and a tendency for the same in CR+EX (CR-3 month P = 0.02; CR-6 month P = 0.002; CR+EX-3 month P = 0.09; CR+EX-6 month P = 0.08. After three months of CR, there was a trend towards a larger difference in FPP FFA concentrations (P = 0.07; CR-3 month P = 0.08. Time-varying differences in FPP concentrations of AC and AA were independently related to time-varying S(I (P<0.05 for both. CONCLUSIONS: Based on changes in intermediates of FA oxidation following a food challenge, CR imparted improvements in metabolic flexibility that correlated with improvements in S(I. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00099151.

  4. Altered cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood monocytes across the menstrual cycle in primary dysmenorrhea: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyue Ma

    Full Text Available Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined. In this paper, we compared 84 common cytokine gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from six primary dysmenorrheic young women and three unaffected controls on the seventh day before (secretory phase, and the first (menstrual phase and the fifth (regenerative phase days of menstruation, using a real-time PCR array assay combined with pattern recognition and gene function annotation methods. Comparisons between dysmenorrhea and normal control groups identified 11 (nine increased and two decreased, 14 (five increased and nine decreased, and 15 (seven increased and eight decreased genes with ≥ 2-fold difference in expression (P<0.05 in the three phases of menstruation, respectively. In the menstrual phase, genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL6, and IL8 were up-regulated, and genes encoding TGF-β superfamily members (BMP4, BMP6, GDF5, GDF11, LEFTY2, NODAL, and MSTN were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed an excessive inflammatory response and insufficient TGF-β superfamily member signals with anti-inflammatory consequences, which may directly contribute to menstrual pain. In the secretory and regenerative phases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of growth factors were also observed. These factors may be involved in the regulation of decidualization, endometrium breakdown and repair, and indirectly exacerbate primary dysmenorrhea. This first study of cytokine gene expression profiles in PBMCs from young primary dysmenorrheic women demonstrates a shift in the balance between expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β superfamily members across the whole menstrual cycle, underlying the peripheral immunologic features of primary dysmenorrhea.

  5. The buccal cytome and micronucleus frequency is substantially altered in Down's syndrome and normal ageing compared to young healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The buccal micronucleus cytome assay was used to investigate biomarkers for DNA damage, cell death and basal cell frequency in buccal cells of healthy young, healthy old and young Down's syndrome cohorts. With normal ageing a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.05, average increase +366%), karyorrhectic cells (P < 0.001, average increase +439%), condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average increase +45.8%) and basal cells (P < 0.001, average increase +233%) is reported relative to young controls. In Down's syndrome we report a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.001, average increase +733%) and binucleated cells (P < 0.001, average increase +84.5%) and a significant decrease in condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average decrease -52%), karyolytic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease -51.8%) and pyknotic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease -75.0%) relative to young controls. These changes show distinct differences between the cytome profile of normal ageing relative to that for a premature ageing syndrome, and highlight the diagnostic value of the cytome approach for measuring the profile of cells with DNA damage, cell death and proportion of cells with proliferative potential (i.e., basal cells). Significant correlations amongst cell death biomarkers observed in this study were used to propose a new model of the inter-relationship of cell types scored within the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. This study validates the use of a cytome approach to investigate DNA damage, cell death and cell proliferation in buccal cells with ageing

  6. Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block by the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex: a dose-finding and safety study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorgenfrei, Iben F; Norrild, Kathrine; Larsen, Per Bo;

    2006-01-01

    Sugammadex (Org 25969) forms a complex with steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, thereby reversing neuromuscular block. This study investigated the dose-response relation, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced block.......Sugammadex (Org 25969) forms a complex with steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, thereby reversing neuromuscular block. This study investigated the dose-response relation, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced block....

  7. Update on the approach of respiratory therapy in patients with neuromuscular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Barreto Paula

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the role of physiotherapy in approaching neuromuscular disease (NMD, with emphasis on preventive and therapeutic aspects of respiratory therapy. Methods: A nonsystematic literature review covering the past twenty years, using the databases MEDLINE and LILACS through the following descriptors: neuromuscular diseases, physical therapy, vital capacity and respiratory failure. Results: The studies reviewed show the need to establish a routine periodic evaluation of respiratory function in order to introduce physical therapy measures relevant to each stage of the disease. The monitoring should include pulmonary function tests and specific techniques of chest physiotherapy, in order to avoid complications such as respiratory failure. Conclusion: The introduction of regular monitoring and preventive physiotherapy measures have helped to increase survival and improve quality of life of patients with neuromuscular diseases.

  8. Analgesia, sedation, and neuromuscular blockade during targeted temperature management after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, Richard R; Gagnon, David J; May, Teresa; Seder, David B; Fraser, Gilles L

    2015-12-01

    The approach to sedation, analgesia, and neuromuscular blockade during targeted temperature management (TTM) remains largely unstudied, forcing clinicians to adapt previous research from other patient environments. During TTM, very little data guide drug selection, doses, and specific therapeutic goals. Sedation should be deep enough to prevent awareness during neuromuscular blockade, but titration is complex as metabolism and clearance are delayed for almost all drugs during hypothermia. Deeper sedation is associated with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) and ventilator therapy, increased delirium and infection, and delayed wakening which can confound early critical neurological assessments, potentially resulting in erroneous prognostication and inappropriate withdrawal of life support. We review the potential therapeutic goals for sedation, analgesia, and neuromuscular blockade during TTM; the adverse events associated with that treatment; data suggesting that TTM and organ dysfunction impair drug metabolism; and controversies and potential benefits of specific monitoring. We also highlight the areas needing better research to guide our therapy. PMID:26670815

  9. Exposure to Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Alters the Physiology and Motor Function of Honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    GeraldineAWright; ChristopherMoffat

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic signalling is fundamental to neuro-muscular function in most organisms. Sub-lethal doses of neurotoxic pesticides that target cholinergic signalling can alter the behaviour of insects in subtle ways; their influence on non-target organisms may not be readily apparent in simple mortality studies. Beneficial arthropods such as honeybees perform sophisticated behavioural sequences during foraging that, if influenced by pesticides, could impair foraging success and reduce colony healt...

  10. Efeitos da estimulação elétrica neuromuscular durante a imobilização nas propriedades mecânicas do músculo esquelético Efectos de la estimulación eléctrica neuromuscular durante la inmovilización en las propiedades mecánicas del músculo esquelético Effects of neuromuscular electric stimulation during immobilization in the mechanical properties of the skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    João Paulo Chieregato Matheus; Liana Barbaresco Gomide; Juliana Goulart Prata de Oliveira; José Batista Volpon; Antônio Carlos Shimano

    2007-01-01

    A estimulação elétrica neuromuscular (EENM) é um importante recurso utilizado em medicina esportiva para acelerar processos de recuperação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos da EENM durante a imobilização do músculo gastrocnêmio, em posições de alongamento (LP) e encurtamento (SP). Para tanto, 60 ratas fêmeas jovens Wistar foram distribuídas em seis grupos e acompanhadas durante sete dias: controle (C), eletroestimuladas (EE), imobilizadas em encurtamento (ISP), imobilizadas em ...

  11. Efeitos da facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva na estabilidade postural e risco de quedas em pacientes com sequela de acidente vascular encefálico: estudo piloto Efectos de la facilitación neuromuscular propioceptiva en la estabilidad postural y riesgo de caídas en pacientes con secuela de accidente vascular encefálico: estudio piloto Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in postural stability and risk of falls in patients with sequelae of stroke: pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Natália Noman de Lacerda; Érika Baptista Gomes; Hudson Azevedo Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    O controle do tronco é uma habilidade motora básica necessária para executar diversas tarefas funcionais, e é deficiente em pacientes que sofreram acidente vascular encefálico (AVE). Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do método facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva (PNF) na estabilidade postural e risco de quedas em pacientes com sequela de AVE. Metodologia: Foi realizado estudo de intervenção que consistiu em treinamento da estabilidade postural por meio de um protocolo fixo constituído por 5 exe...

  12. Controlled release of 6-aminonicotinamide from aligned, electrospun fibers alters astrocyte metabolism and dorsal root ganglia neurite outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Nicholas J.; Gilbert, Ryan J.

    2011-08-01

    Following central nervous system (CNS) injury, activated astrocytes form a glial scar that inhibits the migration of axons ultimately leading to regeneration failure. Biomaterials developed for CNS repair can provide local delivery of therapeutics and/or guidance mechanisms to encourage cell migration into damaged regions of the brain or spinal cord. Electrospun fibers are a promising type of biomaterial for CNS injury since these fibers can direct cellular and axonal migration while slowly delivering therapy to the injury site. In this study, it was hypothesized that inclusion of an anti-metabolite, 6-aminonicotinamide (6AN), within poly-l-lactic acid electrospun fibers could attenuate astrocyte metabolic activity while still directing axonal outgrowth. Electrospinning parameters were varied to produce highly aligned electrospun fibers that contained 10% or 20% (w/w) 6AN. 6AN release from the fiber substrates occurred continuously over 2 weeks. Astrocytes placed onto drug-releasing fibers were less active than those cultured on scaffolds without 6AN. Dorsal root ganglia placed onto control and drug-releasing scaffolds were able to direct neurites along the aligned fibers. However, neurite outgrowth was stunted by fibers that contained 20% 6AN. These results show that 6AN release from aligned, electrospun fibers can decrease astrocyte activity while still directing axonal outgrowth.

  13. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  14. Neuromuscular factors related to success in Olympic wrestling FACTORES NEUROMUSCULARES RELACIONADOS CON EL RENDIMIENTO EN LUCHA OLÍMPICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Borrego

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study was undertaken to determine the relationship between maximum dynamic and isometric strength and success in male and female Olympic wrestling. Thirty-five female and thirty-seven male wrestlers were assigned into 4 groups according to their gender and competitive level: men elite (♂ ET, n = 18 and amateur (AT ♂, n = 19 and female elite (♀ ET n = 13 and amateur (AT ♀, n = 22. All subjects underwent assessments of body composition, countermovement jump, maximum dynamic strength test in full squat and bench press exercises and maximum isometric strength test of grip and hip extension. All the neuromuscular markers studied showed significantly higher values in the two elite groups compared to their respective amateur groups results, except the jump height between ♀ET y ♀AT, where no significant differences were detected. The present results suggest that the higher maximum isometric and dynamic strength values, explained in part by the differences in lean mass, will give elite wrestlers a clear advantage during the most frequently used techniques in Olympic wrestling. Key  Words: bench press; squat; maximum dynamic strength; maximum isometric strength; combat.ResumenEste estudio se llevó a cabo para determinar la relación entre la fuerza dinámica e isométrica máxima con el éxito en Lucha Olímpica masculina y femenina. Treinta cinco mujeres y treinta y siete varones luchadores fueron divididos en 4 grupos de acuerdo a su género y nivel competitivo: hombres élite (♂ET, n = 18 y amateur (♂AT, n = 19 y mujeres élite (♀ET, n = 13 y amateur (♀AT, n = 22. Todos los sujetos fueron sometidos a valoraciones de la composición corporal, salto con contramovimiento, test de fuerza dinámica máxima en los ejercicios de sentadilla completa y press banca así como test de fuerza isométrica máxima de agarre y de extensión de cadera. Todas las variables neuromusculares estudiadas presentaron valores

  15. Cruciferous vegetable supplementation in a controlled diet study alters the serum peptidome in a GSTM1-genotype dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with the risk of several cancers. Isothiocyanates (ITC are hypothesized to be the major bioactive constituents contributing to these cancer-preventive effects. The polymorphic glutathione-S-transferase (GST gene family encodes several enzymes which catalyze ITC degradation in vivo. Methods We utilized high throughput proteomics methods to examine how human serum peptides (the "peptidome" change in response to cruciferous vegetable feeding in individuals of different GSTM1 genotypes. In two randomized, crossover, controlled feeding studies (EAT and 2EAT participants consumed a fruit- and vegetable-free basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with cruciferous vegetables. Serum samples collected at the end of the feeding period were fractionated and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry spectra were obtained. Peak identification/alignment computer algorithms and mixed effects models were used to analyze the data. Results After analysis of spectra from EAT participants, 24 distinct peaks showed statistically significant differences associated with cruciferous vegetable intake. Twenty of these peaks were driven by their GSTM1 genotype (i.e., GSTM1+ or GSTM1- null. When data from EAT and 2EAT participants were compared by joint processing of spectra to align a common set, 6 peaks showed consistent changes in both studies in a genotype-dependent manner. The peaks at 6700 m/z and 9565 m/z were identified as an isoform of transthyretin (TTR and a fragment of zinc α2-glycoprotein (ZAG, respectively. Conclusions Cruciferous vegetable intake in GSTM1+ individuals led to changes in circulating levels of several peptides/proteins, including TTR and a fragment of ZAG. TTR is a known marker of nutritional status and ZAG is an adipokine that plays a role in lipid mobilization. The results of this study present evidence that the GSTM1

  16. Hormonal and neuromuscular responses to mechanical vibration applied to upper extremity muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Di Giminiani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute residual hormonal and neuromuscular responses exhibited following a single session of mechanical vibration applied to the upper extremities among different acceleration loads. METHODS: Thirty male students were randomly assigned to a high vibration group (HVG, a low vibration group (LVG, or a control group (CG. A randomized double-blind, controlled-parallel study design was employed. The measurements and interventions were performed at the Laboratory of Biomechanics of the University of L'Aquila. The HVG and LVG participants were exposed to a series of 20 trials ×10 s of synchronous whole-body vibration (WBV with a 10-s pause between each trial and a 4-min pause after the first 10 trials. The CG participants assumed an isometric push-up position without WBV. The outcome measures were growth hormone (GH, testosterone, maximal voluntary isometric contraction during bench-press, maximal voluntary isometric contraction during handgrip, and electromyography root-mean-square (EMGrms muscle activity (pectoralis major [PM], triceps brachii [TB], anterior deltoid [DE], and flexor carpi radialis [FCR]. RESULTS: The GH increased significantly over time only in the HVG (P = 0.003. Additionally, the testosterone levels changed significantly over time in the LVG (P = 0.011 and the HVG (P = 0.001. MVC during bench press decreased significantly in the LVG (P = 0.001 and the HVG (P = 0.002. In the HVG, the EMGrms decreased significantly in the TB (P = 0.006 muscle. In the LVG, the EMGrms decreased significantly in the DE (P = 0.009 and FCR (P = 0.006 muscles. CONCLUSION: Synchronous WBV acutely increased GH and testosterone serum concentrations and decreased the MVC and their respective maximal EMGrms activities, which indicated a possible central fatigue effect. Interestingly, only the GH response was dependent on the acceleration with respect to the subjects' responsiveness.

  17. Muscle dystroglycan organizes the postsynapse and regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bogdanik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC comprises dystrophin, dystroglycan, sarcoglycan, dystrobrevin and syntrophin subunits. In muscle fibers, it is thought to provide an essential mechanical link between the intracellular cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix and to protect the sarcolemma during muscle contraction. Mutations affecting the DGC cause muscular dystrophies. Most members of the DGC are also concentrated at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ, where their deficiency is often associated with NMJ structural defects. Hence, synaptic dysfunction may also intervene in the pathology of dystrophic muscles. Dystroglycan is a central component of the DGC because it establishes a link between the extracellular matrix and Dystrophin. In this study, we focused on the synaptic role of Dystroglycan (Dg in Drosophila. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that Dg was concentrated postsynaptically at the glutamatergic NMJ, where, like in vertebrates, it controls the concentration of synaptic Laminin and Dystrophin homologues. We also found that synaptic Dg controlled the amount of postsynaptic 4.1 protein Coracle and alpha-Spectrin, as well as the relative subunit composition of glutamate receptors. In addition, both Dystrophin and Coracle were required for normal Dg concentration at the synapse. In electrophysiological recordings, loss of postsynaptic Dg did not affect postsynaptic response, but, surprisingly, led to a decrease in glutamate release from the presynaptic site. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, our study illustrates a conservation of DGC composition and interactions between Drosophila and vertebrates at the synapse, highlights new proteins associated with this complex and suggests an unsuspected trans-synaptic function of Dg.

  18. Neuromechanical control of the isolated upper airway of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Audrey; Pichard, Luis; Schneider, Hartmut; Patil, Susheel P.; Smith, Philip L; Polotsky, Vsevolod; Schwartz, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    We characterized the passive structural and active neuromuscular control of pharyngeal collapsibility in mice and hypothesized that pharyngeal collapsibility, which is elevated by anatomic loads, is reduced by active neuromuscular responses to airflow obstruction. To address this hypothesis, we examined the dynamic control of upper airway function in the isolated upper airway of anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. Pressures were lowered downstream and upstream to the upper airway to induce inspirator...

  19. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic dysfunction in patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chi-Ren

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX is a rare lipid-storage disease. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic system (ANS dysfuction in CTX are rarely examined in large-scale studies in the literature. We studied the peripheral nervous system, myopathology, and autonomic system of four CTX patients and performed a literature review of the reported CTX patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods Four biochemically and genetically confirmed CTX patients, belonging to two families, were included for study and all received nerve conduction study (NCS, muscle biopsy for histopathologic and ultrastructural study, skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fiber (INEF density measurement, autonomic testings including sympathetic skin response, R-R interval variation and head-up tilt test using an automated tilt table to record the changes of blood pressure and heart rate in different postures. The Q-Sweat test was also applied for the detection of sweat amount and onset time of response. The clinical characteristics, study methods and results of 13 studies of peripheral neuropathy in CTX patients in the literature were also recorded for analysis. Results The results of NCS study showed axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy in three CTX cases and mixed axonal and demyelinating sensor-motor polyneuropathy in one. The myopathological and histopathologic studies revealed mild denervation characteristics, but the ultrastructural study revealed changes of mitochondria and the membranous system, and increased amounts of glycogen, lipofuscin and lipid deposition. The ANS study revealed different degrees of abnormalities in the applied tests and the INEF density measurement showed small fiber neuropathy in three of the four CTX patients. The literature review of peripheral neuropathy in CTX revealed different types of peripheral neuropathy, of which axonal peripheral neuropathy was the most common. Conclusions Peripheral neuropathy, especially the

  20. Structural evolution of the Mount Wall region in the Hamersley province, Western Australia and its control on hydrothermal alteration and formation of high-grade iron deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstra, Hilke J.

    2014-10-01

    The discovery of two relatively small but high-grade iron ore deposits near Mt Wall, an intensely faulted part of the southwestern Hamersley province provides unique insights into the structural control on ore formation in this region. The deposits have many geological features typical of the high grade microplaty hematite group which also contains the much larger Mt Tom Price, Paraburdoo and Mt Whaleback deposits. The deposits are structurally controlled along early normal faults and contain abundant microplaty hematite and martite, and are largely confined to the Dales Gorge member of the Brockman Iron Formation. In addition to the microplaty hematite-martite ore, there are martite-goethite ores and rare magnetite-goethite or magnetite-hematite ores. Below the modern weathering surface, hydrothermally altered zones in wallrock BIF from the Lower Dales Gorge member contain magnetite, hematite and carbonate/talc bearing mineral assemblages. A staged ore genesis model involving early extension and fluid circulation along normal faults, hypogene silica leaching and carbonate alteration, followed by deep meteoric oxidation with microplaty hematite formation and finally weathering can explain most features of the Mt Wall deposits. The role of deformation was to provide pathways for mineralising fluids and initiate the seed points for the mineralised systems. High grade iron in the Wellthandalthaluna deposit is situated between the NW to NNW trending Boolgeeda Creek fault and a synthetic joining splay, the Northern fault. Both are high angle normal faults and formed during early extension in this part of the province. Faults are characterised by localised small scale deformation and brecciation, deep carbonate alteration and oxidation. Recent weathering has penetrated deeply into the fault zones, converting the carbonate-rich assemblages into goethite. Mineralisation in the Arochar deposit is situated in the overlap or relay zone between two segments of the Mt Wall

  1. Genome-wide DNA methylation identifies trophoblast invasion-related genes: Claudin-4 and Fucosyltransferase IV control mobility via altering matrix metalloproteinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuxiang; Blair, John D; Yuen, Ryan K C; Robinson, Wendy P; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Previously we showed that extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT) outgrowth and migration on a collagen gel explant model were affected by exposure to decidual natural killer cells (dNK). This study investigates the molecular causes behind this phenomenon. Genome wide DNA methylation of exposed and unexposed EVT was assessed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (450 K array). We identified 444 differentially methylated CpG loci in dNK-treated EVT compared with medium control (P EVT. Among these genes, CLDN4 (encoding claudin-4) and FUT4 (encoding fucosyltransferase IV) were chosen for follow-up studies because of their biological relevance from research on tumor cells. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of both CLDN4 and FUT4 in dNK-treated EVT were significantly reduced compared with control (P EVT mobility at least partially in association with an alteration of DNA methylation profile. Hypermethylation of CLDN4 and FUT4 reduces protein expression. CLDN4 and FUT4 are representative genes that participate in modulating trophoblast mobility. PMID:25697377

  2. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem. PMID:21808092

  3. Zebrafish CaV2.1 Calcium Channels Are Tailored for Fast Synchronous Neuromuscular Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, David; Wen, Hua; Brehm, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The CaV2.2 (N-type) and CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) voltage-dependent calcium channels are prevalent throughout the nervous system where they mediate synaptic transmission, but the basis for the selective presence at individual synapses still remains an open question. The CaV2.1 channels have been proposed to respond more effectively to brief action potentials (APs), an idea supported by computational modeling. However, the side-by-side comparison of CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 kinetics in intact neurons failed to reveal differences. As an alternative means for direct functional comparison we expressed zebrafish CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 α-subunits, along with their accessory subunits, in HEK293 cells. HEK cells lack calcium currents, thereby circumventing the need for pharmacological inhibition of mixed calcium channel isoforms present in neurons. HEK cells also have a simplified morphology compared to neurons, which improves voltage control. Our measurements revealed faster kinetics and shallower voltage-dependence of activation and deactivation for CaV2.1. Additionally, recordings of calcium current in response to a command waveform based on the motorneuron AP show, directly, more effective activation of CaV2.1. Analysis of calcium currents associated with the AP waveform indicate an approximately fourfold greater open probability (PO) for CaV2.1. The efficient activation of CaV2.1 channels during APs may contribute to the highly reliable transmission at zebrafish neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25650925

  4. A single session of neuromuscular electrical stimulation does not augment postprandial muscle protein accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Marlou L; Wall, Benjamin T; Kramer, Irene Fleur; Zorenc, Antoine H; Goessens, Joy P B; Gijsen, Annemie P; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-07-01

    The loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with aging, termed sarcopenia, has been (at least partly) attributed to an impaired muscle protein synthetic response to food intake. Previously, we showed that neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can stimulate fasting muscle protein synthesis rates and prevent muscle atrophy during disuse. We hypothesized that NMES prior to protein ingestion would increase postprandial muscle protein accretion. Eighteen healthy elderly (69 ± 1 yr) males participated in this study. After a 70-min unilateral NMES protocol was performed, subjects ingested 20 g of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled casein. Plasma samples and muscle biopsies were collected to assess postprandial mixed muscle and myofibrillar protein accretion as well as associated myocellular signaling during a 4-h postprandial period in both the control (CON) and stimulated (NMES) leg. Protein ingestion resulted in rapid increases in both plasma phenylalanine concentrations and l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine enrichments, which remained elevated during the entire 4-h postprandial period (P 0.05). In agreement, no differences were observed in the postprandial rise in myofibrillar protein bound l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine enrichments between the CON and NMES legs (0.0115 ± 0.0014 vs. 0.0133 ± 0.0013 MPE, respectively, P > 0.05). Significant increases in mTOR and P70S6K phosphorylation status were observed in the NMES-stimulated leg only (P food intake does not augment postprandial muscle protein accretion in healthy older men. PMID:27279248

  5. Selective Neuromuscular Denervation in Taiwanese Severe SMA Mouse Can Be Reversed by Morpholino Antisense Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Te-Lin; Chen, Tai-Heng; Hsu, Ya-Yun; Cheng, Yu-Hua; Juang, Bi-Tzen; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease caused by deficiency of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, which leads to synaptic defects and spinal motor neuron death. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) abnormalities have been found to be involved in SMA pathogenesis in the SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. However, whether similar NMJ pathological findings present in another commonly used mouse model, the Taiwanese SMA mouse, has not been fully investigated. To examine the NMJs of the Taiwanese severe SMA mouse model (Smn-/-; SMN2tg/0), which is characterized by severe phenotype and death before postnatal day (P) 9, we investigated 25 axial and appendicular muscles from P1 to P9. We labelled the muscles with anti-neurofilament and anti-synaptophysin antibodies for nerve terminals and α-bungarotoxin for acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). We found that severe NMJ denervation (<50% fully innervated endplates) selectively occurred in the flexor digitorum brevis 2 and 3 (FDB-2/3) muscles from P5, and an increased percentage of fully denervated endplates correlated with SMA progression. Furthermore, synaptophysin signals were absent at the endplate compared to control littermate mice, suggesting that vesicle transport might only be affected at the end stage. Subsequently, we treated the Taiwanese severe SMA mice with morpholino (MO) antisense oligonucleotides (80 μg/g) via subcutaneous injection at P0. We found that MO significantly reversed the NMJ denervation in FDB-2/3 muscles and extended the survival of Taiwanese severe SMA mice. We conclude that early NMJ denervation in the FDB-2/3 muscles of Taiwanese severe SMA mice can be reversed by MO treatment. The FDB-2/3 muscles of Taiwanese severe SMA mice provide a very sensitive platform for assessing the effectiveness of drug treatments in SMA preclinical studies. PMID:27124114

  6. Zebrafish CaV2.1 calcium channels are tailored for fast synchronous neuromuscular transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, David; Wen, Hua; Brehm, Paul

    2015-02-01

    The CaV2.2 (N-type) and CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) voltage-dependent calcium channels are prevalent throughout the nervous system where they mediate synaptic transmission, but the basis for the selective presence at individual synapses still remains an open question. The CaV2.1 channels have been proposed to respond more effectively to brief action potentials (APs), an idea supported by computational modeling. However, the side-by-side comparison of CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 kinetics in intact neurons failed to reveal differences. As an alternative means for direct functional comparison we expressed zebrafish CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 α-subunits, along with their accessory subunits, in HEK293 cells. HEK cells lack calcium currents, thereby circumventing the need for pharmacological inhibition of mixed calcium channel isoforms present in neurons. HEK cells also have a simplified morphology compared to neurons, which improves voltage control. Our measurements revealed faster kinetics and shallower voltage-dependence of activation and deactivation for CaV2.1. Additionally, recordings of calcium current in response to a command waveform based on the motorneuron AP show, directly, more effective activation of CaV2.1. Analysis of calcium currents associated with the AP waveform indicate an approximately fourfold greater open probability (PO) for CaV2.1. The efficient activation of CaV2.1 channels during APs may contribute to the highly reliable transmission at zebrafish neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25650925

  7. The effects of Zumba training on cardiovascular and neuromuscular function in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Roth, Ralf; Hohn, Yannick; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of Zumba training (group fitness based on salsa and aerobics) on endurance, trunk strength, balance, flexibility, jumping performance and quality of life (QoL) in female college students. Thirty female participants were randomly assigned (strata: age, BMI and physical activity) to an intervention (INT, n = 15: age: 21.0 ± 2.3 years; BMI: 21.8 ± 3.0 kg/m(2); physical activity (PA): 7.6 ± 4.6 h/week) or control group (CON, n = 14: age: 21.0 ± 2.8 years; BMI: 21.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2); PA: 7.3 ± 3.6 h/week). Instructed Zumba training was provided twice a week for 8 weeks (training attendance: 100%). QoL was assessed using the WHO-QoL-BREF questionnaire. Endurance was measured with the 6-min walking test (6MWT). Trunk flexibility was assessed with the stand-and-reach-test and lower-extremity strength with the jump-and-reach-test. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) was employed to assess dynamic balance. Trunk strength endurance was examined using the Swiss global trunk strength test in prone and lateral (left, right) positions. All testings were performed before and after the training period. We observed large statistically significant between-group effects of total QoL score (INT: +9.8%, CON: +0.4%, p balance (all eight reaching distances of the SEBT, INT: +11-26%, CON: +1.1-3.8%, 0.001 0.05). Instructed Zumba training can be applied to improve well-being, aerobic fitness and neuromuscular function in female college students. PMID:24320999

  8. EFFECT OF TRAINING WITH NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON ELBOW FLEXION STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Holcomb

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES may be used to prevent strength loss associated with post-surgical immobilization. Most studies testing the effectiveness of NMES have trained the knee extensors. The purpose of this investigation was to test the effectiveness of NMES when training the elbow flexors. Twenty-four students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: NMES training, isometric training or control. Testing and training were completed using a Biodex™ dynamometer. After a standard warm-up, subjects were positioned on the Biodex™ with left shoulder in anatomical neutral, elbow flexed to 90o and forearm supinated. Subjects performed three maximum isometric contractions of 5 seconds duration, with 1 min rest between repetitions. Average peak torque during three repetitions was calculated. Subjects trained on three days per week for four weeks. Training included 15 maximum contractions of 15 seconds duration with 45 seconds recovery between repetitions. Russian current was delivered by a Forte™ 400 Combo via electrodes placed over ends of biceps brachii. A maximum tolerable ramped intensity was delivered with frequency of 90 bps and duty cycle of 15:45. After training, subjects were post-tested in a manner identical to pretest. Mean normalized strength data were analyzed using a 3 (Group x 2 (Test ANOVA. The Group x Test interaction was significant. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the voluntary training group (normalized means of 0.49 to 0.71 for the pretest and post-test, respectively had a significantly greater increase than the other two groups, which were not significantly different from each other. The lack of significant strength gains with NMES was likely due to low average training intensity, which was only 20.4% of MVIC. Based on these results, NMES training may not be an effective alternative to voluntary training in healthy subjects

  9. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K. P.; H S Meena; Negi, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P

  10. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  11. Postoperative effects of neuromuscular exercise prior to hip or knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Overgaard, Søren; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    supervised neuromuscular exercise prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip or knee did not confer additional benefits 3 months postoperatively compared with TJA alone. However, the intervention group experienced a statistically significant short-term benefit in ADL and pain, suggesting an earlier...

  12. Neurophysiological Strategies for the Diagnosis of Disorders of the Neuromuscular Junction in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The disorders of the neuromuscular junction seen in children, the congenital myasthenic syndromes and autoimmune myasthenia gravis, are very rare. Their clinical symptoms and signs may be variable, most notably in the neonate and infant. They should enter the differential diagnosis of many different clinical presentations, such as "floppy infant"…

  13. Monozygous twins with neuromuscular transmission defects at opposite sides of the motor endplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punga, A R; Nygren, I; Askmark, H; Stålberg, E V

    2009-03-01

    Disorders affecting the postsynaptic side of the neuromuscular junction include autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) as well as some of the congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an acquired autoimmune neuromuscular disorder in which autoantibodies are directed against the presynaptic calcium channels. Here we describe two monozygous twin brothers: case 1 was diagnosed with an indeterminate form of acquired postsynaptic neuromuscular junction defect at age 32 and case 2 with LEMS at age 47. Case 1 presented clinically with mild generalized myasthenic weakness, neurophysiological examination revealed disturbed neuromuscular transmission along with probable myositis and serum analysis regarding antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor and muscle-specific tyrosine kinase was negative. Case 2 presented with proximal muscle fatigue accompanied by areflexia at rest and antibodies against the P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels were present. Neurophysiologically, case 2 had reduced baseline compound motor action potential amplitudes on neurography, decrement on low-frequency repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) and pathological increment on high frequency RNS. To our knowledge this is the first case report of its kind and adds an intriguing contrast to the more common diagnosis of CMS in monozygous twins. PMID:18684214

  14. Slide-based ergometer rowing: Effects on force production and neuromuscular activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Alkjaer, T; Kanstrup, I-L;

    2013-01-01

    Force production profile and neuromuscular activity during slide-based and stationary ergometer rowing at standardized submaximal power output were compared in 14 male and 8 female National Team rowers. Surface electromyography (EMG) was obtained in selected thoracic and leg muscles along with...

  15. A survey of the current use of neuromuscular blocking drugs among the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelazeem Eldawlatly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This survey aimed to assess the extent of practice of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMB in 2012. Methods: We distributed an electronic survey among 577 members of the Triple-M Middle Eastern Yahoo anesthesia group, enquiring about their practice in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. Questions concerned the routine "first choice" use of NMB, choice for tracheal intubation, the use of neuromuscular monitoring (NMT, type of NMB used in difficult airway, frequency of using suxamethonium, cisatracurium, rocuronium and sugammadex, observed side effects of rocuronium, residual curarization, and the reversal of residual curarization of rocuronium. Results: A total of 71 responses from 22 Middle Eastern institutions were collected. Most of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists were using cisatracurium and rocuronium frequently for tracheal intubation (39% and 35%, respectively. From the respondents, 2/3 were using suxamethonium for tracheal intubation in difficult airway, 1/3 were using rocuronium routinely and 17% have observed hypersensitivity reactions to rocuronium, 54% reported residual curarization from rocuronium, 78% were routinely using neostigmine to reverse the rocuronium, 21% used sugammadex occasionally, and 35% were using NMT routinely during the use of NMB. Conclusions: We believe that more could be done to increase the awareness of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists about the high incidence of PROC (>20% and the need for routine monitoring of neuromuscular function. This could be accomplished with by developing formal training programs and providing official guidelines.

  16. Metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness performance in children with cerebral palsy: A comparison with healthy youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Claudia Cardona; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Ruiz, Margarita Pérez; Caballero, Ignacio Martínez; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; Lorenzo, Teresa Martín; Lara, Sergio Lerma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare these findings with typically developing children. 40 children with CP (21 males, 19 females; mean age, 11.0±3.3 yr; range, 6.5–17.1 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 or 2) and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children completed a test battery that consisted of 8 tests and 28 measures that assessed cardio-respiratory fitness, energy expenditure, anaerobic endurance, muscle strength, agility, stability and flexibility. Children with CP had significantly lower performance (P<0.05) on most cardiorespiratory and metabolic tests than those of healthy children, Differences in neuromuscular measures of muscular strength, speed, agility, anaerobic endurance, and flexibility between groups were most apparent. Grouped differences in cardiorespiratory variables revealed a 25% difference in performance, whereas grouped differences in metabolic and neuromuscular measures were 43% and 60%, respectively. The physical fitness of contemporary children with CP is significantly less than healthy, age-matched children. Significant differences in neuromuscular measures between groups can aid in the identification of specific fitness abilities in need of improvement in this population. PMID:27162775

  17. A flexible electrode array for muscle impedance measurements in the mouse hind limb: A tool to speed research in neuromuscular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a bioelectrical impedance technique focused on the assessment of neuromuscular diseases using tetrapolar surface arrays. Recently, we have shown that reproducible and sensitive EIM measurements can be made on the gastrocnemius muscle of the mouse hind limb and that these are sensitive to disease alterations. A dedicated array would help speed data acquisition and provide additional sensitivity to disease-induced alterations. A flexible electrode array was developed with electrode sizes of 1mm × 1mm by Parlex, Inc. Tetrapolar electrode sets were arranged both parallel to (longitudinal) and orthogonally to (transverse) the major muscle fiber direction of the gastrocnemius muscle. Measurements were made with a dedicated EIM system. A total of 11 healthy animals and 7 animals with spinal muscular atrophy (a form of motor neuron disease) were evaluated after the fur was completely removed with a depilatory agent from the hind limb. Standard electrophysiologic testing (compound motor action potential amplitude and motor unit number estimation) was also performed. The flexible electrode array demonstrated high repeatability in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in the healthy and diseased animals (with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively, for phase angle measured transversely). In addition, differences between healthy and diseased animals were identifiable. For example, the 50 kHz transverse phase angle was higher in the healthy as compared to the SMA animals (16.8° ± 0.5 vs. 14.3° ± 0.7, respectively) at 21 weeks of age (p = 0.01). Differences in anisotropy were also identifiable. Correlations to several standard neurophysiologic parameters also appeared promising. This novel flexible tetrapolar electrode array can be used on the mouse hind limb and provides multidirectional data that can be used to assess muscle health. This technique has the potential of finding widespread use in

  18. A flexible electrode array for muscle impedance measurements in the mouse hind limb: A tool to speed research in neuromuscular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a bioelectrical impedance technique focused on the assessment of neuromuscular diseases using tetrapolar surface arrays. Recently, we have shown that reproducible and sensitive EIM measurements can be made on the gastrocnemius muscle of the mouse hind limb and that these are sensitive to disease alterations. A dedicated array would help speed data acquisition and provide additional sensitivity to disease-induced alterations. A flexible electrode array was developed with electrode sizes of 1mm × 1mm by Parlex, Inc. Tetrapolar electrode sets were arranged both parallel to (longitudinal) and orthogonally to (transverse) the major muscle fiber direction of the gastrocnemius muscle. Measurements were made with a dedicated EIM system. A total of 11 healthy animals and 7 animals with spinal muscular atrophy (a form of motor neuron disease) were evaluated after the fur was completely removed with a depilatory agent from the hind limb. Standard electrophysiologic testing (compound motor action potential amplitude and motor unit number estimation) was also performed. The flexible electrode array demonstrated high repeatability in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in the healthy and diseased animals (with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively, for phase angle measured transversely). In addition, differences between healthy and diseased animals were identifiable. For example, the 50 kHz transverse phase angle was higher in the healthy as compared to the SMA animals (16.8° ± 0.5 vs. 14.3° ± 0.7, respectively) at 21 weeks of age (p = 0.01). Differences in anisotropy were also identifiable. Correlations to several standard neurophysiologic parameters also appeared promising. This novel flexible tetrapolar electrode array can be used on the mouse hind limb and provides multidirectional data that can be used to assess muscle health. This technique has the potential of finding widespread use in

  19. Dihydrotestosterone Administration Does Not Increase Intraprostatic Androgen Concentrations or Alter Prostate Androgen Action in Healthy Men: A Randomized-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Stephanie T; Lin, Daniel W.; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Marck, Brett T.; Wright, Jonathan L; Wu, Jennifer; Amory, John K.; Peter S Nelson; Matsumoto, Alvin M.

    2010-01-01

    Exogenous dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which substantially raises serum DHT and lowers serum T, does not significantly alter intraprostatic androgen levels or androgen-responsive gene expression in healthy men.

  20. Robotic-locomotor training as a tool to reduce neuromuscular abnormality in spinal cord injury: the application of system identification and advanced longitudinal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, Mehdi M; Kindig, Matthew; Niu, Xun; Varoqui, Deborah; Conaway, Petra

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the effect of the LOKOMAT, a robotic-assisted locomotor training system, on the reduction of neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity was examined, for the first time in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. Twenty-three individuals with chronic incomplete SCI received 1-hour training sessions in the LOKOMAT three times per week, with up to 45 minutes of training per session; matched control group received no intervention. The neuromuscular properties of the spastic ankle were then evaluated prior to training and after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of training. A parallel-cascade system identification technique was used to determine the reflex and intrinsic stiffness of the ankle joint as a function of ankle position at each time point. The slope of the stiffness vs. joint angle curve, i.e. the modulation of stiffness with joint position, was then calculated and tracked over the four-week period. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM), an advanced statistical method, was then used to classify subjects into subgroups based on similar trends in recovery pattern of slope over time, and Random Coefficient Regression (RCR) was used to model the recovery patterns within each subgroup. All groups showed significant reductions in both reflex and intrinsic slope over time, but subjects in classes with higher baseline values of the slope showed larger improvements over the four weeks of training. These findings suggest that LOKOMAT training may also be useful for reducing the abnormal modulation of neuromuscular properties that arises as secondary effects after SCI. This can advise clinicians as to which patients can benefit the most from LOKOMAT training prior to beginning the training. Further, this study shows that system identification and GMM/RCR can serve as powerful tools to quantify and track spasticity over time in the SCI population. PMID:24187312

  1. PPAR-α agonism improves whole body and muscle mitochondrial fat oxidation, but does not alter intracellular fat concentrations in burn trauma children in a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohm G Lynis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance is often associated with increased levels of intracellular triglycerides, diacylglycerol and decreased fat β-oxidation. It was unknown if this relationship was present in patients with acute insulin resistance induced by trauma. Methods A double blind placebo controlled trial was conducted in 18 children with severe burn injury. Metabolic studies to assess whole body palmitate oxidation and insulin sensitivity, muscle biopsies for mitochondrial palmitate oxidation, diacylglycerol, fatty acyl Co-A and fatty acyl carnitine concentrations, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy for muscle and liver triglycerides were compared before and after two weeks of placebo or PPAR-α agonist treatment. Results Insulin sensitivity and basal whole body palmitate oxidation as measured with an isotope tracer increased significantly (P = 0.003 and P = 0.004, respectively after PPAR-α agonist treatment compared to placebo. Mitochondrial palmitate oxidation rates in muscle samples increased significantly after PPAR-α treatment (P = 0.002. However, the concentrations of muscle triglyceride, diacylglycerol, fatty acyl CoA, fatty acyl carnitine, and liver triglycerides did not change with either treatment. PKC-θ activation during hyper-insulinemia decreased significantly following PPAR-α treatment. Conclusion PPAR-α agonist treatment increases palmitate oxidation and decreases PKC activity along with reduced insulin sensitivity in acute trauma, However, a direct link between these responses cannot be attributed to alterations in intracellular lipid concentrations.

  2. Pulmonary alterations in Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aims to demonstrate pulmonary alterations (PA) in patients with Behcet's disease by using CT. Materials and methods: CTs of 50 patients with Behcet's disease and 20 others in a control group have been evaluated retrospectively for PA (septal, reticular, nodular, atelectatic opacities). Results: Eight out of 50 patients (16%) with Behcet's disease showed PA. Three out of 20 (15%) in the control group showed PA. No differences were observed between Behcet's disease patients and the control group regarding pulmonary alterations (p = 0.917). No differences were observed in the disease duration, ages and sex in either group in those with and without PA. Conclusion: Pulmonary alterations can be seen in patients with Behcet's disease, but these alterations are not significant.

  3. Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Clément, Gilles R.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Taylor, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the various dimensions of the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space flight by reviewing the research and operational evidence demonstrating sensorimotor performance decrements during and after space flight. These sensorimotor performance decrements might affect vehicle and complex system control, including decreased visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial and geographic orientation perception, and cognitive function. Sensorimotor performance decrements might also affect the ability to egress and walk away from the vehicle in case of an emergency or an extravehicular activity on a planetary surface. We also review the countermeasures that have been tested, including medication, prevention techniques and training exercises, physical rehabilitation, and mechanical devices. Furthermore, we identify the current knowledge and mitigation gaps that must be filled through further research and/or data mining efforts before the risk can be fully mitigated. We conclude that the true operational risks associated with the impacts of adaptive sensorimotor changes on mobility and crew abilities to control vehicles and other complex systems will only be estimable after the gaps have been filled and we have been able to accurately assess integrated performance in off-nominal operational settings. A large body of sensorimotor research data obtained from space flight experiments over the past half-century demonstrates significant decrements in oculomotor control, eye-hand coordination, spatial orientation, posture\\locomotor control and cognition during space flight missions. While these changes are most severe during and after G-transitions, the most crucial time for many critical operational tasks (e.g., landing and egress), only limited information is available to assess the operational impacts of these changes. Some of the operational observations are

  4. Tratamiento farmacológico de las alteraciones neuromusculares en el paciente crítico Pharmacological treatment neuromuscular impairments in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ortiz Leyba

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de fármacos para tratamiento de las alteraciones neuromusculares que se presentan en el enfermo ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos es prácticamente inexistente. El empleo de inmunoglobulinas por vía venosa para el tratamiento de la polineuropatía del paciente crítico (PPC no aporta ninguna evidencia para su uso. Más importancia tiene el tratamiento profiláctico, como es el caso de la administración de una perfusión de insulina para prevenir la hiperglucemias que seasocian a un mayor desarrollo de la PPC. Nuevos datos inducen a pensar que el mecanismo protector de esta perfusión, normalizando los niveles de glucosa se hacen modulando una disfunción endotelial y a unos menores niveles de dimetilarginina asimétrica (ADMA. Con respecto a la miopatía del paciente crítico o a los cuadros de bloqueo neuromuscular prolongado, el tratamiento consiste en evitar el empleo de diversos fármacos que se sabe se asocian al desarrollo de estas entidades como son los corticoides, los relajantes musculares y los aminoglucósidos. Por lo que respecta a la parálisis aguda flácida -infección por el virus del oeste del nilo se han comunicado casos anecdóticos de mejoría con el empleo de corticoides o de interferón, pero su tratamiento rutinario queda aún por establecer.The use of drugs for treating neuromuscular impairments that present in the patient admitted to the Intensive Care Unit is virtually inexistent. The use of intravenous immunoglobulins for managing polyneuropathy of the critically ill patient (PCIP is supported by no evidence. More important is prophylactic therapy, as is the administration of insulin perfusion to prevent hyperglycemia that is associated to increased development of PCIP. New data suggest that the protective mechanism of this perfusion, which normalizes glucose levels, is achieved through the modulation of endothelial dysfunction and lowering levels of asymmetrical di-methyl arginine (ADMA. As

  5. Tratamiento farmacológico de las alteraciones neuromusculares en el paciente crítico Pharmacological treatment neuromuscular impairments in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ortiz Leyba

    2006-01-01

    El empleo de fármacos para tratamiento de las alteraciones neuromusculares que se presentan en el enfermo ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos es prácticamente inexistente. El empleo de inmunoglobulinas por vía venosa para el tratamiento de la polineuropatía del paciente crítico (PPC) no aporta ninguna evidencia para su uso. Más importancia tiene el tratamiento profiláctico, como es el caso de la administración de una perfusión de insulina para prevenir la hiperglucemias que seasoci...

  6. Efeitos do aquecimento e do alongamento na resposta neuromuscular dos isquiotibiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Felipe de Souza Nogueira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A preparação para a atividade esportiva frequentemente envolve aquecimento e/ou alongamento, no intuito de prevenir lesões e/ou melhorar o desempenho. No entanto, a maneira como essas práticas podem interferir nos mecanismos neuromusculares de controle articular não é clara. OBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito imediato do alongamento e do aquecimento, isolados ou associados, no tempo de latência muscular (TLM e na amplitude de ativação dos isquiotibiais, após perturbações repentinas da articulação do joelho. MÉTODOS: Sessenta voluntários do sexo feminino (média de idade de 22,3 ± 1,7 anos e IMC 21,4 ± 1,3 kg/cm2 foram divididas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: (1 controle, (2 aquecimento, (3 alongamento, (4 aquecimento + alongamento. A atividade elétrica dos isquiotibiais foi captada por eletromiografia de superfície durante uma perturbação súbita do joelho. Um eletrogoniômetro detectou o início da variação angular, enquanto os eletrodos captaram o início e a amplitude da atividade muscular antes e após as intervenções. Como procedimento estatístico utilizou-se ANOVA two-way e post-hoc de Tukey, considerando-se como nível de significância p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: O TLM do bíceps femoral e do semitendíneo foi reduzido nos grupos 3 (p = 0,048 e 0,027, respectivamente e 4 (p = 0,026 e 0,039, respectivamente. Não houve alteração significativa da amplitude de ativação muscular nos grupos avaliados. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados do presente estudo sugerem que, embora não tenham sido observadas alterações na amplitude eletromiográfica, o alongamento passivo e estático, utilizado de forma isolada ou associado ao aquecimento, promoveu uma redução do TLM dos isquiotibiais. Essa redução pode vir a ser um fator de proteção de lesões musculares e articulares, após uma perturbação súbita, como as que ocorrem na prática desportiva.

  7. Arsenic exposure through drinking water leads to senescence and alteration of telomere length in humans: A case-control study in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Debmita; Bhattacharjee, Pritha; Sau, Tanmoy J; Das, Jayanta K; Sarma, Nilendu; Bandyopadhyay, Apurba K; Roy, Sib Sankar; Giri, Ashok K

    2015-09-01

    Arsenic (As) induces pre-malignant and malignant dermatological lesions, non-dermatological health effects and cancers in humans. Senescence involves telomere length changes and acquisition of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which promotes carcinogenesis. Though in vitro studies have shown that As induces senescence, population based studies are lacking. We investigated the arsenic-induced senescence, telomere length alteration and its contribution towards development of As-induced skin cancer. The study participants included 60 each of As-exposed individuals with skin lesion (WSL), without skin lesions (WOSL) and 60 unexposed controls. Exposure assessment of drinking water and urine was done. SA β-gal activity, ELISA, and quantification of senescence proteins, alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) associated proteins and telomerase activity were performed. Relative telomere length (RTL) was determined by qPCR. A significantly higher number of senescent cells, over-expression of p53 and p21 were observed in the As-exposed individuals when compared to unexposed. SASP markers, MMP-1/MMP-3 were significantly higher in the WSL but not IL-6/IL-8. A significant increase of RTL was observed in the WSL group, which was telomerase-independent but exhibited an over-expression of ALT associated proteins TRF-1 and TRF-2 with higher increase in TRF-2. An increased risk for developing As-induced skin lesions was found for individuals having RTL greater than 0.827 (odds ratio, 13.75; 95% CI: 5.66-33.41; P telomere length might be useful for predicting the risk of development of As-induced skin lesions. PMID:24665044

  8. Pre-operative quadriceps femoris neuromuscular electrical stimulation in total knee arthroplasty : a clinical and molecular analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Walls, Raymond John

    2009-01-01

    Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) have asymmetrical muscle weakness due to neuromuscular activation deficits and muscle atrophy. Quadriceps muscle (QFM) strength declines after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with associated functional impairment. The ultimate purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on quadriceps muscle strength and functional recovery after TKA. Patients undergoing TKA for advanced knee OA we...

  9. Neuromuscular Retraining in Female Adolescent Athletes: Effect on Athletic Performance Indices and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Noyes, Frank R.; Sue D. Barber-Westin

    2015-01-01

    While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions) was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 yea...

  10. Effects of Compliance on Trunk and Hip Integrative Neuromuscular Training on Hip Abductor Strength in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D; Bush, Heather M.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Sugimoto, D, Myer, GD, Bush, HM, and Hewett, TE. Effects of compliance on trunk and hip integrative neuromuscular training on hip abductor strength in female athletes. Recent studies demonstrate the link between reduced hip abductor strength and increased risk for knee injury such as patellofemoral pain syndrome in women athletes. Meta-analytic reports indicate that the efficacy of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) is associated with compliance to the prescribed programming. Thus, the ...

  11. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with better preserved fat-free mass

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Maris Nápolis; Simone Dal Corso; José Alberto Neder; Carla Malaguti; Ana Cristina Oliveira Gimenes; Luiz Eduardo Nery

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation increases exercise tolerance in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients). However, it is conceivable that its benefits are more prominent in patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function and structure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation in COPD patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function. Design: Prospective and...

  12. The Effect of Short-Time Pre-Season Intensive, Neuromuscular Training on Postural Stability on Elite Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Łoboda, Natalia; Śmigielski, Robert; Popieluch, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Adequate neuromuscular training is proven to be of enormous importance in the prevention of injuries. It enhances the ability to use somatosensory information, which improves postural capabilities, reduces injury ratios and improves player’s sport performance. We hypothesized that a short-time (3 week) intensive neuromuscular training would significantly improve postural balance of professional football players. We also hypothesized that the non-dominant leg of football players wo...

  13. The tof-guard neuromuscular transmission monitor and its use in horses O monitor da transmissão neuromuscular "tof-guard" e seu uso em eqüinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Noda Bechara

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been emphasized in the human medical literature, that when using a neuromuscular blocking agent, it is of vital importance the monitoring of the neuromuscular block and that these agents should never be used without it. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the neuromuscular transmission monitor TOF-Guard in horses. Twelve horses were randomly assigned whether to receive pancuronium or atracurium as the neuromuscular blocking agent. All horses were pre-medicated with romifidine, anaesthesia induced with diazepam and ketamine and maintenance with halothane. Abolition of spontaneous ventilation was accomplished by the administration of atracurium or pancuronium. The time from injection of the muscle relaxant agent to the onset of maximum block (T1=0, recovery of T1 to 25% and the recovery of TOF ratio to 0.7 were recorded, as was the time for recovery of T1 from 25 to 75%. It was concluded that it is very important the neuromuscular transmission monitoring during the use of a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, since it provides a safer anaesthetic and surgical procedure with the use of adequate dosages and due to the impossibility of a superficialization of the neuromuscular blockade during a surgical procedure. The TOF-Guard showed to be a good option for neuromuscular monitoring in horses.Quando da utilização de bloqueadores neuromusculares, já foi enfatizado na literatura médica humana, que é de vital imporância a monitoração do bloqueio neuromuscular e que estes agentes nunca devem ser utilizados sem a mesma. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar o uso do monitor da transmissão neuromuscular TOF-Guard em eqüinos. Para tanto, doze eqüinos foram separados aleatoriamente para receberem como bloqueadores neuromusculares o pancurônio ou o atracúrio. Todos os eqüinos foram pré-medicados com romifidina, induzidos com diazepam e quetamina e mantidos com halotano. Foi administrado o atracúrio ou o

  14. The Effect of NeuroMuscular Electrical Stimulation on Quadriceps Strength and Knee Function in Professional Soccer Players: Return to Sport after ACL Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taradaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of NMES program applied in male soccer players (after ACL reconstruction on the quadriceps muscle. The 80 participants (NMES = 40, control = 40 received an exercise program, including three sessions weekly. The individuals in NMES group additionally received neuromuscular electrical stimulation procedures on both right and left quadriceps (biphasic symmetric rectangular pulses, frequency of impulses: 2500 Hz, and train of pulses frequency: 50 Hz three times daily (3 hours of break between treatments, 3 days a week, for one month. The tensometry, muscle circumference, and goniometry pendulum test (follow-up after 1 and 3 months were applied. The results of this study show that NMES (in presented parameters in experiment is useful for strengthening the quadriceps muscle in soccer athletes. There is an evidence of the benefit of the NMES in restoring quadriceps muscle mass and strength of soccer players. In our study the neuromuscular electrical stimulation appeared to be safe for biomechanics of knee joint. The pathological changes in knee function were not observed. This trial is registered with Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001168741.

  15. The effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and knee function in professional soccer players: return to sport after ACL reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taradaj, J; Halski, T; Kucharzewski, M; Walewicz, K; Smykla, A; Ozon, M; Slupska, L; Dymarek, R; Ptaszkowski, K; Rajfur, J; Pasternok, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of NMES program applied in male soccer players (after ACL reconstruction) on the quadriceps muscle. The 80 participants (NMES = 40, control = 40) received an exercise program, including three sessions weekly. The individuals in NMES group additionally received neuromuscular electrical stimulation procedures on both right and left quadriceps (biphasic symmetric rectangular pulses, frequency of impulses: 2500 Hz, and train of pulses frequency: 50 Hz) three times daily (3 hours of break between treatments), 3 days a week, for one month. The tensometry, muscle circumference, and goniometry pendulum test (follow-up after 1 and 3 months) were applied. The results of this study show that NMES (in presented parameters in experiment) is useful for strengthening the quadriceps muscle in soccer athletes. There is an evidence of the benefit of the NMES in restoring quadriceps muscle mass and strength of soccer players. In our study the neuromuscular electrical stimulation appeared to be safe for biomechanics of knee joint. The pathological changes in knee function were not observed. This trial is registered with Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001168741. PMID:24381943

  16. Muscle size, neuromuscular activation, and rapid force characteristics in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S P; Andersen, L L; Sipilä, S; Rosted, A; Jakobsen, A K; Duus, B; Kjaer, M

    2007-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists for the age-related decline in muscle strength and neural function, but the effect of long-term disuse in the elderly is largely unexplored. The present study examined the effect of unilateral long-term limb disuse on maximal voluntary quadriceps contraction (MVC), lean...... quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (LCSA), contractile rate of force development (RFD, Delta force/Delta time), impulse (integral force dt), muscle activation deficit (interpolated twitch technique), maximal neuromuscular activity [electromyogram (EMG)], and antagonist muscle coactivation in elderly men...... data demonstrate that disuse leads to a marked loss of muscle strength and muscle mass in elderly individuals. Furthermore, the data indicate that neuromuscular activation and contractile RFD are more affected by long-term disuse than maximal muscle strength, which may increase the future risk for...

  17. Split-dose atropine versus glycopyrrolate with neostigmine for reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, J; Jarnvig, I; Jørgensen, L N;

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a split-dose of atropine sulphate versus a single dose of glycopyrrolate given with neostigmine for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade were studied in 55 patients undergoing gynaecological surgery. The patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of......, whereas none occurred in the glycopyrrolate group (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that a split-dose of atropine has similar chronotropic effects to a single dose of glycopyrrolate for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade. However, the finding of a higher incidence of cardiac...... arrhythmias in the atropine group suggests that this reversal regime should be reserved for patients without cardiac disease....

  18. [Neuromuscular dynamic scapular winging: Clinical, electromyographic and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Christelle; Guérini, Henri; Roren, Alexandra; Zauderer, Jennifer; Vuillemin, Valérie; Seror, Paul; Ouaknine, Michaël; Palazzo, Clémence; Bourdet, Christopher; Pluot, Étienne; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Drapé, Jean-Luc; Rannou, François; Poiraudeau, Serge; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine

    2015-12-01

    Dyskinesia of the scapula is a clinical diagnosis and includes all disorders affecting scapula positioning and movement whatever its etiology. Scapular winging is a subtype of scapular dyskinesia due to a dynamic prominence of the medial border of the scapula (DSW) secondary to neuromuscular imbalance in the scapulothoracic stabilizer muscles. The two most common causes of DSW are microtraumatic or idiopathic lesions of the long thoracic nerve (that innerves the serratus anterior) or the accessory nerve (that innerves the trapezius). Diagnosis of DSW is clinical and electromyographic. Use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be of interest to distinguish lesion secondary to a long thoracic nerve from accessory nerve and to rule out scapular dyskinesia related to other shoulder disorders. Causal neuromuscular lesion diagnosis in DSW is challenging. Clinical examinations, combined with scapular MRI, could help to their specific diagnosis, determining their stage, ruling out differential diagnosis and thus give raise to more targeted treatment. PMID:26433832

  19. MHCI promotes developmental synapse elimination and aging-related synapse loss at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetruashvily, Mazell M; McDonald, Marin A; Frietze, Karla K; Boulanger, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    Synapse elimination at the developing neuromuscular junction (NMJ) sculpts motor circuits, and synapse loss at the aging NMJ drives motor impairments that are a major cause of loss of independence in the elderly. Here we provide evidence that at the NMJ, both developmental synapse elimination and aging-related synapse loss are promoted by specific immune proteins, members of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI). MHCI is expressed at the developing NMJ, and three different methods of reducing MHCI function all disrupt synapse elimination during the second postnatal week, leaving some muscle fibers multiply-innervated, despite otherwise outwardly normal synapse formation and maturation. Conversely, overexpressing MHCI modestly accelerates developmental synapse elimination. MHCI levels at the NMJ rise with aging, and reducing MHCI levels ameliorates muscle denervation in aged mice. These findings identify an unexpected role for MHCI in the elimination of neuromuscular synapses during development, and indicate that reducing MHCI levels can preserve youthful innervation of aging muscle. PMID:26802986

  20. EFFECT OF NEUROMUSCULAR REEDUCATION IN BILATERAL FACIAL PALSY ON PATIENT WITH GBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar, MPT, PhD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bilateral facial palsy is a rare entity and remains to be a challenging case to diagnose and manage which has the major impact on the physical and social aspect of the affected individual. Objective: The aim of the report is to determine the role of neuromuscular reeducation in restoration of function in person with Guillain Barre Syndrome present with facial diplegia. Case report: We report the case of 23 year male presenting with history of deviation of mouth to the right side, followed by bilateral facial involvement and latter distal symmetrical involvement of bilateral upper and lower limb. The facial diplegia was managed by PNF and Electrical stimulation. Conclusions: Neuromuscular reeducation is an effective intervention for restoration of function after facial diplegia.

  1. Maximum likelihood q-estimator reveals nonextensivity regulated by extracellular potassium in the mammalian neuromuscular junction

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, A J; Santos, D O C; Lima, R F

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated the existence of nonextensivity in neuromuscular transmission [Phys. Rev. E 84, 041925 (2011)]. In the present letter, we propose a general criterion based on the q-calculus foundations and nonextensive statistics to estimate the values for both scale factor and q-index using the maximum likelihood q-estimation method (MLqE). We next applied our theoretical findings to electrophysiological recordings from neuromuscular junction (NMJ) where spontaneous miniature end plate potentials (MEPP) were analyzed. These calculations were performed in both normal and high extracellular potassium concentration, [K+]o. This protocol was assumed to test the validity of the q-index in electrophysiological conditions closely resembling physiological stimuli. Surprisingly, the analysis showed a significant difference between the q-index in high and normal [K+]o, where the magnitude of nonextensivity was increased. Our letter provides a general way to obtain the best q-index from the q-Gaussian distrib...

  2. TWO STAGE FRAMEWORK FOR ALTERED FINGERPRINT MATCHING

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. Anoop; M.G. Mini

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprint alteration is the process of masking one’s identity from personal identification systems especially in boarder control security systems. Failure of matching the altered fingerprint of the criminals against the watch list of fingerprints can help them to break the security system. This fact leads to the need of a method for altered fingerprint matching. This paper presents a two stage method for altered fingerprint matching. In first stage, approximated global ridge orientation fie...

  3. Effect of Low Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Glucose Profile of Persons with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Jabbour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of low-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES on glucose profile in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Eight persons with T2DM (41 to 65 years completed a glucose tolerance test with and without NMES delivered to the knee extensors for a 1-hour period at 8 Hz. Three blood samples were collected: at rest, and then 60 and 120 minutes after consumption of a glucose load on the NMES and control days. In NMES groups glucose concentrations were significantly lower (P<0.01 than in the control conditions. Moreover, a significant positive correlation (r=0.9, P<0.01 was obtained between the intensity of stimulation and changes in blood glucose. Our results suggest that low-frequency stimulation seem suitable to induce enhance glucose uptake in persons with T2DM. Moreover, the intensity of stimulation reflecting the motor contraction should be considered during NMES procedure.

  4. Influência de anestésicos locais sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio: ação da lidocaína e da mistura enantiomérica em excesso de 50% de bupivacaína na junção neuromuscular Influencia de anestésicos locales sobre el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio: acción de la lidocaína y de la mezcla enantiomérica en exceso de 50% de bupivacaína en la junción neuromuscular Influence of local anesthetics on the neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium: effects of lidocaine and 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine on the neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga; Vanessa Henriques Carvalho; Franklin Sarmento da Silva Braga; Léa Rodrigues-Simioni; Yolanda Christina S Loyola; Glória Braga Potério

    2009-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os efeitos dos anestésicos locais (AL) na transmissão neuromuscular e sua influência no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido por bloqueadores neuromusculares competitivos são ainda alvo de pouca investigação. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar in vitro os efeitos da lidocaína e da mistura enantiomérica em excesso de 50% de bupivacaína (S75-R25) no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram distribuídos em cinco grupos (n = 5) de acordo com o fár...

  5. Long Term Follow-up of Ventilated Patients with Thoracic Restriction and Neuromuscular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Brooks

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long term effects of home mechanical ventilation (HMV on pulmonary function, nighttime gas exchange, daytime arterial blood gases, sleep architecture and functional exercise capacity (6 min walk. Patients with respiratory failure attributable to thoracic restrictive disease (TRD (kyphoscoliosis or neuromuscular disease (NMD were assessed, ventilated, trained and followed in a dedicated unit for the care of patients requiring long term ventilation.

  6. Neuromuscular function in patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and clinical assessment of scapular kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Lund, Hans; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit;

    Occupational Therapy, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway 3National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, DK E-mail: cmlarsen@health.sdu.dk AIMS: The aims were to understand potential mechanisms for impairment in the neuromuscular function of the scapular stabilisers in a general...... with SIS, however, SIS patients may benefit from biofeedback training. Lastly, these results indicate that very few clinical assessment methods have sufficient clinimetric properties that can be recommended for clinical use....

  7. Sources of innervation of the neuromuscular spindles in sternomastoid and trapezius.

    OpenAIRE

    FitzGerald, M J; Comerford, P T; Tuffery, A R

    1982-01-01

    The sources of innervation of neuromuscular spindles in sternomastoid and trapezius have been investigated in rats and mice, by degeneration experiments. The entire motor supply, both extrafusal and intrafusal, to both muscles, was from the spinal accessory nerve. The sensory supply to the spindles in sternomastoid and rostral trapezius was from cervical spinal nerves, and to those in the caudal trapezius was from thoracic spinal nerves.

  8. Induction of multiple signaling loops by MuSK during neuromuscular synapse formation

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Chris; Leu, Marco; Müller, Ulrich; Brenner, Hans Rudolf

    2001-01-01

    At the neuromuscular junction, two motor neuron-derived signals have been implicated in the regulation of synaptogenesis. Neuregulin-1 is thought to induce transcription of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) genes in subsynaptic muscle nuclei by activating ErbB receptors. Neural agrin aggregates AChRs by activating the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK. Here, we show that these two signals act sequentially. Agrin, by activating MuSK, induces the synthesis and aggregation of...

  9. Visualizing the Live Drosophila Glial-neuromuscular Junction with Fluorescent Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, Dee; Gilbert, Mary; Auld, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Our project identified GFP labeled glial structures at the developing larval fly neuromuscular synapse. To look at development of live glial-nerve-muscle synapses, we developed a larval tissue preparation that had features of live intact larvae, but also had good optical properties. This new preparation also allowed for access of perfusates to the synapse. We used fly larvae, immersed them in artificial hemolymph, and relaxed their normal rhythmic body contractions by chilling them. Next we d...

  10. The Synergic Effects of Mirror Therapy and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Hand Function in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Gi Jeong; Chun, Min Ho; Park, Ji Young; Kim, Bo Ryun

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergic effects of mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for hand function in stroke patients. Method Sixty patients with hemiparesis after stroke were included (41 males and 19 females, average age 63.3 years). Twenty patients had NMES applied and simultaneously underwent mirror therapy. Twenty patients had NMES applied only, and twenty patients underwent mirror therapy only. Each treatment was done five days per week, 30 minutes per day...

  11. The BMP signaling pathway at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction and its links to neurodegenerative diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bayat, Vafa; Jaiswal, Manish; Bellen, Hugo J

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has recently provided new insights into the roles of various proteins in neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP), and Huntington’s Disease (HD). Several developmental signaling pathways including WNT, MAPK and BMP/TGF-β signaling play important roles in the formation and growth of the Drosophila NMJ. Studies of the fly homolog...

  12. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K P; Meena, H S; Negi, P S

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (PCordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  13. Changes in Hyolaryngeal Movement and Swallowing Function After Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in Patients With Dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hoo Young; Hong, Ji Seong; Lee, Kil Chan; Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate immediate changes in hyolaryngeal movement and swallowing function after a cycle of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on both submental and throat regions and submental placement alone in patients with dysphagia. Methods Fifteen patients with dysphagia were recruited. First, videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) was performed before NMES. All patients thereafter received a cycle of NMES by 2 methods of electrode placement: 1) both submental and throat re...

  14. Performances in cerebellar and neuromuscular transmission tests are correlated in migraine with aura

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, A; Sándor, P S; De Pasqua, V; Pierelli, F; Schoenen, J.

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies, we described subclinical abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission and cerebellar functions in migraineurs. The aim of this study was to search if these two functions are correlated in the same patient. Thirteen migraineurs [five without aura (MO) and eight with aura (MA)] underwent both stimulation-SFEMG and 3D-movement analysis. Single fiber EMG (SFEMG) results were expressed as the "mean value of consecutive differences" (mean MCD). Precision of arm-reaching movement...

  15. Effects of Dynamic Neuromuscular Analysis Training on Static and Dynamic Balance in Indian Female Basketball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Archna Sharma; Megha Arora; Shyamal Koley

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of dynamic neuromuscular analysis on static and dynamic balance of Indian state level female athletes. It was hypothesized that the training protocol would improve both static and dynamic components of the balance, improving dynamic balance more than static. A total of 43 randomly selected state level female basketball players aged 16 -18 years participated in the study. The subjects were further divided into two groups, viz. Dynamic Neurom...

  16. The Effects of Exercise-induced Fatigue on Acetylcholinesterase Expression and Activity at Rat Neuromuscular Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Guo; Hui, Wang; Dan, Chen; Xiao-Qiong, Wu; Jian-Bin, Tong; Chang-Qi, Li; De-Liang, Lei; Wei-Jun, Cai; Zhi-Yuan, Li; Xue-Gang, Luo

    2009-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase is the enzyme that terminates neurotransmission by hydrolyzing the acetylcholine released by the motoneurons at the neuromuscular junctions. Although acetylcholinesterase has been studied for almost a century, the underlying relationship between exercise-induced fatigue and acetylcholinesterase activity at the synaptic cleft is not clear. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise-induced fatigue on the expression and activity of acetylcholinesterase ...

  17. Effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the functional knee rehabilitation in soldiers

    OpenAIRE

    R. Castillo-Lozano

    2015-01-01

    Background: The versatility of military physical therapist practice enables them not only to diagnose knee injuries but also to provide a wide range of definitive care and rehabilitation, reducing the need for costly evacuation. The aim this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) in the functional knee rehabilitation in soldiers and describe the main predictors and determinants in each intervention. Methods: A systematic search ...

  18. Transcription Factors in Muscle Atrophy Caused by Blocked Neuromuscular Transmission and Muscle Unloading In Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nordquist, Jenny; Höglund, Anna-Stina; Norman, Holly; Tang, Xiaorui; Dworkin, Barry; Larsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The muscle wasting associated with long-term intensive care unit (ICU) treatment has a negative effect on muscle function resulting in prolonged periods of rehabilitation and a decreased quality of life. To identify mechanisms behind this form of muscle wasting, we have used a rat model designed to mimic the conditions in an ICU. Rats were pharmacologically paralyzed with a postsynaptic blocker of neuromuscular transmission, and mechanically ventilated for one to two weeks, thereby unloading ...

  19. Haemodynamic performance of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) during recovery from total hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, Barry J.; Breathnach, Oisin; Condon, Finbarr; Masterson, Eric; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients post total hip arthroplasty (THA) remain at high risk of developing Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) during the recovery period following surgery despite the availability of effective pharmacological and mechanical prophylactic methods. The use of calf muscle neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) during the hospitalised recovery period on this patient group may be effective at preventing DVT. However, the haemodynamic effectiveness and comfort characteristics of NMES in po...

  20. Microcurrent Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation Facilitates Regeneration of Injured Skeletal Muscle in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiya, Hiroto; Ogura, Yuji; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Goto, Ayumi; Nakamura, Ayane; Ohashi, Kazuya; Uematsu, Daiki; Aoki, Haruhito; Musha, Haruki; Goto, Katsumasa

    2015-01-01

    Conservative therapies, mainly resting care for the damaged muscle, are generally used as a treatment for skeletal muscle injuries (such as muscle fragmentation). Several past studies reported that microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation (MENS) facilitates a repair of injured soft tissues and shortens the recovery period. However, the effects of MENS on the regeneration in injured skeletal muscle are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of MENS on t...