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Sample records for altered mental state

  1. Drugs of abuse: the highs and lows of altered mental states in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Timothy J; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2010-08-01

    The diagnosis and management of poisoned patients presenting with alterations in mental status can be challenging, as patients are often unable (or unwilling) to provide an adequate history. Several toxidromes exist. Recognition hinges upon vital signs and the physical examination. Understanding these "toxic syndromes" may guide early therapy and management, providing insight into the patient's underlying medical problem. Despite toxidrome recognition guiding antidotal therapy, the fundamental aspect of managing these patients involves meticulous supportive care. The authors begin with a discussion of various toxidromes and then delve into the drugs responsible for each syndrome. They conclude with a discussion on drug-facilitated sexual assault ("date rape"), which is both an underrecognized problem in the emergency department (ED) and representative of the drug-related problems faced in a modern ED. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Altered States

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    (To raise a government's revenues, for example, or to propose a government expenditure, is first to judge the tolerance of the global bond market and the mood swings of currency traders.) Meanwhile, the transcending, supranational issues of peace, development, and the preservation of the planet defy resolution by states ...

  3. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March 20, 2014 A new study adds to the copious existing evidence that chronic exposure to addictive drugs alters the brain in ways that make ...

  4. Altered mental status from acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Diaz, Gabriel J; Hsia, Renee

    2011-07-01

    Acyclovir is widely used in the treatment of herpes virus infections, particularly herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus. Acyclovir, when given promptly upon the start of a herpes zoster eruption, speeds healing and diminishes acute pain. Because acyclovir is a commonly used medication, it is crucial for health providers to be aware of appropriate dosing as well as possible side effects. We present this case to increase awareness of the potential for inappropriate dosing of acyclovir and the presentations of patients with toxic effects. We report the case of a 65-year-old man with a past medical history significant for chronic kidney disease who presented to the Emergency Department with progressive confusion and ataxia over 2 days. Thorough questioning in the patient's native language revealed that he had recently started a medication for a "rash." Neither he nor his family knew the name of the new medication; further investigation revealed it to be acyclovir. Although other diagnoses were considered in the differential diagnosis for this patient with altered mental status, he was treated for presumed acyclovir toxicity and given prompt dialysis, upon which his symptoms resolved. It is important for physicians to remember that even common medications such as acyclovir can have serious side effects and complications. In this case, renal dosing was not used in a patient on hemodialysis. Acyclovir must be renally dosed and carefully monitored through drug level measurement in patients with limited kidney function to prevent serious side effects, such as the neurological sequelae demonstrated in this case report. Emergency physicians should be aware of the potential for inappropriate dosing of this medication and the presentations of patients with toxic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Approach to syncope and altered mental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Emily C; Vashist, Sudhir

    2013-10-01

    Children who present with an episode of altered mental status, whether transient or persistent, present a diagnostic challenge for practitioners. This article describes some of the more common causes of altered mental status and delineates a rational approach to these patients. This will help practitioners recognize the life-threatening causes of these frightening presentations as well as help avoid unnecessary testing for the more benign causes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...

  7. Epistemological implications of near-death experiences and other non-ordinary mental expressions: Moving beyond the concept of altered state of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Agrillo, Christian; Greyson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    During the last decades an increasing interest has developed in the so-called altered state of consciousness (ASCs); among these, near-death experiences (NDEs) are one of the most intriguing and debated examples. NDEs are deep and universal experiences with a clear phenomenology and incidence, while some of their features challenge the current views of human consciousness (focused on neural circuits and based on the concept of mind as a byproduct of brain circuitry) with relevant epistemological and historical implications. The origin of the ruling mechanist-reductionist paradigm can be traced back to Descartes' radical separation of res cogitans and res extensa and the conflict between the nascent science and the Inquisition; this led to removing the subjective properties of mind from the field of scientific interest, relegating them to philosophy and theology in order to enable the development of modern science. However, the physics of the 20th century has eventually moved beyond the classical paradigm, permitting a profound renewal of scientific interest in the mind. Modern research on NDEs has contributed to reopening the debate surrounding the Cartesian separation, the mind-brain relationship and the nature of consciousness. It is now time to reappraise the relevance, strengths, and weaknesses of the available scientific interpretations of NDEs, their relationship with other ASCs, as well as the very concept of ASC; the latter looks to be ill-founded, suggesting the need for: (a) a revision of the conventional approach to subjective phenomena, including both the third- and first-person perspective; and (b) a deep reflection on the possible links between different non-ordinary mental expression, as regards both their phenomenology and mechanisms from a non-pathological perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbiome, inflammation, epigenetic alterations, and mental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Reza; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Zhou, Jin-Rong

    2017-09-01

    Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis. Much of this interplay may be moderated by epigenetic changes. Similar to genetic mutations, epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA interference can influence gene expression and therefore may cause behavioral and neuronal changes observed in mental disorders. Environmental factors such as diet, gut microbiota, and infections have significant role in these epigenetic modifications. Studies show that bioactive nutrients and gut microbiota can alter either DNA methylation and histone signatures through a variety of mechanisms. Indeed, microbes within the human gut may play a significant role in the regulation of various elements of "gut-brain axis," via their influence on inflammatory cytokines and production of antimicrobial peptides that affect the epigenome through their involvement in generating short chain fatty acids, vitamin synthesis, and nutrient absorption. In addition, they may participate in-gut production of many common neurotransmitters. In this review we will consider the potential interactions of diet, gastrointestinal microbiome, inflammation, and epigenetic alterations in psychiatric disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  10. Altered mental status as a presentation of juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Hansraj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile polyposis coli (JPC is a rare hereditary disorder in which patients have multiple polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and present most commonly with hematochezia. We describe a 4-year-old with intermittent rectal prolapse presenting with altered mental status and headaches. JPC was diagnosed by the presence of multiple, pedunculated, colonic polyps on colonoscopy; his altered mental status resulted from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Although JPC is known to be associated with a protein losing enteropathy (PLE, this usually manifests as merely hypoalbuminemia and protein losses without major clinical sequelae. We present a rare complication of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis which highlights altered mental status as a rare presentation of JPC. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature linking JPC, decreased protein S activity, a single mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and cerebral thrombosis.

  11. Functional alterations of astrocytes in mental disorders: pharmacological significance as a drug target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka eKoyama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play an essential role in supporting brain functions in physiological and pathological states. Modulation of their pathophysiological responses have beneficial actions on nerve tissue injured by brain insults and neurodegenerative diseases, therefore astrocytes are recognized as promising targets for neuroprotective drugs. Recent investigations have identified several astrocytic mechanisms for modulating synaptic transmission and neural plasticity. These include altered expression of transporters for neurotransmitters, release of gliotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, and intercellular communication through gap junctions. Investigation of patients with mental disorders shows morphological and functional alterations in astrocytes. According to these observations, manipulation of astrocytic function by gene mutation and pharmacological tools reproduce mental disorder-like behavior in experimental animals. Some drugs clinically used for mental disorders affect astrocyte function. As experimental evidence shows their role in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, astrocytes have gained much attention as drug targets for mental disorders. In this article, I review functional alterations of astrocytes in several mental disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorder, drug dependence, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The pharmacological significance of astrocytes in mental disorders is also discussed.

  12. Mental state talk by Danish preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Knüppel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen 4 to 6-year-old Danish children were video-recorded, while interacting spontaneously with their family in their homes. The mental state talk of the children was identified and analysed with respect to three mental domains: desire, feeling and cognition, and was compared to data from a similar study carried out with Canadian families (Jenkins et al., 2003. Our results suggest some cross-cultural differences in children’s mental state talk. First, Danish children produce a larger variation of mental state talk words than Canadian children do, and second, the distribution of mental state talk across the three domains differed for the two language groups. Semantic variation between Danish and English was identified in the study, which may partly explain the findings. Furthermore we present a usage-based approach to the investigation of children’s development of psychological categories in language as well as cross-linguistically.

  13. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewald, Tonio; Comber, Evelyn M.; Hanson, Sarah A.; Pruitt, Bria

    2016-01-01

    Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc.) are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness—subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984)—but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the “Dance of Souls”, a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress), self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers) and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders) showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test) and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale). Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers) and in participants adopting other roles. PMID:27175897

  14. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Lee

    Full Text Available Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc. are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness-subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984-but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the "Dance of Souls", a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress, self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale. Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers and in participants adopting other roles.

  15. Altered States: Globalization, Sovereignty, and Governance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Altered States, Gordon Smith and Moisés Naím provide practical recommendations for improved governance and for strengthening and reforming the United Nations. They explore the dynamics of globalization and discuss what makes today's globalization distinct. They test the prevailing wisdom about sovereignty and ...

  16. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  17. Altered Mental Status and a Not-So-Benign Rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakash N. Bodhit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The authors are presenting a case of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP that presented with complaints of altered mental status and found to have petechiae. Case Presentation. An 81-year-old female patient presented to the Emergency Department (ED of a tertiary care hospital with chief complains of dizziness, slurred speech, and weakness. She was found to have lower extremity petechiae on physical examination. On blood exam, she had thrombocytopenia, and her peripheral blood smear showed schistocytes. Her renal function was also impaired. The CT scan of head was without any abnormality. She was finally diagnosed as having TTP and transferred to ICU but ultimately passed away. Conclusion. TTP is a rare syndrome with preventable mortality if diagnosed early and managed appropriately with plasmapheresis. The Emergency Department physicians should be aware of the presenting symptoms and signs of TTP.

  18. A Model of Mental State Transition Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hua; Jiang, Peilin; Xiao, Shuang; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Emotion is one of the most essential and basic attributes of human intelligence. Current AI (Artificial Intelligence) research is concentrating on physical components of emotion, rarely is it carried out from the view of psychology directly(1). Study on the model of artificial psychology is the first step in the development of human-computer interaction. As affective computing remains unpredictable, creating a reasonable mental model becomes the primary task for building a hybrid system. A pragmatic mental model is also the fundament of some key topics such as recognition and synthesis of emotions. In this paper a Mental State Transition Network Model(2) is proposed to detect human emotions. By a series of psychological experiments, we present a new way to predict coming human's emotions depending on the various current emotional states under various stimuli. Besides, people in different genders and characters are taken into consideration in our investigation. According to the psychological experiments data derived from 200 questionnaires, a Mental State Transition Network Model for describing the transitions in distribution among the emotions and relationships between internal mental situations and external are concluded. Further more the coefficients of the mental transition network model were achieved. Comparing seven relative evaluating experiments, an average precision rate of 0.843 is achieved using a set of samples for the proposed model.

  19. Differences in Immunologic Factors Among Patients Presenting with Altered Mental Status During Cryptococcal Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Sarah; Hullsiek, Kathy H; Morawski, Bozena M; Nabeta, Henry W; Kiggundu, Reuben; Taseera, Kabanda; Musubire, Abdu; Schutz, Charlotte; Abassi, Mahsa; Bahr, Nathan C; Tugume, Lillian; Muzoora, Conrad; Williams, Darlisha A; Rolfes, Melissa A; Velamakanni, Sruti S; Rajasingham, Radha; Meintjes, Graeme; Rhein, Joshua; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2017-03-01

    Altered mental status in cryptococcal meningitis results in poorer survival, but underlying causes of altered mentation are poorly understood. Within two clinical trials, we assessed risk factors for altered mental status (GCS scorecryptococcal antigen titers (P = .042) and CCL2 (P = .005) but higher opening pressures (320 vs. 269 mm H2O; P = .016), IL-10 (P = .044), and CCL3 (P = .008) compared with persons with GCS=15. Altered mental status may be associated with host immune response rather than Cryptococcus burden. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. COGNITIVE MODELING OF EPISTEMIC MENTAL STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurovitskaya, L.N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistemic states of mind, connected with the cognitive activity of a man, are aimed not only at apprehending the world around us, but also at the process of this apprehension. A very important step on this way is an attempt to model these states and processes in terms of formal logics and semantics, irrespective of the language of cognition. The article presents the idea of how formal logical and linguistic modeling of the process of thinking shows the correlation and the interdependence of semantic units connected with mental activities of human brain. The basic notions of the conceptual field of cognition are presented in the article

  1. Uncivilizing "Mental Illness": Contextualizing Diverse Mental States and Posthuman Emotional Ecologies within The Icarus Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Erica Hua

    2018-03-01

    This article argues humans should not be defined strictly at their physical boundaries with clear distinctions between anatomical bodies, mental states, and the rest of the world. Rather, diverse mental states, which are often diagnosed as "mental illness," take shape within greater environmental forces and flows, including those that are constructed online. Drawing from a multi-sited ethnography of The Icarus Project, a radical mental health community, the author situates online narratives written by two of its members within posthuman emotional ecologies in which the exchange of ideas online affects mental states in a profound way. These narratives can be seen as a new type of psychiatric resistance based in new technologies, one that "uncivilizes" mental illness by searching for alternative frameworks and metaphors to understand lived experiences with mental distress. This ethnographic perspective differs significantly from traditional bio-psychiatric models and interventions and can offer both patients and mental healthcare providers with an alternative language to frame mental health.

  2. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health...

  3. Stress transgenerationally programs metabolic pathways linked to altered mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Douglas; Ambeskovic, Mirela; Montina, Tony; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-12-01

    Stress is among the primary causes of mental health disorders, which are the most common reason for disability worldwide. The ubiquity of these disorders, and the costs associated with them, lends a sense of urgency to the efforts to improve prediction and prevention. Down-stream metabolic changes are highly feasible and accessible indicators of pathophysiological processes underlying mental health disorders. Here, we show that remote and cumulative ancestral stress programs central metabolic pathways linked to mental health disorders. The studies used a rat model consisting of a multigenerational stress lineage (the great-great-grandmother and each subsequent generation experienced stress during pregnancy) and a transgenerational stress lineage (only the great-great-grandmother was stressed during pregnancy). Urine samples were collected from adult male F4 offspring and analyzed using 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The results of variable importance analysis based on random variable combination were used for unsupervised multivariate principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, as well as metabolite set enrichment analysis (MSEA) and pathway analysis. We identified distinct metabolic profiles associated with the multigenerational and transgenerational stress phenotype, with consistent upregulation of hippurate and downregulation of tyrosine, threonine, and histamine. MSEA and pathway analysis showed that these metabolites are involved in catecholamine biosynthesis, immune responses, and microbial host interactions. The identification of metabolic signatures linked to ancestral programming assists in the discovery of gene targets for future studies of epigenetic regulation in pathogenic processes. Ultimately, this research can lead to biomarker discovery for better prediction and prevention of mental health disorders.

  4. Fast mental states decoding in mixed reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eDe Massari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Brain-Computer Interface technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. In this context, assessing to what extent brain states can be discriminated during mixed reality experience is critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded EEG data while participants experienced a mixed reality scenario implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM. The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in mixed reality, using LDA and SVM classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled mixed reality scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in mixed reality.

  5. State of science: mental workload in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.

  6. Serological screening for cysticercosis in mentally altered individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzón, Fernando; Osorio, Ana M; Morales, José P; Isaza, Rodrigo; Cardona, Edgar; Moncayo, Luis C; Villota, Guido E; Zapata, Olga T; Palacio, Carlos A; Arbeláez, María P; Restrepo, Blanca I

    2002-06-01

    The parasitic infection neurocysticercosis may give rise to a variety of psychiatric manifestations that resemble, but are different from, primary psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to determine if among individuals from a neurocysticercosis-endemic area of Colombia who apparently had a psychiatric manifestation with associated neurological finding ('cases'), some could have been infected with Taenia solium cysticerci. This case-control study was done in individuals hospitalized in two mental institutions. The control-1 individuals were those classified with primary psychiatric disease, and the control-2 group consisted of healthy, non-hospitalized individuals. A serological test for cysticercosis was positive in 5/96 (5.1%) cases, 4/153 (2.6%) psychiatric controls, and 5/246 (2%) healthy controls. The data analysis indicated a weak association between the cases and a positive serology for neurocysticercosis (odds ratio > 2; P > 0.05). The lower education level of the cases influenced this association.

  7. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: altered functioning in three mental domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2013-02-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to stress, amygdala hyporeactivity to negative stimuli, and altered serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission suggest low punishment sensitivity, which may compromise the ability of children and adolescents to make associations between inappropriate behaviors and forthcoming punishments. Second, sympathetic nervous system hyporeactivity to incentives, low basal heart rate associated with sensation seeking, orbitofrontal cortex hyporeactiviy to reward, and altered dopamine functioning suggest a hyposensitivity to reward. The associated unpleasant emotional state may make children and adolescents prone to sensation-seeking behavior such as rule breaking, delinquency, and substance abuse. Third, impairments in executive functions, especially when motivational factors are involved, as well as structural deficits and impaired functioning of the paralimbic system encompassing the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex, suggest impaired cognitive control over emotional behavior. In the discussion we argue that more insight into the neurobiology of oppositional defiance disorder and conduct disorder may be obtained by studying these disorders separately and by paying attention to the heterogeneity of symptoms within each disorder.

  8. State-Supported Mental Health/Psychiatric Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPheeters, Harold L.

    Issues are identified that should be considered by state officials, mental health program directors, university officials, and research coordinators and managers in setting up and managing state-supported mental health research programs. The following categories of research are defined: basic, basic categorical, clinical, socio-epidemiological,…

  9. Estimating mental states of a depressed person with bayesian networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Michel C.A.; Modena, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    In this work in progress paper we present an approach based on Bayesian Networks to model the relationship between mental states and empirical observations in a depressed person. We encode relationships and domain expertise as a Hierarchical Bayesian Network. Mental states are represented as latent

  10. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    on comprehensive database searches for studies on gene expression in patients with bipolar disorder in specific mood states, was conducted. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library, supplemented by manually searching reference lists from retrieved publications. Results:  A total of 17......Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... have been found in numerous studies. It is unclear whether such alterations are related to specific mood states. As a biphasic disorder, mood state-related alterations in gene expression have the potential to point to markers of disease activity, and trait-related alterations might indicate...

  11. Altered regional homogeneity with short-term simulated microgravity and its relationship with changed performance in mental transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liao

    Full Text Available In order to further the insight into the explanation of changed performance in mental transformation under microgravity, we discuss the change of performance in mental transformation and its relationship with altered regional homogeneity (ReHo in resting-state brain by using simulated weightlessness model. Twelve male subjects with age between 24 and 31 received resting-state fMRI scan and mental transformation test both in normal condition and immediately after 72 hours -6° head down tilt (HDT. A paired sample t-test was used to test the difference of behavior performance and brain activity between these two conditions. Compare with normal condition, subjects showed a changed performance in mental transformation with short term simulated microgravity and appeared to be falling. Meanwhile, decreased ReHo were found in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and left inferior parietal lobule (IPL after 72 hours -6° HDT, while increased ReHo were found in bilateral medial frontal gyrus (MFG and left superior frontal gyrus (SFG (P<0.05, corrected. Particularly, there was a significant correlation between ReHo values in left IPL and velocity index of mental transformation. Our findings indicate that gravity change may disrupt the function of right IFG and left IPL in the resting-state, among of which functional change in left IPL may contribute to changed abilities of mental transformation. In addition, the enhanced activity of the bilateral MFG and decreased activity of right IFG found in the current study maybe reflect a complementation effect on inhibitory control process.

  12. An injured man with acute altered mental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hung-Yu; Kung, Lu-Chih; Huang, Ming-Yuan

    2018-03-01

    A 58-year-old man sustained injuries due to accidental fall from a height of 5 m onto a solid floor while operating a crane. He was fully conscious without external evidence of head injury when presented to the ED. The patient had multiple fractures involving the fourth, fifth and seventh of the left ribs, left iliac wing and superior ramus of the pelvis, comminuted fracture of the left femur shaft, and an open fracture of the mandible. Two hours after ED presentation, the patient developed acute confusion and lethargy, which rapidly progressed to coma and respiratory distress, and was subsequently intubated with mechanical ventilation support. Emergent CT scan of the head is shown (figure 1).emermed;35/3/148/F1F1F1Figure 1CT scan of the head without contrast. What is the most likely diagnosis?A. Cerebral haemorrhageB. Brain metastasisC. Cerebral fat embolismD. Diffuse axonal injury. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Novel screen printed electrode set for routine EEG recordings in patients with altered mental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllymaa, Sami; Lepola, Pasi; Hukkanen, Taina; Oun, Andre; Mervaala, Esa; Toyras, Juha; Lappalainen, Reijo; Myllymaa, Katja

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need for an easy to use screening tool for the assessment of brain's electrical function in patients with altered mental status (AMS). The purpose of this study is to give a brief overview of the state-of-the-art in electrode technology, and to present a novel sub-hairline electrode set developed in our research group. Screen-printing technology was utilized to construct the electrode set consisting of ten electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes, two electrooculography (EOG) electrodes, two ground electrodes and two reference electrodes. Electrical characteristics of hydrogel-coated silver ink electrodes were found adequate for clinical EEG recordings as assessed by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The skin-electrode impedances remain stable and low enough at least two days enabling high-quality long-term recordings. Due to the proper material selection, thin ink layers and detachable zero insertion force (ZIF) - connector, electrode was observed to be CT- and MRI-compatible allowing imaging without removing the electrodes. Pilot EEG recordings gave very promising results and an on-going clinical trial with larger number of patients will show the true feasibility of this approach.

  14. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eGergelyfi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mental fatigue (MF is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement.Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, skin conductance responses, questionnaires and performance in a working memory task in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 minutes. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants’ subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources.

  15. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants' subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability (HRV) increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources.

  16. Concepts of State Mental Health Manpower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Paul M.

    The purpose of this publication is to review manpower issues in the field of mental health, identifying their importance and initiating discussion about their resolution. Directed to an audience of manpower development specialists, several types of material are presented beginning with a brief background including a synthesis of recent literature…

  17. Effects of user mental state on EEG-BCI performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMyrden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in psychological state have been proposed as a cause of variation in brain-computer interface performance, but little formal analysis has been conducted to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of three mental states - fatigue, frustration, and attention - on BCI performance. Twelve able-bodied participants were trained to use a two-class EEG-BCI based on the performance of user-specific mental tasks. Following training, participants completed three testing sessions, during which they used the BCI to play a simple maze navigation game while periodically reporting their perceived levels of fatigue, frustration, and attention. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between frustration and BCI performance while the relationship between fatigue and BCI performance approached significance. BCI performance was 7% lower than average when self-reported fatigue was low and 10% lower than average when self-reported frustration was low. A multivariate analysis of mental state revealed the presence of contiguous regions in mental state space where BCI performance was more accurate than average, suggesting the importance of moderate fatigue for achieving effortless focus on BCI control, frustration as a potential motivating factor, and attention as a compensatory mechanism to increasing frustration. Finally, a visual analysis showed the sensitivity of underlying class distributions to changes in mental state. Collectively, these results indicate that mental state is closely related to BCI performance, encouraging future development of psychologically adaptive BCIs.

  18. An Exploration of Secondary Students' Mental States When Learning about Acids and Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Hou, I-Lin; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Treagust, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored factors of students' mental states, including emotion, intention, internal mental representation, and external mental representation, which can affect their learning performance. In evaluating students' mental states during the science learning process and the relationship between mental states and learning…

  19. The value of electroencephalography in differential diagnosis of altered mental status in emergency departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, L.; Yardan, T.; Kati, C.; Akdemir, H. U.; Altuntas, M.; Balci, K.; Karadas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of electroencephalography in patients with altered mental status in emergency departments. Methods: Demographical characteristics, types and aetiologies of seizures, and clinical outcomes of the patients were recorded. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the complaints of admission: findings and symptoms of seizure; stroke and symptoms of stroke-related seizures; syncope; and metabolic abnormalities and other causes of altered mental status. The electroencephalography findings were classified into 3 groups: epileptiform discharges; paroxysmal electroencephalography abnormalities; and background slowing. Electroencephalography abnormalities in each subgroup were evaluated. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 190 patients in the study, 117(61.6%) had pathological electroencephalography findings. The main reason for electroencephalography in the emergency department was the presence of seizure findings and symptoms in 98(51.6%) patients. The ratio of electroencephalography abnormality was higher in patients who were admitted with complaints of metabolic abnormality-related consciousness disturbances (p<0.001). A total of 124(65.3%) patients had neuroimagings. Electroencephalography abnormalities were found to be significantly higher in patients with neuroimagings compared to those without neuroimagings (p<0.003). Conclusion: Despite advanced neuroimaging techniques, electroencephalography is still an important tool in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status such as epileptic seizures, metabolic abnormalities, pseudo-seizures and syncope. (author)

  20. Business as usual--at the state mental hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, M R

    1975-02-01

    Despite official policy and professional emphasis to the contrary, the custodial mental hospital continues to exist as a major form of state-provided mental health care. In this paper, one such institution, "New England State Hospital", is described, and the various features of hospital organization that sustain a system of custodial care are discussed. Although the custodial hospital offers little to its patients, its persistent survival can be explained by the number of non-patient vested interests that are well served by the state hospital, precisely in its existing custodial form. The case study of New England State Hospital suggests that reform of state mental institutions depends less on a programmatic formulation of desired changes than on an understanding of the structured resistance to such changes.

  1. Predicting user mental states in spoken dialogue systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas, Zoraida; Griol, David; López-Cózar, Ramón

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we propose a method for predicting the user mental state for the development of more efficient and usable spoken dialogue systems. This prediction, carried out for each user turn in the dialogue, makes it possible to adapt the system dynamically to the user needs. The mental state is built on the basis of the emotional state of the user and their intention, and is recognized by means of a module conceived as an intermediate phase between natural language understanding and the dialogue management in the architecture of the systems. We have implemented the method in the UAH system, for which the evaluation results with both simulated and real users show that taking into account the user's mental state improves system performance as well as its perceived quality.

  2. Predicting user mental states in spoken dialogue systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griol David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we propose a method for predicting the user mental state for the development of more efficient and usable spoken dialogue systems. This prediction, carried out for each user turn in the dialogue, makes it possible to adapt the system dynamically to the user needs. The mental state is built on the basis of the emotional state of the user and their intention, and is recognized by means of a module conceived as an intermediate phase between natural language understanding and the dialogue management in the architecture of the systems. We have implemented the method in the UAH system, for which the evaluation results with both simulated and real users show that taking into account the user's mental state improves system performance as well as its perceived quality.

  3. BIOFEEDBACK AS A METHOD FOR STUDENTS’ MENTAL STATE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Ababkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurotechnologies based on the principles of a nervous system functioning are being introduced into modern educational process more and more actively. Neurotechnology-based devices give the chance to develop new educational products; to enlarge the content of education by means of transition from text, graphic and sound content filling of educational process to use of tactile, motor, emotional, and other content. One of the most perspective neurotechnologies for the field of education is the method of biofeedback (BF which enables to define students’ mental state, change various physiological processes proceeding from the obtained data, correct educational process, and improve its quality and effectiveness.The aim of the present publication is to identify the opportunities of the biofeedback method application for educational purposes.Methodology and research methods. A pilot study on the basis of biofeedback technique was conducted in order to study the influence of active learning methods on students’ mental state mastering in specialty “Advertising and Public Relations”. H. Eysenck’s PEN Model was used to form focus-groups (control and experimental; psychophysiological technique CMS (Current Mental State was applied for results processing. Also, such methods as comparative analysis, induction and generalization were used.Results. A true picture of psychological attributes of students’ mental condition has been received for efficient studying of the current psychological state on psychophysiological functions, and training active methods impact on a condition of mentality of students according to the results of cardiorhythmogram.The main results of a pilot research were quantitative data (as percentage points of the current mental and psychological conditions of examinees. The obtained results have reflected the degree of attributes manifestation such as general adaptive resource, degree of mobility (lability of

  4. Mental health care in Germany: current state and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salize, Hans Joachim; Rössler, Wulf; Becker, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Germany turned towards community-based mental health care in the mid seventies, during a general climate of social and political reform. The continuing deinstitutionalisation process and the implementation of community mental health services was considerably affected by the reunification of East and West Germany in 1990, which required dramatic changes in the structure and quality of the mental health care system of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Overall, German mental health care is organised as a subsidiary system, where planning and regulating mental health care is the responsibility of the 16 federal states. So German mental health care provision is spread among many sectors and characterised by considerable regional differences. A key characteristic is the particularly wide gap between inpatient and outpatient services, which are funded separately and staffed by different teams. In 2003 the total number of psychiatric beds was a mere two thirds of the overall bed capacity in 1991, the first year as a re-unified Germany, when psychiatric beds in East and West Germany totalled 80,275. From 1970 onwards the number of psychiatric beds was cut by roughly half. So the momentum of the reform has been strong enough to assimilate the completely different mental health care system of the former German Democratic Republic and, in the course of a decade, to re-structure mental health services for an additional 17-18 million new inhabitants. In an ongoing struggle to adapt to changing administrative set-ups, legal frameworks, and financial constraints, psychiatry in Germany in currently facing specific problems and is seriously challenged to defend to considerable achievements of the past. A major obstacle to achieving this aim lies in the fragmented system of mental health care provision and mental health care funding.

  5. Decoding subjective mental states from fMRI activity patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masako; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding has emerged as a powerful tool to read out detailed stimulus features from multi-voxel brain activity patterns. Moreover, the method has been extended to perform a primitive form of 'mind-reading,' by applying a decoder 'objectively' trained using stimulus features to more 'subjective' conditions. In this paper, we first introduce basic procedures for fMRI decoding based on machine learning techniques. Second, we discuss the source of information used for decoding, in particular, the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel neural structures. We next introduce two experimental designs for decoding subjective mental states: the 'objective-to-subjective design' and the 'subjective-to-subjective design.' Then, we illustrate recent studies on the decoding of a variety of mental states, such as, attention, awareness, decision making, memory, and mental imagery. Finally, we discuss the challenges and new directions of fMRI decoding. (author)

  6. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  7. [Mental state of marijuana-smoking adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe-Jabłońska, J; Gmitrowicz, A

    1989-01-01

    The study comprised 13 subjects (3 girls and 10 boys) aged 17 to 20 years from various groups of youngsters in whom in the course of marihuana smoking the psychical disturbances such as depressive-anxiety syndrome, characteristic syndromes or schizophrenia-like syndrome, characteristic syndromes or schizophrenia-like syndromes occurred. Basing on evaluation of the psychical and somatic state prior and after marihuana smoking in the all subjects studied the presence of the organic central nervous system lesion sign has been stated. Moreover, in a majority of subjects studied atypical clinical symptoms of intoxication were observed: prolonged stunning (1 case), bad trip of the strong fear reaction type (2 cases), and psychoses characterized by varying clinical symptomatology (6 cases). The schizophrenia-like syndromes in the group studied have been treated with Leponex and no relapses have been noted during 3 years. The so-called schizophrenic defect has not been noted.

  8. Mini‑Mental State Exam versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mini‑mental state exam (MMSE) was used several times but no study has examined cognition on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this study, we compared MMSE with MoCA in patients with DR and searched for an association between the severity of DR ...

  9. Attitude towards Epilepsy and Mental Illness in Ekiti State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to find out the attitude of people in Ekiti State Nigeria, towards epilepsy and mental illness in terms of work opportunities and marriage options and to examine whether the level of education, gender and religious affiliation would affect people's attitude towards person with these disorders.

  10. Children's understanding of mental states and causes of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Cowan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Theory of mind studies of emotion usually focus on children's ability to predict other people's feelings. This study examined children's spontaneous references to mental states in explaining others' emotions. Children (4-, 6- and 10-year-olds, n=122) were told stories and asked to explain both

  11. Mental states, processes, and conscious intent in Libet's experiments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meaning and significance of Benjamin Libet's studies on the timing of conscious will have been widely discussed, especially by those wishing to draw sceptical conclusions about conscious agency and free will. However, certain important correctives for thinking about mental states and processes undermine the ...

  12. Teaching medical students a clinical approach to altered mental status: simulation enhances traditional curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Sperling

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simulation-based medical education (SBME is increasingly being utilized for teaching clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. Studies have evaluated the impact of adding SBME to third- and fourth-year curriculum; however, very little research has assessed its efficacy for teaching clinical skills in pre-clerkship coursework. To measure the impact of a simulation exercise during a pre-clinical curriculum, a simulation session was added to a pre-clerkship course at our medical school where the clinical approach to altered mental status (AMS is traditionally taught using a lecture and an interactive case-based session in a small group format. The objective was to measure simulation's impact on students’ knowledge acquisition, comfort, and perceived competence with regards to the AMS patient. Methods: AMS simulation exercises were added to the lecture and small group case sessions in June 2010 and 2011. Simulation sessions consisted of two clinical cases using a high-fidelity full-body simulator followed by a faculty debriefing after each case. Student participation in a simulation session was voluntary. Students who did and did not participate in a simulation session completed a post-test to assess knowledge and a survey to understand comfort and perceived competence in their approach to AMS. Results: A total of 154 students completed the post-test and survey and 65 (42% attended a simulation session. Post-test scores were higher in students who attended a simulation session compared to those who did not (p<0.001. Students who participated in a simulation session were more comfortable in their overall approach to treating AMS patients (p=0.05. They were also more likely to state that they could articulate a differential diagnosis (p=0.03, know what initial diagnostic tests are needed (p=0.01, and understand what interventions are useful in the first few minutes (p=0.003. Students who participated in a simulation session

  13. Structural Alterations within Cerebellar Circuitry Are Associated with General Liability for Common Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Adrienne L.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Houts, Renate; Brigidi, Bartholomew D.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating mental health research encourages a shift in focus towards transdiagnostic dimensional features that are shared across categorical disorders. In support of this shift, recent studies have identified a general liability factor for psychopathology – sometimes called the ‘p factor’ – that underlies shared risk for a wide range of mental disorders. Identifying neural correlates of this general liability would substantiate its importance in characterizing the shared origins of mental disorders and help us begin to understand the mechanisms through which the ‘p factor’ contributes to risk. Here we first replicate the ‘p factor’ using cross-sectional data from a volunteer sample of 1,246 university students, and then, using high-resolution multimodal structural neuroimaging, demonstrate that individuals with higher ‘p factor’ scores show reduced structural integrity of white matter pathways, as indexed by lower fractional anisotropy values, uniquely within the pons. Whole-brain analyses further revealed that higher ‘p factor’ scores are associated with reduced gray matter volume in the occipital lobe and left cerebellar lobule VIIb, which is functionally connected with prefrontal regions supporting cognitive control. Consistent with the preponderance of cerebellar afferents within the pons, we observed a significant positive correlation between the white matter integrity of the pons and cerebellar gray matter volume associated with higher ‘p factor’ scores. The results of our analyses provide initial evidence that structural alterations in cortico-cerebellar circuitry supporting core functions related to the basic integration, coordination, and monitoring of information may contribute to a general liability for common mental disorders. PMID:28397842

  14. Characteristics of homeless adults with serious mental illness served by a state mental health transitional shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viron, Mark; Bello, Iruma; Freudenreich, Oliver; Shtasel, Derri

    2014-07-01

    Specialized transitional shelters are available in various cities to provide assistance to homeless individuals with serious mental illness. Little is known about the population using such shelters. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review to collect demographic, social, and clinical data of residents in a state-operated mental health transitional shelter in Massachusetts. A total of 74 subjects were included. Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were present in 67.6 % of the sample and mood disorders in 35.1 %. Substance use disorders were documented in 44.6 %. Chronic medical illness (mostly hypertension, dyslipidemia, asthma, and diabetes) was found in 82.4 %. The co-occurrence of a psychiatric and substance use disorder and chronic medical illness was found in 36.5 %. The majority (75.7 %) of patients had a history of legal charges. Homeless individuals with serious mental illness served by specialized transitional shelters represent a population with complex psychiatric, medical and social needs.

  15. Self-awareness moderates the relation between maternal mental state language about desires and children's mental state vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2016-04-01

    In this intervention study, we tested the differential effect of talking about children's desires versus talking about others' thoughts and knowledge on children's acquisition of mental state vocabulary for children who did and did not have mirror self-recognition. In a sample of 96 mother-toddler dyads, each mother was randomly assigned a specially constructed, interactive lift-the-flap book to read to her child three times a week for 4 weeks. In the child desire condition the story elicited comments regarding the child's desires, and in the cognitive condition the story elicited the mother's comments about her own thoughts and knowledge while reading the story. Children's mirror self-recognition and mental state vocabulary were assessed at pre- and post-test. Children in the condition that focused on the child's desires showed a significantly greater increase in their mental state vocabulary; however, this effect was moderated by their levels of self-awareness, with children benefitting more from the intervention if they also showed self-recognition at pre-test. We argue that the combination of specific types of maternal talk and children's prior insights facilitates gains in children's mental state vocabulary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mental fatigue alters the speed and the accuracy of the ball in table tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mansec, Yann; Pageaux, Benjamin; Nordez, Antoine; Dorel, Sylvain; Jubeau, Marc

    2017-12-20

    This study aimed at evaluating the effects of mental and muscle fatigue on table tennis performance. Mental fatigue (MF) was induced by completion of 90 minutes of the AX-CPT; muscle fatigue was induced by completion of an eccentric exercise performed with the elbow flexors (biceps fatigue, BF) or the knee extensors (quadriceps fatigue, QF). The control condition consisted of watching a movie. Stroke parameters (speed and accuracy of the ball), as well as feelings of fatigue and force production capacity of the elbow flexors (BF, MF and control conditions) and knee extensors (QF condition), were assessed pre and post fatigue protocols. Feelings of fatigue increased post fatigue protocols. Force production capacity decreased only in the BF and QF conditions. BF and MF induced a decrease in accuracy. This decrease in accuracy was associated with an increased ball speed in the BF condition, and a decreased ball speed in the MF condition. QF had a negligible effect on stroke performance. Our results suggest that both mental fatigue, and muscle fatigue, significantly impair table tennis performance and therefore coaches should take into account both the physical and mental state of table tennis players to optimize performance.

  17. Social, state and political society: Reflections on Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Laurentino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.

  18. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of striatal-thalamic circuit in bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Teng

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is characterized by internally affective fluctuations. The abnormality of inherently mental state can be assessed using resting-state fMRI data without producing task-induced biases. In this study, we hypothesized that the resting-state connectivity related to the frontal, striatal, and thalamic regions, which were associated with mood regulations and cognitive functions, can be altered for bipolar disorder. We used the Pearson's correlation coefficients to estimate functional connectivity followed by the hierarchical modular analysis to categorize the resting-state functional regions of interest (ROIs. The selected functional connectivities associated with the striatal-thalamic circuit and default mode network (DMN were compared between bipolar patients and healthy controls. Significantly decreased connectivity in the striatal-thalamic circuit and between the striatal regions and the middle and posterior cingulate cortex was observed in the bipolar patients. We also observed that the bipolar patients exhibited significantly increased connectivity between the thalamic regions and the parahippocampus. No significant changes of connectivity related to the frontal regions in the DMN were observed. The changed resting-state connectivity related to the striatal-thalamic circuit might be an inherent basis for the altered emotional and cognitive processing in the bipolar patients.

  19. How Medicaid agencies administer mental health services: results from a 50-state survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, James; Barrett, Allison

    2008-10-01

    This brief report describes some notable variations in how state Medicaid agencies administer and fund Medicaid mental health services. Hour-long telephone interviews were conducted with all state and District of Columbia Medicaid directors or their designees. Responses indicated that Medicaid and mental health agencies were located within the same umbrella agency in 28 states, potentially facilitating collaboration. The mental health agency provided funding for some Medicaid mental health services in 32 states, and counties provided such funding in 22 states. Medicaid agencies generally delegated more authority to state mental health agencies in states where some Medicaid funding came from mental health sources and also in states where both agencies were in the same umbrella agency. The increasing role of Medicaid in funding state mental health services, combined with new federal limits on Medicaid financing of these services, underscores the importance of interagency collaboration and better alignment of Medicaid and mental health responsibilities.

  20. The mental state of women with an IVF pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova E.I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro fertilization (IVF pregnancy is stressful both financially and emotionally. Patients undergoing an IVF procedure often have already had infertility and reproductive losses. Pregnancy through IVF involves the increased risk of various medical complications. Experts around the world are actively engaged in studying the specifics of the mental state of participants in IVF programs during pregnancy. Of critical importance is the issue of providing psychological support for couples who are preparing for and who have received an IVF pregnancy. The aim of our research was to investigate the mental state of women participating in an IVF program. The study involved 224 pregnant women in the second and third trimesters: 62 women with an IVF pregnancy and 162 women who conceived naturally. The study took place at the Kulakov Scientific Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology in Moscow, Russia. All the study participants had encountered medical complications during their pregnancy. No significant differences were identified in mental well-being in the two groups; this finding suggests that somatic complications during pregnancy are a general source of anxiety regardless of the reason for their occurrence. The second and third trimesters of pregnancy register increased anxiety levels associated with experiences of reproductive loss and the presence of physical problems. The main resources of a woman’s personality that contribute to her self-confidence and mental stability are her professional employment and flexible behavior.

  1. New methods for the measurement and alteration of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuernagel, O.

    1996-01-01

    Themes of this thesis are the mathematical representation, measurement-technical reconstruction, and preparation of quantum states as well as their alteration by measurement. The main topics of the considerations are quantum-mechanical system states, the complet description of which pursues by means of density operators. The first chapter presents a general mathematical scheme for the representaion of density operators by means of projection operators. The second chapter explains a scheme for the syntehsis of Fock states by means of a linear mixer. The third chapter answers the question, whether spontaneous emitted light, which is emitted by an atom with large spatial extension, can show self-interferences and lets conclude on thee coherent structure of the c.m. wave function of the emitting atom. The last chapter reconstructs measurement results on the coherence loss of atoms in an atomic-beam experiment by spontaneous emission in the language of the density-operator formalism

  2. Drug interaction between idelalisib and diazepam resulting in altered mental status and respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaer, John B; Chakraborty, Kanishka

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, several new oral anticancer drugs have been approved, many via an accelerated approval process. These new agents have the potential for drug interactions, but lack of familiarity with these drugs by clinicians may increase the risk for drug interactions. We describe an interaction between the new anticancer agent idelalisib (CYP 3A4 inhibitor) and diazepam (CYP 3A4 substrate) that resulted in altered mental status and type II respiratory failure resulting in hospitalization. After discontinuation of both agents, the patient recovered quickly. Idelalisib was reinitiated after discharge. Lorazepam was substituted for diazepam since it is not metabolized via CYP 3A4. Both agents were tolerated well thereafter. This interaction was only flagged by two of four commonly used drug interaction databases. Clinicians should exercise caution with initiating new oral anticancer agents and consider the potential for drug interactions without solely relying on drug interaction databases.

  3. Brief mindfulness meditation improves mental state attribution and empathizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lucy B G; Lo, Barbara C Y; Macrae, C Neil

    2014-01-01

    The ability to infer and understand the mental states of others (i.e., Theory of Mind) is a cornerstone of human interaction. While considerable efforts have focused on explicating when, why and for whom this fundamental psychological ability can go awry, considerably less is known about factors that may enhance theory of mind. Accordingly, the current study explored the possibility that mindfulness-based meditation may improve people's mindreading skills. Following a 5-minute mindfulness induction, participants with no prior meditation experience completed tests that assessed mindreading and empathic understanding. The results revealed that brief mindfulness meditation enhanced both mental state attribution and empathic concern, compared to participants in the control group. These findings suggest that mindfulness may be a powerful technique for facilitating core aspects of social-cognitive functioning.

  4. Brief mindfulness meditation improves mental state attribution and empathizing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy B G Tan

    Full Text Available The ability to infer and understand the mental states of others (i.e., Theory of Mind is a cornerstone of human interaction. While considerable efforts have focused on explicating when, why and for whom this fundamental psychological ability can go awry, considerably less is known about factors that may enhance theory of mind. Accordingly, the current study explored the possibility that mindfulness-based meditation may improve people's mindreading skills. Following a 5-minute mindfulness induction, participants with no prior meditation experience completed tests that assessed mindreading and empathic understanding. The results revealed that brief mindfulness meditation enhanced both mental state attribution and empathic concern, compared to participants in the control group. These findings suggest that mindfulness may be a powerful technique for facilitating core aspects of social-cognitive functioning.

  5. Property features and mental state university students of modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belykh S.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of values and mental conditions of typical Ukrainian university students. It is shown that mental health - a state of psychic sphere. It is based on the general state of peace of mind, which gives adequate behavioral reaction. Moral health - a set of motivational characteristics, need and informative aspects of life. Its basis is determined by the system of values, attitudes and motivations of individual behavior. It is established that the existing level of organization of the educational process in physical education does not create the necessary framework for the effective development of physical culture of the students and getting them non-professional physical education, only partially solves the problem of their physical fitness and recreation.

  6. Property features and mental state university students of modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Belykh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of values and mental conditions of typical Ukrainian university students. It is shown that mental health - a state of psychic sphere. It is based on the general state of peace of mind, which gives adequate behavioral reaction. Moral health - a set of motivational characteristics, need and informative aspects of life. Its basis is determined by the system of values, attitudes and motivations of individual behavior. It is established that the existing level of organization of the educational process in physical education does not create the necessary framework for the effective development of physical culture of the students and getting them non-professional physical education, only partially solves the problem of their physical fitness and recreation.

  7. Brief Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mental State Attribution and Empathizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lucy B. G.; Lo, Barbara C. Y.; Macrae, C. Neil

    2014-01-01

    The ability to infer and understand the mental states of others (i.e., Theory of Mind) is a cornerstone of human interaction. While considerable efforts have focused on explicating when, why and for whom this fundamental psychological ability can go awry, considerably less is known about factors that may enhance theory of mind. Accordingly, the current study explored the possibility that mindfulness-based meditation may improve people’s mindreading skills. Following a 5-minute mindfulness induction, participants with no prior meditation experience completed tests that assessed mindreading and empathic understanding. The results revealed that brief mindfulness meditation enhanced both mental state attribution and empathic concern, compared to participants in the control group. These findings suggest that mindfulness may be a powerful technique for facilitating core aspects of social-cognitive functioning. PMID:25329321

  8. Formerly obese, now thin and confused: the utility of mnemonics in the approach to altered mental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burski, Chad M; Miller, Chad S; Centor, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    Altered mental status represents a common cause for admission to general medicine services. Often a significant workup ensues to define an underlying etiology. When a history of bariatric surgery with small bowel resection precedes the presentation, the differential diagnosis expands. We review a patient, having prior bariatric surgery and small bowel resection, who presents with altered mental status. After an extensive workup, she was diagnosed with a rare clinical problem, D-lactic acidosis. In presenting this case, we examine the use of mnemonics in medicine and how this can assist in solving clinical problems.

  9. The mental state of women with an IVF pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharova E.I.; Abubakirov A.N.

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy is stressful both financially and emotionally. Patients undergoing an IVF procedure often have already had infertility and reproductive losses. Pregnancy through IVF involves the increased risk of various medical complications. Experts around the world are actively engaged in studying the specifics of the mental state of participants in IVF programs during pregnancy. Of critical importance is the issue of providing psychological support for couples wh...

  10. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  11. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-01-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims' mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  12. Instruments for evalutation of altered states of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Sozzi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years an increase of interest concerning the altered states of consciousness was observed. In particular literature provided a wide amount of contribution about the scales for measurement of level of responsivity. Our aim is to describe the principale scales used in diagnosis of Disorder of Consciousness (DOC trying to illustrate administation procedures, specifically assessed aspects, modality of stimulation, reliability, and validity. We divided them in four main different groups: the first one in which descriptive scales are included, that is those scales basically used after a clinical observation; the second group which concerns scales requiring defined stimulation sets; in the third group we considered the scale which refer to diagnostic criteria stated by the Aspen Work Group (Giacino et al., 2002; whilst in the fourth group we describe a battery aimed to assess patients with severe cognitive deficits which are not yet evaluable with neuropsychological tests.

  13. Discovering EEG resting state alterations of semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Matthias; Koenig, Thomas; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Utsunomiya, Keita; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Dierks, Thomas; Nishida, Keiichiro

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of semantic dementia relies on cost-intensive MRI or PET, although resting EEG markers of other dementias have been reported. Yet the view still holds that resting EEG in patients with semantic dementia is normal. However, studies using increasingly sophisticated EEG analysis methods have demonstrated that slightest alterations of functional brain states can be detected. We analyzed the common four resting EEG microstates (A, B, C, and D) of 8 patients with semantic dementia in comparison with 8 healthy controls and 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Topographical differences between the groups were found in microstate classes B and C, while microstate classes A and D were comparable. The data showed that the semantic dementia group had a peculiar microstate E, but the commonly found microstate C was lacking. Furthermore, the presence of microstate E was significantly correlated with lower MMSE and language scores. Alterations in resting EEG can be found in semantic dementia. Topographical shifts in microstate C might be related to semantic memory deficits. This is the first study that discovered resting state EEG abnormality in semantic dementia. The notion that resting EEG in this dementia subtype is normal has to be revised. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From gut dysbiosis to altered brain function and mental illness: mechanisms and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, G B; Keating, D J; Young, R L; Wong, M-L; Licinio, J; Wesselingh, S

    2016-01-01

    The human body hosts an enormous abundance and diversity of microbes, which perform a range of essential and beneficial functions. Our appreciation of the importance of these microbial communities to many aspects of human physiology has grown dramatically in recent years. We know, for example, that animals raised in a germ-free environment exhibit substantially altered immune and metabolic function, while the disruption of commensal microbiota in humans is associated with the development of a growing number of diseases. Evidence is now emerging that, through interactions with the gut–brain axis, the bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, the gut microbiome can also influence neural development, cognition and behaviour, with recent evidence that changes in behaviour alter gut microbiota composition, while modifications of the microbiome can induce depressive-like behaviours. Although an association between enteropathy and certain psychiatric conditions has long been recognized, it now appears that gut microbes represent direct mediators of psychopathology. Here, we examine roles of gut microbiome in shaping brain development and neurological function, and the mechanisms by which it can contribute to mental illness. Further, we discuss how the insight provided by this new and exciting field of research can inform care and provide a basis for the design of novel, microbiota-targeted, therapies. PMID:27090305

  15. Mental Health Services to State Corrections Inmates. Staff Brief 86-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Jane R.

    This report was written for the Advisory Committee on Mentally Ill Inmates of the Wisconsin State Legislative Council's Special Committee on Mental Health Issues. It describes mental health services to inmates of Wisconsin's state prisons. Part I describes the organization of state level responsibilities for corrections, including the state…

  16. Altered causal connectivity of resting state brain networks in amnesic MCI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipeng Liang

    Full Text Available Most neuroimaging studies of resting state networks in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have concentrated on functional connectivity (FC based on instantaneous correlation in a single network. The purpose of the current study was to investigate effective connectivity in aMCI patients based on Granger causality of four important networks at resting state derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data--default mode network (DMN, hippocampal cortical memory network (HCMN, dorsal attention network (DAN and fronto-parietal control network (FPCN. Structural and functional MRI data were collected from 16 aMCI patients and 16 age, gender-matched healthy controls. Correlation-purged Granger causality analysis was used, taking gray matter atrophy as covariates, to compare the group difference between aMCI patients and healthy controls. We found that the causal connectivity between networks in aMCI patients was significantly altered with both increases and decreases in the aMCI group as compared to healthy controls. Some alterations were significantly correlated with the disease severity as measured by mini-mental state examination (MMSE, and California verbal learning test (CVLT scores. When the whole-brain signal averaged over the entire brain was used as a nuisance co-variate, the within-group maps were significantly altered while the between-group difference maps did not. These results suggest that the alterations in causal influences may be one of the possible underlying substrates of cognitive impairments in aMCI. The present study extends and complements previous FC studies and demonstrates the coexistence of causal disconnection and compensation in aMCI patients, and thus might provide insights into biological mechanism of the disease.

  17. Effect of shift work on mental state of factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shin-Ya; Maeda, Takafumi; Sasaki, Akihiko; Sato, Akihiko; Tanaka, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2004-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of shift work on the mental state of factory workers. As an indicator of the workers' mental condition, the authors used a scoring system (referred to below as the 'depression tendency score') based on the SRQ-D investigative report. The depression tendency score of the men was higher among the shift worker group than among the regular day worker group (p workers was higher than that of the male regular day workers among skilled workers (p worker group and the shift worker group. However, the depression tendency score of the female two-shift workers was higher than that of the female regular day workers among skilled workers (p work and that of women is affected by two-shift work because of the difference in modern societal/home role between man and woman.

  18. Metabolic state alters economic decision making under risk in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkael Symmonds

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals' attitudes to risk are profoundly influenced by metabolic state (hunger and baseline energy stores. Specifically, animals often express a preference for risky (more variable food sources when below a metabolic reference point (hungry, and safe (less variable food sources when sated. Circulating hormones report the status of energy reserves and acute nutrient intake to widespread targets in the central nervous system that regulate feeding behaviour, including brain regions strongly implicated in risk and reward based decision-making in humans. Despite this, physiological influences per se have not been considered previously to influence economic decisions in humans. We hypothesised that baseline metabolic reserves and alterations in metabolic state would systematically modulate decision-making and financial risk-taking in humans.We used a controlled feeding manipulation and assayed decision-making preferences across different metabolic states following a meal. To elicit risk-preference, we presented a sequence of 200 paired lotteries, subjects' task being to select their preferred option from each pair. We also measured prandial suppression of circulating acyl-ghrelin (a centrally-acting orexigenic hormone signalling acute nutrient intake, and circulating leptin levels (providing an assay of energy reserves. We show both immediate and delayed effects on risky decision-making following a meal, and that these changes correlate with an individual's baseline leptin and changes in acyl-ghrelin levels respectively.We show that human risk preferences are exquisitely sensitive to current metabolic state, in a direction consistent with ecological models of feeding behaviour but not predicted by normative economic theory. These substantive effects of state changes on economic decisions perhaps reflect shared evolutionarily conserved neurobiological mechanisms. We suggest that this sensitivity in human risk-preference to current metabolic state has

  19. Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn

  20. Mini mental state examination. Validering af en ny dansk udgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korner, E.A.; Lauritzen, L.; Nilsson, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...... the correlations to the global scales. However, there were considerable variations in mean score (+/-SD) as well as median score and range in relation to CGI and GDS values. The MMSE score is independent of sex and educational level. CONCLUSION: The MMSE also proved to be a robust scale in the present Danish...

  1. Mental State Talk Structure in Children’s Narratives: A Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Pinto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed children’s Theory of Mind (ToM as assessed by mental state talk in oral narratives. We hypothesized that the children’s mental state talk in narratives has an underlying structure, with specific terms organized in clusters. Ninety-eight children attending the last year of kindergarten were asked to tell a story twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Mental state talk was analysed by identifying terms and expressions referring to perceptual, physiological, emotional, willingness, cognitive, moral, and sociorelational states. The cluster analysis showed that children’s mental state talk is organized in two main clusters: perceptual states and affective states. Results from the study confirm the feasibility of narratives as an outlet to inquire mental state talk and offer a more fine-grained analysis of mental state talk structure.

  2. Altered mental status in the emergency department - Can an electrocardiogram show the right way to go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Andre; Franco, Emiliana; Martinez, Jasmine; Figueredo, Vincent M

    A 38-year-old African American male patient with a past medical history of human immunodeficiency virus and schizophrenia who was noncompliant with medications presented to the emergency department (ED) after activation of the local crisis response center for altered mental status. Upon arrival he was lethargic and uncooperative, unable to provide any significant details apart from pleuritic chest pain. His blood pressure was 133/88 mmHg, heart rate 43 beats per minute and initial body temperature 36.1 °C which prompted an electrocardiogram (EKG). This initial EKG was compared to a prior one obtained six months earlier during an ER visit for an acute psychotic episode. Three hours of being admitted he started shivering. Patient was found to be hypothermic with a rectal temperature of 28.9 °C. He was also hypoglycemic, pancytopenic and had positive urine cultures with >100,000 CFU/ml coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. There was no evidence of medication overdose. His CT scan of the brain did not show evidence of intracranial bleeding and his serum calcium was normal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cobalamin C deficiency in an adolescent with altered mental status and anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandar, Maria H; Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E; Hamid, Rizwan

    2014-12-01

    Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient's diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.(1.) Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Functional capacity and mental state of patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are a serious public health problem in Brazil. Myocardial revascularization surgery (MRS as well as cardiac valve replacement and repair are procedures indicated to treat them. Thus, extracorporeal circulation (ECC is still widely used in these surgeries, in which patients with long ECC times may have greater neurological deficits. Neurological damage resulting from MRS can have devastating consequences such as loss of independence and worsening of quality of life. Objective: To assess the effect of cardiac surgery on a patient’s mental state and functional capacity in both the pre- and postoperative periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with convenience sampling of subjects undergoing MRS and valve replacement. Participants were administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE and the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI in the pre- and postoperative periods, as well as before their hospital discharge. Results: This study assessed nine patients (eight males aged 62.4 ± 6.3 years with a BMI of 29.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2. There was a significant decrease in DASI scores and VO2 from preoperative to postoperative status (p = 0.003 and p = 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed a loss of cognitive and exercise capacity after cardiac surgery. A larger sample however is needed to consolidate these findings.

  5. Theory of mind in the wild: toward tackling the challenges of everyday mental state reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie E Wertz

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the cognitive systems underwriting theory of mind (ToM abilities requires articulating how mental state representations are generated and processed in everyday situations. Individuals rarely announce their intentions prior to acting, and actions are often consistent with multiple mental states. In order for ToM to operate effectively in such situations, mental state representations should be generated in response to certain actions, even when those actions occur in the presence of mental state content derived from other aspects of the situation. Results from three experiments with preschool children and adults demonstrate that mental state information is indeed generated based on an approach action cue in situations that contain competing mental state information. Further, the frequency with which participants produced or endorsed explanations that include mental states about an approached object decreased when the competing mental state information about a different object was made explicit. This set of experiments provides some of the first steps toward identifying the observable action cues that are used to generate mental state representations in everyday situations and offers insight into how both young children and adults processes multiple mental state representations.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of EEG signals at different mental states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiboleng Thelma

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EEG (Electroencephalogram is a representative signal containing information about the condition of the brain. The shape of the wave may contain useful information about the state of the brain. However, the human observer can not directly monitor these subtle details. Besides, since bio-signals are highly subjective, the symptoms may appear at random in the time scale. Therefore, the EEG signal parameters, extracted and analyzed using computers, are highly useful in diagnostics. This work discusses the effect on the EEG signal due to music and reflexological stimulation. Methods In this work, nonlinear parameters like Correlation Dimension (CD, Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE, Hurst Exponent (H and Approximate Entropy (ApEn are evaluated from the EEG signals under different mental states. Results The results obtained show that EEG to become less complex relative to the normal state with a confidence level of more than 85% due to stimulation. Conclusions It is found that the measures are significantly lower when the subjects are under sound or reflexologic stimulation as compared to the normal state. The dimension increases with the degree of the cognitive activity. This suggests that when the subjects are under sound or reflexologic stimuli, the number of parallel functional processes active in the brain is less and the brain goes to a more relaxed state

  7. Chromophore Deprotonation State Alters the Optical Properties of Blue Chromoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Chromoproteins (CPs have unique colors and can be used in biological applications. In this work, a novel blue CP with a maximum absorption peak (λmax at 608 nm was identified from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla gigantea (sgBP. In vivo expression of sgBP in zebrafish would change the appearance of the fishes to have a blue color, indicating the potential biomarker function. To enhance the color properties, the crystal structure of sgBP at 2.25 Å resolution was determined to allow structure-based protein engineering. Among the mutations conducted in the Gln-Tyr-Gly chromophore and chromophore environment, a S157C mutation shifted the λmax to 604 nm with an extinction coefficient (ε of 58,029 M-1·cm-1 and darkened the blue color expression. The S157C mutation in the sgBP chromophore environment could affect the color expression by altering the deprotonation state of the phenolic group in the chromophore. Our results provide a structural basis for the blue color enhancement of the biomarker development.

  8. Reading the Epigenetic State of Chromatin Alters its Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Matthew D.

    The eukaryotic genome is organized into a structural polymer called chromatin. Ultimately, all access to genetic information is regulated by chromatin including access required for DNA replication, transcription, and repair. The basic repeating unit of chromatin is the nucleosome which is comprised of ˜147 bp of DNA tightly wrapped around a protein histone octamer core. The histone octamer is made up of eight proteins: two each of histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Many mechanisms exist to regulate access to DNA but one of pivotal importance is the creation of unique nucleosomes through i) integration of histone variants and ii) deposition of post translational modifications (PTMs). These modifications help comprise the epigenome of a cell. Classically, the two mechanisms by which they function have been through a direct regulation of nucleosome dynamics, or through third party proteins which are able to recognize the variants or PTMs and facilitate work. The library of potential PTMs therefore forms a sort of histone code which regulates access to DNA. This thesis investigates the intersection of these mechanisms to determine whether the act of recognizing epigenetic information alters DNA accessibility. The primary method used to determine changes in DNA accessibility is though observing the effective binding affinity of a transcription factor to its target site buried within a recombinantly prepared nucleosome which has been modified to carry a PTM and to report on its wrapping state. We find different regulation depending both on the PTM we investigate and the specific PTM-binding protein. We first investigate the H3K36me3-binding protein PHF1 and find that while the PTM it recognizes, H3K36me3, does not alter DNA accessibility, the binding of its recognition domain and N-terminal domain can illicit a change of DNA accessibility of 8 +/- 2-fold. This means that 8 times less DNA binding protein is required to occupy its target site if the nucleosome is bound by PHF

  9. Effects of Exercise in Immersive Virtual Environments on Cortical Neural Oscillations and Mental State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Vogt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the addition of a real exercise within a virtual environment alters sense of presence perception, or the accompanying physiological changes, is not known. In a randomized and controlled study design, moderate-intensity Exercise (i.e., self-paced cycling and No-Exercise (i.e., automatic propulsion trials were performed within three levels of virtual environment exposure. Each trial was 5 minutes in duration and was followed by posttrial assessments of heart rate, perceived sense of presence, EEG, and mental state. Changes in psychological strain and physical state were generally mirrored by neural activation patterns. Furthermore, these changes indicated that exercise augments the demands of virtual environment exposures and this likely contributed to an enhanced sense of presence.

  10. Automatic single-trial discrimination of mental arithmetic, mental singing and the no-control state from prefrontal activity: toward a three-state NIRS-BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Power Sarah D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is an optical imaging technology that has recently been investigated for use in a safe, non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI for individuals with severe motor impairments. To date, most NIRS-BCI studies have attempted to discriminate two mental states (e.g., a mental task and rest, which could potentially lead to a two-choice BCI system. In this study, we attempted to automatically differentiate three mental states - specifically, intentional activity due to 1 a mental arithmetic (MA task and 2 a mental singing (MS task, and 3 an unconstrained, "no-control (NC" state - to investigate the feasibility of a three-choice system-paced NIRS-BCI. Results Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations while 7 able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and mental singing to answer multiple-choice questions within a system-paced paradigm. With a linear classifier trained on a ten-dimensional feature set, an overall classification accuracy of 56.2% was achieved for the MA vs. MS vs. NC classification problem and all individual participant accuracies significantly exceeded chance (i.e., 33%. However, as anticipated based on results of previous work, the three-class discrimination was unsuccessful for three participants due to the ineffectiveness of the mental singing task. Excluding these three participants increases the accuracy rate to 62.5%. Even without training, three of the remaining four participants achieved accuracies approaching 70%, the value often cited as being necessary for effective BCI communication. Conclusions These results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of a three-state system-paced NIRS-BCI with two intentional control states corresponding to mental arithmetic and mental singing.

  11. Automatic single-trial discrimination of mental arithmetic, mental singing and the no-control state from prefrontal activity: toward a three-state NIRS-BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah D; Kushki, Azadeh; Chau, Tom

    2012-03-13

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an optical imaging technology that has recently been investigated for use in a safe, non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) for individuals with severe motor impairments. To date, most NIRS-BCI studies have attempted to discriminate two mental states (e.g., a mental task and rest), which could potentially lead to a two-choice BCI system. In this study, we attempted to automatically differentiate three mental states - specifically, intentional activity due to 1) a mental arithmetic (MA) task and 2) a mental singing (MS) task, and 3) an unconstrained, "no-control (NC)" state - to investigate the feasibility of a three-choice system-paced NIRS-BCI. Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations while 7 able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and mental singing to answer multiple-choice questions within a system-paced paradigm. With a linear classifier trained on a ten-dimensional feature set, an overall classification accuracy of 56.2% was achieved for the MA vs. MS vs. NC classification problem and all individual participant accuracies significantly exceeded chance (i.e., 33%). However, as anticipated based on results of previous work, the three-class discrimination was unsuccessful for three participants due to the ineffectiveness of the mental singing task. Excluding these three participants increases the accuracy rate to 62.5%. Even without training, three of the remaining four participants achieved accuracies approaching 70%, the value often cited as being necessary for effective BCI communication. These results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of a three-state system-paced NIRS-BCI with two intentional control states corresponding to mental arithmetic and mental singing.

  12. Does cognitive behavioral therapy alter mental defeat and cognitive flexibility in patients with panic disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Shinobu; Seki, Yoichi; Shibuya, Takayuki; Yokoo, Mizue; Murata, Tomokazu; Hiramatsu, Yoichi; Yamada, Fuminori; Ibuki, Hanae; Minamitani, Noriko; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Kusunoki, Muga; Inada, Yasushi; Kawasoe, Nobuko; Adachi, Soichiro; Oshiro, Keiko; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Nakazato, Michiko; Iyo, Masaomi; Nakagawa, Akiko; Shimizu, Eiji

    2018-01-12

    Mental defeat and cognitive flexibility have been studied as explanatory factors for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. This study examined mental defeat and cognitive flexibility scores in patients with panic disorder (PD) before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and compared them to those of a gender- and age-matched healthy control group. Patients with PD (n = 15) received 16 weekly individual CBT sessions, and the control group (n = 35) received no treatment. Patients completed the Mental Defeat Scale and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale before the intervention, following eight CBT sessions, and following 16 CBT sessions, while the control group did so only prior to receiving CBT (baseline). The patients' pre-CBT Mental Defeat and Cognitive Flexibility Scale scores were significantly higher on the Mental Defeat Scale and lower on the Cognitive Flexibility Scale than those of the control group participants were. In addition, the average Mental Defeat Scale scores of the patients decreased significantly, from 22.2 to 12.4, while their average Cognitive Flexibility Scale scores increased significantly, from 42.8 to 49.5. These results suggest that CBT can reduce mental defeat and increase cognitive flexibility in patients with PD Trial registration The study was registered retrospectively in the national UMIN Clinical Trials Registry on June 10, 2016 (registration ID: UMIN000022693).

  13. An Exploration of Secondary Students' Mental States When Learning About Acids and Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Hou, I.-Lin; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Treagust, David F.

    2014-02-01

    This study explored factors of students' mental states, including emotion, intention, internal mental representation, and external mental representation, which can affect their learning performance. In evaluating students' mental states during the science learning process and the relationship between mental states and learning achievement, valid, reliable, and scalable measures of students' mental states and learning achievement are needed. This paper presents the development of the Mental State Conceptual Learning Inventory (MSCLI) to identify students' mental states before and after learning about acids and bases. This instrument is time efficient and convenient and can be administered to large student samples so that teachers and researchers can gain profound insights into their students' learning of acids and bases in science class. The results of this study indicate that students' mental states are highly correlated with their achievement. As a whole, low-achieving students tended to have negative emotions and low intentions, were not good at internal visualization, and were unable to interpret graphics and draw pictures. In contrast, high-achieving students had positive emotions and intentions when learning life-related topics about acids and bases, and were good at internal visualization and drawing and interpreting graphics.

  14. Neuroimaging findings in the at-risk mental state: a review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen J; Reniers, Renate L E P; Heinze, Kareen

    2013-01-01

    The at-risk mental state (ARMS) has been the subject of much interest during the past 15 years. A great deal of effort has been expended to identify neuroimaging markers that can inform our understanding of the risk state and to help predict who will transition to frank psychotic illness. Recently, there has been an explosion of neuroimaging literature from people with an ARMS, which has meant that reviews and meta-analyses lack currency. Here we review papers published in the past 2 years, and contrast their findings with previous reports. While it is clear that people in the ARMS do show brain alterations when compared with healthy control subjects, there is an overall lack of consistency as to which of these alterations predict the development of psychosis. This problem arises because of variations in methodology (in patient recruitment, region of interest, method of analysis, and functional task employed), but there has also been too little effort put into replicating previous research. Nonetheless, there are areas of promise, notably that activation of the stress system and increased striatal dopamine synthesis seem to mark out patients in the ARMS most at risk for later transition. Future studies should focus on these areas, and on network-level analysis, incorporating graph theoretical approaches and intrinsic connectivity networks.

  15. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Altered functioning in three mental domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, W.C.H.J.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to

  16. An Evaluation of State Guidelines for Mental Retardation: Focus on Definition and Classification Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Christopher B.; Chamberlain, Jolie A.; Polloway, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the impact of the American Association on Mental Retardation's 1992 manual that provided an alternative approach to mental retardation definition and classification. Forty-four states indicated they based their guidelines on the 1983 manual, four states reported using the 1992 manual, and three used neither model. (Contains…

  17. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States Relates to Desire Language and Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between mother mental state language and child desire language and emotion understanding in 15--24-month-olds. At both times point, mothers described pictures to their infants and mother talk was coded for mental and nonmental state language. Children were administered 2 emotion understanding tasks and their mental…

  18. Implications of State Policy Changes on Mental Health Service Models for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Janelle E.; Cmar, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    For over 25 years, students with disabilities in California received educationally related mental health services through interagency collaboration between school districts and county mental health agencies. After a major change in state policy that eliminated state-mandated interagency collaboration, school districts in California are now solely…

  19. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  20. Concepts in context: processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, S.; Mackey, S.; Wilson-Mendenhall, C.; Winkielman, P.; Paulus, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories, concepts are contextually situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in

  1. Spatially distributed effects of mental exhaustion on resting-state FMRI networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such

  2. Mental Contrasting of a Negative Future with a Positive Reality Regulates State Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brodersen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental contrasting of a desired future with impeding reality is a self-regulatory strategy fostering goal pursuit. However, there is little research on mental contrasting of a negative future with a positive reality. We conducted two experiments, each with four experimental conditions, investigating the effects of mental contrasting a negative future with a positive reality on state anxiety: participants who mentally contrasted a negative future regarding a bacterial epidemic (Study 1, N = 199 or an idiosyncratic negative event (Study 2, N = 206 showed less state anxiety than participants who imagined the negative future only or who reverse contrasted; participants who mentally elaborated on the positive reality also showed less state anxiety. Our findings suggest that mental contrasting of a negative future helps people reduce disproportional anxiety regarding a negative future.

  3. Social cognition in anorexia nervosa: Specific difficulties in decoding emotional but not nonemotional mental states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Pellegrino, Judith; Münch, Hannah; Herzog, Wolfgang; Dziobek, Isabell; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Building on recent models of anorexia nervosa (AN) that emphasize the importance of impaired social cognition in the development and maintenance of the disorder, the present study aimed at examining whether women with AN have more difficulties with inferring other people's emotional and nonemotional mental states than healthy women. Social cognition was assessed in 25 adult women with AN and 25 age-matched healthy women. To overcome limitations of previous research on social cognition in AN, the processing of social information was examined in a more complex and ecologically valid manner. The Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) reflects complex real-life social interaction and allows for disentangling emotional and non-emotional mental state inference as well as different types of errors in mentalizing. Women with AN showed poorer emotional mental state inference, whereas non-emotional mental state inference was largely intact. Groups did not differ in undermentalizing (overly simplistic theory of mind) and overmentalizing (overly complex or over-interpretative mental state reasoning). Performance in the MASC was independent of levels of eating disorder psychopathology and symptoms of depression and anxiety. The findings suggest that AN is associated with specific difficulties in emotional mental state inference despite largely intact nonemotional mental state inference. Upon replication in larger samples, these findings advocate a stronger emphasis on socio-emotional processing in AN treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:883-890). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. MENTAL STATE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: THE LONGITUDINAL ROLES OF ATTACHMENT AND MATERNAL LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker Razuri, Erin; Hiles Howard, Amanda R; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R

    2017-05-01

    Maternal mental state language is thought to influence children's mental state language and sociocognitive understanding (e.g., theory of mind), but the mechanism is unclear. The current study examined the longitudinal development of mental state language in mother-child interactions. The methodology included assessments of the child and/or mother-child dyad at six time points between 12 to 52 months of the child's age. Measures determined child's attachment style and language abilities, and mental state language used by mother and child during a block-building task. Results showed that (a) mental state talk, including belief and desire language, increased over time; (b) there were differences between the type of mental state words used by the mother in insecure versus secure dyads; (c) there were differences in patterns of mental state words used in both mothers and children in insecure versus secure dyads; and (d) attachment appeared to exert a consistent influence over time. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchio, Cristina; Koul, Atesh; Ansuini, Caterina; Bertone, Cesare; Cavallo, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Is it possible to perceive others' mental states? Are mental states visible in others' behavior? In contrast to the traditional view that mental states are hidden and not directly accessible to perception, in recent years a phenomenologically-motivated account of social cognition has emerged: direct social perception. However, despite numerous published articles that both defend and critique direct perception, researchers have made little progress in articulating the conditions under which direct perception of others' mental states is possible. This paper proposes an empirically anchored approach to the observability of others' mentality - not just in the weak sense of discussing relevant empirical evidence for and against the phenomenon of interest, but also, and more specifically, in the stronger sense of identifying an experimental strategy for measuring the observability of mental states and articulating the conditions under which mental states are observable. We conclude this article by reframing the problem of direct perception in terms of establishing a definable and measurable relationship between movement features and perceived mental states.

  6. Should the mini-mental state examination be retired?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero-Pardo, C

    2014-10-01

    Short cognitive tests are routinely used in clinical practice to detect and screen for cognitive impairment and dementia. These cognitive tests should meet minimum criteria for both applicability and psychometric qualities. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most frequently applied short cognitive test, and the article introducing it remains a milestone in the history of medicine. Its main advantages are its widespread use and the extensive empirical evidence that supports it. However, the MMSE has important shortcomings, including lack of standardisation, its lack of suitability for illiterate subjects, the considerable effect of socio-educational variables on results, and its limited effectiveness for detecting cognitive impairment. Lastly, since the test is copyright-protected, using it is necessarily either costly or fraudulent. Newer available instruments do not share these shortcomings and have demonstrated greater diagnostic accuracy for detecting cognitive impairment and dementia, as well as being more cost-effective than the MMSE CONCLUSION: It is time to acknowledge the MMSE's important role in the history of medicine and grant it a deserved and honourable retirement. Its place will be taken by more effective instruments that require less time, are user-friendly and free of charge, can be applied to all individuals, and yield more equitable outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Internet addiction: Prevalence and relation with mental states in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Ochi, Marina; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    Internet addiction disrupts the daily lives of adolescents. We investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction in junior high school students, elucidated the relation between Internet addiction and mental states, and determined the factors associated with Internet addiction in adolescents. Junior high school students (aged 12-15 years) were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Japanese version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and a questionnaire on access to electronic devices. Based on total IAT scores, 2.0% (male, 2.1%; female, 1.9%) and 21.7% (male, 19.8%; female, 23.6%) of the total 853 participants (response rate, 97.6%) were classified as addicted and possibly addicted, respectively. Total GHQ scores were significantly higher in the addicted (12.9 ± 7.4) and possibly addicted groups (8.8 ± 6.0) than in the non-addicted group (4.3 ± 4.6; P addicted group than in the non-addicted group. Further, accessibility to smartphones was significantly associated with Internet addiction. Students in the addicted and possibly addicted groups were considered 'problematic' Internet users. Use of smartphones warrants special attention, being among the top factors contributing to Internet addiction. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  8. Attitude towards Epilepsy and Mental Illness in Ekiti State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    most common forms of mental illness include anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and schizophrenia. Among the major mental disorders are hose that can be classified under the following categories viz: substance use disorders, Alzheimer's disease, disorders of childhood and adolescence eating disorder, Epilepsy etc.

  9. Phenomenal Characters of Mental States and Emerging Issues in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a prevalent assumption that the phenomenal character of a mental experience is an ontological property existing as part of the fabric of the world. This implies that the problem of explaining the phenomenal property of a mental experience is a metaphysical one. Contrary to this assumption, the present paper argues ...

  10. Changes in mental state associated with prison environments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Illingworth, C; Canning, A; Garner, E; Woolley, J; Taylor, P; Amos, T

    2014-06-01

    To develop an understanding of the stability of mental health during imprisonment through review of existing research evidence relating physical prison environment to mental state changes in prisoners. A systematic literature search was conducted looking at changes in mental state and how this related to various aspects of imprisonment and the prison environment. Fifteen longitudinal studies were found, and from these, three broad themes were delineated: being imprisoned and aspects of the prison regime; stage of imprisonment and duration of sentence; and social density. Reception into prison results in higher levels of psychiatric symptoms that seem to improve over time; otherwise, duration of imprisonment appears to have no significant impact on mental health. Regardless of social density, larger prisons are associated with poorer mental state, as are extremes of social density. There are large gaps in the literature relating prison environments to changes in mental state; in particular, high-quality longitudinal studies are needed. Existing research suggests that although entry to prison may be associated with deterioration in mental state, it tends to improve with time. Furthermore, overcrowding, ever more likely as prison populations rise, is likely to place a particular burden on mental health services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The role of vulnerability factors in individuals with an at-risk mental state of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papmeyer, Martina; Würsch, Irène; Studerus, Erich; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2016-03-01

    Several indicators of heightened vulnerability to psychosis and relevant stressors have been identified. However, it has rarely been studied prospectively to what extent these vulnerability factors are in fact more frequently present in individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis. Moreover, it remains unknown whether any of these contribute to the prediction of psychosis onset in at-risk mental state individuals. There were 28 healthy controls, 86 first-episode psychosis patients and 127 at-risk mental state individuals recruited within the Basel "Früherkennung von Psychosen" project. Relative frequencies of selected vulnerability factors for psychosis were compared between healthy controls, psychosis patients, those at-risk mental state individuals with subsequent psychosis onset (n = 31) and those without subsequent psychosis onset (n = 55). Survival analyses were applied to determine associations between time to transition to psychosis and vulnerability factors in all 127 at-risk mental state individuals. The vulnerability factors/indicators such as "difficulties during school education or vocational training", "difficulties during employment", "being single", "difficulties with intimate relationships" and "being burdened with specific stressful situations" were more commonly found in the at-risk mental state and first-episode psychosis group than in healthy controls. At-risk mental state and first-episode psychosis individuals more frequently present with vulnerability factors. Individual vulnerability factors appear, however, not to be predictive for an onset of psychosis.

  12. State and non-state mental health service collaboration in a South African district: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse van Rensburg, André; Petersen, Inge; Wouters, Edwin; Engelbrecht, Michelle; Kigozi, Gladys; Fourie, Pieter; van Rensburg, Dingie; Bracke, Piet

    2018-05-01

    The Life Esidimeni tragedy in South Africa showed that, despite significant global gains in recognizing the salience of integrated public mental health care during the past decade, crucial gaps remain. State and non-state mental health service collaboration is a recognized strategy to increase access to care and optimal use of community resources, but little evidence exist about how it unfolds in low- to middle-income countries. South Africa's Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan 2013-20 (MHPF) underlines the importance of collaborative public mental health care, though it is unclear how and to what extent this happens. The aim of the study was to explore the extent and nature of state and non-state mental health service collaboration in the Mangaung Metropolitan District, Free State, South Africa. The research involved an equal status, sequential mixed methods design, comprised of social network analysis (SNA) and semi-structured interviews. SNA-structured interviews were conducted with collaborating state and non-state mental health service providers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with collaborating partners and key stake holders. Descriptive network analyses of the SNA data were performed with Gephi, and thematic analysis of the semi-structured interview data were performed in NVivo. SNA results suggested a fragmented, hospital centric network, with low average density and clustering, and high authority and influence of a specialist psychiatric hospital. Several different types of collaborative interactions emerged, of which housing and treatment adherence a key point of collaboration. Proportional interactions between state and non-state services were low. Qualitative data expanded on these findings, highlighting the range of available mental health services, and pointed to power dynamics as an important consideration in the mental health service network. The fostering of a well-integrated system of care as proposed in the MHPF requires

  13. Mental Fatigue Alters Cortical Activation and Psychological Responses, Impairing Performance in a Distance-Based Cycling Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio O. Pires

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We sought to verify if alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC activation and psychological responses would play along with impairments in pacing and performance of mentally fatigued cyclists.Materials and Methods: Eight recreational cyclists performed two preliminary sessions to familiarize them with the rapid visual information processing (RVP test, psychological scales and 20 km cycling time trial (TT20km (session 1, as well as to perform a VO2MAX test (session 2. Thereafter, they performed a TT20km either after a RVP test (30 min or a time-matched rest control session (session 3 and 4 in counterbalanced order. Performance and psychological responses were obtained throughout the TT20km while PFC electroencephalography (EEG was obtained at 10 and 20 km of the TT20km and throughout the RVP test. Increases in EEG theta band power indicated a mental fatigue condition. Repeated-measures mixed models design and post-hoc effect size (ES were used in comparisons.Results: Cyclists completed the trial ~2.7% slower in mental fatigue (34.3 ± 1.3 min than in control (33.4 ± 1.1 min, p = 0.02, very large ES, with a lower WMEAN (224.5 ± 17.9 W vs. 240.2 ± 20.9 W, respectively; p = 0.03; extremely large ES. There was a higher EEG theta band power during RVP test (p = 0.03; extremely large ES, which remained during the TT20km (p = 0.01; extremely large ES. RPE increased steeper in mental fatigue than in control, together with isolated reductions in motivation at 2th km (p = 0.04; extremely large ES, felt arousal at the 2nd and 4th km (p = 0.01; extremely large ES, and associative thoughts to exercise at the 6th and 16th km (p = 0.02; extremely large ES of the TT20km.Conclusions: Mentally fatigued recreational cyclists showed impaired performance, altered PFC activation and faster increase in RPE during a TT20km.

  14. Story Discourse and Use of Mental State Language between Mothers and School-Aged Children with and without Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims: To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare…

  15. Changes in cognitive state alter human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the brain as a whole system can be accomplished using network theory principles. Research has shown that human functional brain networks during a resting state exhibit small-world properties and high degree nodes, or hubs, localized to brain areas consistent with the default mode network (DMN. However, the study of brain networks across different tasks and or cognitive states has been inconclusive. Research in this field is important because the underpinnings of behavioral output are inherently dependent on whether or not brain networks are dynamic. This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate multiple network metrics at a voxel-wise resolution in the human brain at both the whole brain and regional level under various conditions: resting state, visual stimulation, and multisensory (auditory and visual stimulation. Our results show that despite global network stability, functional brain networks exhibit considerable task-induced changes in connectivity, efficiency, and community structure at the regional level.

  16. Cox’s Chair Revisited: Can Spinning Alter Mood States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lotta; Wollmer, M. Axel; Laurens, Jean; Straumann, Dominik; Kruger, Tillmann H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is clinical and historical evidence for a vivid relation between the vestibular and emotional systems, the neuroscientific underpinnings are poorly understood. The “spin doctors” of the nineteenth century used spinning chairs (e.g., Cox’s chair) to treat conditions of mania or elevated arousal. On the basis of a recent study on a hexapod motion-simulator, in this prototypic investigation we explore the impact of yaw stimulation on a spinning chair on mood states. Using a controlled experimental stimulation paradigm on a unique 3-D-turntable at the University of Zurich we included 11 healthy subjects and assessed parameters of mood states and autonomic nervous system activity. The Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) were used to assess changes of mood in response to a 100 s yaw stimulation. In addition heart rate was continuously monitored during the experiment. Subjects indicated feeling less “good,” “relaxed,” “comfortable,” and “calm” and reported an increased alertness after vestibular stimulation. However, there were no objective adverse effects of the stimulation. Accordingly, heart rate did not significantly differ in response to the stimulation. This is the first study in a highly controlled setting using the historical approach of stimulating the vestibular system to impact mood states. It demonstrates a specific interaction between the vestibular system and mood states and thereby supports recent experimental findings with a different stimulation technique. These results may inspire future research on the clinical potential of this method. PMID:24133463

  17. Iodinated contrast media alter immune responses in pro-inflammatory states.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2010-07-01

    Hypertonic saline causes a transient elevation of blood osmolality and has been shown to alter cellular inflammatory responses in pro-inflammatory states. Intravascular administration of iodine contrast media also causes a transient elevation of blood osmolarity.

  18. Different duration of at-risk mental state associated with neurofunctional abnormalities. A multimodal imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieskova, Renata; Allen, Paul; Simon, Andor; Aston, Jacqueline; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Drewe, Jürgen; Gruber, Kerstin; Gschwandtner, Ute; Klarhoefer, Markus; Lenz, Claudia; Scheffler, Klaus; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; McGuire, Philip; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Borgwardt, Stefan J

    2012-10-01

    Neurofunctional alterations are correlates of vulnerability to psychosis, as well as of the disorder itself. How these abnormalities relate to different probabilities for later transition to psychosis is unclear. We investigated vulnerability- versus disease-related versus resilience biomarkers of psychosis during working memory (WM) processing in individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS). Patients with "first-episode psychosis" (FEP, n = 21), short-term ARMS (ARMS-ST, n = 17), long-term ARMS (ARMS-LT, n = 16), and healthy controls (HC, n = 20) were investigated with an n-back WM task. We examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data in conjunction using biological parametric mapping (BPM) toolbox. There were no differences in accuracy, but the FEP and the ARMS-ST group had longer reaction times compared with the HC and the ARMS-LT group. With the 2-back > 0-back contrast, we found reduced functional activation in ARMS-ST and FEP compared with the HC group in parietal and middle frontal regions. Relative to ARMS-LT individuals, FEP patients showed decreased activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and insula, and in the left prefrontal cortex. Compared with the ARMS-LT, the ARMS-ST subjects showed reduced activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and insula. Reduced insular and prefrontal activation was associated with gray matter volume reduction in the same area in the ARMS-LT group. These findings suggest that vulnerability to psychosis was associated with neurofunctional alterations in fronto-temporo-parietal networks in a WM task. Neurofunctional differences within the ARMS were related to different duration of the prodromal state and resilience factors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Amygdala volume linked to individual differences in mental state inference in early childhood and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rice

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of the amygdala in mental state inference in a sample of adults and in a sample of children aged 4 and 6 years. This period in early childhood represents a time when mentalizing abilities undergo dramatic changes. Both children and adults inferred mental states from pictures of others’ eyes, and children also inferred the mental states of others from stories (e.g., a false belief task. We also collected structural MRI data from these participants, to determine whether larger amygdala volumes (controlling for age and total gray matter volume were related to better face-based and story-based mentalizing. For children, larger amygdala volumes were related to better face-based, but not story-based, mentalizing. In contrast, in adults, amygdala volume was not related to face-based mentalizing. We next divided the face-based items into two subscales: cognitive (e.g., thinking, not believing versus affective (e.g., friendly, kind items. For children, performance on cognitive items was positively correlated with amygdala volume, but for adults, only performance on affective items was positively correlated with amygdala volume. These results indicate that the amygdala's role in mentalizing may be specific to face-based tasks and that the nature of its involvement may change over development.

  20. Inside the nation's largest mental health institution: a prevalence study in a state prison system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rousan, Tala; Rubenstein, Linda; Sieleni, Bruce; Deol, Harbans; Wallace, Robert B

    2017-04-20

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa. The point prevalence of both ICD-9 and DSM-IV codes for mental illnesses, timing of diagnosis and interval between incarceration and mental illness diagnosis were determined. The average inmate (N = 8574) age was 36.7 ± 12.4 years; 17% were ≥50 years. The majority of inmates were men (91%) and white (65%).Obesity was prevalent in 38% of inmates, and 51% had a history of smoking. Almost half of inmates were diagnosed with a mental illness (48%), of whom, 29% had a serious mental illness (41% of all females and 27% of all males), and 26% had a history of a substance use disorder. Females had higher odds of having both a mental illness and substance use disorder. Almost all mental illness diagnoses were first made during incarceration (99%). The mean interval to diagnosis of depression, anxiety, PTSD and personality disorders were 26, 24, 21 and 29 months respectively. Almost 90% of mental illnesses were recognized by the 6 th year of incarceration. The mean interval from incarceration to first diagnosis (recognition) of a substance abuse history was 11 months. There is a substantial burden of mental illness among inmates. Racial, age and gender disparities in mental health care are coupled with a general delay in diagnosis and treatment. A large part of understanding the mental health problem in this country starts at prisons.

  1. Production of mental state terms in narratives of Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Wen-Hui; Torng, Pao-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to use mental state terms in narratives. The narrative data are from 16 children with ASD and 16 typically developing children, matched on language and cognitive abilities. The narratives were elicited using Frog, where are you? Participants' use of lexical expressions referring to emotion, cognition, desire and perception was examined. The 'deer episode' of the story was chosen to analyse children's ability to talk about misrepresentation. The results reveal that the two groups of children performed comparably in basic narrative measures, overall use of mental state terms and references to the misrepresentation. The outcomes underscore the importance of examining different types of mental state terms separately. These findings are discussed in relation to linguistic and cognitive factors in mental-state attribution.

  2. Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105

  3. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Bernal, Mariola; Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Haro-Abad, Josep Maria

    2005-08-31

    This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004) and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental) health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392,200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1) highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health. Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters); distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under given conditions, imply an increased risk of

  4. EVALUATION OF MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES IN THE FREE STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results and conclusion. Social adjustment, community behaviour and psychiatric functioning were within reasonable limits compared with those reported for discharged patients in international studies. Functioning was found to be poor in a small minority. Patients expressed their satisfaction with the mental health service, ...

  5. Altered DNA methylation associated with a translocation linked to major mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    McCartney, Daniel L; Walker, Rosie M; Morris, Stewart W; Anderson, Susan M; Duff, Barbara J; Marioni, Riccardo E; Millar, J Kirsty; McCarthy, Shane E; Ryan, Niamh M; Lawrie, Stephen M; Watson, Andrew R; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Thomson, Pippa A; McIntosh, Andrew M; McCombie, W Richard

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted a possible role for altered epigenetic modifications, including differential DNA methylation, in susceptibility to psychiatric illness. Here, we investigate blood-based DNA methylation in a large family where a balanced translocation between chromosomes 1 and 11 shows genome-wide significant linkage to psychiatric illness. Genome-wide DNA methylation was profiled in whole-blood-derived DNA from 41 individuals using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumin...

  6. An audience research study to disseminate evidence about comprehensive state mental health parity legislation to US State policymakers: protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Jonathan; Lê-Scherban, Félice; Shattuck, Paul; Proctor, Enola K; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-06-26

    A large proportion of the US population has limited access to mental health treatments because insurance providers limit the utilization of mental health services in ways that are more restrictive than for physical health services. Comprehensive state mental health parity legislation (C-SMHPL) is an evidence-based policy intervention that enhances mental health insurance coverage and improves access to care. Implementation of C-SMHPL, however, is limited. State policymakers have the exclusive authority to implement C-SMHPL, but sparse guidance exists to inform the design of strategies to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, and more broadly, evidence-based treatments and mental illness, to this audience. The aims of this exploratory audience research study are to (1) characterize US State policymakers' knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and identify individual- and state-level attributes associated with support for C-SMHPL; and (2) integrate quantitative and qualitative data to develop a conceptual framework to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, evidence-based treatments, and mental illness to US State policymakers. The study uses a multi-level (policymaker, state), mixed method (QUAN→qual) approach and is guided by Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, adapted to incorporate constructs from Aarons' Model of Evidence-Based Implementation in Public Sectors. A multi-modal survey (telephone, post-mail, e-mail) of 600 US State policymakers (500 legislative, 100 administrative) will be conducted and responses will be linked to state-level variables. The survey will span domains such as support for C-SMHPL, knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and evidence-based treatments, mental illness stigma, and research dissemination preferences. State-level variables will measure factors associated with C-SMHPL implementation, such as economic climate and political environment. Multi-level regression will determine the relative strength of individual- and state

  7. State prison mental heath services recipients perception of care survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Bruce B; Sawyer, Don A; Kahkejian, Deborah; Moffitt, Catherine; Lilly, Stephanie N

    2007-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated the importance of patient perceptions' of mental health service quality. No studies, however, could be found that surveyed recipients in prison, despite the rapid growth of patients, and litigation in these settings. Patients were asked to complete an anonymous survey in private, and sealed it in an envelope. Of 613 respondents, most were satisfied (79%), agreed they had sufficient access to therapists (78%), were involved with treatment decisions (84%), and thought the MH services they had received would help them better deal with a crisis and emotional stress (75%). There were differences among mental health programs/housing units. Several of perception questions were significantly correlated with medication compliance, admission to crisis observation cells, and receiving disciplinary infractions. Random samples were requested, but likely only a convenience sample was obtained. However, the positive results suggest the need to strive to enhance patient quality of care ratings.

  8. Teachers' Language in Interactions: An Exploratory Examination of Mental State Talk in Early Childhood Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth; La Paro, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined 34 Head Start teachers' use of four categories of mental state talk (verbalizations of mental processes using emotion terms, cognition terms, desire terms, and perception terms) during naturally occurring classroom interactions. Transcriptions from classroom videos were coded for mental state talk…

  9. The neural bases of directed and spontaneous mental state attributions to group agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna C Jenkins

    Full Text Available In daily life, perceivers often need to predict and interpret the behavior of group agents, such as corporations and governments. Although research has investigated how perceivers reason about individual members of particular groups, less is known about how perceivers reason about group agents themselves. The present studies investigate how perceivers understand group agents by investigating the extent to which understanding the 'mind' of the group as a whole shares important properties and processes with understanding the minds of individuals. Experiment 1 demonstrates that perceivers are sometimes willing to attribute a mental state to a group as a whole even when they are not willing to attribute that mental state to any of the individual members of the group, suggesting that perceivers can reason about the beliefs and desires of group agents over and above those of their individual members. Experiment 2 demonstrates that the degree of activation in brain regions associated with attributing mental states to individuals--i.e., brain regions associated with mentalizing or theory-of-mind, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC, temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, and precuneus--does not distinguish individual from group targets, either when reading statements about those targets' mental states (directed or when attributing mental states implicitly in order to predict their behavior (spontaneous. Together, these results help to illuminate the processes that support understanding group agents themselves.

  10. Early maladaptive schema-related impairment and co-occurring current major depressive episode-related enhancement of mental state decoding ability in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt Szabolcs; Fogd, Dóra; Seres, Imola; Kéri, Szabolcs; Csukly, Gábor

    2015-04-01

    Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD.

  11. Conversations about mental states and theory of mind development during middle childhood: A training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Federica; Lecce, Serena; Banerjee, Robin

    2016-09-01

    Despite 30years of productive research on theory of mind (ToM), we still know relatively little about variables that influence ToM development during middle childhood. Recent experimental studies have shown that conversations about the mind affect ToM abilities, but they have not explored the mechanisms underlying this developmental effect. In the current study, we examined two potential mechanisms through which conversations about mental states are likely to influence ToM: an increased frequency of references to mental states when explaining behavior and an increased accuracy of mental-state attributions. To this aim, we conducted a training study in which 101 children were assigned to either an intervention condition or a control condition. The conversation-based intervention was made up of four sessions scheduled over 2weeks. Children completed a battery of assessments before and after the intervention as well as 2months later. The groups were equivalent at Time 1 (T1) for age, family affluence, vocabulary, and executive functions. The ToM group showed an improvement in ToM skills (as evaluated on both the practiced tasks and a transfer task). Mediation analyses demonstrated that the accuracy of mental-state attributions, but not the mere frequency of mental-state references, mediated the positive effect of conversations about the mind on ToM development. Our results indicate that conversational experience can enhance mental-state reasoning not by simply drawing children's attention to mental states but rather by scaffolding a mature understanding of social situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [The mental state of servicemen released from captivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, V M; Bulyko, V I; Rustanovich, A V; Kozachenko, V V

    1997-05-01

    The clinical and medico-psychological research of the servicemen, long time staying by hostages in captivity is lead. Boundary mental frustration, in particular neurotic reactions and the conditions, asthenodepressive syndrome, posttraumatic stress frustrations, are revealed in 45.8% surveyed. The most psychotraumatic is initial period of adaptation to conditions of captivity. The necessity to carry out the measures of medico-psychological rehabilitation and treatment of the servicemen, released from captivity, should be taken into account during planning of medical maintenance of the troops in local wars and armed conflicts.

  13. Mental Development of Children with Non-epileptic Paroxysmal States in Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turovskaya N.G.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author studied mental functions disorders in children with a history of paroxysmal states of various etiologies and compared mental development disorder patterns in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms. Study sample were 107 children, aged 6 to 10 years. The study used experimental psychological and neuropsychological techniques. According to the empirical study results, non-epileptic paroxysms unlike epileptic much less combined with a number of mental functions disorders and intelligence in general. However, non-epileptic paroxysmal states as well as epileptic seizure associated with increasing activity exhaustion and abnormal function of the motor analyzer (dynamic and kinesthetic dyspraxia. Visual memory disorders and modal-nonspecific memory disorders have more pronounced importance in the mental ontogenesis structure in children with convulsive paroxysms compared to children with cerebral pathology without paroxysms history

  14. Addressing the Mental Health Problems of Chinese International College Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts between health providers, mental health social workers, faculty, and academic staff within universities to serve these students more effectively.

  15. Health Policy Considerations in Treating Mental and Behavioral Health Emergencies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmer, Thiago C; Beall, Rakel C; Shah, Asim A; Dark, Cedric

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, health care providers have sounded the call that the US mental health system is in crisis. With decreases in funding and eroding access to care, the availability of psychiatric services has become increasingly limited, failing to meet growing needs. This article provides a brief history of mental health services in the United States and describes the current landscape of US psychiatric care; it touches upon some of the most important policy considerations, describing some of the glaring issues in US mental health care today. Last, it offers some potential remedies to improve care in acute behavioral emergencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mental state attributions and diffusion tensor imaging after traumatic brain injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harvey S; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Hanten, Gerri; Li, Xiaoqi; Chu, Zili David; Vásquez, Ana C; Cook, Lori; Yallampalli, Ragini; Hunter, Jill V

    2011-01-01

    We studied social cognition in 49 children 3 months after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and in 39 children with orthopedic injury (OI). Children underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a mental attribution task showing two triangles. Mental state attributions increased when one triangle reacted to intentions of the other, but less so in the TBI than the OI group. DTI identified injury to white matter microstructure in the TBI group, but the relation of DTI to mental attributions did not differ between groups. Moderate to severe TBI produces white matter disconnections that may affect social cognitive networks.

  17. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  18. MENTAL HEALTH OF INCARCERATED WOMEN IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Márcia Vieira dos; Alves, Valdecyr Herdy; Pereira, Audrey Vidal; Rodrigues, Diego Pereira; Marchiori, Giovanna Rosário Soanno; Guerra, Juliana Vidal Vieira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: identifying the factors related to the mental health of women in a prison in the Statey of Rio de Janeiro. Method: a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study conducted between October 2014 and January 2015 in a female prison in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Forty (40) incarcerated women were interviewed. The information collected was discussed based on content analysis, using a thematic based modality. Results: the following factors that affect the mental health o...

  19. Mental Health of Survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake Living in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-16

    Thousands of survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake are currently living in the United States. This podcast features a brief non-disease-specific interview with Dr. Marc Safran, CDC's longest serving psychiatrist, about a few of the mental health challenges such survivors may face.  Created: 4/16/2010 by CDC Center of Attribution: Mental and Behavioral Health Team, 2010 CDC Haiti Earthquake Mission, CDC Emergency Operations Center.   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  20. State of Alaska Plan for Construction of Facilities for the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betit, J. W.

    The 1970 Alaska State plan for construction of facilities for the mentally retarded is discussed. State agency organization charts, methods of administration, program goals and policies, an election district map showing catchment areas and Indian reservations, an explanation of inventories, and a survey of need and ranking of areas comprise the…

  1. Working process of military police state officers and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maurivan Batista da; Vieira, Sarita Brazão

    2008-01-01

    A Polícia Militar está balizada em dois pilares fundamentais: a disciplina e a hierarquia. O que a faz uma organização complexa com feixes de interesses que obstam a capacidade de resistência à mudança. Identificar como essa organização se estrutura e, sobretudo, relacioná-la com a saúde mental é o objetivo deste artigo. Buscamos contextualizar as finalidades dos serviços de segurança pública via breve histórico da polícia estadual, sua divisão e aplicabilidade frente à violência cotidiana. A...

  2. Exploring the compatibility of mental health nursing, recovery-focused practice and the welfare state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, M M M; Bush, C J; Ariyaratnam, M I; Brennan, G K; Owtram, R

    2015-06-01

    Mental health nurses are expected to adhere to a range of professional values. The values of social integration that mental health nurses practise are somewhat at odds with the values of the British welfare state. Alternative systems of welfare support are demonstrated in other countries. Mental health nurses must consider models of practice, such as that described by Clifton et al. (2013b), to manage the disconnection between what is expected and what can be achieved. This discussion paper considers the implications for mental health nursing practice when working alongside individuals in receipt of state benefits. There is arguably a profound impact on an individual's recovery from mental ill health when that individual is also dependent on financial support from the government. Access to welfare benefits can have a significant impact on the recovery journey of that individual. This discussion paper will consider the practice implications for mental health nurses whose professional values include maxims such as 'challenging inequality' and 'respecting diversity', and will seek to examine the implications for practice when such values are divergent from those demonstrated in government policy. The paper will make comparisons with international welfare systems to demonstrate the way in which alternative configurations of state welfare can promote a system of social justice that is in greater equilibrium with the professional values of mental health nurses. Finally, the discussion will focus on the options for mental health nurses to either subscribe to government policy or to find compromise solutions that enable attention to remain focused and active on a strong value base of social justice and recovery-focused practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Music Composition from the Brain Signal: Representing the Mental State by Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.

  4. Music composition from the brain signal: representing the mental state by music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Li, Chaoyi; Yin, Yu; Zhou, Changzheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure) were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.

  5. Neural evidence that three dimensions organize mental state representation: Rationality, social impact, and valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Diana I; Thornton, Mark A; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Mitchell, Jason P

    2016-01-05

    How do people understand the minds of others? Existing psychological theories have suggested a number of dimensions that perceivers could use to make sense of others' internal mental states. However, it remains unclear which of these dimensions, if any, the brain spontaneously uses when we think about others. The present study used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of neuroimaging data to identify the primary organizing principles of social cognition. We derived four unique dimensions of mental state representation from existing psychological theories and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test whether these dimensions organize the neural encoding of others' mental states. MVPA revealed that three such dimensions could predict neural patterns within the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices, temporoparietal junction, and anterior temporal lobes during social thought: rationality, social impact, and valence. These results suggest that these dimensions serve as organizing principles for our understanding of other people.

  6. Translating disparities research to policy: a qualitative study of state mental health policymakers' perceptions of mental health care disparities report cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Anne; DeAngelo, Darcie; Alegría, Margarita; Cook, Benjamin L

    2014-11-01

    Report cards have been used to increase accountability and quality of care in health care settings, and to improve state infrastructure for providing quality mental health care services. However, to date, report cards have not been used to compare states on racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care. This qualitative study examines reactions of mental health care policymakers to a proposed mental health care disparities report card generated from population-based survey data of mental health and mental health care utilization. We elicited feedback about the content, format, and salience of the report card. Interviews were conducted with 9 senior advisors to state policymakers and 1 policy director of a national nongovernmental organization from across the United States. Four primary themes emerged: fairness in state-by-state comparisons; disconnect between the goals and language of policymakers and researchers; concerns about data quality; and targeted suggestions from policymakers. Participant responses provide important information that can contribute to making evidence-based research more accessible to policymakers. Further, policymakers suggested ways to improve the structure and presentation of report cards to make them more accessible to policymakers, and to foster equity considerations during the implementation of new health care legislation. To reduce mental health care disparities, effort is required to facilitate understanding between researchers and relevant stakeholders about research methods, standards for interpretation of research-based evidence, and its use in evaluating policies aimed at ameliorating disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995-2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media's continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995–2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media’s continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031

  9. Rethinking School Safety in the Age of Empire: Militarization, Mental Health, and State Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jordan Jaffee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calls for stricter gun control and mental health screening often come on the heels of school shootings, which have raised national concerns about school safety. The implication is that people with psychiatric disabilities are dangerous or threatening, and that preventing them from owning guns will make schools safer. This paper challenges this assumption by considering dominant discourses about school safety and mental health alongside the increasing militarization of U.S. schools. Advocating reducing violence by identifying individuals with psychiatric disabilities—or those labelled with mental illnesses presumed to render them dangerous—erases the profound state violence schools engender in the service of empire while perpetuating ableist assumptions about people with psychiatric disabilities. In the age of empire and endless imperialist war, we need to challenge prevailing conceptions of both school safety and mental health.

  10. Audio-Visual and Autogenic Relaxation Alter Amplitude of Alpha EEG Band, Causing Improvements in Mental Work Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikicin, Mirosław; Kowalczyk, Marek

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes.

  11. Mental health policy in the liberal state: the example of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Gerald N

    2008-01-01

    Mental health policy arises out of the interaction of many different variables. These include (but are not limited to) the composition of the population of persons with severe mental illnesses; the means of dealing with disease and dependency; concepts of the etiology and nature of mental disorders; the organization and ideology of psychiatry; funding mechanisms; and existing popular, political, cultural, and professional values. But an often neglected but crucial factor in shaping policy is the very structure of the American political system, which played a crucial role in shaping mental health policy. Rather than emphasizing the neo-liberal theory and its accompanying hostility toward "unsuccessful" people and disdain of welfare, this article suggests that an understanding of mental health policy in the latter half of the twentieth century is better served by an examination of what actually happened. Theory, however attractive, rarely can encompass the messy data of reality.

  12. Children's mental health and collective violence: a binational study on the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Marie; Puertas, Hector; Caratachea, Raúl; Avila, Carmen; Atluru, Aparna; Briones, David; Vargas, Cecilia de

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the risk effects of poverty and exposure to collective violence attributed to organized crime on the mental health of children living on the United States-Mexico border. A repeated, cross-sectional study measured risk effects by comparing scores of psychosocial and behavioral problems among children and adolescents living on the border in the United States or Mexico in 2007 and 2010. Patients living in poverty who responded once to the Pictorial Child Behavior Checklist (P+CBCL) in Spanish were randomly selected from clinics in El Paso, Texas, United States (poverty alone group), and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (poverty plus violence group). Only children of Hispanic origin (Mexican-American or Mexican) living below the poverty level and presenting at the clinic for nonemergency visits with no history of diagnosed mental, neurological, or life-threatening disease or disability were included. Exposure to collective violence and poverty seemed to have an additive effect on children's mental health. Children exposed to both poverty and collective violence had higher problem scores, as measured by the P+CBCL, than those exposed to poverty alone. It is important to consider that children and adolescents exposed to collective violence and poverty also have fewer chances to receive treatment. Untreated mental health problems predict violence, antisocial behaviors, and delinquency and affect families, communities, and individuals. It is crucial to address the mental health of children on the border to counteract the devastating effects this setting will have in the short term and the near future.

  13. Industrial neuroscience in aviation evaluation of mental states in aviation personnel

    CERN Document Server

    Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the emerging field of industrial neuroscience, and reports on the authors’ cutting-edge findings in the evaluation of mental states, including mental workload, cognitive control and training of personnel involved either in the piloting of aircraft and helicopters, or in managing air traffic. It encompasses neuroimaging and cognitive psychology techniques and shows how they have been successfully applied in the evaluation of human performance and human-machine interactions, and to guarantee a proper level of safety in such operational contexts. With an introduction to the most relevant concepts of neuroscience, neurophysiological techniques, simulators and case studies in aviation environments, it is a must-have for both students and scientists in the field of aeronautic and biomedical engineering, as well as for various professionals in the aviation world. This is the first book to intensively apply neurosciences to the evaluation of human factors and mental states in aviation.

  14. Detecting Mental States by Machine Learning Techniques: The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Tangermann, Michael; Vidaurre, Carmen; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Sannelli, Claudia; Popescu, Florin; Fazli, Siamac; Danóczy, Márton; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface Brain-Computer Interface (BBCI) uses a machine learning approach to extract user-specific patterns from high-dimensional EEG-features optimized for revealing the user's mental state. Classical BCI applications are brain actuated tools for patients such as prostheses (see Section 4.1) or mental text entry systems ([1] and see [2-5] for an overview on BCI). In these applications, the BBCI uses natural motor skills of the users and specifically tailored pattern recognition algorithms for detecting the user's intent. But beyond rehabilitation, there is a wide range of possible applications in which BCI technology is used to monitor other mental states, often even covert ones (see also [6] in the fMRI realm). While this field is still largely unexplored, two examples from our studies are exemplified in Sections 4.3 and 4.4.

  15. Nonlinear analysis of EEG signals at different mental states

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Kannathal; Acharya U, Rajendra; Alias, Fadhilah; Tiboleng, Thelma; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan K

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The EEG (Electroencephalogram) is a representative signal containing information about the condition of the brain. The shape of the wave may contain useful information about the state of the brain. However, the human observer can not directly monitor these subtle details. Besides, since bio-signals are highly subjective, the symptoms may appear at random in the time scale. Therefore, the EEG signal parameters, extracted and analyzed using computers, are highly useful in di...

  16. The Current Mental State of School Students in Online Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalevskaya E.V.,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a study of actual mental state of high school students who are active subjects of career self-determination in terms of interactive learning. There are four groups of methods of interactive training: psychological training, art therapy, cognitive, and game training. The main task, which is solved by a researcher in a formative experiment with the use of each of these methods, is to establish significant differences in health, activity and mood as the indicators of current mental state of students in the classroom. As a result, we found that the most significant improvements in the current mental state takes place when using art and game therapy, so these techniques should be used in groups of students with low motivation to work, as well as in the adverse psychological climate. Less significant was the improvement of the current mental state after psychological training due to the fact that this method allow to update and seek solutions to the most important intrapersonal issues and require the implementation of a deeper reflection

  17. Structural Сharacteristics of Mental States in Women Experiencing Difficulties Coping with Midlife Crisis

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    Skripacheva E.H.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a midlife crisis in women is accompanied by forming mental states that affect the quality of life and determine the possibilities of transformation of midlife crisis into a new stage of self-development. Study sample were 168 women, aged 30 to 44 years. We used projective techniques, questionnaires, content analysis as study methods. The deviation indicator from autogenous norm of M. Lusher test in women with the crisis symptoms has a rather strong positive correlation with the «negative conditions» index (r=0,4; p<0,001. We have identified the parameters of mental states (antipathy, anxiety, tension, asintonia, fatigue that may contribute to the formation of negative mental states in general, hampering personal and social changes in the midlife crisis. The article defines the dominant motivations meaningful for development and transformation of midlife crisis in women. The results complement the scientific understanding of mental states and age characteristics from a gender perspective

  18. Mental states and activities in Danish narratives: children with autism and children with language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age...

  19. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  20. Young Children's Persuasion in Everyday Conversation: Tactics and Attunement to Others' Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Karen; Wright, Jennifer Cole; Estes, David

    2010-01-01

    Young children's persuasion tactics, and how these reflected attunement to others' mental states, were explored in archived longitudinal samples of transcribed at-home conversations of four children, three to five years old. Over 87,000 utterances were examined to identify conversation "chunks" involving persuasion; 1,307 chunks were then coded…

  1. Mental Health of Two-Way Migrants: From Puerto Rico to the United States and Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.; Draguns, Juris G.

    The mental health needs of two-way migrants from Puerto Rico to the United States and back again are discussed in this paper. Four factors affecting Puerto Rican migrants are outlined. First, the relationship between migration and stress is considered. Often, it is noted, in migrating away from stressful economic conditions, the Puerto Rican…

  2. Suicidal Ideation and Mental Health of Bhutanese Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong; Shetty, Sharmila; Sivilli, Teresa; Blanton, Curtis; Ellis, Heidi; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer; Taylor, Eboni; Lankau, Emily W; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Refugee agencies noticed a high number of suicides among Bhutanese refugees resettled in the United States between 2009 and 2012. We aimed to estimate prevalence of mental health conditions and identify factors associated with suicidal ideation among Bhutanese refugees. We conducted a stratified random cross-sectional survey and collected information on demographics, mental health conditions, suicidal ideation, and post-migration difficulties. Bivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation. Prevalence of mental health conditions were: depression (21 %), symptoms of anxiety (19 %), post-traumatic stress disorder (4.5 %), and suicidal ideation (3 %), significant risk factors for suicidal ideation included: not being a provider of the family; perceiving low social support; and having symptoms of anxiety and depression. These findings suggest that Bhutanese refugees in the United States may have a higher burden of mental illness relative to the US population and may benefit from mental health screening and treatment. Refugee communities and service providers may benefit from additional suicide awareness training to identify those at highest risk.

  3. Altered amygdalar resting-state connectivity in depression is explained by both genes and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Tornador, Cristian; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Nuria; Nenadic, Igor; Deco, Gustavo; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2015-10-01

    Recent findings indicate that alterations of the amygdalar resting-state fMRI connectivity play an important role in the etiology of depression. While both depression and resting-state brain activity are shaped by genes and environment, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors mediating the relationship between amygdalar resting-state connectivity and depression remain largely unexplored. Likewise, novel neuroimaging research indicates that different mathematical representations of resting-state fMRI activity patterns are able to embed distinct information relevant to brain health and disease. The present study analyzed the influence of genes and environment on amygdalar resting-state fMRI connectivity, in relation to depression risk. High-resolution resting-state fMRI scans were analyzed to estimate functional connectivity patterns in a sample of 48 twins (24 monozygotic pairs) informative for depressive psychopathology (6 concordant, 8 discordant and 10 healthy control pairs). A graph-theoretical framework was employed to construct brain networks using two methods: (i) the conventional approach of filtered BOLD fMRI time-series and (ii) analytic components of this fMRI activity. Results using both methods indicate that depression risk is increased by environmental factors altering amygdalar connectivity. When analyzing the analytic components of the BOLD fMRI time-series, genetic factors altering the amygdala neural activity at rest show an important contribution to depression risk. Overall, these findings show that both genes and environment modify different patterns the amygdala resting-state connectivity to increase depression risk. The genetic relationship between amygdalar connectivity and depression may be better elicited by examining analytic components of the brain resting-state BOLD fMRI signals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Altered regional homogeneity in pediatric bipolar disorder during manic state: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xiao

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD is a severely debilitating illness, which is characterized by episodes of mania and depression separated by periods of remission. Previous fMRI studies investigating PBD were mainly task-related. However, little is known about the abnormalities in PBD, especially during resting state. Resting state brain activity measured by fMRI might help to explore neurobiological biomarkers of the disorder. METHODS: Regional homogeneity (ReHo was examined with resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI on 15 patients with PBD in manic state, with 15 age-and sex-matched healthy youth subjects as controls. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, the patients with PBD showed altered ReHo in the cortical and subcortical structures. The ReHo measurement of the PBD group was negatively correlated with the score of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS in the superior frontal gyrus. Positive correlations between the ReHo measurement and the score of YMRS were found in the hippocampus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the PBD group. CONCLUSIONS: Altered regional brain activity is present in patients with PBD during manic state. This study presents new evidence for abnormal ventral-affective and dorsal-cognitive circuits in PBD during resting state and may add fresh insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PBD.

  5. Altered fMRI resting-state connectivity in individuals with fibromyalgia on acute pain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichesco, E; Puiu, T; Hampson, J P; Kairys, A E; Clauw, D J; Harte, S E; Peltier, S J; Harris, R E; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2016-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread pain condition, with patients commonly reporting other symptoms such as sleep difficulties, memory complaints and fatigue. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fibromyalgia has allowed for the detection of neural abnormalities, with alterations in brain activation elicited by experimental pain and alterations in resting state connectivity related to clinical pain. In this study, we sought to monitor state changes in resting brain connectivity following experimental pressure pain in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Twelve fibromyalgia patients and 15 healthy controls were studied by applying discrete pressure stimuli to the thumbnail bed during MRI. Resting-state functional MRI scanning was performed before and immediately following experimental pressure pain. We investigated changes in functional connectivity to the thalamus and the insular cortex. Acute pressure pain increased insula connectivity to the anterior cingulate and the hippocampus. Additionally, we observed increased thalamic connectivity to the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, a known part of the default mode network, in patients but not in controls. This connectivity was correlated with changes in clinical pain. These data reporting changes in resting-state brain activity following a noxious stimulus suggest that the acute painful stimuli may contribute to the alteration of the neural signature of chronic pain. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY/ADD?: In this study acute pain application shows an echo in functional connectivity and clinical pain changes in chronic pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  6. Mental State Attribution and the Temporoparietal Junction: An fMRI Study Comparing Belief, Emotion, and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, Deborah; Walker, Caren; Miller, Saul; LaViolette, Pete; Feczko, Eric; Dickerson, Bradford C.

    2010-01-01

    By age 2, children attribute referential mental states such as perceptions and emotions to themselves and others, yet it is not until age 4 that they attribute representational mental states such as beliefs. This raises an interesting question: is attribution of beliefs different from attribution of perceptions and emotions in terms of its neural…

  7. Mental Health Management in a Small Municipality in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristine Rodrigues da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses mental health management in a small municipality in the State of Rio de Janeiro based on Law No. 10,216 / 2001. The study is guided by the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, and the concepts of Humanization and Public Management. It is a study case with qualitative approach and bibliographic review  supported by open-ended interviews with the health manager, the director of the Psychosocial Care Center, and one of the authors. Results show the need for greater interaction between the health manager and the area of mental health, so that Humanization is consolidated in this public sphere.

  8. Mental Health Management in a Small Municipality in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristine Rodrigues da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses mental health management in a small municipality in the State of Rio de Janeiro based on Law No. 10,216 / 2001. The study is guided by the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, and the concepts of Humanization and Public Management. It is a study case with qualitative approach and bibliographic review supported by open-ended interviews with the health manager, the director of the Psychosocial Care Center, and one of the authors. Results show the need for greater interaction between the health manager and the area of mental health, so that Humanization is consolidated in this public sphere.

  9. Right Frontoinsular Cortex and Subcortical Activity to Infant Cry Is Associated with Maternal Mental State Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E; Guo, Chaohui; Phillips, Mary L; Swain, James E; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L

    2015-09-16

    The study objective was to examine neural correlates of a specific component of human caregiving: maternal mental state talk, reflecting a mother's proclivity to attribute mental states and intentionality to her infant. Using a potent, ecologically relevant stimulus of infant cry during fMRI, we tested hypotheses that postpartum neural response to the cry of "own" versus a standard "other" infant in the right frontoinsular cortex (RFIC) and subcortical limbic network would be associated with independent observations of maternal mental state talk. The sample comprised 76 urban-living, low socioeconomic mothers (82% African American) and their 4-month-old infants. Before the fMRI scan, mothers were filmed in face-to-face interaction with their infant, and maternal behaviors were coded by trained researchers unaware of all other information about the participants. The results showed higher functional activity in the RFIC to own versus other infant cry at the group level. In addition, RFIC and bilateral subcortical neural activity (e.g., thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, putamen) was associated positively with maternal mental state talk but not with more global aspects of observed caregiving. These findings held when accounting for perceptual and contextual covariates, such as maternal felt distress, urge to help, depression severity, and recognition of own infant cry. Our results highlight the need to focus on specific components of caregiving to advance understanding of the maternal brain. Future work will examine the predictive utility of this neural marker for mother-child function. The current study advances extant literature examining the neural underpinning of early parenting behavior. The findings highlight the special functional importance of the right frontoinsular cortex-thalamic-limbic network in a mother's proclivity to engage in mental state talk with her preverbal infant, a circumscribed aspect of maternal caregiving purported to be a prerequisite of

  10. Digital mental health and intellectual disabilities: state of the evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rory; Hassiotis, Angela

    2017-11-01

    The use of digital technologies in the management of mental illness, and more generally in the promotion of well-being and mental health, has received much recent attention and is a focus of current health policy. We conducted a narrative review to explore the opportunities and risks of digital technologies in mental healthcare specifically for people with intellectual disability, a sometimes marginalised and socially excluded group. The scope of digital mental health is vast and the promise of cheaper and more effective interventions delivered digitally is attractive. People with intellectual disability experience high rates of mental illness and could benefit from the development of novel therapies, yet seem to have been relatively neglected in the discourse around digital mental health and are often excluded from the development and implementation of new interventions. People with intellectual disability encounter several barriers to fully embracing digital technology, which may be overcome with appropriate support and adaptations. A small, but growing, literature attests to the value of incorporating digital technologies into the lives of people with intellectual disability, not only for promoting health but also for enhancing educational, vocational and leisure opportunities. Clearly further evidence is needed to establish the safety and clinical efficacy of digital mental health interventions for people with and without intellectual disability. A digital inclusion strategy that explicitly addresses the needs of people with intellectual disability would ensure that all can share the benefits of the digital world. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Mental Health Service Use Among Immigrants in the United States: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Amelia Seraphia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Immigrants face stressors unique to the experience of migration that may exacerbate or cause mental health problems but access care at rates far below the general population, leaving them at risk of untreated mental health conditions. This review synthesizes current findings on mental health service utilization among immigrants to inform future research efforts addressing disparities in access to care. Methods A systematic literature search of seven databases yielded 62 articles that met inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed reports of empirical studies based in the United States with an explicit focus on immigrant mental health service use. Each article was evaluated, and information was extracted by using a structured abstracting form. Results Studies have shown that immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and Africa use mental health services at lower rates than nonimmigrants, despite an equal or greater need. Lower usage has been found to be more pronounced among men, the uninsured, and the undocumented. Structural barriers to service use reported included lack of insurance, high cost, and language barriers. Studies have shown that social support is particularly important for immigrants and that those who seek help for mental health concerns tend to turn first to family, friends, or religious leaders. Conclusions Important areas for future research on disparities in mental health service use among immigrants include expanding research and analytic design to emphasize understudied groups and the heterogeneity of immigrant experiences over time, studying interventions that foster collaboration between formal and informal service sectors, and examining the role of social support in problem recognition and treatment initiation. PMID:26695493

  12. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Taren, Adrienne A.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Greco, Carol M.; Lindsay, Emily K.; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K.; Ferris, Jennifer L.; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L.; Bursley, James K.; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J. David

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month...

  13. Incongruity, Incongruity Resolution, and Mental States: The Measure and Modification of Situational Awareness and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.

    1997-01-01

    Cognition and emotion combine to define mental states. Situational awareness depends on both knowledge of the environment and the mood of the individual. Cognitive scientists from William James and Sigmond Freud to contemporary theorists in artificial intelligence and neuropsychology have acknowledged the critical role of subjective state in determining the efficiency and flexibility of information processing. One of the most explicit computational models of mental states to incorporate both knowledge and arousal has been described. Knowledge is carried in a typical neural net with categorical nodes and probabilistic links. Arousal determines the focus among these nodes and links. High arousal results in a restricted range of activation. Low arousal causes a wider range of stimulation and a broader linking of categories or "ideas." From this model Gerlernter generates "creativity" in problem solving from a network that is widely active and the possibility of "fixation" from a highly aroused system.

  14. Dynamic functional connectivity and brain metastability during altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Federico; Vilas, Martina G; Palmucci, Matías; Tagliazucchi, Enzo

    2017-10-03

    The scientific study of human consciousness has greatly benefited from the development of non-invasive brain imaging methods. The quest to identify the neural correlates of consciousness combined psychophysical experimentation with neuroimaging tools such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the changes in neural activity associated with conscious vs. unconscious percepts. Different neuroimaging methods have also been applied to characterize spontaneous brain activity fluctuations during altered states of consciousness, and to develop quantitative metrics for the level of consciousness. Most of these studies, however, have not explored the dynamic nature of the whole-brain imaging data provided by fMRI. A series of empirical and computational studies strongly suggests that the temporal fluctuations observed in this data present a non-trivial structure, and that this structure is compatible with the exploration of a discrete repertoire of states. In this review we focus on how dynamic neuroimaging can be used to address theoretical accounts of consciousness based on the hypothesis of a dynamic core, i.e. a constantly evolving and transiently stable set of coordinated neurons that constitute an integrated and differentiated physical substrate for each conscious experience. We review work exploring the possibility that metastability in brain dynamics leads to a repertoire of dynamic core states, and discuss how it might be modified during altered states of consciousness. This discussion prompts us to review neuroimaging studies aimed to map the dynamic exploration of the repertoire of states as a function of consciousness. Complementary studies of the dynamic core hypothesis using perturbative methods are also discussed. Finally, we propose that a link between metastability in brain dynamics and the level of consciousness could pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of altered states of consciousness using tools from dynamical systems

  15. Neurotization indicators and state of mental desadaptation in personnel of internal affairs organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyshnichenko S.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the data of psychological testing of personnel of internal affairs organs, using LNP test: levels of neuroticism and psychopathsation, prevalence of levels of neuroticism among the personnel, the relationship between neuroticism level and clinical groups (mentally healthy, with burnout syndrome and with non-psychotic mental disorders. Level of neuroticism reflects both dynamic and static (states and properties personality characteristics, i.e. neuroticism is elective personality variable. The clinical picture is characterized by manifestations of asthenonevurotic and psycho-vegetative syndromes. More often among those with non-psychotic mental disorders a high (100% level of neuroticism, increased (87.5% and in the zone of uncertain diagnosis (50% occur, than among those with burnout syndrome, and lower than normal (36.36% and low (19.08% neuroticism level – more often among with burnout syndrome, than in those with non-psychotic mental disorders. Level of neuroticism on the verge of normal and pathological conditions occurs mostly in people with burnout syndrome (50% and non-psychotic mental disorders (50%.

  16. What makes the dorsomedial frontal cortex active during reading the mental states of others?

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    Masaki eIsoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The dorsomedial frontal part of the cerebral cortex is consistently activated when people read the mental states of others, such as their beliefs, desires, and intentions, the ability known as having a theory of mind (ToM or mentalizing. This ubiquitous finding has led many researchers to conclude that the dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC constitutes a core component in mentalizing networks. Despite this, it remains unclear why the DMFC becomes active during ToM tasks. We argue that key psychological and behavioral aspects in mentalizing are closely associated with DMFC functions. These include executive inhibition, distinction between self and others, prediction under uncertainty, and perception of intentions, all of which are important for predicting others’ intention and behavior. We review the literature supporting this claim, ranging in fields from developmental psychology to human neuroimaging and macaque electrophysiology. Because perceiving intentions in others’ actions initiates mentalizing and forms the basis of virtually all types of social interaction, the fundamental issue in social neuroscience is to determine the aspects of physical entities that make an observer perceive that they are intentional beings and to clarify the neurobiological underpinnings of the perception of intentionality in others’ actions.

  17. Mini-Mental State Examination in patients with hepatic encephalopathy and liver cirrhosis: a prospective, quantified electroencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziarska, Dorota; Wunsch, Ewa; Milkiewicz, Małgorzata; Wójcicki, Maciej; Nowacki, Przemysław; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2013-07-02

    Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most commonly used methods in the assessment of cognitive mental status. MMSE has been used in hepatology but its usefulness in the evaluation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) has never been properly assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the value of MMSE in detection of HE in patients with cirrhosis. One hundred and one consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis underwent neurological examination, MMSE and electroencephalography (EEG). Spectral analysis of EEG was done with calculation of mean dominant frequency (MDF) and relative power of delta, theta, alpha and beta rhythms. Minimal HE was diagnosed in patients with normal neurological status and alterations in spectral EEG. Statistical analysis included Fisher's exact and Anova analysis. Categorical data were compared using Levene's test for equality of variances. Correlation-coefficient analysis was performed by the Pearson's r or Z-test, as needed. Tests performance was assessed by the calculating the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and evaluating its difference from reference area (AUC=0.5). A p value disease (Child-Pugh classification), overt HE (West-Haven criteria) and various MMSE items, MDF showed no correlation with any of MMSE items as well as MMSE summary score. MMSE (score and items) did not discriminate patients without HE and minimal HE. The only significant differences between patients without HE and with overt HE were seen in respect of MMSE score (plevel at 27.5 points to diagnose overt HE. In conclusion, although MMSE score and single items are altered in patients with overt HE, MMSE has no value in the assessment of minimal HE. Because MMSE could be impaired in several cognitive dysfunctions, more specific test should be used for measuring HE.

  18. O papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil The role of States in mental health policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gabriela Simon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil no período de 1990 a 2009. A metodologia incluiu a aplicação de questionário eletrônico nas coordenações estaduais de saúde mental de 24 estados brasileiros, revisão documental e análise de base de dados oficiais. Os resultados obtidos apontaram que os estados utilizam várias estratégias e instrumentos na condução da política de saúde mental, principalmente no monitoramento e na prestação de serviços. No entanto, percebeu-se que os estados ainda não desenvolvem de forma sistemática as funções de planejamento, coordenação federativa e coordenação da atenção. O financiamento em saúde mental representa um dos grandes desafios para a gestão dessa área nos estados. Os achados deste estudo sugerem que a superação dos desafios relacionados à condução estadual da política de saúde mental depende da articulação entre governo federal, estados e municípios na elaboração de políticas que atendam à especificidade de cada região, da promoção de um planejamento participativo e de investimentos para o setor.This article examines the role of States in mental health policy in Brazil from 1990 to 2009. The methods included the use of an electronic questionnaire on State coordination of mental health in 24 Brazilian States, document review, and analysis based on official data. The results showed that the States use various strategies and tools to conduct mental health policy, especially in monitoring and services delivery. However, the study showed that States have not developed systematic approaches to planning, coordination with other levels of government, or coordination of care. Funding poses a major challenge for management of mental health at the State level. The study suggests that overcoming the challenges in mental health policy depends on the relationship between the Federal government, States, and Municipalities in drafting

  19. The Preservation of Cued Recall in the Acute Mentally Fatigued State: A Randomised Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flindall, Ian Richard; Leff, Daniel Richard; Pucks, Neysan; Sugden, Colin; Darzi, Ara

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of acute mental fatigue on the recall of clinical information in the non-sleep-deprived state. Acute mental fatigue in the non-sleep-deprived subject is rarely studied in the medical workforce. Patient handover has been highlighted as an area of high risk especially in fatigued subjects. This study evaluates the deterioration in recall of clinical information over 2 h with cognitively demanding work in non-sleep-deprived subjects. A randomised crossover study involving twenty medical students assessed free (presentation) and cued (MCQ) recall of clinical case histories at 0 and 2 h under low and high cognitive load using the N-Back task. Acute mental fatigue was assessed through the Visual Analogue Scale, Stanford Scale and NASA-TLX Mental Workload Rating Scale. Free recall is significantly impaired by increased cognitive load (p mental fatigue during the high cognitive load assessment. There was no significant difference in the amount of information retrieved by cued recall under high and low cognitive load conditions (p = 1). This study demonstrates the loss of clinical information over a short time period involving a mentally fatiguing, high cognitive load task. Free recall for the handover of clinical information is unreliable. Memory cues maintain recall of clinical information. This study provides evidence towards the requirement for standardisation of a structured patient handover. The use of memory cues (involving recognition memory and cued recall methodology) would be beneficial in a handover checklist to aid recall of clinical information and supports evidence for their adoption into clinical practice.

  20. Infrastructure Change Is Not Enough: An Evaluation of SAMHSA's Mental Health Transformation State Incentive Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen; Cichocki, Benjamin; Chow, Clifton M; Lupton, Chuck

    2014-07-01

    The authors evaluated the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's mental health transformation state incentive grant program, which provided more than $100 million to nine states to make infrastructure changes designed to improve services and outcomes. The authors measured infrastructure changes, service changes, and consumer outcomes in the nine programs. Although the federal program had no logic model, the authors adopted a model that hypothesized positive, but small, correlations between the program elements. There were few statistically significant correlations and a number of negative correlations between infrastructure changes, service changes, and consumer outcomes. Federal investments should take into account evidence that infrastructure changes alone do not necessarily contribute to better consumer outcomes, support operationally defined infrastructure improvements, require that service improvements accompany infrastructure changes, and provide sufficient resources to oversee grantee behaviors. In addition, future evaluation should support evaluation best practices.

  1. The Autonomous Developmental Pathway: The Primacy of Subjective Mental States for Human Behavior and Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärtner, Joscha

    2015-04-30

    This review focuses on infants' emerging awareness of mental states and demonstrates how cultural models-consisting of parenting beliefs and practices-interact dynamically with biologically prepared developmental potentialities in shaping infant behavior and development. Contrasting very different cultural contexts, it is suggested that caregivers' visual contingent responsiveness and associated processes are key features of early mother-infant interaction. They (a) are informed by intuitive parenting and culture-specific ethnotheories that, as a consequence, (b) differentially sensitize infants for internal mental states in the 1st year and beyond, and thereby (c) provide mechanisms that specify how culture not only shapes human behavior and experience but also produces culture-specific developmental pathways. © 2015 The Author Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Minding the Gap: Narrative Descriptions about Mental States Attenuate Parochial Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile G.; Cikara, Mina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, we examine parochial empathy (feeling more empathy for in-group than out-group members) across novel group boundaries, and test whether we can mitigate parochial empathy with brief narrative descriptions. In the absence of individuating information, participants consistently report more empathy for members of their own assigned group than a competitive out-group. However, individualized descriptions of in-group and out-group targets significantly reduce parochial empathy by interfering with encoding of targets’ group membership. Finally, the descriptions that most effectively decrease parochial empathy are those that describe targets’ mental states. These results support the role of individuating information in ameliorating parochial empathy, suggest a mechanism for their action, and show that descriptions emphasizing targets’ mental states are particularly effective. PMID:26505194

  3. Effect Of Single And Short-Term Aerobics On Selected Mental State Parametres In Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

  4. Study of the influence of different styles of music on young people’s mental States

    OpenAIRE

    Yerkinbekova, Meyrim; Kasumova, Roza; Shagurbaeva, Mentay; Sametova, Fauzya

    2014-01-01

    Currently one of the most important differentiating and integrating factors, young people are the musical preferences that affect the formation of associations of fans of those or other performers. Among modern youth popular musical subcultures distinguish reivers, rockers; hip-hop-representatives of these subcultures would be considered in the work. The relevance of studying the impact of different contemporary styles of music (electronic music, rock, RAP) on the mental state of the people, ...

  5. The factorial structure of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) in Japanese dementia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shigemori, Kenta; Ohgi, Shohei; Okuyama, Eriko; Shimura, Takaki; Schneider, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most commonly used instruments in the evaluation of global cognitive status. Few studies have investigated the relationship among its components in terms of factorial structure in Japanese individuals suffering from dementia. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in Japanese dementia patients, 2) to clarify the MMSE static structure in identifying different cognitive profiles and un...

  6. Here, There and Everywhere: Emotion and Mental State Talk in Different Social Contexts Predicts Empathic Helping in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eDrummond

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature suggests that parents socialize early-emerging prosocial behavior across varied contexts and in subtle yet powerful ways. We focus on discourse about emotions and mental states as one potential socialization mechanism given its conceptual relevance to prosocial behavior and its known positive relations with emotion understanding and social-cognitive development, as well as parents’ frequent use of such discourse beginning in infancy. Specifically, we ask how parents’ emotion and mental state talk with their toddlers relates to toddlers’ helping and how these associations vary by context. Children aged 18- to 30-months (n=38 interacted with a parent during book reading and joint play with toys, two everyday contexts that afford parental discussion of emotions and mental states. Children also participated in instrumental and empathic helping tasks. Results revealed that although parents discuss mental states with their children in both contexts, the nature of their talk differs: during book reading parents labeled emotions and mental states significantly more often than during joint play, especially simple affect words (e.g. happy, sad and explanations or elaborations of emotions; whereas they used more desire talk and mental state words (e.g. think, know in joint play. Parents’ emotion and mental state discourse related to children’s empathic, emotion-based helping behavior; however, it did not relate to instrumental, action-based helping. Moreover, relations between parent talk and empathic helping varied by context: children who helped more quickly had parents who labeled emotion and mental states more often during joint play and who elicited this talk more often during book reading. As emotion and mental state talk both varies between contexts and exhibits context-specific associations with empathic prosocial behavior early in development, we conclude that such discourse may be a key form of socialization

  7. Parent-child picture-book reading, mothers' mental state language and children's theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Juan E; Clemente, Rosa A; Villanueva, Lidon; Rieffe, Carolien

    2005-08-01

    This study focuses on parent-child book reading and its connection to the development of a theory of mind. First, parents were asked to report about frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home. Second, mothers were asked to read four picture-books to thirty-four children between 4;0 and 5;0. Both frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home, and mother's use of mental state terms in picture-books reading tasks were significantly associated with success on false belief tasks, after partialling out a number of potential mediators such as age of children, verbal IQ, paternal education, and words used by mothers in joint picture-book reading. Among the different mental state references (cognitive terms, desires, emotions and perceptions), it was found that the frequency and variety of cognitive terms, but also the frequency of emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Relationships between mental state language and theory of mind are discussed.

  8. Inner Sound: Altered States of Consciousness in Electronic Music and Audio-Visual Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinel, Jonathan

    explores how our subjective realities may change during states of dream, psychedelic experience, meditation, and trance. Taking a broad view across a wide range of genres, Inner Sound draws connections between shamanic art and music, and the modern technoshamanism of psychedelic rock, electronic dance......Over the last century, developments in electronic music and art have enabled new possibilities for creating audio and audio-visual artworks. With this new potential has come the possibility for representing subjective internal conscious states, such as the experience of hallucinations, using...... music, and electroacoustic music. Going beyond the sonic into the visual, the book also examines the role of altered states in film, visual music, VJ performances, interactive video games, and virtual reality applications. Through the analysis of these examples, Weinel uncovers common mechanisms...

  9. De item-reeks van de cognitieve screening test vergeleken met die van de mini-mental state examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Deelman, B. G.; Hooijer, C.; Jonker, C.; Lindeboom, J.

    1996-01-01

    The items of the ¿mini-mental state examination' (MMSE) and a Dutch dementia screening instrument, the ¿cognitive screening test' (CST), as well as the ¿geriatric mental status schedule' (GMS) and the ¿Dutch adult reading test' (DART), were administered to 4051 elderly people aged 65 to 84 years.

  10. Variations in Glycogen Synthesis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells with Altered Pluripotent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Richard J.; Zhang, Guofeng; Garfield, Susan H.; Shi, Yi-Jun; Chen, Kevin G.; Robey, Pamela G.; Leapman, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent very promising resources for cell-based regenerative medicine. It is essential to determine the biological implications of some fundamental physiological processes (such as glycogen metabolism) in these stem cells. In this report, we employ electron, immunofluorescence microscopy, and biochemical methods to study glycogen synthesis in hPSCs. Our results indicate that there is a high level of glycogen synthesis (0.28 to 0.62 μg/μg proteins) in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) compared with the glycogen levels (0 to 0.25 μg/μg proteins) reported in human cancer cell lines. Moreover, we found that glycogen synthesis was regulated by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) and the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) pathway. Our observation of glycogen bodies and sustained expression of the pluripotent factor Oct-4 mediated by the potent GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR-99021 reveals an altered pluripotent state in hPSC culture. We further confirmed glycogen variations under different naïve pluripotent cell growth conditions based on the addition of the GSK-3 inhibitor BIO. Our data suggest that primed hPSCs treated with naïve growth conditions acquire altered pluripotent states, similar to those naïve-like hPSCs, with increased glycogen synthesis. Furthermore, we found that suppression of phosphorylated glycogen synthase was an underlying mechanism responsible for altered glycogen synthesis. Thus, our novel findings regarding the dynamic changes in glycogen metabolism provide new markers to assess the energetic and various pluripotent states in hPSCs. The components of glycogen metabolic pathways offer new assays to delineate previously unrecognized properties of hPSCs under different growth conditions. PMID:26565809

  11. Hydrotherapy in state mental hospitals in the mid-twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Rebecca Bouterie

    2009-08-01

    This research describes nurses' experiences in administering "the water cure," hot or cold wet sheet packs, and continuous tub baths in state mental hospitals during the early twentieth century. Student and graduate nurses were required to demonstrate competence in hydrotherapy treatments used to calm agitated or manic patients in the era before neuroleptics. The nurses interviewed for this study indicated that, although labor intensive, hydrotherapy worked, at least temporarily. Although no longer used in state hospitals, hydrotherapy is regaining popularity with the general public and may serve as an adjunct to pharmacological treatments to calm hospitalized patients in the future.

  12. Under Construction: One State's Approach to Creating Health Homes for Individuals with Serious Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Auxier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the health care market associated with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA are creating both need and opportunity for states, health plans, and providers to improve quality, outcomes, and satisfaction through better integration of traditionally separate health care delivery systems. Applications of the term “integrated care” vary widely and include, but are not limited to, the integration of care for Medicare-Medicaid dually enrolled beneficiaries, the integration of mental health and substance abuse (also known as behavioral health, and the integration of mental health and substance abuse with medical care, most commonly primary care. In this article, integrated care refers to well-coordinated physical health and behavioral health care. Medicaid Health Homes are emerging as a promising practice, with sixteen states having adopted the Health Home model through approved State Plan Amendments. This article describes one state's journey towards establishing Health Homes with a behavioral health focus. We discuss a partnership model between the relevant state organizations, the contracted providers, and the behavioral health managed care organization responsible for many of the supportive administrative functions. We highlight successes and operational challenges and offer recommendations for future Health Home development efforts.

  13. Snapshot from Superstorm Sandy: American Red Cross mental health risk surveillance in lower New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Merritt D; Yin, Rob; Omaish, Mostafa; Broderick, Joan E

    2014-07-01

    Disasters often cause psychological injury, as well as dramatic physical damage. Epidemiologic research has identified a set of disaster experiences and predisposing characteristics that place survivors at risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Rapid triage of at-risk survivors could have benefits for individual and population-level outcomes. We examine American Red Cross mental health risk surveillance data collected from October 29 to November 20, 2012, immediately after Hurricane Sandy in 8 lower New York State counties to evaluate the feasibility and utility of collecting these data. PsySTART, an evidence-based disaster mental health triage tool, was used to record survivor-reported risk factors after each survivor contact. Red Cross disaster mental health volunteers interfaced with survivors at disaster operation sites, including shelters, emergency aid stations, and mobile feeding and community outreach centers. Risk data were called into the operations center each day and reported by county. PsySTART risk surveillance data for 18,823 disaster mental health contacts are presented for adults and children. A total of 17,979 risk factors were reported. Overall levels of risk per contact were statistically different (χ(2)(1, N=6,045)=248.1; PSuperstorm Sandy indicate substantial population-level impact suggestive of risk for disorders that may persist chronically without treatment. Mental health triage has the potential to improve care of individual disaster survivors, as well as inform disaster management, local health providers, and public health officials. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid Response: To Scan or Not to Scan? The Utility of Noncontrast CT Head for Altered Mental Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Purujit J; Sethi, Mansha; Sternlieb, Jonathan; Schneider, Doron; Naglak, Mary; Patel, Rajeshkumar R

    2018-01-17

    The aims of the study were the following: (1) to determine how often computed tomography (CT) scans of the head are obtained on rapid responses called for altered mental status (AMS), (2) to determine whether CT imaging of the head is required during all rapid responses called for AMS, (3) to determine which patients would benefit from CT scans of the head in this setting, (4) to note whether an adequate neurologic exam was documented, (5) to determine the cost of CT scans that did not change management, and (6) to examine the role of medications leading to AMS. The study was a retrospective chart review at Abington Jefferson Hospital. Data collected included the age, sex, time of rapid response, clinical condition of the patient, whether an arterial blood gas and blood glucose were done, and whether a neurological exam was documented in the resident's rapid response team note. The patient's medications were also reviewed. Computed tomography scan findings as well as changes made in a patient's care as a result of the scan were recorded. Any findings that did not lead to a change in management were considered a "negative" scan. Overall, 610 rapid responses were activated from January to August 2016. One hundred four (17.04%) of the total rapid responses were for AMS and 83 (79.8%) of these patients underwent noncontrast CT scan of the head. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 74.7 (13.6) years. A total of 56.6% were female. The most frequent clinical conditions documented at the time of rapid responses were noted as confused (33.7%, 28/83), either lethargic or unconscious (32.5%, 27/83), and concern for stroke (21.7%, 18/83). A total of 96.4% (80/83) of the CT scans done were negative for any acute changes. The three patients with positive scans (3/83) had a change in management as a result of the scans. If patients with symptoms concerning for stroke and unconscious patients are excluded, the total number of remaining patients is 56. Of these, zero patients had

  15. State agency policy and program coordination in response to the co-occurrence of HIV, chemical dependency, and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Beth; Chu, Bong-Chul; Mills, M. Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The co-occurrence of HIV infection, chemical dependency, and mental illness challenges federal and state governments to develop flexible and coordinated health policy and financing for public health services. State agencies play a critical role in the organization and support of these services at the local level. With emerging stress upon state government budgets and concomitant increasing need for publicly funded services, state agency coordination may be an important policy safety net to assure services for populations at the margins of health systems. Despite this important potential role, nothing is known about the degree to which state HIV, substance abuse, and mental health agencies coordinate policies and/or programs in response to these co-morbid conditions. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to establish a conservative and initial understanding of state HIV, substance abuse, and mental health agency coordination of policy and program in response to the co-occurrence of HIV, chemical dependency, and mental illness. METHOD: Estimation of coordination was accomplished through the comparison of three surveys conducted among state substance abuse directors (1998), state AIDS directors (1999), and state mental health directors (2000). Data from 38 states were reviewed. RESULTS: The most frequently reported state agency activities included coordinating funding, engaging in integrative planning activities, and conducting staff cross-training. When compared for association with state characteristics, coordination among state agencies was found to be associated with Early Intervention Services (EIS) designation, higher rates of AIDS generally, higher rates of AIDS among African Americans, and higher rates of AIDS among Hispanic populations. Given the limitations of comparing three disparate surveys, we determined the estimate of interagency coordination to be conservative and preliminary. CONCLUSION: While this study was useful as an initial step toward identifying state

  16. Inside the nation’s largest mental health institution: a prevalence study in a state prison system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tala Al-Rousan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. Methods Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa. The point prevalence of both ICD-9 and DSM-IV codes for mental illnesses, timing of diagnosis and interval between incarceration and mental illness diagnosis were determined. Results The average inmate (N = 8574 age was 36.7 ± 12.4 years; 17% were ≥50 years. The majority of inmates were men (91% and white (65%.Obesity was prevalent in 38% of inmates, and 51% had a history of smoking. Almost half of inmates were diagnosed with a mental illness (48%, of whom, 29% had a serious mental illness (41% of all females and 27% of all males, and 26% had a history of a substance use disorder. Females had higher odds of having both a mental illness and substance use disorder. Almost all mental illness diagnoses were first made during incarceration (99%. The mean interval to diagnosis of depression, anxiety, PTSD and personality disorders were 26, 24, 21 and 29 months respectively. Almost 90% of mental illnesses were recognized by the 6th year of incarceration. The mean interval from incarceration to first diagnosis (recognition of a substance abuse history was 11 months. Conclusions There is a substantial burden of mental illness among inmates. Racial, age and gender disparities in mental health care are coupled with a general delay in diagnosis and treatment. A large part of understanding the mental health problem in this country starts at prisons.

  17. Focal cortical dysplasia alters electrophysiological cortical hubs in the resting-state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Jeong, Woorim; Chung, Chun Kee

    2015-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that epilepsy patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) have different electrophysiological functional cortical hubs from those of healthy controls. Resting-state functional networks in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands were evaluated in 35 epilepsy patients with histopathologically verified FCD as a single pathology and in 46 age-matched healthy controls. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated the network differences between the two groups by comparing the nodal efficiency (Enodal) and betweenness centrality (BC) values at the source level. The FCD patients had significant Enodal increases in the functional cortical hubs in the left anterior, middle, and posterior cortices and the medial orbital superior frontal cortex in the beta band. The left posterior cingulate cortex showed significant BC increases in the theta, alpha, and beta bands. There was a negative correlation between Enodal and age at seizure onset. Cortical dysplasia alters whole brain functional cortical hubs compared to healthy controls. The age at seizure onset was negatively correlated with Enodal in the beta band in FCD patients. Our study for the first time investigated the functional cortical hubs and their alteration in the resting-state functional network in epilepsy patients with FCD using noninvasive MEG signals. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors associated with mental illness in Oyo State, Nigeria: A Community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawoyin TO

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with mental illness in Oyo State at community level using the general health questionnaire as a screening tool. Method This cross-sectional, community- based survey was carried out among adults in three randomly selected LGAs using multi-stage sampling technique. Results A total of 1105 respondents were assessed in all. The overall prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in Oyo state Nigeria was found to be 21.9%, (18.4% in the urban areas and 28.4% in the rural areas, p = 0.005. Young age ≤ 19 yrs (X2 = 20.41, p = 0.00013, Unemployment (X2 = 11.86 p = 0.0005, living condition below average (X2 = 12.21, p = 0.00047, physical health (X2 = 6.07, p = 0.014, and large family size (X2 = 14.09 p = 0.00017 were associated with increase risk for psychiatric morbidity. Following logistic regression analysis, Unemployment (C.I = 1.18–3.70, OR -2.1 and living conditions perceived to be above average (C.I = 1.99–5.50, OR-3.3 were significant predictors of mental illness while family size less than 6 (C.I = 0.86–0.97, OR-0.91 was protective. Conclusion The teenagers and the rural populations are in greater need of mental health promotional services. Family planning should be made freely available in order to reduce the family size and hence incidence of mental illness in the African population.

  19. Validation of a model for estimating state and local prevalence of serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christopher G

    2009-12-01

    This study addresses an ongoing problem in mental health needs assessment. This involves estimating the prevalence of an identified problem, specifically serious mental illness (SMI), for local areas in a reliable, valid, and cost-effective manner. The aim of the study is the application and testing of a recently introduced methodology from the field of small area estimation to determining SMI rates in the 48 contiguous US states, and in local areas of Massachusetts. It uses 'regression synthetic estimation fitted using area-level covariates', to estimate a model using data from the 2001-2002 replication of the National Comorbidity Study (n = 5593) and apply it, using 2000 STF-3C Census data, to various state and local areas in the United States. The estimates are then compared with independently collected SMI indicators. The estimates show not only face validity and internal consistency, but also predictive validity. The multiple logistic model has a sensitivity of 21.1% and a specificity of 95.1%, based largely on socio-economic disparities. Pearson r validity coefficients for the area estimates range from 0.43 to 0.75. The model generates a national estimate of SMI adults of 5.5%; for the 48 states, rates ranging from 4.7% to 7.0%; and for Massachusetts towns and cities, 1.1% to 7.5%.

  20. Eating disorders as autisticlike defenses: unmentalizable experiences in primitive mental states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscato, Francesca; Solano, Paola

    2014-08-01

    Autisticlike symptoms have been acknowledged in several fields; thus it cannot be claimed that they encompass a delineated pathological organization. The authors argue that in primitive mental functioning, eating symptoms-both bulimic and anorexic-can be used as autisticlike defenses in which the altered body becomes an objectified protective shell providing shelter from intolerable anxieties that derive from unmentalized and unmentalizable experiences. The role of the psychoanalytic third, rising from the analyst's reverie, as a possible meeting ground between the concrete and the symbolic is discussed. Drawing on case material from the analysis of two patients with eating symptoms used as autisticlike defenses clarifies some of the theoretical aspects of eating disorders.

  1. Health state utility values of high prevalence mental disorders in Australia: results from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Engel, Lidia; Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Magnus, Anne; Harris, Meredith; Chatterton, Mary Lou

    2018-04-09

    High prevalence mental disorders including depression, anxiety and substance use disorders are associated with high economic and disease burden. However, there is little information regarding the health state utility values of such disorders according to their clinical severity using comparable instruments across all disorders. This study reports utility values for high prevalence mental disorders using data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB). Utility values were derived from the AQoL-4D and analysed by disorder classification (affective only (AD), anxiety-related only (ANX), substance use only (SUB) plus four comorbidity groups), severity level (mild, moderate, severe), symptom recency (reported in the past 30 days), and comorbidity (combination of disorders). The adjusted Wald test was applied to detect statistically significant differences of weighted means and the magnitude of difference between groups was presented as a modified Cohen's d. In total, 1526 individuals met criteria for a 12-month mental disorder. The mean utility value was 0.67 (SD = 0.27), with lower utility values associated with higher severity levels and some comorbidities. Utility values for AD, ANX and SUB were 0.64 (SD = 0.25), 0.71 (SD = 0.25) and 0.81 (SD = 0.19), respectively. No differences in utility values were observed between disorders within disorder groups. Utility values were significantly lower among people with recent symptoms (within past 30 days) than those without; when examined by diagnostic group, this pattern held for people with SUB, but not for people with ANX or AD. Health state utility values of people with high prevalence mental disorders differ significantly by severity level, number of mental health comorbidities and the recency of symptoms, which provide new insights on the burden associated with high prevalence mental disorders in Australia. The derived utility values can be used to populate future

  2. Story discourse and use of mental state language between mothers and school-aged children with and without visual impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of sight compromises insight into other people’s mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare these with mothers of comparable children with typically developing vision. To investigate whether the characteristics of mother–child discourse were associated with the child’s socio-communicative competence. Methods & Procedures Mother–child discourse with twelve 6–12-year-old children with VI was coded during a shared book-reading narrative and compared with 14 typically sighted children matched in age and verbal ability. Outcomes & Results Mothers of children with VI elaborated more and made significantly more references to story characters’ mental states and descriptive elaborations than mothers of sighted children. Mental state elaborations of mothers in the VI group related positively with the level produced by their children, with the association remaining after mothers’ overall verbosity and children’s developmental levels were controlled for. Frequency of maternal elaborations, including their mental state language, was related to socio-communicative competence of children with VI. Conclusions & Implications The findings offer insights into the potential contribution of maternal verbal scaffolding to mentalistic language and social–communicative competences of children with VI. PMID:24165364

  3. Investigation of the alteration of gray matter volume in children with mental retardation with the optimal voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xinyu; Xie Sheng; Xiao Jiangxi; Zhang Yuanzhe; Jiang Xuexiang; Jin Chunhua; Bai Zhenhua; Yi Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To detect brain structural difference between children with unexplained mental retardation and children with typically normal development. Methods: The high-resolution magnetic MR imaging were obtained from 21 children with unexplained mental retardation and 30 age-matched control children without intellectual disabilities. Voxel-based morphometry analysis with an optimization of spatial segmentation and normalization procedures were applied to compare differences of gray matter volume between the two groups. The total and regional gray matter volume were compared between the two groups with independent t test. Meanwhile, correlation was conducted to analyze the relationship between the total gray matter volume and intelligence quotient (IQ) with partial correlation test. Results: The total gray matter volume was significantly increased in the mental retardation children (1.012±0.079) × 10 6 mm 3 ] in relative to the controls [(0.956±0.059)×10 6 mm 3 , t=-2.80, P 0.05). Conclusions: VBM would detect the gray matter abnormalities that were not founded in routine MR scanning. The increase of gray matter volume in the frontal-thalamus network might indicate the delayed maturation of the brain development. This might be one of the causations of' mental retardation in children. (authors)

  4. Altered default network resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-na Ding

    Full Text Available Excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGA.Seventeen adolescents with IGA and 24 normal control adolescents underwent a 7.3 minute resting-state fMRI scan. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. To assess the relationship between IGA symptom severity and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas correlated with PCC connectivity were correlated with the scores of the 17 subjects with IGA on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11 and their hours of Internet use per week.There were no significant differences in the distributions of the age, gender, and years of education between the two groups. The subjects with IGA showed longer Internet use per week (hours (p<0.0001 and higher CIAS (p<0.0001 and BIS-11 (p = 0.01 scores than the controls. Compared with the control group, subjects with IGA exhibited increased functional connectivity in the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe and middle temporal gyrus. The bilateral inferior parietal lobule and right inferior temporal gyrus exhibited decreased connectivity. Connectivity with the PCC was positively correlated with CIAS scores in the right precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, caudate, nucleus accumbens, supplementary motor area, and lingual gyrus. It was negatively correlated with the right cerebellum anterior lobe and left superior parietal lobule.Our results suggest that adolescents with IGA exhibit different resting-state patterns of brain activity. As these alterations are partially consistent with those in patients with substance addiction, they support the

  5. Effectiveness of Universal School-Based Mental Health Awareness Programs Among Youth in the United States: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, John P

    2016-12-01

    Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and low mental health literacy have been identified as links to social adversity, and barriers to seeking and adhering to treatment among adolescents suffering from mental illness. Prior research has found that it is possible to improve these outcomes using school-based mental health awareness interventions. The purpose of this study was to review empirical literature pertaining to universal mental health awareness interventions aiming to improve mental health related outcomes among students enrolled in US K-12 schools, especially minorities vulnerable to health disparities. PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, PUBMED, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for K-12 school-based mental health awareness interventions in the United States. Universal studies that measured knowledge, attitudes, and/or help-seeking pertinent to mental health were included. A total of 15 studies were selected to be part of the review. There were 7 pretest/post-test case series, 5 nonrandomized experimental trial, 1 Solomon 4-groups, and 2 randomized controlled trial (RCT) designs. Nine studies measuring knowledge, 8 studies measuring attitudes, and 4 studies measuring help-seeking, indicated statistically significant improvements. Although results of all studies indicated some level of improvement, more research on implementation of universal school-based mental health awareness programs is needed using RCT study designs, and long-term follow-up implementation. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  6. Psychiatric Boarding in Washington State and the Inadequacy of Mental Health Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    Psychiatric boarding is a term derived from emergency medicine that describes the holding of patients deemed in need of hospitalization in emergency departments for extended periods because psychiatric beds are not available. Such boarding has occurred for many years in the shadows of mental health care as both inpatient beds and community services have decreased. This article focuses on a 2014 Washington State Supreme Court decision that examined the interpretation of certain sections of the Washington state civil commitment statute that had been used to justify the extended boarding of detained psychiatric patients in general hospital emergency departments. The impact of this decision on the state of Washington should be significant and could spark a national debate about the negative impacts of psychiatric boarding on patients and on the nation's general hospital emergency services. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  7. Formal Analysis of Self-Efficacy in Job Interviewee’s Mental State Model

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    Ajoge, N. S.; Aziz, A. A.; Yusof, S. A. Mohd

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a formal analysis approach for self-efficacy model of interviewee’s mental state during a job interview session. Self-efficacy is a construct that has been hypothesised to combine with motivation and interviewee anxiety to define state influence of interviewees. The conceptual model was built based on psychological theories and models related to self-efficacy. A number of well-known relations between events and the course of self-efficacy are summarized from the literature and it is shown that the proposed model exhibits those patterns. In addition, this formal model has been mathematically analysed to find out which stable situations exist. Finally, it is pointed out how this model can be used in a software agent or robot-based platform. Such platform can provide an interview coaching approach where support to the user is provided based on their individual metal state during interview sessions.

  8. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States: Systemic Emergence of Psychological Lexicon and Theory of Mind Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, D.; Buttiglieri, F.

    In recent years, a number of studies that have examined how social experiences are related to children's theory of mind development, have found that: (1) the frequency of mothers' mental state utterances used in mother-child picture-book reading, is correlated with children's theory of mind abilities; (2) mothers' use of cognitive terms is related more strongly to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, Rieffe, 2005; Ruffman, Slade, Crowe, 2002; Taumoepeau, Ruffman, 2006; Dunn, 2002). Despite the evidence for the role of mothers' language, there is disagreement over how exactly it improves children's theory of mind development. In short, mentalistic comments contain distinctive words, grammatical constructions and pragmatic features. The question is, however, which factor is critical (de Rosnay, Pons, Harris, Morrell, 2004). The present study addresses this issue and focuses on relationship between mothers' mental state terms and children's performances in theory of mind tasks (emotion understanding and false belief tasks). Mothers were asked to read some pictures to 10 children between 3;0 and 5;0. Among the different mental state references (perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative), it was found that the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words were significantly associated with children's mental lexicon. In addition, emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Kind of emotional words that are used by the mothers with reference to the Italian language will be discussed.

  9. Mining cross-frequency coupling microstates (CFCμstates) from EEG recordings during resting state and mental arithmetic tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I; Yu Sun; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2016-08-01

    The functional brain connectivity has been studied by analyzing synchronization between dynamic oscillations of identical frequency or between different frequencies of distinct brain areas. It has been hypothesized that cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between different frequency bands is the carrier mechanism for the coordination of global and local neural processes and hence supports the distributed information processing in the brain. In the present study, we attempt to study the dynamic evolution of CFC at resting-state and during a mental task. The concept of CFC microstates (CFCμstates) is introduced as emerged short-lived patterns of CFC. We analyzed dynamic CFC (dCFC) at resting-state and during a comparison task by adopting a phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) estimator for [δ phase-γ-amplitude] coupling at every sensor. Modifying a well-established framework for mining brain dynamics, we show that a small sized repertoire of CFCμstates can be derived so as to encapsulate connectivity variations and further provide novel insights into network's functional reorganization. By analyzing the transition dynamics among CFCμstates, in both tasks, we provided a clear evidence about intrinsic networks that may play a crucial role in information integration.

  10. Determination of oxidation state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapla-Masztafiak, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Lis, G.J.; Gajda, M.; Jasek, E. [Department of Histology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Kraków (Poland); Czubek, U. [Department of Coronary Disease, Jagiellonian University Medical College, John Paul II Hospital, Prądnicka 80, 31-202 Kraków (Poland); Bolechała, F. [Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Grzegórzecka 16, 31-531 Kraków (Poland); Borca, C. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kwiatek, W.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate changes in chemical state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves X-ray absorption spectroscopy was applied. Since Fe is suspected to play detrimental role in aortic valve stenosis pathogenesis the oxidation state of this element has been determined. The experimental material consisted of 10 μm sections of valves excised during routine surgery and from autopsies. The experiment was performed at the MicroXAS beamline of the SLS synchrotron facility in Villigen (Switzerland). The Fe K-edge XANES spectra obtained from tissue samples were carefully analyzed and compared with the spectra of reference compounds containing iron in various chemical structures. The analysis of absorption edge position and shape of the spectra revealed that both chemical forms of iron are presented in valve tissue but Fe{sup 3+} is the predominant form. Small shift of the absorption edge toward higher energy in the spectra from stenotic valve samples indicates higher content of the Fe{sup 3+} form in pathological tissue. Such a phenomenon suggests the role of Fenton reaction and reactive oxygen species in the etiology of aortic valve stenosis. The comparison of pre-edge regions of XANES spectra for control and stenotic valve tissue confirmed no differences in local symmetry or spin state of iron in analyzed samples.

  11. Altered resting state connectivity in right side frontoparietal network in primary insomnia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shumei; Tian, Junzhang; Li, Meng; Wang, Tianyue; Lin, Chulan; Yin, Yi; Jiang, Guihua; Zeng, Luxian; Li, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated alterations of resting-state networks (RSNs) in primary insomnia patients as well as relationships between these changes and clinical features. Fifty-nine primary insomnia patients and 53 healthy control subjects underwent a resting-state fMRI scan (rs-fMRI). Ten RSNs were identified using independent component analysis of rs-fMRI data. To assess significant differences between the two groups, voxel-wise analysis of ten RSNs was conducted using dual regression with FSL randomised non-parametric permutation testing and a threshold-free cluster enhanced technique to control for multiple comparisons. Relationships between abnormal functional connectivity and clinical variables were then investigated with Pearson's correlation analysis. Primary insomnia patients showed decreased connectivity in regions of the right frontoparietal network (FPN), including the superior parietal lobule and superior frontal gyrus. Moreover, decreased connectivity in the right middle temporal gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex with the FPN showed significant positive correlations with disease duration and self-rated anxiety, respectively. Our study suggests that primary insomnia patients are characterised by abnormal organisation of the right FPN, and dysfunction of the FPN is correlated with disease duration and anxiety. The results enhance our understanding of neural substrates underlying symptoms of primary insomnia from the viewpoint of resting-state networks. (orig.)

  12. CHOP THERAPY INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL REDOX STATE ALTERATION IN NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA XENOGRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. XU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We are interested in investigating whether cancer therapy may alter the mitochondrial redox state in cancer cells to inhibit their growth and survival. The redox state can be imaged by the redox scanner that collects the fluorescence signals from both the oxidized-flavoproteins (Fp and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH in snap-frozen tissues and has been previously employed to study tumor aggressiveness and treatment responses. Here, with the redox scanner we investigated the effects of chemotherapy on mouse xenografts of a human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line (DLCL2. The mice were treated with CHOP therapy, i.e., cyclophosphamide (C + hydroxydoxorubicin (H + Oncovin (O + prednisone (P with CHO administration on day 1 and prednisone administration on days 1–5. The Fp content of the treated group was significantly decreased (p = 0.033 on day 5, and the mitochondrial redox state of the treated group was slightly more reduced than that of the control group (p = 0.048. The decrease of the Fp heterogeneity (measured by the mean standard deviation had a border-line statistical significance (p = 0.071. The result suggests that the mitochondrial metabolism of lymphoma cells was slightly suppressed and the lymphomas became less aggressive after the CHOP therapy.

  13. State of spirituality-infused mental health services in Los Angeles County wellness and client-run centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Subica, Andrew M; Kim, Min Ah; Van Nguyen, Kevin; Lim, Caroline S; Mancuso, Laura L

    2014-11-01

    Spiritual coping is associated with positive mental health outcomes for individuals with serious mental illness, yet spirituality-infused services are seldom offered in public sector mental health agencies. The Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health introduced a policy addressing spirituality in 2012. This study explored the breadth and degree to which spirituality-infused activities were being offered in 53 Los Angeles wellness and recovery centers after the policy was widely disseminated. More than 98 % of the centers offered options for spirituality-infused activities; one-third offered spirituality-focused groups. Los Angeles's progress may guide implementation of spirituality-infused services in other state or local public mental health systems.

  14. Anthropometric characteristics and the burden of altered nutritional status among neuropsychiatric patients at Zomba Mental Hospital in Zomba, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhango, S N; Kalimbira, A; Mwagomba, B

    2015-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of overnutrition and undernutrition among neuropsychiatric inpatients and outpatients at Zomba Mental Hospital in Zomba, Malawi. In this analytical cross-sectional study (n = 239), data were collected from psychiatric patients who were either inpatients (n = 181) or outpatients (n = 58) at Zomba Mental Hospital, which is the largest mental health facility in Malawi. Information was collected about patient demographics, anthropometric data, dietary information, and tobacco and alcohol use, among other variables. Data were entered and analysed in SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Means were generated and compared between male and female patients, and between inpatients and outpatients. The study recruited 158 male and 81 female patients, with mean ages of 31.24 ± 11.85 years and 33.08 ± 15.18 years (p = 0.328), respectively. Male patients were significantly taller (165.27 ± 7.25 cm) than female patients (155.30 ± 6.56 cm) (p underweight. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and underweight between male and female participants, or between inpatients and outpatients. Our study-the first one of its kind in Malawi-characterised the anthropometry of neuropsychiatric patients at a major metal health facility in Malawi, and has shown a high proportion of overweight patients and a notable presence of underweight patients among them. Being overweight or obese is a risk factor for metabolic disorders. Being underweight may aggravate mental illness or disturb the effect of medication. There is need, therefore, to include nutrition screening and therapeutic or supplementary feeding as part of a comprehensive care and treatment plan for neuropsychiatric patients.

  15. Discriminating autism spectrum disorders from schizophrenia by investigation of mental state attribution on an on-line mentalizing task: A review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliksted, Vibeke; Ubukata, Shiho; Koelkebeck, Katja

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, theories of how humans form a "theory of mind" of others ("mentalizing") have increasingly been called upon to explain impairments in social interaction in mental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether tasks that assess impairments in mentalizing can also contribute to determining differential deficits across disorders, which may be important for early identification and treatment. Paradigms that challenge mentalizing abilities in an on-line, real-life fashion have been considered helpful in detecting disease-specific deficits. In this review, we are therefore summarizing results of studies that assess the attribution of mental states using an animated triangles task. Behavioral as well as brain imaging studies in ASD and schizophrenia have been taken into account. While for neuroimaging methods, data are sparse and investigation methods inconsistent, we performed a meta-analysis of behavioral data to directly investigate performance deficits across disorders. Here, more impaired abilities in the appropriate description of interactions were found in ASD patients than in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, an analysis of first-episode (FES) versus longer lasting (LLS) schizophrenia showed that usage of mental state terms was reduced in the LLS group. In our review and meta-analysis, we identified performance differences between ASD and schizophrenia that seem helpful in targeting differential deficits, taking into account different stages of schizophrenia. However, to tackle the deficits in more detail, studies are needed that directly compare patients with ASD and schizophrenia using behavioral or neuroimaging methods with more standardized task versions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationships between roles and mental states and role functional QOL in breast cancer outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Naoko; Kataoka, Tsuyoshi; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the degrees of role accomplishment, the importance of and satisfaction with roles, and to assess their relationships with mental states and role functional quality of life, in breast cancer patients receiving treatment on an outpatient basis. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study. Thirty patients with primary breast cancer were evaluated using the Self-Rating Frenchay Activities Index, the Role Checklist, the Profile of Mood States and the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationships between each role-related item and each Profile of Mood States and Short-Form 36 subscale. A higher number of roles played was positively associated with the score for Vigor but was negatively associated with the score for physical quality of life. A higher degree of the importance of roles was negatively correlated with the score for Confusion and positively correlated with the score for mental quality of life. A higher degree of satisfaction with roles was negatively correlated with depression, tension-anxiety, confusion and the total mood disturbances score, and was positively correlated with both the physical and negative quality of life scores. No significant correlations were apparent between the degrees of role accomplishment (Self-Rating Frenchay Activities Index scores) and the Profile of Mood States and Short-Form 36 scores. The results indicated that qualitative and subjective factors (i.e. the degrees of importance of and satisfaction with roles) are associated more closely with emotional states and role functional quality of life in breast cancer outpatients than quantitative and objective factors (i.e. degree of role accomplishment and the number of roles).

  17. Consumption of alcohol in mental health services in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Prado Kantorski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcoholism has been a major concern of public health worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, approximately 76.3 million people presented problems of alcohol abuse in 2004. Therefore, the risks arising from the association of psychiatric disorders with alcohol consumption should also be considered in the context of mental health services. Objective: This study aimed to analyze alcohol consumption by the users of Therapeutic Residential Services- SRT and Psychosocial Care Centers- CAPS in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methodology: The present study is part of a research entitled Rehabilitation Networks - REDESUL, carried out from September to December 2009 in five municipalities of the aforementioned Brazilian state. The total sample comprised 392 users: 143 from the SRT and 270 from the CAPS services, with intersection of 21 members. Results: The results showed that of the 392 care service users, only 29 had consumed alcohol during the four weeks prior to the survey. The majority of these 29 users were between 31 and 59 years old, male, single, and only n = 13 (48.28% reported being aware of their psychiatric disorders, with prevalence of schizophrenia n = 7 (24.13% followed by bipolar disorders n = 3 (10.34%. Conclusion: It is necessary that the mental health teams are also trained to work with alcohol users, regardless of the type of mental health service they work for, and that they develop actions in relation to guidance on alcohol consumption, treatment adherence, rehabilitation, and integration of users to the community.

  18. Transient Activation of Apomixis in Sexual Neotriploids May Retain Genomically Altered States and Enhance Polyploid Establishment

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    Diego Hojsgaard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyploid genomes evolve and follow a series of dynamic transfigurations along with adaptation and speciation. The initial formation of a new polyploid individual within a diploid population usually involves a triploid bridge, a two-step mechanism of cell fusions between ubiquitous (reduced and rare (unreduced gametes. The primary fusion event creates an intermediate triploid individual with unbalanced genome sets, a situation of genomic-shock characterized by gene expression dysregulation, high dosage sensitivity, disturbed cell divisions, and physiological and reproductive attributes drastically altered. This near-sterile neotriploid must produce (even eupolyploids through secondary fusion events to restore genome steadiness, meiotic balance, and fertility required for the demographic establishment of a nascent lineage. Natural conditions locate several difficulties to polyploid establishment, including the production of highly unbalanced and rarely unreduced (euploid gametes, frequency-dependent disadvantages (minority cytotype exclusion, severe fitness loss, and ecological competition with diploid parents. Persistence and adaptation of neopolyploids depend upon genetic and phenotypic novelty coupled to joint selective forces that preserve shock-induced genomic changes (subgenome homeolog partitioning and drive meiotic (reproductive stabilization and ecological diversification. Thus, polyploid establishment through the triploid bridge is a feasible but not ubiquitous process that requires a number of low-probability events and singular circumstances. Yet, frequencies of polyploids suggest that polyploid establishment is a pervasive process. To explain this disparity, and supported in experimental evidence, I propose that situations like hybridization and ploidy-state transitions associated to genomic shock and substantial developmental alterations can transiently activate apomixis as a mechanism to halt genomic instability and cancel factors

  19. Host rocks and their alterations as related to uranium-bearing veins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, George W.

    1956-01-01

    This paper, dealing with the different kinds of host rocks and their alterations associated with uranium-bearing veins in the United States, is a chapter of a comprehensive report entitled , "Geology of uranium-bearing vein deposits in the United States," in preparation by George W. Walker, Frank W. Osterwald, and others. The comprehensive report will include detailed information on tectonic and structural setting, kinds of host rocks, wall-rock alteration, mineralogy, physical characteristics, processes of deposition, and concepts of origin of uraniferous veins; but, because it will not be completed until sometime in the future, some chapters of the report are being transmitted as they are finished. Part of an introductory chapter to the comprehensive report entitled, "Classification and distribution of uranium-bearing veins in the United States" (Walker and Osterwald, 1956) has already been transmitted; several of the terms used herein are defined in the introductory chapter. Data included in this chapter demonstrate that uranium-bearing veins are: 1) in rocks of nearly all textural, chemical, and mineralogic types; 2) most abundant in holocrystalline, commonly equigranular, igeneous and metamorphic rocks characterized by a moderate to high silica content and and by similar physical properties. Although some of the physiochemical properties of the host rocks are discussed in terms of favorability or nonfavoribility for uranium deposition, the principal purpose of this chapter is to establish the petroloic environment in which uranium-bearing veins have been found. Because favorability or nonfavorability of host rocks is related complexly to the chemistry of ore solutions and to methods or uranium transport and deposition, several hypothetical processes of transport and deposition have been referred to briefly; these and other hypotheses will be outlines and discussed in greater detail in a subsequent chapter. The compilation of data leading to this report and its

  20. [Mini Mental State Examination and Brief neuropsychological Examination as neuropsychological screening tools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissi, Marianna; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2012-01-01

    An adequate neuropsychological evaluation is essential today to obtain a correct diagnosis in most neurological and geriatric areas. For these purposes, a number of screening and evaluation tools are in use to aid the neuropsychologist for diagnosis of cognitive disorder and for assessing the type of the disease. The present research compares two neuropsychological tools, commonly used in the daily practice: the "Mini Mental State Examination" and the "Brief Neuropsychological Examination". This study explores the neuropsychological profile of 56 post-stroke patients in rehabilitation phase. Patients were divided in three groups, in order to the stroke brain area: left, right and multinfarctual. No significant difference in the three pathological groups were observed, in the mean MMSE-score. On the opposite, ENB demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity in discrimination between pathological groups, but only on the descriptive level: for example, right-stroke patients performed worse in visuo-spatial tests while left-stroke patients had lower performance in verbal memory tests. Our results showed an inadequacy of neuropsychological screening evaluation in post-stroke patients: both Mini Mental State Examination and the Brief Neuropsychological Examination appear to be inadequate to underline specific cognitive deficits in patients with different brain lesions; therefore it is important to consider the tools adequacy and the time-after-stroke when doing neuropsychological evaluation.

  1. Mental state decoding impairment in major depression and borderline personality disorder: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Mara J; Unoka, Zsolt

    2015-12-01

    Patients with major depression and borderline personality disorder are characterised by a distorted perception of other people's intentions. Deficits in mental state decoding are thought to be the underlying cause of this clinical feature. To examine, using meta-analysis, whether mental state decoding abilities in patients with major depression and borderline personality disorder differ from those of healthy controls. A systematic review of 13 cross-sectional studies comparing Reading in the Mind of the Eyes Test (RMET) accuracy performance of patients with major depression or borderline personality disorder and healthy age-matched controls (n = 976). Valence scores, where reported, were also assessed. Large significant deficits were seen for global RMET performance in patients with major depression (d = -0.751). The positive RMET valence scores of patients with depression were significantly worse; patients with borderline personality disorder had worse neutral scores. Both groups were worse than controls. Moderator analysis revealed that individuals with comorbid borderline personality disorder and major depression did better than those with borderline personality disorder alone on accuracy. Those with comorbid borderline personality disorder and any cluster B or C personality disorder did worse than borderline personality disorder alone. Individuals with both borderline personality disorder and major depression performed better then those with borderline personality disorder without major depression for positive valence. These findings highlight the relevance of RMET performance in patients with borderline personality disorder and major depression, and the importance of considering comorbidity in future analysis. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. Determining Mental State from EEG Signals Using Parallel Implementations of Neural Networks

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    Charles W. Anderson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available EEG analysis has played a key role in the modeling of the brain's cortical dynamics, but relatively little effort has been devoted to developing EEG as a limited means of communication. If several mental states can be reliably distinguished by recognizing patterns in EEG, then a paralyzed person could communicate to a device such as a wheelchair by composing sequences of these mental states. EEG pattern recognition is a difficult problem and hinges on the success of finding representations of the EEG signals in which the patterns can be distinguished. In this article, we report on a study comparing three EEG representations, the unprocessed signals, a reduced-dimensional representation using the Karhunen – Loève transform, and a frequency-based representation. Classification is performed with a two-layer neural network implemented on a CNAPS server (128 processor, SIMD architecture by Adaptive Solutions, Inc. Execution time comparisons show over a hundred-fold speed up over a Sun Sparc 10. The best classification accuracy on untrained samples is 73% using the frequency-based representation.

  3. Creativity as a distinct trainable mental state: An EEG study of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Joel A; Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Joanisse, Marc F

    2017-05-01

    Alpha-band EEG was used to index how creative mental states relate to the creation of artistic works in skilled musicians. We contrasted differences in frontal upper alpha-band activity between tasks with high and low creativity demands by recording EEGs while skilled musicians listened to, played back, and improvised jazz melodies. Neural responses were compared for skilled musicians with training in musical improvisation versus those who had no formal improvisation training. Consistent with our hypotheses, individuals showed increased frontal upper alpha-band activity during more creative tasks (i.e., improvisation) compared to during less creative tasks (i.e., rote playback). Moreover, this effect was greatest for musicians with formal improvisation training. The strength of this effect also appeared to modulate the quality of these improvisations, as evidenced by significant correlations between upper alpha EEG power and objective post-hoc ratings of individuals' performances. These findings support a conceptualization of creativity as a distinct mental state and suggest spontaneous processing capacity is better nurtured through formal institutional training than informal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts

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    Dong Guangheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Internet gaming addiction (IGA, as a subtype of internet addiction disorder, is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IGA should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity of IGA. This study investigated the brain functions in IGA patients with resting-state fMRI. Methods Fifteen IGA subjects and fourteen healthy controls participated in this study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo measures were used to detect the abnormal functional integrations. Results Comparing to the healthy controls, IGA subjects show enhanced ReHo in brainstem, inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus. All of these regions are thought related with sensory-motor coordination. In addition, IGA subjects show decreased ReHo in temporal, occipital and parietal brain regions. These regions are thought responsible for visual and auditory functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-time online game playing enhanced the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and decreased the excitability in visual and auditory related brain regions.

  5. Relationships Between Housing and Food Insecurity, Frequent Mental Distress, and Insufficient Sleep Among Adults in 12 US States, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yong; Njai, Rashid S.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Housing insecurity and food insecurity may be psychological stressors associated with insufficient sleep. Frequent mental distress may mediate the relationships between these variables. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between housing insecurity and food insecurity, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep. Methods We analyzed data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 12 states. Housing insecurity and food insecurity were...

  6. Altered default network resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei-na; Sun, Jin-hua; Sun, Ya-wen; Zhou, Yan; Li, Lei; Xu, Jian-rong; Du, Ya-song

    2013-01-01

    Excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Seventeen adolescents with IGA and 24 normal control adolescents underwent a 7.3 minute resting-state fMRI scan. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. To assess the relationship between IGA symptom severity and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas correlated with PCC connectivity were correlated with the scores of the 17 subjects with IGA on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and their hours of Internet use per week. There were no significant differences in the distributions of the age, gender, and years of education between the two groups. The subjects with IGA showed longer Internet use per week (hours) (paddiction, they support the hypothesis that IGA as a behavioral addiction that may share similar neurobiological abnormalities with other addictive disorders.

  7. Altered regional and circuit resting-state activity associated with unilateral hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchao Wang

    Full Text Available The deprivation of sensory input after hearing damage results in functional reorganization of the brain including cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortex and changes in cognitive processing. However, it remains unclear whether partial deprivation from unilateral auditory loss (UHL would similarly affect the neural circuitry of cognitive processes in addition to the functional organization of sensory cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate intrinsic activity in 34 participants with UHL from acoustic neuroma in comparison with 22 matched normal controls. In sensory regions, we found decreased regional homogeneity (ReHo in the bilateral calcarine cortices in UHL. However, there was an increase of ReHo in the right anterior insular cortex (rAI, the key node of cognitive control network (CCN and multimodal sensory integration, as well as in the left parahippocampal cortex (lPHC, a key node in the default mode network (DMN. Moreover, seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis showed an enhanced relationship between rAI and several key regions of the DMN. Meanwhile, lPHC showed more negative relationship with components in the CCN and greater positive relationship in the DMN. Such reorganizations of functional connectivity within the DMN and between the DMN and CCN were confirmed by a graph theory analysis. These results suggest that unilateral sensory input damage not only alters the activity of the sensory areas but also reshapes the regional and circuit functional organization of the cognitive control network.

  8. Amicus Curiae Brief for the United States Supreme Court on Mental Health Issues Associated with "Physician-Assisted Suicide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Gordon, Judith R.

    2002-01-01

    After providing background material related to the Supreme Court cases on "physician-assisted suicide" (Washington v. Glucksberg, 1997, and Vacco v. Quill, 1997), this article presents the amicus curiae brief that was submitted to the United States Supreme Court by 2 national mental health organizations, a state psychological association, and an…

  9. Transcutaneous Spinal Direct Current Stimulation Alters Resting-State Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Lauren; Meyer-Frießem, Christine H; Zahn, Peter K; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a noninvasive method that can modulate spinal reflexes, sensory afferent conduction, and even pain perception. Although neurophysiological evidence suggests that tsDCS alters somatosensory and nociceptive afferent conduction to the cortex, its supraspinal effects have not yet been investigated by using functional imaging to investigate tsDCS-induced alterations in intrinsic functional connectivity (FC). Therefore, we hypothesize that tsDCS-induced changes in neurophysiological measures might also be reflected in spontaneous brain activity. We investigated tsDCS-induced changes in somatosensory cortical connectivity by using seed-to-voxel-based analyses from the bilateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and the thalamus in a double-blind, crossover study design. Resting state FC was measured by using blood oxygenation level-dependent, functional magnetic resonance imaging (3T Philips) before and after anodal, cathodal, and sham tsDCS (20 min, 2.5 mA, active electrode centered over T11 spinous process, reference electrode over left shoulder blade) in a double-blind, crossover study of 20 healthy men (24 ± 0.7 years). As compared with sham, anodal tsDCS resulted in a decreased connectivity between the S1 and the ipsilateral posterior insula for both left and right hemispheres. Anodal tsDCS also resulted in decreased thalamic connectivity with the anterior cingulate cortex, and increased connectivity between S1 and the thalamus. Cathodal tsDCS showed increased FC between the right thalamus and both left and right posterior insulae, and decreased connectivity between the S1 seeds and the occipital cortex. Our results provide evidence of supraspinal effects of tsDCS and suggest that tsDCS may provide a noninvasive intervention that is able to target cortical sensory networks.

  10. Standard colonic lavage alters the natural state of mucosal-associated microbiota in the human colon.

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    Laura Harrell

    Full Text Available Past studies of the human intestinal microbiota are potentially confounded by the common practice of using bowel-cleansing preparations. We examined if colonic lavage changes the natural state of enteric mucosal-adherent microbes in healthy human subjects.Twelve healthy individuals were divided into three groups; experimental group, control group one, and control group two. Subjects in the experimental group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Within two weeks, subjects were given a standard polyethylene glycol-based bowel cleansing preparation followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy. Subjects in control group one underwent two un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopies within one week. Subjects in the second control group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy after a 24-hour clear liquid diet within one week. The mucosa-associated microbial communities from the two procedures in each subject were compared using 16S rRNA gene based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP, and library cloning and sequencing.Clone library sequencing analysis showed that there were changes in the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota in subjects after colonic lavage. These changes were not observed in our control groups. Standard bowel preparation altered the diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota. Taxonomic classification did not reveal significant changes at the phylum level, but there were differences observed at the genus level.Standard bowel cleansing preparation altered the mucosal-adherent microbiota in all of our subjects, although the degree of change was variable. These findings underscore the importance of considering the confounding effects of bowel preparation when designing experiments exploring the gut microbiota.

  11. Sleep Disturbance May Alter White Matter and Resting State Functional Connectivities in Parkinson's Disease.

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    Chung, Seok Jong; Choi, Yong-Ho; Kwon, Hunki; Park, Yeong-Hun; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Yoo, Han Soo; Moon, Seock Hyeon; Ye, Byoung Seok; Sohn, Young H; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2017-03-01

    To clarify whether sleep disturbance would alter the patterns of structural and functional networks underlying cognitive dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Among the 180 patients with nondemented PD in our cohort, 45 patients were classified as the group with sleep disturbance according to the 5-item scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease nighttime scale. Based on propensity scores, another 45 PD patients without sleep disturbance were matched to this group. We performed a comparative analysis of cortical thickness, diffusion tensor imaging-based white matter integrity, resting-state functional connectivity, and cognitive performance between PD patients with and without sleep disturbance. PD patients with sleep disturbance showed poorer performance in attention and working memory and a tendency toward a lower score in frontal executive function relative to those without sleep disturbance. The PD with sleep disturbance group exhibited widespread white matter disintegration compared to the PD without sleep disturbance group, although there were no significant differences in cortical thickness between the PD subgroups. On functional network analysis, PD patients with sleep disturbance exhibited less severely decreased cortical functional connectivity within the default mode network, central executive network, and dorsal attention network when compared to those without sleep disturbance. The present study suggests that sleep disturbance in PD patients could be associated with white matter and functional network alterations in conjunction with cognitive impairment. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Altered mental status and low anion gap in a patient with sickle cell anemia: a case report

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    Wartak Siddharth A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction It is challenging to diagnose two coexisting medical conditions if the symptoms are overlapping. This is further confounded if the patient presents with an unexplained deterioration in mental status. A low anion gap or a zero anion gap is an uncommon clinical finding and has few differential diagnoses. This test therefore has important implications in correctly identifying underlying medical conditions. Case presentation A 50-year-old African American male patient with sickle cell disease presented with refractory anemia, recurrent bone pains and encephalopathy. Routine testing failed to explain his mental deterioration. A laboratory finding of a low anion gap pointed in the direction of multiple myeloma as the underlying cause. This in turn led to an appropriate and timely course of treatment and clinical improvement. Conclusion We present a very rare case of sickle cell anemia with coexisting multiple myeloma. This case sparks an interesting discussion on the anion gap, of which a clinician should be aware. It highlights the importance of the use of a verifiable anion gap in diagnosing medical conditions beyond the routine diagnosis of acid base disorders.

  13. Altered mental status and low anion gap in a patient with sickle cell anemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartak, Siddharth A; Mehendale, Reshma A; Freda, Benjamin; Verma, Ashish; Rose, David N

    2012-02-20

    It is challenging to diagnose two coexisting medical conditions if the symptoms are overlapping. This is further confounded if the patient presents with an unexplained deterioration in mental status. A low anion gap or a zero anion gap is an uncommon clinical finding and has few differential diagnoses. This test therefore has important implications in correctly identifying underlying medical conditions. A 50-year-old African American male patient with sickle cell disease presented with refractory anemia, recurrent bone pains and encephalopathy. Routine testing failed to explain his mental deterioration. A laboratory finding of a low anion gap pointed in the direction of multiple myeloma as the underlying cause. This in turn led to an appropriate and timely course of treatment and clinical improvement. We present a very rare case of sickle cell anemia with coexisting multiple myeloma. This case sparks an interesting discussion on the anion gap, of which a clinician should be aware. It highlights the importance of the use of a verifiable anion gap in diagnosing medical conditions beyond the routine diagnosis of acid base disorders.

  14. Intrinsic Noise Profoundly Alters the Dynamics and Steady State of Morphogen-Controlled Bistable Genetic Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    During tissue development, patterns of gene expression determine the spatial arrangement of cell types. In many cases, gradients of secreted signalling molecules—morphogens—guide this process by controlling downstream transcriptional networks. A mechanism commonly used in these networks to convert the continuous information provided by the gradient into discrete transitions between adjacent cell types is the genetic toggle switch, composed of cross-repressing transcriptional determinants. Previous analyses have emphasised the steady state output of these mechanisms. Here, we explore the dynamics of the toggle switch and use exact numerical simulations of the kinetic reactions, the corresponding Chemical Langevin Equation, and Minimum Action Path theory to establish a framework for studying the effect of gene expression noise on patterning time and boundary position. This provides insight into the time scale, gene expression trajectories and directionality of stochastic switching events between cell states. Taking gene expression noise into account predicts that the final boundary position of a morphogen-induced toggle switch, although robust to changes in the details of the noise, is distinct from that of the deterministic system. Moreover, the dramatic increase in patterning time close to the boundary predicted from the deterministic case is substantially reduced. The resulting stochastic switching introduces differences in patterning time along the morphogen gradient that result in a patterning wave propagating away from the morphogen source with a velocity determined by the intrinsic noise. The wave sharpens and slows as it advances and may never reach steady state in a biologically relevant time. This could explain experimentally observed dynamics of pattern formation. Together the analysis reveals the importance of dynamical transients for understanding morphogen-driven transcriptional networks and indicates that gene expression noise can qualitatively

  15. Intrinsic Noise Profoundly Alters the Dynamics and Steady State of Morphogen-Controlled Bistable Genetic Switches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Perez-Carrasco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During tissue development, patterns of gene expression determine the spatial arrangement of cell types. In many cases, gradients of secreted signalling molecules-morphogens-guide this process by controlling downstream transcriptional networks. A mechanism commonly used in these networks to convert the continuous information provided by the gradient into discrete transitions between adjacent cell types is the genetic toggle switch, composed of cross-repressing transcriptional determinants. Previous analyses have emphasised the steady state output of these mechanisms. Here, we explore the dynamics of the toggle switch and use exact numerical simulations of the kinetic reactions, the corresponding Chemical Langevin Equation, and Minimum Action Path theory to establish a framework for studying the effect of gene expression noise on patterning time and boundary position. This provides insight into the time scale, gene expression trajectories and directionality of stochastic switching events between cell states. Taking gene expression noise into account predicts that the final boundary position of a morphogen-induced toggle switch, although robust to changes in the details of the noise, is distinct from that of the deterministic system. Moreover, the dramatic increase in patterning time close to the boundary predicted from the deterministic case is substantially reduced. The resulting stochastic switching introduces differences in patterning time along the morphogen gradient that result in a patterning wave propagating away from the morphogen source with a velocity determined by the intrinsic noise. The wave sharpens and slows as it advances and may never reach steady state in a biologically relevant time. This could explain experimentally observed dynamics of pattern formation. Together the analysis reveals the importance of dynamical transients for understanding morphogen-driven transcriptional networks and indicates that gene expression noise can

  16. Altered states of consciousness and short-term psychological after-effects induced by the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in an urban context in Brazil.

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    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Giglio, Joel Sales; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2005-06-01

    This report describes psychological assessments of the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in the religious groups União do Vegetal and Santo Daime. Nineteen subjects who tried the beverage in Santo Daime rituals and nine subjects who tried it in União do Vegetal rituals were evaluated one to four days before their first ayahuasca experience in life and one to two weeks after this experience. Semistructured interviews and a structured psychiatric scale were used in the first evaluation to elicit set variables concerning attitudes towards the ayahuasca experience and to elicit mental health status. Mental health status was reassessed in the second evaluation, which also included a semistructured interview concerning the phenomenology of altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Predominantly positive expectancies concerning the ayahuasca experience were the most prominent findings concerning set variables. Visual phenomena, numinousness, peacefulness, insights and a distressing reaction were the most salient ASC experiences. A significant reduction of the intensity of minor psychiatric symptoms occurred in the Santo Daime group after the hallucinogen experience. Subjects in both groups reported behavioral changes towards assertiveness, serenity and vivacity/joy. The set and setting hypothesis, suggestibility processes, as well as the supposed unique effects of ayahuasca are used in discussing these findings.

  17. The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.

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    Pilgrim, David

    2012-09-01

    It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Sergio Baxter Andreoli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations.

  19. Mental health of refugees following state-sponsored repatriation from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lersner, Ulrike; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2008-11-10

    In recent years, Voluntary Assisted Return Programmes (VARPs) have received increasing funding as a potential way of reducing the number of refugees in EU member states. A number of factors may affect the mental well-being of returnees. These include adjustment to the home country following return, difficult living conditions, and long-term effects resulting from the severe traumatic stress that had originally driven the affected out of their homes. Little is known about the extent to which these and other factors may promote or inhibit the willingness of refugees to return to their country of origin. The present pilot study investigated refugees who returned to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 13 years. Forty-seven VARP participants were interviewed concerning their present living conditions, their views of their native country, and their attitudes towards a potential return prior to actually returning. 33 participants were interviewed nine months after returning to their country of origin. Mental health and well-being were assessed using the questionnaires Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and EUROHIS and the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.).Our objectives were to examine the mental health status of refugees returning to their home country following an extended period of exile. We also aimed to assess the circumstances under which people decided to return, the current living conditions in their home country, and retrospective returnee evaluations of their decision to accept assisted return. Prior to returning to their home country, participants showed a prevalence rate of 53% for psychiatric disorders. After returning, this rate increased to a sizeable 88%. Substantial correlations were found between the living situation in Germany, the disposition to return, and mental health. For two thirds of the participants, the decision to return was not voluntary. Psychological strain among

  20. Mental health of refugees following state-sponsored repatriation from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, Voluntary Assisted Return Programmes (VARPs have received increasing funding as a potential way of reducing the number of refugees in EU member states. A number of factors may affect the mental well-being of returnees. These include adjustment to the home country following return, difficult living conditions, and long-term effects resulting from the severe traumatic stress that had originally driven the affected out of their homes. Little is known about the extent to which these and other factors may promote or inhibit the willingness of refugees to return to their country of origin. The present pilot study investigated refugees who returned to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 13 years. Methods Forty-seven VARP participants were interviewed concerning their present living conditions, their views of their native country, and their attitudes towards a potential return prior to actually returning. 33 participants were interviewed nine months after returning to their country of origin. Mental health and well-being were assessed using the questionnaires Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS and EUROHIS and the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Our objectives were to examine the mental health status of refugees returning to their home country following an extended period of exile. We also aimed to assess the circumstances under which people decided to return, the current living conditions in their home country, and retrospective returnee evaluations of their decision to accept assisted return. Results Prior to returning to their home country, participants showed a prevalence rate of 53% for psychiatric disorders. After returning, this rate increased to a sizeable 88%. Substantial correlations were found between the living situation in Germany, the disposition to return, and mental health. For two thirds of the participants, the decision

  1. Evaluation of service users' experiences of participating in an exercise programme at the Western Australian State Forensic Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynaden, Dianne; Barr, Lesley; Omari, Omar; Fulton, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Approximately 210 patients are admitted each year to the Western Australian State Forensic Mental Health Service, and most present with psychotic illness, along with other physical and mental comorbidities. In 2010, a healthy lifestyle programme, which included a formal exercise programme coordinated by an exercise physiologist, was introduced at the service. A self-report questionnaire was developed to obtain feedback on the programme, and 56 patients completed the questionnaire during the 6-month evaluation period. As well as providing patients with access to regular physical activity, the programme also supports the recovery philosophy, where patients work in partnership with forensic mental health staff. Overall, patients reported that the programme assisted them to manage their psychiatric symptoms, as well as improving their level of fitness, confidence, and self-esteem. In addition, patients received education about the importance of regular exercise to their mental health, and the role exercise plays in preventing chronic illness and obesity. While the benefits of exercise on mental health outcomes for people with depression and anxiety are well established, this evaluation adds to the evidence that such programmes provide similar benefits to people who have a psychotic illness and are hospitalized in an acute secure setting. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. What's in the 'treatment gap'? Ethnographic perspectives on addiction and global mental health from China, Russia, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Nicholas; Garriott, William; Raikhel, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a 'global mental health' agenda, focused on providing evidence-based interventions for mental illnesses in low- and middle-income countries. Anthropologists and cultural psychiatrists have engaged in vigorous debates about the appropriateness of this agenda. In this article, we reflect on these debates, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork on the management of substance use disorders in China, Russia, and the United States. We argue that the logic of 'treatment gaps,' which guides much research and intervention under the rubric of global mental health, partially obscures the complex assemblages of institutions, therapeutics, knowledges, and actors framing and managing addiction (as well as other mental health issues) in any particular setting.

  3. Overexpression of plastid terminal oxidase inSynechocystissp. PCC 6803 alters cellular redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilke, Kathleen; Ajlani, Ghada; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2017-09-26

    Cyanobacteria are the most ancient organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis, and they are the ancestors of plant plastids. All plastids contain the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), while only certain cyanobacteria contain PTOX. Many putative functions have been discussed for PTOX in higher plants including a photoprotective role during abiotic stresses like high light, salinity and extreme temperatures. Since PTOX oxidizes PQH 2 and reduces oxygen to water, it is thought to protect against photo-oxidative damage by removing excess electrons from the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. To investigate the role of PTOX we overexpressed rice PTOX fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-OsPTOX) in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a model cyanobacterium that does not encode PTOX. The fusion was highly expressed and OsPTOX was active, as shown by chlorophyll fluorescence and P 700 absorption measurements. The presence of PTOX led to a highly oxidized state of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P) + pool, as detected by NAD(P)H fluorescence. Moreover, in the PTOX overexpressor the electron transport capacity of PSI relative to PSII was higher, indicating an alteration of the photosystem I (PSI) to photosystem II (PSII) stoichiometry. We suggest that PTOX controls the expression of responsive genes of the photosynthetic apparatus in a different way from the PQ/PQH 2 ratio.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Child marriage in the United States and its association with mental health in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Strat, Yann; Dubertret, Caroline; Le Foll, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Despite the devastating impact of child marriage (marriage before the age of 18 years) on health, no study has yet evaluated its impact on mental health in the general adult population. This article presents nationally representative data on the prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and psychiatric comorbidity of child marriage among women in the United States. Data were drawn from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. We limited our analyses to the sample of women (N = 24 575) with a known age at first marriage, of whom 18 645 had been or were presently married. The prevalence of child marriage among women was 8.9%. Demographic factors associated with child marriage were black and American Indian/Alaska Native ethnicities, age at interview of >45 years, low educational level, low income, and living in the South and rural areas of the United States. The overall lifetime and 12-month rates of psychiatric disorders were higher for women who married as children, compared with women who married as adults. In addition, women who married as children were more likely to seek and access health services, compared with women who married in adulthood. Child marriage increases the risk of lifetime and current psychiatric disorders in the United States. Support for psychiatric vulnerabilities among women married in childhood is required.

  6. Altered states of consciousness in epilepsy: a DTI study of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fangfang; Xing, Wu; Wang, Xiaoyi; Liao, Weihua; Shi, Wei

    2017-08-01

    A disturbance in the level of consciousness is a classical clinical sign of several seizure types. Recent studies have shown that altered states of consciousness in seizures are associated with structural and functional changes of several brain regions. Prominent among these are the thalamus, the brain stem and the default mode network, which is part of the consciousness system. Our study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate these brain regions in patients with three different types of epilepsies that are associated with altered consciousness: complex partial seizures (CPS), primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) or secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (SGTCS). Additionally, this study further explores the probable mechanisms underlying impairment of consciousness in seizures. Conventional MRI and DTI scanning were performed in 51 patients with epilepsy and 51 healthy volunteers. The epilepsy group was in turn subdivided into three subgroups: CPS, PGTCS or SGTCS. Each subgroup comprised 17 patients. Each subject involved in the study underwent a DTI evaluation of the brain to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of nine regions of interest: the postero-superior portion of midbrain, the bilateral dorsal thalamus, the bilateral precuneus/posterior cingulate, the bilateral medial pre-frontal gyri and the bilateral supramarginalgyri. The statistical significance of the measured ADC and FA values between the experimental and control groups was analysed using the paired t-test, and one-way analysis of variance was performed for a comparative analysis between the three subgroups. Statistically significantly higher ADC values ( p 0.05) in the bilateral precuneus/posterior cingulate, bilateral medial pre-frontal gyri or bilateral supramarginalgyri in the experimental group. Among the three patient subgroups and the ADC values of corresponding brain regions, there were no statistically

  7. Carnitine deficiency presenting with a decreased mental state in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis receiving long-term tube feeding: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isse, Naohi; Miura, Yoh; Obata, Toshiyuki; Takahara, Noriko

    2013-12-30

    L-carnitine is an important metabolic mediator involved in fatty acid transport. It is obtained from the diet, particularly from animal products, such as red meat. Previous reports have revealed that long-term tube feeding with a commercial product containing no or low levels of carnitine can lead to an altered mental state caused by hyperammonemia. A 72-year-old Japanese man had a 12-year history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. He was bedridden and had required mechanical ventilation and enteral tube feeding for 10 years at home. His main enteral solution was a commercial product that contained low carnitine levels, and he sometimes received coffee and homemade products such as miso soup. Our patient's ability to communicate gradually deteriorated over a period of one year. His serum total carnitine level was abnormally low, at 26.7μmol/L (normal range, 45 to 91μmol/L), but his ammonium level was normal. His mental state improved dramatically after starting L-carnitine supplementation (600mg twice daily). This case highlights the importance of avoiding carnitine deficiency in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis undergoing long-term tube feeding. These patients experience progressive muscle atrophy that might cause impaired carnitine storage and might manifest as communication difficulties. Carnitine deficiency can be misdiagnosed as a progression of systemic muscle atrophy. Clinicians should be aware of this disorder and should consider periodically measuring carnitine levels, regardless of the patient's serum ammonium levels.

  8. Acute brain trauma, lung injury, and pneumonia: more than just altered mental status and decreased airway protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Parker J; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Bosarge, Patrick L; Wagener, Brant M

    2017-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Even when patients survive the initial insult, there is significant morbidity and mortality secondary to subsequent pulmonary edema, acute lung injury (ALI), and nosocomial pneumonia. Whereas the relationship between TBI and secondary pulmonary complications is recognized, little is known about the mechanistic interplay of the two phenomena. Changes in mental status secondary to acute brain injury certainly impair airway- and lung-protective mechanisms. However, clinical and translational evidence suggests that more specific neuronal and cellular mechanisms contribute to impaired systemic and lung immunity that increases the risk of TBI-mediated lung injury and infection. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of that immune impairment, we review here the current clinical data that support TBI-induced impairment of systemic and lung immunity. Furthermore, we also review the animal models that attempt to reproduce human TBI. Additionally, we examine the possible role of damage-associated molecular patterns, the chlolinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and sex dimorphism in post-TBI ALI. In the last part of the review, we discuss current treatments and future pharmacological therapies, including fever control, tracheostomy, and corticosteroids, aimed to prevent and treat pulmonary edema, ALI, and nosocomial pneumonia after TBI. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Severity of Household Food Insecurity Is Positively Associated with Mental Disorders among Children and Adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael P; Martini, Lauren H; Çayır, Ebru; Hartline-Grafton, Heather L; Meade, Randa L

    2016-10-01

    Household food insecurity and mental disorders are both prevalent conditions among children and adolescents (i.e., youth) in the United States. Although some research has examined the association between the 2 conditions, it is not known whether more severe food insecurity is differently associated with mental disorders in youth. We investigated the association between severity of household food insecurity and mental disorders among children (aged 4-11 y) and adolescents (aged 12-17 y) using valid and reliable measures of both household food security status and mental disorders. We analyzed cross-sectional data on 16,918 children and 14,143 adolescents whose families participated in the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey. The brief Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the 10-item USDA Household Food Security Survey Module were used to measure mental disorders and food security status, respectively. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to test the association between household food security status and mental disorders in youth. There was a significant linear trend in ORs, such that as severity of household food insecurity increased so did the odds of youth having a mental disorder (P food-secure households, youth in marginally food-secure households had higher odds of having a mental disorder with impairment [child OR: 1.26 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.52); adolescent OR: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.68)]. In addition, compared with food-secure households, youth in very-low-food-secure households had higher odds of having a mental disorder with severe impairment [child OR: 2.55 (95% CI: 1.90, 3.43); adolescent OR: 3.44 (95% CI: 2.50, 4.75)]. The severity of household food insecurity is positively associated with mental disorders among both children and adolescents in the United States. These results suggest that improving household food security status has the potential to reduce mental disorders among US youth. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Influences of Mental Illness, Current Psychological State, and Concussion History on Baseline Concussion Assessment Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michelle L; Dean, John-Henry L; Hoffman, Nicole L; Broglio, Steven P; McCrea, Michael; McAllister, Thomas W; Schmidt, Julianne D; Hoy, April Reed; Hazzard, Joseph B; Kelly, Louise A; Ortega, Justus D; Port, Nicholas; Putukian, Margot; Langford, T Dianne; Tierney, Ryan; Campbell, Darren E; McGinty, Gerald; O'Donnell, Patrick; Svoboda, Steven J; DiFiori, John P; Giza, Christopher C; Benjamin, Holly J; Buckley, Thomas; Kaminski, Thomas W; Clugston, James R; Feigenbaum, Luis A; Eckner, James T; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Mihalik, Jason P; Miles, Jessica Dysart; Anderson, Scott; Master, Christina L; Collins, Micky; Kontos, Anthony P; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Chrisman, Sara P D; Brooks, Allison; Duma, Stefan; Bullers, Christopher Todd; Miles, Christopher M; Dykhuizen, Brian H

    2018-04-01

    A student-athlete's mental state, including history of trait anxiety and depression, or current psychological state may affect baseline concussion assessment performance. (1) To determine if mental illness (anxiety, depression, anxiety with depression) influences baseline scores, (2) to determine if psychological state correlates with baseline performance, and (3) to determine if history of concussion affects Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) subscores of state anxiety, depression, and somatization. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A sample of 8652 collegiate student-athletes (54.5% males, 45.5% females) participated in the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium. Baseline assessments included a demographic form, a symptom evaluation, Standardized Assessment of Concussion, Balance Error Scoring System, a psychological state assessment (BSI-18), and Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test. Baseline scores were compared between individuals with a history of anxiety (n = 59), depression (n = 283), and anxiety with depression (n = 68) and individuals without a history of those conditions (n = 8242). Spearman's rho correlations were conducted to assess the relationship between baseline and psychological state subscores (anxiety, depression, somatization) (α = .05). Psychological state subscores were compared between individuals with a self-reported history of concussions (0, 1, 2, 3, 4+) using Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = .05). Student-athletes with anxiety, depression, and anxiety with depression demonstrated higher scores in number of symptoms reported (anxiety, 4.3 ± 4.2; depression, 5.2 ± 4.8; anxiety with depression, 5.4 ± 3.9; no anxiety/depression, 2.5 ± 3.4), symptom severity (anxiety, 8.1 ± 9.8; depression, 10.4 ± 12.4; anxiety with depression, 12.4 ± 10.7; no anxiety/depression, 4.1 ± 6.9), and psychological distress in state anxiety (anxiety, 3.7 ± 4.7; depression, 2.5 ± 3.6; anxiety with

  11. Frequency-dependent brain regional homogeneity alterations in patients with mild cognitive impairment during working memory state relative to resting state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyun eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported working memory deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, previous studies investigating the neural mechanisms of MCI have primarily focused on brain activity alterations during working memory tasks. No study to date has compared brain network alterations in the working memory state between MCI patients and normal control subjects. Therefore, using the index of regional homogeneity (ReHo, we explored brain network impairments in MCI patients during a working memory task relative to the resting state, and identified frequency-dependent effects in separate frequency bands.Our results indicate that, in MCI patients, ReHo is altered in the posterior cingulate cortex in the slow-3 band (0.073–0.198 Hz, and in the bottom of the right occipital lobe and part of the right cerebellum, the right thalamus, a diffusing region in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, the left and right parietal-occipital regions, and the right angular gyrus in the slow-5 band (0.01–0.027 Hz. Furthermore, in normal controls, the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the default mode network decreased, while the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the attentional network increased during the task state. However, this pattern was reversed in MCI patients, and was associated with decreased working memory performance. In addition, we identified altered functional connectivity of the abovementioned regions with other parts of the brain in MCI patients.This is the first study to compare frequency-dependent alterations of ReHo in MCI patients between resting and working memory states. The results provide a new perspective regarding the neural mechanisms of working memory deficits in MCI patients, and extend our knowledge of altered brain patterns in resting and task-evoked states.

  12. Profiling of altered metabolomic states in Nicotiana tabacum cells induced by priming agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msizi Innocent Mhlongo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics has developed into a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of plant metabolism. Plant innate immune defenses can be activated and enhanced so that, subsequent to being pre-sensitized, plants are able to launch a stronger and faster defense response upon exposure to pathogenic microorganisms, a phenomenon known as priming. Here, three contrasting chemical activators, namely acibenzolar-S-methyl, azelaic acid and riboflavin, were used to induce a primed state in Nicotiana tabacum cells. Identified biomarkers were then compared to responses induced by three phytohormones - abscisic acid, methyljasmonate and salicylic acid. Altered metabolomes were studied using a metabolite fingerprinting approach based on liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Multivariate data models indicated that these inducers cause time-dependent metabolic perturbations in the cultured cells and revealed biomarkers of which the levels are affected by these agents. A total of 34 metabolites were annotated from the mass spectral data and online databases. Venn diagrams were used to identify common biomarkers as well as those unique to a specific agent. Results implicate 20 cinnamic acid derivatives conjugated to (i quinic acid (chlorogenic acids, (ii tyramine, (iii polyamines or (iv glucose as discriminatory biomarkers of priming in tobacco cells. Functional roles for most of these metabolites in plant defense responses could thus be proposed. Metabolites induced by the activators belong to the early phenylpropanoid pathway, which indicates that different stimuli can activate similar pathways but with different metabolite fingerprints. Possible linkages to phytohormone-dependent pathways at a metabolomic level were indicated in the case of cells treated with salicylic acid and methyljasmonate. The results contribute to a better understanding of the priming phenomenon and advance our knowledge of cinnamic acid derivatives as versatile defense

  13. Psychometric evaluation of the altered states of consciousness rating scale (OAV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Studerus

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The OAV questionnaire has been developed to integrate research on altered states of consciousness (ASC. It measures three primary and one secondary dimensions of ASC that are hypothesized to be invariant across ASC induction methods. The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation modeling techniques and its psychometric properties have never been examined in large samples of experimentally induced ASC.The present study conducted a psychometric evaluation of the OAV in a sample of psilocybin (n = 327, ketamine (n = 162, and MDMA (n = 102 induced ASC that was obtained by pooling data from 43 experimental studies. The factorial structure was examined by confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, hierarchical item clustering (ICLUST, and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC modeling. The originally proposed model did not fit the data well even if zero-constraints on non-target factor loadings and residual correlations were relaxed. Furthermore, ICLUST suggested that the "oceanic boundlessness" and "visionary restructuralization" factors could be combined on a high level of the construct hierarchy. However, because these factors were multidimensional, we extracted and examined 11 new lower order factors. MIMIC modeling indicated that these factors were highly measurement invariant across drugs, settings, questionnaire versions, and sexes. The new factors were also demonstrated to have improved homogeneities, satisfactory reliabilities, discriminant and convergent validities, and to differentiate well among the three drug groups.The original scales of the OAV were shown to be multidimensional constructs. Eleven new lower order scales were constructed and demonstrated to have desirable psychometric properties. The new lower order scales are most likely better suited to

  14. Altered resting-state frontoparietal control network in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Matsuo, Kayako; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-01

    The frontoparietal control network, anatomically and functionally interposed between the dorsal attention network and default mode network, underpins executive control functions. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly exhibit deficits in executive functions, which are mainly mediated by the frontoparietal control network. Involvement of the frontoparietal control network based on the anterior prefrontal cortex in neurobiological mechanisms of ADHD has yet to be tested. We used resting-state functional MRI and seed-based correlation analyses to investigate functional connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in a sample of 25 children with ADHD (7-14 years; mean 9.94 ± 1.77 years; 20 males), and 25 age-, sex-, and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children. All participants had limited in-scanner head motion. Spearman's rank correlations were used to test the associations between altered patterns of functional connectivity with clinical symptoms and executive functions, measured by the Conners' Continuous Performance Test and Spatial Span in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Compared with TD children, children with ADHD demonstrated weaker connectivity between the right anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right ventrolateral PFC, and between the left anterior PFC and the right inferior parietal lobule. Furthermore, this aberrant connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in ADHD was associated with symptoms of impulsivity and opposition-defiance, as well as impaired response inhibition and attentional control. The findings support potential integration of the disconnection model and the executive dysfunction model for ADHD. Atypical frontoparietal control network may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  15. Altered Default Mode Network on Resting-State fMRI in Children with Infantile Spasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Infantile spasms (IS syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, which occurs in children characterized by spasms, impaired consciousness, and hypsarrhythmia. Abnormalities in default mode network (DMN might contribute to the loss of consciousness during seizures and cognitive deficits in children with IS. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the changes in DMN with functional connectivity (FC and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, the two methods to discover the potential neuronal underpinnings of IS. The consistency of the two calculate methods of DMN abnormalities in IS patients was also our main focus. To avoid the disturbance of interictal epileptic discharge, our testing was performed within the interictal durations without epileptic discharges. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 13 patients with IS and 35 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. FC analysis with seed in posterior cingulate cortex (PCC was used to compare the differences between two groups. We chose PCC as the seed region because PCC is the only node in the DMN that directly interacts with virtually all other nodes according to previous studies. Furthermore, the ALFF values within the DMN were also calculated and compared between the two groups. The FC results showed that IS patients exhibited markedly reduced connectivity between posterior seed region and other areas within DMN. In addition, part of the brain areas within the DMN showing significant difference of FC had significantly lower ALFF signal in the patient group than that in the healthy controls. The observed disruption in DMN through the two methods showed that the coherence of brain signal fluctuation in DMN during rest was broken in IS children. Neuronal functional impairment or altered integration in DMN would be one neuroimaging characteristic, which might help us to understand the underlying neural mechanism of IS. Further studies are needed to determine whether

  16. Stress Coping Levels and Mental States of Police Vocational School of Higher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Yildirim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: This study was planned and carried out with the objective of determining stress coping levels and mental state of students attending Police Vocational Schools of Higher Education, in addition to factors effecting these. MATERIAL and METHOD: This desciptive and cross-sectional study consisted of 300 male students enrolled in the 2005-2006 academic year, at Police Vocational School of Higher Education, located in central Erzincan, Turkey. In this study, instead of random sampling, 281 (93.7% students who were present at the school at the time of the study and accepted to partipate in it were included. Data for this study was collected using a desciptive form created by the researchers, Rosenbaum’s Learned Resourcefulness Scale (RLRS and The Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R. During the data analysis, frequency distributions, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA were used; and for analysis of independent groups, t-test was used. RESULTS: Among the students, it was determined that 54.8% were 1. grade, 90.7% had their parents living together, 43.5% had a father and 60.5% had a mother who graduated from elementary school, fathers of 23.5% of students were retired, 93.6% of them had mothers who were home makers. In addition, it was found out that 78.6% of students chose their profession willingly, the average family income of 71.5% of students were at medium levels, 82.9% always believed in themselves and 63.3% of students did not smoke. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that second grade students, those with mothers who are highly educated and those who trusted themselved all the time had significantly high stress coping levels; students who chose their own profession, believed in themselves and did not smoke had significantly low levels of mental symptom indications. CONCLUSION: In this study, the students were determined to posess averge levels of stress coping skills and they were found

  17. Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis as an Unusual Cause of Altered Mental Status in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Michael; Griffey, Richard T

    2016-08-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor autoimmune encephalitis is a newly identified form of encephalitis whose incidence is on the rise. Awareness of this condition and symptom recognition are key to early diagnosis and prompt treatment, which may alter the course of the disease. A 35-year-old woman presented to our Emergency Department (ED) with lethargy, bizarre behavior, agitation, confusion, memory deficits, and word-finding difficulties. Her symptoms and evaluation were potentially consistent with a primary psychiatric disorder, but the absence of frank psychosis and presence of neurologic features related to memory and cognition prompted other considerations. In the ED we performed a lumbar puncture, and in addition to routine studies, ordered anti-NMDAR antibody screening. The screening studies returned positive, leading to treatment with glucocorticoids and intravenous immune globulin and resulting in improvement to near baseline function. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although anti-NMDAR encephalitis is relatively uncommon, reports of this previously unrecognized condition are increasing, with an unclear true incidence of disease. Emergency providers should consider this diagnosis in their differential for patients presenting with new neuropsychiatric symptoms, particularly in young women. Prompt treatment leads to near complete neurologic recovery in 75% of patients, whereas delays in diagnosis and treatment may be associated with worse outcomes including death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of the mini mental state exam to the Montreal cognitive assessment in identifying cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadikoff, Cindy; Fox, Susan H.; Tang-Wai, David F.; Thomsen, Teri; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Wadia, Pettarusup; Miyasaki, Janis; Duff-Canning, Sarah; Lang, Anthony E.; Marras, Connie

    2008-01-01

    Dementia is an important and increasingly recognized problem in Parkinson's disease (PD). The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) often fails to detect early cognitive decline. The Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is a brief tool developed to detect mild cognitive impairment that assesses a

  19. States' Eligibility Guidelines for Mental Retardation: An Update and Consideration of Part Scores and Unreliability of IQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Renee; Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.

    2008-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) has traditionally been defined as a disorder in intellectual and adaptive functioning beginning in the developmental period. Guided by a federal definition of MR described in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, it is the responsibility of each of the United States to describe eligibility guidelines for special…

  20. Story Composition, Mental State Language and Self-Regulated Strategy Instruction for Writers with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgkasi, Vasiliki; Mavropoulou, Sofia

    2018-01-01

    In this single-subject study, we evaluated the effects of an intervention using a modified version of the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) approach on the story composition skills and the use of mental state language in three writers with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Interestingly, the intervention was not found to be effective in…

  1. Detection and treatment of at-risk mental state for developing a first psychosis: making up the balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieman, Dorien H.; McGorry, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    The at-risk mental state (ARMS) has been substantially researched and used as the basis for new clinical settings and strategies over the past two decades. However, it has also caused controversy and intense debate. In this Review, we assess available evidence and propose future directions.

  2. Psycho-Pedagogical Research of Emotional and Estimative Mental States of Students Who Are Prone to Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryaznov, Alexey N.; Gruzkova, Svetlana U.; Sharafiev, Eduard S.; Cheverikina, Elena A.; Muhametzyanova, Larisa Yu.; Kamaleeva, Alsu R.; Gilmeeva, Rimma Kh.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is conditioned by the fact that one of the negative factors, which prevent favorable socialization and successful personal-professional development of students, is the tendency of youth to be prone to addiction the formation of which is affected by various mental states. The paper is aimed to explore the…

  3. "Do" Sweat It: Using a Fitness Session as an Introduction to Research on the Relationship between Physical and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Amy L.; Hrivnak, George A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a hands-on experiential exercise session in a fitness center is presented as a teaching tool for management instructors to facilitate a theoretically based discussion about the connection between individuals' physical and mental states. Before discussing the components of the exercise session itself, a rationale for integrating…

  4. Ibuprofen alters human testicular physiology to produce a state of compensated hypogonadism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Desdoits-Lethimonier, Christèle; Mackey, Abigail L

    2018-01-01

    and Sertoli cells, including testosterone production, were suppressed through transcriptional repression. This effect was also observed in a human steroidogenic cell line. Our data demonstrate that ibuprofen alters the endocrine system via selective transcriptional repression in the human testes, thereby...

  5. Altered resting state EEG in chronic pancreatitis patients: toward a marker for chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M. de; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Jongsma, M.L.A.; Broeke, E.N. van den; Arns, M.W.; Goor, H. van; Rijn, C.M. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Electroencephalography (EEG) may be a promising source of physiological biomarkers accompanying chronic pain. Several studies in patients with chronic neuropathic pain have reported alterations in central pain processing, manifested as slowed EEG rhythmicity and increased EEG power in

  6. Measuring alterations in oscillatory brain networks in schizophrenia with resting-state MEG: State-of-the-art and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamian, Golnoush; Hincapié, Ana-Sofía; Pascarella, Annalisa; Thiery, Thomas; Combrisson, Etienne; Saive, Anne-Lise; Martel, Véronique; Althukov, Dmitrii; Haesebaert, Frédéric; Jerbi, Karim

    2017-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of disturbed resting-state brain networks in Schizophrenia (SZ). However, untangling the neuronal mechanisms that subserve these baseline alterations requires measurement of their electrophysiological underpinnings. This systematic review specifically investigates the contributions of resting-state Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in elucidating abnormal neural organization in SZ patients. A systematic literature review of resting-state MEG studies in SZ was conducted. This literature is discussed in relation to findings from resting-state fMRI and EEG, as well as to task-based MEG research in SZ population. Importantly, methodological limitations are considered and recommendations to overcome current limitations are proposed. Resting-state MEG literature in SZ points towards altered local and long-range oscillatory network dynamics in various frequency bands. Critical methodological challenges with respect to experiment design, and data collection and analysis need to be taken into consideration. Spontaneous MEG data show that local and global neural organization is altered in SZ patients. MEG is a highly promising tool to fill in knowledge gaps about the neurophysiology of SZ. However, to reach its fullest potential, basic methodological challenges need to be overcome. MEG-based resting-state power and connectivity findings could be great assets to clinical and translational research in psychiatry, and SZ in particular. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The contributions of mental state understanding and executive functioning to preschool-aged children's lie-telling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Karissa; Williams, Shanna; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Talwar, Victoria

    2017-06-01

    In this study, preschool-aged children's lie-telling behaviour was examined in relation to mental state understanding and executive functioning. Sixty-seven children aged between 25 and 43 months (M age in months  = 34.80, SD = 4.39) participated in a temptation resistance paradigm (TRP). Children completed emerging ToM tasks measuring the following mental states: (1) diverse beliefs, (2) diverse desires, and (3) knowledge access. Children also completed measures of inhibitory control and working memory. In total, 63 of the 67 children peeked at the toy during the TRP, and a total of 26 of those children denied their transgression to the research assistant. Inhibitory control and understanding of knowledge access predicted lie-telling behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to a developmental model of children's lie-telling behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The relationship between lie-telling, executive functioning, and ToM has been established in older children (aged 4 and above). Inhibitory control plays a role in young children's lie-telling (aged 2-4). Children above 3 years of age have some understanding of mental states. What does this study add? Very young children (2-3-year-olds) also possess an understanding of mental states. Mental state understanding is related to 2-3-year-old children's lie-telling behaviours and may be more predictive than inhibitory control. While the results were not significant, this study is the first to look at the unique role of working memory in very young children's lie-telling. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  9. 'Void existence' as against 'annihilation existence': Differentiating two qualities in primitive mental states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdarsky, Irit Hameiri

    2015-10-01

    This paper attempts to distil out a particular quality of psychic (non)existence, which I call here 'void existence', from the quality predominantly explored in the psychoanalytic discourse on primitive mental states, which I call 'annihilation existence'. Achieving this phenomenological differentiation may make it easier to identify and work through extreme states in the analytic situation, when the patient is under the dominance of 'void existence'. I suggest that it is, as it were, a one-dimensional existence, in an infinite contour-less void, lacking any substantial internal object, lacking any substantial sense of psychic and/or somatic occurrences, and lacking any live representation of this very state of being. Hence, it lacks distress and anxiety, as well as calmness and peace. One might say that it is the inorganic within the organic; a quality of non-alive-ness within life. 'Annihilation existence' is existence in a two- or three-dimensional hollowed world, with flat and/or partial representations of self and object, which attracts acute distress and annihilation anxiety. It is a sort of existence on the brink of non-life, on the brink of the void; where a sense of catastrophic danger is brought on by the never-ending potentiality of the annihilation's realization. Both these psychic qualities can be encapsulated within neurotic and personality disorders, and the dominance of each can serve as defence against the dominance of the other. The theoretical discussion is supported by excerpts from an analysis. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. Stepping Stones to Others' Minds: Maternal Talk Relates to Child Mental State Language and Emotion Understanding at 15, 24, and 33 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2008-01-01

    This continuation of a previous study (Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006) examined the longitudinal relation between maternal mental state talk to 15- and 24-month-olds and their later mental state language and emotion understanding (N = 74). The previous study found that maternal talk about the child's desires to 15-month-old children uniquely predicted…

  11. A model to investigate intention understanding in autism?. Comment on "Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds" by Cristina Becchio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Paul A. G.; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2018-03-01

    Becchio et al. [2] specify the conditions under which mental states are observable in the kinematics of other agents. Given that autistic people display differences in their understanding of other's mental states [1] and show an insensitivity to the kinematics of co-actors' movements [5,10], what are the implications of Becchio et al.'s strategy for the study of autism?

  12. Brief Report: Conveying Subjective Experience in Conversation: Production of Mental State Terms and Personal Narratives in Individuals with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Janet; Burns, Jesse; Nadig, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Mental state terms and personal narratives are conversational devices used to communicate subjective experience in conversation. Pre-adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA, n = 20) were compared with language-matched typically-developing peers (TYP, n = 17) on production of mental state terms (i.e., perception, physiology, desire, emotion,…

  13. Does childhood schooling affect old age memory or mental status? Using state schooling laws as natural experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glymour, M M; Kawachi, I; Jencks, C S; Berkman, L F

    2008-06-01

    The association between schooling and old age cognitive outcomes such as memory disorders is well documented but, because of the threat of reverse causation, controversy persists over whether education affects old age cognition. Changes in state compulsory schooling laws (CSL) are treated as natural experiments (instruments) for estimating the effect of education on memory and mental status among the elderly. Changes in CSL predict changes in average years of schooling completed by children who are affected by the new laws. These educational differences are presumably independent of innate individual characteristics such as IQ. CSL-induced changes in education were used to obtain instrumental variable (IV) estimates of education's effect on memory (n = 10,694) and mental status (n = 9751) for white, non-Hispanic US-born Health and Retirement Survey participants born between 1900 and 1947 who did not attend college. After adjustment for sex, birth year, state of birth and state characteristics, IV estimates of education's effect on memory were large and statistically significant. IV estimates for mental status had very wide confidence intervals, so it was not possible to draw meaningful conclusions about the effect of education on this outcome. Increases in mandatory schooling lead to improvements in performance on memory tests many decades after school completion. These analyses condition on individual states, so differences in memory outcomes associated with CSL changes cannot be attributed to differences between states. Although unmeasured state characteristics that changed contemporaneously with CSL might account for these results, unobserved genetic variation is unlikely to do so.

  14. Inferring mental states from neuroimaging data: From reverse inference to large-scale decoding

    OpenAIRE

    Poldrack, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    A common goal of neuroimaging research is to use imaging data to identify the mental processes that are engaged when a subject performs a mental task. The use of reasoning from activation to mental functions, known as “reverse inference”, has been previously criticized on the basis that it does not take into account how selectively the area is activated by the mental process in question. In this Perspective, I outline the critique of informal reverse inference, and describe a number of new de...

  15. The alteration of gray matter volume in children with mental retardation: the differences between the patients presented with operation deficit predominantly and those presented with language deficit mainly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xinyu; Jiang Xuexiang; Jin Chunhua; Zhang Yuanchao; Bai Zhenhua; Yi Xiaoli; Xiao Jiangxi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To detect the differences of grey matter volume between the patients with mental retardation (MR) presented clinically as operation deficit (OD) or as language deficit (LD) and the children with typical normal development using optimal VBM. The developmental connections between brain gray matter and language or operation skills were examined. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained from 9 children with mental retardation presented as OD predominantly and 11 children with mental retardation presented as LD mainly, as well as the age-matched control group (11 and 14 normal children,respectively) on a 1.5 T scanner. Voxel-based morphometry analysis with an optimization of spatial segmentation and normalization procedures was applied to compare the volume of grey matter between the two groups (OD VS.control; LD VS.control). Statistically, the total and local gray matter volumes were compared between the two groups with t test. Results: The total gray matter volume of OD group was [(1.030 ± 0.078) × 10 6 mm 3 ]. Compared to that of controls [(0.984 ± 0.058) × 10 6 mm 3 ], it was increased significantly (t=-2.6, P<0.05). And the gray matter volume in the posterior cingulated gyrus, left superior prefrontal gyrus, left cuneus, left middle prefrontal gyrus and the body of left caudate nucleus showed significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total gray matter volume of the MR children presented as LD [(1.002 ± 0.068) × 10 6 mm 3 ] showed significantly increased(t=-3.0, P<0.05) compared with that of control group [(0.957 ±0.057) × 10 6 mm 3 ]. The gray matter volume in bilateral thalami, the left inferior temporal gyrus,the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left cerebellum of the LD group was more than that of normal children. Conclusion: As revealed by VBM, there are differences in alterations of gray matter volume between MR children presented with OD and with LD relative to control. (authors)

  16. Prospective Genomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Across Disease States Reveals Germline and Somatic Alterations That May Affect Clinical Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Wassim; Armenia, Joshua; Gopalan, Anuradha; Brennan, Ryan; Walsh, Michael; Barron, David; Danila, Daniel; Rathkopf, Dana; Morris, Michael; Slovin, Susan; McLaughlin, Brigit; Curtis, Kristen; Hyman, David M; Durack, Jeremy C; Solomon, Stephen B; Arcila, Maria E; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, Jianjiong; Chakravarty, Debyani; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Robson, Mark E; Joseph, Vijai; Offit, Kenneth; Donoghue, Mark T A; Abeshouse, Adam A; Kundra, Ritika; Heins, Zachary J; Penson, Alexander V; Harris, Christopher; Taylor, Barry S; Ladanyi, Marc; Mandelker, Diana; Zhang, Liying; Reuter, Victor E; Kantoff, Philip W; Solit, David B; Berger, Michael F; Sawyers, Charles L; Schultz, Nikolaus; Scher, Howard I

    2017-07-01

    A long natural history and a predominant osseous pattern of metastatic spread are impediments to the adoption of precision medicine in patients with prostate cancer. To establish the feasibility of clinical genomic profiling in the disease, we performed targeted deep sequencing of tumor and normal DNA from patients with locoregional, metastatic non-castrate, and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Patients consented to genomic analysis of their tumor and germline DNA. A hybridization capture-based clinical assay was employed to identify single nucleotide variations, small insertions and deletions, copy number alterations and structural rearrangements in over 300 cancer-related genes in tumors and matched normal blood. We successfully sequenced 504 tumors from 451 patients with prostate cancer. Potentially actionable alterations were identified in DNA damage repair (DDR), PI3K, and MAP kinase pathways. 27% of patients harbored a germline or a somatic alteration in a DDR gene that may predict for response to PARP inhibition. Profiling of matched tumors from individual patients revealed that somatic TP53 and BRCA2 alterations arose early in tumors from patients who eventually developed metastatic disease. In contrast, comparative analysis across disease states revealed that APC alterations were enriched in metastatic tumors, while ATM alterations were specifically enriched in CRPC. Through genomic profiling of prostate tumors representing the disease clinical spectrum, we identified a high frequency of potentially actionable alterations and possible drivers of disease initiation, metastasis and castration-resistance. Our findings support the routine use of tumor and germline DNA profiling for patients with advanced prostate cancer, for the purpose of guiding enrollment in targeted clinical trials and counseling families at increased risk of malignancy.

  17. Abortion, substance abuse and mental health in early adulthood: Thirteen-year longitudinal evidence from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Paul Sullins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes (birth, abortion, or involuntary pregnancy loss and mental health outcomes for US women during the transition into adulthood to determine the extent of increased risk, if any, associated with exposure to induced abortion. Method: Panel data on pregnancy history and mental health history for a nationally representative cohort of 8005 women at (average ages 15, 22, and 28 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were examined for risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, cannabis abuse, and nicotine dependence by pregnancy outcome (birth, abortion, and involuntary pregnancy loss. Risk ratios were estimated for time-dynamic outcomes from population-averaged longitudinal logistic and Poisson regression models. Results: After extensive adjustment for confounding, other pregnancy outcomes, and sociodemographic differences, abortion was consistently associated with increased risk of mental health disorder. Overall risk was elevated 45% (risk ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.30–1.62; p < 0.0001. Risk of mental health disorder with pregnancy loss was mixed, but also elevated 24% (risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–1.37; p < 0.0001 overall. Birth was weakly associated with reduced mental disorders. One-eleventh (8.7%; 95% confidence interval, 6.0–11.3 of the prevalence of mental disorders examined over the period were attributable to abortion. Conclusion: Evidence from the United States confirms previous findings from Norway and New Zealand that, unlike other pregnancy outcomes, abortion is consistently associated with a moderate increase in risk of mental health disorders during late adolescence and early adulthood.

  18. Altered interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia: a resting-state fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Minglong; Xie, Bing; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Jian [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Yang, Hong; Wang, Hao [Third Military Medical University, Ophthalmology Research Center, Southwest Eye Hospital/Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Yu, Longhua [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); 401st Hospital of PLA, Department of Radiology, Qingdao (China); He, Sheng [University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Department of Psychology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Altered brain functional connectivity has been reported in patients with amblyopia by recent neuroimaging studies. However, relatively little is known about the alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity in amblyopia. The present study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity patterns between homotopic regions across hemispheres in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia under resting state. Nineteen monocular anisometropic amblyopia (AA), 18 strabismic amblyopia (SA), and 20 normal-sight controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. After a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination, resting-state fMRI scanning was performed in all participants. The pattern of the interhemispheric functional connectivity was measured with the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach. VMHC values differences within and between three groups were compared, and correlations between VMHC values and each the clinical variable were also analyzed. Altered VMHC was observed in AA and SA patients in lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus compared with NC subjects. The altered VMHC of lingual gyrus showed a pattern of AA > SA > NC, while the altered VMHC of fusiform gyrus showed a pattern of AA > NC > SA. Moreover, the VMHC values of lingual gyrus were positively correlated with the stereoacuity both in AA and SA patients, and the VMHC values of fusiform gyrus were positively correlated with the amount of anisometropia just in AA patients. These findings suggest that interhemispheric functional coordination between several homotopic visual-related brain regions is impaired both in AA and SA patients under resting state and revealed the similarities and differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity between the anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. (orig.)

  19. Altered interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia: a resting-state fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Minglong; Xie, Bing; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Jian; Yang, Hong; Wang, Hao; Yu, Longhua; He, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Altered brain functional connectivity has been reported in patients with amblyopia by recent neuroimaging studies. However, relatively little is known about the alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity in amblyopia. The present study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity patterns between homotopic regions across hemispheres in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia under resting state. Nineteen monocular anisometropic amblyopia (AA), 18 strabismic amblyopia (SA), and 20 normal-sight controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. After a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination, resting-state fMRI scanning was performed in all participants. The pattern of the interhemispheric functional connectivity was measured with the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach. VMHC values differences within and between three groups were compared, and correlations between VMHC values and each the clinical variable were also analyzed. Altered VMHC was observed in AA and SA patients in lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus compared with NC subjects. The altered VMHC of lingual gyrus showed a pattern of AA > SA > NC, while the altered VMHC of fusiform gyrus showed a pattern of AA > NC > SA. Moreover, the VMHC values of lingual gyrus were positively correlated with the stereoacuity both in AA and SA patients, and the VMHC values of fusiform gyrus were positively correlated with the amount of anisometropia just in AA patients. These findings suggest that interhemispheric functional coordination between several homotopic visual-related brain regions is impaired both in AA and SA patients under resting state and revealed the similarities and differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity between the anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. (orig.)

  20. Altered interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minglong; Xie, Bing; Yang, Hong; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Hao; Yu, Longhua; He, Sheng; Wang, Jian

    2017-05-01

    Altered brain functional connectivity has been reported in patients with amblyopia by recent neuroimaging studies. However, relatively little is known about the alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity in amblyopia. The present study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity patterns between homotopic regions across hemispheres in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia under resting state. Nineteen monocular anisometropic amblyopia (AA), 18 strabismic amblyopia (SA), and 20 normal-sight controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. After a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination, resting-state fMRI scanning was performed in all participants. The pattern of the interhemispheric functional connectivity was measured with the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach. VMHC values differences within and between three groups were compared, and correlations between VMHC values and each the clinical variable were also analyzed. Altered VMHC was observed in AA and SA patients in lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus compared with NC subjects. The altered VMHC of lingual gyrus showed a pattern of AA > SA > NC, while the altered VMHC of fusiform gyrus showed a pattern of AA > NC > SA. Moreover, the VMHC values of lingual gyrus were positively correlated with the stereoacuity both in AA and SA patients, and the VMHC values of fusiform gyrus were positively correlated with the amount of anisometropia just in AA patients. These findings suggest that interhemispheric functional coordination between several homotopic visual-related brain regions is impaired both in AA and SA patients under resting state and revealed the similarities and differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity between the anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia.

  1. The relationship between education level and mini-mental state examination domains among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matallana, Diana; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Cano, Carlos; Reyes, Pablo; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

    2011-03-01

    To study the effect of education and language of response at the interview on performance in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) domains, we studied 2861 Mexican Americans aged 65 and older from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) followed from 1993 to 1994 until 2004 to 2005. The MMSE was examined as total score (0-30) or divided into 2 global domains: (1) no-memory (score 0-24): Orientation, attention, and language; and (2) memory (score 0-6): working and delayed memory. Mean age and total MMSE were 72.7 years and 24.6 at baseline, and 81.7 years and 20.5 at 11 years of follow-up. Spanish-speaking participants had less education (4.1 vs 7.4 years, P memory, no-memory, and total MMSE compared with English-speaking participants. In multivariate longitudinal analyses, participants with more years of education performed better than those with less education, especially in total MMSE and no-memory domain. Spanish-speaking participants with 4 to 6 years of education had higher memory scores than those speaking English (estimate 0.40, standard error [SE] = 0.14, P memory domain of the MMSE is less affected by education, it may be used along with other cognitive tests for early detection of cognitive decline in older populations with low education.

  2. Physical activity and better medication compliance improve mini-mental state examination scores in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Fabiana Costa; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; Reis, Fernando Fonseca dos; Bonoto, Robson Teixeira; Oliveira, Wederson Candido de; Moura, Tiago Augusto da Silva; Assis, Cláudia Loures de; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-01-01

    In addition to hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, a sedentary lifestyle plays a pivotal role in cerebro- and cardiovascular disease and progressive cognitive decline, including vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The present study investigated whether controlling the key risks and participating in physical activity have a beneficial impact on these disorders. Elderly volunteers were enrolled in a 3-month program that consisted of structured exercise three times per week. The daily routine, medical treatment, and vital parameters were evaluated and correlated with the subjects' neuropsychiatric status. High blood pressure was found in 40% of the participants, with no significant differences between the sexes. A higher proportion of females (55%) than males (18%) forgot to take their medication during the observation period. Significant negative correlations were found between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and age, lack of a caregiver, and increased pulse rate before or after exercise. These results suggest that the presence of home assistance and subsequent improvement in medication compliance, vital parameter optimization, and regular physical activity may yield better MMSE results and a lower risk for cerebro- and cardiovascular disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Mental health correlates of perceived discrimination among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, V M; Cochran, S D

    2001-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that lesbians and gay men are at higher risk for stress-sensitive psychiatric disorders than are heterosexual persons. We examined the possible role of perceived discrimination in generating that risk. The National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, a nationally representative sample of adults aged 25 to 74 years, surveyed individuals self-identifying as homosexual or bisexual (n = 73) or heterosexual (n = 2844) about their lifetime and day-to-day experiences with discrimination. Also assessed were 1-year prevalence of depressive, anxiety, and substance dependence disorders; current psychologic distress; and self-rated mental health. Homosexual and bisexual individuals more frequently than heterosexual persons reported both lifetime and day-to-day experiences with discrimination. Approximately 42% attributed this to their sexual orientation, in whole or part. Perceived discrimination was positively associated with both harmful effects on quality of life and indicators of psychiatric morbidity in the total sample. Controlling for differences in discrimination experiences attenuated observed associations between psychiatric morbidity and sexual orientation. Higher levels of discrimination may underlie recent observations of greater psychiatric morbidity risk among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals.

  4. Mini-Mental State Examination and proton spectroscopy of the posterior cingulate in Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Won Lee

    Full Text Available Abstract To compare metabolite ratios in the posterior cingulate with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test scores in patients with mild or moderate Alzheimer disease and in controls. Methods: We evaluated 29 patients with mild or moderate Alzheimer disease and 15 controls by proton spectroscopy with the voxel located in the posterior cingulate. The MMSE was applied to all patients and controls. The metabolic ratios: N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine (Naa/Cr, mio-inositol/creatine (mI/Cr and mio-inositol/N-acetyl-aspartate (mI/Naa were obtained and then post-processed using the MRUI software (magnetic resonance user interface. Results: Correlation between Naa/Cr and mI/Naa ratios in the posterior cingulate with the MMSE was observed, and a positive correlation with Naa/Cr and negative correlation with mI/Naa were seen. The mI/r ratio presented no correlation with MMSE scores. Conclusion: The positive correlation with Naa/Cr, and negative correlation with mI/Naa may corroborate that neuronal density/viability is associated to a higher MMSE score.

  5. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status: Creating a crosswalk with the Mini-Mental State Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Tamara G.; Fearing, Michael A.; Jones, Richard N.; Shi, Peilin; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Rudolph, James L.; Yang, Frances M.; Kiely, Dan K.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Brief cognitive screening measures are valuable tools for both research and clinical applications. The most widely used instrument, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is limited in that it must be administered face-to-face, cannot be used in participants with visual or motor impairments, and is protected by copyright. Alternative screening instruments, such as the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) have been developed and may provide a valid alternative with comparable cut point scores to rate global cognitive function. Methods MMSE, TICS-30, and TICS-40 scores from 746 community dwelling elders who participated in the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) were analyzed with equipercentile equating, a statistical process of determining comparable scores based on percentile equivalents on different forms of an examination. Results Scores from the MMSE and the TICS-30 and TICS-40 corresponded well and clinically relevant cut point scores were determined; for example, an MMSE score of 23 is equivalent to 17 and 20 on the TICS-30 and TICS-40, respectively. Conclusions These findings provide scores that can be used to link TICS and MMSE scores directly. Clinically relevant and important MMSE cut points and the respective ADAMS TICS-30 and TICS-40 cut point scores have been included to identify the degree of cognitive impairment among respondents with any type of cognitive disorder. These results will help with the widespread application of the TICS in both research and clinical practice. PMID:19647495

  6. What impact does trauma have on the at-risk mental state? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Benjamin; Doris, Michael; Shannon, Ciaran; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2018-04-01

    Identification of individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) who are at a heightened risk of developing psychosis allows researchers and clinicians to identify what factors are associated with poorer outcomes and transitions to psychosis. A number of socioenvironmental factors are linked to an increase risk of developing psychosis, of which childhood trauma is widely acknowledged. The current review aims to examine what impact trauma has on the ARMS by reviewing reported relationships between trauma variables and transition to psychosis, ARMS severity, adaptive functioning and comorbid symptomology from both cross sectional and prospective design studies. A literature search was conducted for all relevant original research articles published in the English language up to December 2015 using 3 electronic databases: PsycINFO, Web of Science and PubMed. A total of 6 papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the current review. Trauma was found to have a significant impact on the ARMS observed through reported relationships between trauma variables and transition to psychosis, ARMS severity, adaptive functioning and comorbid symptomology. Sexual trauma demonstrated the most consistent trauma variable to impact the ARMS. Individuals with an ARMS who have experienced sexual trauma are at a heightened risk of poorer outcomes and transitions to psychosis. Further prospective design studies are required to examine this observation further. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. A qualitative phenomenological analysis of the subjective experience and understanding of the at risk mental state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Benjamin; Shannon, Ciaran; Storey, Lesley; Boyd, Adrian; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2017-12-01

    Over recent years there has been a growing interest in identifying the early stages of psychosis. The At Risk Mental State (ARMS) is characteristic of the prodromal stages of psychosis and its identification gives rise to a number of clinical and research opportunities including early intervention and prevention of psychosis. This study employs interpretative phenomenological analysis to gain insights into the subjective experience and individuals understanding of the development of their ARMS. Five participants took part and provided information on the experience of symptoms, life prior to onset of their ARMS and their understanding of symptoms and their development through a semi structured interview. From the analysis of transcripts eight themes emerged which were common across participants accounts. Three themes of experience (disturbed world/disturbed self, disconnection with the world, thunderstruck) and five themes of understanding (absence of understanding, use of others, identity, forming links, fragmented understanding) were identified. Themes are explored in detail and discussed in relation to existing literature and theory. Clinical implications, directions for future research, and limitations are discussed within.

  8. SCREENING FOR POSTSTROKE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT VIA MINI MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION AND MONTREAL COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to examine cognitive performance after mild stroke via Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA and to compare the results.Material and methods: We examined 54 patients with mild stroke (aged 52 to 72 (mean 63.17, SD 5.96; 34 males and 20 females and 54 controls, adjusted by age, sex and education level. All subjects were tested via MMSE (Bulgarian version and MoCa (Bulgarian version. Data was collected in the single step model at the 90th day after stroke incident for patients and at the day of obtaining informed consent for controls. Results: Patients have poorer performance on both MMSE and MoCa than controls. MoCa has comparatively good discriminative validity and sensitivity.Conclusions: Although MMSE is one of the classical screening tools for cognitive impairment widely used in Bulgaria, other screening tools should not be ignored. On the basis of our results, MoCa is also a good screening instrument, especially for poststroke cognitive impairment.

  9. Cognitive impairment in patients with Fibromyalgia syndrome as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejas Javier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the frequency of cognitive impairment in patients with Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Methods We analyzed baseline data from all 46 patients with FMS and 92 age- and sex-matched controls per diagnosis of neuropathic (NeP or mixed pain (MP selected from a larger prospective study. Results FMS had a slight but statistically significant lower score in the adjusted MMSE score (26.9; 95% CI 26.7-27.1 than either NeP (27.3; 95% CI 27.2-27.4 or MP (27.3; 27.2-27.5. The percentage of patients with congnitive impairment (adjusted MMSE ≤ 26 was numerically higher in FMS (15%; 95% CI 6.3-29 compared with NeP (5%; 95% CI 1.8-12.2 or MP (5%; 95% CI 1.8-12.2 and higher than in the same age stratum of the general population (0.05%. Conclusions Compared with the population reference value, patients with FMS showed high frequency of cognitive impairment.

  10. Mental Health Correlates of Cigarette Use in LGBT Individuals in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Christopher F; Lopez, Eliot J; Griffin, James A; Toomey, Thomas M; Eldridge, Elizabeth D; Stepleman, Lara M

    2018-05-12

    Smoking prevalence for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals is higher than for heterosexual, cisgender individuals. Elevated smoking rates have been linked to psychiatric comorbidities, substance use, poverty, low education levels, and stress. This study examined mental health (MH) correlates of cigarette use in LGBT individuals residing in a metropolitan area in the southeastern United States. Participants were 335 individuals from an LGBT health needs assessment (mean age 34.7; SD = 13.5; 63% gay/lesbian; 66% Caucasian; 81% cisgender). Demographics, current/past psychiatric diagnoses, number of poor MH days in the last 30, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) 2 depression screener, the Three-Item Loneliness Scale, and frequency of cigarette use were included. Analyses included bivariate correlations, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression. Multiple demographic and MH factors were associated with smoker status and frequency of smoking. A logistic regression indicated that lower education and bipolar disorder were most strongly associated with being a smoker. For smokers, a hierarchical regression model including demographic and MH variables accounted for 17.6% of the variance in frequency of cigarette use. Only education, bipolar disorder, and the number of poor MH days were significant contributors in the overall model. Conclusions/Importance: Less education, bipolar disorder, and recurrent poor MH increase LGBT vulnerability to cigarette use. Access to LGBT-competent MH providers who can address culturally specific factors in tobacco cessation is crucial to reducing this health disparities.

  11. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaudreau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 30 healthy control (HC subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing.

  13. Theory of Mind: Understanding Young Children's Pretence and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, research has focused on the understanding of pretence as an important means for young children to conceptualise the mind. Many use the phrase "mental representation" to a mental model of some entity or concept, which describes what is inside the minds of young children in relation to a real-world situation or…

  14. Wearable physiological sensors reflect mental stress state in office-like situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.L.P; Grundlehner, Bernard; Liu, Hao; Penders, Julien; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Timely mental stress detection can help to prevent stress-related health problems. The aim of this study was to identify those physiological signals and features suitable for detecting mental stress in office-like situations. Electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, skin conductance and surface

  15. Out of time? - Music, consciousness states and neuropharmacological mechanisms of an altered temporality

    OpenAIRE

    Fachner, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced altered temporality is a well-known effect of cannabis action that is utilised from musicians and music listeners for music appreciation since the early days of jazz. Cannabis has an influence on timing processes at short time scales of hundreds of milliseconds as O’Leary et al (2003) have shown in their tapping studies, proving evidence of an altered cerebellar functioning. This paper will focus on cannabis and its action on timing and aims to discuss selected scientific streams...

  16. Welfare state retrenchment and increasing mental health inequality by educational credentials in Finland: a multicohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinen, Lauri; Muntaner, Carles; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Väänänen, Ari

    2015-06-03

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between educational credentials and mental disorders, but have not offered any explanation for the varying strength of this association in different historical contexts. In this study, we investigate the education-specific trends in hospitalisation due to psychiatric disorders in Finnish working-age men and women between 1976 and 2010, and offer a welfare state explanation for the secular trends found. Population-based setting with a 25% random sample of the population aged 30-65 years in 7 independent consecutive cohorts (1976-1980, 1981-1985, 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010). Participants were randomly selected from the Statistics Finland population database (n=2,865,746). These data were linked to diagnosis-specific records on hospitalisations, drawn from the National Hospital Discharge Registry using personal identification numbers. Employment rates by educational credentials were drawn from the Statistics Finland employment database. Hospitalisation and employment. We found an increasing trend in psychiatric hospitalisation rates among the population with only an elementary school education, and a decreasing trend in those with higher educational credentials. The employment rate of the population with only an elementary school education decreased more than that of those with higher educational credentials. We propose that restricted employment opportunities are the main mechanism behind the increased educational inequality in hospitalisation for psychiatric disorders, while several secondary mechanisms (lack of outpatient healthcare services, welfare cuts, decreased alcohol duty) further accelerated the diverging long-term trends. All of these inequality-increasing mechanisms were activated by welfare state retrenchment, which included the liberalisation of financial markets and labour markets, severe austerity measures and narrowing down of public sector employment commitment. Published

  17. Mental health of Cambodian refugees 2 decades after resettlement in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Elliott, Marc N; Berthold, S Megan; Chun, Chi-Ah

    2005-08-03

    Little is known about the long-term mental health of trauma-exposed refugees years after permanent resettlement in host countries. To assess the prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of psychiatric disorders in the US Cambodian refugee community. A cross-sectional, face-to-face interview conducted in Khmer language on a random sample of households from the Cambodian community in Long Beach, Calif, the largest such community in the United States, between October 2003 and February 2005. A total of 586 adults aged 35 to 75 years who lived in Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge reign and immigrated to the United States prior to 1993 were selected. One eligible individual was randomly sampled from each household, with an overall response rate (eligibility screening and interview) of 87% (n = 490). Exposure to trauma and violence before and after immigration (using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Survey of Exposure to Community Violence); weighted past-year prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 2.1); and alcohol use disorder (by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). All participants had been exposed to trauma before immigration. Ninety-nine percent (n = 483) experienced near-death due to starvation and 90% (n = 437) had a family member or friend murdered. Seventy percent (n = 338) reported exposure to violence after settlement in the United States. High rates of PTSD (62%, weighted), major depression (51%, weighted), and low rates of alcohol use disorder were found (4%, weighted). PTSD and major depression were highly comorbid in this population (n = 209; 42%, weighted) and each showed a strong dose-response relationship with measures of traumatic exposure. In bivariate analyses, older age, having poor English-speaking proficiency, unemployment, being retired or disabled, and living in poverty were also associated with higher rates of PTSD and major

  18. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Lanius

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015. This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1 those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2 those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC along four dimensions: (1 time; (2 thought; (3 body; and (4 emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  19. Expression and structural-functional alterations of α-1-acid glycoprotein at the pathological state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulinich A. O.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes up-to-date knowledge on structure and biological functions of α-acid glycoprotein. The special attention is given to alterations of fucosylation, sialylation and branching of orosomucoid at the acute, chronic inflammation and oncotransformations.

  20. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of default-mode network and sensorimotor network in heavy metal music lovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Congcong; Duan, Shuxia; Du, Xiaoxia; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-09-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spontaneous neural activity and functional connectivity (FC) in heavy metal music lovers (HMML) compared with classical music lovers (CML) during resting state. Forty HMML and 31 CML underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and seed-based resting-state FC were computed to explore regional activity and functional integration. A voxel-based two-sample t-test was used to test the differences between the two groups. Compared with CML, HMML showed functional alterations: higher fALFF in the right precentral gyrus, the bilateral paracentral lobule, and the left middle occipital gyrus, lower fALFF in the left medial superior frontal gyrus, an altered FC in the default-mode network, lower connectivity between the right precentral gyrus and the left cerebellum-6 and the right cerebellum-3, and an altered FC between the left paracentral lobule and the sensorimotor network, lower in the right paracentral lobule and the right inferior temporal gyrus FC. The results may partly explain the disorders of behavioral and emotional cognition in HMML compared with CML and are consistent with our predictions. These findings may help provide a basic understanding of the potential neural mechanism of HMML.

  1. Towards a system-paced near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interface: differentiating prefrontal activity due to mental arithmetic and mental singing from the no-control state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah D.; Kushki, Azadeh; Chau, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently been investigated as a non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) for individuals with severe motor impairments. For the most part, previous research has investigated the development of NIRS-BCIs operating under synchronous control paradigms, which require the user to exert conscious control over their mental activity whenever the system is vigilant. Though functional, this is mentally demanding and an unnatural way to communicate. An attractive alternative to the synchronous control paradigm is system-paced control, in which users are required to consciously modify their brain activity only when they wish to affect the BCI output, and can remain in a more natural, 'no-control' state at all other times. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one intentional control (IC) state corresponding to the performance of either mental arithmetic or mental singing. In particular, this involved determining if these tasks could be distinguished, individually, from the unconstrained 'no-control' state. Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations (International 10-20 System) while eight able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and mental singing to answer multiple-choice questions within a system-paced paradigm. With a linear classifier trained on a six-dimensional feature set, an overall classification accuracy of 71.2% across participants was achieved for the mental arithmetic versus no-control classification problem. While the mental singing versus no-control classification was less successful across participants (62.7% on average), four participants did attain accuracies well in excess of chance, three of which were above 70%. Analyses were performed offline. Collectively, these results are encouraging, and demonstrate the potential of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one IC state corresponding to

  2. The conception of disability and mental illness in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringø, Pia; Høgsbro, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents historical developments in the conception of disability and services for people with disability and mental illness. It identifies the social, political and technological movements, which have led to the epistemologies that exist in this field today. The diverse understandings...... of mental problems and vulnerability have all through history motivated different guidelines for social work practice when it comes to people with cognitive and mental deficits and in the final section of the chapter, we discuss how current sociological, neurological, and psychiatric perspectives...

  3. Phenotypic Dimensions of Spirituality: Implications for Mental Health in China, India, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Clayton H.; Lau, Elsa; Miller, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    While the field of empirical study on religion and spirituality in relation to mental health has rapidly expanded over the past decade, little is known about underlying dimensions of spirituality cross-culturally conceived. We aimed to bridge this gap by inductively deriving potential universal dimensions of spirituality through a large-scale, multi-national data collection, and examining the relationships of these dimensions with common psychiatric conditions. Five-thousand five-hundred and twelve participants from China, India, and the United States completed a two-hour online survey consisting of wide-ranging measures of the lived experience of spirituality, as well as clinical assessments. A series of inductive Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and cross-validating Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) were conducted to derive common underlying dimensions of spirituality. Logistic regression analyses were then conducted with each dimension to predict depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety, and substance-related disorders. Preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by ESEM findings. Analyses of 40 spirituality measures revealed five invariant factors across countries which were interpreted as five dimensions of universal spiritual experience, specifically: love, in the fabric of relationships and as a sacred reality; unifying interconnectedness, as a sense of energetic oneness with other beings in the universe; altruism, as a commitment beyond the self with care and service; contemplative practice, such as meditation, prayer, yoga, or qigong; and religious and spiritual reflection and commitment, as a life well-examined. Love, interconnectedness, and altruism were associated with less risk of psychopathology for all countries. Religious and spiritual reflection and commitment and contemplative practice were associated with less risk in India and the United States but associated with greater risk in China. Education was directly

  4. Phenotypic Dimensions of Spirituality: Implications for Mental Health in China, India, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Clayton H; Lau, Elsa; Miller, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    While the field of empirical study on religion and spirituality in relation to mental health has rapidly expanded over the past decade, little is known about underlying dimensions of spirituality cross-culturally conceived. We aimed to bridge this gap by inductively deriving potential universal dimensions of spirituality through a large-scale, multi-national data collection, and examining the relationships of these dimensions with common psychiatric conditions. Five-thousand five-hundred and twelve participants from China, India, and the United States completed a two-hour online survey consisting of wide-ranging measures of the lived experience of spirituality, as well as clinical assessments. A series of inductive Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and cross-validating Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) were conducted to derive common underlying dimensions of spirituality. Logistic regression analyses were then conducted with each dimension to predict depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety, and substance-related disorders. Preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by ESEM findings. Analyses of 40 spirituality measures revealed five invariant factors across countries which were interpreted as five dimensions of universal spiritual experience, specifically: love, in the fabric of relationships and as a sacred reality; unifying interconnectedness, as a sense of energetic oneness with other beings in the universe; altruism, as a commitment beyond the self with care and service; contemplative practice, such as meditation, prayer, yoga, or qigong; and religious and spiritual reflection and commitment, as a life well-examined. Love, interconnectedness, and altruism were associated with less risk of psychopathology for all countries. Religious and spiritual reflection and commitment and contemplative practice were associated with less risk in India and the United States but associated with greater risk in China. Education was directly

  5. Phenotypic Dimensions of Spirituality: Implications for Mental Health in China, India, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Hoi-Yun McClintock

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While the field of empirical study on religion and spirituality in relation to mental health has rapidly expanded over the past decade, little is known about underlying dimensions of spirituality cross-culturally conceived. We aimed to bridge this gap by inductively deriving potential universal dimensions of spirituality through a large-scale, multi-national data collection and examining the relationships of these dimensions with common psychiatric conditions. Five-thousand five-hundred twelve participants from China, India, and the United States completed a two-hour online survey consisting of wide-ranging measures of the lived experience of spirituality, as well as clinical assessments. A series of inductive Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and cross-validating Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM were conducted to derive common underlying dimensions of spirituality. Logistic regression analyses were then conducted with each dimension to predict depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety, and substance-related disorders. Preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by ESEM findings. Analyses of forty spirituality measures revealed five invariant factors across countries which were interpreted as five dimensions of universal spiritual experience, specifically: love, in the fabric of relationships and as a sacred reality; unifying interconnectedness, as a sense of energetic oneness with other beings in the universe; altruism, as a commitment beyond the self with care and service; contemplative practice, such as meditation, prayer, yoga, or qigong; and religious and spiritual reflection and commitment, as a life well-examined. Love, interconnectedness, and altruism were associated with less risk of psychopathology for all countries. Religious and spiritual reflection and commitment and contemplative practice were associated with less risk in India and the United States but associated with greater risk in China. Education

  6. State propaganda and mental disorders: the issue of psychiatric casualties among Japanese soldiers during the Asia-Pacific War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the politics of Japanese wartime medical policy, demonstrating how state propaganda about the people and their armed forces influenced authoritative views on health and what might endanger it. By focusing on the obstacles faced by psychiatrists trying to promote more official concern for mental health issues, it challenges the validity of figures indicating a low incidence of psychological trauma among the country's soldiers. Civilian psychiatrists had to contend with the threat of censorship and arrest for even discussing war-induced mental disorders; at the same time, army psychiatrists as military insiders were pressured to convince their patients that their conditions were not serious and did not merit compensation. While discussing the neglected topic of Japanese psychiatric casualties, an attempt is made to provide a comparative approach by referring to the state of military psychiatry in other national settings.

  7. Unemployment and Mental Health among Mexican Immigrants and other Population Groups in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza CAICEDO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos el impacto del desempleo en la salud mental de los inmigrantes mexicanos, comparando a éstos con los mexicanos nacidos en Estados Unidos, con otros hispanos, y con los nativos blancos y afroamericanos, con base en las National Health Interview Surveys de 1999 y 2009. Destacan las bajas prevalencias de tensiones sicológicas en los inmigrantes mexicanos. A pesar del aumento de las tasas de desempleo, los problemas de salud mental se mantuvieron estables; sin embargo, nuestros resultados sugieren un fuerte efecto negativo del desempleo sobre la salud mental. Efectos de la composición de los grupos ayudan a explicarlo. El impacto del desempleo sobre la salud mental aumenta considerablemente entre los blancos nativos, mientras en los grupos con más des - ventajas socioeconómicas, los afroamericanos y los hispanos, se mantuvo sin cambios.

  8. Adaptation Stages and Mental Health of Korean Male Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurh, Won Moo; Kim, Kwang Chung

    1990-01-01

    A study of 334 Korean male immigrants in the Chicago area reveals that their mental well-being is likely to increase with length of residency and that the most significant variable is occupational satisfaction. (DM)

  9. Job Characteristics in the United States Air Force and Mental Health Service Utilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baumgarten, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Data from the 2000 Air Force Community Needs Assessment were used to assess the significance and strength of the effects of job characteristics and social supports on mental health service utilization...

  10. [Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE): determination of cutoff scores according to age and educational level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solias, A; Skapinakis, P; Degleris, N; Pantoleon, M; Katirtzoglou, E; Politis, A

    2014-01-01

    For the last 38 years, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used as a dementia screening measure in everyday clinical practice as well as in both cohort and cross-sectional studies. Its validity and reliability for the Greek population has explicitly been documented. However, the effect of age and education on the subject's performance makes it necessary to reckon them in the estimation of the "cutoff score". The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dementia in Greek population and determine the "cutoff score" by age and education-corrected norms. Cross sectional study of 630 patients older than 55 years, who live independently in Ilion and Helioupolis Municipalities was conducted, 27.3% of the subjects tested in the study were diagnosed with memory disorder according to their MMSE scores and the validation for the Greek population. The effect of age and education to the subjects' performance was statistically significant (p=.000). The use of standard "cutoff score" was not proved to be useful for the personalized interpretation of the results, as documented by the fact that older individuals with lower education had a poorer performance relatively to younger, highly educated subjects. Comparatively to the group age of 55-60 years, the odds ratio after the age of 75 years varies from 2.58 to 4.91. Regarding the variable factor of education, the odds ratio for the first degree education graduates decreases from 1.43 to 3.19 for the third degree education graduates in comparison with the group of illiterates. In conclusion, the use of the "cutoff score" algorithm and the simultaneous estimation of age and education effect on MMSE score may prove useful for the proper evaluation of MMSE performance. According to the age and education of examine candidates in the community and the primary care, we propose the use of the 25th percentile as a more useful cutoff score in order to decrease the false positive results.

  11. Adolescent family perceptions in the At-Risk Mental State for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Patrick; Tiffin, Paul A

    2015-08-01

    There is a long-standing interest in the relationship between patients affected by psychosis and their families. Previous research also suggests that perceived family dysfunction is a factor commonly associated with psychological problems in adolescence. The current study examined the role of self-reported family perceptions in the context of adolescents with an At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis. Family perceptions were obtained using the Family Perceptions Scale (FPS) and compared across three groups; an ARMS for psychosis group (n = 44), a first-episode affective/non-affective psychosis group (n = 26) and a control group (n = 140) drawn from a community population. Scores on the FPS Expressed Emotion subscale were significantly higher in the psychosis and ARMS groups, compared to controls (P = 0.039 and P = 0.041, respectively). In contrast, participants in the ARMS group reported poorer perceived problem solving and lower levels of nurturing behaviour in their families compared to controls (P = 0.032 and P = 0.027). Overall, family perceptions were not related to symptom severity in both the ARMS and psychosis groups (except for manic symptomatology and Expressed Emotion). These findings highlight that ARMS patients are likely to report higher levels of perceived family dysfunction compared to a community sample of young people. However, the mechanisms by which family perceptions may contribute to the development of distressing psychotic symptoms remain unclear and require further study. Family work, with a focus upon improving perceived expressed emotion, nurturing behaviours and hostility may at this stage represent a feasible adjunct therapy for those with ARMS. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. The current and ideal state of mental health training: pediatric program director perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cori; Hampton, Elisa; Ward, Mary J; Shao, Huibo; Bostwick, Susan

    2014-01-01

    To assess pediatric residency program director (PD) perceptions of the current state of mental health (MH) training, their receptivity to curricular changes, and perceptions of their residents' knowledge and skills in MH care. We performed a cross-sectional study utilizing a Web-based survey of pediatric residency PDs to assess program characteristics, learning modalities PDs currently had or would implement, and their knowledge of the new American Academy of Pediatrics' MH competencies. PDs then ranked their residents' knowledge and skills for 29 MH competencies. Analyses included descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate analyses to assess for associations between variables, particularly MH model of care and perceived competence. Ninety-nine PDs (51%) responded. A total of 87% of PDs reported that MH care was taught as part of another rotation, yet PDs were receptive to curricular changes. Only 45% of PDs were aware of the 2009 American Academy of Pediatrics competencies, and PDs infrequently rated their residents' MH skills and knowledge to be above average. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was an exception: 64% reported above-average ADHD knowledge in diagnoses and 57% in treatment. There was an association between enhanced MH services in continuity clinics and perceived resident systems-based practice (P training is not emphasized, leading to deficiencies in their residents' knowledge and skills in MH care. The receptivity of PDs suggests the need for targeted dissemination of national guidelines or curriculum. Integrated models of care may be one way to improve resident competencies, but this deserves further study. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The current and ideal state of mental health training: pediatric resident perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Elisa; Richardson, Joshua E; Bostwick, Susan; Ward, Mary J; Green, Cori

    2015-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Mental health (MH) problems are prevalent in the pediatric population, and in a setting of limited resources, pediatricians need to provide MH care in the primary medical home yet are uncomfortable doing so citing a lack of training during residency as one barrier. The purpose of this study is to describe pediatric residents' experiences and perspectives on the current and ideal states of MH training and ideas for curriculum development to bridge this gap. A qualitative study using focus groups of pediatric residents from an urban academic medical center was performed. Audio recordings were transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Twenty-six residents participated in three focus groups, which is when thematic saturation was achieved. The team generated five major themes: capabilities, comfort, organizational capacity, coping, and education. Residents expressed uncertainty at every step of an MH visit. Internal barriers identified included low levels of comfort and negative emotional responses. External barriers included a lack of MH resources and mentorship in MH care, or an inadequate organizational capacity. These internal and external barriers resulted in a lack of perceived capability in handling MH issues. In response, residents reported inadequate coping strategies, such as ignoring MH concerns. To build knowledge and skills, residents prefer educational modalities including didactics, experiential learning through collaborations with MH specialists, and tools built into patient care flow. Insights: Pediatric residency programs need to evolve in order to improve resident training in MH care. The skills and knowledge requested by residents parallel the American Academy of Pediatrics statement on MH competencies. Models of collaborative care provide similar modalities of learning requested by residents. These national efforts have not been operationalized in training programs yet may be useful for curriculum development and

  14. The factorial structure of the mini mental state examination (MMSE in Japanese dementia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimura Takaki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE is one of the most commonly used instruments in the evaluation of global cognitive status. Few studies have investigated the relationship among its components in terms of factorial structure in Japanese individuals suffering from dementia. The aims of this study were: 1 to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in Japanese dementia patients, 2 to clarify the MMSE static structure in identifying different cognitive profiles and understanding how these profiles are related to levels of dysfunction in subsets of dementia patients. Methods 30,895 consecutive outpatients with dementia were evaluated. The 11 subtests composing the MMSE and the global MMSE score were analyzed. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis with Promax rotation was applied to the data representing the frequency of failures in each subtest as identified by the MMSE. Results Factor analysis identified three factors that explained approximately 44.57% of the total variance. The first factor, immediate memory, essentially constituted a simple index of the reading and writing subtests. The second factor, orientation and delayed recall, expressed the ability to handle new information. The third factor, working memory, was most closely related to the severity of dementia at the time of test administration. Conclusions Japanese dementia patients appear to develop difficulty handling new information in the early stages of their disease. This finding, and our finding that there is a factor associated with disease severity, suggest that understanding the specific factors related to subtest items, which underlie the total MMSE score may be useful to clinicians in planning interventions for Japanese patients in the early stages of dementia.

  15. The factorial structure of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in Japanese dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemori, Kenta; Ohgi, Shohei; Okuyama, Eriko; Shimura, Takaki; Schneider, Eric

    2010-06-09

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most commonly used instruments in the evaluation of global cognitive status. Few studies have investigated the relationship among its components in terms of factorial structure in Japanese individuals suffering from dementia. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in Japanese dementia patients, 2) to clarify the MMSE static structure in identifying different cognitive profiles and understanding how these profiles are related to levels of dysfunction in subsets of dementia patients. 30,895 consecutive outpatients with dementia were evaluated. The 11 subtests composing the MMSE and the global MMSE score were analyzed. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis with Promax rotation was applied to the data representing the frequency of failures in each subtest as identified by the MMSE. Factor analysis identified three factors that explained approximately 44.57% of the total variance. The first factor, immediate memory, essentially constituted a simple index of the reading and writing subtests. The second factor, orientation and delayed recall, expressed the ability to handle new information. The third factor, working memory, was most closely related to the severity of dementia at the time of test administration. Japanese dementia patients appear to develop difficulty handling new information in the early stages of their disease. This finding, and our finding that there is a factor associated with disease severity, suggest that understanding the specific factors related to subtest items, which underlie the total MMSE score may be useful to clinicians in planning interventions for Japanese patients in the early stages of dementia.

  16. The factorial structure of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnolo, A; Nobili, F; Barbieri, M P; Dessi, B; Ferro, A; Girtler, N; Palummeri, E; Partinico, D; Raiteri, U; Regesta, G; Servetto, G; Tanganelli, P; Uva, V; Mazzei, D; Donadio, S; De Carli, F; Colazzo, G; Serrati, C; Rodriguez, G

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the factorial structure of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Five hundred and twenty-four consecutive outpatients at their first diagnostic work-up (age 78.02+/-6.07 years, education 6.62+/-3.48 years, mean MMSE score 20.23+/-4.89) (+/-S.D.) with probable AD (based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria) were enrolled in a multicenter, cross-sectional, regional-based study. For the purpose of the present study, the 11 subtests composing the MMSE and the global MMSE score (ranging from 10 to 29, included) were considered. Factor analysis with Varimax rotation method identified two factors that explained about the 85% of total variance. The first factor explained the 65% of variance and mainly included temporal orientation, delayed recall, attention/concentration, and constructional praxia. The second factor explained the 20% of variance and included reading a sentence, writing a sentence, naming, verbal repetition and immediate memory. The first factor was a reliable index of cognitive deterioration along the MMSE score interval between 29 and 10, whereas the second factor was not a suitable marker in this range. The two-factor structure of the MMSE in AD is shown in a large series of patients. The first factor expresses the ability to use new information and is related with working memory. The second factor is related with a more consolidated knowledge, namely verbal abilities, and is essentially useless in mild to moderate AD.

  17. The factorial structure of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) in Japanese dementia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most commonly used instruments in the evaluation of global cognitive status. Few studies have investigated the relationship among its components in terms of factorial structure in Japanese individuals suffering from dementia. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in Japanese dementia patients, 2) to clarify the MMSE static structure in identifying different cognitive profiles and understanding how these profiles are related to levels of dysfunction in subsets of dementia patients. Methods 30,895 consecutive outpatients with dementia were evaluated. The 11 subtests composing the MMSE and the global MMSE score were analyzed. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis with Promax rotation was applied to the data representing the frequency of failures in each subtest as identified by the MMSE. Results Factor analysis identified three factors that explained approximately 44.57% of the total variance. The first factor, immediate memory, essentially constituted a simple index of the reading and writing subtests. The second factor, orientation and delayed recall, expressed the ability to handle new information. The third factor, working memory, was most closely related to the severity of dementia at the time of test administration. Conclusions Japanese dementia patients appear to develop difficulty handling new information in the early stages of their disease. This finding, and our finding that there is a factor associated with disease severity, suggest that understanding the specific factors related to subtest items, which underlie the total MMSE score may be useful to clinicians in planning interventions for Japanese patients in the early stages of dementia. PMID:20534132

  18. Alterations in neuronal activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits in the parkinsonian state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Adriana; Devergnas, Annaelle; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials (LFPs), electroencephalograms (EEGs) or electrocorticograms (ECoGs). Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. PMID:25698937

  19. Alterations in Neuronal Activity in Basal Ganglia-Thalamocortical Circuits in the Parkinsonian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eGalvan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials, electroencephalograms or electrocorticograms. Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation therapy.

  20. Resting-state functional connectivity bias of middle temporal gyrus and caudate with altered gray matter volume in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqiong Ma

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have indicated that the structure deficits and resting-state functional connectivity (FC imbalances in cortico-limbic circuitry might underline the pathophysiology of MDD. Using structure and functional MRI, our aim is to investigate gray matter abnormalities in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD and treatment-responsive depression (TSD, and test whether the altered gray matter is associated with altered FC. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the regions with gray matter abnormality and FC analysis was further conducted between each gray matter abnormal region and the remaining voxels in the brain. Using one-way analysis of variance, we found significant gray matter abnormalities in the right middle temporal cortex (MTG and bilateral caudate among the TRD, TSD and healthy controls. For the FC of the right MTG, we found that both the patients with TRD and TSD showed altered connectivity mainly in the default-mode network (DMN. For the FC of the right caudate, both patient groups showed altered connectivity in the frontal regions. Our results revealed the gray matter reduction of right MTG and bilateral caudate, and disrupted functional connection to widely distributed circuitry in DMN and frontal regions, respectively. These results suggest that the abnormal DMN and reward circuit activity might be biomarkers of depression trait.

  1. Mental health first aid training for the Bhutanese refugee community in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Parangkush; Li, Changwei; Gurung, Ashok; Bizune, Destani; Dogbey, M Christina; Johnson, Caroline C; Yun, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for Bhutanese refugee community leaders in the U.S. We hypothesized that training refugee leaders would improve knowledge of mental health problems and treatment process and decrease negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. One hundred and twenty community leaders participated in MHFA training, of whom 58 had sufficient English proficiency to complete pre- and post-tests. The questionnaires assessed each participant's ability to recognize signs of depression, knowledge about professional help and treatment, and attitudes towards people with mental illness. Between the pre- and post-test, participants showed significant improvement in the recognition of symptoms of depression and expressed beliefs about treatment that became more concordant with those of mental health professionals. However, there was no reduction in negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. MHFA training course is a promising program for Bhutanese refugee communities in the U.S. However, some adaptations may be necessary to ensure that MHFA training is optimized for this community.

  2. Insulin Resistance-Associated Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity Alterations in T2DM: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to investigate whether decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity exists in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI. In addition, we sought to determine whether interhemispheric functional connectivity deficits associated with cognition and insulin resistance (IR among T2DM patients. We compared the interhemispheric resting state functional connectivity of 32 T2DM patients and 30 healthy controls using rs-fMRI. Partial correlation coefficients were used to detect the relationship between rs-fMRI information and cognitive or clinical data. Compared with healthy controls, T2DM patients showed bidirectional alteration of functional connectivity in several brain regions. Functional connectivity values in the middle temporal gyrus (MTG and in the superior frontal gyrus were inversely correlated with Trail Making Test-B score of patients. Notably, insulin resistance (log homeostasis model assessment-IR negatively correlated with functional connectivity in the MTG of patients. In conclusion, T2DM patients exhibit abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity in several default mode network regions, particularly in the MTG, and such alteration is associated with IR. Alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity might contribute to cognitive dysfunction in T2DM patients.

  3. Securitization, alterity, and the stateHuman (in)security on an Amazonian frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, Marc; Grotti, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Focusing on the region surrounding the Maroni River, which forms the border between Suriname and French Guiana, we examine how relations between different state and non-state social groups are articulated in terms of security. The region is characterised by multiple "borders" and frontiers of various kinds, the state boundary having the features of an interface or contact zone. Several key collectivities meet in this border zone: native Amazonians, tribal Maroon peoples, migrant Brazilian gold prospectors, and metropolitan French state functionaries. We explore the relationships between these different sets of actors and describe how their mutual encounters center on discourses of human and state security, thus challenging the commonly held view of the region as a stateless zone and showing that the "human security" of citizens from the perspective of the state may compete with locally salient ideas or experiences of well-being.

  4. The State of Mental Health of Students of Tehran Medical Sciences University in The Academic Year 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monavar Moradian Sorkhkalaee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Students are the most dynamic people in the society and their health is to a great extent a prerequisite for the health of most individuals in the society. This study was conducted to investigate the state of mental health and factors which influence it in the students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services.Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 400 students of Tehran Medical Sciences University in the academic year 2010-2011. The number of studied subjects was determined according to the student population of each faculty and questionnaires were randomly distributed among them. The data collection tool in this study was the standard GHQ28 questionnaire. After collecting the data, analysis was done using SPSS.18 software, Chi-square test, T-test, and Regression Logestic.Results: 25.52% of the attendants were healthy and 75.47% had suspected mental disorders. Also, regarding depression, 75.53% of people suffered from mental disorders and 25.46% were healthy.Conclusion: According to the achieved results, it seems that studying at university, facing educational problems and the existing conditions at university cause an increase in the rate of mental disorder among the students of Medical Sciences University.

  5. Comparison of mental health, happiness, and emotion control with adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization and family reared adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Bawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Many research indicated that adolescents’ residential centers have the high possibility to diagnose with psychological disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was investigated the mental health, happiness and emotion control among adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization.Materials and Methods: This research is a causal –comparative research. The 80 adolescents’ residential centers were chosen through available sampling and 80 adolescents of schools of Alborz city were selected through cluster method. Statistical analysis was conducted by using the independent t-test. The research instruments were Emotion Control Questionnaire (ECQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, Goldenberg, and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI.Results: The significantly different was observed in mental health, happiness and emotion control between two adolescents groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results indicate that the institutional-reared decrease the level of mental health, happiness and emotion control in adolescents. Thus, counselors should be considered these factors in therapeutic intervention to enhancing the mental health of adolescents’ residential centers.

  6. Consumer perspectives and mental health reform movements in the United States: 30 years of first-person accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Shinakee; Stein, Catherine H

    2013-09-01

    The present qualitative study examined 69 published first-person accounts written by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1979-2010 within the historical context of the four major mental health movements in the United States. Content analysis techniques were used to identify major topics and overarching content categories in the first-person accounts written over the 30-year period. The frequency of topics in each content category was examined as a function of the decade and corresponding mental health movement in which accounts were published. Five overarching content categories emerged reflecting authors' conceptualizations of schizophrenia, their experiences with psychiatric hospitalization, medications, coping with social stigma, and achieving and maintaining valued social roles. Two summary categories emerged reflecting authors explicit views about what helped and what did not help in their experience of living with schizophrenia. With the exception of social stigma, frequency of topics within content categories did not change as a function of decade and corresponding mental health movement. Despite changes in mental health policies, treatment, and systems of care, the overall lack of significant differences in the content of first-person accounts across the 30-year period suggests an enduring nature to the experiences of individuals coping with schizophrenia. Implications of present findings for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Diagnosis and Administrative Interventions for Students with Mental Retardation in Australia, France, United States, and Zimbabwe 98 Years after Binet's First Intelligence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Mpofu, Elias; Glasgow, Ken; Jumel, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes some prevailing policies and practices important to the assessment of mental retardation in Australia, France, the United States, and Zimbabwe. Discusses international standards for diagnosis and classification of mental disorders and cross-national similarities and differences. Also discusses implications for test development. (SLD)

  8. Distributions of Irritative Zones Are Related to Individual Alterations of Resting-State Networks in Focal Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinchen Song

    Full Text Available Alterations in the connectivity patterns of the fMRI-based resting-state networks (RSNs have been reported in several types of epilepsies. Evidence pointed out these alterations might be associated with the genesis and propagation of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs. IEDs also evoke blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD responses, which have been used to delineate irritative zones during preoperative work-up. Therefore, one may expect a relationship between the topology of the IED-evoked BOLD response network and the altered spatial patterns of the RSNs. In this study, we used EEG recordings and fMRI data obtained simultaneously from a chronic model of focal epilepsy in Wistar rats to verify our hypothesis. We found that IED-evoked BOLD response networks comprise both cortical and subcortical structures with a rat-dependent topology. In all rats, IEDs evoke both activation and deactivation types of BOLD responses. Using a Granger causality method, we found that in many cases areas with BOLD deactivation have directed influences on areas with activation (p<0.05. We were able to predict topological properties (i.e., focal/diffused, unilateral/bilateral of the IED-evoked BOLD response network by performing hierarchical clustering analysis on major spatial features of the RSNs. All these results suggest that IEDs and disruptions in the RSNs found previously in humans may be different manifestations of the same transient events, probably reflecting altered consciousness. In our opinion, the shutdown of specific nodes of the default mode network may cause uncontrollable excitability in other functionally connected brain areas. We conclude that IED-evoked BOLD responses (i.e., activation and deactivation and alterations of RSNs are intrinsically related, and speculate that an understanding of their interplay is necessary to discriminate focal epileptogenesis and network propagation phenomena across different brain modules via hub

  9. Altered resting state neuromotor connectivity in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A MAPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J. Kutch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain network activity associated with altered motor control in individuals with chronic pain is not well understood. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS is a debilitating condition in which previous studies have revealed altered resting pelvic floor muscle activity in men with CP/CPPS compared to healthy controls. We hypothesized that the brain networks controlling pelvic floor muscles would also show altered resting state function in men with CP/CPPS. Here we describe the results of the first test of this hypothesis focusing on the motor cortical regions, termed pelvic-motor, that can directly activate pelvic floor muscles. A group of men with CP/CPPS (N = 28, as well as group of age-matched healthy male controls (N = 27, had resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network study. Brain maps of the functional connectivity of pelvic-motor were compared between groups. A significant group difference was observed in the functional connectivity between pelvic-motor and the right posterior insula. The effect size of this group difference was among the largest effect sizes in functional connectivity between all pairs of 165 anatomically-defined subregions of the brain. Interestingly, many of the atlas region pairs with large effect sizes also involved other subregions of the insular cortices. We conclude that functional connectivity between motor cortex and the posterior insula may be among the most important markers of altered brain function in men with CP/CPPS, and may represent changes in the integration of viscerosensory and motor processing.

  10. New methods for the measurement and alteration of quantum states; Neue Methoden zur Messung und Veraenderung von Quantenzustaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuernagel, O.

    1996-07-01

    Themes of this thesis are the mathematical representation, measurement-technical reconstruction, and preparation of quantum states as well as their alteration by measurement. The main topics of the considerations are quantum-mechanical system states, the complet description of which pursues by means of density operators. The first chapter presents a general mathematical scheme for the representaion of density operators by means of projection operators. The second chapter explains a scheme for the syntehsis of Fock states by means of a linear mixer. The third chapter answers the question, whether spontaneous emitted light, which is emitted by an atom with large spatial extension, can show self-interferences and lets conclude on thee coherent structure of the c.m. wave function of the emitting atom. The last chapter reconstructs measurement results on the coherence loss of atoms in an atomic-beam experiment by spontaneous emission in the language of the density-operator formalism.

  11. Discrimination and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, Wendy B; Boyd, Carol J; Hughes, Tonda L; West, Brady T; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities among sexual minority groups, particularly mental health disparities, are well-documented. Numerous studies have demonstrated heightened prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual groups as compared with heterosexuals. Some authors posit that these disparities are the result of the stress that prejudice and perceived discrimination can cause. The current study extends previous research by examining the associations between multiple types of discrimination, based on race or ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation, and past-year mental health disorders in a national sample of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual women and men (n = 577). Findings suggest that different types of discrimination may be differentially associated with past-year mental health disorders. Notably, sexual orientation discrimination was associated with higher odds of a past-year disorder only in combination with other types of discrimination. These findings point to the complexity of the relationship between discrimination experiences and mental health, and suggest that further work is needed to better explicate the interplay among multiple marginalized identities, discrimination, and mental health. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Alterations of the cerebellum and basal ganglia in bipolar disorder mood states detected by quantitative T1ρ mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Casey P; Christensen, Gary E; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Mani, Merry; Shaffer, Joseph J; Magnotta, Vincent A; Wemmie, John A

    2018-01-07

    Quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1ρ) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique sensitive to pH and other cellular and microstructural factors, and is a potentially valuable tool for identifying brain alterations in bipolar disorder. Recently, this technique identified differences in the cerebellum and cerebral white matter of euthymic patients vs healthy controls that were consistent with reduced pH in these regions, suggesting an underlying metabolic abnormality. The current study built upon this prior work to investigate brain T1ρ differences across euthymic, depressed, and manic mood states of bipolar disorder. Forty participants with bipolar I disorder and 29 healthy control participants matched for age and gender were enrolled. Participants with bipolar disorder were imaged in one or more mood states, yielding 27, 12, and 13 imaging sessions in euthymic, depressed, and manic mood states, respectively. Three-dimensional, whole-brain anatomical images and T1ρ maps were acquired for all participants, enabling voxel-wise evaluation of T1ρ differences between bipolar mood state and healthy control groups. All three mood state groups had increased T1ρ relaxation times in the cerebellum compared to the healthy control group. Additionally, the depressed and manic groups had reduced T1ρ relaxation times in and around the basal ganglia compared to the control and euthymic groups. The study implicated the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and its mood states, the roles of which are relatively unexplored. These findings motivate further investigation of the underlying cause of the abnormalities, and the potential role of altered metabolic activity in these regions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Substance Use, Mental Disorders and Physical Health of Caribbeans at-Home Compared to Those Residing in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krim K. Lacey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the health conditions of domestic Caribbeans with those living in the United States to explore how national context and migration experiences might influence substance use (i.e., alcohol or drug and other mental and physical health conditions. The study is based upon probability samples of non-institutionalized Caribbeans living in the United States (1621, Jamaica (1216 and Guyana (2068 18 years of age and over. Employing descriptive statistics and multivariate analytic procedures, the results revealed that substance use and other physical health conditions and major depressive disorder and mania vary by national context, with higher rates among Caribbeans living in the United States. Context and generation status influenced health outcomes. Among first generation black Caribbeans, residing in the United States for a longer length of time is linked to poorer health outcomes. There were different socio-demographic correlates of health among at-home and abroad Caribbeans. The results of this study support the need for additional research to explain how national context, migratory experiences and generation status contribute to understanding substance use and mental disorders and physical health outcomes among Caribbean first generation and descendants within the United States, compared to those remaining in the Caribbean region.

  14. Causation, constitution and context. Comment on "Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds" by Cristina Becchio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahavi, Dan

    2018-03-01

    In their new article [1], Becchio and her colleagues argue that recent claims concerning the possibility of directly perceiving other people's mental states will remain speculative as long as one has failed to demonstrate the availability of mentalistic information in observable behavior [p. 4]. The ambitious goal of the authors is then to outline an experimental setup that will permit one to determine whether and to what extent a mental state is observable. Drawing on Becchio's previous work on how regularities in the kinematic patterns specify the mental states of the agent, the authors suggest that a similar approach can be adopted to probe the observability of any mental state instantiated in behavioral patterns [p. 19].

  15. [Occurrence of enteroparasitosis in carriers of mental disease assisted at São Marcello nursing home in Aracaju, Sergipe State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Paula Andreza de Carvalho; Faro, Cynthia Cristina Pagliari de; Pinheiro, Malone Santos; Rezende Neto, José Melquiades de; Brito, Ana Maria Guedes de

    2010-06-01

    The interhuman transmission, low level of personal hygiene, coprophagic habits, among others, may contribute to the dissemination of enteroparasitosis in individuals with mental diseases. The object of this paper was to verify the occurrence of enteroparasitosis in individuals with mental diseases assisted at São Marcello Nursing Home in Aracaju, Sergipe State, in the period between February and May at 2006, and track epidemiological aspects of the transmission. So, coproparasitologic exams were performed, and samples were manipulated by Hoffmann, Pons or Janner (1932) technique. The epidemiological data was obtained from questionnaires applied to the legal responsible for each individual. There were 62.22% of patients infected by at least one parasite. Inadequacies regarding sanitation, habitation and habits of personal hygiene were also observed. This study stressed the importance of a constant monitoring of parasitisms and the continuous observance of the conditions that favor their transmission.

  16. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for the detection of dementia in clinically unevaluated people aged 65 and over in community and primary care populations

    OpenAIRE

    Creavin, Sam T; Wisniewski, Susanna; Noel-Storr, Anna H; Trevelyan, Clare M; Hampton, Thomas; Rayment, Dane; Thom, Victoria M; Nash, Kirsty J E; Elhamoui, Hosam; Milligan, Rowena; Patel, Anish S; Tsivos, Demitra V; Wing, Tracey; Phillips, Emma; Kellman, Sophie M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a cognitive test that is commonly used as part of the evaluation for possible dementia.OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at various cut points for dementia in people aged 65 years and over in community and primary care settings who had not undergone prior testing for dementia.SEARCH METHODS: We searched the specialised register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement G...

  17. CBT in the prevention of psychosis and other severe mental disorders in patients with an at risk mental state: A review and proposed next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, Mark; van den Berg, David; Ising, Helga

    2017-08-28

    Patients with an 'At risk mental state' (ARMS) for developing psychosis can be treated successfully with CBT to postpone and prevent the transition to a first psychotic episode. A characteristic of individuals that meet ARMS criteria is that they are still open for multiple explanations for extraordinary experiences. CBT aims to normalize extraordinary experiences with education and to prevent delusional explanations. The treatment is not only effective, but also cost-saving in averting psychosis as well as in reducing disability adjusted life years at 18- and 48-month follow-up. Profiling within the ARMS group results in a personalized treatment. The screening and early treatment for ARMS fulfills all the criteria of the World Health Organization and is ready to be routine screening and treatment in mental health care. At the same time, ARMS patients are complex patients with multi-morbid disorders. Especially childhood trauma is associated to ARMS status, together with co-morbid PTSD, depression, substance abuse and anxiety disorders. Psychotic symptoms appear to be severity markers in other non-psychotic disorders. Preventing psychosis in ARMS patients should be broadened to also address other disorders and aim to reduce chronicity of psychopathology and improve social functioning in general. Several mechanisms play a part in psychopathology in ARMS patients such as stress sensitivity as a result of adverse experiences, dopamine sensitivity that is associated with salience and aggravates several cognitive biases, dissociation mediating between trauma and hallucinations, and low self-esteem and self-stigma. New avenues to treat the complexity of ARMS patients will be proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Contesting Certification: Mental Deficiency, Families and the State in Interwar England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    This article is an attempt to shed some further light on the people and the processes involved in the identification of mental deficiency in children and young people. In order to do this, it turns away from the themes that have been most prominent in the historiography to date: elite and professional ideas, parliamentary and public debates and…

  19. In the eye of the beholder: explaining behavior through mental state attribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sindlar, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Mental-level modeling of software is a powerful abstraction in artificial intelligence that is encountered, for example, in the case of autonomous BDI-based agents. An agent of this type is equipped with goals that it attempts to achieve by selecting plans that it considers to be appropriate in

  20. Early Childhood Mental Health Services: Four State Case Studies. inForum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, Kimberly Moherek

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood mental health (ECMH) services are relationship-based since infants and young children depend on parents/family/care-takers to provide for their basic survival needs and their social emotional health. ECMH is defined by ZERO TO THREE as the "social, emotional, and behavioral well-being of children birth through five and their…

  1. Altered affective, executive and sensorimotor resting state networks in patients with pediatric mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minjie; Lu, Lisa H.; Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Wegbreit, Ezra; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to map the pathophysiology of resting state functional connectivity accompanying structural and functional abnormalities in children with bipolar disorder. Methods Children with bipolar disorder and demographically matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. A model-free independent component analysis was performed to identify intrinsically interconnected networks. Results We included 34 children with bipolar disorder and 40 controls in our analysis. Three distinct resting state networks corresponding to affective, executive and sensorimotor functions emerged as being significantly different between the pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and control groups. All 3 networks showed hyperconnectivity in the PBD relative to the control group. Specifically, the connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) differentiated the PBD from the control group in both the affective and the executive networks. Exploratory analysis suggests that greater connectivity of the right amygdala within the affective network is associated with better executive function in children with bipolar disorder, but not in controls. Limitations Unique clinical characteristics of the study sample allowed us to evaluate the pathophysiology of resting state connectivity at an early state of PBD, which led to the lack of generalizability in terms of comorbid disorders existing in a typical PBD population. Conclusion Abnormally engaged resting state affective, executive and sensorimotor networks observed in children with bipolar disorder may reflect a biological context in which abnormal task-based brain activity can occur. Dual engagement of the dorsal ACC in affective and executive networks supports the neuroanatomical interface of these networks, and the amygdala’s engagement in moderating executive function illustrates the intricate interplay of these neural operations at rest. PMID:23735583

  2. Thermotherapy to the facial region in and around the eyelids altered prefrontal hemodynamic responses and autonomic nervous activity during mental arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamoto, Kouich; Hori, Etsuro; Urakawa, Susumu; Katayama, Miho; Nagashima, Yoshinao; Yada, Yukihiro; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate neural mechanisms of local thermotherapy to reduce mental stress, participants were required to perform mental arithmetic after treatment by a heat- and steam-generating sheet on the facial eyelid region while hemodynamic activity and ECGs were monitored. The results indicated that thermotherapy decreased hemodynamic activity in the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (aDMPFC) involved in sympathetic activity. Consistently, thermotherapy increased parasympathetic activity while it decreased sympathetic activity. Furthermore, thermotherapy increased hemodynamic activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during mental arithmetic. These hemodynamic responses in the DLPFC during mental arithmetic were negatively correlated with that in the aDMPFC during thermotherapy. The results suggest that thermotherapy in the facial eyelid region is useful to ameliorate mental fatigue through its effects on the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Association between mental disorders, cognitive disturbances and vitamin D serum level: Current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Paul P; Sharony, Laura; Miodownik, Chanoch

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a global problem. Approximately 14% of the world population has inadequate vitamin D levels. This vitamin has been usually associated with bone disorders such as rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. However, these disorders present only a small part of all the disturbances which can be induced by its deficiency. Low serum vitamin D is associated with development of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and even cancer. This vitamin may be an important factor in the development of psychiatric illnesses, therefore clinicians should not leave this serious issue unresolved. The aim of this review is to describe the current data concerning the association between vitamin D serum levels, cognition and mental disorders. We conducted a systematic bibliographical research, of PubMed, MedLine literature and Cochrane database without language restriction to identify all publications concerning this issue from 1995 to the first quarter of 2017. We found 48,937 articles concerning vitamin D, published during the last 22 years and 3 months (1995-2017). We selected only those publications focused on the association between vitamin D serum deficiency and mental disturbances (depression, schizophrenia, cognitive disturbances, attention deficit disorder, and autism). One hundred and sixty-seven papers were found suitable to our selection criteria. Careful evaluation of the relevant literature demonstrates that addition of vitamin D to conventional antidepressive agents can improve antidepressive effect in contrast to placebo. Regarding other mental conditions there are no clear-cut conclusions. An association between low vitamin D serum levels and different mental disorders was found. Yet, nonetheless there is no clear consensus that addition of vitamin D improves or is related to a beneficial effect on mental health. More randomized clinical control trials should be

  4. State-Dependent Alterations in Inhibitory Control and Emotional Face Identification in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt, Liv V.; Stenbæk, Dea S.; Madsen, Kathrine Skak

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depressed individuals often exhibit impaired inhibition to negative input and identification of positive stimuli, but it is unclear whether this is a state or trait feature. We here exploited a naturalistic model, namely individuals with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), to study thi...... of life for these patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)...

  5. State-Dependent Alterations in Inhibitory Control and Emotional Face Identification in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt, Liv V.; Stenbæk, Dea S.; Madsen, Kathrine Skak

    2017-01-01

    in the symptomatic phase, but not in the remitted phase. The affective biases in cognitive processing constitute state-dependent features of SAD. Our data show that reinstatement of a normal affective cognition should be possible and would constitute a major goal in psychiatric treatment to improve the quality...

  6. Altered Standards of Care: An Analysis of Existing Federal, State, and Local Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    nearly all fifty states do extend limited immunity to physicians and healthcare workers who “in good faith gratuitously rendered emergency care or...Healthcare 39(18): 22. Bower, A. (2005). Katrina’s lingering nightmare. Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://time.com/time/nation/ article

  7. Redox state and energy metabolism during liver regeneration: alterations produced by acute ethanol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Salinas, J; Miranda-Garduño, L; Trejo-Izquierdo, E; Díaz-Muñoz, M; Vidrio, S; Morales-González, J A; Hernández-Muñoz, R

    1999-12-01

    Ethanol metabolism can induce modifications in liver metabolic pathways that are tightly regulated through the availability of cellular energy and through the redox state. Since partial hepatectomy (PH)-induced liver proliferation requires an oversupply of energy for enhanced syntheses of DNA and proteins, the present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of acute ethanol administration on the PH-induced changes in cellular redox and energy potentials. Ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) was administered to control rats and to two-thirds hepatectomized rats. Quantitation of the liver content of lactate, pyruvate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and adenine nucleotides led us to estimate the cytosolic and mitochondrial redox potentials and energy parameters. Specific activities in the liver of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes also were measured in these animals. Liver regeneration had no effect on cellular energy availability, but induced a more reduced cytosolic redox state accompanied by an oxidized mitochondrial redox state during the first 48 hr of treatment; the redox state normalized thereafter. Administration of ethanol did not modify energy parameters in PH rats, but this hepatotoxin readily blocked the PH-induced changes in the cellular redox state. In addition, proliferating liver promoted decreases in the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1); ethanol treatment prevented the PH-induced diminution of ADH activity. In summary, our data suggest that ethanol could minimize the PH-promoted metabolic adjustments mediated by redox reactions, probably leading to an ineffective preparatory event that culminates in compensatory liver growth after PH in the rat.

  8. Scaling up evidence-based practices for children and families in New York State: toward evidence-based policies on implementation for state mental health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Olin, S Serene; Horwitz, Sarah; McKay, Mary; Cleek, Andrew; Gleacher, Alissa; Lewandowski, Eric; Nadeem, Erum; Acri, Mary; Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Kuppinger, Anne; Burton, Geraldine; Weiss, Dara; Frank, Samantha; Finnerty, Molly; Bradbury, Donna M; Woodlock, Kristin M; Hogan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination of innovations is widely considered the sine qua non for system improvement. At least two dozen states are rolling out evidence-based mental health practices targeted at children and families using trainings, consultations, webinars, and learning collaboratives to improve quality and outcomes. In New York State (NYS) a group of researchers, policymakers, providers, and family support specialists have worked in partnership since 2002 to redesign and evaluate the children's mental health system. Five system strategies driven by empirically based practices and organized within a state-supported infrastructure have been used in the child and family service system with more than 2,000 providers: (a) business practices, (b) use of health information technologies in quality improvement, (c) specific clinical interventions targeted at common childhood disorders, (d) parent activation, and (e) quality indicator development. The NYS system has provided a laboratory for naturalistic experiments. We describe these initiatives, key findings and challenges, lessons learned for scaling, and implications for creating evidence-based implementation policies in state systems.

  9. Resting-state Network-specific Breakdown of Functional Connectivity during Ketamine Alteration of Consciousness in Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhomme, Vincent; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Demertzi, Athena; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Jaquet, Oceane; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Plenevaux, Alain; Boly, Melanie; Boveroux, Pierre; Soddu, Andrea; Brichant, Jean François; Maquet, Pierre; Laureys, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Consciousness-altering anesthetic agents disturb connectivity between brain regions composing the resting-state consciousness networks (RSNs). The default mode network (DMn), executive control network, salience network (SALn), auditory network, sensorimotor network (SMn), and visual network sustain mentation. Ketamine modifies consciousness differently from other agents, producing psychedelic dreaming and no apparent interaction with the environment. The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore ketamine-induced changes in RSNs connectivity. Fourteen healthy volunteers received stepwise intravenous infusions of ketamine up to loss of responsiveness. Because of agitation, data from six subjects were excluded from analysis. RSNs connectivity was compared between absence of ketamine (wake state [W1]), light ketamine sedation, and ketamine-induced unresponsiveness (deep sedation [S2]). Increasing the depth of ketamine sedation from W1 to S2 altered DMn and SALn connectivity and suppressed the anticorrelated activity between DMn and other brain regions. During S2, DMn connectivity, particularly between the medial prefrontal cortex and the remaining network (effect size β [95% CI]: W1 = 0.20 [0.18 to 0.22]; S2 = 0.07 [0.04 to 0.09]), and DMn anticorrelated activity (e.g., right sensory cortex: W1 = -0.07 [-0.09 to -0.04]; S2 = 0.04 [0.01 to 0.06]) were broken down. SALn connectivity was nonuniformly suppressed (e.g., left parietal operculum: W1 = 0.08 [0.06 to 0.09]; S2 = 0.05 [0.02 to 0.07]). Executive control networks, auditory network, SMn, and visual network were minimally affected. Ketamine induces specific changes in connectivity within and between RSNs. Breakdown of frontoparietal DMn connectivity and DMn anticorrelation and sensory and SMn connectivity preservation are common to ketamine and propofol-induced alterations of consciousness.

  10. Alterations in Resting-State Functional Connectivity Link Mindfulness Meditation With Reduced Interleukin-6: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Taren, Adrienne A; Lindsay, Emily K; Greco, Carol M; Gianaros, Peter J; Fairgrieve, April; Marsland, Anna L; Brown, Kirk Warren; Way, Baldwin M; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L

    2016-07-01

    Mindfulness meditation training interventions have been shown to improve markers of health, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are not known. Building on initial cross-sectional research showing that mindfulness meditation may increase default mode network (DMN) resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with regions important in top-down executive control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [dlPFC]), here we test whether mindfulness meditation training increases DMN-dlPFC rsFC and whether these rsFC alterations prospectively explain improvements in interleukin (IL)-6 in a randomized controlled trial. Stressed job-seeking unemployed community adults (n = 35) were randomized to either a 3-day intensive residential mindfulness meditation or relaxation training program. Participants completed a 5-minute resting-state scan before and after the intervention program. Participants also provided blood samples at preintervention and at 4-month follow-up, which were assayed for circulating IL-6, a biomarker of systemic inflammation. We tested for alterations in DMN rsFC using a posterior cingulate cortex seed-based analysis and found that mindfulness meditation training, and not relaxation training, increased posterior cingulate cortex rsFC with left dlPFC (p mindfulness meditation training improvements in IL-6 at 4-month follow-up. Specifically, these alterations in rsFC statistically explained 30% of the overall mindfulness meditation training effects on IL-6 at follow-up. These findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness meditation training functionally couples the DMN with a region known to be important in top-down executive control at rest (left dlPFC), which, in turn, is associated with improvements in a marker of inflammatory disease risk. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of alterations in the Jacobian of biochemical reaction networks from steady state covariance data at two conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, Philipp; Yang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Model building of biochemical reaction networks typically involves experiments in which changes in the behavior due to natural or experimental perturbations are observed. Computational models of reaction networks are also used in a systems biology approach to study how transitions from a healthy to a diseased state result from changes in genetic or environmental conditions. In this paper we consider the nonlinear inverse problem of inferring information about the Jacobian of a Langevin type network model from covariance data of steady state concentrations associated to two different experimental conditions. Under idealized assumptions on the Langevin fluctuation matrices we prove that relative alterations in the network Jacobian can be uniquely identified when comparing the two data sets. Based on this result and the premise that alteration is locally confined to separable parts due to network modularity we suggest a computational approach using hybrid stochastic-deterministic optimization for the detection of perturbations in the network Jacobian using the sparsity promoting effect of [Formula: see text]-penalization. Our approach is illustrated by means of published metabolomic and signaling reaction networks.

  12. Altered resting-state connectivity in subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jung-Seok

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR for psychosis have self-disturbances and deficits in social cognition and functioning. Midline default network areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, are implicated in self-referential and social cognitive tasks. Thus, the neural substrates within the default mode network (DMN have the potential to mediate self-referential and social cognitive information processing in UHR subjects. Methods This study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate resting-state DMN and task-related network (TRN functional connectivity in 19 UHR subjects and 20 matched healthy controls. The bilateral posterior cingulate cortex was selected as a seed region, and the intrinsic organization for all subjects was reconstructed on the basis of fMRI time series correlation. Results Default mode areas included the posterior/anterior cingulate cortices, the medial prefrontal cortex, the lateral parietal cortex, and the inferior temporal region. Task-related network areas included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, the inferior parietal lobule, and middle temporal cortex. Compared to healthy controls, UHR subjects exhibit hyperconnectivity within the default network regions and reduced anti-correlations (or negative correlations nearer to zero between the posterior cingulate cortex and task-related areas. Conclusions These findings suggest that abnormal resting-state network activity may be related with the clinical features of UHR subjects. Neurodevelopmental and anatomical alterations of cortical midline structure might underlie altered intrinsic networks in UHR subjects.

  13. [Neuroscience of mental flexibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Zoltán

    2017-11-01

    Mental flexibility enabling shifts from the usual prepotent behaviour to new strategies and solutions is a significant factor in the successful adaptation to the changing environment. Components of mental flexibility comprise attention, salience detection, inhibition, working memory and switch processes which can be measured by neurocognitive tests. Data derived from examinations by the methods of cognitive neuroscience can be compared to the features, observed under resting state and during task performance, of brain structures and functions. Studying central nervous system correlates of mental flexibility by imaging, neurobiological, and pharmacological techniques revealed that certain cerebral regions (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and insula, striatum, inferior parietal lobule) with their network connectivities, and some neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine) have profound roles in this respect. Flexibility shares some similarities with artistic/scientific/everyday creativity and openness as a personality trait and this is also reflected in neurobiological parameters. According to precedents in art history, the public reception and acceptance of nonconform avant-garde artistic products are also dependent on flexibility and openness. Alterations of mental flexibility have been found in diseases (psychiatric and others), and in stress situations. Although flexible switch is generally considered as positive and beneficial, under certain conditions advantages might arise from keeping stability maintaining customs, conventions, and traditions. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(45): 1771-1786.

  14. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA. Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  15. Specific alterations in plasma proteins during depressed, manic, and euthymic states of bipolar disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.R.; Wu, B.; Yang, Y.T.; Chen, J.; Zhang, L.J.; Zhang, Z.W.; Shi, H.Y.; Huang, C.L.; Pan, J.X.; Xie, P.

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common psychiatric mood disorder affecting more than 1-2% of the general population of different European countries. Unfortunately, there is no objective laboratory-based test to aid BD diagnosis or monitor its progression, and little is known about the molecular basis of BD. Here, we performed a comparative proteomic study to identify differentially expressed plasma proteins in various BD mood states (depressed BD, manic BD, and euthymic BD) relative to healthy controls. A total of 10 euthymic BD, 20 depressed BD, 15 manic BD, and 20 demographically matched healthy control subjects were recruited. Seven high-abundance proteins were immunodepleted in plasma samples from the 4 experimental groups, which were then subjected to proteome-wide expression profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic results were validated by immunoblotting and bioinformatically analyzed using MetaCore. From a total of 32 proteins identified with 1.5-fold changes in expression compared with healthy controls, 16 proteins were perturbed in BD independent of mood state, while 16 proteins were specifically associated with particular BD mood states. Two mood-independent differential proteins, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and Apo L1, suggest that BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism. Moreover, down-regulation of one mood-dependent protein, carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA-1), suggests it may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes in BD. Thus, BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism that are independent of mood state, while CA-1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes

  16. Specific alterations in plasma proteins during depressed, manic, and euthymic states of bipolar disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.R. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wu, B. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yang, Y.T.; Chen, J. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Zhang, L.J.; Zhang, Z.W. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, H.Y. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Huang, C.L.; Pan, J.X. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xie, P. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2015-09-08

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common psychiatric mood disorder affecting more than 1-2% of the general population of different European countries. Unfortunately, there is no objective laboratory-based test to aid BD diagnosis or monitor its progression, and little is known about the molecular basis of BD. Here, we performed a comparative proteomic study to identify differentially expressed plasma proteins in various BD mood states (depressed BD, manic BD, and euthymic BD) relative to healthy controls. A total of 10 euthymic BD, 20 depressed BD, 15 manic BD, and 20 demographically matched healthy control subjects were recruited. Seven high-abundance proteins were immunodepleted in plasma samples from the 4 experimental groups, which were then subjected to proteome-wide expression profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic results were validated by immunoblotting and bioinformatically analyzed using MetaCore. From a total of 32 proteins identified with 1.5-fold changes in expression compared with healthy controls, 16 proteins were perturbed in BD independent of mood state, while 16 proteins were specifically associated with particular BD mood states. Two mood-independent differential proteins, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and Apo L1, suggest that BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism. Moreover, down-regulation of one mood-dependent protein, carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA-1), suggests it may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes in BD. Thus, BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism that are independent of mood state, while CA-1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes.

  17. Altered resting-state network connectivity in stroke patients with and without apraxia of speech

    OpenAIRE

    New, Anneliese B.; Robin, Donald A.; Parkinson, Amy L.; Duffy, Joseph R.; McNeil, Malcom R.; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael; Price, Cathy J.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor speech disorders, including apraxia of speech (AOS), account for over 50% of the communication disorders following stroke. Given its prevalence and impact, and the need to understand its neural mechanisms, we used resting state functional MRI to examine functional connectivity within a network of regions previously hypothesized as being associated with AOS (bilateral anterior insula (aINS), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and ventral premotor cortex (PM)) in a group of 32 left hemisphere ...

  18. O processo de trabalho do militar estadual e a saúde mental Working process of military police state officers and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurivan Batista da Silva

    2008-12-01

    relate it to mental health. We tried to contextualize the purposes of public safety services through a brief history of the state police, its division and how it has been used against daily violence. Based on labor psychology view, we made use of techniques and concepts based on the Ergonomics of the Activity and on Labor Psychodynamics; observing the work process, document research, individual and collective interviews. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that military officers are in the center of a link of forces coming from work organization, the precariousness of the work and, finally, from the contemporary society. The ways these relationships of forces are joined contribute to harmful implications to the mental health of professionals, favoring the increase in psychological suffering and it can lead to alcoholism, depression, and even suicide. Data from Medical Council of João Pessoa, (2003 to 2005, show an average of 489 military officers who retired from work on medical grounds. These are worrisome figures in an area of public service that is essential to the population. These figures would be higher if the leaves granted in the workplace were also included. Procedures for granting internal leaves occur in an attempt to mediate the possible long period of health treatment.

  19. Differentiated approach to improving the mental and physical state freshmen higher education sector as a problem of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukavenko A.V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The state issues related to implementation of the differentiated and individual approach to first-year institutions of higher learning in the process of improving their mental and physical state of the means of physical education. Analysis of scientific literature revealed that such a state of the vast majority of students below this, and adaptation to the training activities carried out by the irrational. In this connection it is necessary to improve student performance marked by using one of the most effective means - exercise, and taking into account their interests, needs, motives. One solution to this problem is the differentiation of the content of exercise on the basis of features, which are characterized by the representatives of different somatotype. At the same time, research in this area are rare, hence the need to address this problem.

  20. Altered Default Network Resting State Functional Connectivity in Patients with a First Episode of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Solís, Anna; Corripio, Iluminada; de Castro-Manglano, Pilar; Duran-Sindreu, Santiago; Garcia-Garcia, Manuel; Proal, Erika; Nuñez-Marín, Fidel; Soutullo, Cesar; Alvarez, Enric; Gómez-Ansón, Beatriz; Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Background Default network (DN) abnormalities have been identified in patients with chronic schizophrenia using “resting state” functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). Here, we examined the integrity of the DN in patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis (FEP) compared with sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Methods We collected R-fMRI data from 19 FEP patients (mean age 24.9±4.8 yrs, 14 males) and 19 healthy controls (26.1±4.8 yrs, 14 males) at 3 Tesla. Following standard preprocessing, we examined the functional connectivity (FC) of two DN subsystems and the two DN hubs (P<0.0045, corrected). Results Patients with FEP exhibited abnormal FC that appeared largely restricted to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) DN subsystem. Relative to controls, FEP patients exhibited weaker positive FC between dMPFC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus, extending laterally through the parietal lobe to the posterior angular gyrus. Patients with FEP exhibited weaker negative FC between the lateral temporal cortex and the intracalcarine cortex, bilaterally. The PCC and temporo-parietal junction also exhibited weaker negative FC with the right fusiform gyrus extending to the lingual gyrus and lateral occipital cortex, in FEP patients, compared to controls. By contrast, patients with FEP showed stronger negative FC between the temporal pole and medial motor cortex, anterior precuneus and posterior mid-cingulate cortex. Conclusions Abnormalities in the dMPFC DN subsystem in patients with a FEP suggest that FC patterns are altered even in the early stages of psychosis. PMID:22633527

  1. A life less lonely: the state of the art in interventions to reduce loneliness in people with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Farhana; Bone, Jessica K; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Frerichs, Johanna; Pinfold, Vanessa; Ma, Ruimin; Wang, Jingyi; Johnson, Sonia

    2017-06-01

    There is growing evidence of significant harmful effects of loneliness. Relatively little work has focused on how best to reduce loneliness in people with mental health problems. We aim to present an overview of the current state of the art in loneliness interventions in people with mental health problems, identify relevant challenges, and highlight priorities for future research and implementation. A scoping review of the published and grey literature was conducted, as well as discussions with relevant experts, to propose a broad classification system for types of interventions targeting loneliness. We categorised interventions as 'direct', targeting loneliness and related concepts in social relationships, and 'indirect' broader approaches to well-being that may impact on loneliness. We describe four broad groups of direct interventions: changing cognitions; social skills training and psychoeducation; supported socialisation or having a 'socially-focused supporter'; and 'wider community approaches'. The most promising emerging evidence appears to be in 'changing cognitions', but, as yet, no approaches have a robust evidence base. Challenges include who is best placed to offer the intervention, how to test such complex interventions, and the stigma surrounding loneliness. Development of clearly defined loneliness interventions, high-quality trials of effectiveness, and identifying which approaches work best for whom is required. Promising future approaches may include wider community initiatives and social prescribing. It is important to place loneliness and social relationships high on the wider public mental health and research agenda.

  2. There's no place like (a) home: ontological security among persons with serious mental illness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah K

    2007-05-01

    As the homelessness 'crisis' in the United States enters a third decade, few are as adversely affected as persons with serious mental illness. Despite recent evidence favoring a 'housing first' approach, the dominant 'treatment first' approach persists in which individuals must climb a ladder of program requirements before becoming eligible for an apartment of their own. Drawing upon the concept of 'ontological security', this qualitative study examines the subjective meaning of 'home' among 39 persons who were part of a unique urban experiment that provided New York City's homeless mentally ill adults with immediate access to independent housing in the late 1990s. The study design involved purposively sampling from the experimental (housing first) group (N=21) and the control (treatment first) group (N=18) and conducting two life history interviews with each participant. Markers of ontological security-constancy, daily routines, privacy, and having a secure base for identity construction-provided sensitizing concepts for grounded theory analyses designed to also yield emergent, or new, themes. Findings revealed clear evidence of the markers of ontological security among participants living in their own apartments. This study expands upon previous research showing that homeless mentally ill persons are capable of independent living in the community. The emergent theme of 'what's next' questions and uncertainty about the future points to the need to address problems of stigma and social exclusion that extend beyond the minimal achievement of having a 'home'.

  3. Fragmentation in Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State policy on mental health and older people: A governmentality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people’s mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of ‘risk’, ‘ageing as decline/dependence’ and ‘healthy ageing’ were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to ‘target’ groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people’s mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers. PMID:27147440

  4. Fragmentation in Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State policy on mental health and older people: A governmentality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey

    2016-05-04

    Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people's mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of 'risk', 'ageing as decline/dependence' and 'healthy ageing' were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to 'target' groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people's mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Discrimination and Mental Health Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; Boyd, Carol J.; Hughes, Tonda L.; West, Brady

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities among sexual minority groups, particularly mental health disparities, are well-documented. Numerous studies have demonstrated heightened prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual groups as compared to heterosexuals. Some authors posit that these disparities are the result of the stress that prejudice and perceived discrimination can cause. The current study extends previous research by examining the associations between multiple types o...

  6. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder: a perfusion MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baojuan; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hong-Bing; Yin, Hong

    2013-03-01

    The majority of studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) so far have focused on delineating patterns of activations during cognitive processes. Recently, more and more researches have started to investigate functional connectivity in PTSD subjects using BOLD-fMRI. Functional connectivity analysis has been demonstrated as a powerful approach to identify biomarkers of different brain diseases. This study aimed to detect resting-state functional connectivity abnormities in patients with PTSD using arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI. As a completely non-invasive technique, ASL allows quantitative estimates of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Compared with BOLD-fMRI, ASL fMRI has many advantages, including less low-frequency signal drifts, superior functional localization, etc. In the current study, ASL images were collected from 10 survivors in mining disaster with recent onset PTSD and 10 survivors without PTSD. Decreased regional CBF in the right middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and postcentral gyrus was detected in the PTSD patients. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis was performed using an area in the right middle temporal gyrus as region of interest. Compared with the non-PTSD group, the PTSD subjects demonstrated increased functional connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right superior temporal gyrus, the left middle temporal gyrus. Meanwhile, decreased functional connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right postcentral gyrus, the right superior parietal lobule was also found in the PTSD patients. This is the first study which investigated resting-state functional connectivity in PTSD using ASL images. The results may provide new insight into the neural substrates of PTSD.

  7. Altered resting-state amygdala functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcong Shao

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have identified a potentially critical role of the amygdala in disrupted emotion neurocircuitry in individuals after total sleep deprivation (TSD. However, connectivity between the amygdala and cerebral cortex due to TSD remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI to investigate the functional connectivity changes of the basolateral amygdala (BLA and centromedial amygdala (CMA in the brain after 36 h of TSD.Fourteen healthy adult men aged 25.9 ± 2.3 years (range, 18-28 years were enrolled in a within-subject crossover study. Using the BLA and CMA as separate seed regions, we examined resting-state functional connectivity with fMRI during rested wakefulness (RW and after 36 h of TSD.TSD resulted in a significant decrease in the functional connectivity between the BLA and several executive control regions (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC], right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [ACC], right inferior frontal gyrus [IFG]. Increased functional connectivity was found between the BLA and areas including the left posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PrCu and right parahippocampal gyrus. With regard to CMA, increased functional connectivity was observed with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC and right precentral gyrus.These findings demonstrate that disturbance in amygdala related circuits may contribute to TSD psychophysiology and suggest that functional connectivity studies of the amygdala during the resting state may be used to discern aberrant patterns of coupling within these circuits after TSD.

  8. Symptoms and treatment of mental illness among prisoners: a study of Michigan state prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Brant E; Schmorrow, Angela; Lang, Sylvia W; Margolis, Philip M; Heany, Julia; Brown, Greg P; Barbaree, Howard E; Hirdes, John P

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on a representative sample of prisoners in Michigan correctional facilities to determine the prevalence of psychiatric illness and the delivery of mental health (MH) services. Mental health assessments were conducted with 618 incarcerated subjects using the interRAI Correctional Facilities (interRAI CF). Subjects were randomly sampled based on four strata: males in the general population, males in administrative segregation, males in special units, and females. The interRAI CF assessments were merged with secondary data provided by the Michigan Department of Corrections (MDOC) containing information on MH diagnoses or services that the subjects were receiving within the facilities, demographics, and sentencing. Study results show that 20.1% of men and 24.8% of women in Michigan prisons have a substantial level of MH symptoms and that 16.5% and 28.9%, respectively, are receiving MH services. However, when compared with Michigan Department of Corrections MH care records, 65.0% of prisoners who are experiencing symptoms of mental illness are not currently receiving any psychiatric services. The mis-match between symptoms and service delivery suggests the need for improved procedures for identifying and measuring psychiatric symptoms within Michigan correctional facilities to ensure that appropriate individuals receive needed care. It is recommended that a standardized assessment process be implemented and conducted at regular intervals for targeting and improving psychiatric care in the prison system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Profiling of altered metabolomic states in Nicotiana tabacum cells induced by priming agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, MI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available (8), coumaroyltyramine glycoside II (12A/B), feruloyltyramine glycoside I (11A/B) and feruloyl-3- methoxytyramine conjugate I (15A/B). Studies have shown that induction of priming by ASM is associated with an increase in stress...-friendly ways to combat these diseases and pests by boosting natural innate immune systems in plants. The enhancement of immunity, i.e., the induction of a physiological state that allows a plant to deploy a more rapid and stronger defense response (Balmer et al...

  10. Unacylated ghrelin does not alter mitochondrial function, redox state and triglyceride content in rat liver in vivo

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    Gianluca Gortan Cappellari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in liver mitochondrial function with more oxidized redox state and enhanced inflammation may contribute to the onset of obesity- and insulin resistance-associated hepatic complications, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steato-hepatitis. Unacylated ghrelin (UnAG is a gastric hormone reported to be associated with lower oxidative stress in different cell types, but its potential effects on liver mitochondrial function, redox state and inflammation in vivo remains undetermined. We investigated the impact of chronic UnAG overexpression (Tg Myh6/Ghrl leading to systemic upregulation of circulating hormone on mitochondrial ATP production, redox state (oxidized-to-total glutathione and inflammation markers in lean mice. Compared to wild-type animals (wt, Tg Myh6/Ghrl had superimposable liver weight, triglyceride content and plasma lipid profile. Liver mitochondrial enzyme activities and ATP production as well as oxidized-to-total glutathione were also similar in the two groups. In addition, no differences were observed in tissue inflammation marker TNF-alpha between wild-type and Tg Myh6/Ghrl animals. Thus, chronic systemic UnAG upregulation does not alter liver triglyceride content, mitochondrial function, redox state and inflammation markers in lean mice. These findings do not support a major role of UnAG as a physiological modulator of in vivo liver oxidative-lipid metabolism and inflammation.

  11. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moogala, Srinivas; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Boyapati, Ramanarayana; Devulapalli, Narasimha Swamy; Chakrapani, Swarna; Kolaparthy, Laxmikanth

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM) is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  12. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Moogala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  13. Altered Gene Synchrony Suggests a Combined Hormone-Mediated Dysregulated State in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiteri, Chris; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Lewis, David A.; Sibille, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated gene transcript levels across tissues (denoted “gene synchrony”) reflect converging influences of genetic, biochemical and environmental factors; hence they are informative of the biological state of an individual. So could brain gene synchrony also integrate the multiple factors engaged in neuropsychiatric disorders and reveal underlying pathologies? Using bootstrapped Pearson correlation for transcript levels for the same genes across distinct brain areas, we report robust gene transcript synchrony between the amygdala and cingulate cortex in the human postmortem brain of normal control subjects (n = 14; Control/Permutated data, pdepressive disorder (MDD, denoted here “depression”) (n = 14; MDD/Permutated data, phormone-type factors previously implicated in depression (insulin, interleukin-1, thyroid hormone, estradiol and glucocorticoids; pdepression-related networks). In summary, we showed that coordinated gene expression across brain areas may represent a novel molecular probe for brain structure/function that is sensitive to disease condition, suggesting the presence of a distinct and integrated hormone-mediated corticolimbic homeostatic, although maladaptive and pathological, state in major depression. PMID:20376317

  14. Altered resting state cortico-striatal connectivity in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngbin Kwak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by dopamine depletion in the striatum. One consistent pathophysiological hallmark of PD is an increase in spontaneous oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia thalamocortical networks. We evaluated these effects using resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s patients on and off L-DOPA and age-matched controls using six different striatal seed regions. We observed an overall increase in the strength of cortico-striatal functional connectivity in PD patients off L-DOPA compared to controls. This enhanced connectivity was down-regulated by L-DOPA as shown by an overall decrease in connectivity strength, particularly within motor cortical regions. We also performed a frequency content analysis of the BOLD signal time course extracted from the six striatal seed regions. PD off L-DOPA exhibited increased power in the frequency band 0.02 – 0.05 Hz compared to controls and to PD on L-DOPA. The L-DOPA associated decrease in the power of this frequency range modulated the L-DOPA associated decrease in connectivity strength between striatal seeds and the thalamus. In addition, the L-DOPA associated decrease in power in this frequency band also correlated with the L-DOPA associated improvement in cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that PD and L-DOPA modulate striatal resting state BOLD signal oscillations and corticostriatal network coherence.

  15. Altered interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity in young male smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai; Bi, Yanzhi; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Li, Yangding; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Xue, Ting; Bu, Limei; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie; Lu, Xiaoqi

    2018-03-01

    With the help of advanced neuroimaging approaches, previous studies revealed structural and functional brain changes in smokers compared with healthy non-smokers. Homotopic resting-state functional connectivity between the corresponding regions in cerebral hemispheres may help us to deduce the changes of functional coordination in the whole brain of young male smokers. Functional homotopy reflects an essential aspect of brain function and communication between the left and right cerebral hemispheres, which is important for the integrity of brain function. However, few studies used voxel mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method to investigate the changes of homotopic connectivity in young male smokers. Twenty-seven young male smokers and 27 matched healthy male non-smokers were recruited in our study. Compared with healthy male non-smokers, young male smokers showed decreased VMHC values in the insula and putamen, and increased VMHC values in the prefrontal cortex. Correlation analysis demonstrated that there were significant positive correlations between the average VMHC values of the prefrontal cortex and pack-years in young male smokers. In addition, significant negative correlation was found between the average VMHC values in the insula and pack-years. Our results revealed the disrupted homotopic resting-state functional connectivity in young male smokers. The novel findings may extend our understanding of smoking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Altered resting-state brain activity at functional MRI during automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tingyong; Feng, Pan; Chen, Zhencai

    2013-07-26

    Investigations of fear conditioning in rodents and humans have illuminated the neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and extinction. However, the neural mechanism of automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning is still unclear. To address this question, we measured brain activity following fear acquisition using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). In the current study, we used a marker of fMRI, amplitude of low-frequency (0.01-0.08Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) to quantify the spontaneous brain activity. Brain activity correlated to fear memory consolidation was observed in parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus in resting-state. Furthermore, after acquired fear conditioning, compared with control group some brain areas showed ALFF increased in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the experimental group, whereas some brain areas showed decreased ALFF in striatal regions (caudate, putamen). Moreover, the change of ALFF in vmPFC was positively correlated with the subjective fear ratings. These findings suggest that the parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus are the neural substrates of fear memory consolidation. The difference in activity could be attributed to a homeostatic process in which the vmPFC and ACC were involved in the fear recovery process, and change of ALFF in vmPFC predicts subjective fear ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sometimes we can see some mental states. Comment on "Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds" by Cristina Becchio, Atesh Koul, Caterina Asuini, Cesare Bertone, and Andrew Cavallo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    Seeing mental states[1] poses an ambitious question: Is it possible to perceive the mental states of others? According to the authors, the answer is yes. To that end, they overview some 15 studies showing that observers of a reaching arm can discern the intentions of the reaching, specifically, whether to grasp, to place, to pass, or to pour. The judgments are made before the hand arrives at the glass so the act that observers are predicting is never seen. In addition, they show how the kinematics of the reaching differ for each case, allowing the perceivers judgments. These findings are remarkable given that the kinematic differences among the actions are subtle. The overview cogently, elegantly, and convincingly summarizes the findings and in doing so, addresses criticisms that have been directed at the methods and conclusions. It is impressive how much can be reliably inferred just from the kinematics of a reaching arm. This is a significant set of findings and it is good to have them in one place.

  18. Altered gene synchrony suggests a combined hormone-mediated dysregulated state in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gaiteri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated gene transcript levels across tissues (denoted "gene synchrony" reflect converging influences of genetic, biochemical and environmental factors; hence they are informative of the biological state of an individual. So could brain gene synchrony also integrate the multiple factors engaged in neuropsychiatric disorders and reveal underlying pathologies? Using bootstrapped Pearson correlation for transcript levels for the same genes across distinct brain areas, we report robust gene transcript synchrony between the amygdala and cingulate cortex in the human postmortem brain of normal control subjects (n = 14; Control/Permutated data, p<0.000001. Coordinated expression was confirmed across distinct prefrontal cortex areas in a separate cohort (n = 19 subjects and affected different gene sets, potentially reflecting regional network- and function-dependent transcriptional programs. Genewise regional transcript coordination was independent of age-related changes and array technical parameters. Robust shifts in amygdala-cingulate gene synchrony were observed in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD, denoted here "depression" (n = 14; MDD/Permutated data, p<0.000001, significantly affecting between 100 and 250 individual genes (10-30% false discovery rate. Biological networks and signal transduction pathways corresponding to the identified gene set suggested putative dysregulated functions for several hormone-type factors previously implicated in depression (insulin, interleukin-1, thyroid hormone, estradiol and glucocorticoids; p<0.01 for association with depression-related networks. In summary, we showed that coordinated gene expression across brain areas may represent a novel molecular probe for brain structure/function that is sensitive to disease condition, suggesting the presence of a distinct and integrated hormone-mediated corticolimbic homeostatic, although maladaptive and pathological, state in major depression.

  19. Mentalization-based treatment for psychosis: linking an attachment-based model to the psychotherapy for impaired mental state understanding in people with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Benjamin K; Holt, Daphne J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J; Fonagy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances of mentalization have been increasingly associated with the symptoms and functional impairment of people with psychotic disorders. it has been proposed that psychotherapy designed to foster self and other understanding, such as mentalization-based treatment (mBt), may play an important part in facilitating recovery from psychosis. Here, we present an attachment-based understanding of mentalization impairments. We then outline a neuropsychological model that links disruptions of mentalization associated with disturbances in the caregiving environment to the pathophysiology of psychosis in genetically at-risk individuals. this is followed by an illustration of some of the core mBt techniques for the rehabilitation of the capacity to mentalize as applied to the treatment of a patient with a psychotic disorder.

  20. Altered basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in frontal lobe epilepsy: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Wang, Pu; Peng, Rui; Jiang, Sisi; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate alterations of basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were gathered from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was used to assess the functional connections between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. Regions of interest, including the left/right caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus, were selected as the seeds. Two sample t-test was used to determine the difference between patients and controls, while controlling the age, gender and head motions. Compared with controls, FLE patients demonstrated increased FCs between basal ganglia and regions including the right fusiform gyrus, the bilateral cingulate gyrus, the precuneus and anterior cingulate gyrus. Reduced FCs were mainly located in a range of brain regions including the bilateral middle occipital gyrus, the ventral frontal lobe, the right putamen, the left fusiform gyrus and right rolandic operculum. In addition, the relationships between basal ganglia-cingulate connections and durations of epilepsy were also found. The alterations of functional integrity within the basal ganglia, as well as its connections to limbic and ventral frontal areas, indicate the important roles of the basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in FLE, and provide new insights in the pathophysiological mechanism of FLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Altered Brain Functional Connectome in Migraine with and without Restless Legs Syndrome: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study

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    Fu-Chi Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMigraine is frequently comorbid with restless legs syndrome (RLS, both displaying functional connectivity (FC alterations in multiple brain networks, although the neurological basis of this association is unknown.MethodsWe performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and network-wise analysis of FC in migraine patients with and without RLS and healthy controls (CRL. Network-based statistics (NBS and composite FC matrix analyses were performed to identify the patterns of FC changes. Correlation analyses were performed to identify associations between alterations in FC and clinical profiles.ResultsNBS results revealed that both migraine patients with and without RLS exhibited lower FC than CRL in the dorsal attention, salience, default mode, cingulo-opercular, visual, frontoparietal, auditory, and sensory/somatomotor networks. Further composite FC matrix analyses revealed differences in FC of the salience, default mode to subcortical and frontoparietal, auditory to salience, and memory retrieval networks between migraine patients with and without RLS. There was a trend toward a negative association between RLS severity and cross-network abnormalities in the default mode to subcortical network.DiscussionMigraine patients with and without RLS exhibit disruptions of brain FC. Such findings suggest that these disorders are associated with differential neuropathological mechanisms and may aid in the future development of neuroimaging-driven biomarkers for these conditions.

  2. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of the insula in young adults with Internet gaming disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Zang, Yu-Feng; Shen, Zi-Jiao; Liu, Lu; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The insula has been implicated in salience processing, craving, and interoception, all of which are critical to the clinical manifestations of drug and behavioral addiction. In this fMRI study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the insula and its association with Internet gaming characteristics in 74 young adults with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and 41 age and gender matched healthy control subjects (HCs). In comparison to HCs, IGD subjects (IGDs) exhibited enhanced rsFC between the anterior insula and a network of regions including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), putamen, angular gyrus, and precuneous, which are involved in salience, craving, self-monitoring, and attention. IGDs also demonstrated significantly stronger rsFC between the posterior insula and postcentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplemental motor area, and superior temporal gyrus (STG), which are involved in interoception, movement control, and auditory processing. Furthermore, IGD severity was positively associated with connectivity between the anterior insula and angular gyrus, and STG, and with connectivity between the posterior insula and STG. Duration of Internet gaming was positively associated with connectivity between the anterior insula and ACC. These findings highlight a key role of the insula in manifestation of the core symptoms of IGD and the importance to examine functional abnormalities of the anterior and posterior insula separately in IGDs. PMID:25899520

  3. Altered Spontaneous Activity in Anisometropic Amblyopia Subjects: Revealed by Resting-State fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoming; Ding, Kun; Liu, Yong; Yan, Xiaohe; Song, Shaojie; Jiang, Tianzi

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia, also known as lazy eye, usually occurs during early childhood and results in poor or blurred vision. Recent neuroimaging studies have found cortical structural/functional abnormalities in amblyopia. However, until now, it was still not known whether the spontaneous activity of the brain changes in amblyopia subjects. In the present study, regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measure of the homogeneity of functional magnetic resonance imaging signals, was used for the first time to investigate changes in resting-state local spontaneous brain activity in individuals with anisometropic amblyopia. Compared with age- and gender-matched subjects with normal vision, the anisometropic amblyopia subjects showed decreased ReHo of spontaneous brain activity in the right precuneus, the left medial prefrontal cortex, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left cerebellum, and increased ReHo of spontaneous brain activity was found in the bilateral conjunction area of the postcentral and precentral gyri, the left paracentral lobule, the left superior temporal gyrus, the left fusiform gyrus, the conjunction area of the right insula, putamen and the right middle occipital gyrus. The observed decreases in ReHo may reflect decreased visuo-motor processing ability, and the increases in ReHo in the somatosensory cortices, the motor areas and the auditory area may indicate compensatory plasticity in amblyopia. PMID:22937041

  4. Altered resting-state network connectivity in stroke patients with and without apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Anneliese B; Robin, Donald A; Parkinson, Amy L; Duffy, Joseph R; McNeil, Malcom R; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael; Price, Cathy J; Eickhoff, Simon B; Ballard, Kirrie J

    2015-01-01

    Motor speech disorders, including apraxia of speech (AOS), account for over 50% of the communication disorders following stroke. Given its prevalence and impact, and the need to understand its neural mechanisms, we used resting state functional MRI to examine functional connectivity within a network of regions previously hypothesized as being associated with AOS (bilateral anterior insula (aINS), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and ventral premotor cortex (PM)) in a group of 32 left hemisphere stroke patients and 18 healthy, age-matched controls. Two expert clinicians rated severity of AOS, dysarthria and nonverbal oral apraxia of the patients. Fifteen individuals were categorized as AOS and 17 were AOS-absent. Comparison of connectivity in patients with and without AOS demonstrated that AOS patients had reduced connectivity between bilateral PM, and this reduction correlated with the severity of AOS impairment. In addition, AOS patients had negative connectivity between the left PM and right aINS and this effect decreased with increasing severity of non-verbal oral apraxia. These results highlight left PM involvement in AOS, begin to differentiate its neural mechanisms from those of other motor impairments following stroke, and help inform us of the neural mechanisms driving differences in speech motor planning and programming impairment following stroke.

  5. Altered resting-state network connectivity in stroke patients with and without apraxia of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneliese B. New

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor speech disorders, including apraxia of speech (AOS, account for over 50% of the communication disorders following stroke. Given its prevalence and impact, and the need to understand its neural mechanisms, we used resting state functional MRI to examine functional connectivity within a network of regions previously hypothesized as being associated with AOS (bilateral anterior insula (aINS, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, and ventral premotor cortex (PM in a group of 32 left hemisphere stroke patients and 18 healthy, age-matched controls. Two expert clinicians rated severity of AOS, dysarthria and nonverbal oral apraxia of the patients. Fifteen individuals were categorized as AOS and 17 were AOS-absent. Comparison of connectivity in patients with and without AOS demonstrated that AOS patients had reduced connectivity between bilateral PM, and this reduction correlated with the severity of AOS impairment. In addition, AOS patients had negative connectivity between the left PM and right aINS and this effect decreased with increasing severity of non-verbal oral apraxia. These results highlight left PM involvement in AOS, begin to differentiate its neural mechanisms from those of other motor impairments following stroke, and help inform us of the neural mechanisms driving differences in speech motor planning and programming impairment following stroke.

  6. Estimated mental retardation and school dropout in a sample of students from state public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Tramontina Silzá

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between estimated Mental Retardation (MR and school dropout in a sample of students of the third and fourth grades at state schools in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost state of Brazil. METHOD: In this case - control study, students that dropped out from schools (n=44 and a control group who continued attending schools (n=44 had their intelligence quotient (IQ determined by the vocabulary and cubes subtests of the Wescheler Intelligence Scale fraction three-quarters third edition (WISCfraction three-quartersIII. Students with IQ lower than 70 were considered as potential cases of MR. Other prevalent mental disorders in this age range were assessed in both groups using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Schoolfraction three-quarters Age Children, Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential MR was significantly higher in the dropped out group than in the control group (p<0.001. Odds ratio for school dropout was significantly higher in the presence of MR even after controlling for potentially confounding factors (age, conduct disorder, grade repetition, family structure and income (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Children with IQ lower than 70 (potential MR were at higher risk for school dropout. These children need to be identified at school and specific educational strategies should be implemented to assure their inclusion in the learning process.

  7. Educational bias in the assessment of severe dementia: Brazilian cutoffs for severe Mini-Mental State Examination

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    José Roberto Wajman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive assessment in advanced stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD is limited by the imprecision of most instruments. Objective: To determine objective cognitive responses in moderate and severe AD patients by way of the Severe Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE, and to correlate performances with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores. Method: Consecutive outpatients in moderate and severe stages of AD (Clinical Dementia Rating 2.0 or 3.0 were evaluated and compared according to MMSE and SMMSE scores. Results: Overall 400 patients were included, 67.5% females, mean age 76.6±6.7 years-old. There was no significant impact of age or gender over MMSE or SMMSE scores. Mean schooling was 4.4±2.5 years, impacting SMMSE scores (p=0.008. Scores on MMSE and SMMSE were significantly correlated (F-ratio=690.6325, p<0.0001. Conclusion: The SMMSE is influenced by schooling, but not by age or gender, and is an accurate test for assessment of moderate and severe AD.

  8. Job satisfaction among mental healthcare professionals: The respective contributions of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states on the job satisfaction of 315 mental health professionals from Quebec (Canada). Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were organized into four categories according to a conceptual framework inspired from the Input-Mediator-Outcomes-Input Model. The contribution of each category of variables was assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. Variations in job satisfaction were mostly explained by team processes, with minimal contribution from the other three categories. Among the six variables significantly associated with job satisfaction in the final model, four were team processes: stronger team support, less team conflict, deeper involvement in the decision-making process, and more team collaboration. Job satisfaction was also associated with nursing and, marginally, male gender (professional characteristics) as well as with a stronger affective commitment toward the team (team emergent states). Results confirm the importance for health managers of offering adequate support to mental health professionals, and creating an environment favorable to collaboration and decision-sharing, and likely to reduce conflicts between team members.

  9. Job satisfaction among mental healthcare professionals: The respective contributions of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states on the job satisfaction of 315 mental health professionals from Quebec (Canada). Methods: Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were organized into four categories according to a conceptual framework inspired from the Input-Mediator-Outcomes-Input Model. The contribution of each category of variables was assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. Results: Variations in job satisfaction were mostly explained by team processes, with minimal contribution from the other three categories. Among the six variables significantly associated with job satisfaction in the final model, four were team processes: stronger team support, less team conflict, deeper involvement in the decision-making process, and more team collaboration. Job satisfaction was also associated with nursing and, marginally, male gender (professional characteristics) as well as with a stronger affective commitment toward the team (team emergent states). Discussion and Conclusion: Results confirm the importance for health managers of offering adequate support to mental health professionals, and creating an environment favorable to collaboration and decision-sharing, and likely to reduce conflicts between team members. PMID:29276591

  10. MENTAL HEALTH OF INCARCERATED WOMEN IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO

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    Márcia Vieira dos Santos; Valdecyr Herdy Alves; Audrey Vidal Pereira; Diego Pereira Rodrigues; Giovanna Rosário Soanno Marchiori; Juliana Vidal Vieira Guerra

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: identificar los factores relacionados con la salud mental de las mujeres en una prisión en el estado de Río de Janeiro. Método: estudio cualitativo exploratorio, descriptivo, realizado entre octubre de 2014 y enero de 2015 en una cárcel de mujeres en el estado de Río de Janeiro. Cuarenta mujeres privadas de libertad fueron entrevistados. La información recogida se discutió sobre la base de análisis de contenido, modalidad temática. Resultados : se identific...

  11. Inhibitors Alter the Stochasticity of Regulatory Proteins to Force Cells to Switch to the Other State in the Bistable System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Wun-Sin; Lo, Shih-Chiang; Yeh, Chen-Chao; Shu, Che-Chi

    2017-06-30

    The cellular behaviors under the control of genetic circuits are subject to stochastic fluctuations, or noise. The stochasticity in gene regulation, far from a nuisance, has been gradually appreciated for its unusual function in cellular activities. In this work, with Chemical Master Equation (CME), we discovered that the addition of inhibitors altered the stochasticity of regulatory proteins. For a bistable system of a mutually inhibitory network, such a change of noise led to the migration of cells in the bimodal distribution. We proposed that the consumption of regulatory protein caused by the addition of inhibitor is not the only reason for pushing cells to the specific state; the change of the intracellular stochasticity is also the main cause for the redistribution. For the level of the inhibitor capable of driving 99% of cells, if there is no consumption of regulatory protein, 88% of cells were guided to the specific state. It implied that cells were pushed, by the inhibitor, to the specific state due to the change of stochasticity.

  12. Trauma-Related Altered States of Consciousness (TRASC) and Functional Impairment II: Perceived Causal Relationships in an Online Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannidakis, Nicole C A; Frewen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research supports the existence of a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder, although studies have not directly compared the perceived impact of dissociative versus nondissociative posttraumatic symptoms on social and occupational functioning. In addition, research is beginning to differentiate between posttraumatic distress associated with normal waking consciousness (NWC) and dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along multiple phenomenological dimensions. The current study investigated perceived causal relationships between posttraumatic symptoms associated with NWC-distress and TRASC on the one hand and interpersonal and occupational functioning on the other. Although both TRASC and NWC-distress independently accounted for variance in self-reported interpersonal and occupational problems, perceived causal relationship results showed that individuals tended to attribute their social and work-related problems more strongly to NWC-distress than to TRASC. Future research directions are discussed.

  13. Effectiveness of Universal School-Based Mental Health Awareness Programs among Youth in the United States: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and low mental health literacy have been identified as links to social adversity, and barriers to seeking and adhering to treatment among adolescents suffering from mental illness. Prior research has found that it is possible to improve these outcomes using school-based mental health…

  14. Altered Amygdala Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Hemispheric Asymmetry in Patients With Social Anxiety Disorder

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    Ye-Ha Jung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The amygdala plays a key role in emotional hyperreactivity in response to social threat in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FCN of the left and right amygdala with various brain regions and functional lateralization in patients with SAD.Methods: A total of 36 patients with SAD and 42 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at rest. Using the left and right amygdala as seed regions, we compared the strength of the rs-FCN in the patient and control groups. Furthermore, we investigated group differences in the hemispheric asymmetry of the functional connectivity maps of the left and right amygdala.Results: Compared with healthy controls, the rs-FCN between the left amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was reduced in patients with SAD, whereas left amygdala connectivity with the fusiform gyrus, anterior insula, supramarginal gyrus, and precuneus was increased or positively deflected in the patient group. Additionally, the strength rs-FCN between the left amygdala and anterior insula was positively associated with the severity of the fear of negative evaluation in patients with SAD (r = 0.338, p = 0.044. The rs-FCN between the right amygdala and medial frontal gyrus was decreased in patients with SAD compared with healthy controls, whereas connectivity with the parahippocampal gyrus was greater in the patient group than in the control group. The hemispheric asymmetry patterns in the anterior insula, intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and inferior frontal gyrus of the patient group were opposite those of the control group, and functional lateralization of the connectivity between the amygdala and the IPS was associated with the severity of social anxiety symptoms (r = 0.365, p = 0.037.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in addition to impaired fronto-amygdala communication, the functional lateralization of amygdala function

  15. Gray Matter and Functional Connectivity in Anterior Cingulate Cortex are Associated with the State of Mental Silence During Sahaja Yoga Meditation.

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    Hernández, Sergio Elías; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso; Xiao, Yaqiong; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya

    2018-02-10

    Some meditation techniques teach the practitioner to achieve the state of mental silence. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions that are associated with their volume and functional connectivity (FC) with the depth of mental silence in long-term practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty-three long-term practitioners of this meditation were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In order to identify the neural correlates of the depth of mental silence, we tested which gray matter volumes (GMV) were correlated with the depth of mental silence and which regions these areas were functionally connected to under a meditation condition. GMV in medial prefrontal cortex including rostral anterior cingulate cortex were positively correlated with the subjective perception of the depth of mental silence inside the scanner. Furthermore, there was significantly increased FC between this area and bilateral anterior insula/putamen during a meditation-state specifically, while decreased connectivity with the right thalamus/parahippocampal gyrus was present during the meditation-state and the resting-state. The capacity of long-term meditators to establish a durable state of mental silence inside an MRI scanner was associated with larger gray matter volume in a medial frontal region that is crucial for top-down cognitive, emotion and attention control. This is furthermore corroborated by increased FC of this region during the meditation-state with bilateral anterior insula/putamen, which are important for interoception, emotion, and attention regulation. The findings hence suggest that the depth of mental silence is associated with medial fronto-insular-striatal networks that are crucial for top-down attention and emotional control. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The mental simulation of state/psychological verbs in the adolescent brain: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Nobile, Maria; Re, Marta; Bellina, Monica; Garzitto, Marco; Arrigoni, Filippo; Molteni, Massimo; Fabbro, Franco; Brambilla, Paolo

    2018-03-02

    This fMRI study investigated mental simulation of state/psychological and action verbs during adolescence. Sixteen healthy subjects silently read verbs describing a motor scene or not (STIMULUS: motor, state/psychological verbs) and they were explicitly asked to imagine the situation or they performed letter detection preventing them from using simulation (TASK: imagery vs. letter detection). A significant task by stimuli interaction showed that imagery of state/psychological verbs, as compared to action stimuli (controlled by the letter detection) selectively increased activation in the right supramarginal gyrus/rolandic operculum and in the right insula, and decreased activation in the right intraparietal sulcus. We compared these data to those from a group of older participants (Tomasino et al. 2014a). Activation in the left supramarginal gyrus decreased for the latter group (as compared to the present group) for imagery of state/psychological verbs. By contrast, activation in the right superior frontal gyrus decreased for the former group (as compared to the older group) for imagery of state/psychological verbs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alterations in functional connectivity of resting state networks during experimental endotoxemia - An exploratory study in healthy men.

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    Labrenz, Franziska; Wrede, Karsten; Forsting, Michael; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Benson, Sven

    2016-05-01

    Systemic inflammation impairs mood and cognitive functions, and seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies revealed altered task-related blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses during experimental endotoxemia, but little is known about effects of systemic inflammation on resting-state activity of the brain. Thus, we conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study in healthy men receiving an intravenous injection of either low-dose (0.4 ng/kg) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (N=20) or placebo (N=25). Resting state activity was measured at baseline and 3.5h post-injection. Based on a two (condition) × two (group) design, we used multi-subject independent component analysis (ICA) to decompose and estimate functional connectivity within resting-state networks (RSNs). Seed-based analyses were applied to investigate the effect of LPS on the functional coupling for a priori-defined regions-of-interest (ROIs). ICA analyses identified 13 out of 35 components displaying common RSNs. Seed based analysis revealed greater functional connectivity between the left thalamus and the cerebellum after LPS compared to placebo administration, while the functional coupling between seeds within the amygdala, insula, and cingulate cortex and various brain regions including parieto-frontal networks was significantly reduced. Within the LPS group, endotoxin-induced increases in Interleukin (IL)-6 were significantly associated with resting-state connectivity between the left thalamus and left precuneus as well as the right posterior cingulate cortex. In summary, this exploratory study provides first evidence that systemic inflammation affects the coupling and regulation of multiple networks within the human brain at rest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mental health of returnees: refugees in Germany prior to their state-sponsored repatriation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many refugees live for years in exile. The combination of stress in the host country, together with long-term effects resulting from traumatic stress usually experienced in the home country may affect mental health. Little is known, to what extent these and other factors promote or stall the willingness to return to the country of origin. Here, we investigate, as an example, refugees who will return to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 11 years. Objective What is the mental health status of returnees before the actual return who have been living in exile for an extended period? We also asked, what are the current living conditions in Germany and what are the motives for and reasons against a voluntary return to the country of origin? Methods Forty-seven participants of programs for assisted voluntarreturn were interviewed about their present living situation, their view regarding their home country and voluntary return. These findings were compared to a group of 53 refugees who had decided to remain in Germany (stayers. Participants were recruited by means of advertisements posted in refugee centres, language schools, at doctors' offices and in organisations involved in the management of voluntary return in Germany. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among respondents was tested using the structured interview M.I.N.I. The Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS was used to assess PTSD in more detail and EUROHIS was applied to measure the subjective quality of life of participants. Results We found a prevalence rate of 44% psychiatric disorders in the group of returnees and a rate of 78% in the group of stayers. We also recorded substantial correlations between the living situation in Germany, disposition to return and mental health. In almost two thirds of the participants the decision to return was not voluntary but strongly influenced by immigration authorities. The most

  19. Mental health of returnees: refugees in Germany prior to their state-sponsored repatriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lersner, Ulrike; Wiens, Ulrike; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2008-06-12

    Many refugees live for years in exile. The combination of stress in the host country, together with long-term effects resulting from traumatic stress usually experienced in the home country may affect mental health. Little is known, to what extent these and other factors promote or stall the willingness to return to the country of origin. Here, we investigate, as an example, refugees who will return to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 11 years. What is the mental health status of returnees before the actual return who have been living in exile for an extended period? We also asked, what are the current living conditions in Germany and what are the motives for and reasons against a voluntary return to the country of origin? Forty-seven participants of programs for assisted voluntarreturn were interviewed about their present living situation, their view regarding their home country and voluntary return. These findings were compared to a group of 53 refugees who had decided to remain in Germany (stayers). Participants were recruited by means of advertisements posted in refugee centres, language schools, at doctors' offices and in organisations involved in the management of voluntary return in Germany. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among respondents was tested using the structured interview M.I.N.I. The Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) was used to assess PTSD in more detail and EUROHIS was applied to measure the subjective quality of life of participants. We found a prevalence rate of 44% psychiatric disorders in the group of returnees and a rate of 78% in the group of stayers. We also recorded substantial correlations between the living situation in Germany, disposition to return and mental health. In almost two thirds of the participants the decision to return was not voluntary but strongly influenced by immigration authorities. The most important reason for participants to opt for a stay in Germany were

  20. Current validity of diagnosis of permanent vegetative state: A longitudinal study in a sample of patients with altered states of consciousness.

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    Noé, E; Olaya, J; Colomer, C; Moliner, B; Ugart, P; Rodriguez, C; Llorens, R; Ferri, J

    2017-07-13

    Altered states of consciousness have traditionally been associated with poor prognosis. At present, clinical differences between these entities are beginning to be established. Our study included 37 patients diagnosed with vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and 43 in a minimally conscious state (MCS) according to the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). All patients were followed up each month for at least 6 months using the CRS-R. We recorded the time points when vegetative state progressed from 'persistent' to 'permanent' based on the cut-off points established by the Multi-Society-Task-Force: 12 months in patients with traumatic injury and 3 months in those with non-traumatic injury. A logistic regression model was used to determine the factors potentially predicting which patients will emerge from MCS. In the UWS group, 23 patients emerged from UWS but only 9 emerged from MCS. Of the 43 patients in the MCS group, 26 patients emerged from that state during follow-up. Eight of the 23 patients (34.7%) who emerged from UWS and 17 of the 35 (48.6%) who emerged from MCS recovered after the time points proposed by the Multi-Society-Task-Force. According to the multivariate regression analysis, aetiology (P<.01), chronicity (P=.01), and CRS-R scores at admission (P<.001) correctly predicted emergence from MCS in 77.5% of the cases. UWS and MCS are different clinical entities in terms of diagnosis and outcomes. Some of the factors traditionally associated with poor prognosis, such as time from injury and likelihood of recovery, should be revaluated. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Urbanization and mental health: psychiatric morbidity, suicide and violence in the State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, J

    1979-06-01

    Australia is one of the most urbanized countries in the world with over 85% of the population living in metropolitan and other urban areas. More important, the change from a predominantly rural society to an urbanized society has occurred within the last 100 years. To assess the effects of urbanization on mental health, rates of admissions to psychiatric institutions, suicides and violent crime in Victoria have been analysed for the last hundred years. Data on admissions to psychiatric facilities in Victoria from metropolitan, other urban and rural areas, as well as results of community health surveys carried out in metropolitan and rural areas were compared to examine for evidence of urban-rural differences in psychiatric morbidity. The findings do not support the notion that the level of psychiatric and psychosocial disorders in Victoria are related to urbanization or to urban living.

  2. Altered local spontaneous activity in frontal lobe epilepsy: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Li, Hechun; He, Zhongqiong; Jiang, Sisi; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Chen, Lin; Wang, Pu; Tan, Song; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the local spatiotemporal consistency of spontaneous brain activity in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Eyes closed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A novel measure, named FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) was used to assess the spatiotemporal consistency of local spontaneous activity (emphasizing both local temporal homogeneity and regional stability of brain activity states). Then, two-sample t test was performed to detect the FOCA differences between two groups. Partial correlations between the FOCA values and durations of epilepsy were further analyzed. Compared with controls, FLE patients demonstrated increased FOCA in distant brain regions including the frontal and parietal cortices, as well as the basal ganglia. The decreased FOCA was located in the temporal cortex, posterior default model regions, and cerebellum. In addition, the FOCA measure was linked to the duration of epilepsy in basal ganglia. Our study suggested that alterations of local spontaneous activity in frontoparietal cortex and basal ganglia was associated with the pathophysiology of FLE; and the abnormality in frontal and default model regions might account for the potential cognitive impairment in FLE. We also presumed that the FOCA measure had potential to provide important insights into understanding epilepsy such as FLE.

  3. Alteration in the Local and Global Functional Connectivity of Resting State Networks in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghahremani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that mainly leads to the impairment of patients’ motor function, as well as of cognition, as it progresses. This study tried to investigate the impact of PD on the resting state functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN, as well as of the entire brain. Methods Sixty patients with PD were included and compared to 60 matched normal control (NC subjects. For the local connectivity analysis, the resting state fMRI data were analyzed by seed-based correlation analyses, and then a novel persistent homology analysis was implemented to examine the connectivity from a global perspective. Results The functional connectivity of the DMN was decreased in the PD group compared to the NC, with a stronger difference in the medial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the results of the persistent homology analysis indicated that the PD group had a more locally connected and less globally connected network compared to the NC. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the DMN is altered in PD, and persistent homology analysis, as a useful measure of the topological characteristics of the networks from a broader perspective, was able to identify changes in the large-scale functional organization of the patients’ brain.

  4. Altered Resting-State EEG Microstate Parameters and Enhanced Spatial Complexity in Male Adolescent Patients with Mild Spastic Diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Jia, Huibin; Wu, Xiangci; Yu, Dongchuan; Feng, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the resting-state EEG microstate parameters and spatial complexity in male adolescent patients with mild spastic diplegia (MSD). Resting-state EEG data were collected from male adolescent patients with MSD and healthy controls with eyes closed. EEG microstate and omega complexity analysis were performed. Microstate analysis revealed that the occurrence rate of microstate class A and D were significantly higher and the duration of microstate class B was significantly lower in the patients compared to healthy controls, which indicated that the temporal complexity may be higher and certain cognitive functions may be impaired in these patients. Omega complexity analysis showed that the global omega complexity of alpha-2 band was significantly higher in the patients than the controls. Besides, compared to the anterior regional omega complexities, the posterior regional omega complexities were significantly lower in the delta, theta, alpha-1 and alpha-2 bands, but significantly higher in the beta-2 and gamma-1 bands. And the regional omega complexities in the delta, theta and alpha-1 bands were significantly higher in the patients than controls. The present study reveals that in male adolescent patients with MSD, the temporal and spatial complexities of EEG signal are enhanced, which may be closely associated with the altered brain functions in these patients.

  5. Children's mental health and collective violence: a binational study on the United States-Mexico border Salud mental infantil y violencia colectiva: un estudio binacional en la frontera entre México y los Estados Unidos

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Leiner; Hector Puertas; Raúl Caratachea; Carmen Avila; Aparna Atluru; David Briones; Cecilia de Vargas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk effects of poverty and exposure to collective violence attributed to organized crime on the mental health of children living on the United States-Mexico border. METHODS: A repeated, cross-sectional study measured risk effects by comparing scores of psychosocial and behavioral problems among children and adolescents living on the border in the United States or Mexico in 2007 and 2010. Patients living in poverty who responded once to the Pictorial Child Behavi...

  6. Analysis of Altered Baseline Brain Activity in Drug-Naive Adult Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Using Resting-State Functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Changjian; Feng, Yuan; Meng, Yajing; Liao, Wei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lui, Su; Zhu, Chunyan; Chen, Huafu; Gong, Qiyong; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective We hypothesize that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) is involved in the altered regional baseline brain function in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of the study was to analyze the altered baseline brain activity in drug-naive adult patients with SAD. Methods We investigated spontaneous and baseline brain activities by obtaining the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 20 drug-na?ve adult SAD patients and 19 healthy controls. Voxels wer...

  7. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with acute spinal cord injury revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of structural and functional reorganization of brain in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI. However, it remains unknown whether the spontaneous brain activity changes in acute SCI. In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain activity in acute SCI patients using a regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.A total of 15 patients with acute SCI and 16 healthy controls participated in the study. The ReHo value was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity, and voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to identify brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between groups. We also assessed the associations between ReHo and the clinical scores in brain regions showing changed spontaneous brain activity.Compared with the controls, the acute SCI patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral caudate; and increased ReHo in bilateral precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left brainstem/hippocampus, the left cingulate motor area, bilateral insula, bilateral thalamus and bilateral cerebellum. The average ReHo values of the left thalamus and right insula were negatively correlated with the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury motor scores.Our findings indicate that acute distant neuronal damage has an immediate impact on spontaneous brain activity. In acute SCI patients, the ReHo was prominently altered in brain regions involved in motor execution and cognitive control, default mode network, and which are associated with sensorimotor compensatory reorganization. Abnormal ReHo values in the left thalamus and right insula could serve as potential biomarkers for

  8. The impact of prisons on the mental health of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Patricia; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the mental health status of inmates and people in custody in the state of Rio de Janeiro and the association between mental health and imprisonment using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults. 1,573 individuals, via stratified sampling with probability proportional to size. more than half have up to 29 years old; 70.6% were black/brown; 77.4% had strong family ties; 42.9% had been incarcerated for under a year; and 22,9% performed work tasks in prison. Stress: 35.8% of men and 57.9% of women. Factors associated with stress among men: length of time in prison and family ties. Male prisoners who had been in prison for between 1 and 9 years are 0.55 times less likely to experience stress symptoms than those who had been in prison for less than a year; those with regular/weak family ties are more likely to experience stress than those with strong ties. Women with only regular/weak family ties are more likely to experience stress; work tasks performed in prison was a protective factor. Depression: 7.5% of women and 6.3% of men. Among men, practicing a religion, maintaining strong family ties, and performing prison work tasks are protective factors. Among women, an association was found between depression and family ties.

  9. Validation study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in a Malay-speaking elderly population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Norlinah M; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Chong, Heng-Thay; Rahman, Abdul Hamid Abdul; Razali, Rosdinom; Esther, Ebernezer; Basri, Hamidon B

    2009-01-01

    In view of the differing sensitivity and specificity of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the non-English-speaking populations, we conducted the first validation study of the Malay version (M-MMSE) in Malaysia among 300 subjects (from the community and outpatient clinics). Three versions were used: M-MMSE-7 (serial 7), M-MMSE-3 (serial 3) and M-MMSE-S (spell 'dunia' backwards). Dementia was assessed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. The optimal cutoff scores were obtained from the receiver operating characteristics curves. Seventy-three patients (24.3%) had dementia and 227 (75.7%) were controls. Three hundred patients completed the M-MMSE-7, 160 the M-MMSE-3 and 145 the M-MMSE-S. All 3 versions were valid and reliable in the diagnosis of dementia. The optimal cutoff scores varied with each version and gender. In the control group, significant gender differences were observed in the patients with the lowest educational status. Increasing educational levels significantly improved the M-MMSE performance in both genders. All 3 versions of the M-MMSE are valid and reliable as a screening tool for dementia in the Malaysian population, but at different cutoff scores. In those with the lowest educational background, gender-adjusted cutoff scores should be applied. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors in youth with at-risk mental states: A cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Oscar; Rosenbaum, Simon; Maloney, Chris; Curtis, Jackie; Ward, Philip B

    2017-11-01

    Young people experiencing psychotic illness engage in low amounts of physical activity have poor fitness levels and poor sleep quality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of these modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals with at-risk mental states (ARMS), who are at increased risk of developing psychosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a community-based youth mental health service. Thirty participants (23%♀, 21.3 ± 1.7 years old) were recruited, 10 with ARMS, 10 with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 10 healthy volunteers. Physical activity levels were assessed using self-report and objective measures. Aerobic capacity, upper body strength, hamstring flexibility, forearm grip strength and core endurance were assessed. Sleep quality, depression and anxiety were measured by self-report questionnaire. The ARMS group did not differ significantly on anthropometric measures from FEP or healthy volunteers. They engaged in significantly less physical activity (p < 0.05) and had poorer sleep quality (p < 0.05) than healthy volunteers. Our results are consistent with other studies that found that youth with ARMS are at greater cardiometabolic risk. Interventions aimed at improving these modifiable risk factors may assist with preventing the decline in physical health associated with the development of psychiatric illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Mental health in a municipality of the State of Querétaro: a community-based psychiatric research model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez, Rosa; Osornio-Rojo, Alfredo; Rascón-Gasca, María Luisa

    2003-01-01

    The main object of this study was to determine, by means of a house-to-house survey, prevalence of mental disorders and type of alcohol consumption in an underprivileged population from a municipality in the State of Querétaro, Mexico. Results show that there was an 18.26% prevalence of psychiatric disorders with psychiatric comorbility of 56.8%. Anxiety disorders with 14.9% were the most frequent diagnosis and additional problems in descending order were affective disorders (10.2%), alcohol abuse and dependency (4.9%), schizophrenia (2%), and drug abuse (1.2%). Total prevalence was above that reported previously in Mexican population. There was a 48.8% association between unemployment and presence of one or more psychiatric disorders. Nearly 50% of male population had a problem with or excessive consumption of alcohol. These results lead us to consider that this is a high-risk population and that efforts must be made to continue these assessments to better determine prevalence of mental disorders and problems associated with them as well as the optimal mechanisms for attention to therm.

  12. Functional Connectivity Estimated from Resting-State fMRI Reveals Selective Alterations in Male Adolescents with Pure Conduct Disorder.

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    Feng-Mei Lu

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder (CD is characterized by a persistent pattern of antisocial behavior and aggression in childhood and adolescence. Previous task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have revealed widespread brain regional abnormalities in adolescents with CD. However, whether the resting-state networks (RSNs are altered in adolescents with CD remains unknown. In this study, resting-state fMRI data were first acquired from eighteen male adolescents with pure CD and eighteen age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD individuals. Independent component analysis (ICA was implemented to extract nine representative RSNs, and the generated RSNs were then compared to show the differences between the CD and TD groups. Interestingly, it was observed from the brain mapping results that compared with the TD group, the CD group manifested decreased functional connectivity in four representative RSNs: the anterior default mode network (left middle frontal gyrus, which is considered to be correlated with impaired social cognition, the somatosensory network (bilateral supplementary motor area and right postcentral gyrus, the lateral visual network (left superior occipital gyrus, and the medial visual network (right fusiform, left lingual gyrus and right calcarine, which are expected to be relevant to the perceptual systems responsible for perceptual dysfunction in male adolescents with CD. Importantly, the novel findings suggested that male adolescents with pure CD were identified to have dysfunctions in both low-level perceptual networks (the somatosensory network and visual network and a high-order cognitive network (the default mode network. Revealing the changes in the functional connectivity of these RSNs enhances our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of emotion and social cognition and the regulation of perception in adolescents with CD.

  13. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai

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    Xin Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM cases were identified. Risk factors, such as advanced age (≥68 years, low education (no or primary level, self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects.

  14. Beyond Screening: Can the Mini-Mental State Examination be Used as an Exclusion Tool in a Memory Clinic?

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    Xin Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores whether the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE could reliably exclude definite dementia and dementia-free cases from requiring more extensive neuropsychological investigations in memory clinic settings in Singapore. Patients with memory complaints referred for possible dementia underwent the MMSE, followed by standardized neuropsychological and clinical assessments which led to a consensus diagnosis. MMSE cut-off points were derived stratified for education (less and equal/above primary level. Results show that after education stratification, using an optimal Positive Likelihood Ratio (PLR and optimal Negative Likelihood Ratio (NLR, a higher percentage of patients were correctly identified as having dementia or dementia-free, with minimal misclassification rate. The finding suggests the MMSE can be used to exclude patients not requiring full neuropsychological assessments in a memory clinic.

  15. IQ and scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): controlling for effort and education among geriatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Maoz, Omry; Hook, Julie N; Steiner, Amy R; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2007-09-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III) were administered to 76 Extended Care Center inpatients of a Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 56 of whom did not carry a diagnosis associated with brain impairment, and 20 of whom had a diagnosis associated with degenerative or cerebrovascular conditions. MMSE and PPVT-III scores, the latter of which estimates verbal IQ, were significantly correlated in both groups, even when controlling for the effects of education. This correlation was attenuated, but remained significant, in the face of varying levels of patient effort. The findings of this study support earlier findings, which also suggest that interpretation of "impaired" performance on the MMSE for those with IQ scores below 90 should be interpreted with caution. Average MMSE scores for Wechsler IQ classifications are provided.

  16. Decoding human mental states by whole-head EEG+fNIRS during category fluency task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omurtag, Ahmet; Aghajani, Haleh; Onur Keles, Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Concurrent scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which we refer to as EEG+fNIRS, promises greater accuracy than the individual modalities while remaining nearly as convenient as EEG. We sought to quantify the hybrid system’s ability to decode mental states and compare it with its unimodal components. Approach. We recorded from healthy volunteers taking the category fluency test and applied machine learning techniques to the data. Main results. EEG+fNIRS’s decoding accuracy was greater than that of its subsystems, partly due to the new type of neurovascular features made available by hybrid data. Significance. Availability of an accurate and practical decoding method has potential implications for medical diagnosis, brain-computer interface design, and neuroergonomics.

  17. The roles of spirituality in the relationship between traumatic life events, mental health, and drug use among African American women from one southern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the role of spirituality as a moderator of the relationship between traumatic life experiences, mental health, and drug use in a sample of African American women. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship overall between spirituality and mental health and drug use among this sample of African American women. Secondly, was expected that spirituality would moderate the relationship between traumatic life events and mental health and drug use. African American women (n = 206) were recruited from the community and from probation officers in three urban areas of a southern state, and face-to-face interviews were completed. Findings indicated that there was a main effect for spirituality (as measured by existential well-being on the Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and traumatic life events, mental health, and alcohol use. In addition, spirituality was a significant moderator of the relationship between traumatic life events and cocaine use. Discussion and implications for African American women are included.

  18. The Distribution of Thai Mental State Examination Scores among Non-Demented Elderly in Suburban Bangkok Metropolitan and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangpaisan, Weerasak; Assantachai, Prasert; Sitthichai, Kobkul; Richardson, Kathryn; Brayne, Carol

    2015-09-01

    To obtain the distribution of Thai Mental State Examination (TMSE) scores in the Thai population across different age groups and educational levels in men and women aged 50 years and older and its relationship with demographic factors. The different cutpoints in literate and illiterate participants and item performance in both groups were also determined. Community-dwelling participants aged 50 years and over were invited to join the study. Personal information, general health history, and specific illness questionnaires including the activities of daily living, designed by the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a ConcertedAction (SENECA), and the Thai Mental State Examination (TMSE) were completed in the face-to-face interview. There were 4,459 participants with no specific reported conditions that could potentially influence cognitive performance. The mean (SD) age was 64.2 (7.9) years and mostparticipants were women (71.7%). The median (interquartile range) of the TMSE was 27 (25-29) and 23 (19-26) in literate and illiterate participants, respectively. The distribution of TMSE scores were reported here determined by age, gender and educational level. Percentage of correct response in each TMSE item was low in recall and calculation performance. TMSE score declined with age in both genders and had greater variation with increasing age. TMSE score also increased with increasing levels of education and better financial status. Gender was not associated with the TMSE score adjusting for age, educational level, and economic status. Age, education, and economic status have an influence on the TMSE performance. Controllingfor these three factors, genders does not contribute to significant differences in TMSE performance. Norms adjustedfor these factors should be considered before employing single cutpoints to identify impairment.

  19. Mental Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Tori; Cavanaugh, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is defined as a set of attributes that allow an individual to persevere through difficult circumstances that ultimately can lead to successful outcomes. It is also a critical component of maximizing the performance of an athlete. These attributes assist with and promote a state of mind that enhances performance. A negative…

  20. The organizational social context of mental health services and clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice: a United States national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarons Gregory A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practices have not been routinely adopted in community mental health organizations despite the support of scientific evidence and in some cases even legislative or regulatory action. We examined the association of clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice with organizational culture, climate, and other characteristics in a nationally representative sample of mental health organizations in the United States. Methods In-person, group-administered surveys were conducted with a sample of 1,112 mental health service providers in a nationwide sample of 100 mental health service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study examines these associations with a two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM analysis of responses to the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS at the individual clinician level as a function of the Organizational Social Context (OSC measure at the organizational level, controlling for other organization and clinician characteristics. Results We found that more proficient organizational cultures and more engaged and less stressful organizational climates were associated with positive clinician attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Conclusions The findings suggest that organizational intervention strategies for improving the organizational social context of mental health services may contribute to the success of evidence-based practice dissemination and implementation efforts by influencing clinician attitudes.

  1. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women with BPD with or without co-occurring PTSD

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    Paul Frewen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A “4-D model” was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC. Methods: The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD with (n=126 versus without (n=132 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Results: As measured by the Borderline Symptom List, consistent with the predictions of the 4-D model, in comparison with symptom endorsements theorized to be associated with NWC, measures of TRASC were less frequent, and more strongly correlated with both Dissociative Experience Scale scores and severity of childhood emotional neglect, particularly in persons with both BPD and PTSD. Our prediction that symptoms of TRASC would be less intercorrelated in comparison with distress associated with NWC symptoms, however, was not supported. Conclusions: Findings are discussed as they pertain to the symptomatology of BPD, PTSD, and dissociation.

  2. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women with BPD with or without co-occurring PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Lanius, Ruth; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A "4-D model" was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion) that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC) or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with (n=126) versus without (n=132) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As measured by the Borderline Symptom List, consistent with the predictions of the 4-D model, in comparison with symptom endorsements theorized to be associated with NWC, measures of TRASC were less frequent, and more strongly correlated with both Dissociative Experience Scale scores and severity of childhood emotional neglect, particularly in persons with both BPD and PTSD. Our prediction that symptoms of TRASC would be less intercorrelated in comparison with distress associated with NWC symptoms, however, was not supported. Findings are discussed as they pertain to the symptomatology of BPD, PTSD, and dissociation.

  3. Short- and long-range functional connectivity density alterations in adolescents with pure conduct disorder at resting-state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Yuan, Zhen

    2017-05-20

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a developmental disorder defined by a repetitive and persistent display of antisocial and aggressive behaviors that violates the rights of others or basic social rules. Recently, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has been widely adopted to investigate the altered intrinsic neural activities and the disrupted endogenous brain connectivity of CD. In this study, functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, a newly developed ultrafast voxel-wise method based on rsfMRI, was applied for the first time to examine the changes in the brain functional connectivity in CD at the voxel level. We assessed the differences in FCD between eighteen male adolescents with CD and eighteen typically-developing (TD) individuals. Then, the identified brain regions in which CD patients and healthy controls exhibited significant difference in FCD were extracted to calculate the correlations between measures of FCD values and clinical data. We discovered that compared to healthy controls, CD patients showed increased short-range FCD in the default-mode network including the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the bilateral precuneus (PCUN). More importantly, increased short-range FCD values in the bilateral PCC, the bilateral PCUN, and increased long-range FCD values in the left MCC showed significant correlations with the impulsivity. Overall, these results suggested that the FCD abnormalities in CD patients occurred in brain regions known to be involved in cognition, emotion and visual perception. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trait Mindfulness, Problem-Gambling Severity, Altered State of Awareness and Urge to Gamble in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, Charles F A; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I

    2017-06-01

    In Australia, poker-machine gamblers represent a disproportionate number of problem gamblers. To cultivate a greater understanding of the psychological mechanisms involved in poker-machine gambling, a repeated measures cue-reactivity protocol was administered. A community sample of 38 poker-machine gamblers was assessed for problem-gambling severity and trait mindfulness. Participants were also assessed regarding altered state of awareness (ASA) and urge to gamble at baseline, following a neutral cue, and following a gambling cue. Results indicated that: (a) urge to gamble significantly increased from neutral cue to gambling cue, while controlling for baseline urge; (b) cue-reactive ASA did not significantly mediate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue); (c) trait mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with both problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge (i.e., from neutral cue to gambling cue, while controlling for baseline urge); and (d) trait mindfulness did not significantly moderate the effect of problem-gambling severity on cue-reactive urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue). This is the first study to demonstrate a negative association between trait mindfulness and cue-reactive urge to gamble in a population of poker-machine gamblers. Thus, this association merits further evaluation both in relation to poker-machine gambling and other gambling modalities.

  5. Race/ethnicity, substance abuse, and mental illness among suicide victims in 13 US states: 2004 data from the National Violent Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, D L; Barker, L; Strine, T W

    2006-12-01

    To calculate the prevalence of substance abuse and mental illness among suicide victims of different racial/ethnic groups and to identify race/ethnicity trends in mental health and substance abuse that may be used to improve suicide prevention. Data are from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based data integration system that, for 2004, includes data from 13 US states. The NVDRS integrates medical examiner, toxicology, death certificate, and law enforcement data. Within participating states, for data year 2004, 6865 suicide incidents in which race/ethnicity are known were identified. This included 5797 (84.4%) non-Hispanic whites, 501 (7.3%) non-Hispanic blacks, 257 (3.7%) Hispanics, and 310 (4.5%) persons from other racial/ethnic groups. At the time of the suicide event, non-Hispanic blacks had lower blood alcohol contents than other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had less cocaine but more antidepressants and opiates. There were no differences in the levels of amphetamines or marijuana by race/ethnicity. Hispanics were less likely to have been diagnosed with a mental illness or to have received treatment, although family reports of depression were comparable to non-Hispanic whites and other racial/ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to be diagnosed with depression or bipolar disorder and non-Hispanic blacks with schizophrenia. Comorbid substance abuse and mental health problems were more likely among non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks, while Hispanics were more likely to have a substance abuse problem without comorbid mental health problems. The results support earlier research documenting differences in race/ethnicity, substance abuse, and mental health problems as they relate to completed suicide. The data suggest that suicide prevention efforts must address not only substance abuse and mental health problems in general, but the unique personal, family, and social characteristics of different racial/ethnic groups.

  6. Mental state, body image disturbances and social competences in adolescents with strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecylia Smug

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strabismus is a serious ophthalmological and cosmetic disorder which may cause psychological discomfort. An increased incidence of various mental disturbances in patients with squint has been described. Affected children and adolescents experience more difficulties at school and worse results in sport. Squint may cause a disadvantageous social reception and may sometimes make it difficult to get a satisfying job. It may considerably decrease the quality of life. Objective: This study addressed three questions: 1 Is strabismus linked to psychiatric and psychological disorders? 2 Can it influence social competences? 3 Is it linked to dysmorphophobia (DSM-IV? Material and methods: Thirty persons with strabismus at the age of 13-17 years were compared with the control group of 30 persons of the same age, without eye problems. To detect psychiatric problems GHQ-28 scale was used. To assess social competences the Social Competence Questionnaire KKS (Kwestionariusz Kompetencji Społecznych was used. Dysmorphophobia symptoms were measured using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, functioning, social competences or dysmorphophobia in adolescents with strabismus, as compared to the control group. Significantly worse social competences were shown by those adolescents with strabismus who underwent surgical treatment, as compared to other persons with squint (p=0.006. Discussion: In literature, we have not found any studies on social competences in young people with strabismus. The prevalence of dysmorphophobia was not confirmed among them. No higher incidence of psychiatric disorders was observed in our study in adolescents with strabismus.

  7. Mental health, migration stressors and suicidal ideation among Latino immigrants in Spain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, L R; Álvarez, K; Ramos Ortiz, Z; Wang, Y; Mozo Alegría, X; Cook, B L; Alegría, M

    2016-08-01

    Immigration stress appears to augment the risk for suicide behaviors for Latinos. Yet, specific risk factors that contribute to suicidal ideation (SI) among diverse Latino immigrant populations are not well established. Data were collected in Boston, Madrid and Barcelona using a screening battery assessing mental health, substance abuse risk, trauma exposure, demographics, and sociocultural factors. Prevalence rates of lifetime and 30-day SI were compared across sites. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify sociodemographic, clinical, and sociocultural-contextual factors associated with 30-day SI. Five hundred and sixty-seven Latino patients from primary care, behavioral health and HIV clinics and community agencies participated. Rates of lifetime SI ranged from 29-35%; rates for 30-day SI were 21-23%. Rates of SI were not statistically different between sites. Factors associated with SI included exposure to discrimination, lower ethnic identity, elevated family conflict, and low sense of belonging (P<0.01). In the adjusted model, higher scores on depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and trauma exposure were significantly associated with 30-day SI (OR=1.14, 1.04, and 7.76, respectively). Greater number of years living in the host country was significantly associated with increased odds of having SI (OR=2.22) while having citizenship status was associated with lower odds (OR=0.45). Latinos suffering depression, trauma exposure, and immigration stressors are more likely to experience SI. Despite differences in country of origin, education, and other demographic factors between countries, rates of SI did not differ. Recommendations for prevention and clinical practice for addressing suicidal ideation risk among Latino immigrants are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Acculturation, Competence, and Mental Health among South Asian Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Omar; Rollock, David

    2004-01-01

    Among 199 South Asian international students in the United States, higher levels of depressive symptoms were predicted by higher perceived prejudice and lower self-reported competence in work, personal/social efficacy, and intracultural behaviors. Relationships among the predictors and depressive symptoms differed by gender. Implications for…

  9. Beyond Trauma: Post-resettlement Factors and Mental Health Outcomes Among Latino and Asian Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Isok

    2016-08-01

    War-related traumas impact refugees' mental health. Recent literature suggests that structural and sociocultural factors related to the resettlement also become critical in shaping refugees' mental health. So far, there is limited empirical evidence to support this claim among resettled refugees. Resettlement contextual factors that influence mental health outcomes were examined using Latino and Asian refugees (n = 656) from a nationally representative survey. Linear and logistic regressions predicted factors associated with the study's outcomes (self-reported mental health, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders). Post-resettlement traumas were significantly associated with mental health outcomes, but pre-resettlement traumas were not. Unemployment, everyday discrimination, and limited English were significantly associated with mental health outcomes among both Latino and Asian refugees. The outcomes indicate that resettlement contextual factors have a significant association with refugees' mental health. Therefore, future studies with refugees must pay closer attention to structural and sociocultural factors after resettlement.

  10. Impact of falls on mental health outcomes for older adult mental health patients: An Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Karen Ruth; Wynaden, Dianne Gaye

    2016-02-01

    Sustaining a fall during hospitalization reduces a patient's ability to return home following discharge. It is well accepted that factors, such as alteration in balance, functional mobility, muscle strength, and fear of falling, are all factors that impact on the quality of life of elderly people following a fall. However, the impact that falls have on mental health outcomes in older adult mental health patients remains unexplored. The present study reports Health of the Nation Outcome Scale scores for people over the age of 65 (HoNOS65+), which were examined in a cohort of 65 patients who sustained a fall and 73 non-fallers admitted to an older adult mental health service (OAMHS). Results were compared with state and national HoNOS65+ data recorded in Australian National Outcome Casemix Collection data to explore the effect that sustaining a fall while hospitalized has on mental health outcomes. Australian state and national HoNOS65+ data indicate that older adults generally experience improved HoNOS65+ scores from admission to discharge. Mental health outcomes for patients who sustained a fall while admitted to an OAMHS did not follow this trend. Sustaining a fall while admitted to an OAMHS negatively affects discharge mental health outcomes. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  11. Cue-Reactive Altered State of Consciousness Mediates the Relationship Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Cue-Reactive Urge in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Christopher; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I

    2016-06-01

    In order to enhance our understanding of the nature of poker-machine problem-gambling, a community sample of 37 poker-machine gamblers (M age = 32 years, M PGSI = 5; PGSI = Problem Gambling Severity Index) were assessed for urge to gamble (responses on a visual analogue scale) and altered state of consciousness (assessed by the Altered State of Awareness dimension of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory) at baseline, after a neutral cue, and after a gambling cue. It was found that (a) problem-gambling severity (PGSI score) predicted increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .19, p = .006) and increase in altered state of consciousness (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .57, p gambling cue) mediated the relationship between problem-gambling severity and increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue; κ(2) = .40, 99 % CI [.08, .71]). These findings suggest that cue-reactive altered state of consciousness is an important component of cue-reactive urge in poker-machine problem-gamblers.

  12. The "Reading the Mind in Films" Task [Child Version]: Complex Emotion and Mental State Recognition in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Golan, Yael

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have difficulties recognizing others' emotions. Research has mostly focused on "basic" emotion recognition, devoid of context. This study reports the results of a new task, assessing recognition of "complex" emotions and mental states in social contexts. An ASC group (n = 23) was compared to a general…

  13. The state of the art in European research on reducing social exclusion and stigma related to mental health: a systematic mapping of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, S; Courtin, E; Fiorillo, A; Knapp, M; Luciano, M; Park, A-L; Brunn, M; Byford, S; Chevreul, K; Forsman, A K; Gulacsi, L; Haro, J M; Kennelly, B; Knappe, S; Lai, T; Lasalvia, A; Miret, M; O'Sullivan, C; Obradors-Tarragó, C; Rüsch, N; Sartorius, N; Svab, V; van Weeghel, J; Van Audenhove, C; Wahlbeck, K; Zlati, A; McDaid, D; Thornicroft, G

    2014-08-01

    Stigma and social exclusion related to mental health are of substantial public health importance for Europe. As part of ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe), we used systematic mapping techniques to describe the current state of research on stigma and social exclusion across Europe. Findings demonstrate growing interest in this field between 2007 and 2012. Most studies were descriptive (60%), focused on adults of working age (60%) and were performed in Northwest Europe-primarily in the UK (32%), Finland (8%), Sweden (8%) and Germany (7%). In terms of mental health characteristics, the largest proportion of studies investigated general mental health (20%), common mental disorders (16%), schizophrenia (16%) or depression (14%). There is a paucity of research looking at mechanisms to reduce stigma and promote social inclusion, or at factors that might promote resilience or protect against stigma/social exclusion across the life course. Evidence is also limited in relation to evaluations of interventions. Increasing incentives for cross-country research collaborations, especially with new EU Member States and collaboration across European professional organizations and disciplines, could improve understanding of the range of underpinning social and cultural factors which promote inclusion or contribute toward lower levels of stigma, especially during times of hardship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Features of the mental state of patients with myocardial infarction at a sanatorium stage of rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putrov S.Yu.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available It is analysed the results of a research of psychological state defining of patients with myocardial infarction at a sanatorium stage of rehabilitation. It is identified a positive dynamics in the integrated application of means and methods of physical rehabilitation, and psychotherapeutic factors. The features of physical rehabilitation of patients are exposed by the heart attack of myocardium that is making program of rehabilitation on the sanatorium stage. It is certain that the program of physical rehabilitation is based on the complex of such measures as a morning hygienical gymnastics, medical gymnastics, medical dosed walking, training walking by steps.

  15. Belonging and adapting: mental health of Bosnian refugees living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Emily F; Kane, Catherine F

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the experience of Bosnian refugees currently living in the United States. Using a phenomenological method, seven adult female Bosnian refugees each participated in an audio-recorded interview lasting from one to two hours. Two major themes emerged from the analyses of the text: belonging and adapting. Belonging included concepts of cultural memory, identity and difference, empathy and reciprocity, and perfection of speech. Adapting focused on coping with transitions, coping with memories of past and attendant losses, coping with accepting a new culture while trying to fit into the new culture, and learning the new language perfectly. Implicit in the refugees' experiences were states of culture shock, loneliness, psychic numbness, grief, nostalgia, and feelings of dejection, humiliation, inferiority, and feeling as if they belonged nowhere. Simultaneously, the refugees reported feelings of relief and safety after leaving behind the threat of death in their old homes, feelings of gratefulness for their new freedom to hope for a better life, and their restored ability to notice beauty, as well as a sense of normalcy in their new lives. Recommendations for nursing research include the need to identify additional factors promoting successful belonging and adapting in refugees. Recommendations for nursing practice include the importance of adopting a perspective that is respectful of the uniqueness of each refugee and the necessity for recognizing the normal processes of refugee adaptation.

  16. [Economic restructuring and impacts on health and mental distress: the case of a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Pinheiro, Tarcísio Márcio Magalhães; Sakurai, Emília

    2007-12-01

    Restructuring of the Brazilian financial sector was consolidated through the combination of mass lay-offs, automation, and outsourcing, in addition to business re-engineering with leveling of hierarchical echelons, labor casualization, and multi-function jobs. In order to comply and deal with the new demands, bank employees had to increase their schooling, become multi-functional and expert sales attendants, and submit to substandard conditions in the workplace, increased workload, overtime, and low wages. The purpose of the current study was to examine the restructuring process in a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and its impacts on workers' health. The study also analyzes absenteeism rates from 1998 to 2003, when there was an increase in diseases such as repetitive stress injury (RSI)/work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD) and mental/behavioral disorders, accounting for 56% and 19% of sick leaves. The process has continued to the present, with a restrictive recruitment policy. Further study is needed to confirm the results.

  17. Oxytocin differentially alters resting state functional connectivity between amygdala subregions and emotional control networks: Inverse correlation with depressive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Monika; Markett, Sebastian; Kendrick, Keith M; Ditzen, Beate; Liu, Fang; Hurlemann, Rene; Becker, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has received increasing attention for its role in modulating social-emotional processes across species. Previous studies on using intranasal-OT in humans point to a crucial engagement of the amygdala in the observed neuromodulatory effects of OT under task and rest conditions. However, the amygdala is not a single homogenous structure, but rather a set of structurally and functionally heterogeneous nuclei that show distinct patterns of connectivity with limbic and frontal emotion-processing regions. To determine potential differential effects of OT on functional connectivity of the amygdala subregions, 79 male participants underwent resting-state fMRI following randomized intranasal-OT or placebo administration. In line with previous studies OT increased the connectivity of the total amygdala with dorso-medial prefrontal regions engaged in emotion regulation. In addition, OT enhanced coupling of the total amygdala with cerebellar regions. Importantly, OT differentially altered the connectivity of amygdala subregions with distinct up-stream cortical nodes, particularly prefrontal/parietal, and cerebellar down-stream regions. OT-induced increased connectivity with cerebellar regions were largely driven by effects on the centromedial and basolateral subregions, whereas increased connectivity with prefrontal regions were largely mediated by right superficial and basolateral subregions. OT decreased connectivity of the centromedial subregions with core hubs of the emotional face processing network in temporal, occipital and parietal regions. Preliminary findings suggest that effects on the superficial amygdala-prefrontal pathway were inversely associated with levels of subclinical depression, possibly indicating that OT modulation may be blunted in the context of increased pathological load. Together, the present findings suggest a subregional-specific modulatory role of OT on amygdala-centered emotion processing networks in

  18. Alteration of the redox state with reactive oxygen species for 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Yoshino

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is often induced in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy treatment. It has been reported that oral mucositis can reduce quality of life, as well as increasing the incidence of mortality. The participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis is well known, but no report has actually demonstrated the presence of ROS. Thus, the purpose of this study was thus to demonstrate the involvement of ROS and the alteration of the redox state in oral mucositis using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance (ESR technique. An oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with 10% acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch was used. Lipid peroxidation was measured as the level of malondialdehyde determined by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. The rate constants of the signal decay of nitroxyl compounds using in vivo L-band ESR were calculated from the signal decay curves. Firstly, we established the oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch. An increased level of lipid peroxidation in oral mucositis was found by measuring malondialdehyde using isolated hamster cheek pouch ulcer. In addition, as a result of in vivo L-band ESR measurements using our model animals, the decay rate constants of carbamoyl-PROXYL, which is a reagent for detecting the redox balance in tissue, were decreased. These results suggest that a redox imbalance might occur by excessive generation of ROS at an early stage of oral mucositis and the consumption of large quantities of antioxidants including glutathione in the locality of oral mucositis. These findings support the presence of ROS involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis with anti-cancer therapy, and is useful for the development of novel therapies drugs for oral mucositis.

  19. Altered Functional Connectivity in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment--A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Ding

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that people with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (sVCI have structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites. In this study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC analysis and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC techniques to investigate the alteration of rsFC in patients with sVCI. rsFC and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for 51 patients with subcortical cerebrovascular disease. All patients were subdivided based on cognitive status into 29 with sVCI and 22 controls; patient characteristics were matched. rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and VMHC were calculated separately, and rsFC of the PCC and VMHC between the two groups were compared. The regions showing abnormal rsFC of the PCC or VMHC in sVCI patients were adopted as regions of interest for correlation analyses. Our results are as follows: The patients with sVCI exhibited increases in rsFC in the left middle temporal lobe, right inferior temporal lobe and left superior frontal gyrus, and significant decreases in rsFC of the left thalamus with the PCC. sVCI patients showed a significant deficit in VMHC between the bilateral lingual gyrus, putamen, and precentral gyrus. Additionally, the z-memory score was significantly positively associated with connectivity between the left thalamus and the PCC (r = 0.41, p = 0.03, uncorrected in the sVCI group. Our findings suggest that the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites play an important role in the pathogenesis of sVCI. Furthermore, rsFC between the left thalamus and the PCC might indicate the severity of sVCI.

  20. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR: a flow-like mental state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Barratt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9% within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.

  1. Studies on the Mental Processes in Translation Memory-assisted Translation – the State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the mental translation processes involved in translation memory-assisted translation. First, based on recent developments in cognitive science the article provides a working definition of mental TM research. Next the article analyses a selection of mental TM studies...... with a view to discovering their aims, data, methods and results. In doing so, the paper attempts to find out what we know by now about the mental aspects of translation memory-assisted translation. The analysis suggests fruitful avenues for future research and concludes that particularly more research...

  2. Mentalizing and Microblog Repost through Social Network: Evidence from a Resting-state-fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Microblogs is one of the main social networking channels by which information is spread. Among them, Sina Weibo is one of the largest social networking channel in China. Millions of users repost information from Sina Weibo and share embedded emotion at the same time. The present study investigated participants’ propensity to repost microblog messages of positive, negative or neutral valence, and studied the neural correlates during resting state with the reposting rate of each type microblog messages. Participants preferred to repost negative messages relative to positive and neutral messages. Reposting rate of negative messages was positively correlated to the functional connectivity of temporoparietal junction (TPJ with insula, and TPJ with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. These results indicate that reposting negative messages is related to conflict resolution between the feeling of pain/ disgust and the intention to repost significant information. Thus, resposting emotional microblog messages might be attributed to participants’ appraisal of personal and recipient’s interest, as well as their cognitive process for decision making.

  3. IQ and mental health are vital predictors of work drop out and early mortality. Multi-state analyses of Norwegian male conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Stein Atle; Tveito, Torill H; Reme, Silje E; Eriksen, Hege R

    2017-01-01

    Disability benefits and sick leave benefits represents huge costs in western countries. The pathways and prognostic factors for receiving these benefits seen in recent years are complex and manifold. We postulate that mental health and IQ, both alone and concurrent, influence subsequent employment status, disability benefits and mortality. A cohort of 918 888 Norwegian men was followed for 16 years from the age of 20 to 55. Risk for health benefits, emigration, and mortality were studied. Indicators of mental health and IQ at military enrolment were used as potential risk factors. Multi-state models were used to analyze transitions between employment, sick leave, time limited benefits, disability benefits, emigration, and mortality. During follow up, there were a total of 3 908 397 transitions between employment and different health benefits, plus 12 607 deaths. Men with low IQ (below 85), without any mental health problems at military enrolment, had an increased probability of receiving disability benefits before the age of 35 (HRR = 4.06, 95% CI: 3.88-4.26) compared to men with average IQ (85 to 115) and no mental health problems. For men with both low IQ and mental health problems, there was an excessive probability of receiving disability benefits before the age of 35 (HRR = 14.37, 95% CI: 13.59-15.19), as well as an increased probability for time limited benefits and death before the age of 35 compared to men with average IQ (85 to 115) and no mental health problems. Low IQ and mental health problems are strong predictors of future disability benefits and early mortality for young men.

  4. The interaction between criminal-executive inspections, and psychological center working with motivation and mental state convicted conditionally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaev E. V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the changes of motivation and mental States, people on probation and parole in the age of from 18 up to 35 years, whose main reason for conviction – robbery, robbery, use of psychoactive substances. The selected audience is predominantly men. Describes a psychological study of the personalities of probation and parole citizens on the basis of the tests: CHOICE lusher, a Test questionnaire G. Shmishek and K. Leongard (a technique of accentuation of character and temperament, Neurotic personality traits (NL modification of L. I. Wasserman, B. V. Iovlev. The concept of development criminally-executive system of the Russian Federation until 2020 provides for the further development of alternatives to imprisonment. It is expected therefore making the activity of criminal-Executive inspection (UII social focus, providing for the re-socialization of convicts in close cooperation with civil society institutions. Most urgently today is the question of socio-psychological and educational work with convicts. The involvement of the public, rehabilitation centers and other organizations in the process of social adaptation and rehabilitation of convicted persons is in the spirit of the time and demand of the main provisions of the concept of development UIS the Russian Federation until 2020. The development provides for UII at the same time as the introduction of innovative technologies in the field of social, psychological and educational work with convicts, and to raise the level of professional training of their employees.

  5. Comparison of Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination in Evaluating Cognitive Domain Deficit Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, George Kwok Chu; Lam, Sandy Wai; Wong, Adrian; Ngai, Karine; Poon, Wai Sang; Mok, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cognitive deficits are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH), and clinical evaluation is important for their management. Our hypothesis was that the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa) is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in screening for cognitive domain deficit in aSAH patients. Methods We carried out a prospective observational and diagnostic accuracy study on Hong Kong aSAH patients aged 21 to 75 years who had been admitted within 96 hours of ictus. The domain-specific neuropsychological assessment battery, the MoCA and MMSE were administered 2–4 weeks and 1 year after ictus. A cognitive domain deficit was defined as a cognitive domain z score ictus, the MoCA produced higher area under the curve scores for cognitive impairment than the MMSE (MoCA, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97 versus MMSE, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.83, p = 0.009). Interpretation Cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment in patients with aSAH can be screened with the MoCA in both the subacute and chronic phases. PMID:23573223

  6. Sources of variation on the mini-mental state examination in a population-based sample of centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ting; Davey, Adam; Woodard, John L; Miller, Lloyd Stephen; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Kim, Seock-Ho; Poon, Leonard W

    2013-08-01

    Centenarians represent a rare but rapidly growing segment of the oldest-old. This study presents item-level data from the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a cross-sectional, population-based sample of 244 centenarians and near-centenarians (aged 98-108, 16% men, 21% African-American, 38% community dwelling) from the Georgia Centenarian Study (2001-2008) according to age, education, sex, race, and residential status. Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC) models were used to identify systematic domain-level differences in MMSE scores according to demographic characteristics in this age group. Indirect effects of age, educational attainment, race, and residential status were found on MMSE scores. Direct effects were limited to concentration for education and race and orientation for residential status. Mean levels of cognitive functioning in centenarians were low, with mean values below most commonly-used cutoffs. Overall scores on the MMSE differed as a function of age, education, race, and residential status, with differences in scale performance limited primarily to concentration and orientation and no evidence of interactions between centenarian characteristics. Adjusting for education was not sufficient to account for differences according to race, and adjusting for residential status was not sufficient to account for differences according to age. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Differential item functioning (DIF) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Overview, sample, and issues of translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Mildred; Teresi, Jeanne A; Holmes, Douglas; Gurland, Barry; Lantigua, Rafael

    2006-11-01

    Various forms of differential item functioning (DIF) in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) have been identified. Items have been found to perform differently for individuals of different educational levels, racial/ethnic groups, and/or of groups whose first language is not English. The articles in this section illustrate the use of different methods to examine DIF in relation to English and Spanish language administration of the MMSE. The aim of this article is to provide a context for interpretation of the findings contained in the following set of papers examining DIF in the MMSE. The performance of the MMSE, when administered in English and Spanish, was reviewed. "Translation" has been discussed in the context of measurement bias, illustrating the variability in Spanish translations. Presented are the readability of the MMSE, description of the translation method, the study design and sample for the data set used, together with treatment of missing data, and model assumptions related to the analyses described in the accompanying set of papers examining DIF. The examination of item bias in cognitive impairment assessment instruments has practical and theoretical implications in the context of health disparities. Considerable DIF has been identified in the MMSE. A critical factor that may contribute to measurement bias is language translation and conversion. Once DIF has been established consistently in a measure, decisions regarding adjustments proceed. Perhaps the development of guidelines for appropriate adjustments for DIF correction in self-reported measures represents the next challenge in addressing measurement equivalence in crosscultural research.

  8. [Screening for dementia: validity of the Cognitive Screening Test (CST) and the Mini-Mental State Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, R W; Verhey, F R; Rozendaal, N; Jolles, J; Deelman, B G

    1992-06-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST--short version), a Dutch orientation questionnaire, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were compared with respect to their ability to discriminate between mildly demented, moderately demented and non-demented patients. The difference between mildly and moderately demented patients was based on the Global Deterioration Scale score. The CST and the MMSE were administered to patients who had been referred to the Memory Clinic of the University Hospital of Maastricht. Both instruments were successful in discriminating moderately and severely demented from non-demented patients. The CST and the MMSE were also successful with respect to the classification of depressive, non-demented elderly patients. The CST did not succeed in the correct classification of mildly demented patients (50% false-negative). The results of the MMSE in this group of mildly demented patients were moderate (25% false-negative). It is concluded that the value of both screening instruments, and especially the short version of the CST is limited for clinical practice.

  9. Adaptation of dementia screening for vision-impaired older persons: administration of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Anja; Sonntag, Astrid; Bischkopf, Jeannette; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2002-09-01

    In epidemiologic field studies on the prevalence and incidence of dementia the problems associated with the cognitive testing of visually impaired individuals are rarely discussed. In the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA 75+) a version of the Mini-Mental State Examination for the visually impaired (MMSE-blind) was employed from which all items requiring image processing had been omitted. To be able to interpret the test results and include vision-impaired individuals in the field study, the scores for the full MMSE were estimated by conducting linear transformation of the scores obtained on the MMSE-blind. The method of linear transformation is based on certain theoretical assumptions that are examined in this article. Linear transformation of scores has proved to be a valid procedure only for individuals with very high or very low cognitive performance. Thus, evaluation of the estimated full MMSE scores based on the norms for the original MMSE is not recommended. A blind version of the MMSE with age- and education-specific norms that has been validated as a screening tool for dementia is therefore presented.

  10. Normalized Mini-Mental State Examination for assessing cognitive change in population-based brain aging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipps, Viviane; Amieva, Hélène; Andrieu, Sandrine; Dufouil, Carole; Berr, Claudine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Proust-Lima, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in population-based longitudinal studies to quantify cognitive change. However, its poor metrological properties, mainly ceiling/floor effects and varying sensitivity to change, have largely restricted its usefulness. We propose a normalizing transformation that corrects these properties, and makes possible the use of standard statistical methods to analyze change in MMSE scores. The normalizing transformation designed to correct at best the metrological properties of MMSE was estimated and validated on two population-based studies (n = 4,889, 20-year follow-up) by cross-validation. The transformation was also validated on two external studies with heterogeneous samples mixing normal and pathological aging, and samples including only demented subjects. The normalizing transformation provided correct inference in contrast with models analyzing the change in crude MMSE that most often lead to biased estimates of risk factors and incorrect conclusions. Cognitive change can be easily and properly assessed with the normalized MMSE using standard statistical methods such as linear (mixed) models. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Adding sound to theory of mind: Comparing children's development of mental-state understanding in the auditory and visual realms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasni, Anita A; Adamson, Lauren B; Williamson, Rebecca A; Robins, Diana L

    2017-12-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) gradually develops during the preschool years. Measures of ToM usually target visual experience, but auditory experiences also provide valuable social information. Given differences between the visual and auditory modalities (e.g., sights persist, sounds fade) and the important role environmental input plays in social-cognitive development, we asked whether modality might influence the progression of ToM development. The current study expands Wellman and Liu's ToM scale (2004) by testing 66 preschoolers using five standard visual ToM tasks and five newly crafted auditory ToM tasks. Age and gender effects were found, with 4- and 5-year-olds demonstrating greater ToM abilities than 3-year-olds and girls passing more tasks than boys; there was no significant effect of modality. Both visual and auditory tasks formed a scalable set. These results indicate that there is considerable consistency in when children are able to use visual and auditory inputs to reason about various aspects of others' mental states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  13. Different aberrant mentalizing networks in males and females with autism spectrum disorders: Evidence from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Lee, Jonathan

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have found that individuals with autism spectrum disorders show impairments in mentalizing processes and aberrant brain activity compared with typically developing participants. However, the findings are mainly from male participants and the aberrant effects in autism spectrum disorder females and sex differences are still unclear. To address these issues, this study analyzed intrinsic functional connectivity of mentalizing regions using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 48 autism spectrum disorder males and females and 48 typically developing participants in autism brain imaging data exchange. Whole-brain analyses showed that autism spectrum disorder males had hyperconnectivity in functional connectivity of the bilateral temporal-parietal junction, whereas autism spectrum disorder females showed hypoconnectivity in functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and right temporal-parietal junction. Interaction between sex and autism was found in both short- and long-distance functional connectivity effects, confirming that autism spectrum disorder males showed overconnectivity, while autism spectrum disorder females showed underconnectivity. Furthermore, a regression analysis revealed that in autism spectrum disorder, males and females demonstrated different relations between the functional connectivity effects of the mentalizing regions and the core autism spectrum disorder deficits. These results suggest sex differences in the mentalizing network in autism spectrum disorder individuals. Future work is needed to examine how sex interacts with other factors such as age and the sex differences during mentalizing task performance.

  14. The Association between Mental Health and Violence among a Nationally Representative Sample of College Students from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C

    2015-01-01

    Recent violent attacks on college campuses in the United States have sparked discussions regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the perpetration of violence among college students. While previous studies have examined the potential association between mental health problems and violent behavior, the overall pattern of findings flowing from this literature remain mixed and no previous studies have examined such associations among college students. The current study makes use of a nationally representative sample of 3,929 college students from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine the prevalence of seven violent behaviors and 19 psychiatric disorder diagnoses tapping mood, anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders. Associations between individual and composite psychiatric disorder diagnoses and violent behaviors were also examined. Additional analyses were adjusted for the comorbidity of multiple psychiatric diagnoses. The results revealed that college students were less likely to have engaged in violent behavior relative to the non-student sample, but a substantial portion of college students had engaged in violent behavior. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates indicated that more than 21% of college students reported at least one violent act. In addition, more than 36% of college students had at least one diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Finally, the prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders significantly increased the odds of violent behavior within the college student sample. These findings indicate that violence and psychiatric disorders are prevalent on college campuses in the United States, though perhaps less so than in the general population. In addition, college students who have diagnosable psychiatric disorders are significantly more likely to engage in various forms of violent behavior.

  15. The Association between Mental Health and Violence among a Nationally Representative Sample of College Students from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recent violent attacks on college campuses in the United States have sparked discussions regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the perpetration of violence among college students. While previous studies have examined the potential association between mental health problems and violent behavior, the overall pattern of findings flowing from this literature remain mixed and no previous studies have examined such associations among college students. Methods The current study makes use of a nationally representative sample of 3,929 college students from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine the prevalence of seven violent behaviors and 19 psychiatric disorder diagnoses tapping mood, anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders. Associations between individual and composite psychiatric disorder diagnoses and violent behaviors were also examined. Additional analyses were adjusted for the comorbidity of multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Results The results revealed that college students were less likely to have engaged in violent behavior relative to the non-student sample, but a substantial portion of college students had engaged in violent behavior. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates indicated that more than 21% of college students reported at least one violent act. In addition, more than 36% of college students had at least one diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Finally, the prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders significantly increased the odds of violent behavior within the college student sample. Conclusions These findings indicate that violence and psychiatric disorders are prevalent on college campuses in the United States, though perhaps less so than in the general population. In addition, college students who have diagnosable psychiatric disorders are significantly more likely to engage in various forms of violent behavior. PMID:26445360

  16. The Association between Mental Health and Violence among a Nationally Representative Sample of College Students from the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Schwartz

    Full Text Available Recent violent attacks on college campuses in the United States have sparked discussions regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the perpetration of violence among college students. While previous studies have examined the potential association between mental health problems and violent behavior, the overall pattern of findings flowing from this literature remain mixed and no previous studies have examined such associations among college students.The current study makes use of a nationally representative sample of 3,929 college students from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC to examine the prevalence of seven violent behaviors and 19 psychiatric disorder diagnoses tapping mood, anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders. Associations between individual and composite psychiatric disorder diagnoses and violent behaviors were also examined. Additional analyses were adjusted for the comorbidity of multiple psychiatric diagnoses.The results revealed that college students were less likely to have engaged in violent behavior relative to the non-student sample, but a substantial portion of college students had engaged in violent behavior. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates indicated that more than 21% of college students reported at least one violent act. In addition, more than 36% of college students had at least one diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Finally, the prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders significantly increased the odds of violent behavior within the college student sample.These findings indicate that violence and psychiatric disorders are prevalent on college campuses in the United States, though perhaps less so than in the general population. In addition, college students who have diagnosable psychiatric disorders are significantly more likely to engage in various forms of violent behavior.

  17. The Role of Visual Noise in Influencing Mental Load and Fatigue in a Steady-State Motion Visual Evoked Potential-Based Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Xu, Guanghua; Luo, Ailing; Li, Min; Zhang, Sicong; Han, Chengcheng; Yan, Wenqiang

    2017-08-14

    As a spatial selective attention-based brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm, steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) BCI has the advantages of high information transfer rate, high tolerance to artifacts, and robust performance across users. However, its benefits come at the cost of mental load and fatigue occurring in the concentration on the visual stimuli. Noise, as a ubiquitous random perturbation with the power of randomness, may be exploited by the human visual system to enhance higher-level brain functions. In this study, a novel steady-state motion visual evoked potential (SSMVEP, i.e., one kind of SSVEP)-based BCI paradigm with spatiotemporal visual noise was used to investigate the influence of noise on the compensation of mental load and fatigue deterioration during prolonged attention tasks. Changes in α , θ , θ + α powers, θ / α ratio, and electroencephalography (EEG) properties of amplitude, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and online accuracy, were used to evaluate mental load and fatigue. We showed that presenting a moderate visual noise to participants could reliably alleviate the mental load and fatigue during online operation of visual BCI that places demands on the attentional processes. This demonstrated that noise could provide a superior solution to the implementation of visual attention controlling-based BCI applications.

  18. Assessment of the state of dentition and oral hygiene in 16-25-year-old young people with mild and moderate mental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachurski, P; Warsz, M; Rudnicka-Siwek, K; Zioło, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to assess the state of dentition and oral hygiene in 16-25-year-old young people with mild and moderate mental disability in comparison with a control group of healthy young people at the same age. The research was carried out in a special School and Tutelary Centre in Lublin. A group of 144 young people aged 16-25 with mild and moderate mental disability (group I) among them 75 girls and 69 boys participated in the research. A group of 50 healthy young people aged 16-25 (group II) among them 24 girls and 26 boys was a control group. Determined: frequency of dental caries, DMF number, dental caries treatment index (DTI), oral hygiene index (OHI), percentage of traumatic injuries of teeth, percentage of sealed teeth. The frequency of dental caries in both groups was 100%. The average DMF was 11.96 (group I) and in the control group II: 6.58. The largest number of teeth with active caries--8.21 teeth with caries per person was found in group I, but 2.72 in group II. Dental caries treatment index (DTI) was 0.24 in group I and 0.59 in the control group II. Oral hygiene index OHI in group I was 1.78, in group II this index was 0.34, 0.29 in girls and 0.38 in boys. 1. The state of dentition in 16-25-year-old young people with mild and moderate mental disability is unsatisfactory. 2. Higher values of OHI index were in group I. 3. The obtained results of the state of dentition and oral hygiene in the group of young people with mental disability are at the same level both in the girls and boys. 4. The above mentioned results suggest the need for special dental care for young people with mild and moderate mental disability.

  19. Políticas públicas vigentes de salud mental en Suramérica: un estado del arte / Current public policies on mental health in South America: a state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Henao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: presentar un Estado del Arte sobre el contenido de las políticas públicas de salud mental vigentes en Suramérica, con el propósito de establecer un panorama de los alcances y limitaciones de la normatividad sobre el tema en la región. Metodología: Estudio documental de enfoque hermenéutico mediante el cual se interpretó y explicó las relaciones entre los contenidos de las políticas públicas de salud mental y el contexto de los países suramericanos. Para el análisis se incluyeron documentos normativos de los países, tales como Acuerdos, Resoluciones y Leyes. Igualmente, se utilizaron publicaciones académicas en el periodo comprendido entre 2003 a 2013, que posibilitaron la descripción y el análisis del tema de investigación. Resultados: países como Colombia, Argentina, Paraguay, Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Uruguay cuentan con disposiciones normativas vigentes (acuerdos, resoluciones y leyes que sustentan el contenido de las políticas públicas en materia de salud mental. Por otra parte, Chile, Bolivia y Venezuela fundamentan sus políticas en mecanismos administrativos (programas, planes y proyectos sin apelar a la norma de obligatorio cumplimiento. Conclusión: la noción de salud mental que subyace a cada Política Nacional hace énfasis en la promoción de la salud y la prevención de la enfermedad, desde una concepción positiva del bienestar que resalta el papel activo de los sujetos y poblaciones, las capacidades y libertades disponibles; sin embargo, los recursos, estrategias, acciones y metas están orientados sobre la base de un modelo biomédico que prioriza el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de trastornos mentales. / Abstract Objective: to present the state of the art regarding the content of the public mental health policies currently in force in South America in order to establish an overview of the scope and limitations of the regulations on the subject in the region. Methodology: a documentary study

  20. The relationship among mental health status (GHQ-12), health related quality of life (EQ-5D) and health-state utilities in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro; Ramallo-Fariña, Yolanda; Trujillo-Martín, Maria del Mar; Muñoz-Navarro, Sergio Raul; Perestelo-Perez, Lilisbeth; de las Cuevas-Castresana, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    To assess the relationship between mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in the general population, and to map GHQ-12 as a screening test for population psychological distress to a generic health state measure (EQ-5D) in order to estimate health state values and allow deriving quality-adjusted life years. Relationship between mental health and HRQL was examined from the 2004 Canary Islands' Health Survey. Participants were classified as probable psychiatric cases according to GHQ-12. HRQL was measured by the EQ-5D index. Multivariate lineal regression analysis was used to examine the association between mental health and HRQL adjusting by socio-demographic variables and comorbidities. A multivariate regression model was built from EQ-5D to estimate health states values using GHQ-12 as exposure. EQ-5D index scores decreased as the GHQ-12 scores increased. Clinical and socio-demographic factors influenced HRQL without changing the overall trend for this negative relationship. The regression equation explained 43% of the variance. For estimation of utility scores, the model showed a high predictive capacity, with a mean forecast errors of 16%. HRQL progressively decreased when the probability of being a psychiatric case increased. Findings enable health state values to be derived from GHQ-12 scores for populations where utilities has not or cannot be measured directly.

  1. [Are the neuropsychological alterations in eating disorders endophenotypes of the disease? Review and state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idini, E; Marquez-Medina, D; Pifarre, J; Buj-Alvarez, I; Castan-Campanera, E

    2012-12-16

    INTRODUCTION. Recent studies have shown that alterations to the executive cognitive functions may be endophenotypes of eating disorders. AIM. To perform a critical review of the literature on neuropsychological alterations in patients with eating disorders and their first-degree relatives. DEVELOPMENT. We review the papers written in English and in Spanish indexed in Medline and PsycINFO over the last 10 years. We included abstracts of papers that have still not been published and search terms were crossed. Excluding some isolated clinical cases, we obtained 41 studies on patients with anorexia nervosa (n = 17), bulimia nervosa (n = 5), both (n = 13) or a non-specific eating disorder (n = 6). CONCLUSIONS. The studies reviewed display important limitations due to their heterogeneous methodology and small samples, which give rise to contradictory results. Most of them were conducted on anorexia nervosa. Cognitive rigidity seems to be more frequent in patients with anorexia and their relatives, and alterations in decision-making or central coherence is more often found in bulimia nervosa. There is evidence suggesting that the neuropsychological alterations found in eating disorders are endophenotypes of the disease.

  2. The 'Reading the Mind in Films' Task [child version]: complex emotion and mental state recognition in children with and without autism spectrum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Golan, Yael

    2008-09-01

    Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have difficulties recognizing others' emotions. Research has mostly focused on basic emotion recognition, devoid of context. This study reports the results of a new task, assessing recognition of complex emotions and mental states in social contexts. An ASC group (n = 23) was compared to a general population control group (n = 24). Children with ASC performed lower than controls on the task. Using task scores, more than 87% of the participants were allocated to their group. This new test quantifies complex emotion and mental state recognition in life-like situations. Our findings reveal that children with ASC have residual difficulties in this aspect of empathy. The use of language-based compensatory strategies for emotion recognition is discussed.

  3. Stressors and barriers to using mental health services among diverse groups of first-generation immigrants to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saechao, Fay; Sharrock, Sally; Reicherter, Daryn; Livingston, James D; Aylward, Alexandra; Whisnant, Jill; Koopman, Cheryl; Kohli, Sarita

    2012-02-01

    This study examined stressors and barriers to using mental health services among first-generation immigrants in San Jose, California. Focus groups for 30 immigrants from Cambodia, Eastern Europe, Iran, Iraq, Africa, and Vietnam were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed. Two researchers coded the data and identified themes pertaining to mental health stressors and barriers. Six primary stressors were identified: economic, discrimination, acculturation due to language differences, enculturation, parenting differences, and finding suitable employment. Primary barriers included: stigma, lack of a perceived norm in country of origin for using mental health services, competing cultural practices, lack of information, language barriers, and cost. A conceptual model is presented that may be used to inform the design and implementation of mental health services for this population.

  4. Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR): The United States Marine Corps Initiative to Deliver Mental Health Services to Operating Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nash, William P

    2006-01-01

    .... The role of military mental health professionals in combat/operational stress control is to adapt scientific tools for prevention, identification, and treatment for use by military leaders at all levels...

  5. Individual and Social Factors Related to Mental Health Concerns among Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Reece, Michael; Martinez, Omar; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Research has not yet explored the potential impact of social stress, biphobia, and other factors on the mental health of bisexual men. In-depth interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Interviewers explored potential mental health stressors and supports. Many participants reported personal and social challenges associated with bisexuality, which in turn influenced their mental health. Reported instances of stigma toward bisexuality, from both homosexual and heterosexual individuals, impacted participants’ feelings regarding their own sexualities. Isolation was also commonly reported. Programs are greatly needed that focus on the specific mental health and other concerns voiced by these men. Based on our study findings, such programs should emphasize self-acceptance, social network and community building, and ways to maximize available social support, similar to community-level empowerment interventions that have shown success among gay-identified men. PMID:22745591

  6. Studies of gene expression and activity of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glycogen synthase in human skeletal muscle in states of altered insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H

    1999-01-01

    of the review is to discuss our present knowledge of the activities and gene expression of hexokinase II (HKII), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and glycogen synthase (GS) in human skeletal muscle in states of altered insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism. My own experimental studies have comprised patients...... been reported to increase the basal concentration of muscle GS mRNA in NIDDM patients to a level similar to that seen in control subjects although insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rates remain reduced in NIDDM patients. In the insulin resistant states examined so far, basal and insulin...

  7. Value-based payment in implementing evidence-based care: the Mental Health Integration Program in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuhua; McGuire, Thomas G; Chan, Ya-Fen; Eggman, Ashley A; Ryan, Andrew M; Bruce, Martha L; Pincus, Harold Alan; Hafer, Erin; Unützer, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the role of value-based payment (VBP) in improving fidelity and patient outcomes in community implementation of an evidence-based mental health intervention, the Collaborative Care Model (CCM). Retrospective study based on a natural experiment. We used the clinical tracking data of 1806 adult patients enrolled in a large implementation of the CCM in community health clinics in Washington state. VBP was initiated in year 2 of the program, creating a natural experiment. We compared implementation fidelity (measured by 3 process-of-care elements of the CCM) between patient-months exposed to VBP and patient-months not exposed to VBP. A series of regressions were estimated to check robustness of findings. We estimated a Cox proportional hazard model to assess the effect of VBP on time to achieving clinically significant improvement in depression (measured based on changes in depression symptom scores over time). Estimated marginal effects of VBP on fidelity ranged from 9% to 30% of the level of fidelity had there been no exposure to VBP (P <.05 for every fidelity measure). Improvement in fidelity in response to VBP was greater among providers with a larger patient panel and among providers with a lower level of fidelity at baseline. Exposure to VBP was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.03) for achieving clinically significant improvement in depression. VBP improved fidelity to key elements of the CCM, both directly incentivized and not explicitly incentivized by the VBP, and improved patient depression outcomes.

  8. Comparison of montreal cognitive assessment and mini-mental state examination in evaluating cognitive domain deficit following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kwok Chu Wong

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH, and clinical evaluation is important for their management. Our hypothesis was that the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE in screening for cognitive domain deficit in aSAH patients.We carried out a prospective observational and diagnostic accuracy study on Hong Kong aSAH patients aged 21 to 75 years who had been admitted within 96 hours of ictus. The domain-specific neuropsychological assessment battery, the MoCA and MMSE were administered 2-4 weeks and 1 year after ictus. A cognitive domain deficit was defined as a cognitive domain z score <-1.65 (below the fifth percentile. Cognitive impairment was defined as two or more cognitive domain deficits. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov of the US National Institutes of Health (NCT01038193.Both the MoCA and the MMSE were successful in differentiating between patients with and without cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment at both assessment periods. At 1 year post-ictus, the MoCA produced higher area under the curve scores for cognitive impairment than the MMSE (MoCA, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97 versus MMSE, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.83, p = 0.009.Cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment in patients with aSAH can be screened with the MoCA in both the subacute and chronic phases.

  9. Low Sensitivity of the Mini-Mental State Examination for Cognitive Assessment of Brazilian Patients With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breder, Raphael; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Pinto, Jony Arrais; Cavalcante, Igor Pinto; Pessoa, Bruno Lima; Neves, Marco Antônio Orsini

    2017-11-01

    Recent publications have highlighted the low sensitivity of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for the cognitive assessment of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), otherwise, has shown greater sensitivity when compared to the MMSE. Based on this, we have searched for the cognitive impairment measurable by the MoCA and the functional performance on activities of daily living in a sample of Brazilian patients with PD and normal MMSE. We hypothesized that the low sensitivity of the MMSE, already shown by other authors, could be replicated in a low-income country. To describe the performance on the MoCA and the dependence on third parties for activities of daily living in a sample of Brazilian patients with PD and normal MMSE. We evaluated 43 volunteers with PD and normal MMSE considering the Brazilian cutoffs. Cognitive performance was assessed through the MoCA and functional performance through a modified version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale. Despite normal score on the MMSE, considering the Brazilian cutoffs, 62.7% of the volunteers performed below the literature cutoff for the MoCA (26 points). Furthermore, 30.2% had dependence on third party for activities of daily living. By using a strict cutoff for the MMSE (26 points), 56.7% performed below the MoCA cutoff and 24.3% had dependence for activities of daily living. Our findings confirm the limitations of the MMSE for the cognitive screening of patients with PD in a low-income country.

  10. Mini-Mental State Examination sentence writing among community-dwelling elderly adults in Brazil: text fluency and grammar complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Ongaratto, Lia Lopes; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2012-11-01

    In normal aging, the decrease in the syntactic complexity of written production is usually associated with cognitive deficits. This study was aimed to analyze the quality of older adults' textual production indicated by verbal fluency (number of words) and grammatical complexity (number of ideas) in relation to gender, age, schooling, and cognitive status. From a probabilistic sample of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and above (n = 900), 577 were selected on basis of their responses to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) sentence writing, which were submitted to content analysis; 323 were excluded as they left the item blank or performed illegible or not meaningful responses. Education adjusted cut-off scores for the MMSE were used to classify the participants as cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Total and subdomain MMSE scores were computed. 40.56% of participants whose answers to the MMSE sentence were excluded from the analyses had cognitive impairment compared to 13.86% among those whose answers were included. The excluded participants were older and less educated. Women and those older than 80 years had the lowest scores in the MMSE. There was no statistically significant relationship between gender, age, schooling, and textual performance. There was a modest but significant correlation between number of words written and the scores in the Language subdomain. Results suggest the strong influence of schooling and age over MMSE sentence performance. Failing to write a sentence may suggest cognitive impairment, yet, instructions for the MMSE sentence, i.e. to produce a simple sentence, may limit its clinical interpretation.

  11. Sex differences in cognitive functioning in at-risk mental state for psychosis, first episode psychosis and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittig, S; Studerus, E; Papmeyer, M; Uttinger, M; Koranyi, S; Ramyead, A; Riecher-Rössler, A

    2015-02-01

    Several sex differences in schizophrenia have been reported including differences in cognitive functioning. Studies with schizophrenia patients and healthy controls (HC) indicate that the sex advantage for women in verbal domains is also present in schizophrenia patients. However, findings have been inconsistent. No study focused on sex-related cognitive performance differences in at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) individuals yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in cognitive functioning in ARMS, first episode psychosis (FEP) and HC subjects. We expected a better verbal learning and memory performance of women in all groups. The neuropsychological data analysed in this study were collected within the prospective Früherkennung von Psychosen (FePsy) study. In total, 118 ARMS, 88 FEP individuals and 86 HC completed a cognitive test battery covering the domains of executive functions, attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, IQ and speed of processing. Women performed better in verbal learning and memory regardless of diagnostic group. By contrast, men as compared to women showed a shorter reaction time during the working memory task across all groups. The results provide evidence that women generally perform better in verbal learning and memory, independent of diagnostic group (ARMS, FEP, HC). The finding of a shorter reaction time for men in the working memory task could indicate that men have a superior working memory performance since they responded faster during the target trials, while maintaining a comparable overall working memory performance level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined evaluations of competency to stand trial and mental state at the time of the offense: An overlooked methodological consideration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kois, Lauren; Wellbeloved-Stone, James M; Chauhan, Preeti; Warren, Janet I

    2017-06-01

    Combined evaluations of competency to stand trial (CST; competency) and mental state at the time of the offense (MSO; sanity) frequently co-occur. However, most research examines the 2 as discrete constructs without considering 4 potential combined evaluation outcomes: competent-sane, incompetent-sane, competent-insane, and incompetent-insane. External validity can be improved if research more closely mirrored practice. It may be incorrect to assume incompetent defendants are similar across CST-only and combined evaluations, and insane defendants are similar across MSO-only and combined evaluations. Using a sample of 2,751 combined evaluations, we examined demographic, clinical, offense, evaluation, and psycholegal characteristics associated with evaluators' combined evaluation opinions. Multinomial regression analyses revealed older defendants were more likely to be opined incompetent-insane. Defendants with psychotic disorders were more often opined insane, regardless of competency status. Affective diagnoses predicted competent-insane opinions. Developmental disorders were closely related to incompetence, regardless of sanity status. Defendants with organic disorders tended to have global psycholegal impairment, in that they were more often opined incompetent-insane, incompetent-sane, or competent-insane, relative to competent-sane. Prior hospitalization predicted competent-insane relative to competent-sane opinions. Defendants not under the influence of a substance during the offense or with no prior convictions were more likely to be opined insane, regardless of competency status. We interpret these findings in light of psycholegal theory and provide recommendations for research and practice. Collectively, results suggest incorporation of combined evaluations into CST and MSO research is an important methodological consideration not to be overlooked. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Life satisfaction, optimism and social capital as predictors of mental health of the recipients of financial welfare from the state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilajac, Lovorka; Marchesi, Vanja Vasiljev; Tešić, Vanja; Rukavina, Tomislav

    2014-12-01

    Health is largely influenced by the subjective well-being, optimism, social inclusion and satisfaction with life as well as usually defined variables. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of dimensions of personality (optimism, control over life), social involvement (social capital) and socio-economic status with health and inequalities in health. This study was performed on 1017 respondents which were chosen according to set criteria: middle age, working capability, and, according to the documentation of the Centres for social welfare, the recipients of financial welfare from the state. A questionnaire was created from several existing questionnaires with validated indicators. The results show that 78.1% of respondents were unemployed. Regarding the health males express a higher level of health than female. The presence of a chronic disease was found in 56.6% women and 43.4% men. The predictors of health such as optimism, life satisfaction and locus of control showed that satisfaction with life was expressed by 39.7% respondents. Greater satisfaction with life was seen in females (59.6%). Surprisingly, 47.7% of respondents said they thought they had control over their lives and decisions. Women are statistically more optimistic. Almost 60% of respondents were not satisfied with their lives. Socially deprived population is mainly unemployed with insufficient resources for living. More burdened and higher risk for future development of the disease was found within this population. Optimism, social inclusion and life satisfaction play a large role, as protective factors in health. The interventions demand a multi disciplinary approach, and, with regard to the sensitivity of the population, the best solution is in their own empowerment, as a protective factor for mental health.

  14. Evaluating the Correlation Between Burnout Syndrome Dimensions and Mental Health of Cashiers in State Banks of Golestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Mazloomy Mahmoudabad

    2015-07-01

    Results: On the whole, using the MBI subscale, we found low levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and high levels of reduced sense of personal accomplishment in frequency . The wo variables of burnout and poor mental health were related significantly(p<0.001. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is a strong correlation between poor mental health and burnout to show that care should be taken to ameliorate the stressful conditions that cashiers face

  15. E-mental health self-management for psychotic disorders: state of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krieke, Lian; Wunderink, Lex; Emerencia, Ando C; de Jonge, Peter; Sytema, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate to what extent information technology may support self-management among service users with psychotic disorders. The investigation aimed to answer the following questions: What types of e-mental health self-management interventions have been developed and evaluated? What is the current evidence on clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of the identified interventions? To what extent are e-mental health self-management interventions oriented toward the service user? A systematic review of references through July 2012 derived from MEDLINE, PsycINFO, AMED, CINAHL, and the Library, Information Science and Technology database was performed. Studies of e-mental health self-management interventions for persons with psychotic disorders were selected independently by three reviewers. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. E-mental health self-management interventions included psychoeducation, medication management, communication and shared decision making, management of daily functioning, lifestyle management, peer support, and real-time self-monitoring by daily measurements (experience sampling monitoring). Summary effect sizes were large for medication management (.92) and small for psychoeducation (.37) and communication and shared decision making (.21). For all other studies, individual effect sizes were calculated. The only economic analysis conducted reported more short-term costs for the e-mental health intervention. People with psychotic disorders were able and willing to use e-mental health services. Results suggest that e-mental health services are at least as effective as usual care or nontechnological approaches. Larger effects were found for medication management e-mental health services. No studies reported a negative effect. Results must be interpreted cautiously, because they are based on a small number of studies.

  16. Clinical Predictors of Malaria, Acute Bacterial Meningitis and Treatment Outcomes among Febrile Children Admitted with Altered Mental Status in Northwestern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumanne, Shakilu; Meda, John; Hokororo, Adolfine; Leshabari, Kelvin

    2017-11-30

    Malaria and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are the leading infectious causes of febrile encephalopathy in malaria endemic settings. The clinical distinction of the two conditions is complicated by overlap in clinical features. To determine the clinical predictors for malaria, ABM and treatment outcome in febrile children aged 2 months to 12 years with altered mentation at two tertiary hospitals in Northwestern Tanzania. Prospective study of 103 children to document demographic data and physical examination findings, such as level of consciousness and meningeal irritations. Laboratory results for cerebrospinal fluid, hemoglobin, malaria and HIV were also evaluated. Age >60 months and hemoglobin ≤5 g/dl were independent predictors of malaria; (p = 0.013 and 0.004, respectively). HIV infection was the only predictor of meningitis, p = 0.037, and mortality was high if the diagnosis was unconfirmed. Children with febrile encephalopathy are more likely to have malaria than ABM if they have severe anemia. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Mental stress in college students

    OpenAIRE

    BLECHOVÁ, Romana

    2016-01-01

    The thesis deals with an incidence of mental stress of college students. The thesis is not only focused on the present, but also on the degree of mental stress and the factors that affect the degree of stress. The first objective is to analyse the incidence and impact of mental stress at students of the faculty. A partial objective is to describe the relation of physical activity and mental load, as many authors state that physically active individuals are mentally more resistant. Furthermore...

  18. Seeing in context. Comment on "Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds" by Cristina Becchio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2018-03-01

    Becchio et al. [1] address questions about direct social perception in the context of interacting with others. In regard to social cognition the claim that we can see mental states is the subject of ongoing debate. Becchio et al. [2,3] have produced some of the best empirical evidence in support of this claim. In explicating and clarifying their methodology Becchio's group is clearly advancing the field and sketching a way to settle the debate.

  19. A measuring stick for other minds. Comment on 'Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds' by Cristina Becchio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillekens, Imme Christina; Schilbach, Leonhard

    2018-03-01

    In their compelling article 'Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds' Becchio et al. [1] tackle a long-standing and controversial issue, namely the perennial question of whether we can access or even quite literally see other minds. Much of the relevant interdisciplinary literature is built on the premise that one's access to others' minds is indirect and inferential in nature [e.g. [4,5

  20. Post-hoc principal component analysis on a largely illiterate elderly population from North-west India to identify important elements of mini-mental state examination

    OpenAIRE

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Raina, Sujeet; Grover, Ashoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scale measures cognition using specific elements that can be isolated, defined, and subsequently measured. This study was conducted with the aim to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in a largely, illiterate, elderly population in India and to reduce the number of variables to a few meaningful and interpretable combinations. Methodology: Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed post-hoc on the data generated by a research project c...

  1. The Construction of Self in Relationships: Narratives and References to Mental States during Picture-Book Reading Interactions between Mothers and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dolores Rollo; Emiddia Longobardi; Pietro Spataro; Francesco Sulla

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that mothers vary in the way in which they discuss past experiences with their chil