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Sample records for altered mental state

  1. Altered states of consciousness: processed EEG in mental disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Andreas; Tonner, Peter H; Renna, Maurizio

    2006-03-01

    Due to increasing life expectancy and a rising elderly population in Europe, the incidence of mild cognitive impairment which may predict diseases like Alzheimer's Disease or Vascular Dementia, is rising. Neurophysiological techniques are simple and inexpensive tools for early diagnosis and provide useful and objective correlates of cognitive activity both in normal subjects and patients suffering from the above conditions. Cognitive impairment due to different mental disease is characterized by decreased power and coherence in the alpha/beta band, which suggests functional disconnection among cortical areas, whereas both power and coherence in the delta and theta bands increase as a sign of cortical deafferentation from subcortical structures. Quantification of power and phase relationship by bispectral analysis suggests the Bispectral Index could be a useful but simple tool for early diagnosis of mental disease.

  2. Addressing the general medical needs of a patient with an altered mental state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jenny L; Ginzburg, Harold M; Shah, Parind; Ardoin, Stan

    2008-12-01

    Patients presenting to an Emergency Department with an altered mental state, whether from a psychiatric, medical or surgical condition or a combination of psychiatric and medical or surgical conditions, require more than the usual amount of diagnostic acumen. General medical conditions often appear in the guise of dysfunctional emotions and/or behaviors. Acute and chronic psychosis may mask underlying acute and chronic medical and surgical conditions. As the case of Esmin Green of Brooklyn, New York, illustrates, the failure to identify underlying medical and surgical conditions in delirious, demented, or psychotic patients can prove fatal to the patient and economically costly to the medical center and its employees.

  3. A Handy EEG Electrode Set for patients suffering from altered mental state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepola, Pasi; Myllymaa, Sami; Töyräs, Juha; Hukkanen, Taina; Mervaala, Esa; Määttä, Sara; Lappalainen, Reijo; Myllymaa, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Although electroencephalography (EEG) is an important diagnostic tool for investigating patients with unexplained altered mental state (AMS), recording of emergency EEG is not a clinical routine. This is mainly due to the cumbersome electrode solutions. A Handy EEG Electrode Set consists of ten EEG, two EOG, two ground and two commutative reference hydrogel-coated silver wire electrodes attached to a thin polyester carrier film. The clinical usefulness of the Handy EEG Electrode Set was tested in 13 patients (five females, eight males) with AMS. EEG recordings were conducted at the same time with a standard 10-20 electrode set. The registration in the first patient case without the behind-ear electrodes (T9 and T10), indicated that these electrodes are very crucial to provide clinically relevant information from posterior regions of brain. In following 12 cases, the sensitivity and specificity for detecting EEG abnormality based on the Handy EEG Electrode Set recordings were 83 and 100 %, respectively. The Handy EEG Electrode Set proved to be easy to use and to provide valuable information for the neurophysiological evaluation of a patient suffering from AMS. However, further studies with larger number of patients are warranted to clarify the true diagnostic accuracy and applicability of this approach.

  4. Investigation of the cerebral blood flow of an Omani man with supposed ‘spirit possession’ associated with an altered mental state : a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Azri Faisal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The view that spirits may possess humans is found in 90% of the world population, including Arab/Islamic societies. Despite the association between possessive states and various neurological and psychiatric disorders, the available literature has yet to correlate possessive states with functional brain imaging modalities such as single-photon-emission computed tomography. Case presentation This paper describes the clinical case of a 22-year-old male Omani patient who presented to us with an altered state of consciousness that his caregiver attributed to possession. We examined whether the patient's mental state correlated with neuro-imaging data. The patient's distress was invariably associated with specific perfusion in the left temporal lobe and structural abnormality in the left basal ganglia. Conclusion We discuss the case in the context of possession as a culturally sanctioned idiom of distress, and highlight the importance of studying cross-cultural presentations of altered states of consciousness within biomedical models.

  5. [Altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  6. Sudden altered mental state in the elderly: nonconvulsive status epilepticus and the role of the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Galimi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the elderly, new onset of epilepsy is often associated with vague complaints such as confusion, altered mental status, or memory problems. The absence of clinically apparent convulsions in association with an electroencephalogram showing continuous or recurrent seizure activity has been called nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and electroencephalographic features of NCSE in older adults. NCSE is an important, under-recognised and reversible cause of acute prolonged confusion. Although attempts have been made to define and classify this disorder, there is no universally accepted definition or classification yet that encompasses all subtypes or electroclinical scenarios. A urgent electroencephalogram is considered as the method of choice in the diagnostic evaluation of NCSE. Further researches are needed to better define NCSE.

  7. Altered mental status and endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elizabeth; Abraham, Michael K

    2014-05-01

    Although the altered mental status is a common presentation in the emergency department, altered mental status caused by endocrine emergencies is rare. The altered patient could have an endocrine cause that can quickly improve with appropriate diagnosis and interventions. When dealing with limited information and an obtunded patient, it is important to have a broad differential diagnosis, pick up on the physical examination findings, and evaluate laboratory abnormalities that could suggest an underlying endocrine emergency. This article outlines the findings and provides a description of altered patients with endocrine emergencies to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department.

  8. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...

  9. MENTAL STATE REPRESENTATION: SPATIOTEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Oktyabrinovich Prokhorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of statement of the problem of states in psychology, the study of “sensuous” tissue – the mental state representation-takes a fundamental meaning. The problem is concluded in the following questions: “How is mental state represented in the consciousness of an individual?”, “What is the specificity of the mental state representation as distinguished from the subject-matter representation?”, “What are the mechanisms of the mental state representation occurrence and the peculiarities of its dynamics? The study of the mental state representation will allow to explain its specificity and difference from the figurative representation, the peculiarities of state explication as a representation in the consciousness and its relation with other elements of consciousness, will allow to show the regularities of the mental state representation development and its dynamics, factors, which influence the specificity of its occurrence, the regulatory role of the state representation in the vital function. From these perspectives, the article presents the results of the study of spatiotemporal characteristics of the mental state representation; reveals the peculiar features of the spatiotemporal organization of mental state representations: Relieves, specificity, magnitude, variability of indicators, changes of structural characteristics in time spans; considers the age-specific peculiar features of the spatiotemporal organization of mental state representations in terms of organization, stability, coherence and differentiated nature of spatiotemporal structures with the representatives of certain age groups.

  10. THE STRUCTURE OF MENTAL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshat Tavkil’evna Shavalieva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the peculiarities of structural and functional organization of mental states of three age groups’ respondents. Depending on the degree of exposure in primary school children, adolescents, and adults similar in nature mental states, but different in their stability and structure are observed. It was found that children with different levels of mental development of a completely different operating parameters of the statesmental proces-ses, physiological reactivity, feelings and behavior. The specifics of the states and the reliefs showed different levels of mental activity of children of three age groups. The structural and functional organization of mental states to identify the different structures of blocks, their interconnectivity, and they differ in the degree of involvement of the parameters of mental states to each other. Each group revealed a different level of mental activity. The differences in the mechanisms of perception of children of three age groups depending on the level of mental development.The aim is to study the features of mental conditions of «school age» children, their structural and functional organization of the perception of the artistic image «Before the Wedding» picture of the famous Russian artist F.S. Zhuravlev’s «Before the Wedding». Identification of the mechanisms of perception of the image and the features state structures of subjects.Method and methodology of work. Research carried out on the basis of a systematic methodology and the theory of activity developed by Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria and A. Brushlinskii subject approach, SL Rubinstein and also theoretical principles and provisions of the concept of mental conditions of the person (A.O. Prohorov and concepts of color (J.W. Go-ethe, P.V. Yanshin et al.. The material of the study served as a theoretical analysis of the general and special literature on the perception of color and artistic images

  11. Epistemological implications of near-death experiences and other non-ordinary mental expressions: Moving beyond the concept of altered state of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Agrillo, Christian; Greyson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    During the last decades an increasing interest has developed in the so-called altered state of consciousness (ASCs); among these, near-death experiences (NDEs) are one of the most intriguing and debated examples. NDEs are deep and universal experiences with a clear phenomenology and incidence, while some of their features challenge the current views of human consciousness (focused on neural circuits and based on the concept of mind as a byproduct of brain circuitry) with relevant epistemological and historical implications. The origin of the ruling mechanist-reductionist paradigm can be traced back to Descartes' radical separation of res cogitans and res extensa and the conflict between the nascent science and the Inquisition; this led to removing the subjective properties of mind from the field of scientific interest, relegating them to philosophy and theology in order to enable the development of modern science. However, the physics of the 20th century has eventually moved beyond the classical paradigm, permitting a profound renewal of scientific interest in the mind. Modern research on NDEs has contributed to reopening the debate surrounding the Cartesian separation, the mind-brain relationship and the nature of consciousness. It is now time to reappraise the relevance, strengths, and weaknesses of the available scientific interpretations of NDEs, their relationship with other ASCs, as well as the very concept of ASC; the latter looks to be ill-founded, suggesting the need for: (a) a revision of the conventional approach to subjective phenomena, including both the third- and first-person perspective; and (b) a deep reflection on the possible links between different non-ordinary mental expression, as regards both their phenomenology and mechanisms from a non-pathological perspective.

  12. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after the methamphetamine exposure, and obtained magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain before and after the exposure. Figure 1. Reversal Trial Studies the Impact of Methamphetamine on Monkeys’ Mental Flexibility The trial evaluates an animal’s mental ...

  13. Stabilizing and Managing Patients with Altered Mental Status and Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiari, Ebelechukwu A; Sekhon, Navdeep; Han, Jin Y; David, Elizabeth H

    2015-11-01

    Present in all patient populations, altered mental status (AMS) is a common, but nonspecific emergency department (ED) presentation that can signify serious underlying pathology. Delirium is a more defined mental status change caused by another medical condition that carries a high morbidity and mortality if missed. However, ED physicians miss the condition in more than 50% of cases. The ED physician should maintain a high index of suspicion for delirium, because if missed in the ED, delirium is more likely to be missed on the floors as well. Management of delirium is directed toward treating the underlying course.

  14. Remote State Preparation of Mental Information

    CERN Document Server

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to define in theoretical terms and summarise the available experimental evidence that physical and mental "objects", if considered "information units", may present similar classical and quantum models of communication beyond their specific characteristics. Starting with the Remote State Preparation protocol, a variant of the Teleportation protocol, for which formal models and experimental evidence are already available in quantum mechanics, we outline a formal model applied to mental information we defined Remote State Preparation of Mental Information (RSPMI), and we summarise the experimental evidence supporting the feasibility of a RSPMI protocol. The available experimental evidence offers strong support to the possibility of real communication at distance of mental information promoting the integration between disciplines that have as their object of knowledge different aspects of reality, both physical and the mental, leading to a significant paradigm shift in cognitive and infor...

  15. A Model of Mental State Transition Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hua; Jiang, Peilin; Xiao, Shuang; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Emotion is one of the most essential and basic attributes of human intelligence. Current AI (Artificial Intelligence) research is concentrating on physical components of emotion, rarely is it carried out from the view of psychology directly(1). Study on the model of artificial psychology is the first step in the development of human-computer interaction. As affective computing remains unpredictable, creating a reasonable mental model becomes the primary task for building a hybrid system. A pragmatic mental model is also the fundament of some key topics such as recognition and synthesis of emotions. In this paper a Mental State Transition Network Model(2) is proposed to detect human emotions. By a series of psychological experiments, we present a new way to predict coming human's emotions depending on the various current emotional states under various stimuli. Besides, people in different genders and characters are taken into consideration in our investigation. According to the psychological experiments data derived from 200 questionnaires, a Mental State Transition Network Model for describing the transitions in distribution among the emotions and relationships between internal mental situations and external are concluded. Further more the coefficients of the mental transition network model were achieved. Comparing seven relative evaluating experiments, an average precision rate of 0.843 is achieved using a set of samples for the proposed model.

  16. Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben Morgan; And Others

    This document contains the reports of research at a symposium on "Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol." The participants primarily agreed that alcohol induces an altered state of consciousness similar to other drugs, but that this phenomenon has not been explicitly stated due to the current interest in newer and more novel drugs. The…

  17. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellen M; Klement, Kathryn R; Ambler, James K; Loewald, Tonio; Comber, Evelyn M; Hanson, Sarah A; Pruitt, Bria; Sagarin, Brad J

    2016-01-01

    Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc.) are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness-subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984)-but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the "Dance of Souls", a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress), self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers) and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders) showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test) and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale). Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers) and in participants adopting other roles.

  18. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Lee

    Full Text Available Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc. are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness-subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984-but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the "Dance of Souls", a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress, self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale. Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers and in participants adopting other roles.

  19. Remote State Preparation of Mental Information

    OpenAIRE

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to define in theoretical terms and summarise the available experimental evidence that physical and mental "objects", if considered "information units", may present similar classical and quantum models of communication beyond their specific characteristics. Starting with the Remote State Preparation protocol, a variant of the Teleportation protocol, for which formal models and experimental evidence are already available in quantum mechanics, we outline a formal model a...

  20. Acting: An Altered State of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiffele, Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Uses notions from the field Psychology of Consciousness, including an explanation of how psychologists define and investigate Altered States of Consciousness (ASCs). Argues that actors routinely enter an ASC. Establishes acting as a way to enter an ASC and discusses why theater artists, educators, and advocates need to be aware of both the dangers…

  1. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  2. Reorientation from Altered States: Please, More Carefully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Claims counselors too often appear to forget to reorient clients from altered states of consciousness used in counseling and that failure to reorient can result in unnecessary discomfort for clients. Provides suggestions for when and how to reorient to avoid unwanted, lingering aftereffects. (Author/ABL)

  3. 42 CFR 431.620 - Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health... mental diseases. This includes medical attention, nursing care, and related services. (c) State...

  4. Fast mental states decoding in mixed reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eDe Massari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Brain-Computer Interface technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. In this context, assessing to what extent brain states can be discriminated during mixed reality experience is critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded EEG data while participants experienced a mixed reality scenario implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM. The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in mixed reality, using LDA and SVM classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled mixed reality scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in mixed reality.

  5. Mental Illness In Nursing Homes: Variations Across States

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, David C.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    The institutionalization of individuals with mental illness in nursing homes is an important policy concern. Using nursing home Minimum Data Set assessments from 2005, we found large cross-state variation in both the rates of mental illness among nursing home admissions and the estimated rates of nursing home admissions among persons with mental illness. We also found that newly admitted individuals with mental illness were younger and more likely to become long-stay residents. Taken together...

  6. State of science: mental workload in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.

  7. Maternal Mental State Language and Preschool Children's Attachment Security: Relation to Children's Mental State Language and Expressions of Emotional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…

  8. Altered regional homogeneity with short-term simulated microgravity and its relationship with changed performance in mental transformation.

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    Yang Liao

    Full Text Available In order to further the insight into the explanation of changed performance in mental transformation under microgravity, we discuss the change of performance in mental transformation and its relationship with altered regional homogeneity (ReHo in resting-state brain by using simulated weightlessness model. Twelve male subjects with age between 24 and 31 received resting-state fMRI scan and mental transformation test both in normal condition and immediately after 72 hours -6° head down tilt (HDT. A paired sample t-test was used to test the difference of behavior performance and brain activity between these two conditions. Compare with normal condition, subjects showed a changed performance in mental transformation with short term simulated microgravity and appeared to be falling. Meanwhile, decreased ReHo were found in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and left inferior parietal lobule (IPL after 72 hours -6° HDT, while increased ReHo were found in bilateral medial frontal gyrus (MFG and left superior frontal gyrus (SFG (P<0.05, corrected. Particularly, there was a significant correlation between ReHo values in left IPL and velocity index of mental transformation. Our findings indicate that gravity change may disrupt the function of right IFG and left IPL in the resting-state, among of which functional change in left IPL may contribute to changed abilities of mental transformation. In addition, the enhanced activity of the bilateral MFG and decreased activity of right IFG found in the current study maybe reflect a complementation effect on inhibitory control process.

  9. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eGergelyfi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mental fatigue (MF is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement.Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, skin conductance responses, questionnaires and performance in a working memory task in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 minutes. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants’ subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources.

  10. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants’ subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability (HRV) increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources. PMID:26217203

  11. Effects of user mental state on EEG-BCI performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMyrden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in psychological state have been proposed as a cause of variation in brain-computer interface performance, but little formal analysis has been conducted to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of three mental states - fatigue, frustration, and attention - on BCI performance. Twelve able-bodied participants were trained to use a two-class EEG-BCI based on the performance of user-specific mental tasks. Following training, participants completed three testing sessions, during which they used the BCI to play a simple maze navigation game while periodically reporting their perceived levels of fatigue, frustration, and attention. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between frustration and BCI performance while the relationship between fatigue and BCI performance approached significance. BCI performance was 7% lower than average when self-reported fatigue was low and 10% lower than average when self-reported frustration was low. A multivariate analysis of mental state revealed the presence of contiguous regions in mental state space where BCI performance was more accurate than average, suggesting the importance of moderate fatigue for achieving effortless focus on BCI control, frustration as a potential motivating factor, and attention as a compensatory mechanism to increasing frustration. Finally, a visual analysis showed the sensitivity of underlying class distributions to changes in mental state. Collectively, these results indicate that mental state is closely related to BCI performance, encouraging future development of psychologically adaptive BCIs.

  12. SYMPTOMS OF PUPILS’ MENTAL STATE IN PERCEPTION OF MONOCOLORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshat Tavkilevna Shavalieva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of mental states, depending on the color shade or monocolors proposed for the perception. The dependence of mental states on the specific exposures and the role of color characteristics (monocolors identified on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the manifestations of mental states was clarified.Purpose: To study the features of mental states of "school age" children in the perception monocolors and in combinations of them.Method or the methodology of the work: Studies were conducted on the basis of a systematic methodology and activity theory developed by Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria and subject approach of A.V. Brushlinsky, S.L. Rubinstein and also theoretical principles and provisions of the concept of individual mental states (A.O.Prohorov and concepts of color (Goethe, P.V. Yanshin etc.. Research material istheoretical analysis of general and specialized literature on color perception.Results: Our studies suggest that mental states are in a constant depending on the perceived hue (monocolors, or combinations of them, and its impact on the human condition occur at a more subtle level, i.e. depending on the palette Tinted monocolors.Practical implications:: The results of our study can be applied in the course of the educational process, the organization of practice, creativity of younger schoolchildren, adolescents and children adolescence. The study can also be continued, complicating exposure studying manifestations of mental states in mental activity of respondents.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-3-7

  13. Refugees and the State Mental Health Systems: Issues and Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neider, John R.; And Others

    This paper examines critical issues for states and advocacy groups in trying to develop short-term goals to address mental health needs of refugees and to plan long-term strategies for state and county service systems for this population. The paper begins with a discussion of the following issues: (1) centralized versus decentralized state mental…

  14. Altered Glutathione Redox State in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. Yao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered antioxidant status has been reported in schizophrenia. The glutathione (GSH redox system is important for reducing oxidative stress. GSH, a radical scavenger, is converted to oxidized glutathione (GSSG through glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and converted back to GSH by glutathione reductase (GR. Measurements of GSH, GSSG and its related enzymatic reactions are thus important for evaluating the redox and antioxidant status. In the present study, levels of GSH, GSSG, GPx and GR were assessed in the caudate region of postmortem brains from schizophrenic patients and control subjects (with and without other psychiatric disorders. Significantly lower levels of GSH, GPx, and GR were found in schizophrenic group than in control groups without any psychiatric disorders. Concomitantly, a decreased GSH:GSSG ratio was also found in schizophrenic group. Moreover, both GSSG and GR levels were significantly and inversely correlated to age of schizophrenic patients, but not control subjects. No significant differences were found in any GSH redox measures between control subjects and individuals with other types of psychiatric disorders. There were, however, positive correlations between GSH and GPx, GSH and GR, as well as GPx and GR levels in control subjects without psychiatric disorders. These positive correlations suggest a dynamic state is kept in check during the redox coupling under normal conditions. By contrast, lack of such correlations in schizophrenia point to a disturbance of redox coupling mechanisms in the antioxidant defense system, possibly resulting from a decreased level of GSH as well as age-related decreases of GSSG and GR activities.

  15. Sharing State Mental Health Data for Research: Building Toward Ongoing Learning in Mental Health Care Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David A; Rupp, Agnes

    2015-09-01

    With the rise of "big data," the opportunities to use administrative and clinical data to evaluate impact of state level program initiatives are greatly expanded. The National Institute of Mental Health has in recent years supported research studies pooling data across states to address state-relevant questions. This commentary summarizes these activities and describes future platforms that may enhance ongoing work in this area.

  16. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  17. Altered states of consciousness, dissociation, and dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszek, Hubert; Kopera, Maciej

    2005-02-01

    In a sample of 71 medical students, dream recall frequency was positively correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness (r = .26) measured by the State of Mind and Consciousness Questionnaire and dissociation (r = .29) measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale II. A regression analysis, however, yielded neither altered states of consciousness nor dissociation, sex, or age to be significant predictors of dream recall frequency. Among women dream recall frequency was associated with proneness to dissociation; among men it was correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness.

  18. Tracking children's mental states while solving algebra equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R; Betts, Shawn; Ferris, Jennifer L; Fincham, Jon M

    2012-11-01

    Behavioral and function magnetic resonance imagery (fMRI) data were combined to infer the mental states of students as they interacted with an intelligent tutoring system. Sixteen children interacted with a computer tutor for solving linear equations over a six-day period (days 0-5), with days 1 and 5 occurring in an fMRI scanner. Hidden Markov model algorithms combined a model of student behavior with multi-voxel imaging pattern data to predict the mental states of students. We separately assessed the algorithms' ability to predict which step in a problem-solving sequence was performed and whether the step was performed correctly. For day 1, the data patterns of other students were used to predict the mental states of a target student. These predictions were improved on day 5 by adding information about the target student's behavioral and imaging data from day 1. Successful tracking of mental states depended on using the combination of a behavioral model and multi-voxel pattern analysis, illustrating the effectiveness of an integrated approach to tracking the cognition of individuals in real time as they perform complex tasks.

  19. Towards a Physical Theory of Subjective Mental States

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Any complete theory of physical reality must allow for the ubiquitous phenomenon of subjective experience at some level, or risk being conceptually incoherent. However, as long as the ontological status of subjectivity itself remains unresolved, the topic will be seen as more within the purview of philosophy than of physics. Towards a resolution of this issue within empirically motivated physical theory, this article introduces an operational definition that ultilizes the general consensus that subjective mental states, whatever else is controversial about them, at least correlate in some way to physical states. It is shown here that implementing this underappreciated assumption within the framework of a physical theory in fact leads to wide-ranging consequences. In particular, a correlation requires there exist a well-defined mapping from a space of subjective mental states onto a space of information-bearing elements of some physical theory. Given the peculiar nature of subjective states as inherently priva...

  20. Mental States as Macrostates Emerging from EEG Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Allefeld, Carsten; Wackermann, Jiri

    2008-01-01

    Psychophysiological correlations form the basis for various disciplines, but the nature of the relation between mind and body has not yet been fully understood. We propose to understand the mental as ``emerging'' from neural processes in the precise sense that psychology and physiology provide two different descriptions of the same system. Stating the two descriptions in terms of coarser- and finer-grained system states, both descriptions may be equally adequate if the coarse-graining preserves the possibility to obtain a dynamical rule for the system. To test the empirical validity of our approach, we describe an algorithm to obtain a specific form of such a coarse-graining from empirical data. After illustrating the method using a simulated system, we apply the algorithm to electroencephalographic data, where we are able to identify states that correspond to mental states of the subject.

  1. Are School Districts State Actors (Alter Egos)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagley, David L.; Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the eleventh amendment was to protect the states from the federal government by limiting the power of the federal courts. Reviews litigation regarding whether a local school district is cloaked with the state's eleventh amendment immunity. (86 references) (MLF)

  2. Social, state and political society: Reflections on Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Laurentino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.

  3. Self-awareness moderates the relation between maternal mental state language about desires and children's mental state vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2016-04-01

    In this intervention study, we tested the differential effect of talking about children's desires versus talking about others' thoughts and knowledge on children's acquisition of mental state vocabulary for children who did and did not have mirror self-recognition. In a sample of 96 mother-toddler dyads, each mother was randomly assigned a specially constructed, interactive lift-the-flap book to read to her child three times a week for 4 weeks. In the child desire condition the story elicited comments regarding the child's desires, and in the cognitive condition the story elicited the mother's comments about her own thoughts and knowledge while reading the story. Children's mirror self-recognition and mental state vocabulary were assessed at pre- and post-test. Children in the condition that focused on the child's desires showed a significantly greater increase in their mental state vocabulary; however, this effect was moderated by their levels of self-awareness, with children benefitting more from the intervention if they also showed self-recognition at pre-test. We argue that the combination of specific types of maternal talk and children's prior insights facilitates gains in children's mental state vocabulary.

  4. Undifferentiated Altered Mental Status: A Late Presentation of Toxic Acetaminophen Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Robey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered mental status is a common undifferentiated presentation in the emergency department. We describe a case of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure that was diagnosed and treated prior to obtaining definitive historical or laboratory information about the etiology. The physical exam finding of scleral icterus in this case was a key element to rapid identification and treatment of this life-threatening condition. A discussion of appropriate N-acetylcysteine treatment for acute liver failure and acetaminophen intoxication is included.

  5. Mental states as macrostates emerging from brain electrical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allefeld, Carsten; Atmanspacher, Harald; Wackermann, Jiří

    2009-03-01

    Psychophysiological correlations form the basis for different medical and scientific disciplines, but the nature of this relation has not yet been fully understood. One conceptual option is to understand the mental as "emerging" from neural processes in the specific sense that psychology and physiology provide two different descriptions of the same system. Stating these descriptions in terms of coarser- and finer-grained system states (macro- and microstates), the two descriptions may be equally adequate if the coarse-graining preserves the possibility to obtain a dynamical rule for the system. To test the empirical viability of our approach, we describe an algorithm to obtain a specific form of such a coarse-graining from data, and illustrate its operation using a simulated dynamical system. We then apply the method to an electroencephalographic recording, where we are able to identify macrostates from the physiological data that correspond to mental states of the subject.

  6. The mental state of women with an IVF pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova E.I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro fertilization (IVF pregnancy is stressful both financially and emotionally. Patients undergoing an IVF procedure often have already had infertility and reproductive losses. Pregnancy through IVF involves the increased risk of various medical complications. Experts around the world are actively engaged in studying the specifics of the mental state of participants in IVF programs during pregnancy. Of critical importance is the issue of providing psychological support for couples who are preparing for and who have received an IVF pregnancy. The aim of our research was to investigate the mental state of women participating in an IVF program. The study involved 224 pregnant women in the second and third trimesters: 62 women with an IVF pregnancy and 162 women who conceived naturally. The study took place at the Kulakov Scientific Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology in Moscow, Russia. All the study participants had encountered medical complications during their pregnancy. No significant differences were identified in mental well-being in the two groups; this finding suggests that somatic complications during pregnancy are a general source of anxiety regardless of the reason for their occurrence. The second and third trimesters of pregnancy register increased anxiety levels associated with experiences of reproductive loss and the presence of physical problems. The main resources of a woman’s personality that contribute to her self-confidence and mental stability are her professional employment and flexible behavior.

  7. Redox state alteration modulates astrocyte glucuronidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heurtaux, T; Benani, A; Bianchi, A; Moindrot, A; Gradinaru, D; Magdalou, J; Netter, P; Minn, A

    2004-10-01

    We have investigated the effects of mild oxidative conditions on drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in rat cultured astrocytes. These experimental conditions promoting an oxidative environment were obtained by short exposure to a low concentration of menadione (5 microM) for a short duration (15 min). This resulted in the rapid and transient production of reactive oxygen species (+130%), associated with a decrease in GSH cellular content (-24%), and an increase in total protein oxidation (+26%), but promoted neither PGE(2) nor NO production. This treatment induced a rapid and persistent decrease in astrocyte glucuronidation activities, which was totally prevented by N-acetyl-l-cysteine. These oxidative conditions also affected the specific UGT1A6 activity measured in transfected V79-1A6 cells. Finally, the subsequent recovery of astrocyte glucuronidation activity may result from upregulation of UGT1A6 expression (+62%) as shown by RT-PCR and gene reporter assay. These results show that the catalytic properties and expression of cerebral UGT1A6 are highly sensitive to the redox environment. The protective effect of N-acetyl-l-cysteine suggests both a direct action of reactive oxygen species on the protein and a more delayed action on the transcriptional regulation of UGT1A6. These results suggest that cerebral metabolism can be altered by physiological or pathological redox modifications.

  8. Infants' joint attention skills predict toddlers' emerging mental state language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Thoermer, Claudia; Perst, Hannah

    2011-09-01

    To assess predictive relations between joint attention skills, intention understanding, and mental state vocabulary, 88 children were tested with measures of comprehension of gaze and referential pointing, as well as the production of declarative gestures and the comprehension and production of imperative gestures, at the ages of 7-18 months. Infants' intention-based imitation skills were assessed at 12, 15, and 18 months. At the ages of 24 and 36 months, toddlers' internal state lexicon was evaluated by parents with a German adaptation of the Mental State Language Questionnaire (Olineck & Poulin-Dubois, 2005). Regression analyses revealed that 9-months-olds' comprehension of referential pointing contributed significantly to the prediction of intention-based imitation skills at 15 months, as well as to children's volition and cognition vocabularies at 24 and 36 months, respectively. Moreover, 12-month-olds' comprehension of an imperative motive was shown to selectively predict toddlers' use of volition terms at 24 months. Overall, these results provide empirical evidence for both general and specific developmental relations between preverbal communication skills and mental state language, thus implying developmental continuity within the social domain in the first 3 years of life.

  9. Altered states of consciousness in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Impaired states of consciousness can be relatively easily identified, although it can occasionally be difficult to assess whether there is a pure disorder of wakefulness or awareness. Regardless, such impairments represent dysfunction of the brainstem and or cerebrum. Acute and severe impairments of consciousness can require immediate assessment, in part currently performed using the modified Glasgow coma scoring system, and emergency stabilization. The prognosis is always guarded and highly sensitive to the underlying etiology.

  10. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  11. Functional neuroanatomy of altered states of consciousness: the transient hypofrontality hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Arne

    2003-06-01

    It is the central hypothesis of this paper that the mental states commonly referred to as altered states of consciousness are principally due to transient prefrontal cortex deregulation. Supportive evidence from psychological and neuroscientific studies of dreaming, endurance running, meditation, daydreaming, hypnosis, and various drug-induced states is presented and integrated. It is proposed that transient hypofrontality is the unifying feature of all altered states and that the phenomenological uniqueness of each state is the result of the differential viability of various frontal circuits. Using an evolutionary approach, consciousness is conceptualized as hierarchically ordered cognitive function. Higher-order structures perform increasingly integrative functions and thus contribute more sophisticated content. Although this implies a holistic approach to consciousness, such a functional hierarchy localizes the most sophisticated layers of consciousness in the zenithal higher-order structure: the prefrontal cortex. The hallmark of altered states of consciousness is the subtle modification of behavioral and cognitive functions that are typically ascribed to the prefrontal cortex. The theoretical framework presented yields a number of testable hypotheses.

  12. States Pass Diverse Slate of Mental Health Legislation in 2013. Mental Health: 2013 Legislative Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…

  13. Mental State Talk Structure in Children’s Narratives: A Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Pinto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed children’s Theory of Mind (ToM as assessed by mental state talk in oral narratives. We hypothesized that the children’s mental state talk in narratives has an underlying structure, with specific terms organized in clusters. Ninety-eight children attending the last year of kindergarten were asked to tell a story twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Mental state talk was analysed by identifying terms and expressions referring to perceptual, physiological, emotional, willingness, cognitive, moral, and sociorelational states. The cluster analysis showed that children’s mental state talk is organized in two main clusters: perceptual states and affective states. Results from the study confirm the feasibility of narratives as an outlet to inquire mental state talk and offer a more fine-grained analysis of mental state talk structure.

  14. From gut dysbiosis to altered brain function and mental illness: mechanisms and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, G B; Keating, D J; Young, R L; Wong, M-L; Licinio, J; Wesselingh, S

    2016-01-01

    The human body hosts an enormous abundance and diversity of microbes, which perform a range of essential and beneficial functions. Our appreciation of the importance of these microbial communities to many aspects of human physiology has grown dramatically in recent years. We know, for example, that animals raised in a germ-free environment exhibit substantially altered immune and metabolic function, while the disruption of commensal microbiota in humans is associated with the development of a growing number of diseases. Evidence is now emerging that, through interactions with the gut–brain axis, the bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, the gut microbiome can also influence neural development, cognition and behaviour, with recent evidence that changes in behaviour alter gut microbiota composition, while modifications of the microbiome can induce depressive-like behaviours. Although an association between enteropathy and certain psychiatric conditions has long been recognized, it now appears that gut microbes represent direct mediators of psychopathology. Here, we examine roles of gut microbiome in shaping brain development and neurological function, and the mechanisms by which it can contribute to mental illness. Further, we discuss how the insight provided by this new and exciting field of research can inform care and provide a basis for the design of novel, microbiota-targeted, therapies. PMID:27090305

  15. Care and treatment of the mentally ill in the United States: historical developments and reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, J P; Goldman, H H

    1986-03-01

    Three major cycles of reform in public mental health care in the United States--the moral treatment, mental hygiene, and community mental health movements--are described as a basis for assessing the shifting boundaries between the mental health, social welfare, and criminal justice systems. Historical forces that led to the transinstitutionalization of the mentally ill from almshouses to the state mental hospitals in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have now been reversed in the aftermath of recent deinstitutionalization policies. Evidence is suggestive that the mentally ill are also being caught up in the criminal justice system, a circumstance reminiscent of pre-asylum conditions in the early nineteenth century. These trends shape the current mental health service delivery system and the agenda for policy-relevant research on issues involving the legal and mental health fields.

  16. Theory of mind in the wild: toward tackling the challenges of everyday mental state reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie E Wertz

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the cognitive systems underwriting theory of mind (ToM abilities requires articulating how mental state representations are generated and processed in everyday situations. Individuals rarely announce their intentions prior to acting, and actions are often consistent with multiple mental states. In order for ToM to operate effectively in such situations, mental state representations should be generated in response to certain actions, even when those actions occur in the presence of mental state content derived from other aspects of the situation. Results from three experiments with preschool children and adults demonstrate that mental state information is indeed generated based on an approach action cue in situations that contain competing mental state information. Further, the frequency with which participants produced or endorsed explanations that include mental states about an approached object decreased when the competing mental state information about a different object was made explicit. This set of experiments provides some of the first steps toward identifying the observable action cues that are used to generate mental state representations in everyday situations and offers insight into how both young children and adults processes multiple mental state representations.

  17. Oxidative Stress and Heart Failure in Altered Thyroid States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased or reduced action of thyroid hormone on certain molecular pathways in the heart and vasculature causes relevant cardiovascular derangements. It is well established that hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with a faster heart rate, enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function whereas hypothyroidism is characterized by the opposite changes. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism represent opposite clinical conditions, albeit not mirror images. Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested the involvement of ROS tissue damage under altered thyroid status. Altered-thyroid state-linked changes in heart modify their susceptibility to oxidants and the extent of the oxidative damage they suffer following oxidative challenge. Chronic increase in the cellular levels of ROS can lead to a catastrophic cycle of DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, further ROS generation and cellular injury. Thus, these cellular events might play an important role in the development and progression of myocardial remodeling and heart failure in altered thyroid states (hypo- and hyper-thyroidism. The present review aims at elucidating the various signaling pathways mediated via ROS and their modulation under altered thyroid state and the possibility of antioxidant therapy.

  18. The Chutzpah Factor in Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Kenneth; Peper, Erik

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the "chutzpah factor", the ability to transcend fear and enter into the unknown, in altered states of consciousness, especially in what are known as "adept" individuals. Examines the powerful effect a person's belief system has upon what he or she is able to do and endure. (Editor/RK)

  19. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... vulnerability pathways. This review therefore evaluated the evidence for whether gene expression in bipolar disorder is state or trait related. Methods:  A systematic review, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline for reporting systematic reviews, based...... on comprehensive database searches for studies on gene expression in patients with bipolar disorder in specific mood states, was conducted. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library, supplemented by manually searching reference lists from retrieved publications. Results:  A total of 17...

  20. Psychophysiological classification and staging of mental states during meditative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterberger, Thilo; Kamei, Tsutomu; Walach, Harald

    2011-12-01

    The study of meditation offers a perfect setting for the study of a large variety of states of consciousness. Here, we present a classification paradigm that can be used for staging of individual meditation sessions into a variety of predefined mental states. We have measured 64 channels of the electroencephalogram (EEG) plus peripheral physiological measures in 49 participants with varying experiences in meditation practice. The data recorded in a meditation session of seven meditative tasks were analyzed with respect to EEG power spectral density measures plus peripheral measures. A multiclass linear discriminant analysis classifier was trained for classification of data epochs of the seven standard tasks. The classification results were verified using random partitions of the data. As an overall result, about 83% (±7%) of the epochs could be correctly classified to their originating task. The best classification method was then applied to individual meditation sessions, which allowed for staging of meditation states similarly to the staging possibility of sleep states. This study exemplarily demonstrates the possibility of developing an automatized staging tool that can be used for monitoring changes in the states of consciousness offline or online for training or therapeutic purpose.

  1. Cobalamin C deficiency in an adolescent with altered mental status and anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandar, Maria H; Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E; Hamid, Rizwan

    2014-12-01

    Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient's diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.(1.)

  2. An unusual case of altered mental status in a young woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Mohana Rao Challapalli Sri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : We describe a case of paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome, namely N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor antibody associated limbic encephalitis, a rare cause of altered mental status in the young. Case Report : A 28 year old Caucasian female nurse presented with acute onset difficulty with word finding and increasing confusion and agitation. She also had visual hallucinations, transient episodes of unresponsiveness, and lingual dyskinesias. Workup including blood, imaging and regular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF studies was unremarkable. She subsequently developed complex partial seizures. Computerized Tomography scan of chest/abdomen/pelvis revealed a dermoid cyst of the left ovary and CSF N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor antibody returned positive confirming the diagnosis of paraneoplastic NMDA receptor antibody associated limbic encephalitis. She was treated with methylprednisolone therapy along with plasmapheresis and a left salpingo-opherectomy was performed. The patient showed significant improvement with respect to her cognitive function and had no more seizures. Conclusion : N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor antibody associated limbic encephalitis is a rare paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome with symptoms including psychiatric manifestations, seizures, language disturbances and autonomic instability. It develops due to antibody induced decrease in N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptors. There is a significant association with ovarian teratoma in >50% female cases. Treatment includes resection of tumor, glucocorticoids, plasmapheresis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin therapy.

  3. Altered states of consciousness are related to higher sexual responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui M; Pestana, José; Costa, David; Wittmann, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Altered states of consciousness lead to profound changes in the sense of self, time and space. We assessed how these changes were related to sexual responsiveness during sex. 116 subjects reported (a) intensity of awareness concerning body, space and time, and (b) satisfaction, desire, arousal, and orgasm occurrence. We differentiated vaginal intercourse orgasm from noncoital orgasm. Female vaginal intercourse orgasm was further differentiated as with or without concurrent clitoral masturbation. Overall, sexual responsiveness was related to greater body awareness and lesser time and space awareness. Satisfaction, desire, and arousal were especially associated with less time awareness in women. Female orgasms during vaginal intercourse were related to greater body awareness and lesser time awareness, but noncoital orgasms were unrelated. Our findings provide empirical support for the hypotheses that altered states of consciousness with attentional absorption are strongly related to sexual responsiveness in women, and to a lesser extent in men.

  4. Automatic single-trial discrimination of mental arithmetic, mental singing and the no-control state from prefrontal activity: toward a three-state NIRS-BCI

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    Power Sarah D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is an optical imaging technology that has recently been investigated for use in a safe, non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI for individuals with severe motor impairments. To date, most NIRS-BCI studies have attempted to discriminate two mental states (e.g., a mental task and rest, which could potentially lead to a two-choice BCI system. In this study, we attempted to automatically differentiate three mental states - specifically, intentional activity due to 1 a mental arithmetic (MA task and 2 a mental singing (MS task, and 3 an unconstrained, "no-control (NC" state - to investigate the feasibility of a three-choice system-paced NIRS-BCI. Results Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations while 7 able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and mental singing to answer multiple-choice questions within a system-paced paradigm. With a linear classifier trained on a ten-dimensional feature set, an overall classification accuracy of 56.2% was achieved for the MA vs. MS vs. NC classification problem and all individual participant accuracies significantly exceeded chance (i.e., 33%. However, as anticipated based on results of previous work, the three-class discrimination was unsuccessful for three participants due to the ineffectiveness of the mental singing task. Excluding these three participants increases the accuracy rate to 62.5%. Even without training, three of the remaining four participants achieved accuracies approaching 70%, the value often cited as being necessary for effective BCI communication. Conclusions These results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of a three-state system-paced NIRS-BCI with two intentional control states corresponding to mental arithmetic and mental singing.

  5. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid KHOSROSHAHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Khosroshahi N, Alizadeh P, Khosravi M, Salamati P, Kamrani K. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:31-36.AbstractObjectiveAltered mental status is a common cause of intensive care unit admission inchildren. Differentiating structural causes of altered mental status from metabolic etiologies is of utmost importance in diagnostic approach and management of the patients. Among many biomarkers proposed to help stratifying patients with altered mental status, spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase appears to be the most promising biomarker to predict cellular necrosis.Materials & MethodsIn this cross sectional study we measured spinal fluid level of lactatedehydrogenase in children 2 months to 12 years of age admitted to a single center intensive care unit over one year. Spinal fluid level of lactate dehydrogenase in 40 pediatric cases of febrile seizure was also determined as the control group.ResultsThe study group included 35 boys (58.3% and 25 girls (41.7%. Their meanage was 2.7+/-3 years and their mean spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase levelwas 613.8+/-190.4 units/liter. The control group included 24 boys (55.8% and19 girls (44.2%. Their mean age was 1.3+/-1.2 years and their mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level was 18.9+/-7.5 units/liter. The mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level in children with abnormal head CT scan was246.3+/-351.5 units/liter compared to 164.5+/-705.7 in those with normal CTscan of the head (p=0.001.ConclusionSpinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level is useful in differentiating structural andmetabolic causes of altered mental status in children. ReferencesFesk SK. Coma and confusional states: emergency diagnosis and management. Neurol Clin 1998; 16: 237- 56.Cucchiara BL, Kanser SE, Wolk DA, et al. Early impairment in consciousness Predicts

  6. Effects of Exercise in Immersive Virtual Environments on Cortical Neural Oscillations and Mental State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Tobias; Herpers, Rainer; Askew, Christopher D.; Scherfgen, David; Strüder, Heiko K.; Schneider, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the addition of a real exercise within a virtual environment alters sense of presence perception, or the accompanying physiological changes, is not known. In a randomized and controlled study design, moderate-intensity Exercise (i.e., self-paced cycling) and No-Exercise (i.e., automatic propulsion) trials were performed within three levels of virtual environment exposure. Each trial was 5 minutes in duration and was followed by posttrial assessments of heart rate, perceived sense of presence, EEG, and mental state. Changes in psychological strain and physical state were generally mirrored by neural activation patterns. Furthermore, these changes indicated that exercise augments the demands of virtual environment exposures and this likely contributed to an enhanced sense of presence. PMID:26366305

  7. Effects of Exercise in Immersive Virtual Environments on Cortical Neural Oscillations and Mental State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Vogt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the addition of a real exercise within a virtual environment alters sense of presence perception, or the accompanying physiological changes, is not known. In a randomized and controlled study design, moderate-intensity Exercise (i.e., self-paced cycling and No-Exercise (i.e., automatic propulsion trials were performed within three levels of virtual environment exposure. Each trial was 5 minutes in duration and was followed by posttrial assessments of heart rate, perceived sense of presence, EEG, and mental state. Changes in psychological strain and physical state were generally mirrored by neural activation patterns. Furthermore, these changes indicated that exercise augments the demands of virtual environment exposures and this likely contributed to an enhanced sense of presence.

  8. Mental Health in Spanish-Speaking Mentally Retarded People: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristan, Jaime Rodriguez

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes diagnostic methods, treatment approaches, cultural factors, service delivery systems, and governmental roles important in the consideration of the status of mentally retarded people with mental health problems in four Spanish-speaking populations: Chile, Mexico, Spain, and Hispanic groups in the U.S. (JDD)

  9. State of mental health research in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine the state of mental health research in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy from 2008 to 2011. Although other practice areas have seen an increase in the number and rigor of intervention effectiveness studies, mental health occupational therapy research has been insufficient to support the profession's role in traditional mental health services. Strategies to enhance the profession's role in mental health practice are suggested and include using occupational therapy behavioral health management research in school-based and transition services to support occupational therapy's role in traditional mental health practice settings.

  10. ALTERED STATES OF LITERATURE: SHAMANIC ASSIMILATION AND ROMANTIC INSPIRATION

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    Marcel de Lima Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the connections between the assimilation of certain shamanic practices related to Romantic inspiration in English literature. The interest in the world of altered states of consciousness as a manifestation of the sacred is typical among Romantic writers in nineteenth-century England. These writers in fact sought the manifestation of the world of dreams by means of ingesting substances that alter consciousness, thus assimilating a practice that is likewise and primarily shamanic. This search is the object under investigation in this article, which aims at showing that, despite conspicuous cultural differences, there are indeed similarities that pervade shamanic practices and the Romantic ideal in their quests toward the sacred.

  11. Modeling inference of mental states : As simple as possbile, as complex as necessary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, Ben; Taatgen, Niels; van Rijn, Hedderik; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2014-01-01

    Behavior oftentimes allows for many possible interpretations in terms of mental states, such as goals, beliefs, desires, and intentions. Reasoning about the relation between behavior and mental states is therefore considered to be an effortful process. We argue that people use simple strategies to d

  12. Empirical weighting of Standardised Mini Mental State Examination items among nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrskov Sørensen, Lisbeth; Foldspang, Anders; Gulmann, Nils Christian

    2001-01-01

    Missing items in the Mini Mental State examination are dealt with in different ways. The main aims of this study were to calculate a weighted item score for organic disorder on the basis of the item score of the Standardized Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE) test regardless of the completeness...

  13. Reading Minds: The Relation between Children's Mental State Knowledge and Their Metaknowledge about Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Serena; Zocchi, Silvia; Pagnin, Adriano; Palladino, Paola; Taumoepeau, Mele

    2010-01-01

    The relation between children's mental state knowledge and metaknowledge about reading was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 196 children (mean age = 9 years) were tested for verbal ability (VA), metaknowledge about reading, and mental state words in a story task. In Study 2, the results of Study 1 were extended by using a cross-lagged design and…

  14. Acquisition of Mental State Language in Mandarin- and Cantonese-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M.

    2000-01-01

    Mental state language was examined in Mandarin- speaking and Cantonese-speaking toddlers. Results suggested that theory-of-mind development was similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. Much earlier emergence of desire terms and infrequent use of thinking terms suggests cultural…

  15. Altered causal connectivity of resting state brain networks in amnesic MCI.

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    Peipeng Liang

    Full Text Available Most neuroimaging studies of resting state networks in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have concentrated on functional connectivity (FC based on instantaneous correlation in a single network. The purpose of the current study was to investigate effective connectivity in aMCI patients based on Granger causality of four important networks at resting state derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data--default mode network (DMN, hippocampal cortical memory network (HCMN, dorsal attention network (DAN and fronto-parietal control network (FPCN. Structural and functional MRI data were collected from 16 aMCI patients and 16 age, gender-matched healthy controls. Correlation-purged Granger causality analysis was used, taking gray matter atrophy as covariates, to compare the group difference between aMCI patients and healthy controls. We found that the causal connectivity between networks in aMCI patients was significantly altered with both increases and decreases in the aMCI group as compared to healthy controls. Some alterations were significantly correlated with the disease severity as measured by mini-mental state examination (MMSE, and California verbal learning test (CVLT scores. When the whole-brain signal averaged over the entire brain was used as a nuisance co-variate, the within-group maps were significantly altered while the between-group difference maps did not. These results suggest that the alterations in causal influences may be one of the possible underlying substrates of cognitive impairments in aMCI. The present study extends and complements previous FC studies and demonstrates the coexistence of causal disconnection and compensation in aMCI patients, and thus might provide insights into biological mechanism of the disease.

  16. Neural correlates of mental state decoding in human adults: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Mark A; Moulson, Margaret C; Harkness, Kate L

    2004-04-01

    Successful negotiation of human social interactions rests on having a theory of mind - an understanding of how others' behaviors can be understood in terms of internal mental states, such as beliefs, desires, intentions, and emotions. A core theory-of-mind skill is the ability to decode others' mental states on the basis of observable information, such as facial expressions. Although several recent studies have focused on the neural correlates of reasoning about mental states, no research has addressed the question of what neural systems underlie mental state decoding. We used dense-array event-related potentials (ERP) to show that decoding mental states from pictures of eyes is associated with an N270-400 component over inferior frontal and anterior temporal regions of the right hemisphere. Source estimation procedures suggest that orbitofrontal and medial temporal regions may underlie this ERP effect. These findings suggest that different components of everyday theory-of-mind skills may rely on dissociable neural mechanisms.

  17. Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in two meditative mental states

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    Kumar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Practicing mental repetition of "OM" has been shown to cause significant changes in the middle latency auditory-evoked potentials, which suggests that it facilitates the neural activity at the mesencephalic or diencephalic levels. Aims: The aim of the study was to study the brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP in two meditation states based on consciousness, viz. dharana, and dhyana. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects were selected, with ages ranging from 20 to 55 years (M=29.1; ±SD=6.5 years who had a minimum of 6 months experience in meditating "OM". Each subject was assessed in four sessions, i.e. two meditation and two control sessions. The two control sessions were: (i ekagrata, i.e. single-topic lecture on meditation and (ii cancalata, i.e. non-targeted thinking. The two meditation sessions were: (i dharana, i.e. focusing on the symbol "OM" and (ii dhyana, i.e. effortless single-thought state "OM". All four sessions were recorded on four different days and consisted of three states, i.e. pre, during and post. Results: The present results showed that the wave V peak latency significantly increased in cancalata, ekagrata and dharana, but no change occurred during the dhyana session. Conclusions: These results suggested that information transmission along the auditory pathway is delayed during cancalata, ekagrata and dharana, but there is no change during dhyana. It may be said that auditory information transmission was delayed at the inferior collicular level as the wave V corresponds to the tectum.

  18. Spatially distributed effects of mental exhaustion on resting-state FMRI networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such

  19. Disease causing mutations of troponin alter regulated actin state distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalovich, Joseph M

    2012-12-01

    Striated muscle contraction is regulated primarily through the action of tropomyosin and troponin that are bound to actin. Activation requires Ca(2+) binding to troponin and/or binding of high affinity myosin complexes to actin. Mutations within components of the regulatory complex may lead to familial cardiomyopathies and myopathies. In several cases examined, either physiological or pathological changes in troponin alter the distribution among states of actin-tropomyosin-troponin that differ in their abilities to stimulate myosin ATPase activity. These observations open possibilities for managing disorders of the troponin complex. Furthermore, analyses of mutant forms of troponin give insights into the regulation of striated muscle contraction.

  20. The nose and altered states of consciousness: Tascodrugites and Ezekiel

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    John J. Pilch

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The Church Father Epiphanius' description of the Tascodrugite practice of placing the forefinger on the nostril during prayer call be plausibly interpreted as a strategy for inducing an altered state of consciousness (ASC. Anthropological and neurophysiological research on how this human gesture achieves such an effect which is a pan-human potential suggests a similar plausible interpretation for Ezekiel 8:17 and the experience of Jesus in the Garden on the night of his arrest (Luke 22:43-44.

  1. Feature Extraction for Mental Fatigue and Relaxation States Based on Systematic Evaluation Considering Individual Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lanlan; Sugi, Takenao; Shirakawa, Shuichiro; Zou, Junzhong; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    Feature extraction for mental fatigue and relaxation states is helpful to understand the mechanisms of mental fatigue and search effective relaxation technique in sustained work environments. Experiment data of human states are often affected by external and internal factors, which increase the difficulties to extract common features. The aim of this study is to explore appropriate methods to eliminate individual difference and enhance common features. Mental fatigue and relaxation experiments are executed on 12 subjects. An integrated and evaluation system is proposed, which consists of subjective evaluation (visual analogue scale), calculation performance and neurophysiological signals especially EEG signals. With consideration of individual difference, the common features of multi-estimators testify the effectiveness of relaxation in sustained mental work. Relaxation technique can be practically applied to prevent accumulation of mental fatigue and keep mental health. The proposed feature extraction methods are widely applicable to obtain common features and release the restriction for subjection selection and experiment design.

  2. Altered resting-state network connectivity in congenital blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Qin, Wen; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yunting; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2014-06-01

    The brain of congenital blind (CB) has experienced a series of structural and functional alterations, either undesirable outcomes such as atrophy of the visual pathway due to sight loss from birth, or compensatory plasticity to interact efficiently with the environment. However, little is known, so far, about alterations in the functional architecture of resting-state networks (RSNs) in CB. This study aimed to investigate intra- and internetwork connectivity differences between CB and sighted controls (SC), using independent component analysis (ICA) on resting state functional MRI data. Compared with SC, CB showed significantly increased network connectivity within the salience network (SN) and the occipital cortex. Moreover, CB exhibited enhanced internetwork connectivity between the SN and the frontoparietal network (FPN) and between the FPN and the occipital cortex; however, they showed decreased internetwork connectivity between the occipital cortex and the sensorimotor network. These findings suggest that CB experience large scale reorganization at the level of the functional network. More importantly, the enhanced intra- and internetwork connectivity of the SN, FPN, and occipital cortex in CB may improve their abilities to identify salient stimuli, to initiate the executive function, and to top-down control of attention, which are critical for the CB to guide appropriate behavior and to better adaption to the environment.

  3. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Altered functioning in three mental domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, W.C.H.J.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to

  4. Metabolic state alters economic decision making under risk in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkael Symmonds

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals' attitudes to risk are profoundly influenced by metabolic state (hunger and baseline energy stores. Specifically, animals often express a preference for risky (more variable food sources when below a metabolic reference point (hungry, and safe (less variable food sources when sated. Circulating hormones report the status of energy reserves and acute nutrient intake to widespread targets in the central nervous system that regulate feeding behaviour, including brain regions strongly implicated in risk and reward based decision-making in humans. Despite this, physiological influences per se have not been considered previously to influence economic decisions in humans. We hypothesised that baseline metabolic reserves and alterations in metabolic state would systematically modulate decision-making and financial risk-taking in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a controlled feeding manipulation and assayed decision-making preferences across different metabolic states following a meal. To elicit risk-preference, we presented a sequence of 200 paired lotteries, subjects' task being to select their preferred option from each pair. We also measured prandial suppression of circulating acyl-ghrelin (a centrally-acting orexigenic hormone signalling acute nutrient intake, and circulating leptin levels (providing an assay of energy reserves. We show both immediate and delayed effects on risky decision-making following a meal, and that these changes correlate with an individual's baseline leptin and changes in acyl-ghrelin levels respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that human risk preferences are exquisitely sensitive to current metabolic state, in a direction consistent with ecological models of feeding behaviour but not predicted by normative economic theory. These substantive effects of state changes on economic decisions perhaps reflect shared evolutionarily conserved neurobiological mechanisms. We suggest that

  5. Intrinsic brain activity in altered states of consciousness: how conscious is the default mode of brain function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, M; Phillips, C; Tshibanda, L; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Schabus, M; Dang-Vu, T T; Moonen, G; Hustinx, R; Maquet, P; Laureys, S

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has recently received increasing interest in the neuroimaging community. However, the value of resting-state studies to a better understanding of brain-behavior relationships has been challenged. That altered states of consciousness are a privileged way to study the relationships between spontaneous brain activity and behavior is proposed, and common resting-state brain activity features observed in various states of altered consciousness are reviewed. Early positron emission tomography studies showed that states of extremely low or high brain activity are often associated with unconsciousness. However, this relationship is not absolute, and the precise link between global brain metabolism and awareness remains yet difficult to assert. In contrast, voxel-based analyses identified a systematic impairment of associative frontoparieto-cingulate areas in altered states of consciousness, such as sleep, anesthesia, coma, vegetative state, epileptic loss of consciousness, and somnambulism. In parallel, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have identified structured patterns of slow neuronal oscillations in the resting human brain. Similar coherent blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) systemwide patterns can also be found, in particular in the default-mode network, in several states of unconsciousness, such as coma, anesthesia, and slow-wave sleep. The latter results suggest that slow coherent spontaneous BOLD fluctuations cannot be exclusively a reflection of conscious mental activity, but may reflect default brain connectivity shaping brain areas of most likely interactions in a way that transcends levels of consciousness, and whose functional significance remains largely in the dark.

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Individuals with Mental Retardation in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupf, Nicole; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of intestinal parasite infection among program participants of the New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities for 1986-87 was estimated at 7.3%, suggesting that management of parasitic infection is improving. Males and individuals with severe/profound mental retardation were twice as likely to have…

  7. The Role of Language Games in Children's Understanding of Mental States: A Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornaghi, Veronica; Brockmeier, Jens; Grazzani Gavazzi, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated whether training preschool children in the use of mental state lexicon plays a significant role in bringing about advanced conceptual understanding of mental terms and improved performance on theory-of-mind tasks. A total of 70 participants belonging to two age groups (3 and 4 years old) were randomly…

  8. Story Discourse and Use of Mental State Language between Mothers and School-Aged Children with and without Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims: To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare…

  9. Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn

  10. Brain mechanisms of altered conscious states during epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio; Monaco, Francesco

    2009-05-01

    Impaired consciousness has long been considered the hallmark of epileptic seizures. Both generalized seizures and complex partial seizures are characterized by a multifaceted spectrum of altered conscious states, in terms of the general level of awareness and the subjective contents of consciousness. Complete loss of consciousness occurs when epileptic activity involves both cortical and subcortical structures, as in tonic-clonic seizures and absence seizures. Medial temporal lobe discharges can selectively impair experience in complex partial seizures (with affected responsiveness) and certain simple partial seizures (with unaffected responsiveness). Electrical stimulation of temporal lobe structures has been shown to evoke similar subjective experiences. Findings from neurophysiological and brain-imaging studies in epilepsy have now demonstrated that involvement of the bilateral thalamus and upper brainstem leads to selective impairment of frontoparietal association cortices and midline 'default mode' networks, which results in ictal loss of consciousness. The spread of epileptic discharges from the medial temporal lobe to the same subcortical structures can ultimately cause impairment in the level of consciousness in the late ictal and immediate postictal phase of complex partial seizures. This paper reviews novel insights into the brain mechanisms that underlie alterations of consciousness during epileptic seizures and the implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and management.

  11. Impaired information processing triggers altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, M

    2002-04-01

    Schizophrenia, intoxication with tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-THC), and cannabis psychosis induce characteristic time and space distortions suggesting a common psychotic dysfunction. Since genetic research into schizophrenia has led into disappointing dead ends, the present study is focusing on this phenotype. It is shown that information theory can account for the dynamical basis of higher sensorimotor information processing and consciousness under physiologic as well as pathologic conditions. If Kolmogorov entropy (inherent in the processing of action and time) breaks down in acute psychosis, it is predicted that Shannon entropy (inherent in the processing of higher dimensional perception) will increase, provoking positive symptoms and altered states of consciousness. In the search for candidate genes and the protection of vulnerable individuals from cannabis abuse, non-linear EEG analysis of Kolmogorov information could thus present us with a novel diagnostic tool to directly assess the breakdown of information processing in schizophrenia.

  12. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoy Maria

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004 and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1 highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters; distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under

  13. Amygdala volume linked to individual differences in mental state inference in early childhood and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rice

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of the amygdala in mental state inference in a sample of adults and in a sample of children aged 4 and 6 years. This period in early childhood represents a time when mentalizing abilities undergo dramatic changes. Both children and adults inferred mental states from pictures of others’ eyes, and children also inferred the mental states of others from stories (e.g., a false belief task. We also collected structural MRI data from these participants, to determine whether larger amygdala volumes (controlling for age and total gray matter volume were related to better face-based and story-based mentalizing. For children, larger amygdala volumes were related to better face-based, but not story-based, mentalizing. In contrast, in adults, amygdala volume was not related to face-based mentalizing. We next divided the face-based items into two subscales: cognitive (e.g., thinking, not believing versus affective (e.g., friendly, kind items. For children, performance on cognitive items was positively correlated with amygdala volume, but for adults, only performance on affective items was positively correlated with amygdala volume. These results indicate that the amygdala's role in mentalizing may be specific to face-based tasks and that the nature of its involvement may change over development.

  14. Right Frontoinsular Cortex and Subcortical Activity to Infant Cry Is Associated with Maternal Mental State Talk

    OpenAIRE

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Guo, Chaohui; Mary L. Phillips; Swain, James E.; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to examine neural correlates of a specific component of human caregiving: maternal mental state talk, reflecting a mother's proclivity to attribute mental states and intentionality to her infant. Using a potent, ecologically relevant stimulus of infant cry during fMRI, we tested hypotheses that postpartum neural response to the cry of “own” versus a standard “other” infant in the right frontoinsular cortex (RFIC) and subcortical limbic network would be associated with ...

  15. State discretion over Medicaid coverage for mental health and addiction services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Marguerite E

    2015-03-01

    Approximately one-third of adults who enroll in Medicaid because of a disability have a serious mental illness. Arguably, this population stands to benefit from insurance coverage that complies with the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA). The MHPAEA and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) do not guarantee such coverage for this beneficiary group; however, they provide a variety of mechanisms by which states may provide parity-compliant coverage for mental health and substance use disorder treatment. This column explains key interactions between the MHPAEA, the ACA, and the Medicaid program that permit states to determine whether and how to provide parity-consistent coverage to beneficiaries with disabilities.

  16. Resting State Brain Entropy Alterations in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqing Zhou

    Full Text Available Brain entropy (BEN mapping provides a novel approach to characterize brain temporal dynamics, a key feature of human brain. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI, reliable and spatially distributed BEN patterns have been identified in normal brain, suggesting a potential use in clinical populations since temporal brain dynamics and entropy may be altered in disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize BEN in multiple sclerosis (MS, a neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of people. Since currently there is no cure for MS, developing treatment or medication that can slow down its progression represents a high research priority, for which validating a brain marker sensitive to disease and the related functional impairments is essential. Because MS can start long time before any measurable symptoms and structural deficits, assessing the dynamic brain activity and correspondingly BEN may provide a critical way to study MS and its progression. Because BEN is new to MS, we aimed to assess BEN alterations in the relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS patients using a patient versus control design, to examine the correlation of BEN to clinical measurements, and to check the correlation of BEN to structural brain measures which have been more often used in MS studies. As compared to controls, RRMS patients showed increased BEN in motor areas, executive control area, spatial coordinating area, and memory system. Increased BEN was related to greater disease severity as measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS and greater tissue damage as indicated by the mean diffusivity. Patients also showed decreased BEN in other places, which was associated with less disability or fatigue, indicating a disease-related BEN re-distribution. Our results suggest BEN as a novel and useful tool for characterizing RRMS.

  17. Intestinal Oxidative State Can Alter Nutrient and Drug Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic cations (OCs are substances of endogenous (e.g., dopamine, choline or exogenous (e.g., drugs like cimetidine origin that are positively charged at physiological ph. since many of these compounds can not pass the cell membrane freely, their transport in or out of cells must be mediated by specific transport systems. Transport by organic cation transporters (OCTs can be regulated rapidly by altering their trafficking and/or affinities in response to stimuli. However, for example, a specific disease could lead to modifications in the expression of OCTs. Chronic exposure to oxidative stress has been suggested to alter regulation and functional activity of proteins through several pathways. According to results from a previous work, oxidation-reduction pathways were thought to be involved in intestinal organic cation uptake modulation. The present work was performed in order to evaluate the influence of oxidative stressors, especially glutathione, on the intestinal organic cation absorption. For this purpose, the effect of compounds with different redox potential (glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant, and procyanidins, diet antioxidants was assessed on MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide uptake in an enterocyte cell line (Caco-2. Caco-2 cells were subcultured with two different media conditions (physiological: 5 mM glucose, referred as control cells; and high-glucose: 25 mM glucose, referred as HG cells. In HG cells, the uptake was significantly lower than in control cells. Redox changing interventions affected Mpp+ uptake, both in control and in high-glucose Caco-2 cells. Cellular glutathione levels could have an important impact on membrane transporter activity. The results indicate that modifications in the cellular oxidative state modulate MPP+ uptake by Caco-2 cells. Such modifications may reflect in changes of nutrient and drug bioavailability.

  18. What should be the roles of conscious states and brain states in theories of mental activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donelson E Dulany

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the title's question have been influenced by a history in which an early science of consciousness was rejected by behaviourists on the argument that this entails commitment to ontological dualism and "free will" in the sense of indeterminism. This is, however, a confusion of theoretical assertions with metaphysical assertions. Nevertheless, a legacy within computational and information-processing views of mind rejects or de-emphasises a role for consciousness. This paper sketches a mentalistic metatheory in which conscious states are the sole carriers of symbolic representations, and thus have a central role in the explanation of mental activity and action-while specifying determinism and materialism as useful working assumptions. A mentalistic theory of causal learning, experimentally examined with phenomenal reports, is followed by examination of these questions: Are there common roles for phenomenal reports and brain imaging? Is there defensible evidence for unconscious brain states carrying symbolic representations? Are there interesting dissociations within consciousness?

  19. School mental health services: signpost for out-of-school service utilization in adolescents with mental disorders? A nationally representative United States cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Tegethoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School mental health services are important contact points for children and adolescents with mental disorders, but their ability to provide comprehensive treatment is limited. The main objective was to estimate in mentally disordered adolescents of a nationally representative United States cohort the role of school mental health services as guide to mental health care in different out-of-school service sectors. METHODS: Analyses are based on weighted data (N = 6483 from the United States National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (participants' age: 13-18 years. Lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed using the fully structured WHO CIDI interview, complemented by parent report. Adolescents and parents provided information on mental health service use across multiple sectors, based on the Service Assessment for Children and Adolescents. RESULTS: School mental health service use predicted subsequent out-of-school service utilization for mental disorders i in the medical specialty sector, in adolescents with affective (hazard ratio (HR = 3.01, confidence interval (CI = 1.77-5.12, anxiety (HR = 3.87, CI = 1.97-7.64, behavior (HR = 2.49, CI = 1.62-3.82, substance use (HR = 4.12, CI = 1.87-9.04, and eating (HR = 10.72, CI = 2.31-49.70 disorders, and any mental disorder (HR = 2.97, CI = 1.94-4.54, and ii in other service sectors, in adolescents with anxiety (HR = 3.15, CI = 2.17-4.56, behavior (HR = 1.99, CI = 1.29-3.06, and substance use (HR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.94 disorders, and any mental disorder (HR = 2.33, CI = 1.54-3.53, but iii not in the mental health specialty sector. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in the United States, school mental health services may serve as guide to out-of-school service utilization for mental disorders especially in the medical specialty sector across various mental disorders, thereby

  20. Toward Family and Community: Mental Retardation Services in Massachusetts, New England, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, David; Hemp, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Current trends in mental retardation services in Massachusetts were investigated using the New England region, the state of Michigan, and the United States as comparative frames of reference. Massachusetts' movement toward reducing reliance on state institutions, reallocating funding, and developing community services and family support is…

  1. Altered mental status, an unusual manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Early disseminated Lyme disease can have a myriad of central nervous system manifestations. These run the gamut from meningitis to radiculopathy and cranial neuropathy. Here we present a case that manifested with only acute mental status change in the setting of central nervous system involvement with Lyme disease. A paucity of other central nervous system manifestations is rare, especially with positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid markers. This article underscores the importance o...

  2. Altered functional brain asymmetry for mental rotation: effect of estradiol changes across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xun; Kelly, Thomas H; Curry, Thomas E; Lal, Chitra; Joseph, Jane E

    2015-09-30

    Mental rotation is a visuospatial task associated with pronounced sex differences. Performance is also affected by gonadal hormones such as testosterone and estradiol. To better understand hormonal modulation of the neural substrates of mental rotation, the present study examined the influence of estradiol using functional MRI. Ten premenopausal women were tested on a 3D mental rotation task during the early follicular and late follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. Change in estradiol between the two phases was confirmed by hormone assays. Brain activation patterns were similar across the two phases, but the change in estradiol had different associations with the two hemispheres. Better performance in the late follicular than the early follicular phase was associated with a pattern of reduced recruitment of the right hemisphere and increased recruitment of the left hemisphere. The increased recruitment of the left hemisphere was directly associated with greater changes in estradiol. Given that the right hemisphere is the dominant hemisphere in visuospatial processing, our results suggest that estradiol is associated with reduced functional asymmetry, consistent with recent accounts of hormonal modulation of neurocognitive function.

  3. Chromophore Deprotonation State Alters the Optical Properties of Blue Chromoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Chromoproteins (CPs have unique colors and can be used in biological applications. In this work, a novel blue CP with a maximum absorption peak (λmax at 608 nm was identified from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla gigantea (sgBP. In vivo expression of sgBP in zebrafish would change the appearance of the fishes to have a blue color, indicating the potential biomarker function. To enhance the color properties, the crystal structure of sgBP at 2.25 Å resolution was determined to allow structure-based protein engineering. Among the mutations conducted in the Gln-Tyr-Gly chromophore and chromophore environment, a S157C mutation shifted the λmax to 604 nm with an extinction coefficient (ε of 58,029 M-1·cm-1 and darkened the blue color expression. The S157C mutation in the sgBP chromophore environment could affect the color expression by altering the deprotonation state of the phenolic group in the chromophore. Our results provide a structural basis for the blue color enhancement of the biomarker development.

  4. Altered mental status, an unusual manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabria, Shiven B; Lawrason, Jock

    2007-01-01

    Early disseminated Lyme disease can have a myriad of central nervous system manifestations. These run the gamut from meningitis to radiculopathy and cranial neuropathy. Here we present a case that manifested with only acute mental status change in the setting of central nervous system involvement with Lyme disease. A paucity of other central nervous system manifestations is rare, especially with positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid markers. This article underscores the importance of a high index of clinical suspicion in detection of Lyme disease related manifestations in endemic areas. PMID:17688693

  5. Altered mental status, an unusual manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabria Shiven B

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early disseminated Lyme disease can have a myriad of central nervous system manifestations. These run the gamut from meningitis to radiculopathy and cranial neuropathy. Here we present a case that manifested with only acute mental status change in the setting of central nervous system involvement with Lyme disease. A paucity of other central nervous system manifestations is rare, especially with positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid markers. This article underscores the importance of a high index of clinical suspicion in detection of Lyme disease related manifestations in endemic areas.

  6. Mental Development of Children with Non-epileptic Paroxysmal States in Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turovskaya N.G.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author studied mental functions disorders in children with a history of paroxysmal states of various etiologies and compared mental development disorder patterns in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms. Study sample were 107 children, aged 6 to 10 years. The study used experimental psychological and neuropsychological techniques. According to the empirical study results, non-epileptic paroxysms unlike epileptic much less combined with a number of mental functions disorders and intelligence in general. However, non-epileptic paroxysmal states as well as epileptic seizure associated with increasing activity exhaustion and abnormal function of the motor analyzer (dynamic and kinesthetic dyspraxia. Visual memory disorders and modal-nonspecific memory disorders have more pronounced importance in the mental ontogenesis structure in children with convulsive paroxysms compared to children with cerebral pathology without paroxysms history

  7. Addressing the Mental Health Problems of Chinese International College Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts between health providers, mental health social workers, faculty, and academic staff within universities to serve these students more effectively.

  8. Early maladaptive schema-related impairment and co-occurring current major depressive episode-related enhancement of mental state decoding ability in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt Szabolcs; Fogd, Dóra; Seres, Imola; Kéri, Szabolcs; Csukly, Gábor

    2015-04-01

    Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD.

  9. Mental Health of Survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake Living in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-16

    Thousands of survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake are currently living in the United States. This podcast features a brief non-disease-specific interview with Dr. Marc Safran, CDC's longest serving psychiatrist, about a few of the mental health challenges such survivors may face.  Created: 4/16/2010 by CDC Center of Attribution: Mental and Behavioral Health Team, 2010 CDC Haiti Earthquake Mission, CDC Emergency Operations Center.   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  10. Mini-mental state examination as a predictor of mortality among older people referred to secondary mental healthcare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Su

    Full Text Available Lower levels of cognitive function have been found to be associated with higher mortality in older people, particularly in dementia, but the association in people with other mental disorders is still inconclusive.Data were analysed from a large mental health case register serving a geographic catchment of 1.23 million residents, and associations were investigated between cognitive function measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and survival in patients aged 65 years old and over. Cox regressions were carried out, adjusting for age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis, ethnicity, marital status, and area-level socioeconomic index. A total of 6,704 subjects were involved, including 3,368 of them having a dementia diagnosis and 3,336 of them with depression or other diagnoses. Descriptive outcomes by Kaplan-Meier curves showed significant differences between those with normal and impaired cognitive function (MMSE score<25, regardless of a dementia diagnosis. As a whole, the group with lower cognitive function had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR of 1.42 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.58 regardless of diagnosis. An HR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.28 per quintile increment of MMSE was also estimated after confounding control. A linear trend of MMSE in quintiles was observed for the subgroups of dementia and other non-dementia diagnoses (both p-values<0.001. However, a threshold effect of MMSE score under 20 was found for the specific diagnosis subgroups of depression.Current study identified an association between cognitive impairment and increased mortality in older people using secondary mental health services regardless of a dementia diagnosis. Causal pathways between this exposure and outcome (for example, suboptimal healthcare need further investigation.

  11. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding.

  12. California State Plan for Facilities for the Mentally Retarded, July 1, 1968 - July 30, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley. Bureau of Health Facilities Planning and Construction.

    Written to aid in the development and improvement of facilities for the mentally retarded in California, the guide describes the organization of the agency responsible, the State Department of Public Health, and presents the laws relating to hospital survey and construction, the State Health and Safety Code. Further information is provided…

  13. Availability of Group Homes for Persons with Mental Retardation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Matthew P.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A survey of each state's mental retardation/developmental disablity agency determined results such as that each state has group home programs, that at least 57,494 persons reside in 6,302 group homes, and that 42,212 persons were in group homes of 15 persons or less. (Author/MC)

  14. Exploring the compatibility of mental health nursing, recovery-focused practice and the welfare state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, M M M; Bush, C J; Ariyaratnam, M I; Brennan, G K; Owtram, R

    2015-06-01

    Mental health nurses are expected to adhere to a range of professional values. The values of social integration that mental health nurses practise are somewhat at odds with the values of the British welfare state. Alternative systems of welfare support are demonstrated in other countries. Mental health nurses must consider models of practice, such as that described by Clifton et al. (2013b), to manage the disconnection between what is expected and what can be achieved. This discussion paper considers the implications for mental health nursing practice when working alongside individuals in receipt of state benefits. There is arguably a profound impact on an individual's recovery from mental ill health when that individual is also dependent on financial support from the government. Access to welfare benefits can have a significant impact on the recovery journey of that individual. This discussion paper will consider the practice implications for mental health nurses whose professional values include maxims such as 'challenging inequality' and 'respecting diversity', and will seek to examine the implications for practice when such values are divergent from those demonstrated in government policy. The paper will make comparisons with international welfare systems to demonstrate the way in which alternative configurations of state welfare can promote a system of social justice that is in greater equilibrium with the professional values of mental health nurses. Finally, the discussion will focus on the options for mental health nurses to either subscribe to government policy or to find compromise solutions that enable attention to remain focused and active on a strong value base of social justice and recovery-focused practice.

  15. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995-2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media's continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses.

  16. Neural evidence that three dimensions organize mental state representation: Rationality, social impact, and valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Diana I; Thornton, Mark A; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Mitchell, Jason P

    2016-01-05

    How do people understand the minds of others? Existing psychological theories have suggested a number of dimensions that perceivers could use to make sense of others' internal mental states. However, it remains unclear which of these dimensions, if any, the brain spontaneously uses when we think about others. The present study used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of neuroimaging data to identify the primary organizing principles of social cognition. We derived four unique dimensions of mental state representation from existing psychological theories and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test whether these dimensions organize the neural encoding of others' mental states. MVPA revealed that three such dimensions could predict neural patterns within the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices, temporoparietal junction, and anterior temporal lobes during social thought: rationality, social impact, and valence. These results suggest that these dimensions serve as organizing principles for our understanding of other people.

  17. Music Composition from the Brain Signal: Representing the Mental State by Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.

  18. Music composition from the brain signal: representing the mental state by music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Li, Chaoyi; Yin, Yu; Zhou, Changzheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure) were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.

  19. Transforming mental health and substance abuse data systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Rosanna M; Buck, Jeffrey A; Kassed, Cheryl A; Dilonardo, Joan; Forhan, Carol; Marder, William D; Vandivort-Warren, Rita

    2008-11-01

    State efforts to improve mental health and substance abuse service systems cannot overlook the fragmented data systems that reinforce the historical separateness of systems of care. These separate systems have discrete approaches to treatment, and there are distinct funding streams for state mental health, substance abuse, and Medicaid agencies. Transforming mental health and substance abuse services in the United States depends on resolving issues that underlie separate treatment systems--access barriers, uneven quality, disjointed coordination, and information silos across agencies and providers. This article discusses one aspect of transformation--the need for interoperable information systems. It describes current federal and state initiatives for improving data interoperability and the special issue of confidentiality associated with mental health and substance abuse treatment data. Some achievable steps for states to consider in reforming their behavioral health data systems are outlined. The steps include collecting encounter-level data; using coding that is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, including national provider identifiers; forging linkages with other state data systems and developing unique client identifiers among systems; investing in flexible and adaptable data systems and business processes; and finding innovative solutions to the difficult confidentiality restrictions on use of behavioral health data. Changing data systems will not in itself transform the delivery of care; however, it will enable agencies to exchange information about shared clients, to understand coordination problems better, and to track successes and failures of policy decisions.

  20. Music Composition from the Brain Signal: Representing the Mental State by Music

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Wu; Chaoyi Li; Yu Yin; Changzheng Zhou; Dezhong Yao

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics...

  1. Altered mental status is an indicator of mortality and associated with both infectious and non-communicable disease in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Bryna; Kyriakos Vorkas, Charles; Kanyama, Cecilia; Ngoma, Jonathan; Hoffman, Irving; Hosseinipour, Mina C

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about diseases associated with altered mental status (AMS) in resource-limited settings. We studied adult medicine patients presenting with AMS in Lilongwe, Malawi and found that AMS and HIV infection were each significantly associated with mortality. It is therefore critical that evaluation and management in this patient population is improved.

  2. Current status of traditional mental health practice in Ilorin Emirate Council area, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjuola, A B; Adelekan, M L; Morakinyo, O

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven traditional mental health practitioners (TMHPs) and 16 patients' relatives (PR) were studied with a view to gaining an understanding of the current status of traditional mental health practice in five local government areas in Ilorin Emirate Council Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was collected using Practitioners' Questionnaire (PQ), Patients' Relatives' Questionnaire (PRQ), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and observation of TMHPs in their clinics. Factors which affect utilization of traditional mental health services were also reviewed. We found that TMHPs still enjoy considerable patronage from the populace, are more in numerical strength, and are more widely and evenly dispersed in the community than orthodox mental health practitioners (OMHPs). About 74% of TMHPs expressed interest in attending seminars aimed at improving their skills. Most of the patients' relatives expressed the belief that only traditional healers can understand the supernatural aetiological basis of mental disorders, and can therefore offer more effective care than OMHPs. Some of the negative practices observed were (i) infliction of corporal punishment and physical restraints on patients by some TMHPs resulting in wounds, which often become septic (ii) low level of hygiene at the clinics and (iii) lack of adequate follow-up care. In conclusion, since TMHPs still play a major role in the treatment of the mentally ill in this environment, OMHPs should assist them in improving on some of the negative practices identified. Thus, there is an urgent need to organize a training programme for TMHPs to expose them to the general rules of hygiene in medical care, basic principles of orthodox mental health practice, including human treatment of the mentally ill.

  3. Suicidal Ideation and Mental Health of Bhutanese Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong; Shetty, Sharmila; Sivilli, Teresa; Blanton, Curtis; Ellis, Heidi; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer; Taylor, Eboni; Lankau, Emily W; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Refugee agencies noticed a high number of suicides among Bhutanese refugees resettled in the United States between 2009 and 2012. We aimed to estimate prevalence of mental health conditions and identify factors associated with suicidal ideation among Bhutanese refugees. We conducted a stratified random cross-sectional survey and collected information on demographics, mental health conditions, suicidal ideation, and post-migration difficulties. Bivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation. Prevalence of mental health conditions were: depression (21 %), symptoms of anxiety (19 %), post-traumatic stress disorder (4.5 %), and suicidal ideation (3 %), significant risk factors for suicidal ideation included: not being a provider of the family; perceiving low social support; and having symptoms of anxiety and depression. These findings suggest that Bhutanese refugees in the United States may have a higher burden of mental illness relative to the US population and may benefit from mental health screening and treatment. Refugee communities and service providers may benefit from additional suicide awareness training to identify those at highest risk.

  4. Theory of Mind: Children's Understanding of Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades, theory of mind (ToM) has been one of the leading and prevalent issues in developmental psychology. ToM is the ability to ascribe mental states (e.g. beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge) to oneself and others as well as to recognise that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that differ from…

  5. Temporal pole activity during understanding other persons' mental states correlates with neuroticism trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimura, Koji; Konishi, Seiki; Asari, Tomoki; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2010-04-30

    Comprehension of other persons' mental states is one of the representative cognitive functions involved in social situations. It has been suggested that this function sometimes recruits emotional processes. The present fMRI study examined the neural mechanisms associated with understanding others' mental states, and the conditions that determine the recruitment of the emotional processes. The false belief paradigm, a traditional behavioral paradigm to investigate comprehension of others, was applied to an event-related fMRI analysis, allowing for the extraction of brain activity time-locked to successful understanding of others' mental states. Prominent brain activity was observed in multiple cortical regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, precuneus, and temporal pole. Then, correlational analyses were performed between the activations and individuals' scores of neuroticism, a personality trait that reflects emotional instability in daily life. It was revealed that the neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the activity in the temporal pole region, but not in the other regions. These results suggest that the emotional processes implemented in the temporal pole are recruited during successful understanding of other persons' mental states, and that the recruitment may be modulated by an emotional personality trait of individual subjects.

  6. Young Children's Persuasion in Everyday Conversation: Tactics and Attunement to Others' Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Karen; Wright, Jennifer Cole; Estes, David

    2010-01-01

    Young children's persuasion tactics, and how these reflected attunement to others' mental states, were explored in archived longitudinal samples of transcribed at-home conversations of four children, three to five years old. Over 87,000 utterances were examined to identify conversation "chunks" involving persuasion; 1,307 chunks were then coded…

  7. Incongruity, incongruity resolution, and mental states: The measure and modification of situational awareness and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.

    1993-01-01

    The research reported here describes the process of induction of various mental states. Our goals were to measure and to manipulate both the behavioral and the neurological correlates of particular mental states that have previously been demonstrated to be either beneficial or deleterious to in-flight performance situations. The experimental paradigm involved developing a context of which the participants were aware, followed by the introduction of an incongruity into that context. The empirical questions involved how the incongruity was resolved and the consequent effects on mental state. The dependent variables were measures of both the short-term ERP changes and the longer-term brain mapping indications of predominant mental states. The mission of NASA Flight Management Division and Human/Automation Integration Branch centers on the understanding and improvement of interaction between a complex system and a human operator. Specifically, the goal is improved efficiency through better operative procedures and control strategies. More efficient performance in demanding flight environments depends on improved situational awareness and replanning for fault management.

  8. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  9. Developing communicative competence: A longitudinal study of the acquisition of mental state terms and indirect requests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mulder, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The resu

  10. Developing Communicative Competence: A Longitudinal Study of the Acquisition of Mental State Terms and Indirect Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mulder, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in…

  11. The Current Mental State of School Students in Online Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalevskaya E.V.,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a study of actual mental state of high school students who are active subjects of career self-determination in terms of interactive learning. There are four groups of methods of interactive training: psychological training, art therapy, cognitive, and game training. The main task, which is solved by a researcher in a formative experiment with the use of each of these methods, is to establish significant differences in health, activity and mood as the indicators of current mental state of students in the classroom. As a result, we found that the most significant improvements in the current mental state takes place when using art and game therapy, so these techniques should be used in groups of students with low motivation to work, as well as in the adverse psychological climate. Less significant was the improvement of the current mental state after psychological training due to the fact that this method allow to update and seek solutions to the most important intrapersonal issues and require the implementation of a deeper reflection

  12. Audio-Visual and Autogenic Relaxation Alter Amplitude of Alpha EEG Band, Causing Improvements in Mental Work Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikicin, Mirosław; Kowalczyk, Marek

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes.

  13. Altered resting state brain networks in Parkinson's disease.

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    Martin Göttlich

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leading to dysfunctional cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical loops. In addition to the characteristic motor symptoms, PD patients often show cognitive impairments, affective changes and other non-motor symptoms, suggesting system-wide effects on brain function. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph-theory based analysis methods to investigate altered whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in PD patients (n = 37 compared to healthy controls (n = 20. Global network properties indicated less efficient processing in PD. Analysis of brain network modules pointed to increased connectivity within the sensorimotor network, but decreased interaction of the visual network with other brain modules. We found lower connectivity mainly between the cuneus and the ventral caudate, medial orbitofrontal cortex and the temporal lobe. To identify regions of altered connectivity, we mapped the degree of intrinsic functional connectivity both on ROI- and on voxel-level across the brain. Compared to healthy controls, PD patients showed lower connectedness in the medial and middle orbitofrontal cortex. The degree of connectivity was also decreased in the occipital lobe (cuneus and calcarine, but increased in the superior parietal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, supramarginal gyrus and supplementary motor area. Our results on global network and module properties indicated that PD manifests as a disconnection syndrome. This was most apparent in the visual network module. The higher connectedness within the sensorimotor module in PD patients may be related to compensation mechanism in order to overcome the functional deficit of the striato-cortical motor loops or to loss of mutual inhibition between brain networks. Abnormal connectivity in the visual network may be related to adaptation and compensation processes as a consequence

  14. Resting state networks and consciousness: alterations of multiple resting state network connectivity in physiological, pharmacological, and pathological consciousness States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Lizette; Soddu, Andrea; Gómez, Francisco; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Tshibanda, Luaba; Thonnard, Marie; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Kirsch, Murielle; Laureys, Steven; Demertzi, Athena

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the functional contribution of resting state activity to conscious cognition, we aimed to review increases and decreases in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) functional connectivity under physiological (sleep), pharmacological (anesthesia), and pathological altered states of consciousness, such as brain death, coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and minimally conscious state. The reviewed resting state networks were the DMN, left and right executive control, salience, sensorimotor, auditory, and visual networks. We highlight some methodological issues concerning resting state analyses in severely injured brains mainly in terms of hypothesis-driven seed-based correlation analysis and data-driven independent components analysis approaches. Finally, we attempt to contextualize our discussion within theoretical frameworks of conscious processes. We think that this "lesion" approach allows us to better determine the necessary conditions under which normal conscious cognition takes place. At the clinical level, we acknowledge the technical merits of the resting state paradigm. Indeed, fast and easy acquisitions are preferable to activation paradigms in clinical populations. Finally, we emphasize the need to validate the diagnostic and prognostic value of fMRI resting state measurements in non-communicating brain damaged patients.

  15. Depletion of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Embryonic Stem Cells Alters the Kinetics of Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfallah, Olfa; Jarjat, Marielle; Davidovic, Laetitia; Nottet, Nicolas; Cestèle, Sandrine; Mantegazza, Massimo; Bardoni, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and a leading cause of autism. FXS is due to the silencing of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), an RNA binding protein mainly involved in translational control, dendritic spine morphology and synaptic plasticity. Despite extensive studies, there is currently no cure for FXS. With the purpose to decipher the initial molecular events leading to this pathology, we developed a stem-cell-based disease model by knocking-down the expression of Fmr1 in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Repressing FMRP in ESCs increased the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Ascl1. When inducing neuronal differentiation, βIII-tubulin, p27(kip1) , NeuN, and NeuroD1 were upregulated, leading to an accelerated neuronal differentiation that was partially compensated at later stages. Interestingly, we observed that neurogenesis is also accelerated in the embryonic brain of Fmr1-knockout mice, indicating that our cellular model recapitulates the molecular alterations present in vivo. Importantly, we rescued the main phenotype of the Fmr1 knockdown cell line, not only by reintroducing FMRP but also by pharmacologically targeting APP processing, showing the role of this protein in the pathophysiology of FXS during the earliest steps of neurogenesis. Our work allows to define an early therapeutic window but also to identify more effective molecules for treating this disorder. Stem Cells 2017;35:374-385.

  16. Effects of flotation therapy on relaxation and mental state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佩诚; 苏英

    2004-01-01

    @@ Flotation therapy is one of the models of Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST). It has been studied and used in clinics in western countries for many years. According to the research results, flotation therapy can be used effectively in many ways.1 Some of the research done in China showed that flotation therapy could be helpful in the treatment of hypertension2 as well as cerebral paraplegia. It has also been observed in clinics that flotation therapy can induce deep relaxation, improve emotional states and have beneficial effects on some kinds of neurosis and psychosomatic diseases. But the effect of flotation therapy on the basic psychological and physiological function of ordinary Chinese has not been studied systemically. And there is no objective research result that has demonstrated the benefits of flotation therapy in Chinese clinics.

  17. Spatially distributed effects of mental exhaustion on resting-state FMRI networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Esposito

    Full Text Available Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such as intrinsic (default or extrinsic (executive attention, and sensory inhibition or excitation. These aspects can be related to different treatments or subjective experiences. Among these, exhaustion is a common psychological state induced by prolonged mental performance. Using repeated functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions and spatial independent component analysis, we explored the effect of several hours of sustained cognitive performances on the resting human brain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on the same healthy volunteers in two days, with and without, and before, during and after, an intensive psychological treatment (skill training and sustained practice with a flight simulator. After each scan, subjects rated their level of exhaustion and performed an N-back task to evaluate eventual decrease in cognitive performance. Spatial maps of selected resting-state network components were statistically evaluated across time points to detect possible changes induced by the sustained mental performance. The intensive treatment had a significant effect on exhaustion and effort ratings, but no effects on N-back performances. Significant changes in the most exhausted state were observed in the early visual processing and the anterior default mode networks (enhancement and in the fronto-parietal executive networks (suppression, suggesting that mental exhaustion is associated with a more idling brain state and that internal attention processes are facilitated to the detriment of more extrinsic processes. The described application may inspire future indicators of the level of fatigue in the neural attention system.

  18. O papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil The role of States in mental health policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gabriela Simon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil no período de 1990 a 2009. A metodologia incluiu a aplicação de questionário eletrônico nas coordenações estaduais de saúde mental de 24 estados brasileiros, revisão documental e análise de base de dados oficiais. Os resultados obtidos apontaram que os estados utilizam várias estratégias e instrumentos na condução da política de saúde mental, principalmente no monitoramento e na prestação de serviços. No entanto, percebeu-se que os estados ainda não desenvolvem de forma sistemática as funções de planejamento, coordenação federativa e coordenação da atenção. O financiamento em saúde mental representa um dos grandes desafios para a gestão dessa área nos estados. Os achados deste estudo sugerem que a superação dos desafios relacionados à condução estadual da política de saúde mental depende da articulação entre governo federal, estados e municípios na elaboração de políticas que atendam à especificidade de cada região, da promoção de um planejamento participativo e de investimentos para o setor.This article examines the role of States in mental health policy in Brazil from 1990 to 2009. The methods included the use of an electronic questionnaire on State coordination of mental health in 24 Brazilian States, document review, and analysis based on official data. The results showed that the States use various strategies and tools to conduct mental health policy, especially in monitoring and services delivery. However, the study showed that States have not developed systematic approaches to planning, coordination with other levels of government, or coordination of care. Funding poses a major challenge for management of mental health at the State level. The study suggests that overcoming the challenges in mental health policy depends on the relationship between the Federal government, States, and Municipalities in drafting

  19. Broadcast Media Intervention in Mental Health Challenge in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osakue Stevenson Omoera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available n most communities, especially in Africa, people with mental health challenges are denigrated; the society is not sympathetic with sufferers of mental illness. A lot of issues can trigger mental illness. These can be stress (economic stress, social stress, educational stress, etc; hereditary factors; war and aggression; rape; spiritual factors, to mention a few. Therefore, there is the need for understanding and awareness creation among the people as one of the ways of addressing the problem. Methodologically, this study deploys analytical, observation and interview techniques. In doing this, it uses the Edo State, Nigeria scenario to critically reflect, albeit preliminarily, on the interventionist role the broadcast media have played/are playing/should play in creating awareness and providing support systems for mentally challenged persons in urban and rural centres in Nigeria. The study argues that television and radio media are very innovative and their innovativeness can be deployed in the area of putting mental health issue in the public discourse and calling for action.

  20. Cox’s Chair Revisited: Can Spinning Alter Mood States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta eWinter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although there is clinical and historical evidence for a vivid relation between the vestibular and emotional systems, the neuroscientific underpinnings are poorly understood. The spin doctors of the nineteenth century used spinning chairs (e.g. Cox’s chair to treat conditions of mania or elevated arousal. On the basis of a recent study on a hexapod motion simulator, in this prototypic investigation we explore the impact of yaw stimulation on a spinning chair on mood states.Using a controlled experimental stimulation paradigm on a unique 3-D-turntable at the University of Zurich we included 11 healthy subjects and assessed parameters of mood states and autonomic nervous system activity. The Multidimensional Mode State Questionnaire (MDMQ and Visual Analogue Rating Scales (VAS were used to assess changes of mood in response to a 100 sec yaw stimulation. In addition heart rate was continuously monitored during the experiment.Subjects indicated feeling less good, relaxed, comfortable, and calm and reported an increased alertness after vestibular stimulation. However, there were no objective adverse effects of the stimulation. Accordingly, heart rate did not significantly differ in response to the stimulation.This is the first study in a highly controlled setting using the historical approach of stimulating the vestibular system to impact mood states. It demonstrates a specific interaction between the vestibular system and mood states and thereby supports recent experimental findings with a different stimulation technique. These results may inspire future research on the clinical potential of this method.

  1. Acquisition of mental state language in Spanish children: a longitudinal study of the relationship between the production of mental verbs and linguistic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Belén; Aguado, Gerardo; Sotillo, María; Masdeu, Jose C

    2008-07-01

    The development of language indicating the emergence of thinking about the thoughts of self and others has been scarcely studied in Spanish-speaking children. For this reason, we studied the development of mental state language and various indicators of language development in 25 Spanish-speaking children assessed at 3, 3 1/2, 4, 4 1/2, and 5 years of age. We coded and categorized the 40,250 utterances children produced during the five time points, 1202 (3.01%) of which had mental terms. In this sample, mental state language in Spanish children developed with a similar timeline and patterns as described in English-speaking children. However, several findings were novel for studies of mental state language. The general indexes of syntactic development did not correlate with the production of mental terms. The Index of Lexical Diversity was associated with the frequency of references to verbs of desire. The results of regression analyses suggest that not only the development of subordinate sentences with complement is associated with genuine mental references to desires and beliefs, but the development of lexical skills as well.

  2. Resting state networks and consciousness.Alterations of multiple resting state network connectivity in physiological, pharmacological and pathological consciousness states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette eHeine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the functional contribution of resting state activity to conscious cognition, we aimed to review increases and decreases in fMRI functional connectivity under physiological (sleep, pharmacological (anesthesia and pathological altered states of consciousness, such as brain death, coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and minimally conscious state. The reviewed RSNs were the DMN, left and right executive control, salience, sensorimotor, auditory and visual networks. We highlight some methodological issues concerning resting state analyses in severely injured brains mainly in terms of hypothesis-driven seed-based correlation analysis and data-driven independent components analysis approaches. Finally, we attempt to contextualize our discussion within theoretical frameworks of conscious processes. We think that this lesion approach allows us to better determine the necessary conditions under which normal conscious cognition takes place. At the clinical level, we acknowledge the technical merits of the resting state paradigm. Indeed, fast and easy acquisitions are preferable to activation paradigms in clinical populations. Finally, we emphasize the need to validate the diagnostic and prognostic value of fMRI resting state measurements in non-communicating brain damaged patients.

  3. Changes in cognitive state alter human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the brain as a whole system can be accomplished using network theory principles. Research has shown that human functional brain networks during a resting state exhibit small-world properties and high degree nodes, or hubs, localized to brain areas consistent with the default mode network (DMN. However, the study of brain networks across different tasks and or cognitive states has been inconclusive. Research in this field is important because the underpinnings of behavioral output are inherently dependent on whether or not brain networks are dynamic. This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate multiple network metrics at a voxel-wise resolution in the human brain at both the whole brain and regional level under various conditions: resting state, visual stimulation, and multisensory (auditory and visual stimulation. Our results show that despite global network stability, functional brain networks exhibit considerable task-induced changes in connectivity, efficiency, and community structure at the regional level.

  4. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories, concepts are contextually situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and nonemotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e., focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e., focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources.

  5. Iodinated contrast media alter immune responses in pro-inflammatory states.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2010-07-01

    Hypertonic saline causes a transient elevation of blood osmolality and has been shown to alter cellular inflammatory responses in pro-inflammatory states. Intravascular administration of iodine contrast media also causes a transient elevation of blood osmolarity.

  6. Clinical and Economic Burden of Mental Disorders Among Children With Chronic Physical Conditions, United States, 2008–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Suryavanshi, Manasi S.; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of chronic physical and mental disorders is increasing among children and adolescents in the United States. In this study, we investigated the association between mental health disorders and chronic physical conditions among children, and we assessed whether having mental disorders is associated with increased health care costs for children with chronic physical conditions, using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2008 through 2013. Methods Children aged 5 ...

  7. Theoretical approaches to the diagnosis of altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, Melanie; Massimini, Marcello; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the level of consciousness of noncommunicative brain-damaged patients is difficult, as one has to make inferences based on the patients' behavior. However, behavioral responses of brain-damaged patients are usually limited not only by their cognitive dysfunctions, but also by their frequent motor impairment. For these reasons, it is essential to resort to para-clinical markers of the level of consciousness. In recent years, a number of studies compared brain activity in comatose and vegetative state patients to that in healthy volunteers, and in other conditions of reduced consciousness such as sleep, anesthesia, or epileptic seizures. Despite the increasing amount of experimental results, no consensus on the brain mechanisms generating consciousness has yet been reached. Here, we discuss the need to combine a theoretical approach with current experimental procedures to obtain a coherent, parsimonious explanation for the loss of consciousness in several different conditions, such as coma, vegetative state, sleep, anesthesia, and epileptic seizures. In our view, without a theoretical account of how conscious experience is generated by the brain, it will remain difficult to understand the mechanisms underlying the generation of consciousness, and to predict reliably its presence or absence in noncommunicative brain-damaged patients. In this context, we review current theoretical approaches to consciousness, and how well they fit with current evidence on the neural correlates of experience. Specifically, we emphasize the principled approach provided by the Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness (IITC). We describe the different conditions where the theory predicts markedly reduced states of consciousness, and discuss several technical and conceptual issues limiting its applicability to measuring the level of consciousness of individual patients. Nevertheless, we argue that some of the predictions of the theory are potentially testable using available

  8. Mental states and activities in Danish narratives: children with autism and children with language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age...... (;–;) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...

  9. Mental states and activities in Danish narratives: children with autism and children with language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age (10......;6–14;0) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...

  10. Minding the Gap: Narrative Descriptions about Mental States Attenuate Parochial Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile G; Cikara, Mina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, we examine parochial empathy (feeling more empathy for in-group than out-group members) across novel group boundaries, and test whether we can mitigate parochial empathy with brief narrative descriptions. In the absence of individuating information, participants consistently report more empathy for members of their own assigned group than a competitive out-group. However, individualized descriptions of in-group and out-group targets significantly reduce parochial empathy by interfering with encoding of targets' group membership. Finally, the descriptions that most effectively decrease parochial empathy are those that describe targets' mental states. These results support the role of individuating information in ameliorating parochial empathy, suggest a mechanism for their action, and show that descriptions emphasizing targets' mental states are particularly effective.

  11. Acquisition of mental state language in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, T; Wellman, H M

    2000-01-01

    Children's theory of mind appears to develop from a focus on desire to a focus on belief. However, it is not clear (a) whether this pattern is universal and (b) whether it could also be explained by linguistic and sociocultural factors. This study examined mental state language in 10 Mandarin-speaking (21-27 months) and 8 Cantonese-speaking (18-44 months) toddlers. The results suggest a pattern of theory-of-mind development similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. However, the Chinese-speaking children used desire terms much earlier, and the use of terms for thinking was very infrequent, even for Mandarin-speaking adults. This finding suggests a consistency in the overall sequence, but variation in the timing of beginning and end points, in children's theory-of-mind development across cultures.

  12. Here, There and Everywhere: Emotion and Mental State Talk in Different Social Contexts Predicts Empathic Helping in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eDrummond

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature suggests that parents socialize early-emerging prosocial behavior across varied contexts and in subtle yet powerful ways. We focus on discourse about emotions and mental states as one potential socialization mechanism given its conceptual relevance to prosocial behavior and its known positive relations with emotion understanding and social-cognitive development, as well as parents’ frequent use of such discourse beginning in infancy. Specifically, we ask how parents’ emotion and mental state talk with their toddlers relates to toddlers’ helping and how these associations vary by context. Children aged 18- to 30-months (n=38 interacted with a parent during book reading and joint play with toys, two everyday contexts that afford parental discussion of emotions and mental states. Children also participated in instrumental and empathic helping tasks. Results revealed that although parents discuss mental states with their children in both contexts, the nature of their talk differs: during book reading parents labeled emotions and mental states significantly more often than during joint play, especially simple affect words (e.g. happy, sad and explanations or elaborations of emotions; whereas they used more desire talk and mental state words (e.g. think, know in joint play. Parents’ emotion and mental state discourse related to children’s empathic, emotion-based helping behavior; however, it did not relate to instrumental, action-based helping. Moreover, relations between parent talk and empathic helping varied by context: children who helped more quickly had parents who labeled emotion and mental states more often during joint play and who elicited this talk more often during book reading. As emotion and mental state talk both varies between contexts and exhibits context-specific associations with empathic prosocial behavior early in development, we conclude that such discourse may be a key form of socialization

  13. Effect Of Single And Short-Term Aerobics On Selected Mental State Parametres In Adult Females

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    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

  14. Feasibility of a multiple-choice mini mental state examination for chronically critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Following treatment in an ICU, up to 70% of chronically critically ill patients present neurocognitive impairment that can have negative effects on their quality of life, daily activities, and return to work. The Mini Mental State Examination is a simple, widely used tool for neurocognitive assessment. Although of interest when evaluating ICU patients, the current version is restricted to patients who are able to speak. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a visual, mul...

  15. Seeing emotions in the eyes – Inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline eWagenbreth; Julia eRieger; Hans-Jochen eHeinze; Tino eZaehle

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveAutomatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming.MethodsSixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (...

  16. Seeing emotions in the eyes – inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Rieger, Julia; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Zaehle, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Automatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming. Methods: Sixteen subjects answered a lexical decisio...

  17. Effects of thoracic mobilization and manipulation on function and mental state in chronic lower back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youn-Bum; Lee, Jung-Ho; Park, Young-Han

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in function and mental state after thoracic mobilization and manipulation in patients with chronic lower back pain (LBP). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six subjects were randomly divided into mobilization group (group A), manipulation group (group B) and control group (group C). The Oswestry disability index (ODI) was used to measure the functional impairment of patients with LBP. A multiple spinal diagnosis was used to measure the range of motion (ROM) of vertebra segments. The Fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ) was used to investigate the mental state of LBP patients. [Results] Group A and group B were significantly different from group C in terms of the ODI. Between groups, there was no difference in ROM during trunk flexion. Group A and group B were also significantly different from the control group in extension ROM. The FABQ of group B was significantly different from that of group A. [Conclusion] Application of mobilization or manipulation to thoracic lumbar vertebrae has a positive effect on function, mental state, and ROM in patients with lower back pain.

  18. School Mental Health: The Impact of State and Local Capacity-Building Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing number of collaborative partnerships between schools and community-based organizations to expand school mental health (SMH service capacity in the United States, there have been relatively few systematic initiatives focused on key strategies for large-scale SMH capacity building with state and local education systems. Based on a framework of ten critical factors for capacity building, as well as existing best practices, two case studies were utilized to develop a replicable capacity-building model to advance interagency SMH development. Seventy education and mental health stakeholders from two selected states participated in baseline assessments of skill com-petency and critical factor implementation followed by two-day trainings (one in each state; 29 (41% of the participants also completed a six month follow-up assessment. Targeted competencies increased significantly for participants from both states, with large effect sizes (d = 2.05 and 2.56, from pre- to post-training. Participant reports of critical factor implementation increased significantly for one of the two states (t[15] = -6.40, p < .001, d = 1.77. Results inform specific training recommendations for stakeholders and collaborative teams, as well as policy implications to support future development of SMH service capacity.

  19. Perceived impact by administrators of psychiatric emergency services after changes in a state's mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Zeman, Lori Lackman; Koch, Alison

    2006-06-01

    As a safety net, psychiatric emergency services are sensitive to system changes. To determine the impact of a state's changes in its mental health system, administrators of publicly funded psychiatric emergency services were surveyed. They reported few (M=0.8) negative changes in coordination of care but 77% endorsed change in administrative burden (54% saying it negatively affected quality of services). Reporting negative effect of administrative burden was associated with treating more persons with substance abuse problems and greater challenge posed by distance to local providers. These results suggest that impact of state-level changes was not uniform but associated with local characteristics.

  20. Using fiction to assess mental state understanding: a new task for assessing theory of mind in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dodell-Feder

    Full Text Available Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others--an ability known as theory of mind (ToM. Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task--the Short Story Task (SST--intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters' mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability.

  1. Physical and mental health status of Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eboni M; Yanni, Emad A; Pezzi, Clelia; Guterbock, Michael; Rothney, Erin; Harton, Elizabeth; Montour, Jessica; Elias, Collin; Burke, Heather

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a survey among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States to assess their physical and mental health status and healthcare access and utilization following the initial 8-month, post-arrival period. We randomly selected Iraqi refugees: ≥18 years of age; living in the United States for 8–36 months; and residents of Michigan, California, Texas and Idaho. Participants completed a household questionnaire and mental health assessment. We distributed 366 surveys. Seventy-five percent of participants had health insurance at the time of the survey; 43 % reported delaying or not seeking care for a medical problem in the past year. Sixty percent of participants reported one chronic condition; 37 % reported ≥2 conditions. The prevalence of emotional distress, anxiety, and depression was approximately 50 % of participants; 31 % were at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. Iraqi refugees in this evaluation reported a high prevalence of chronic conditions and mental health symptoms despite relatively high access to healthcare. It is important for resettlement partners to be aware of the distinctive health concerns of this population to best address needs within this community.

  2. The brain on silent: mind wandering, mindful awareness, and states of mental tranquility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, David R; Zeidan, Fadel

    2016-06-01

    Mind wandering and mindfulness are often described as divergent mental states with opposing effects on cognitive performance and mental health. Spontaneous mind wandering is typically associated with self-reflective states that contribute to negative processing of the past, worrying/fantasizing about the future, and disruption of primary task performance. On the other hand, mindful awareness is frequently described as a focus on present sensory input without cognitive elaboration or emotional reactivity, and is associated with improved task performance and decreased stress-related symptomology. Unfortunately, such distinctions fail to acknowledge similarities and interactions between the two states. Instead of an inverse relationship between mindfulness and mind wandering, a more nuanced characterization of mindfulness may involve skillful toggling back and forth between conceptual and nonconceptual processes and networks supporting each state, to meet the contextually specified demands of the situation. In this article, we present a theoretical analysis and plausible neurocognitive framework of the restful mind, in which we attempt to clarify potentially adaptive contributions of both mind wandering and mindful awareness through the lens of the extant neurocognitive literature on intrinsic network activity, meditation, and emerging descriptions of stillness and nonduality. A neurophenomenological approach to probing modality-specific forms of concentration and nonconceptual awareness is presented that may improve our understanding of the resting state. Implications for future research are discussed.

  3. Under Construction: One State's Approach to Creating Health Homes for Individuals with Serious Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Auxier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the health care market associated with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA are creating both need and opportunity for states, health plans, and providers to improve quality, outcomes, and satisfaction through better integration of traditionally separate health care delivery systems. Applications of the term “integrated care” vary widely and include, but are not limited to, the integration of care for Medicare-Medicaid dually enrolled beneficiaries, the integration of mental health and substance abuse (also known as behavioral health, and the integration of mental health and substance abuse with medical care, most commonly primary care. In this article, integrated care refers to well-coordinated physical health and behavioral health care. Medicaid Health Homes are emerging as a promising practice, with sixteen states having adopted the Health Home model through approved State Plan Amendments. This article describes one state's journey towards establishing Health Homes with a behavioral health focus. We discuss a partnership model between the relevant state organizations, the contracted providers, and the behavioral health managed care organization responsible for many of the supportive administrative functions. We highlight successes and operational challenges and offer recommendations for future Health Home development efforts.

  4. Moving science into state child and adolescent mental health systems: Illinois' evidence-informed practice initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starin, Amy C; Atkins, Marc S; Wehrmann, Kathryn C; Mehta, Tara; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Marinez-Lora, A; Mehlinger, Renee

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the Illinois State Mental Health Authority embarked on an initiative to close the gap between research and practice in the children's mental health system. A stakeholder advisory council developed a plan to advance evidence informed practice through policy and program initiatives. A multilevel approach was developed to achieve this objective, which included policy change, stakeholder education, and clinician training. This article focuses on the evidence-informed training process designed following review of implementation research. The training involved in-person didactic sessions and twice-monthly telephone supervision across 6 cohorts of community based clinicians, each receiving 12 months of training. Training content initially included cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral parent training and was adapted over the years to a practice model based on common element concepts. Evaluation based on provider and parent report indicated children treated by training clinicians generally showed superior outcomes versus both a treatment-as-usual comparison group for Cohorts 1 to 4 and the statewide child population as a whole after 90 days of care for Cohorts 5 to 6. The results indicated primarily moderate to strong effects for the evidence-based training groups. Moving a large public statewide child mental health system toward more effective services is a complex and lengthy process. These results indicate training of community mental health providers in Illinois in evidence-informed practice was moderately successful in positively impacting child-level functional outcomes. These findings also influenced state policy in committing resources to continuing the initiative, even in difficult economic times.

  5. Story discourse and use of mental state language between mothers and school-aged children with and without visual impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of sight compromises insight into other people’s mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare these with mothers of comparable children with typically developing vision. To investigate whether the characteristics of mother–child discourse were associated with the child’s socio-communicative competence. Methods & Procedures Mother–child discourse with twelve 6–12-year-old children with VI was coded during a shared book-reading narrative and compared with 14 typically sighted children matched in age and verbal ability. Outcomes & Results Mothers of children with VI elaborated more and made significantly more references to story characters’ mental states and descriptive elaborations than mothers of sighted children. Mental state elaborations of mothers in the VI group related positively with the level produced by their children, with the association remaining after mothers’ overall verbosity and children’s developmental levels were controlled for. Frequency of maternal elaborations, including their mental state language, was related to socio-communicative competence of children with VI. Conclusions & Implications The findings offer insights into the potential contribution of maternal verbal scaffolding to mentalistic language and social–communicative competences of children with VI. PMID:24165364

  6. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States: Systemic Emergence of Psychological Lexicon and Theory of Mind Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, D.; Buttiglieri, F.

    In recent years, a number of studies that have examined how social experiences are related to children's theory of mind development, have found that: (1) the frequency of mothers' mental state utterances used in mother-child picture-book reading, is correlated with children's theory of mind abilities; (2) mothers' use of cognitive terms is related more strongly to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, Rieffe, 2005; Ruffman, Slade, Crowe, 2002; Taumoepeau, Ruffman, 2006; Dunn, 2002). Despite the evidence for the role of mothers' language, there is disagreement over how exactly it improves children's theory of mind development. In short, mentalistic comments contain distinctive words, grammatical constructions and pragmatic features. The question is, however, which factor is critical (de Rosnay, Pons, Harris, Morrell, 2004). The present study addresses this issue and focuses on relationship between mothers' mental state terms and children's performances in theory of mind tasks (emotion understanding and false belief tasks). Mothers were asked to read some pictures to 10 children between 3;0 and 5;0. Among the different mental state references (perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative), it was found that the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words were significantly associated with children's mental lexicon. In addition, emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Kind of emotional words that are used by the mothers with reference to the Italian language will be discussed.

  7. State of spirituality-infused mental health services in Los Angeles County wellness and client-run centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ann-Marie; Subica, Andrew M; Kim, Min Ah; Van Nguyen, Kevin; Lim, Caroline S; Mancuso, Laura L

    2014-11-01

    Spiritual coping is associated with positive mental health outcomes for individuals with serious mental illness, yet spirituality-infused services are seldom offered in public sector mental health agencies. The Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health introduced a policy addressing spirituality in 2012. This study explored the breadth and degree to which spirituality-infused activities were being offered in 53 Los Angeles wellness and recovery centers after the policy was widely disseminated. More than 98 % of the centers offered options for spirituality-infused activities; one-third offered spirituality-focused groups. Los Angeles's progress may guide implementation of spirituality-infused services in other state or local public mental health systems.

  8. Mental health problems and satisfaction with amount of state compensation for intentional violent crime victimization in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, M J J

    2012-08-01

    The current study explored whether self-reported mental health problems among victims of violent crime (n = 151) affect their ratings of satisfaction with amount of financial compensation awarded by the Dutch state and vice versa. This topic is important to address, because satisfaction is often used as an indicator of quality of victim services. Relying on medical literature about satisfaction with compensation in patient populations, it was expected that satisfaction levels would be negatively associated with mental health problems. Mental health problems were assessed with the General Health Questionnaire. A threshold of 11/12 on this scale was used to differentiate between victims with and without probable mental health problems. In line with expectations, victims with probable mental health problems reported significantly lower levels of satisfaction than those without. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for potential confounding. Findings were discussed in light of study limitations and directions for future research.

  9. Using S-transform in EEG analysis for measuring an alert versus mental fatigue state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Yvonne; Thuraisingham, Ranjit; Wijesuriya, Nirupama; Craig, Ashley; Nguyen, Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents research that investigated the effects of mental fatigue on brain activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Since EEG signals are considered to be non-stationary, time-frequency analysis has frequently been used for analysis. The S-transform is a time-frequency analysis method and is used in this paper to analyze EEG signals during alert and fatigue states during a driving simulator task. Repeated-measure MANOVA results show significant differences between alert and fatigue states within the alpha (8-13Hz) frequency band. The two sites demonstrating the greatest increases in alpha activity during fatigue were the Cz and P4 sites. The results show that S-transform analysis can be used to distinguish between alert and fatigue states in the EEG and also supports the use of the S-transform for EEG analysis.

  10. [Mini-Mental State Examination: Screening and Diagnosis of Cognitive Decline, Using New Normative Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Isabel; Duro, Diana; Lemos, Raquel; Costa, Vanessa; Pereira, Miguel; Simões, Mário R; Freitas, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Introdução: O Mini-Mental State Examination é o teste de rastreio de défice cognitivo/demência mais difundido. No nosso país têm-se utilizado pontuações de corte definidas por grupos de literacia, mas existem novas propostas sustentadas por estudos mais representativos. Propomo-nos confirmar a influência da idade e da escolaridade no desempenho, avaliar a capacidade discriminativa dos novos dados normativos e testar a acuidade diagnóstica das pontuações de corte validadas para o défice cognitivo ligeiro e para as formas mais prevalentes de demência. Material e Métodos: O estudo incluiu 1 441 participantes escolarizados, divididos em sete subgrupos: Défice cognitivo ligeiro, doença de Alzheimer, demência fronto-temporal, demência vascular, demência com corpos de Lewy, controlo-comunidade e controlo-clínica- memória. Resultados: Em conjunto, idade e escolaridade explicam 10,4% da variância dos resultados no Mini-Mental State Examination, com ambas contribuindo significativamente para a predição dos resultados. A acuidade diagnóstica com base nos dados normativos mais recentes foi sempre superior à conseguida com as pontuações de corte de validação, revelando uma especificidade excelente (superior a 90%) e uma sensibilidade também excelente para a doença de Alzheimer ligeira (91%), boa para demência com corpos de Lewy (78%), baixa para o défice cognitivo ligeiro (65%) e demência fronto-temporal e demência vascular (55%). Discussão e Conclusões: O desempenho no Mini-Mental State Examination é influenciado pela idade e pela escolaridade, apoiando a utilização de dados normativos que considerem estas variáveis. Com esta abordagem, o Mini-Mental State Examination poderá ser um instrumento sensível e específico para o rastreio da doença de Alzheimer em todos os níveis de cuidados de saúde, mas a acuidade de diagnóstico é limitada noutras situações frequentes em consultas especializadas, como o défice cognitivo ligeiro

  11. The Connecticut Mental Health Center: Celebrating 50 Years of a Successful Partnership Between the State and Yale University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jeanne L; Anez-Nava, Luis; Baranoski, Madelon; Cole, Robert; Davidson, Larry; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam; Dike, Charles; DiLeo, Paul J; Duman, Ronald S; Kirk, Thomas; Krystal, John; Malison, Robert T; Rohrbaugh, Robert M; Sernyak, Michael J; Srihari, Vinod; Styron, Thomas; Tebes, Jacob K; Woods, Scott; Zonana, Howard; Jacobs, Selby C

    2016-12-01

    September 28, 2016, marked the 50th anniversary of the Connecticut Mental Health Center, a state-owned and state-operated joint venture between the state and Yale University built and sustained with federal, state, and university funds. Collaboration across these entities has produced a wide array of clinical, educational, and research initiatives, a few of which are described in this column. The missions of clinical care, research, and education remain the foundation for an organization that serves 5,000 individuals each year who are poor and who experience serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders.

  12. Consumption of alcohol in mental health services in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

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    Luciane Prado Kantorski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcoholism has been a major concern of public health worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, approximately 76.3 million people presented problems of alcohol abuse in 2004. Therefore, the risks arising from the association of psychiatric disorders with alcohol consumption should also be considered in the context of mental health services. Objective: This study aimed to analyze alcohol consumption by the users of Therapeutic Residential Services- SRT and Psychosocial Care Centers- CAPS in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methodology: The present study is part of a research entitled Rehabilitation Networks - REDESUL, carried out from September to December 2009 in five municipalities of the aforementioned Brazilian state. The total sample comprised 392 users: 143 from the SRT and 270 from the CAPS services, with intersection of 21 members. Results: The results showed that of the 392 care service users, only 29 had consumed alcohol during the four weeks prior to the survey. The majority of these 29 users were between 31 and 59 years old, male, single, and only n = 13 (48.28% reported being aware of their psychiatric disorders, with prevalence of schizophrenia n = 7 (24.13% followed by bipolar disorders n = 3 (10.34%. Conclusion: It is necessary that the mental health teams are also trained to work with alcohol users, regardless of the type of mental health service they work for, and that they develop actions in relation to guidance on alcohol consumption, treatment adherence, rehabilitation, and integration of users to the community.

  13. Creativity as a distinct trainable mental state: An EEG study of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Joel A; Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Joanisse, Marc F

    2017-03-18

    Alpha-band EEG was used to index how creative mental states relate to the creation of artistic works in skilled musicians. We contrasted differences in frontal upper alpha-band activity between tasks with high and low creativity demands by recording EEGs while skilled musicians listened to, played back, and improvised jazz melodies. Neural responses were compared for skilled musicians with training in musical improvisation versus those who had no formal improvisation training. Consistent with our hypotheses, individuals showed increased frontal upper alpha-band activity during more creative tasks (i.e., improvisation) compared to during less creative tasks (i.e., rote playback). Moreover, this effect was greatest for musicians with formal improvisation training. The strength of this effect also appeared to modulate the quality of these improvisations, as evidenced by significant correlations between upper alpha EEG power and objective post-hoc ratings of individuals' performances. These findings support a conceptualization of creativity as a distinct mental state and suggest spontaneous processing capacity is better nurtured through formal institutional training than informal.

  14. Amicus Curiae Brief for the United States Supreme Court on Mental Health Issues Associated with "Physician-Assisted Suicide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Gordon, Judith R.

    2002-01-01

    After providing background material related to the Supreme Court cases on "physician-assisted suicide" (Washington v. Glucksberg, 1997, and Vacco v. Quill, 1997), this article presents the amicus curiae brief that was submitted to the United States Supreme Court by 2 national mental health organizations, a state psychological association, and an…

  15. Altered regional homogeneity in pediatric bipolar disorder during manic state: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xiao

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD is a severely debilitating illness, which is characterized by episodes of mania and depression separated by periods of remission. Previous fMRI studies investigating PBD were mainly task-related. However, little is known about the abnormalities in PBD, especially during resting state. Resting state brain activity measured by fMRI might help to explore neurobiological biomarkers of the disorder. METHODS: Regional homogeneity (ReHo was examined with resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI on 15 patients with PBD in manic state, with 15 age-and sex-matched healthy youth subjects as controls. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, the patients with PBD showed altered ReHo in the cortical and subcortical structures. The ReHo measurement of the PBD group was negatively correlated with the score of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS in the superior frontal gyrus. Positive correlations between the ReHo measurement and the score of YMRS were found in the hippocampus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the PBD group. CONCLUSIONS: Altered regional brain activity is present in patients with PBD during manic state. This study presents new evidence for abnormal ventral-affective and dorsal-cognitive circuits in PBD during resting state and may add fresh insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PBD.

  16. The Effects of State Terrorism and Exile on Indigenous Guatemalan Refugee Children: A Mental Health Assessment and an Analysis of Children's Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth E.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the mental health and psychosocial development of 58 Guatemalan Mayan children living in 2 refugee camps in the Mexican state of Chiapas. Found only minimal evidence of psychological trauma among the children and a positive relationship between children's mental health and the health status (physical and mental) of their mothers. (MDM)

  17. Predicting the likelihood of altered streamflows at ungauged rivers across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Kenny; Carlisle, Daren M.; Wolock, David M.; Falcone, James A.

    2013-01-01

    An approach is presented in this study to aid water-resource managers in characterizing streamflow alteration at ungauged rivers. Such approaches can be used to take advantage of the substantial amounts of biological data collected at ungauged rivers to evaluate the potential ecological consequences of altered streamflows. National-scale random forest statistical models are developed to predict the likelihood that ungauged rivers have altered streamflows (relative to expected natural condition) for five hydrologic metrics (HMs) representing different aspects of the streamflow regime. The models use human disturbance variables, such as number of dams and road density, to predict the likelihood of streamflow alteration. For each HM, separate models are derived to predict the likelihood that the observed metric is greater than (‘inflated’) or less than (‘diminished’) natural conditions. The utility of these models is demonstrated by applying them to all river segments in the South Platte River in Colorado, USA, and for all 10-digit hydrologic units in the conterminous United States. In general, the models successfully predicted the likelihood of alteration to the five HMs at the national scale as well as in the South Platte River basin. However, the models predicting the likelihood of diminished HMs consistently outperformed models predicting inflated HMs, possibly because of fewer sites across the conterminous United States where HMs are inflated. The results of these analyses suggest that the primary predictors of altered streamflow regimes across the Nation are (i) the residence time of annual runoff held in storage in reservoirs, (ii) the degree of urbanization measured by road density and (iii) the extent of agricultural land cover in the river basin.

  18. Mental health of refugees following state-sponsored repatriation from Germany

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    Elbert Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, Voluntary Assisted Return Programmes (VARPs have received increasing funding as a potential way of reducing the number of refugees in EU member states. A number of factors may affect the mental well-being of returnees. These include adjustment to the home country following return, difficult living conditions, and long-term effects resulting from the severe traumatic stress that had originally driven the affected out of their homes. Little is known about the extent to which these and other factors may promote or inhibit the willingness of refugees to return to their country of origin. The present pilot study investigated refugees who returned to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 13 years. Methods Forty-seven VARP participants were interviewed concerning their present living conditions, their views of their native country, and their attitudes towards a potential return prior to actually returning. 33 participants were interviewed nine months after returning to their country of origin. Mental health and well-being were assessed using the questionnaires Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS and EUROHIS and the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Our objectives were to examine the mental health status of refugees returning to their home country following an extended period of exile. We also aimed to assess the circumstances under which people decided to return, the current living conditions in their home country, and retrospective returnee evaluations of their decision to accept assisted return. Results Prior to returning to their home country, participants showed a prevalence rate of 53% for psychiatric disorders. After returning, this rate increased to a sizeable 88%. Substantial correlations were found between the living situation in Germany, the disposition to return, and mental health. For two thirds of the participants, the decision

  19. What's in the 'treatment gap'? Ethnographic perspectives on addiction and global mental health from China, Russia, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Nicholas; Garriott, William; Raikhel, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a 'global mental health' agenda, focused on providing evidence-based interventions for mental illnesses in low- and middle-income countries. Anthropologists and cultural psychiatrists have engaged in vigorous debates about the appropriateness of this agenda. In this article, we reflect on these debates, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork on the management of substance use disorders in China, Russia, and the United States. We argue that the logic of 'treatment gaps,' which guides much research and intervention under the rubric of global mental health, partially obscures the complex assemblages of institutions, therapeutics, knowledges, and actors framing and managing addiction (as well as other mental health issues) in any particular setting.

  20. Disturbances of visual information processing in early states of psychosis and experimental delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, Dagmar; Gerth, Christoph W; Neatby, Miriam A; Haensel, Anita; Thies, Martin; Schneider, Udo; Emrich, Hinderk M; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Leweke, F Markus

    2006-12-01

    Recent data on alterations of the endogenous cannabinoid system in schizophrenia have raised the question of its functional role in this disease. The psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), has been shown to induce psychotic symptoms, but it is unknown to what extend prodromal states of psychoses are reflected by these experimental approaches. This study compares four groups of subjects: antipsychotic-naïve patients suffering from acute paranoid schizophrenic or schizophreniform psychosis (SZ), patients in the prodromal state (IPS), healthy controls without any pharmacological intervention (HC) and a second group of healthy volunteers who were orally administered synthetic Delta9-THC (Dronabinol) (HC-THC). Neither SZ and IPS nor HC received the experimental drug. All subjects were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Binocular Depth Inversion Illusion Test (BDII). The latter represents a sensitive measure of impaired visual information processing that manifests in various experimental and naturally occurring psychotic states. BDII values were well comparable in SZ, IPS and HC-THC, and all groups differed significantly to HC. The BPRS revealed no significant difference between HC-THC and IPS while both were significantly different from SZ and HC, respectively. Our results suggest that Delta9-THC-induced altered states of consciousness may serve as a useful tool for modeling psychotic disorders, particularly their prodromal states. Furthermore, they provide insight into the perceptual and psychopathological alterations induced by Delta9-THC, which is essential for the understanding of the pro-psychotic effects of herbal cannabis preparations with highly enriched Delta9-THC content.

  1. Altered Standards of Care: An Analysis of Existing Federal, State, and Local Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    surrounding altered standards of care from multiple federal, state, regulatory, and academic sources. Chapter III (Methodology) provides background...standards of care, the legal ramifications must be addressed, or the policies will break down at the caregiver level when malpractice risk is at...suggested that academics can assume clinical roles in providing assistance to patients, but there is no requirement that academic physicians have clinical

  2. Effect of Mental State on the Rate of Identifying the Relevancy of Documents Retrieved in a Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Farhoudi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the link between various users’ mental state while searching information systems with the outcome of the resulting documents retrieved. Various factors such as user knowledge, search skills, motivation and aims influence the decisions and evaluation of users regarding documents retrieved. MMPI instrument was used to identify users’ mental states. The sample was drawn from female senior students of librarianship, using systematic random sampling. The findings indicated that anxiety and depression have significant inverse relationship to the rate of relevancy identification of the documents retrieved by the users.

  3. Developing communicative competence: a longitudinal study of the acquisition of mental state terms and indirect requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mulder, Hannah

    2015-09-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in four-year-olds, but full understanding had not been reached even at five years old. Furthermore, although ToM predicted both IR and MST when linguistic ability was not taken into account, this relationship was no longer significant once the language measures were added. Linguistic ability thus seems to play an important role in the development of both IR and MST. Additional analyses revealed that whereas syntactic ability was the primary predictor of IR, spatial language was the best predictor of MST, suggesting that IR relies primarily on general linguistic skills, but that more specific aspects of language may bootstrap MST.

  4. Mental state and quality of life after 10 session whole-body cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Borsuk, Paulina; Pawik, Malwina; Rymaszewska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a whole-body cryotherapy (WBCT) on various parameters of the mental state of patients depending on their age, gender, and diagnosed illness. The study included 55 subjects - 43 women and 12 men aged from 20 to 70 years. Based on the diagnosed illness, the patients were divided into two diagnostic groups. The first group consisted of patients with spinal pain syndromes (n = 34). The second group comprised patients with peripheral joint disease (n = 21). All patients underwent 10 WBCT sessions. The subjects completed a survey at two time points: before the first WBCT treatment (T1) and after completing the tenth treatment (T2). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-Bref) questionnaire and the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI) questionnaire were used in the study. After a series of WBCT treatments, the WHOQOL-Bref and PGWBI scores significantly improved (p = .005161, p = .000862, respectively). WBCT proved to be more effective in enhancing the mood and well-being of the patients than in improving their quality of life. WBCT has a significant influence on improving the well-being and mood of patients (in terms of both psychological and somatic aspects) and consequently leads to an improvement in their quality of life. The worse the mental state of the patients is prior to the cryotherapy, the stronger its effect. The observed effectiveness of cryotherapy was the strongest in women, patients with spinal pains and in patients with severe depressive symptoms.

  5. THE BRAZILIAN STATE ALTERATIONS: THE STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES MODIFICATION IN 1990' DECADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Lucas Macêdo Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article propose to analyze the changes in the business sector of Brazilian state in the decades 80’s and 90’s. The problem is in the critical discussion of the forms of organization of the Brazilian national economy in the economic order begun in the 80’s. The business sector of Brazilian was one of the ways arranged for the insertion of the Brazilian economy in the economic order in the twentieth century, since the thirties, and from the 80’s with significant changes. Those changes are analyzed using the contextualization on theoretical considerations explored by literature, and the analysis of legislated documents. All institutional arrangements of state business sector were conducted on the issue of regulatory texts. The order of the documents indicated the ranking and teleology of the policies adopted during the period: (i there are analysis of the Constitutions of 1967 (enforce at the beginning of the 80’s and the Constitution of 1988, and the Constitutional Amendments of the 90’s; (ii there are analysis of the legislated documents as ordinary laws and decrees of the Executive. With the analysis of the legislated documents, we describe and interpret the history of state-owned businesses from the documents that give the institutional, structural and functional outline of the state-owned businesses. The documents also express the general guidelines of the state economic policy, including the positions of the states in the business sector that are the object analyzed in this article.

  6. 'Void existence' as against 'annihilation existence': Differentiating two qualities in primitive mental states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdarsky, Irit Hameiri

    2015-10-01

    This paper attempts to distil out a particular quality of psychic (non)existence, which I call here 'void existence', from the quality predominantly explored in the psychoanalytic discourse on primitive mental states, which I call 'annihilation existence'. Achieving this phenomenological differentiation may make it easier to identify and work through extreme states in the analytic situation, when the patient is under the dominance of 'void existence'. I suggest that it is, as it were, a one-dimensional existence, in an infinite contour-less void, lacking any substantial internal object, lacking any substantial sense of psychic and/or somatic occurrences, and lacking any live representation of this very state of being. Hence, it lacks distress and anxiety, as well as calmness and peace. One might say that it is the inorganic within the organic; a quality of non-alive-ness within life. 'Annihilation existence' is existence in a two- or three-dimensional hollowed world, with flat and/or partial representations of self and object, which attracts acute distress and annihilation anxiety. It is a sort of existence on the brink of non-life, on the brink of the void; where a sense of catastrophic danger is brought on by the never-ending potentiality of the annihilation's realization. Both these psychic qualities can be encapsulated within neurotic and personality disorders, and the dominance of each can serve as defence against the dominance of the other. The theoretical discussion is supported by excerpts from an analysis.

  7. Stress Coping Levels and Mental States of Police Vocational School of Higher Education Students

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    Arzu Yildirim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: This study was planned and carried out with the objective of determining stress coping levels and mental state of students attending Police Vocational Schools of Higher Education, in addition to factors effecting these. MATERIAL and METHOD: This desciptive and cross-sectional study consisted of 300 male students enrolled in the 2005-2006 academic year, at Police Vocational School of Higher Education, located in central Erzincan, Turkey. In this study, instead of random sampling, 281 (93.7% students who were present at the school at the time of the study and accepted to partipate in it were included. Data for this study was collected using a desciptive form created by the researchers, Rosenbaum’s Learned Resourcefulness Scale (RLRS and The Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R. During the data analysis, frequency distributions, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA were used; and for analysis of independent groups, t-test was used. RESULTS: Among the students, it was determined that 54.8% were 1. grade, 90.7% had their parents living together, 43.5% had a father and 60.5% had a mother who graduated from elementary school, fathers of 23.5% of students were retired, 93.6% of them had mothers who were home makers. In addition, it was found out that 78.6% of students chose their profession willingly, the average family income of 71.5% of students were at medium levels, 82.9% always believed in themselves and 63.3% of students did not smoke. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that second grade students, those with mothers who are highly educated and those who trusted themselved all the time had significantly high stress coping levels; students who chose their own profession, believed in themselves and did not smoke had significantly low levels of mental symptom indications. CONCLUSION: In this study, the students were determined to posess averge levels of stress coping skills and they were found

  8. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: Will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recove...

  9. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recover...

  10. How Do Use and Comprehension of Mental-State Language Relate to Theory of Mind in Middle Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzani, Ilaria; Ornaghi, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between mental-state language and theory of mind in primary school children. The participants were 110 primary school students (mean age = 9 years and 7 months; SD = 12.7 months). They were evenly divided by gender and belonged to two age groups (8- and 10-year-olds). Linguistic, metacognitive and cognitive…

  11. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information about characters'…

  12. "Do" Sweat It: Using a Fitness Session as an Introduction to Research on the Relationship between Physical and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Amy L.; Hrivnak, George A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a hands-on experiential exercise session in a fitness center is presented as a teaching tool for management instructors to facilitate a theoretically based discussion about the connection between individuals' physical and mental states. Before discussing the components of the exercise session itself, a rationale for integrating…

  13. Unambiguous observation of blocked states reveals altered, blocker-induced, cardiac ryanodine receptor gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Thomas, N. Lowri; Williams, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of ions through membrane channels is precisely regulated by gates. The architecture and function of these elements have been studied extensively, shedding light on the mechanisms underlying gating. Recent investigations have focused on ion occupancy of the channel’s selectivity filter and its ability to alter gating, with most studies involving prokaryotic K+ channels. Some studies used large quaternary ammonium blocker molecules to examine the effects of altered ionic flux on gating. However, the absence of blocking events that are visibly distinct from closing events in K+ channels makes unambiguous interpretation of data from single channel recordings difficult. In this study, the large K+ conductance of the RyR2 channel permits direct observation of blocking events as distinct subconductance states and for the first time demonstrates the differential effects of blocker molecules on channel gating. This experimental platform provides valuable insights into mechanisms of blocker-induced modulation of ion channel gating. PMID:27703263

  14. CALL interrupted in a patient with non-specific mental retardation: gene dosage-dependent alteration of murine brain development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frints, Suzanna G M; Marynen, Peter; Hartmann, Dieter; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Steyaert, Jean; Schachner, Melitta; Rolf, Bettina; Craessaerts, Katleen; Snellinx, An; Hollanders, Karen; D'Hooge, Rudi; De Deyn, Peter P; Froyen, Guy

    2003-07-01

    Investigation of MR patients with 3p aberrations led to the identification of the translocation breakpoint in intron five of the neural Cell Adhesion L1-Like (CALL or CHL1) gene in a man with non-specific mental retardation and 46,Y, t(X;3)(p22.1;p26.3). The Xp breakpoint does not seem to affect a known or predicted gene. Moreover, a fusion transcript with the CALL gene could not be detected and no mutations were identified on the second allele. CALL is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system, like the mouse ortholog 'close homolog to L1' (Chl1). Chl1 expression levels in the hippocampus of Chl1(+/-) mice were half of those obtained in wild-type littermates, reflecting a gene dosage effect. Timm staining and synaptophysin immunohistochemistry of the hippocampus showed focal groups of ectopic mossy fiber synapses in the lateral CA3 region, outside the trajectory of the infra-pyramidal mossy fiber bundle in Chl1(-/-) and Chl1(+/-) mice. Behavioral assessment demonstrated mild alterations in the Chl1(-/-) animals. In the probe trial of the Morris Water Maze test, Chl1(-/-) mice displayed an altered exploratory pattern. In addition, these mice were significantly more sociable and less aggressive as demonstrated in social exploration tests. The Chl1(+/-) mice showed a phenotypic spectrum ranging from wild-type to knockout behavior. We hypothesize that a 50% reduction of CALL expression in the developing brain results in cognitive deficits. This suggests that the CALL gene at 3p26.3 is a prime candidate for an autosomal form of mental retardation. So far, mutation analysis of the CALL gene in patients with non-specific MR did not reveal any disease-associated mutations.

  15. Effects of a hypnotically altered state of consciousness on intensification of semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendi, István; Kovács, Zoltán Ambrus; Szekeres, György; Galsi, Gabriella; Boda, Krisztina; Boncz, István; Janka, Zoltán

    2009-10-01

    In a study of the linguistic processes involved in hypnosis, 22 volunteer medical students performed semantic and phonologic fluency tasks and then associative priming tests with 2 delay-lengths in waking alert and hypnotic conditions as well. The participants performed better during semantic than phonological fluency tests in alert and also in hypnotic states, and this difference was significantly greater in hypnosis. The increased semantic performance in hypnosis was accompanied by a decrease of the rule-offending errors. Significant semantic priming effects were detected in both states of consciousness in direct and indirect relations as well as in the automatic, intralexical level, and also when the extralexical control processes were activated. Overall, the results appear to show that the hypnotically altered state of consciousness produces significantly better performance in semantic information processing than can be elicited in alert waking conditions.

  16. Dual diagnosis capability in mental health and addiction treatment services: an assessment of programs across multiple state systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark P; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; Gotham, Heather J; Claus, Ronald E; Xie, Haiyi

    2014-03-01

    Despite increased awareness of the benefits of integrated services for persons with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders, estimates of the availability of integrated services vary widely. The present study utilized standardized measures of program capacity to address co-occurring disorders, the dual diagnosis capability in addiction treatment and dual diagnosis capability in mental health treatment indexes, and sampled 256 programs across the United States. Approximately 18 % of addiction treatment and 9 % of mental health programs met criteria for dual diagnosis capable services. This is the first report on public access to integrated services using objective measures.

  17. Nutritional state alterations in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during induction and consolidation of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Arangure, J M; Fajardo-Gutíerrez, A; Bernáldez-Ríos, R; Rodríguez-Zepeda, M C; Espinoza-Hernández, L; Martínez-García, M C

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if children with high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exhibit higher frequency of alterations in nutritional state during the phases of induction and consolidation of chemotherapy than children with low risk ALL, based on the arm muscle area. The design was concurrent comparative cohorts. It was performed at pediatric hematology service of the Hospital General del Centro Médico Nacional "La Raza" and hematology service of the Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional "Siglo XXI". One hundred-five patients were incorporated into the study: 53 with high risk (HR) ALL and 52 with low risk (LR) ALL. Basal measurements of arm circumference and tricipital skinfold were surveyed monthly (for 3 months) by standardized personnel. Altered nutritional state during follow-up was defined as the loss of 10% or more of the arm muscular area (AMA) measured at diagnosis. Statistics of proportion analysis with a significance level of 0.05 and relative risk (RR) with confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. In the first month the RR was 0.77 (CI 0.31-1.87); the LR group was the most affected. In the second month the RR was 7.31 (CI 1.41-38.03); the most affected group was the HR. In the third month the RR was 1.77 (CI 0.60-4.92); the HR group was the most affected. High-risk patients show a higher frequency of nutritional state alterations reflected in AMA during the second month after diagnosis. This may be caused by the more aggressive chemotherapy received by these patients.

  18. Do actions speak louder than knowledge? Action manipulation, parental discourse, and children's mental state understanding in pretense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Dawn K; Claxton, Laura J

    2014-12-01

    Studies on pretense mental state understanding in young children have produced inconsistent findings. These findings could potentially emerge from the confounding influences of action manipulation or the failure to examine possible influences on individual children's performances. To address these issues, we created a task in which 68 3- and 4-year-olds viewed two actors, side by side, on a monitor. Children were told that one actor was knowledgeable about a specific animal, whereas the other actor was not. The actors performed identical movements that were either related or unrelated to the animal they were mimicking or engaged in different behaviors contradictory to their knowledge. Saliency of action was also manipulated by presenting either dynamic images or a paused frame of the actors' behavior (i.e., the static condition). Children performed similarly on the dynamic and static conditions. Children selected the knowledgeable actor more often in the unrelated and related trials but were not as successful at selecting the knowledgeable actor when the actor's knowledge contradicted the actor's behavior. Therefore, by 3 years of age, some children may understand that pretend play involves mental representations and appreciate that the mind influences a pretender's behavior. To investigate the observed individual differences, we also examined children and parents as they engaged in reading and pretense activities prior to data collection. The frequency of parents' cognitive mental state utterances strongly predicted performance on the mental state task. Individual differences in performance as a result of parental language and executive functioning abilities are discussed.

  19. Abortion, substance abuse and mental health in early adulthood: Thirteen-year longitudinal evidence from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Paul Sullins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes (birth, abortion, or involuntary pregnancy loss and mental health outcomes for US women during the transition into adulthood to determine the extent of increased risk, if any, associated with exposure to induced abortion. Method: Panel data on pregnancy history and mental health history for a nationally representative cohort of 8005 women at (average ages 15, 22, and 28 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were examined for risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, cannabis abuse, and nicotine dependence by pregnancy outcome (birth, abortion, and involuntary pregnancy loss. Risk ratios were estimated for time-dynamic outcomes from population-averaged longitudinal logistic and Poisson regression models. Results: After extensive adjustment for confounding, other pregnancy outcomes, and sociodemographic differences, abortion was consistently associated with increased risk of mental health disorder. Overall risk was elevated 45% (risk ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.30–1.62; p < 0.0001. Risk of mental health disorder with pregnancy loss was mixed, but also elevated 24% (risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–1.37; p < 0.0001 overall. Birth was weakly associated with reduced mental disorders. One-eleventh (8.7%; 95% confidence interval, 6.0–11.3 of the prevalence of mental disorders examined over the period were attributable to abortion. Conclusion: Evidence from the United States confirms previous findings from Norway and New Zealand that, unlike other pregnancy outcomes, abortion is consistently associated with a moderate increase in risk of mental health disorders during late adolescence and early adulthood.

  20. Abortion, substance abuse and mental health in early adulthood: Thirteen-year longitudinal evidence from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullins, Donald Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes (birth, abortion, or involuntary pregnancy loss) and mental health outcomes for US women during the transition into adulthood to determine the extent of increased risk, if any, associated with exposure to induced abortion. Method: Panel data on pregnancy history and mental health history for a nationally representative cohort of 8005 women at (average) ages 15, 22, and 28 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were examined for risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, cannabis abuse, and nicotine dependence by pregnancy outcome (birth, abortion, and involuntary pregnancy loss). Risk ratios were estimated for time-dynamic outcomes from population-averaged longitudinal logistic and Poisson regression models. Results: After extensive adjustment for confounding, other pregnancy outcomes, and sociodemographic differences, abortion was consistently associated with increased risk of mental health disorder. Overall risk was elevated 45% (risk ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.30–1.62; p mental health disorder with pregnancy loss was mixed, but also elevated 24% (risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–1.37; p mental disorders. One-eleventh (8.7%; 95% confidence interval, 6.0–11.3) of the prevalence of mental disorders examined over the period were attributable to abortion. Conclusion: Evidence from the United States confirms previous findings from Norway and New Zealand that, unlike other pregnancy outcomes, abortion is consistently associated with a moderate increase in risk of mental health disorders during late adolescence and early adulthood.

  1. [Common mental disorders and social support in a rural community in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Albanita Gomes da; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders and the association with social support in a community located in the Zona da Mata, a sugar cane plantation area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A household survey was carried out and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the Medical Outcomes Study, and socioeconomic questions were administered to all residents over 19 years of age. Total prevalence of common mental disorders was 36.0%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with low social support had twice the probability of suffering from common mental disorders (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.35-3.24) as compared to those with greater support, even after adjusting for age, schooling, and work force participation. The results show the importance of investments in social support networks to promote interactions between individuals and increase individuals' self-confidence and power to deal with problems.

  2. Evaluation of service users' experiences of participating in an exercise programme at the Western Australian State Forensic Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynaden, Dianne; Barr, Lesley; Omari, Omar; Fulton, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Approximately 210 patients are admitted each year to the Western Australian State Forensic Mental Health Service, and most present with psychotic illness, along with other physical and mental comorbidities. In 2010, a healthy lifestyle programme, which included a formal exercise programme coordinated by an exercise physiologist, was introduced at the service. A self-report questionnaire was developed to obtain feedback on the programme, and 56 patients completed the questionnaire during the 6-month evaluation period. As well as providing patients with access to regular physical activity, the programme also supports the recovery philosophy, where patients work in partnership with forensic mental health staff. Overall, patients reported that the programme assisted them to manage their psychiatric symptoms, as well as improving their level of fitness, confidence, and self-esteem. In addition, patients received education about the importance of regular exercise to their mental health, and the role exercise plays in preventing chronic illness and obesity. While the benefits of exercise on mental health outcomes for people with depression and anxiety are well established, this evaluation adds to the evidence that such programmes provide similar benefits to people who have a psychotic illness and are hospitalized in an acute secure setting.

  3. Altered expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins and improved myocardial energetic state during late ischemic preconditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Cabrera (Jesús); E.A. Ziemba (Elizabeth); L.H. Colbert (Lisa); L.B. Anderson (Lorraine); W.J. Sluiter (Wim); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); T.A. Butterick (Tammy); J. Sikora (Joseph); H.B. Ward (Herbert B.); R.F. Kelly (Rosemary); E.O. McFalls (Edward)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAltered expression of mitochondrial electron transport proteins has been shown in early preconditioned myocardial tissue. We wished to determine whether these alterations persist in the Second Window of Protection (SWOP) and if so, whether a favorable energetic state is facilitated durin

  4. Towards a system-paced near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interface: differentiating prefrontal activity due to mental arithmetic and mental singing from the no-control state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah D.; Kushki, Azadeh; Chau, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently been investigated as a non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) for individuals with severe motor impairments. For the most part, previous research has investigated the development of NIRS-BCIs operating under synchronous control paradigms, which require the user to exert conscious control over their mental activity whenever the system is vigilant. Though functional, this is mentally demanding and an unnatural way to communicate. An attractive alternative to the synchronous control paradigm is system-paced control, in which users are required to consciously modify their brain activity only when they wish to affect the BCI output, and can remain in a more natural, 'no-control' state at all other times. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one intentional control (IC) state corresponding to the performance of either mental arithmetic or mental singing. In particular, this involved determining if these tasks could be distinguished, individually, from the unconstrained 'no-control' state. Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations (International 10-20 System) while eight able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and mental singing to answer multiple-choice questions within a system-paced paradigm. With a linear classifier trained on a six-dimensional feature set, an overall classification accuracy of 71.2% across participants was achieved for the mental arithmetic versus no-control classification problem. While the mental singing versus no-control classification was less successful across participants (62.7% on average), four participants did attain accuracies well in excess of chance, three of which were above 70%. Analyses were performed offline. Collectively, these results are encouraging, and demonstrate the potential of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one IC state corresponding to

  5. Theory of Mind: Understanding Young Children's Pretence and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, research has focused on the understanding of pretence as an important means for young children to conceptualise the mind. Many use the phrase "mental representation" to a mental model of some entity or concept, which describes what is inside the minds of young children in relation to a real-world situation or…

  6. Productive potentials or protected individuals? The concept of disability and mental illness in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringø, Pia; Høgsbro, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    of mental problems and vulnerability have all through history motivated different guidelines for social work practice when it comes to people with cognitive and mental deficits and in the final section of the chapter, we discuss how current sociological, neurological, and psychiatric perspectives...

  7. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaudreau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 30 healthy control (HC subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing.

  8. Wearable physiological sensors reflect mental stress state in office-like situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, Jacqueline; Grundlehner, Bernard; Liu, Hao; Penders, Julien; Hermens, Hermie

    2013-01-01

    Timely mental stress detection can help to prevent stress-related health problems. The aim of this study was to identify those physiological signals and features suitable for detecting mental stress in office-like situations. Electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, skin conductance and surface electro

  9. An eight month randomized controlled exercise intervention alters resting state synchrony in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, C E; Pierce, J E; Schwarz, N F; Chi, L; Weinberger, A L; Schaeffer, D J; Rodrigue, A L; Camchong, J; Allison, J D; Yanasak, N E; Liu, T; Davis, C L; McDowell, J E

    2014-01-03

    Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) children 8-11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Independent components analysis identified several networks, with four chosen for between-group analysis: salience, default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks. The default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks showed more spatial refinement over time in the exercise group compared to controls. The motor network showed increased synchrony in the exercise group with the right medial frontal gyrus compared to controls. Exercise behavior may enhance brain development in children.

  10. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment.

  11. Cognitive impairment in patients with Fibromyalgia syndrome as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejas Javier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the frequency of cognitive impairment in patients with Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Methods We analyzed baseline data from all 46 patients with FMS and 92 age- and sex-matched controls per diagnosis of neuropathic (NeP or mixed pain (MP selected from a larger prospective study. Results FMS had a slight but statistically significant lower score in the adjusted MMSE score (26.9; 95% CI 26.7-27.1 than either NeP (27.3; 95% CI 27.2-27.4 or MP (27.3; 27.2-27.5. The percentage of patients with congnitive impairment (adjusted MMSE ≤ 26 was numerically higher in FMS (15%; 95% CI 6.3-29 compared with NeP (5%; 95% CI 1.8-12.2 or MP (5%; 95% CI 1.8-12.2 and higher than in the same age stratum of the general population (0.05%. Conclusions Compared with the population reference value, patients with FMS showed high frequency of cognitive impairment.

  12. Mini- Mental State Examination among lower educationl levels and illiterates: transcultural evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Dozzi Brucki

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive performance among illiterates and low educational levels is poorer than that observed in individuals with greater schooling. This difference can be a confounding factor in reaching an accurate diagnosis of cognitive impairment. In addition, there is great heterogeneity in performance among illiterates, probably due to different environmental demands and sociocultural backgrounds. Many reports have described the influence of education on neuropsychological measures and screening tests such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Objectives: To analyze performance in two samples with the same educational level, but different social and cultural backgrounds. Methods: Subjects from two different locations in Brazil (rural sample from Northern region and urban sample residing in the largest city of the Southeastern region were matched for age and education, and submitted to the MMSE. Results: Significant differences between the groups were found in total scores on the MMSE and in temporal orientation and serial-sevens sub-items for which the urban sample performed best but analysis of illiterates alone yielded the same results, except for the copying pentagons task which was performed better by the rural sample. Conclusions: Cultural and social backgrounds, as well as demands from the environment, influence results of screening tests. Factors other than education must be taken into account when analyzing tests.

  13. Bias against disconfirmatory evidence in the 'at-risk mental state' and during psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenacher, Sarah; Rausch, Franziska; Mier, Daniela; Fenske, Sabrina; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Englisch, Susanne; Becker, Anna; Andreou, Christina; Moritz, Steffen; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2016-04-30

    Prior studies have confirmed a bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) in schizophrenia which has been associated with delusions. However, its role in the pathogenesis of psychosis is yet unclear. The objective was to investigate BADE for the first time in subjects with an at-risk-mental-state for psychosis (ARMS), patients with a first episode of psychosis without antipsychotic treatment (FEP) and healthy controls (HC). A standard BADE test presenting written scenarios was employed. In addition, psychometric rating scales and a neuropsychological test battery were applied. A three-staged image was revealed. FEP-patients showed a significant BADE compared to the other groups. The performance of ARMS-patients lay in between HC and FEP-patients. A trend towards significance became evident for a bias against confirmatory evidence (BACE) in FEP-patients. Results were not attributable to antipsychotic or other medication or depressive symptoms. Correlations with delusions reached medium effect sizes but failed significance after Bonferroni-corrections. These results provide evidence for aberrations in evidence integration in the pathogenesis of psychosis and contribute to our knowledge of metacognitive functioning which can be used for (meta-)cognitive intervention in psychosis.

  14. Identifying an appropriate measurement modeling approach for the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubright, Jonathan D; Nandakumar, Ratna; Karlawish, Jason

    2016-02-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a 30-item, dichotomously scored test of general cognition. A number of benefits could be gained by modeling the MMSE in an item response theory (IRT) framework, as opposed to the currently used classical additive approach. However, the test, which is built from groups of items related to separate cognitive subdomains, may violate a key assumption of IRT: local item independence. This study aimed to identify the most appropriate measurement model for the MMSE: a unidimensional IRT model, a testlet response theory model, or a bifactor model. Local dependence analysis using nationally representative data showed a meaningful violation of the local item independence assumption, indicating multidimensionality. In addition, the testlet and bifactor models displayed superior fit indices over a unidimensional IRT model. Statistical comparisons showed that the bifactor model fit MMSE respondent data significantly better than the other models considered. These results suggest that application of a traditional unidimensional IRT model is inappropriate in this context. Instead, a bifactor model is suggested for future modeling of MMSE data as it more accurately represents the multidimensional nature of the scale. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. SCREENING FOR POSTSTROKE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT VIA MINI MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION AND MONTREAL COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to examine cognitive performance after mild stroke via Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA and to compare the results.Material and methods: We examined 54 patients with mild stroke (aged 52 to 72 (mean 63.17, SD 5.96; 34 males and 20 females and 54 controls, adjusted by age, sex and education level. All subjects were tested via MMSE (Bulgarian version and MoCa (Bulgarian version. Data was collected in the single step model at the 90th day after stroke incident for patients and at the day of obtaining informed consent for controls. Results: Patients have poorer performance on both MMSE and MoCa than controls. MoCa has comparatively good discriminative validity and sensitivity.Conclusions: Although MMSE is one of the classical screening tools for cognitive impairment widely used in Bulgaria, other screening tools should not be ignored. On the basis of our results, MoCa is also a good screening instrument, especially for poststroke cognitive impairment.

  16. Broadly defined risk mental states during adolescence: disorganization mediates positive schizotypal expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbané, Martin; Badoud, Deborah; Balanzin, Dario; Eliez, Stephan

    2013-06-01

    While schizotypal features are common during adolescence, they can also signal increased risk for the onset of schizophreniform disorders. Most studies with adolescents find that hallucination and delusion-like symptoms (positive schizotypal features) best predict future psychopathology. Still, the developmental process of positive schizotypy remains elusive, specifically with regards to 1) its relationships to negative and disorganization schizotypal dimensions; 2) its associations to maladaptive functioning during adolescence. This longitudinal study aimed to further characterize these relationships, thereby delineating "early and broadly defined psychosis risk mental states" (Keshavan et al., 2011). The current study presents the 3-year course of schizotypal trait expression in 34 clinical adolescents aged 12 to 18 years consulting for non-psychotic difficulties. Schizotypal expression was assessed twice using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, accompanied by an examination of internalizing/externalizing problems using the Achenbach scales. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to assess the expression and course of schizotypal dimensions; mediation analyses were further employed to highlight the developmental interactions promoting the maintenance of positive schizotypal expression. The results reveal that positive schizotypy, and more specifically unusual perceptual experiences, significantly declined during the study interval. Disorganization features were found to mediate the relationships between the negative and positive dimensions of schizotypy within and across evaluations. Somatic complaints and attentional difficulties further strengthened the expression of positive schizotypy during the study interval. These results suggest that the relationship between disorganization features and positive schizotypy may play a central role in establishing risk for psychosis during adolescence.

  17. Structural alterations of the retinal microcirculation in the "prehypertensive" high- normal blood pressure state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Buzzi, Silvia; Dell'Oro, Raffaella; Mineo, Claudia; Dimitriadis, Kyriakos; Seravalle, Gino; Lonati, Laura; Cuspidi, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    The high-normal blood pressure (also known as prehypertension) is a clinical condition characterized by an increased cardiovascular risk as well as by the presence of target organ damage. This include an increased left ventricular mass, an endothelial dysfunction and an early renal functional and structural damage. Whether this is the case also for alterations of retinal vessels network, which are frequently detectable in established hypertension, is still largey undefined. The present paper, after discussing the main characteristics of the high-normal blood pressure state, will review the different approaches used throughout the years for assessing retinal microcirculatory network. Data collected by our group in subjects with high normal blood pressure will be also discussed, showing that arterial venular ratio values are reduced in this individuals with high-normal blood pressure and more so in established hypertension. These data indicate that retinal microvascular alterations 1) are of early appearance in the clinical course of hypertension and 2) are of frequent detection in the high-normal blood pressure state. The possible hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic mechanisms resposible for these structural alteations of the retinal microcirculation will be also discussed.

  18. Resting-state connectivity of the amygdala is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Douglas H; Balderston, Nicholas L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2012-01-01

    Neural plasticity in the amygdala is necessary for the acquisition and storage of memory in Pavlovian fear conditioning, but most neuroimaging studies have focused only on stimulus-evoked responses during the conditioning session. This study examined changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the amygdala before and after Pavlovian fear conditioning, an emotional learning task. Behavioral results from the conditioning session revealed that participants learned normally and fMRI data recorded during learning identified a number of stimulus-evoked changes that were consistent with previous work. A direct comparison between the pre- and post-conditioning amygdala connectivity revealed a region of dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the superior frontal gyrus that showed a significant increase in connectivity following the conditioning session. A behavioral measure of explicit memory performance was positively correlated with the change in amygdala connectivity within a neighboring region in the superior frontal gyrus. Additionally, an implicit autonomic measure of conditioning was positively correlated with the change in connectivity between the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The resting-state data show that amygdala connectivity is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning and that these changes are also related to behavioral outcomes. These alterations may reflect the operation of a consolidation process that strengthens neural connections to support memory after the learning event.

  19. Resting-state connectivity of the amygdala is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas H Schultz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity in the amygdala is necessary for the acquisition and storage of memory in Pavlovian fear conditioning, but most neuroimaging studies have focused only on stimulus-evoked responses during the conditioning session. This study examined changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC of the amygdala before and after Pavlovian fear conditioning, an emotional learning task. Behavioral results from the conditioning session revealed that participants learned normally and FMRI data recorded during learning identified a number of stimulus-evoked changes that were consistent with previous work. A direct comparison between the pre and post-conditioning amygdala connectivity revealed a region of dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC in the superior frontal gyrus that showed a significant increase in connectivity following the conditioning session. A behavioral measure of explicit memory performance was positively correlated with the change in amygdala connectivity within a neighboring region in the superior frontal gyrus. Additionally, an implicit autonomic measure of conditioning was positively correlated with the change in connectivity between the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex. The resting-state data show that amygdala connectivity is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning and that these changes are also related to behavioral outcomes. These alterations may reflect the operation of a consolidation process that strengthens neural connections to support memory after the learning event.

  20. Neuronal networks and mediators of cortical neurovascular coupling responses in normal and altered brain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecrux, C; Hamel, E

    2016-10-05

    Brain imaging techniques that use vascular signals to map changes in neuronal activity, such as blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging, rely on the spatial and temporal coupling between changes in neurophysiology and haemodynamics, known as 'neurovascular coupling (NVC)'. Accordingly, NVC responses, mapped by changes in brain haemodynamics, have been validated for different stimuli under physiological conditions. In the cerebral cortex, the networks of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons generating the changes in neural activity and the key mediators that signal to the vascular unit have been identified for some incoming afferent pathways. The neural circuits recruited by whisker glutamatergic-, basal forebrain cholinergic- or locus coeruleus noradrenergic pathway stimulation were found to be highly specific and discriminative, particularly when comparing the two modulatory systems to the sensory response. However, it is largely unknown whether or not NVC is still reliable when brain states are altered or in disease conditions. This lack of knowledge is surprising since brain imaging is broadly used in humans and, ultimately, in conditions that deviate from baseline brain function. Using the whisker-to-barrel pathway as a model of NVC, we can interrogate the reliability of NVC under enhanced cholinergic or noradrenergic modulation of cortical circuits that alters brain states.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  1. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) ...

  2. Childhood seduction, parental pathology and hysterical symptomatology: the genesis of an altered state of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, A

    1979-01-01

    A particular kind of altered state of consciousness, as it occurred during the course of a lengthy analysis, was analysed. Its structure was that of a hysterical symptom and it was based on a 'reminiscence' from the past. The rather specific pathogenic effect of a series of seduction/assaults, which formed the nidus for this symptom complex was carefully outlined. As a result certain defensive manoeuvres were set in motion. First a hypnoid state, based on a primitive identification with his mother and resting upon a fantasied symbiotic union with her, was activated. Then a specific defence, based upon the mechanism of denial and fostering a far reaching turning away from reality and espousing the primacy of a special type of fantasy formation which substituted for and acted as the emotional tie to this same parent was described. The importance of both the hypnoid state and the accompanying imagery (fantasy) formation for aiding in discharging the excitement of the overstimulated state was commented upon.

  3. Altered default network resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-na Ding

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGA. METHODS: Seventeen adolescents with IGA and 24 normal control adolescents underwent a 7.3 minute resting-state fMRI scan. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. To assess the relationship between IGA symptom severity and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas correlated with PCC connectivity were correlated with the scores of the 17 subjects with IGA on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11 and their hours of Internet use per week. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the distributions of the age, gender, and years of education between the two groups. The subjects with IGA showed longer Internet use per week (hours (p<0.0001 and higher CIAS (p<0.0001 and BIS-11 (p = 0.01 scores than the controls. Compared with the control group, subjects with IGA exhibited increased functional connectivity in the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe and middle temporal gyrus. The bilateral inferior parietal lobule and right inferior temporal gyrus exhibited decreased connectivity. Connectivity with the PCC was positively correlated with CIAS scores in the right precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, caudate, nucleus accumbens, supplementary motor area, and lingual gyrus. It was negatively correlated with the right cerebellum anterior lobe and left superior parietal lobule. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that adolescents with IGA exhibit different resting-state patterns of brain activity. As these alterations are partially consistent with those in patients

  4. Unemployment and Mental Health among Mexican Immigrants and other Population Groups in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza CAICEDO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos el impacto del desempleo en la salud mental de los inmigrantes mexicanos, comparando a éstos con los mexicanos nacidos en Estados Unidos, con otros hispanos, y con los nativos blancos y afroamericanos, con base en las National Health Interview Surveys de 1999 y 2009. Destacan las bajas prevalencias de tensiones sicológicas en los inmigrantes mexicanos. A pesar del aumento de las tasas de desempleo, los problemas de salud mental se mantuvieron estables; sin embargo, nuestros resultados sugieren un fuerte efecto negativo del desempleo sobre la salud mental. Efectos de la composición de los grupos ayudan a explicarlo. El impacto del desempleo sobre la salud mental aumenta considerablemente entre los blancos nativos, mientras en los grupos con más des - ventajas socioeconómicas, los afroamericanos y los hispanos, se mantuvo sin cambios.

  5. Phenotypic Dimensions of Spirituality: Implications for Mental Health in China, India, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Clayton H; Lau, Elsa; Miller, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    While the field of empirical study on religion and spirituality in relation to mental health has rapidly expanded over the past decade, little is known about underlying dimensions of spirituality cross-culturally conceived. We aimed to bridge this gap by inductively deriving potential universal dimensions of spirituality through a large-scale, multi-national data collection, and examining the relationships of these dimensions with common psychiatric conditions. Five-thousand five-hundred and twelve participants from China, India, and the United States completed a two-hour online survey consisting of wide-ranging measures of the lived experience of spirituality, as well as clinical assessments. A series of inductive Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and cross-validating Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) were conducted to derive common underlying dimensions of spirituality. Logistic regression analyses were then conducted with each dimension to predict depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety, and substance-related disorders. Preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by ESEM findings. Analyses of 40 spirituality measures revealed five invariant factors across countries which were interpreted as five dimensions of universal spiritual experience, specifically: love, in the fabric of relationships and as a sacred reality; unifying interconnectedness, as a sense of energetic oneness with other beings in the universe; altruism, as a commitment beyond the self with care and service; contemplative practice, such as meditation, prayer, yoga, or qigong; and religious and spiritual reflection and commitment, as a life well-examined. Love, interconnectedness, and altruism were associated with less risk of psychopathology for all countries. Religious and spiritual reflection and commitment and contemplative practice were associated with less risk in India and the United States but associated with greater risk in China. Education was directly

  6. Phenotypic Dimensions of Spirituality: Implications for Mental Health in China, India, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Hoi-Yun McClintock

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While the field of empirical study on religion and spirituality in relation to mental health has rapidly expanded over the past decade, little is known about underlying dimensions of spirituality cross-culturally conceived. We aimed to bridge this gap by inductively deriving potential universal dimensions of spirituality through a large-scale, multi-national data collection and examining the relationships of these dimensions with common psychiatric conditions. Five-thousand five-hundred twelve participants from China, India, and the United States completed a two-hour online survey consisting of wide-ranging measures of the lived experience of spirituality, as well as clinical assessments. A series of inductive Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and cross-validating Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM were conducted to derive common underlying dimensions of spirituality. Logistic regression analyses were then conducted with each dimension to predict depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety, and substance-related disorders. Preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by ESEM findings. Analyses of forty spirituality measures revealed five invariant factors across countries which were interpreted as five dimensions of universal spiritual experience, specifically: love, in the fabric of relationships and as a sacred reality; unifying interconnectedness, as a sense of energetic oneness with other beings in the universe; altruism, as a commitment beyond the self with care and service; contemplative practice, such as meditation, prayer, yoga, or qigong; and religious and spiritual reflection and commitment, as a life well-examined. Love, interconnectedness, and altruism were associated with less risk of psychopathology for all countries. Religious and spiritual reflection and commitment and contemplative practice were associated with less risk in India and the United States but associated with greater risk in China. Education

  7. Phenotypic Dimensions of Spirituality: Implications for Mental Health in China, India, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Clayton H.; Lau, Elsa; Miller, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    While the field of empirical study on religion and spirituality in relation to mental health has rapidly expanded over the past decade, little is known about underlying dimensions of spirituality cross-culturally conceived. We aimed to bridge this gap by inductively deriving potential universal dimensions of spirituality through a large-scale, multi-national data collection, and examining the relationships of these dimensions with common psychiatric conditions. Five-thousand five-hundred and twelve participants from China, India, and the United States completed a two-hour online survey consisting of wide-ranging measures of the lived experience of spirituality, as well as clinical assessments. A series of inductive Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and cross-validating Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) were conducted to derive common underlying dimensions of spirituality. Logistic regression analyses were then conducted with each dimension to predict depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety, and substance-related disorders. Preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by ESEM findings. Analyses of 40 spirituality measures revealed five invariant factors across countries which were interpreted as five dimensions of universal spiritual experience, specifically: love, in the fabric of relationships and as a sacred reality; unifying interconnectedness, as a sense of energetic oneness with other beings in the universe; altruism, as a commitment beyond the self with care and service; contemplative practice, such as meditation, prayer, yoga, or qigong; and religious and spiritual reflection and commitment, as a life well-examined. Love, interconnectedness, and altruism were associated with less risk of psychopathology for all countries. Religious and spiritual reflection and commitment and contemplative practice were associated with less risk in India and the United States but associated with greater risk in China. Education was directly

  8. State propaganda and mental disorders: the issue of psychiatric casualties among Japanese soldiers during the Asia-Pacific War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the politics of Japanese wartime medical policy, demonstrating how state propaganda about the people and their armed forces influenced authoritative views on health and what might endanger it. By focusing on the obstacles faced by psychiatrists trying to promote more official concern for mental health issues, it challenges the validity of figures indicating a low incidence of psychological trauma among the country's soldiers. Civilian psychiatrists had to contend with the threat of censorship and arrest for even discussing war-induced mental disorders; at the same time, army psychiatrists as military insiders were pressured to convince their patients that their conditions were not serious and did not merit compensation. While discussing the neglected topic of Japanese psychiatric casualties, an attempt is made to provide a comparative approach by referring to the state of military psychiatry in other national settings.

  9. Dopamine Release and Uptake Impairments and Behavioral Alterations Observed in Mice that Model Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Jenny L; O'Bryhim, Bliss E; Wenzel, Sara K; Fowler, Stephen C; Vorontsova, Elena; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Ortiz, Andrea N; Johnson, Michael A

    2010-10-20

    In this study we evaluated the relationship between amphetamine-induced behavioral alterations and dopamine release and uptake characteristics in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1 KO) mice, which model fragile X syndrome. The behavioral analyses, obtained at millisecond temporal resolution and 2 mm spatial resolution using a force-plate actometer, revealed that Fmr1 KO mice express a lower degree of focused stereotypy compared to wild type (WT) control mice after injection with 10 mg/kg (ip) amphetamine. To identify potentially related neurochemical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we measured electrically-evoked dopamine release and uptake using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes in striatal brain slices. At 10 weeks of age, dopamine release per pulse, which is dopamine release corrected for differences in uptake, was unchanged. However, at 15 (the age of behavioral testing) and 20 weeks of age, dopamine per pulse and the maximum rate of dopamine uptake was diminished in Fmr1 KO mice compared to WT mice. Dopamine uptake measurements, obtained at different amphetamine concentrations, indicated that dopamine transporters in both genotypes have equal affinities for amphetamine. Moreover, dopamine release measurements from slices treated with quinpirole, a D2-family receptor agonist, rule out enhanced D2 autoreceptor sensitivity as a mechanism of release inhibition. However, dopamine release, uncorrected for uptake and normalized against the corresponding pre-drug release peaks, increased in Fmr1 KO mice, but not in WT mice. Collectively, these data are consistent with a scenario in which a decrease in extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum result in diminished expression of focused stereotypy in Fmr1 KO mice.

  10. Migration, Adaptation, and Mental Health: The Experience of Southeast Asian Refugees in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG

    1991-01-01

    Policy-oriented research has tended to focus on objective dimensions of the refugee adaptation process (such as economic “self-sufficiency”, employment, and welfare dependency rates) than on subjective factors that are not only more difficult to measure but more often than not are seen as epiphenomenal (such as migration motives, acculturative attitudes, and mental health). Yet refugee “mental health” is no mere epiphenomenon: it both shapes and is shaped by those objective realities and as s...

  11. Altered states of consciousness and short-term psychological after-effects induced by the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in an urban context in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Giglio, Joel Sales; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2005-06-01

    This report describes psychological assessments of the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in the religious groups União do Vegetal and Santo Daime. Nineteen subjects who tried the beverage in Santo Daime rituals and nine subjects who tried it in União do Vegetal rituals were evaluated one to four days before their first ayahuasca experience in life and one to two weeks after this experience. Semistructured interviews and a structured psychiatric scale were used in the first evaluation to elicit set variables concerning attitudes towards the ayahuasca experience and to elicit mental health status. Mental health status was reassessed in the second evaluation, which also included a semistructured interview concerning the phenomenology of altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Predominantly positive expectancies concerning the ayahuasca experience were the most prominent findings concerning set variables. Visual phenomena, numinousness, peacefulness, insights and a distressing reaction were the most salient ASC experiences. A significant reduction of the intensity of minor psychiatric symptoms occurred in the Santo Daime group after the hallucinogen experience. Subjects in both groups reported behavioral changes towards assertiveness, serenity and vivacity/joy. The set and setting hypothesis, suggestibility processes, as well as the supposed unique effects of ayahuasca are used in discussing these findings.

  12. HIV testing among adults with mental illness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Baligh R; Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E; Blank, Michael B

    2014-12-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33-2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39-1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25-1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed.

  13. Dual diagnosis capability in mental health and addiction treatment services: An assessment of programs across multiple state systems

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark P.; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; Gotham, Heather J.; Claus, Ronald E.; Xie, Haiyi

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased awareness of the benefits of integrated services for persons with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders, estimates of the availability of integrated services vary widely. The present study utilized standardized measures of program capacity to address co-occurring disorders, the Dual Diagnosis Capability in Addiction Treatment (DDCAT) and Dual Diagnosis Capability in Mental Health Treatment (DDCMHT) indexes, and sampled 256 programs across the United States. Ap...

  14. The standardized psychometric assessment of altered states of consciousness (ASCs) in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, A

    1998-07-01

    The APZ questionnaire was developed in order to explore hypotheses on ASCs. First -- in a series of 11 experiments using different induction methods on N = 393 healthy subjects -- the hypothesis was tested that ASCs have major dimensions in common irrespective of the mode of their induction. In the International Study on Altered States of Consciousness (ISASC) the external validity of the experimental results was assessed. The ISASC was carried out on a total of N = 1133 subjects in six countries. The main results of the experimental studies were corroborated in the field studies. The results can be summarized as follows: the common denominator of ASCs is described by three oblique dimensions, designated as "Oceanic Boundlessness (OSE)", "Dread of Ego Dissolution (AIA)" and "Visionary Restructuralization (VUS)". The reliability and validity of the scales are satisfactory. Tested versions of the APZ scales are available in English (UK, USA), German, Italian and Portuguese. Psychometrically as yet untested versions exist in Dutch, Finnish, French, Greek, Spanish and Russian. The APZ questionnaire has become the international standard for the assessment of ASCs, thus helping to integrate research. A psychometrically improved version exists in German (OAV questionnaire). The BETA questionnaire, which measures the dimensions "Vigilance Reduction (VIR)" and "Auditive Alteration (AVE)" is also available in German. These dimensions are most likely etiology-dependent.

  15. State- and trait-related alterations of motor cortex excitability in tinnitus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schecklmann

    Full Text Available Chronic tinnitus is a brain network disorder with involvement of auditory and non-auditory areas. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the temporal cortex has been investigated for the treatment of tinnitus. Several small studies suggest that motor cortex excitability is altered in people with tinnitus. We retrospectively analysed data from 231 patients with chronic tinnitus and 120 healthy controls by pooling data from different studies. Variables of interest were resting motor threshold (RMT, short-interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI, intra-cortical facilitation (ICF, and cortical silent period (CSP. 118 patients were tested twice - before and after ten rTMS treatment sessions over the left temporal cortex. In tinnitus patients SICI and ICF were increased and CSP was shortened as compared to healthy controls. There was no group difference in RMT. Treatment related amelioration of tinnitus symptoms were correlated with normalisations in SICI. These findings confirm earlier studies of abnormal motor cortex excitability in tinnitus patients. Moreover our longitudinal data suggest that altered SICI may reflect a state parameter, whereas CSP and ICF may rather mirror a trait-like predisposing factor of tinnitus. These findings are new and innovative as they enlarge the knowledge about basic physiologic and neuroplastic processes in tinnitus.

  16. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guangheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Internet gaming addiction (IGA, as a subtype of internet addiction disorder, is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IGA should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity of IGA. This study investigated the brain functions in IGA patients with resting-state fMRI. Methods Fifteen IGA subjects and fourteen healthy controls participated in this study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo measures were used to detect the abnormal functional integrations. Results Comparing to the healthy controls, IGA subjects show enhanced ReHo in brainstem, inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus. All of these regions are thought related with sensory-motor coordination. In addition, IGA subjects show decreased ReHo in temporal, occipital and parietal brain regions. These regions are thought responsible for visual and auditory functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-time online game playing enhanced the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and decreased the excitability in visual and auditory related brain regions.

  17. Effects of acute organophosphate ingestion on cognitive function, assessed with the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Jayasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chronic damage to the central nervous system resulting in cognitive impairment has been shown with repeated, low doses of organophosphorus (OP exposure over month or years. Aim: The study aimed to find out whether there is any cognitive impairment following acute OP exposure that could be detected by a simple screening instrument, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, in clinical settings. Settings and Design: A cohort study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with matched controls. Consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with acute ingestion of OP were recruited. Cognitive function was assessed with the MMSE, digit span test, test of long-term memory function and concentration. Patients were assessed twice: at 1 and 6 weeks of exposure. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were analyzed with the paired and unpaired T-tests. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: There were 60 patients and 61 controls. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls was 31.5 (11.6 and 31.3 (11.8 years, respectively. Forty-two patients turned up for the second assessment. Significant impairment of cognitive function was seen in the total score of MMSE (95% CI -2.5 to -0.3, orientation (95% CI -1 to -0.2 and language (95% CI -0.9 to -0.1 domains of MMSE, digit span test (95% CI 0.1-1.7 and test of long-term memory function (95% CI 0.3-2.3 in the first assessment compared with the controls. When the results of the second assessment were compared with the controls, no significant differences were seen. Conclusion: Although there was a slight transient cognitive impairment detected with the screening tests following acute OP ingestion, no long-term cognitive defects was detected.

  18. Seeing emotions in the eyes – Inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWagenbreth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAutomatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming.MethodsSixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories fear, disgust, happiness and neutral.ResultsA general valence effect for positive words was observed: Responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words - with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words - with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs.ConclusionReduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT.

  19. A default mode of brain function in altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldenmund, P; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Boly, M; Laureys, S; Soddu, A

    2012-01-01

    Using modern brain imaging techniques, new discoveries are being made concerning the spontaneous activity of the brain when it is devoid of attention-demanding tasks. Spatially separated patches of neuronal assemblies have been found to show synchronized oscillatory activity behavior and are said to be functionally connected. One of the most robust of these is the default mode network, which is associated with intrinsic processes like mind wandering and self-projection. Furthermore, activity in this network is anticorrelated with activity in a network that is linked to attention to external stimuli. The integrity of both networks is disturbed in altered states of consciousness, like sleep, general anesthesia and hypnosis. In coma and related disorders of consciousness, encompassing the vegetative state (unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) and minimally conscious state, default mode network integrity correlates with the level of remaining consciousness, offering the possibility of using this information for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Functional brain imaging is currently being validated as a valuable addition to the standardized behavioral assessments that are already in use.

  20. The evolution of brain waves in altered states of consciousness (REM sleep and meditation

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    Irina E. Chiş

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the brain activity in REM sleep andmeditation; it was also studied in which way an appropriate musical background would affect theevolution of brain waves in these altered states of consciousness. Material and Method: The recordingswere done with a portable electroencephalograph, on a homogeneous group of human subjects (menaged 30-50 years. The subjects were monitored in their own bed, the length of sleep and how earlythey went to bed was up to them. This was made to avoid errors that could compromise the wholestudy. Results: It was shown that an appropriate musical background has a positive effect on brainactivity and especially on alpha waves. There were no significant results regarding REM sleep, althougha slight increase in the frequency by which the periods of REM sleep occurred was noticed. On theother hand, in meditation, the appropriate musical background had a major influence on the period inwhich the subjects entered the alpha state. This period was considerably reduced. Conclusion: Anadequate type of music can help our brain entering in, and maintaining the alpha state.

  1. Determination of oxidation state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapla-Masztafiak, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Lis, G.J.; Gajda, M.; Jasek, E. [Department of Histology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Kraków (Poland); Czubek, U. [Department of Coronary Disease, Jagiellonian University Medical College, John Paul II Hospital, Prądnicka 80, 31-202 Kraków (Poland); Bolechała, F. [Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Grzegórzecka 16, 31-531 Kraków (Poland); Borca, C. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kwiatek, W.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate changes in chemical state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves X-ray absorption spectroscopy was applied. Since Fe is suspected to play detrimental role in aortic valve stenosis pathogenesis the oxidation state of this element has been determined. The experimental material consisted of 10 μm sections of valves excised during routine surgery and from autopsies. The experiment was performed at the MicroXAS beamline of the SLS synchrotron facility in Villigen (Switzerland). The Fe K-edge XANES spectra obtained from tissue samples were carefully analyzed and compared with the spectra of reference compounds containing iron in various chemical structures. The analysis of absorption edge position and shape of the spectra revealed that both chemical forms of iron are presented in valve tissue but Fe{sup 3+} is the predominant form. Small shift of the absorption edge toward higher energy in the spectra from stenotic valve samples indicates higher content of the Fe{sup 3+} form in pathological tissue. Such a phenomenon suggests the role of Fenton reaction and reactive oxygen species in the etiology of aortic valve stenosis. The comparison of pre-edge regions of XANES spectra for control and stenotic valve tissue confirmed no differences in local symmetry or spin state of iron in analyzed samples.

  2. Deficits of encoding in hypnosis: a result of altered state of awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nicholas C; Kramer, Sam L; Tharp, Amanda G; Harmon, Kevin A; Cejas, Gregory P; Costa, Salvatore C

    2013-04-01

    Because no studies have examined learning in hypnosis in an academic setting, the current study tested whether learning in hypnosis impacts test performance. Participants (N = 43) were randomly assigned into a hypnosis or a control group. Participants listened to an academic lecture, answered questions about their hypnotic depth, and completed a quiz based on the lecture. The data was analyzed using multilevel modeling predicting test performance from group placement. Learning in the hypnosis predicted significantly worse performance compared to the control group. This relationship was significantly mediated by attention, which had a positive relationship to test performance. However, the altered state of awareness produced by the hypnosis condition was associated with a more significant decrease in test performance.

  3. The nightmares of Puerto Ricans: an embodied 'altered states of consciousness' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, C Jeffrey

    2009-06-01

    This article examines nightmare narratives collected as part of a person-centered ethnographic study of altered states of consciousness (ASCs) and supernaturalism in a mainland Puerto Rican community in the late 1990s. Utilizing a descriptive backdrop informed by cross-cultural studies of ASCs and highlighting the relevance of recent insights from the cognitive sciences of religion and from the anthropology of embodiment or cultural phenomenology, I examine the lived experience and psychocultural elaboration of diverse Puerto Rican nightmare events. Taking the nightmare to be a trauma in its waking-nightmare sense (i.e., through the extreme fright caused by sleep paralysis) as well as an intrusive, traumatic memory in its posttraumatic sense (i.e., a reliving of trauma themes in dreams), I show how the perceptual and interpretive processes evoked by intensely affective ASCs both inform and are informed by Puerto Rican religious and spiritualistic orientations and values.

  4. Understanding the intentions behind man-made products elicits neural activity in areas dedicated to mental state attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Trying to understand others is the most pervasive aspect of successful social interaction. To date there is no evidence on whether human products, which signal the workings of a mind in the absence of an explicit agent, also reliably engage neural structures typically associated with mental state attribution. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging the present study shows that when subjects believe they are listening to a piece of music that was written by a composer (i.e., human product) as opposed to generated by a computer (i.e., nonhuman product), activations in the cortical network typically reported for mental state attribution (anterior medial frontal cortex [aMFC]), superior temporal sulcus, and temporal poles) were observed. The activation in the aMFC correlated highly with the extent to which subjects had engaged in attributing the expression of intentions to the composed pieces, as indicated in a postimaging questionnaire. We interpret these findings as indicative of automatic mechanisms, which reflect mental state attribution in the face of any stimulus that potentially signals the working of another mind and conclude that even in the absence of a socially salient stimulus, our environment is still populated by the indirect social signals inherent to human artifacts.

  5. I see into your mind too well: working memory adjusts the probability judgment of others' mental states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Yukio; Saito, Satoru

    2011-11-01

    Although an increasing number of studies on adults have indicated that working memory (WM) contributes to the ability to understand the mental states of others (i.e., theory of mind), the detailed mechanism by which WM contributes to successful reasoning has not previously been revealed. This study shows that WM modulates the degree of attribution of one's own knowledge to others' mental states. Participants were asked to read a story twice (Experiment 2) or as carefully as possible (Experiment 3) and to estimate the probability percentages of possible choices for a naive protagonist's behavior. The participants were then asked to maintain either a two- or seven-letter alphabet string (i.e., a light or heavy WM load, respectively) during the probability estimation but not during the story comprehension. The results showed that compared to the participants with a light WM load, those with a heavy WM load estimated a significantly higher probability of the choice indicating that the protagonist would behave on the basis of a fact that the participants knew but the protagonist did not. This result indicates that WM moderates the extent to which adults attribute their own knowledge to others' mental states. The role of WM in theory of mind and in heuristic strategy for making probability judgments was then discussed.

  6. O desempenho de idosas institucionalizadas no miniexame do estado mental El desempeño de adultas mayores institucionalizadas en el mini examen del estado mental Institutionalized elder women's performance in the mini-mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Lenardt

    2009-10-01

    ás avanzadas se correlacionaron con una menor puntuación.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate institutionalized elder women's performance in the mini-mental state examination. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 34 elder women who were residents in a long term facility in Curitiba, PR. Data were collected with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE and analyzed with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 79.82 ± 8.23 and their overall mean score on the MMSE was 16.62 ± 5.60. The mean score of performance among illiterates and literate participants were 14.90 and 19.75 points, respectively. The mean score of performance among participants aged 65 to 79 and participants aged 80 and over were 18 and 15.65 points, respectively. CONCLUSION: There were a large number of elder women (26.5% with cognitive impairment. Lower educational level and advanced age were associated with lower scores on the mini-mental status examination.

  7. Discrimination and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, Wendy B; Boyd, Carol J; Hughes, Tonda L; West, Brady T; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities among sexual minority groups, particularly mental health disparities, are well-documented. Numerous studies have demonstrated heightened prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual groups as compared with heterosexuals. Some authors posit that these disparities are the result of the stress that prejudice and perceived discrimination can cause. The current study extends previous research by examining the associations between multiple types of discrimination, based on race or ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation, and past-year mental health disorders in a national sample of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual women and men (n = 577). Findings suggest that different types of discrimination may be differentially associated with past-year mental health disorders. Notably, sexual orientation discrimination was associated with higher odds of a past-year disorder only in combination with other types of discrimination. These findings point to the complexity of the relationship between discrimination experiences and mental health, and suggest that further work is needed to better explicate the interplay among multiple marginalized identities, discrimination, and mental health.

  8. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying.

  9. Altered Functional Connectivity in Essential Tremor: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-León, Julián; Louis, Elan D; Romero, Juan Pablo; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Manzanedo, Eva; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; Posada, Ignacio; Rocon, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Essential tremor (ET) has been associated with a spectrum of clinical features, with both motor and nonmotor elements, including cognitive deficits. We employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess whether brain networks that might be involved in the pathogenesis of nonmotor manifestations associated with ET are altered, and the relationship between abnormal connectivity and ET severity and neuropsychological function.Resting-state fMRI data in 23 ET patients (12 women and 11 men) and 22 healthy controls (HC) (12 women and 10 men) were analyzed using independent component analysis, in combination with a "dual-regression" technique, to identify the group differences of resting-state networks (RSNs) (default mode network [DMN] and executive, frontoparietal, sensorimotor, cerebellar, auditory/language, and visual networks). All participants underwent a neuropsychological and neuroimaging session, where resting-state data were collected.Relative to HC, ET patients showed increased connectivity in RSNs involved in cognitive processes (DMN and frontoparietal networks) and decreased connectivity in the cerebellum and visual networks. Changes in network integrity were associated not only with ET severity (DMN) and ET duration (DMN and left frontoparietal network), but also with cognitive ability. Moreover, in at least 3 networks (DMN and frontoparietal networks), increased connectivity was associated with worse performance on different cognitive domains (attention, executive function, visuospatial ability, verbal memory, visual memory, and language) and depressive symptoms. Further, in the visual network, decreased connectivity was associated with worse performance on visuospatial ability.ET was associated with abnormal brain connectivity in major RSNs that might be involved in both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Our findings underscore the importance of examining RSNs in this population as a biomarker of disease.

  10. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness: exploring the 4-D model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul A; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion. The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma. The aim of the present research was to begin to evaluate these 4 predictions of the 4-D model. Within a sample of 74 women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) primarily due to histories of childhood trauma, as well as within a 2nd sample of 504 undergraduates (384 females), the 1st 2 hypotheses of the 4-D model were supported. In addition, within the PTSD sample, the 3rd hypothesis was supported. However, inconsistent with the 4th hypothesis, severity of childhood trauma history was not strongly associated with TRASC. We conclude that the hypotheses articulated by the 4-D model were generally supported, although further research in different trauma-related disorders is needed, and the role of childhood trauma history in the etiology of TRASC requires further research.

  11. MMN and novelty P3 in coma and other altered states of consciousness: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlet, Dominique; Fischer, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the assessment of patients in altered states of consciousness. There is a need for accurate and early prediction of awakening and recovery from coma. Neurophysiological assessment of coma was once restricted to brainstem auditory and primary cortex somatosensory evoked potentials elicited in the 30 ms range, which have both shown good predictive value for poor coma outcome only. In this paper, we review how passive auditory oddball paradigms including deviant and novel sounds have proved their efficiency in assessing brain function at a higher level, without requiring the patient's active involvement, thus providing an enhanced tool for the prediction of coma outcome. The presence of an MMN in response to deviant stimuli highlights preserved automatic sensory memory processes. Recorded during coma, MMN has shown high specificity as a predictor of recovery of consciousness. The presence of a novelty P3 in response to the subject's own first name presented as a novel (rare) stimulus has shown a good correlation with coma awakening. There is now a growing interest in the search for markers of consciousness, if there are any, in unresponsive patients (chronic vegetative or minimally conscious states). We discuss the different ERP patterns observed in these patients. The presence of novelty P3, including parietal components and possibly followed by a late parietal positivity, raises the possibility that some awareness processes are at work in these unresponsive patients.

  12. Altered resting-state amygdala functional connectivity in men with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Rebecca K.; King, Anthony P.; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Wang, Xin; Sripada, Chandra S.; Welsh, Robert C.; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Background Converging neuroimaging research suggests altered emotion neurocircuitry in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotion activation studies in these individuals have shown hyperactivation in emotion-related regions, including the amygdala and insula, and hypoactivation in emotion-regulation regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, few studies have examined patterns of connectivity at rest in individuals with PTSD, a potentially powerful method for illuminating brain network structure. Methods Using the amygdala as a seed region, we measured resting-state brain connectivity using 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging in returning male veterans with PTSD and combat controls without PTSD. Results Fifteen veterans with PTSD and 14 combat controls enrolled in our study. Compared with controls, veterans with PTSD showed greater positive connectivity between the amygdala and insula, reduced positive connectivity between the amygdala and hippocampus, and reduced anticorrelation between the amygdala and dorsal ACC and rostral ACC. Limitations Only male veterans with combat exposure were tested, thus our findings cannot be generalized to women or to individuals with non–combat related PTSD. Conclusion These results demonstrate that studies of functional connectivity during resting state can discern aberrant patterns of coupling within emotion circuits and suggest a possible brain basis for emotion-processing and emotion-regulation deficits in individuals with PTSD. PMID:22313617

  13. Effects of altered loading states on muscle plasticity: what have we learned from rodents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the key findings concerning the adaptive properties of rodent muscle in response to altered loading states. When the mechanical stress on the muscle is chronically increased, the muscle adapts by hypertrophying its fibers. This response is regulated by processes resulting in contractile protein expression reflecting slower phenotypes, thereby enabling the muscle to better support load-hearing activity. In contrast, reducing the load-bearing activity induces an opposite response whereby muscles used for both antigravity function and locomotion atrophy while transforming some of the slow fibers into faster contractile phenotypes. Accompanying the atrophy is both a reduced power generating and activity sustaining capability. These adaptive processes are regulated by both transcriptional and translational processes. Available evidence further suggests that the interaction of heavy resistance activity and hormonal/growth factors (insulin-like growth factor, growth hormone, glucocorticoids, etc.) are critical in the maintenance of muscle mass and function. Also resistance training, in contrast to other activities such as endurance running, provides a more economical form of stress because less mechanical activity is required to maintain muscle homeostasis in the context of chronic states of weightlessness.

  14. Altered regional and circuit resting-state activity associated with unilateral hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchao Wang

    Full Text Available The deprivation of sensory input after hearing damage results in functional reorganization of the brain including cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortex and changes in cognitive processing. However, it remains unclear whether partial deprivation from unilateral auditory loss (UHL would similarly affect the neural circuitry of cognitive processes in addition to the functional organization of sensory cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate intrinsic activity in 34 participants with UHL from acoustic neuroma in comparison with 22 matched normal controls. In sensory regions, we found decreased regional homogeneity (ReHo in the bilateral calcarine cortices in UHL. However, there was an increase of ReHo in the right anterior insular cortex (rAI, the key node of cognitive control network (CCN and multimodal sensory integration, as well as in the left parahippocampal cortex (lPHC, a key node in the default mode network (DMN. Moreover, seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis showed an enhanced relationship between rAI and several key regions of the DMN. Meanwhile, lPHC showed more negative relationship with components in the CCN and greater positive relationship in the DMN. Such reorganizations of functional connectivity within the DMN and between the DMN and CCN were confirmed by a graph theory analysis. These results suggest that unilateral sensory input damage not only alters the activity of the sensory areas but also reshapes the regional and circuit functional organization of the cognitive control network.

  15. Alterations of Functional Connectivity Among Resting-State Networks in Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Kumar, M; Modi, S; Kaur, P; Shankar, L R; Khushu, S

    2015-07-01

    Hypothyroidism affects brain functioning as suggested by various neuroimaging studies. The primary focus of the present study was to examine whether hypothyroidism would impact connectivity among resting-state networks (RSNs) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Twenty-two patients with hypothyroidism and 22 healthy controls were recruited and scanned using rsfMRI. The data were analysed using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach that was applied on five RSNs that were identified using fsl software (http://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk). Hypothyroid patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity in the regions of the right frontoparietal network (frontal pole), the medial visual network (lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus cortex and cuneus) and the motor network (precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, precuneus cortex, paracingulate gyrus, cingulate gyrus and supramarginal gyrus) compared to healthy controls. The reduced functional connectivity in the right frontoparietal network, the medial visual network and the motor network suggests neurocognitive alterations in hypothyroid patients in the corresponding functions. However, the study would be further continued to investigate the effects of thyroxine treatment and correlation with neurocognitive scores. The findings of the present study provide further interesting insights into our understanding of the action of thyroid hormone on the adult human brain.

  16. Clinical, cognitive, and functional connectivity correlations of resting-state intrinsic brain activity alterations in unmedicated depression

    OpenAIRE

    Tadayonnejad, Reza; Yang, Shaolin; Kumar, Anand; Ajilore, Olusola

    2014-01-01

    The pervasive and persistent nature of depressive symptoms has made resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) an appropriate approach for understanding the underlying mechanisms of major depressive disorder. The majority of rs-fMRI research has focused on depression-related alterations in the interregional coordination of brain baseline low frequency oscillations (LFOs). However, alteration of the regional amplitude of LFOs in depression, particularly its clinical, cogniti...

  17. Substance Use, Mental Disorders and Physical Health of Caribbeans at-Home Compared to Those Residing in the United States

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    Krim K. Lacey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the health conditions of domestic Caribbeans with those living in the United States to explore how national context and migration experiences might influence substance use (i.e., alcohol or drug and other mental and physical health conditions. The study is based upon probability samples of non-institutionalized Caribbeans living in the United States (1621, Jamaica (1216 and Guyana (2068 18 years of age and over. Employing descriptive statistics and multivariate analytic procedures, the results revealed that substance use and other physical health conditions and major depressive disorder and mania vary by national context, with higher rates among Caribbeans living in the United States. Context and generation status influenced health outcomes. Among first generation black Caribbeans, residing in the United States for a longer length of time is linked to poorer health outcomes. There were different socio-demographic correlates of health among at-home and abroad Caribbeans. The results of this study support the need for additional research to explain how national context, migratory experiences and generation status contribute to understanding substance use and mental disorders and physical health outcomes among Caribbean first generation and descendants within the United States, compared to those remaining in the Caribbean region.

  18. Measuring Mindreading: A Review of Behavioral Approaches to Testing Cognitive and Affective Mental State Attribution in Neurologically Typical Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rose; Felisberti, Fatima M.

    2017-01-01

    Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets. We focus on selected examples of core experimental paradigms including emotion recognition tests, social vignettes, narrative fiction (prose and film) and participative interaction (in real and virtual worlds), highlighting challenges for studies with NT adult cohorts. We conclude that naturalistic, multidimensional approaches may be productively applied alongside traditional tasks to facilitate a more nuanced picture of mindreading in adulthood, and to ensure construct validity whilst remaining sensitive to variation at the upper echelons of the ability. PMID:28174552

  19. Insufficient dollars and qualified personnel to meet United States mental health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Thomas P

    2015-04-01

    The American populace currently supports the need for providing additional mental health services for adolescents who frequently express anger and mood instability and maybe are at risk for major psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems; Vietnam, Iraqi, and Afghanistan veterans or military personnel still on duty diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or other similar combat-related disabilities; the approximately 1 million prisoners currently incarcerated primarily because of substance abuse and needing medically related rehabilitative services; and senior citizens who experience dementia and depression and require improved therapeutics. The problems outlined herein are as follows: far too limited monies are being spent for mental health services (5.6% of total US expenditures for health or roughly one fifth of what is consumed for hospital care); effective therapies are often lacking; and there is a shortage of qualified mental health personnel except in upscale urban and suburban areas. Unfortunately, these problems are so immense that, even with enhanced prioritization of our available resources, they are still not entirely solvable. The American public may continue to impart lip service when attempting to respond to our nation's mental health needs or may decide to spend vastly more money for such care. The latter choice may not be forthcoming in the near future for various cultural-societal-clinical-fiscal reasons.

  20. O processo de trabalho do militar estadual e a saúde mental Working process of military police state officers and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurivan Batista da Silva

    2008-12-01

    relate it to mental health. We tried to contextualize the purposes of public safety services through a brief history of the state police, its division and how it has been used against daily violence. Based on labor psychology view, we made use of techniques and concepts based on the Ergonomics of the Activity and on Labor Psychodynamics; observing the work process, document research, individual and collective interviews. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that military officers are in the center of a link of forces coming from work organization, the precariousness of the work and, finally, from the contemporary society. The ways these relationships of forces are joined contribute to harmful implications to the mental health of professionals, favoring the increase in psychological suffering and it can lead to alcoholism, depression, and even suicide. Data from Medical Council of João Pessoa, (2003 to 2005, show an average of 489 military officers who retired from work on medical grounds. These are worrisome figures in an area of public service that is essential to the population. These figures would be higher if the leaves granted in the workplace were also included. Procedures for granting internal leaves occur in an attempt to mediate the possible long period of health treatment.

  1. Adaptação transcultural do Mental States Rating System para o português brasileiro Cross-cultural adaptation of the Mental States Rating System to Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Rivoire Menelli Goldfeld; Daniela Wiethaeuper; Marc-Andrè Bouchard; Luciana Terra; Rosana Baumgardt; Martha Lauermann; Victor Mardini; Claudio Abuchaim; Anne Sordi; Luciana Soares; Lúcia Helena Freitas Ceitlin

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: O artigo apresenta a adaptação transcultural do Mental States Rating System, uma escala de análise de conteúdo do discurso, seja ele falado, descrito ou filmado, que abrange de modo amplo tipos de contratransferência. MÉTODO: Foram realizadas as etapas de equivalência conceitual, equivalência de itens, equivalência semântica, equivalência operacional, equivalência funcional e aprovação da versão final pelo autor original do instrumento. RESULTADOS: Os critérios de equivalência for...

  2. Altered amygdala resting-state functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Anne Rabinak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is often characterized by aberrant amygdala activation and functional abnormalities in corticolimbic circuitry, as elucidated by functional neuroimaging. These ‘activation’ studies have primarily relied on tasks designed to induce region-specific, and task-dependent brain responses in limbic (e.g., amygdala and paralimbic brain areas through the use of evocative probes such as personalized traumatic script-driven imagery and other negatively valenced emotional stimuli (e.g., threatening faces, aversive scenes, traumatic cues. It remains unknown if these corticolimbic circuit abnormalities exist at baseline or ‘at rest’, in the absence of fear/anxiety-related provocation and outside the context of task demands. Recently, a new approach to studying functional interconnectivity of brain regions derived from ‘resting state’ scans has elucidated systems-level neural network function that may be obscured by activation tasks and may help inform functional interpretations of brain activation patterns. Little is known about whether altered amygdala connectivity patterns exist at rest in PTSD. Therefore the primary aim of the present experiment was to investigate aberrant amygdala functional connectivity patterns in combat-related PTSD patients during resting state. Seventeen Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF veterans with combat-related PTSD (PTSD group and seventeen combat-exposed OEF/OIF veterans without PTSD (Combat-Exposed Control [CEC] group underwent an 8-minute resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Using conventional methods to generate connectivity maps, we extracted the time series from an anatomically-derived amygdala ‘seed’ region and conducted voxel-wise correlation analyses across the entire brain to search for group differences (between PTSD and CEC groups in amygdala functional connectivity, which we hypothesized would localize to the medial

  3. Refsum disease diagnostic marker phytanic acid alters the physical state of membrane proteins of liver mitochondria.

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    Schönfeld, P; Struy, H

    1999-08-27

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid), a branched chain fatty acid accumulating in Refsum disease to high levels throughout the body, induces uncoupling of rat liver mitochondria similar to non-branched fatty acids (e.g. palmitic acid), but the contribution of the ADP/ATP carrier or the aspartate/glutamate carrier in phytanic acid-induced uncoupling is of minor importance. Possible deleterious effects of phytanic acid on membrane-linked energy coupling processes were studied by ESR spectroscopy using rat liver mitochondria and a membrane preparation labeled with the lipid-specific spin probe 5-doxylstearic acid (5-DSA) or the protein-specific spin probe MAL-TEMPO (4-maleimido-2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl). The effects of phytanic acid on phospholipid molecular dynamics and on the physical state of membrane proteins were quantified by estimation of the order parameter or the ratio of the amplitudes of the weakly to strongly immobilized MAL-TEMPO binding sites (W/S ratio), respectively. It was found, that phytanic acid (1) increased the mobility of phospholipid molecules (indicated by a decrease in the order parameter) and (2) altered the conformational state and/or the segmental mobility of membrane proteins (indicated by a drastic decrease in the W/S ratio). Unsaturated fatty acids with multiple cis-double bonds (e.g. linolenic or arachidonic acid), but not non-branched FFA (ranging from chain length C10:0 to C18:0), also decrease the W/S ratio. It is hypothesized that the interaction of phytanic acid with transmembrane proteins might stimulate the proton permeability through the mitochondrial inner membrane according to a mechanism, different to a protein-supported fatty acid cycling.

  4. Covert digital manipulation of vocal emotion alter speakers’ emotional states in a congruent direction

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    Johansson, Petter; Hall, Lars; Segnini, Rodrigo; Mercadié, Lolita; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that people often exert control over their emotions. By modulating expressions, reappraising feelings, and redirecting attention, they can regulate their emotional experience. These findings have contributed to a blurring of the traditional boundaries between cognitive and emotional processes, and it has been suggested that emotional signals are produced in a goal-directed way and monitored for errors like other intentional actions. However, this interesting possibility has never been experimentally tested. To this end, we created a digital audio platform to covertly modify the emotional tone of participants’ voices while they talked in the direction of happiness, sadness, or fear. The result showed that the audio transformations were being perceived as natural examples of the intended emotions, but the great majority of the participants, nevertheless, remained unaware that their own voices were being manipulated. This finding indicates that people are not continuously monitoring their own voice to make sure that it meets a predetermined emotional target. Instead, as a consequence of listening to their altered voices, the emotional state of the participants changed in congruence with the emotion portrayed, which was measured by both self-report and skin conductance level. This change is the first evidence, to our knowledge, of peripheral feedback effects on emotional experience in the auditory domain. As such, our result reinforces the wider framework of self-perception theory: that we often use the same inferential strategies to understand ourselves as those that we use to understand others. PMID:26755584

  5. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects.

  6. Pharmacogenetic modulation of orexin neurons alters sleep/wakefulness states in mice.

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    Koh Sasaki

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic neurons expressing neuropeptide orexins are critically involved in the control of sleep and wakefulness. Although the activity of orexin neurons is thought to be influenced by various neuronal input as well as humoral factors, the direct consequences of changes in the activity of these neurons in an intact animal are largely unknown. We therefore examined the effects of orexin neuron-specific pharmacogenetic modulation in vivo by a new method called the Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs approach (DREADD. Using this system, we successfully activated and suppressed orexin neurons as measured by Fos staining. EEG and EMG recordings suggested that excitation of orexin neurons significantly increased the amount of time spent in wakefulness and decreased both non-rapid eye movement (NREM and rapid eye movement (REM sleep times. Inhibition of orexin neurons decreased wakefulness time and increased NREM sleep time. These findings clearly show that changes in the activity of orexin neurons can alter the behavioral state of animals and also validate this novel approach for manipulating neuronal activity in awake, freely-moving animals.

  7. Fragmentation in Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State policy on mental health and older people: A governmentality analysis.

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    Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey

    2016-05-04

    Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people's mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of 'risk', 'ageing as decline/dependence' and 'healthy ageing' were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to 'target' groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people's mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers.

  8. Mentalization-based treatment for psychosis: linking an attachment-based model to the psychotherapy for impaired mental state understanding in people with psychotic disorders.

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    Brent, Benjamin K; Holt, Daphne J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J; Fonagy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances of mentalization have been increasingly associated with the symptoms and functional impairment of people with psychotic disorders. it has been proposed that psychotherapy designed to foster self and other understanding, such as mentalization-based treatment (mBt), may play an important part in facilitating recovery from psychosis. Here, we present an attachment-based understanding of mentalization impairments. We then outline a neuropsychological model that links disruptions of mentalization associated with disturbances in the caregiving environment to the pathophysiology of psychosis in genetically at-risk individuals. this is followed by an illustration of some of the core mBt techniques for the rehabilitation of the capacity to mentalize as applied to the treatment of a patient with a psychotic disorder.

  9. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

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    Srinivas Moogala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  10. The neural correlates of childhood maltreatment and the ability to understand mental states of others

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    van Schie, Charlotte C.; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Hauber, Kirsten; Boon, Albert; Crone, Eveline A.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Emotional abuse and emotional neglect are related to impaired interpersonal functioning. One underlying mechanism could be a developmental delay in mentalizing, the ability to understand other people’s thoughts and emotions. Objective: This study investigates the neural correlates of mentalizing and the specific relationship with emotional abuse and neglect whilst taking into account the level of sexual abuse, physical abuse and physical neglect. Method: The RMET was performed in an fMRI scanner by 46 adolescents (Age: M = 18.70, SD = 1.46) who reported a large range of emotional abuse and/or emotional neglect. CM was measured using a self-report questionnaire (CTQ). Results: Neither severity of emotional abuse nor neglect related to RMET accuracy or reaction time. The severity of sexual abuse was related to an increased activation of the left IFG during mentalization even when controlled for psychopathology and other important covariates. This increased activation was only found in a group reporting both sexual abuse and emotional maltreatment and not when reporting isolated emotional abuse or neglect or no maltreatment. Functional connectivity analysis showed that activation in the left IFG was associated with increased activation in the right insula and right STG, indicating that the IFG activation occurs in a network relevant for mentalizing. Conclusions: Being sexually abused in the context of emotional abuse and neglect is related to an increase in activation of the left IFG, which may indicate a delayed development of mirroring other people’s thoughts and emotions. Even though thoughts and emotions were correctly decoded from faces, the heightened activity of the left IFG could be an underlying mechanism for impaired interpersonal functioning when social situations are more complex or more related to maltreatment experiences. PMID:28326160

  11. Differentiated approach to improving the mental and physical state freshmen higher education sector as a problem of physical education

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    Lukavenko A.V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The state issues related to implementation of the differentiated and individual approach to first-year institutions of higher learning in the process of improving their mental and physical state of the means of physical education. Analysis of scientific literature revealed that such a state of the vast majority of students below this, and adaptation to the training activities carried out by the irrational. In this connection it is necessary to improve student performance marked by using one of the most effective means - exercise, and taking into account their interests, needs, motives. One solution to this problem is the differentiation of the content of exercise on the basis of features, which are characterized by the representatives of different somatotype. At the same time, research in this area are rare, hence the need to address this problem.

  12. Scaling up evidence-based practices for children and families in New York State: toward evidence-based policies on implementation for state mental health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Olin, S Serene; Horwitz, Sarah; McKay, Mary; Cleek, Andrew; Gleacher, Alissa; Lewandowski, Eric; Nadeem, Erum; Acri, Mary; Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Kuppinger, Anne; Burton, Geraldine; Weiss, Dara; Frank, Samantha; Finnerty, Molly; Bradbury, Donna M; Woodlock, Kristin M; Hogan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination of innovations is widely considered the sine qua non for system improvement. At least two dozen states are rolling out evidence-based mental health practices targeted at children and families using trainings, consultations, webinars, and learning collaboratives to improve quality and outcomes. In New York State (NYS) a group of researchers, policymakers, providers, and family support specialists have worked in partnership since 2002 to redesign and evaluate the children's mental health system. Five system strategies driven by empirically based practices and organized within a state-supported infrastructure have been used in the child and family service system with more than 2,000 providers: (a) business practices, (b) use of health information technologies in quality improvement, (c) specific clinical interventions targeted at common childhood disorders, (d) parent activation, and (e) quality indicator development. The NYS system has provided a laboratory for naturalistic experiments. We describe these initiatives, key findings and challenges, lessons learned for scaling, and implications for creating evidence-based implementation policies in state systems.

  13. Frequency-dependent brain regional homogeneity alterations in patients with mild cognitive impairment during working memory state relative to resting state

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    Pengyun eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported working memory deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, previous studies investigating the neural mechanisms of MCI have primarily focused on brain activity alterations during working memory tasks. No study to date has compared brain network alterations in the working memory state between MCI patients and normal control subjects. Therefore, using the index of regional homogeneity (ReHo, we explored brain network impairments in MCI patients during a working memory task relative to the resting state, and identified frequency-dependent effects in separate frequency bands.Our results indicate that, in MCI patients, ReHo is altered in the posterior cingulate cortex in the slow-3 band (0.073–0.198 Hz, and in the bottom of the right occipital lobe and part of the right cerebellum, the right thalamus, a diffusing region in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, the left and right parietal-occipital regions, and the right angular gyrus in the slow-5 band (0.01–0.027 Hz. Furthermore, in normal controls, the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the default mode network decreased, while the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the attentional network increased during the task state. However, this pattern was reversed in MCI patients, and was associated with decreased working memory performance. In addition, we identified altered functional connectivity of the abovementioned regions with other parts of the brain in MCI patients.This is the first study to compare frequency-dependent alterations of ReHo in MCI patients between resting and working memory states. The results provide a new perspective regarding the neural mechanisms of working memory deficits in MCI patients, and extend our knowledge of altered brain patterns in resting and task-evoked states.

  14. Neurotransmitter alterations in embryonic succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH deficiency suggest a heightened excitatory state during development

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    Snead O Carter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SSADH (aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 (Aldh5a1; γ-hydroxybutyric (GHB aciduria deficiency is a defect of GABA degradation in which the neuromodulators GABA and GHB accumulate. The human phenotype is that of nonprogressive encephalopathy with prominent bilateral discoloration of the globi pallidi and variable seizures, the latter displayed prominently in Aldh5a1-/- mice with lethal convulsions. Metabolic studies in murine neural tissue have revealed elevated GABA [and its derivatives succinate semialdehyde (SSA, homocarnosine (HC, 4,5-dihydroxyhexanoic acid (DHHA and guanidinobutyrate (GB] and GHB [and its analogue D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG] at birth. Because of early onset seizures and the neurostructural anomalies observed in patients, we examined metabolite features during Aldh5a1-/- embryo development. Methods Embryos were obtained from pregnant dams sacrificed at E (embryo day of life 10–13, 14–15, 16–17, 18–19 and newborn mice. Intact embryos were extracted and metabolites quantified by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (n = 5–15 subjects, Aldh5a1+/+ and Aldh5a1-/- for each gestational age group. Data was evaluated using the t test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analysis. Significance was set at the 95th centile. Results GABA and DHHA were significantly elevated at all gestational ages in Aldh5a1-/- mice, while GB was increased only late in gestation; SSA was not elevated at any time point. GHB and D-2-HG increased in an approximately linear fashion with gestational age. Correlative studies in human amniotic fluid from SSADH-deficient pregnancies (n = 5 also revealed significantly increased GABA. Conclusion Our findings indicate early GABAergic alterations in Aldh5a1-/- mice, possibly exacerbated by other metabolites, which likely induce a heightened excitatory state that may predispose neural networks to epilepsy in these animals.

  15. Decoding motor responses from the EEG during altered states of consciousness induced by propofol

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    Blokland, Yvonne; Farquhar, Jason; Lerou, Jos; Mourisse, Jo; Scheffer, Gert Jan; van Geffen, Geert-Jan; Spyrou, Loukianos; Bruhn, Jörgen

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Patients undergoing general anesthesia may awaken and become aware of the surgical procedure. Due to neuromuscular blocking agents, patients could be conscious yet unable to move. Using brain-computer interface (BCI) technology, it may be possible to detect movement attempts from the EEG. However, it is unknown how an anesthetic influences the brain response to motor tasks. Approach. We tested the offline classification performance of a movement-based BCI in 12 healthy subjects at two effect-site concentrations of propofol. For each subject a second classifier was trained on the subject’s data obtained before sedation, then tested on the data obtained during sedation (‘transfer classification’). Main results. At concentration 0.5 μg ml-1, despite an overall propofol EEG effect, the mean single trial classification accuracy was 85% (95% CI 81%-89%), and 83% (79%-88%) for the transfer classification. At 1.0 μg ml-1, the accuracies were 81% (76%-86%), and 72% (66%-79%), respectively. At the highest propofol concentration for four subjects, unlike the remaining subjects, the movement-related brain response had been largely diminished, and the transfer classification accuracy was not significantly above chance. These subjects showed a slower and more erratic task response, indicating an altered state of consciousness distinct from that of the other subjects. Significance. The results show the potential of using a BCI to detect intra-operative awareness and justify further development of this paradigm. At the same time, the relationship between motor responses and consciousness and its clinical relevance for intraoperative awareness requires further investigation.

  16. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in cortical networks in psychopathy.

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    Philippi, Carissa L; Pujara, Maia S; Motzkin, Julian C; Newman, Joseph; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-04-15

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous antisocial behavior and criminal recidivism. Here we examine whether psychopathy is associated with alterations in functional connectivity in three large-scale cortical networks. Using fMRI in 142 adult male prison inmates, we computed resting-state functional connectivity using seeds from the default mode network, frontoparietal network, and cingulo-opercular network. To determine the specificity of our findings to these cortical networks, we also calculated functional connectivity using seeds from two comparison primary sensory networks: visual and auditory networks. Regression analyses related network connectivity to overall psychopathy scores and to subscores for the "factors" and "facets" of psychopathy: Factor 1, interpersonal/affective traits; Factor 2, lifestyle/antisocial traits; Facet 1, interpersonal; Facet 2, affective; Facet 3, lifestyle; Facet 4, antisocial. Overall psychopathy severity was associated with reduced functional connectivity between lateral parietal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. The two factor scores exhibited contrasting relationships with functional connectivity: Factor 1 scores were associated with reduced functional connectivity in the three cortical networks, whereas Factor 2 scores were associated with heightened connectivity in the same networks. This dissociation was evident particularly in the functional connectivity between anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. The facet scores also demonstrated distinct patterns of connectivity. We found no associations between psychopathy scores and functional connectivity within visual or auditory networks. These findings provide novel evidence on the neural correlates of psychopathy and suggest that connectivity between cortical association hubs, such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, may be a neurobiological marker of the disorder.

  17. Profiling of Altered Metabolomic States in Nicotiana tabacum Cells Induced by Priming Agents

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    Mhlongo, Msizi I.; Steenkamp, Paul A.; Piater, Lizelle A.; Madala, Ntakadzeni E.; Dubery, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics has developed into a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of plant metabolism. Plant innate immune defenses can be activated and enhanced so that, subsequent to being pre-sensitized, plants are able to launch a stronger and faster defense response upon exposure to pathogenic microorganisms, a phenomenon known as priming. Here, three contrasting chemical activators, namely acibenzolar-S-methyl, azelaic acid and riboflavin, were used to induce a primed state in Nicotiana tabacum cells. Identified biomarkers were then compared to responses induced by three phytohormones—abscisic acid, methyljasmonate, and salicylic acid. Altered metabolomes were studied using a metabolite fingerprinting approach based on liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Multivariate data models indicated that these inducers cause time-dependent metabolic perturbations in the cultured cells and revealed biomarkers of which the levels are affected by these agents. A total of 34 metabolites were annotated from the mass spectral data and online databases. Venn diagrams were used to identify common biomarkers as well as those unique to a specific agent. Results implicate 20 cinnamic acid derivatives conjugated to (i) quinic acid (chlorogenic acids), (ii) tyramine, (iii) polyamines, or (iv) glucose as discriminatory biomarkers of priming in tobacco cells. Functional roles for most of these metabolites in plant defense responses could thus be proposed. Metabolites induced by the activators belong to the early phenylpropanoid pathway, which indicates that different stimuli can activate similar pathways but with different metabolite fingerprints. Possible linkages to phytohormone-dependent pathways at a metabolomic level were indicated in the case of cells treated with salicylic acid and methyljasmonate. The results contribute to a better understanding of the priming phenomenon and advance our knowledge of cinnamic acid derivatives as versatile defense metabolites. PMID

  18. Psychometric evaluation of the altered states of consciousness rating scale (OAV.

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    Erich Studerus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The OAV questionnaire has been developed to integrate research on altered states of consciousness (ASC. It measures three primary and one secondary dimensions of ASC that are hypothesized to be invariant across ASC induction methods. The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation modeling techniques and its psychometric properties have never been examined in large samples of experimentally induced ASC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study conducted a psychometric evaluation of the OAV in a sample of psilocybin (n = 327, ketamine (n = 162, and MDMA (n = 102 induced ASC that was obtained by pooling data from 43 experimental studies. The factorial structure was examined by confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, hierarchical item clustering (ICLUST, and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC modeling. The originally proposed model did not fit the data well even if zero-constraints on non-target factor loadings and residual correlations were relaxed. Furthermore, ICLUST suggested that the "oceanic boundlessness" and "visionary restructuralization" factors could be combined on a high level of the construct hierarchy. However, because these factors were multidimensional, we extracted and examined 11 new lower order factors. MIMIC modeling indicated that these factors were highly measurement invariant across drugs, settings, questionnaire versions, and sexes. The new factors were also demonstrated to have improved homogeneities, satisfactory reliabilities, discriminant and convergent validities, and to differentiate well among the three drug groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The original scales of the OAV were shown to be multidimensional constructs. Eleven new lower order scales were constructed and demonstrated to have desirable psychometric

  19. Altered resting-state frontoparietal control network in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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    Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Matsuo, Kayako; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-01

    The frontoparietal control network, anatomically and functionally interposed between the dorsal attention network and default mode network, underpins executive control functions. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly exhibit deficits in executive functions, which are mainly mediated by the frontoparietal control network. Involvement of the frontoparietal control network based on the anterior prefrontal cortex in neurobiological mechanisms of ADHD has yet to be tested. We used resting-state functional MRI and seed-based correlation analyses to investigate functional connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in a sample of 25 children with ADHD (7-14 years; mean 9.94 ± 1.77 years; 20 males), and 25 age-, sex-, and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children. All participants had limited in-scanner head motion. Spearman's rank correlations were used to test the associations between altered patterns of functional connectivity with clinical symptoms and executive functions, measured by the Conners' Continuous Performance Test and Spatial Span in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Compared with TD children, children with ADHD demonstrated weaker connectivity between the right anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right ventrolateral PFC, and between the left anterior PFC and the right inferior parietal lobule. Furthermore, this aberrant connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in ADHD was associated with symptoms of impulsivity and opposition-defiance, as well as impaired response inhibition and attentional control. The findings support potential integration of the disconnection model and the executive dysfunction model for ADHD. Atypical frontoparietal control network may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  20. Estimated mental retardation and school dropout in a sample of students from state public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Tramontina Silzá

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between estimated Mental Retardation (MR and school dropout in a sample of students of the third and fourth grades at state schools in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost state of Brazil. METHOD: In this case - control study, students that dropped out from schools (n=44 and a control group who continued attending schools (n=44 had their intelligence quotient (IQ determined by the vocabulary and cubes subtests of the Wescheler Intelligence Scale fraction three-quarters third edition (WISCfraction three-quartersIII. Students with IQ lower than 70 were considered as potential cases of MR. Other prevalent mental disorders in this age range were assessed in both groups using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Schoolfraction three-quarters Age Children, Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential MR was significantly higher in the dropped out group than in the control group (p<0.001. Odds ratio for school dropout was significantly higher in the presence of MR even after controlling for potentially confounding factors (age, conduct disorder, grade repetition, family structure and income (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Children with IQ lower than 70 (potential MR were at higher risk for school dropout. These children need to be identified at school and specific educational strategies should be implemented to assure their inclusion in the learning process.

  1. AMME: an Automatic Mental Model Evaluation to analyse user behaviour traced in a finite, discrete state space.

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    Rauterberg, M

    1993-11-01

    To support the human factors engineer in designing a good user interface, a method has been developed to analyse the empirical data of the interactive user behaviour traced in a finite discrete state space. The sequences of actions produced by the user contain valuable information about the mental model of this user, the individual problem solution strategies for a given task and the hierarchical structure of the task-subtasks relationships. The presented method, AMME, can analyse the action sequences and automatically generate (1) a net description of the task dependent model of the user, (2) a complete state transition matrix, and (3) various quantitative measures of the user's task solving process. The behavioural complexity of task-solving processes carried out by novices has been found to be significantly larger than the complexity of task-solving processes carried out by experts.

  2. Attachment mental states and inferred pathways of development in borderline personality disorder: a study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

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    Barone, Lavinia; Fossati, Andrea; Guiducci, Valentina

    2011-09-01

    We report the outcome of an investigation on how specific attachment states of mind and corresponding risk factors related to different DSM Axis I comorbidities in subjects with BPD. Mental representations of attachment in four BPD sub-groups (BPD and Anxiety/Mood Disorders, BPD and Substance Use and Abuse Disorders, BPD and Alcohol Use and Abuse Disorders, and BPD and Eating Disorders) were assessed in 140 BPD subjects using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). In addition to the global attachment picture in which Insecure organized (Dismissing 51% and Enmeshed 35%) and Insecure disorganized categories (40%) were overrepresented, significant differences in attachment category were found between the four BPD sub-groups. Axis I comorbidities corresponded with attachment features on the internalizing/externalizing functioning dimension of the disorder. Furthermore, specific constellations of inferred developmental antecedents and attachment states of mind corresponded differentially with the BPD sub-groups. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  3. [The state and results of countermeasures for mental health at a certain apparel company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshima, Hiroko; Nakamura, Koji; Nishioka, Makiko; Shimizu, Hidesuke

    2005-03-01

    We speculated that there would be more occupational stress in an apparel company than in other areas of business, because employees work long hours and under poor conditions. We investigated 66 employees of an apparel company who visited an occupational physician to consult about their mental health. There were 561 male and 387 female employees in that company. The employees who had visited an occupational physician had worked long every day under poor conditions, and they had been required to be more artistic than other employees in that company. Female employees visited occupational physicians more than males. Apparel companies, use a system of "specialty store retailer of Private-label Apparel (SPA)", and several sections make special trademark "brands". These sections compete with each other. Employees must plan, design, make patterns, and sew new dresses in a 7-day cycle. They are extremely busy and this therefore creates stress. We came to the conclusion that many apparel companies were stressful workplaces. It is important that a psychiatrist examines employees who occupational physicians have diagnosed as unhealthy. Frequent consultation with occupational physicians is as important as a psychiatrists examination. Managers must manage absence, efficiency, and written correspondence of all employees. These are useful signs of mental disorder. When employees return to work after sick leave, rehabilitation in the workplace after absence is useful. The employee should work for only two hours a day at first. Working hours are then extended gradually. The employee can then return to work easily if this rehabilitation program is followed.

  4. The influence of several changes in atmospheric states over semi-arid areas on the incidence of mental health disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Todder, Doron; Kaplan, Zeev

    2011-05-01

    The incidence of suicide attempts [Deliberate Self Harm (DSH); ICD-10: X60-X84] and psychotic attacks (PsA; ICD-10, F20-F29) in association with atmospheric states, typical for areas close to big deserts, was analyzed. A retrospective study is based on the 4,325 cases of DSH and PsA registered in the Mental Health Center (MHC) of Ben-Gurion University (Be'er-Sheva, Israel) during 2001-2003. Pearson and Spearman test correlations were used; the statistical significance was tested at p 0.1). Correlation coefficients between N SU and N PS and speed WS of westerly wind reaches 0.3 ( p 0.09). Variations in easterly wind direction WD influence N SU and N PS values ( p 0.3). Obviously ,in transition areas located between different regions ,the main role of air streams in meteorological-biological impact can scarcely be exaggerated. An unstable balance in the internal state of a weather-sensitive person is disturbed when the atmospheric state is changed by specific desert winds, which can provoke significant perturbations in meteorological parameters. Results indicate the importance of wind direction, defining mainly the atmospheric situation in semi-arid areas: changes in direction of the easterly wind influence N SU and N PS , while changes in WS are important for mental health under westerly air streams. Obviously, N SU and N PS are more affected by the disturbance of weather from its normal state, for a given season, to which the local population is accustomed, than by absolute values of meteorological parameters.

  5. Sugestões para o uso do mini-exame do estado mental no Brasil Suggestions for utilization of the mini-mental state examination in Brazil

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    Sonia M.D. Brucki

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Modificações no mini-exame do estado mental (MEM foram sugeridas anteriormente em nosso meio. Neste artigo relatamos sugestões para aplicação uniforme deste instrumento. MÉTODO: Avaliamos 433 indivíduos saudáveis sem queixas de memória através do MEM tendo seu desempenho sido avaliado quanto às variáveis demográficas. As modificações propostas foram detalhadamente descritas. RESULTADOS: A escolaridade foi o principal fator que influenciou o desempenho dos indivíduos. Na análise de variância entre os grupos de escolaridade obtivemos F(4,425=100,45, pMini-metal state examination (MMSE is a screening test to detect cognitive impairment. The objectives of the present study are to describe some adaptations for use of MMSE in Brazil and to propose rules for its uniform application. METHOD: We evaluated 433 healthy subjects using the MMSE and verified the possible influence of demographic variables on total scores. RESULTS: Educational level was the main factor that influenced performance, demonstrated by ANOVA: F(4,425 = 100.45, p<0.0001. The median values for educational groups were: 20 for illiterates; 25 for 1 to 4 yrs; 26.5 for 5 to 8 yrs; 28 for 9 to 11 yrs and 29 for higher levels. CONCLUSION: The MMSE is an excellent screening instrument and definitive rules are necessary for comparison purposes.

  6. Mental health of returnees: refugees in Germany prior to their state-sponsored repatriation

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    Elbert Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many refugees live for years in exile. The combination of stress in the host country, together with long-term effects resulting from traumatic stress usually experienced in the home country may affect mental health. Little is known, to what extent these and other factors promote or stall the willingness to return to the country of origin. Here, we investigate, as an example, refugees who will return to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 11 years. Objective What is the mental health status of returnees before the actual return who have been living in exile for an extended period? We also asked, what are the current living conditions in Germany and what are the motives for and reasons against a voluntary return to the country of origin? Methods Forty-seven participants of programs for assisted voluntarreturn were interviewed about their present living situation, their view regarding their home country and voluntary return. These findings were compared to a group of 53 refugees who had decided to remain in Germany (stayers. Participants were recruited by means of advertisements posted in refugee centres, language schools, at doctors' offices and in organisations involved in the management of voluntary return in Germany. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among respondents was tested using the structured interview M.I.N.I. The Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS was used to assess PTSD in more detail and EUROHIS was applied to measure the subjective quality of life of participants. Results We found a prevalence rate of 44% psychiatric disorders in the group of returnees and a rate of 78% in the group of stayers. We also recorded substantial correlations between the living situation in Germany, disposition to return and mental health. In almost two thirds of the participants the decision to return was not voluntary but strongly influenced by immigration authorities. The most

  7. Functional neuroimaging during altered states of consciousness: how and what do we measure?

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    Hirsch, Joy

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of functional neuroimaging has extended the doctrine of functional specificity of the brain beyond the primary stages of perception, language, and motor systems to high-level cognitive, personality, and affective systems. This chapter applies functional magnetic resonance imaging to another high-level realm of cognition and neurology to characterize cortical function in patients with disorders of consciousness. At first pass, this objective appears paradoxical because conventional investigations of a cognitive process require experimental manipulation. For example, to map the location of language-sensitive cortex, a language-related task is performed according to a temporal sequence that alternates the task with rest (no-task) periods. Application of this approach to the study of consciousness would require that levels of consciousness be similarly varied, this is an unlikely technique. Alternatively, another strategy is presented here where the focus is on functional brain activity elicited during various passive stimulations of patients who are minimally conscious. Comparisons between patients with altered states of consciousness due to brain injury and healthy subjects may be employed to infer readiness and potential to sustain awareness. As if a behavioral microscope, fMRI enables a view of occluded neural processes to inform medical practitioners about the health of the neurocircuity-mediating cognitive processes. An underlying point of view is that assessment of recovery potential can be enhanced by neuroimaging techniques that reveal the status of residual systems specialized for essential cognitive and volitional tasks for each patient. Thus, development of imaging techniques that assess the functional status of individual unresponsive patients is a primary goal. The structural integrity of injured brains is often compromised depending on the specific traumatic event, and, therefore, images cannot be grouped across patients, as is the standard

  8. The Role of Therapeutic Adventure in Meeting the Mental Health Needs of Children and Adolescents: Finding a Niche in the Health Care Systems of the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the mental health needs of adolescents far outstrip the resources of traditional mental health. The field of adventure therapy has the potential to help meet these unmet needs. It is argued that particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom, for adventure therapy to become a formal part of the mental health delivery service…

  9. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

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    Ruth A. Lanius

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015. This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1 those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2 those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC along four dimensions: (1 time; (2 thought; (3 body; and (4 emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  10. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) thought; (3) body; and (4) emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  11. The experience of altered states of consciousness in shamanic ritual: the role of pre-existing beliefs and affective factors.

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    Polito, Vince; Langdon, Robyn; Brown, Jac

    2010-12-01

    Much attention has been paid recently to the role of anomalous experiences in the aetiology of certain types of psychopathology, e.g. in the formation of delusions. We examine, instead, the top-down influence of pre-existing beliefs and affective factors in shaping an individual's characterisation of anomalous sensory experiences. Specifically we investigated the effects of paranormal beliefs and alexithymia in determining the intensity and quality of an altered state of consciousness (ASC). Fifty five participants took part in a sweat lodge ceremony, a traditional shamanic ritual which was unfamiliar to them. Participants reported significant alterations in their state of consciousness, quantified using the 'APZ' questionnaire, a standardized measure of ASC experience. Participants endorsing paranormal beliefs compatible with shamanic mythology, and those showing difficulty identifying feelings scored higher on positive dimensions of ASC experience. Our findings demonstrate that variation in an individual's characterisation of anomalous experiences is nuanced by pre-existing beliefs and affective factors.

  12. Peer interaction does not always improve children's mental state talk production in oral narratives. A study in six- to ten-year-old Italian children.

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    Giuliana Pinto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Joint narratives are a mean through which children develop and practice their Theory of Mind, thus they represent an ideal means to explore children’s use and development of mental state talk. However, creating a learning environment for storytelling based on peer interaction, does not necessarily mean that students will automatically exploit it by engaging in productive collaboration, thus it is important to explore under what conditions peer interaction promotes children’s ToM. This study extends our understanding of social aspects of ToM, focusing on the effect of joint narratives on school-age children’s mental state talk. Fifty-six Italian primary school children participated in the study (19 females and 37 males. Children created a story in two different experimental conditions (individually and with a partner randomly assigned. Each story told by the children, as well as their dialogues were recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions of narratives were coded in terms of text quality and mental state talk, whereas transcriptions of dialogues were coded in terms of quality of interaction. The results from this study confirmed that peer interaction does not always improve children’s mental state talk performances in oral narratives, but certain conditions need to be satisfied. Peer interaction was more effective on mental state talk with lower individual levels and productive interactions, particularly in terms of capacity to regulate the interactions. When children were able to focus on the interaction, as well as the product, they were also exposed to each other’s reasoning behind their viewpoint. This level of intersubjectivity, in turn, allowed them to take more in consideration the contribution of mental states to the narrative.

  13. Peer Interaction Does Not Always Improve Children’s Mental State Talk Production in Oral Narratives. A Study in 6- to 10-Year-Old Italian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Joint narratives are a mean through which children develop and practice their Theory of Mind (ToM), thus they represent an ideal means to explore children’s use and development of mental state talk. However, creating a learning environment for storytelling based on peer interaction, does not necessarily mean that students will automatically exploit it by engaging in productive collaboration, thus it is important to explore under what conditions peer interaction promotes children’s ToM. This study extends our understanding of social aspects of ToM, focusing on the effect of joint narratives on school-age children’s mental state talk. Fifty-six Italian primary school children participated in the study (19 females and 37 males). Children created a story in two different experimental conditions (individually and with a partner randomly assigned). Each story told by the children, as well as their dialogs were recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions of narratives were coded in terms of text quality and mental state talk, whereas transcriptions of dialogs were coded in terms of quality of interaction. The results from this study confirmed that peer interaction does not always improve children’s mental state talk performances in oral narratives, but certain conditions need to be satisfied. Peer interaction was more effective on mental state talk with lower individual levels and productive interactions, particularly in terms of capacity to regulate the interactions. When children were able to focus on the interaction, as well as the product, they were also exposed to each other’s reasoning behind their viewpoint. This level of intersubjectivity, in turn, allowed them to take more in consideration the contribution of mental states to the narrative. PMID:27826283

  14. Does Using a Standardised Mental Health Triage Assessment Alter Nurses Assessment of Vignettes of People Presenting with Deliberate Self-Harm

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    Richard Tanner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Manchester Triage Scale is used in Irish emergency departments. This fails to provide guidance on triaging psychiatric presentations. A Mental Health Triage scale is recommended by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence. Aim. To examine the effectiveness of a Mental Health Triage scale in assessing patients presenting with self-harm. Method. Ten vignettes were created, detailing cases of deliberate self-harm. Nurses (n=49 were given five vignettes and asked to assign each vignette to a triage category, using The Manchester Triage Scale. Each nurse was subsequently asked to reevaluate the same vignettes using the Mental Health Triage Scale. Triage with each method was deemed safe or unsafe, using the benchmark triage categories assigned by a consultant in psychiatry and a consultant in emergency medicine departments. Results. 245 cases were triaged. There was a significant change in the categories assigned when the Mental Health Triage scale was in use, P<0.001. The triage categories assigned using the Mental Health Triage scale were significantly safer than under the Manchester Triage Scale (79% versus 60% safe, respectively, P<0.001.

  15. Expression and structural-functional alterations of α-1-acid glycoprotein at the pathological state

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    Kulinich A. O.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes up-to-date knowledge on structure and biological functions of α-acid glycoprotein. The special attention is given to alterations of fucosylation, sialylation and branching of orosomucoid at the acute, chronic inflammation and oncotransformations.

  16. Studies on the Mental Processes in Translation Memory-assisted Translation – the State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the mental translation processes involved in translation memory-assisted translation. First, based on recent developments in cognitive science the article provides a working definition of mental TM research. Next the article analyses a selection of mental TM studies...

  17. Beyond Screening: Can the Mini-Mental State Examination be Used as an Exclusion Tool in a Memory Clinic?

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    Xin Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores whether the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE could reliably exclude definite dementia and dementia-free cases from requiring more extensive neuropsychological investigations in memory clinic settings in Singapore. Patients with memory complaints referred for possible dementia underwent the MMSE, followed by standardized neuropsychological and clinical assessments which led to a consensus diagnosis. MMSE cut-off points were derived stratified for education (less and equal/above primary level. Results show that after education stratification, using an optimal Positive Likelihood Ratio (PLR and optimal Negative Likelihood Ratio (NLR, a higher percentage of patients were correctly identified as having dementia or dementia-free, with minimal misclassification rate. The finding suggests the MMSE can be used to exclude patients not requiring full neuropsychological assessments in a memory clinic.

  18. Processing deficits in monitoring analog and digital displays: Implications for attentional theory and mental-state estimation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, David G.; Gunther, Virginia A. L.

    1988-01-01

    Subjects performed short term memory tasks, involving both spatial and verbal components, and a visual monitoring task involving either analog or digital display formats. These two tasks (memory vs. monitoring) were performed both singly and in conjunction. Contrary to expectations derived from multiple resource theories of attentional processes, there was no evidence that when the two tasks involved the same cognitive codes (i.e., either both spatial or both verbal/linguistics) there was more of a dual task performance decrement than when the two tasks employed different cognitive codes/processes. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for theories of attentional processes and also for research in mental state estimation.

  19. A comparative study of criminal responsibility to the age and mental state of people in the UK and Iran

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    Mohammad Amin Farid

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the criminal responsibility according to age and mental state of people in the UK and Iran. In general it can be said that the prohibited conduct when the criminal is qualified to describe the criminal sanction is necessary. The person who committed the crime, after punishment from holding capacity, in order to achieve the objectives of punishment must benefit from criminal sanction. Capital punishment legislation prohibited behavior and punishment discretionary selection of judges when issuing opinions all indicate that social rules violators are faced by means of repressive and violent and coercive law, to benefit utilitarian goals and prospective of penalties in preventing recidivism, and punishment-oriented for a crime he committed in the past, from worthy and deserve punishment in response to pleasure and illicit profit earned.

  20. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai

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    Xin Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM cases were identified. Risk factors, such as advanced age (≥68 years, low education (no or primary level, self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects.

  1. Relationship between weak central coherence and mental states understanding in children with Autism and in children with ADHD.

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    Pina Filippello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The central coherence involves the processes of perceptual coding and attention mechanisms, highly deficient in children with ADHD (Booth & Happé, 2010. According to this theory, also children with autism are overly focused on details to the expense of a global perspective, and this negatively affects their ability to integrate environmental stimuli into a coherent whole (Happé, Booth, Charlton, Hughes, 2006. The aim of this study was to determine differences in central coherence of children with high functioning autism (ASD; n=10, children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=10 and typically developing peers (n=10. Individuals with ADHD exhibit significant deficits in perceptual skills and problem solving, failing also in mental states understanding tasks. While the children with autism spectrum disorder show impairments in making pragmatic inferences. Future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of the cognitive and psychological mechanisms underlying these effects.

  2. Mismatch negativity and P3a/reorienting complex in subjects with schizophrenia or at-risk mental state

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    Yuko eHiguchi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shorter duration of untreated psychosis has been associated with better prognosis in patients with schizophrenia. In Introduction: In this study, we measured duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, P3a and reorienting negativity (RON in subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, patients with first-episode or chronic schizophrenia, and healthy volunteers. The main interest was to determine if these event-related potentials provide a biomarker associated with progression to overt schizophrenia in ARMS subjects.Methods: Seventeen ARMS subjects meeting the criteria of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State, 38 patients with schizophrenia (19 first-episode and 19 chronic, and 19 healthy controls participated in the study. dMMN, P3a and RON were measured with an auditory odd-ball paradigm at baseline. Results: During the follow-up period (2.2 years, 4 out of the 19 ARMS subjects transitioned to schizophrenia (Converters while 15 did not (non-Converters. dMMN amplitudes of Converters were significantly smaller than those of non-Converters at frontal and central electrodes before onset of illness. dMMN amplitudes of non-Converters did not differ from those of healthy controls, while Converters showed significantly smaller dMMN amplitudes compared to control subjects. RON amplitudes were also reduced at frontal and central electrodes in subjects with schizophrenia, but not ARMS. Converter subjects tended to show smaller RON amplitudes compared to non-Converters. Conclusions: Our data confirm that diminished dMMN amplitudes provide a biomarker which is present before and after the development of psychosis. In this respect, RON amplitudes may also be useful, as suggested for the first time in this study.

  3. The organizational social context of mental health services and clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice: a United States national study

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    Aarons Gregory A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practices have not been routinely adopted in community mental health organizations despite the support of scientific evidence and in some cases even legislative or regulatory action. We examined the association of clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice with organizational culture, climate, and other characteristics in a nationally representative sample of mental health organizations in the United States. Methods In-person, group-administered surveys were conducted with a sample of 1,112 mental health service providers in a nationwide sample of 100 mental health service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study examines these associations with a two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM analysis of responses to the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS at the individual clinician level as a function of the Organizational Social Context (OSC measure at the organizational level, controlling for other organization and clinician characteristics. Results We found that more proficient organizational cultures and more engaged and less stressful organizational climates were associated with positive clinician attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Conclusions The findings suggest that organizational intervention strategies for improving the organizational social context of mental health services may contribute to the success of evidence-based practice dissemination and implementation efforts by influencing clinician attitudes.

  4. Mental State Understanding in Children with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lábadi, Beatrix; Beke, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Impaired social functioning is a well-known outcome of individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum. Social deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, social reasoning, and recognition of facial expression have all been documented in adults with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In the present study, we examined the emotional and mentalizing deficits that contributing to the social-cognitive development in children with isolated corpus callosum agenesia, including emotion recognition, theory of mind, executive function, working memory, and behavioral impairments as assessed by the parents. The study involved children between the age of 6 and 8 years along with typically developing children who were matched by IQ, age, gender, education, and caregiver's education. The findings indicated that children with agenesis of the corpus callosum exhibited mild impairments in all social factors (recognizing emotions, understanding theory of mind), and showed more behavioral problems than control children. Taken together, these findings suggest that reduced callosal connectivity may contribute to the development of higher-order social-cognitive deficits, involving limits of complex and rapidly occurring social information to be processed. The studies of AgCC shed lights of the role of structural connectivity across the hemispheres in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  5. Mental State Understanding in Children with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lábadi, Beatrix; Beke, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Impaired social functioning is a well-known outcome of individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum. Social deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, social reasoning, and recognition of facial expression have all been documented in adults with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In the present study, we examined the emotional and mentalizing deficits that contributing to the social-cognitive development in children with isolated corpus callosum agenesia, including emotion recognition, theory of mind, executive function, working memory, and behavioral impairments as assessed by the parents. The study involved children between the age of 6 and 8 years along with typically developing children who were matched by IQ, age, gender, education, and caregiver's education. The findings indicated that children with agenesis of the corpus callosum exhibited mild impairments in all social factors (recognizing emotions, understanding theory of mind), and showed more behavioral problems than control children. Taken together, these findings suggest that reduced callosal connectivity may contribute to the development of higher-order social-cognitive deficits, involving limits of complex and rapidly occurring social information to be processed. The studies of AgCC shed lights of the role of structural connectivity across the hemispheres in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28220087

  6. Beyond Trauma: Post-resettlement Factors and Mental Health Outcomes Among Latino and Asian Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Isok

    2016-08-01

    War-related traumas impact refugees' mental health. Recent literature suggests that structural and sociocultural factors related to the resettlement also become critical in shaping refugees' mental health. So far, there is limited empirical evidence to support this claim among resettled refugees. Resettlement contextual factors that influence mental health outcomes were examined using Latino and Asian refugees (n = 656) from a nationally representative survey. Linear and logistic regressions predicted factors associated with the study's outcomes (self-reported mental health, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders). Post-resettlement traumas were significantly associated with mental health outcomes, but pre-resettlement traumas were not. Unemployment, everyday discrimination, and limited English were significantly associated with mental health outcomes among both Latino and Asian refugees. The outcomes indicate that resettlement contextual factors have a significant association with refugees' mental health. Therefore, future studies with refugees must pay closer attention to structural and sociocultural factors after resettlement.

  7. Resting-state functional connectivity bias of middle temporal gyrus and caudate with altered gray matter volume in major depression.

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    Chaoqiong Ma

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have indicated that the structure deficits and resting-state functional connectivity (FC imbalances in cortico-limbic circuitry might underline the pathophysiology of MDD. Using structure and functional MRI, our aim is to investigate gray matter abnormalities in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD and treatment-responsive depression (TSD, and test whether the altered gray matter is associated with altered FC. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the regions with gray matter abnormality and FC analysis was further conducted between each gray matter abnormal region and the remaining voxels in the brain. Using one-way analysis of variance, we found significant gray matter abnormalities in the right middle temporal cortex (MTG and bilateral caudate among the TRD, TSD and healthy controls. For the FC of the right MTG, we found that both the patients with TRD and TSD showed altered connectivity mainly in the default-mode network (DMN. For the FC of the right caudate, both patient groups showed altered connectivity in the frontal regions. Our results revealed the gray matter reduction of right MTG and bilateral caudate, and disrupted functional connection to widely distributed circuitry in DMN and frontal regions, respectively. These results suggest that the abnormal DMN and reward circuit activity might be biomarkers of depression trait.

  8. Alterations in Neuronal Activity in Basal Ganglia-Thalamocortical Circuits in the Parkinsonian State

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    Adriana eGalvan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials, electroencephalograms or electrocorticograms. Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation therapy.

  9. Altered topological properties of functional network connectivity in schizophrenia during resting state: a small-world brain network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingbao; Sui, Jing; Rachakonda, Srinivas; He, Hao; Gruner, William; Pearlson, Godfrey; Kiehl, Kent A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant topological properties of small-world human brain networks in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) have been documented in previous neuroimaging studies. Aberrant functional network connectivity (FNC, temporal relationships among independent component time courses) has also been found in SZ by a previous resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. However, no study has yet determined if topological properties of FNC are also altered in SZ. In this study, small-world network metrics of FNC during the resting state were examined in both healthy controls (HCs) and SZ subjects. FMRI data were obtained from 19 HCs and 19 SZ. Brain images were decomposed into independent components (ICs) by group independent component analysis (ICA). FNC maps were constructed via a partial correlation analysis of ICA time courses. A set of undirected graphs were built by thresholding the FNC maps and the small-world network metrics of these maps were evaluated. Our results demonstrated significantly altered topological properties of FNC in SZ relative to controls. In addition, topological measures of many ICs involving frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar areas were altered in SZ relative to controls. Specifically, topological measures of whole network and specific components in SZ were correlated with scores on the negative symptom scale of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). These findings suggest that aberrant architecture of small-world brain topology in SZ consists of ICA temporally coherent brain networks.

  10. Securitization, alterity, and the state Human (in)security on an Amazonian frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, Marc; Grotti, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Focusing on the region surrounding the Maroni River, which forms the border between Suriname and French Guiana, we examine how relations between different state and non-state social groups are articulated in terms of security. The region is characterised by multiple "borders" and frontiers of various kinds, the state boundary having the features of an interface or contact zone. Several key collectivities meet in this border zone: native Amazonians, tribal Maroon peoples, migrant Brazilian gold prospectors, and metropolitan French state functionaries. We explore the relationships between these different sets of actors and describe how their mutual encounters center on discourses of human and state security, thus challenging the commonly held view of the region as a stateless zone and showing that the "human security" of citizens from the perspective of the state may compete with locally salient ideas or experiences of well-being.

  11. The state of the art in European research on reducing social exclusion and stigma related to mental health: a systematic mapping of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, S; Courtin, E; Fiorillo, A; Knapp, M; Luciano, M; Park, A-L; Brunn, M; Byford, S; Chevreul, K; Forsman, A K; Gulacsi, L; Haro, J M; Kennelly, B; Knappe, S; Lai, T; Lasalvia, A; Miret, M; O'Sullivan, C; Obradors-Tarragó, C; Rüsch, N; Sartorius, N; Svab, V; van Weeghel, J; Van Audenhove, C; Wahlbeck, K; Zlati, A; McDaid, D; Thornicroft, G

    2014-08-01

    Stigma and social exclusion related to mental health are of substantial public health importance for Europe. As part of ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe), we used systematic mapping techniques to describe the current state of research on stigma and social exclusion across Europe. Findings demonstrate growing interest in this field between 2007 and 2012. Most studies were descriptive (60%), focused on adults of working age (60%) and were performed in Northwest Europe-primarily in the UK (32%), Finland (8%), Sweden (8%) and Germany (7%). In terms of mental health characteristics, the largest proportion of studies investigated general mental health (20%), common mental disorders (16%), schizophrenia (16%) or depression (14%). There is a paucity of research looking at mechanisms to reduce stigma and promote social inclusion, or at factors that might promote resilience or protect against stigma/social exclusion across the life course. Evidence is also limited in relation to evaluations of interventions. Increasing incentives for cross-country research collaborations, especially with new EU Member States and collaboration across European professional organizations and disciplines, could improve understanding of the range of underpinning social and cultural factors which promote inclusion or contribute toward lower levels of stigma, especially during times of hardship.

  12. Interracial Couples in the United States of America: Implications for Mental Health Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solsberry, Priscilla Wilson

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the historical antecedents of interracial relationships in the United States, gives information regarding those who participate in these relationships, and examines society's reaction to their occurrence. Focuses on relationships involving African Americans and European Americans. Discusses issues, interventions, and support groups. (JBJ)

  13. Distributions of Irritative Zones Are Related to Individual Alterations of Resting-State Networks in Focal Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinchen Song

    Full Text Available Alterations in the connectivity patterns of the fMRI-based resting-state networks (RSNs have been reported in several types of epilepsies. Evidence pointed out these alterations might be associated with the genesis and propagation of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs. IEDs also evoke blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD responses, which have been used to delineate irritative zones during preoperative work-up. Therefore, one may expect a relationship between the topology of the IED-evoked BOLD response network and the altered spatial patterns of the RSNs. In this study, we used EEG recordings and fMRI data obtained simultaneously from a chronic model of focal epilepsy in Wistar rats to verify our hypothesis. We found that IED-evoked BOLD response networks comprise both cortical and subcortical structures with a rat-dependent topology. In all rats, IEDs evoke both activation and deactivation types of BOLD responses. Using a Granger causality method, we found that in many cases areas with BOLD deactivation have directed influences on areas with activation (p<0.05. We were able to predict topological properties (i.e., focal/diffused, unilateral/bilateral of the IED-evoked BOLD response network by performing hierarchical clustering analysis on major spatial features of the RSNs. All these results suggest that IEDs and disruptions in the RSNs found previously in humans may be different manifestations of the same transient events, probably reflecting altered consciousness. In our opinion, the shutdown of specific nodes of the default mode network may cause uncontrollable excitability in other functionally connected brain areas. We conclude that IED-evoked BOLD responses (i.e., activation and deactivation and alterations of RSNs are intrinsically related, and speculate that an understanding of their interplay is necessary to discriminate focal epileptogenesis and network propagation phenomena across different brain modules via hub

  14. Altered resting state neuromotor connectivity in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A MAPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J. Kutch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain network activity associated with altered motor control in individuals with chronic pain is not well understood. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS is a debilitating condition in which previous studies have revealed altered resting pelvic floor muscle activity in men with CP/CPPS compared to healthy controls. We hypothesized that the brain networks controlling pelvic floor muscles would also show altered resting state function in men with CP/CPPS. Here we describe the results of the first test of this hypothesis focusing on the motor cortical regions, termed pelvic-motor, that can directly activate pelvic floor muscles. A group of men with CP/CPPS (N = 28, as well as group of age-matched healthy male controls (N = 27, had resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network study. Brain maps of the functional connectivity of pelvic-motor were compared between groups. A significant group difference was observed in the functional connectivity between pelvic-motor and the right posterior insula. The effect size of this group difference was among the largest effect sizes in functional connectivity between all pairs of 165 anatomically-defined subregions of the brain. Interestingly, many of the atlas region pairs with large effect sizes also involved other subregions of the insular cortices. We conclude that functional connectivity between motor cortex and the posterior insula may be among the most important markers of altered brain function in men with CP/CPPS, and may represent changes in the integration of viscerosensory and motor processing.

  15. Altered resting state neuromotor connectivity in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A MAPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutch, Jason J.; Yani, Moheb S.; Asavasopon, Skulpan; Kirages, Daniel J.; Rana, Manku; Cosand, Louise; Labus, Jennifer S.; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Farmer, Melissa A.; Johnson, Kevin A.; Ness, Timothy J.; Deutsch, Georg; Harris, Richard E.; Apkarian, A. Vania; Clauw, Daniel J.; Mackey, Sean C.; Mullins, Chris; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2015-01-01

    Brain network activity associated with altered motor control in individuals with chronic pain is not well understood. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a debilitating condition in which previous studies have revealed altered resting pelvic floor muscle activity in men with CP/CPPS compared to healthy controls. We hypothesized that the brain networks controlling pelvic floor muscles would also show altered resting state function in men with CP/CPPS. Here we describe the results of the first test of this hypothesis focusing on the motor cortical regions, termed pelvic-motor, that can directly activate pelvic floor muscles. A group of men with CP/CPPS (N = 28), as well as group of age-matched healthy male controls (N = 27), had resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network study. Brain maps of the functional connectivity of pelvic-motor were compared between groups. A significant group difference was observed in the functional connectivity between pelvic-motor and the right posterior insula. The effect size of this group difference was among the largest effect sizes in functional connectivity between all pairs of 165 anatomically-defined subregions of the brain. Interestingly, many of the atlas region pairs with large effect sizes also involved other subregions of the insular cortices. We conclude that functional connectivity between motor cortex and the posterior insula may be among the most important markers of altered brain function in men with CP/CPPS, and may represent changes in the integration of viscerosensory and motor processing. PMID:26106574

  16. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

  17. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is superior to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detection of korsakoffs syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, Erik; Postma, Albert; Van Der Stigchel, Stefan; Appelhof, Britt; Wijnia, Jan W.; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2014-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) are brief screening instruments for cognitive disorders. Although these instruments have frequently been used in the detection of dementia, there is currently little knowledge on the validity to detect Korsakoffs syndr

  18. The "Reading the Mind in Films" Task [Child Version]: Complex Emotion and Mental State Recognition in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Golan, Yael

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have difficulties recognizing others' emotions. Research has mostly focused on "basic" emotion recognition, devoid of context. This study reports the results of a new task, assessing recognition of "complex" emotions and mental states in social contexts. An ASC group (n = 23) was compared to a general…

  19. New methods for the measurement and alteration of quantum states; Neue Methoden zur Messung und Veraenderung von Quantenzustaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuernagel, O.

    1996-07-01

    Themes of this thesis are the mathematical representation, measurement-technical reconstruction, and preparation of quantum states as well as their alteration by measurement. The main topics of the considerations are quantum-mechanical system states, the complet description of which pursues by means of density operators. The first chapter presents a general mathematical scheme for the representaion of density operators by means of projection operators. The second chapter explains a scheme for the syntehsis of Fock states by means of a linear mixer. The third chapter answers the question, whether spontaneous emitted light, which is emitted by an atom with large spatial extension, can show self-interferences and lets conclude on thee coherent structure of the c.m. wave function of the emitting atom. The last chapter reconstructs measurement results on the coherence loss of atoms in an atomic-beam experiment by spontaneous emission in the language of the density-operator formalism.

  20. Neither state or trait anxiety alter the response to distracting emotionally neutral sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Robert; Hunter, Mike D; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory suggests that heightened anxiety, whether due to trait or state factors, causes an increased vulnerability to distraction even when the distracters are emotionally neutral. Recent passive oddball studies appear to support this theory in relation to the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds. However such studies have manipulated emotional state via the content of task stimuli, thus potentially confounding changes in emotion with differences in task demands. To identify the effect of anxiety on the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds, 50 participants completed a passive oddball task requiring emotionally neutral sounds to be ignored. Crucially, state anxiety was manipulated independent of the task stimuli (via unrelated audiovisual stimuli) thus removing confounds relating to task demands. Neither state or trait anxiety was found to influence the susceptibility to distraction by emotionally neutral sounds. These findings contribute to the ongoing debate concerning the impact of emotion on attention.

  1. Insulinotropic effects of GPR120 agonists are altered in obese diabetic and obese non-diabetic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; So, Wing Yan; Wang, Yi; Wu, Shang Ying; Cheng, Qianni; Leung, Po Sing

    2017-02-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) is a putative target for obesity and diabetes therapies. However, it remains controversial whether resident GPR120 plays a direct regulatory role in islet β-cell insulin secretion. The present study examined this issue in isolated rodent islets and rat β-cell line INS-1E, and assessed the role of GPR120 in islet insulin secretion in obese non-diabetic (OND) and diabetic states. GPR120 expression was detected in rodent islet β-cells. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and synthetic GPR120 agonist GSK137647 (GSK) augmented insulin release from rat/mouse islets and INS-1E; DHA effects were partially mediated by GPR40. GPR120 knockdown and overexpression attenuated and enhanced DHA effects in INS-1E respectively. DHA and GSK improved postprandial hyperglycaemia of diabetic mice. Inhibition of calcium signalling in INS-1E reduced GPR120 activation-induced insulinotropic effects. The insulinotropic effects of DHA/GSK were amplified in OND rat islets, but diminished in diabetic rat islets. GPR120 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression were elevated in OND islets and palmitic acid (PA)-treated INS-1E, but reduced in diabetic islets and high glucose-treated INS-1E. PPARγ activation increased GPR120 expression in rat islets and INS-1E. DHA and GSK induced protein kinase B (Akt)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in rodent islets and INS-1E, and these effects were altered in OND and diabetic states. Taken together, the present study indicates that (i) GPR120 activation has an insulinotropic influence on β-cells with the involvement of calcium signalling; (ii) GPR120 expression in β-cells and GPR120-mediated insulinotropic effects are altered in OND and diabetic states in distinct ways, and these alterations may be mediated by PPARγ.

  2. Between innovation and tradition: the paradoxical relationship between eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Debra; Rousseau, Cécile; Lacroix, Louise

    2004-03-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a relatively new form of psychotherapy to emerge in the West. Using both a case analysis and literature review we situate EMDR within the use of altered states of consciousness (ASCs) in psychological healing practices across times and cultures. We discuss EMDR's unique predicament as a therapy that draws upon techniques common to most therapeutic ASCs, while at the same time distancing itself from this tradition through its pseudoscientific language and technologic aesthetic. Our conclusion attempts to shed light on this paradox and raise questions for further study.

  3. Classification model of arousal and valence mental states by EEG signals analysis and Brodmann correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Rodriguez Aguinaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology to perform emotional states classification by the analysis of EEG signals, wavelet decomposition and an electrode discrimination process, that associates electrodes of a 10/20 model to Brodmann regions and reduce computational burden. The classification process were performed by a Support Vector Machines Classification process, achieving a 81.46 percent of classification rate for a multi-class problem and the emotions modeling are based in an adjusted space from the Russell Arousal Valence Space and the Geneva model.

  4. Effects of chronic academic stress on mental state and expression of glucocorticoid receptor α and β isoforms in healthy Japanese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Ken; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Murata, Akiho; Akaike, Yoko; Katsuura, Sakurako; Nishida, Kensei; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Yuki; Kawai, Tomoko; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2011-07-01

    Chronic academic stress responses were assessed by measuring mental state, salivary cortisol levels, and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression in healthy Japanese medical students challenging the national medical license examination. Mental states of 17 male and 9 female medical undergraduates, aged 25.0 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SD), were assessed by the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) 2 months before, 2 days before, and 1 month after the examination. At the same time points, saliva and blood were collected. STAI-state scores peaked 2 days before the examination. Scores on STAI-trait and SDS, and salivary cortisol levels were consistently higher during the pre-examination period. One month after the examination, all these measures had significantly decreased to baseline levels. Real-time reverse transcription PCR showed that this chronic anxious state did not change the expression of the functional GRα mRNA isoform in peripheral leukocytes, while it resulted in reduced expression of the GRβ isoform 2 days before the examination. Our results replicate and extend a significant impact of chronic academic stressors on the mental state of healthy Japanese medical students and suggest a possible association of GRβ gene in response to psychological stress.

  5. Mismatch negativity and cognitive performance for the prediction of psychosis in subjects with at-risk mental state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Higuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A shorter duration of untreated psychosis has been associated with better prognosis in schizophrenia. In this study, we measured the duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, an event-related potential, and cognitive performance in subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, patients with first-episode or chronic schizophrenia, and healthy volunteers. The main interest was to determine if these neurocognitive measures predict progression to overt schizophrenia in ARMS subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen ARMS subjects, meeting the criteria of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State, 31 schizophrenia patients (20 first-episode and 11 chronic and healthy controls (N=20 participated in the study. dMMN was measured by an auditory odd-ball paradigm at baseline. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the Japanese version of the Brief assessment of cognitive function of schizophrenia (BACS-J. The first-episode schizophrenia group showed significantly smaller amplitudes at frontal electrodes than did control subjects whereas chronic patients elicited smaller amplitudes at frontal and central electrodes, consistent with previous reports. During the follow-up period, 4 out of the 17 ARMS subjects transitioned to schizophrenia (converters while 13 did not (non-converters. Specifically, dMMN amplitudes of non-converters did not differ from those of healthy controls, while converters showed significantly smaller dMMN amplitudes at some electrodes compared to control subjects. Converters performed significantly worse on tests of working memory, verbal fluency, and attention/information processing than did non-converters. There was a significant positive correlation between dMMN amplitudes at the frontal electrodes and verbal fluency, as measured by the BACS, in the AMRS subjects as a whole. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARMS subjects who later developed schizophrenia elicited smaller dMMN amplitudes to begin with, compared

  6. O desempenho de idosas institucionalizadas no miniexame do estado mental El desempeño de adultas mayores institucionalizadas en el mini examen del estado mental Institutionalized elder women's performance in the mini-mental state examination

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho, no miniexame do estado mental, de mulheres idosas residentes em uma instituição de longa permanência para idosos no município de Curitiba - PR. MÉTODOS: Estudo quantitativo descritivo transversal realizado com amostra de 34 idosas residentes em instituição de longa permanência. Os dados foram obtidos mediante a aplicação do miniexame do estado mental e analisados por estatística descritiva e distribuição de freqüência. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 79,82 ± 8...

  7. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR: a flow-like mental state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Barratt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9% within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.

  8. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR): a flow-like mental state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Emma L; Davis, Nick J

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9%) within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.

  9. [Neuroimaging technique: a diagnostic tool to detect altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonnard, Marie; Boly, Mélanie; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Chatelle, Camille; Gosseries, Olivia; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    Vegetative and minimally conscious states diagnosis remained a major clinical challenge. New paradigms such as measurement of the global cerebral metabolism, the structural and functional integrity of fronto-parietal network, or the spontaneous activity in resting state have been shown to be helpful to disentangle vegetative from minimally conscious patients. Active neuroimagery paradigms also allow detecting voluntary and conscious activity in non-communicative patients. The implementation of these methods in clinical routine could permit to reduce the current high rate of misdiagnosis (40%).

  10. [Economic restructuring and impacts on health and mental distress: the case of a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Pinheiro, Tarcísio Márcio Magalhães; Sakurai, Emília

    2007-12-01

    Restructuring of the Brazilian financial sector was consolidated through the combination of mass lay-offs, automation, and outsourcing, in addition to business re-engineering with leveling of hierarchical echelons, labor casualization, and multi-function jobs. In order to comply and deal with the new demands, bank employees had to increase their schooling, become multi-functional and expert sales attendants, and submit to substandard conditions in the workplace, increased workload, overtime, and low wages. The purpose of the current study was to examine the restructuring process in a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and its impacts on workers' health. The study also analyzes absenteeism rates from 1998 to 2003, when there was an increase in diseases such as repetitive stress injury (RSI)/work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD) and mental/behavioral disorders, accounting for 56% and 19% of sick leaves. The process has continued to the present, with a restrictive recruitment policy. Further study is needed to confirm the results.

  11. Redox state and energy metabolism during liver regeneration: alterations produced by acute ethanol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Salinas, J; Miranda-Garduño, L; Trejo-Izquierdo, E; Díaz-Muñoz, M; Vidrio, S; Morales-González, J A; Hernández-Muñoz, R

    1999-12-01

    Ethanol metabolism can induce modifications in liver metabolic pathways that are tightly regulated through the availability of cellular energy and through the redox state. Since partial hepatectomy (PH)-induced liver proliferation requires an oversupply of energy for enhanced syntheses of DNA and proteins, the present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of acute ethanol administration on the PH-induced changes in cellular redox and energy potentials. Ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) was administered to control rats and to two-thirds hepatectomized rats. Quantitation of the liver content of lactate, pyruvate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and adenine nucleotides led us to estimate the cytosolic and mitochondrial redox potentials and energy parameters. Specific activities in the liver of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes also were measured in these animals. Liver regeneration had no effect on cellular energy availability, but induced a more reduced cytosolic redox state accompanied by an oxidized mitochondrial redox state during the first 48 hr of treatment; the redox state normalized thereafter. Administration of ethanol did not modify energy parameters in PH rats, but this hepatotoxin readily blocked the PH-induced changes in the cellular redox state. In addition, proliferating liver promoted decreases in the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1); ethanol treatment prevented the PH-induced diminution of ADH activity. In summary, our data suggest that ethanol could minimize the PH-promoted metabolic adjustments mediated by redox reactions, probably leading to an ineffective preparatory event that culminates in compensatory liver growth after PH in the rat.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and behavioural disorders in mentally retarded individuals: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosen, A

    1993-10-01

    It is now well known that a higher proportion of people with mental retardation show behavioural and psychiatric disorders compared to their non-mentally retarded counterparts. However, the exact relationship between psychiatric illness and behavioural disorder in this population is far from clear. There are problems of using the standard diagnostic and classification categories in this population, particularly in those who are severely and profoundly mentally retarded. Recently, there have been many novel approaches to this diagnostic dilemma, including 'developmental approach' and 'psychodynamic approach'. In the Netherlands, the so-called 'developmental-dynamic' approach has been used in the diagnosis and treatment of behavioural and psychiatric disorders in the mentally retarded. There have also been many treatment approaches, including drug therapy, behavioural treatment, psychotherapy, cognitive and social learning. Also the Dutch, Swiss and German traditions have extensive experience in the directive pedagogical treatment of the mentally retarded.

  13. Políticas públicas vigentes de salud mental en Suramérica: un estado del arte / Current public policies on mental health in South America: a state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Henao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: presentar un Estado del Arte sobre el contenido de las políticas públicas de salud mental vigentes en Suramérica, con el propósito de establecer un panorama de los alcances y limitaciones de la normatividad sobre el tema en la región. Metodología: Estudio documental de enfoque hermenéutico mediante el cual se interpretó y explicó las relaciones entre los contenidos de las políticas públicas de salud mental y el contexto de los países suramericanos. Para el análisis se incluyeron documentos normativos de los países, tales como Acuerdos, Resoluciones y Leyes. Igualmente, se utilizaron publicaciones académicas en el periodo comprendido entre 2003 a 2013, que posibilitaron la descripción y el análisis del tema de investigación. Resultados: países como Colombia, Argentina, Paraguay, Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Uruguay cuentan con disposiciones normativas vigentes (acuerdos, resoluciones y leyes que sustentan el contenido de las políticas públicas en materia de salud mental. Por otra parte, Chile, Bolivia y Venezuela fundamentan sus políticas en mecanismos administrativos (programas, planes y proyectos sin apelar a la norma de obligatorio cumplimiento. Conclusión: la noción de salud mental que subyace a cada Política Nacional hace énfasis en la promoción de la salud y la prevención de la enfermedad, desde una concepción positiva del bienestar que resalta el papel activo de los sujetos y poblaciones, las capacidades y libertades disponibles; sin embargo, los recursos, estrategias, acciones y metas están orientados sobre la base de un modelo biomédico que prioriza el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de trastornos mentales. / Abstract Objective: to present the state of the art regarding the content of the public mental health policies currently in force in South America in order to establish an overview of the scope and limitations of the regulations on the subject in the region. Methodology: a documentary study

  14. Altered resting-state connectivity in subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jung-Seok

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR for psychosis have self-disturbances and deficits in social cognition and functioning. Midline default network areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, are implicated in self-referential and social cognitive tasks. Thus, the neural substrates within the default mode network (DMN have the potential to mediate self-referential and social cognitive information processing in UHR subjects. Methods This study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate resting-state DMN and task-related network (TRN functional connectivity in 19 UHR subjects and 20 matched healthy controls. The bilateral posterior cingulate cortex was selected as a seed region, and the intrinsic organization for all subjects was reconstructed on the basis of fMRI time series correlation. Results Default mode areas included the posterior/anterior cingulate cortices, the medial prefrontal cortex, the lateral parietal cortex, and the inferior temporal region. Task-related network areas included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, the inferior parietal lobule, and middle temporal cortex. Compared to healthy controls, UHR subjects exhibit hyperconnectivity within the default network regions and reduced anti-correlations (or negative correlations nearer to zero between the posterior cingulate cortex and task-related areas. Conclusions These findings suggest that abnormal resting-state network activity may be related with the clinical features of UHR subjects. Neurodevelopmental and anatomical alterations of cortical midline structure might underlie altered intrinsic networks in UHR subjects.

  15. Identification of alterations in the Jacobian of biochemical reaction networks from steady state covariance data at two conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, Philipp; Yang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Model building of biochemical reaction networks typically involves experiments in which changes in the behavior due to natural or experimental perturbations are observed. Computational models of reaction networks are also used in a systems biology approach to study how transitions from a healthy to a diseased state result from changes in genetic or environmental conditions. In this paper we consider the nonlinear inverse problem of inferring information about the Jacobian of a Langevin type network model from covariance data of steady state concentrations associated to two different experimental conditions. Under idealized assumptions on the Langevin fluctuation matrices we prove that relative alterations in the network Jacobian can be uniquely identified when comparing the two data sets. Based on this result and the premise that alteration is locally confined to separable parts due to network modularity we suggest a computational approach using hybrid stochastic-deterministic optimization for the detection of perturbations in the network Jacobian using the sparsity promoting effect of [Formula: see text]-penalization. Our approach is illustrated by means of published metabolomic and signaling reaction networks.

  16. Study on the Relationship Between Mental State and Psychological%人的精神状态与心理的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文榜

    2014-01-01

    现实生活中,人的精神状态受心理、睡眠质量等因素的影响,而人的精神状态也会影响人的生理反应。本文通过对现有文献的翻阅和整理,着重查阅精神学和心理学方面的知识,并与心理辅导老师交流,分析心理与精神状态的关系,得出的结论是人的心理决定着人的精神状态,反过来,精神状态也会作用于心理,改变人的心理。%In real life, the mental state of people af ected by psychological factors, sleep quality, of course, the person's state of mind wil also af ect the physiological reaction of people. Based on the existing literature reading and sorting, mainly referring to the spiritual and psychological knowledge, analysis of the relationship between the psychological and mental state, the conclusion is the person's psychology determines its state of mind, mental state wil in turn to the psychological, then to change the mind.

  17. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:27774084

  18. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Silverman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: Will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions?Method: Participants (N = 169 were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusions: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  19. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  20. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in patients with chronic bilateral vestibular failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Göttlich

    2014-01-01

    Using whole brain resting-state connectivity analysis in BVF patients we show that enduring bilateral deficient or missing vestibular input leads to changes in resting-state connectivity of the brain. These changes in the resting brain are robust and task-independent as they were found in the absence of sensory stimulation and without a region-related a priori hypothesis. Therefore they may indicate a fundamental disease-related change in the resting brain. They may account for the patients' persistent deficits in visuo-spatial attention, spatial orientation and unsteadiness. The relation of increasing connectivity in the inferior parietal lobe, specifically SMG, to improvement of VOR during active head movements reflects cortical plasticity in BVF and may play a clinical role in vestibular rehabilitation.

  1. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

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    Xue Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA. Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  2. Altered Resting-State EEG Source Functional Connectivity In Schizophrenia: The Effect Of Illness Duration

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    Giorgio eDi Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing body of evidence supporting the hypothesis of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome, studies of resting-state EEG Source Functional Connectivity (EEG-SFC in people affected by schizophrenia are sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate resting-state EEG-SFC in 77 stable, medicated patients with schizophrenia (SCZ compared to 78 healthy volunteers (HV. In order to study the effect of illness duration, SCZ were divided in those with a short duration of disease (SDD; n = 25 and those with a long duration of disease (LDD; n = 52. Resting-state EEG recordings in eyes closed condition were analyzed and lagged phase synchronization (LPS indices were calculated for each ROI pair in the source-space EEG data. In delta and theta bands, SCZ had greater EEG-SFC than HV; a higher theta band connectivity in frontal regions was observed in LDD compared with SDD. In the alpha band, SCZ showed lower frontal EEG-SFC compared with HV whereas no differences were found between LDD and SDD. In the beta1 band, SCZ had greater EEG-SFC compared with HVs and in the beta2 band, LDD presented lower frontal and parieto-temporal EEG-SFC compared with HV. In the gamma band, SDD had greater connectivity values compared with LDD and HV. This study suggests that resting state brain network connectivity is abnormally organized in schizophrenia, with different patterns for the different EEG frequency components and that EEG can be a powerful tool to further elucidate the complexity of such disordered connectivity.

  3. Specific alterations in plasma proteins during depressed, manic, and euthymic states of bipolar disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.R. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wu, B. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yang, Y.T.; Chen, J. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Zhang, L.J.; Zhang, Z.W. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, H.Y. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Huang, C.L.; Pan, J.X. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xie, P. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2015-09-08

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common psychiatric mood disorder affecting more than 1-2% of the general population of different European countries. Unfortunately, there is no objective laboratory-based test to aid BD diagnosis or monitor its progression, and little is known about the molecular basis of BD. Here, we performed a comparative proteomic study to identify differentially expressed plasma proteins in various BD mood states (depressed BD, manic BD, and euthymic BD) relative to healthy controls. A total of 10 euthymic BD, 20 depressed BD, 15 manic BD, and 20 demographically matched healthy control subjects were recruited. Seven high-abundance proteins were immunodepleted in plasma samples from the 4 experimental groups, which were then subjected to proteome-wide expression profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic results were validated by immunoblotting and bioinformatically analyzed using MetaCore. From a total of 32 proteins identified with 1.5-fold changes in expression compared with healthy controls, 16 proteins were perturbed in BD independent of mood state, while 16 proteins were specifically associated with particular BD mood states. Two mood-independent differential proteins, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and Apo L1, suggest that BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism. Moreover, down-regulation of one mood-dependent protein, carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA-1), suggests it may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes in BD. Thus, BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism that are independent of mood state, while CA-1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes.

  4. Lingual muscle activity across sleep-wake states in rats with surgically altered upper airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma eRukhadze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients have increased upper airway muscle activity, including such lingual muscles as the genioglossus (GG, geniohyoid (GH and hyoglossus (HG. This adaptation partially protects their upper airway against obstructions. Rodents are used to study the central neural control of sleep and breathing but they do not naturally exhibit OSA. We investigated whether, in chronically instrumented, behaving rats, disconnecting the GH and HG muscles from the hyoid (H apparatus would result in a compensatory increase of other upper airway muscle activity (EMG and/or other signs of upper airway instability. We first determined that, in intact rats, lingual (GG and intrinsic muscles maintained stable activity levels when quantified based on 2 h-long recordings conducted on days 6 through 22 after instrumentation. We then studied 5 rats in which the tendons connecting the GH and HG muscles to the H apparatus were experimentally severed. When quantified across all recording days, lingual EMG during SWS was modestly but significantly increased in rats with surgically altered upper airway (8.6% ±0.7(SE vs. 6.2% ±0.7 of the mean during wakefulness; p=0.012. Respiratory modulation of lingual EMG occurred mainly during SWS and was similarly infrequent in both groups, and the incidence of sighs and central apneas also was similar. Thus, a weakened action of selected lingual muscles did not produce sleep-disordered breathing but resulted in a relatively elevated activity in other lingual muscles during SWS. These results encourage more extensive surgical manipulations with the aim to obtain a rodent model with collapsible upper airway.

  5. Altered Default Network Resting State Functional Connectivity in Patients with a First Episode of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Solís, Anna; Corripio, Iluminada; de Castro-Manglano, Pilar; Duran-Sindreu, Santiago; Garcia-Garcia, Manuel; Proal, Erika; Nuñez-Marín, Fidel; Soutullo, Cesar; Alvarez, Enric; Gómez-Ansón, Beatriz; Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Background Default network (DN) abnormalities have been identified in patients with chronic schizophrenia using “resting state” functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). Here, we examined the integrity of the DN in patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis (FEP) compared with sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Methods We collected R-fMRI data from 19 FEP patients (mean age 24.9±4.8 yrs, 14 males) and 19 healthy controls (26.1±4.8 yrs, 14 males) at 3 Tesla. Following standard preprocessing, we examined the functional connectivity (FC) of two DN subsystems and the two DN hubs (P<0.0045, corrected). Results Patients with FEP exhibited abnormal FC that appeared largely restricted to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) DN subsystem. Relative to controls, FEP patients exhibited weaker positive FC between dMPFC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus, extending laterally through the parietal lobe to the posterior angular gyrus. Patients with FEP exhibited weaker negative FC between the lateral temporal cortex and the intracalcarine cortex, bilaterally. The PCC and temporo-parietal junction also exhibited weaker negative FC with the right fusiform gyrus extending to the lingual gyrus and lateral occipital cortex, in FEP patients, compared to controls. By contrast, patients with FEP showed stronger negative FC between the temporal pole and medial motor cortex, anterior precuneus and posterior mid-cingulate cortex. Conclusions Abnormalities in the dMPFC DN subsystem in patients with a FEP suggest that FC patterns are altered even in the early stages of psychosis. PMID:22633527

  6. Altered resting-state amygdala functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation.

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    Yongcong Shao

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have identified a potentially critical role of the amygdala in disrupted emotion neurocircuitry in individuals after total sleep deprivation (TSD. However, connectivity between the amygdala and cerebral cortex due to TSD remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI to investigate the functional connectivity changes of the basolateral amygdala (BLA and centromedial amygdala (CMA in the brain after 36 h of TSD.Fourteen healthy adult men aged 25.9 ± 2.3 years (range, 18-28 years were enrolled in a within-subject crossover study. Using the BLA and CMA as separate seed regions, we examined resting-state functional connectivity with fMRI during rested wakefulness (RW and after 36 h of TSD.TSD resulted in a significant decrease in the functional connectivity between the BLA and several executive control regions (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC], right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [ACC], right inferior frontal gyrus [IFG]. Increased functional connectivity was found between the BLA and areas including the left posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PrCu and right parahippocampal gyrus. With regard to CMA, increased functional connectivity was observed with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC and right precentral gyrus.These findings demonstrate that disturbance in amygdala related circuits may contribute to TSD psychophysiology and suggest that functional connectivity studies of the amygdala during the resting state may be used to discern aberrant patterns of coupling within these circuits after TSD.

  7. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder: a perfusion MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baojuan; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hong-Bing; Yin, Hong

    2013-03-01

    The majority of studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) so far have focused on delineating patterns of activations during cognitive processes. Recently, more and more researches have started to investigate functional connectivity in PTSD subjects using BOLD-fMRI. Functional connectivity analysis has been demonstrated as a powerful approach to identify biomarkers of different brain diseases. This study aimed to detect resting-state functional connectivity abnormities in patients with PTSD using arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI. As a completely non-invasive technique, ASL allows quantitative estimates of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Compared with BOLD-fMRI, ASL fMRI has many advantages, including less low-frequency signal drifts, superior functional localization, etc. In the current study, ASL images were collected from 10 survivors in mining disaster with recent onset PTSD and 10 survivors without PTSD. Decreased regional CBF in the right middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and postcentral gyrus was detected in the PTSD patients. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis was performed using an area in the right middle temporal gyrus as region of interest. Compared with the non-PTSD group, the PTSD subjects demonstrated increased functional connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right superior temporal gyrus, the left middle temporal gyrus. Meanwhile, decreased functional connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right postcentral gyrus, the right superior parietal lobule was also found in the PTSD patients. This is the first study which investigated resting-state functional connectivity in PTSD using ASL images. The results may provide new insight into the neural substrates of PTSD.

  8. Optimization of phytase production from escherichia coli by altering solids-state fermentation conditions

    OpenAIRE

    McKinney, K.; Combs, J.; Becker, P.; Humphries, A.; K. Filer; Vriesekoop, F.

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of Escherichia coli on wheat-bran substrate under various Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) conditions was evaluated for phytase yield along with the enzyme activity profile as a potential, low-cost alternative to submerged-liquid fermentation. The maximum phytase activity achieved by E. coli was 350 ± 50 SPU of phytase activity per gram of bran, incubated for 96 h with a substrate bed moisture content of 70% (w/v) at 37 °C with a relative air humidity of 90%, and supplemented with 1...

  9. Hydrogen production of Enterobacter aerogenes altered by extracellular and intracellular redox states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashimada, Y.; Rachman, M.A.; Kakizono, T.; Nishio, N. [Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Department of Molecular Biotechnology

    2002-12-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes HU-101, tested for its hydrogen production in batch cultures on various substrates, produced the highest amount of hydrogen when the substrate was glycerol. The yield of hydrogen is a function of the degree to which the substrates are reduced. To examine the effect of intracellular redox state on hydrogen yield, glucose-limiting chemostat cultures were carried out at various pH using strain HU-101 and its mutant AY-2. For both strains, the molar yield and the production rate of hydrogen and the hydrogenase activity in the cell-free extract were optimal at the culture pH of 6.3. The highest NADH/NAD ratio in both strains was also observed at pH 6.3, at which the ratio in AY-2 was more than two-fold that of HU-101. Furthermore, NAD(P)H-dependent hydrogen formation was observed in the cell-free extract of AY-2, and hydrogenase activity was found not in the cytoplasmic but in the cell membrane fraction, suggesting that a high intracellular redox state, that is a high NADH/NAD ratio, would accelerate hydrogen production by driving membrane-bound NAD(P)H-dependent hydrogenase. (author)

  10. Altered resting state cortico-striatal connectivity in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s disease

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    Youngbin Kwak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by dopamine depletion in the striatum. One consistent pathophysiological hallmark of PD is an increase in spontaneous oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia thalamocortical networks. We evaluated these effects using resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s patients on and off L-DOPA and age-matched controls using six different striatal seed regions. We observed an overall increase in the strength of cortico-striatal functional connectivity in PD patients off L-DOPA compared to controls. This enhanced connectivity was down-regulated by L-DOPA as shown by an overall decrease in connectivity strength, particularly within motor cortical regions. We also performed a frequency content analysis of the BOLD signal time course extracted from the six striatal seed regions. PD off L-DOPA exhibited increased power in the frequency band 0.02 – 0.05 Hz compared to controls and to PD on L-DOPA. The L-DOPA associated decrease in the power of this frequency range modulated the L-DOPA associated decrease in connectivity strength between striatal seeds and the thalamus. In addition, the L-DOPA associated decrease in power in this frequency band also correlated with the L-DOPA associated improvement in cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that PD and L-DOPA modulate striatal resting state BOLD signal oscillations and corticostriatal network coherence.

  11. Utility of electroencephalogram in altered states of consciousness in intensive care unit patients

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    Kapadia F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EEG is an investigative tool for assessing cerebral activity. Although certain EEG patterns may have a specific diagnostic or prognostic inference, they may not be precise for any sole etiology in majority of cases and may need clinical correlation. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to assess the severity and prognosis of cerebral dysfunction in patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU and to evaluate the incidence of non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE. DESIGN: A prospective study, wherein we analyzed EEG characteristics in a series of 70 patients. SETTING: A tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India. PATIENTS: EEG characteristics of 70 patients admitted in ICU over a period of 9 months were comprehensively analyzed. These patients were clinically examined and a questionnaire was completed without knowledge of the EEG findings. EEGs were requested for by neurologist or intensivist and our inclusion criteria were (i patients with altered sensorium of varying etiology, (ii unconscious patients at risk for non-convulsive status epilepticus (those with a history of epilepsy, and (iii unconscious patients with involuntary jerky eye movements. RESULTS: Of the various clinical presentations on ICU admission, there were 20 patients with seizures, 15 with metabolic disorders, 13 with infective causes, 9 with hypoxia, 9 with cerebro-vascular accident on presentation, 1 patient with alcohol/drug overdose, 2 with intra-cerebral space occupying lesion and 1 with ambiguous etiology on admission (there being an overlap among the presentation. Mean duration from presentation to performing EEG was 13 hours. 64 (91.42% patients had abnormal EEGs. 32(50% patients had EEG slowing and 4(6.25% patient had electro cerebral inactivity. Eleven (21.87% patients had epileptiform activity on the EEG of which seven did not have overt seizures (NCSE. Follow-up EEGs of these patients showed resolution of the epileptiform activity. CONCLUSIONS: EEG is useful

  12. Sevoflurane Alters Spatiotemporal Functional Connectivity Motifs That Link Resting-State Networks during Wakefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafashan, MohammadMehdi; Ching, ShiNung; Palanca, Ben J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The spatiotemporal patterns of correlated neural activity during the transition from wakefulness to general anesthesia have not been fully characterized. Correlation analysis of blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows segmentation of the brain into resting-state networks (RSNs), with functional connectivity referring to the covarying activity that suggests shared functional specialization. We quantified the persistence of these correlations following the induction of general anesthesia in healthy volunteers and assessed for a dynamic nature over time. Methods: We analyzed human fMRI data acquired at 0 and 1.2% vol sevoflurane. The covariance in the correlated activity among different brain regions was calculated over time using bounded Kalman filtering. These time series were then clustered into eight orthogonal motifs using a K-means algorithm, where the structure of correlated activity throughout the brain at any time is the weighted sum of all motifs. Results: Across time scales and under anesthesia, the reorganization of interactions between RSNs is related to the strength of dynamic connections between member pairs. The covariance of correlated activity between RSNs persists compared to that linking individual member pairs of different RSNs. Conclusions: Accounting for the spatiotemporal structure of correlated BOLD signals, anesthetic-induced loss of consciousness is mainly associated with the disruption of motifs with intermediate strength within and between members of different RSNs. In contrast, motifs with higher strength of connections, predominantly with regions-pairs from within-RSN interactions, are conserved among states of wakefulness and sevoflurane general anesthesia. PMID:28082871

  13. Exploring altered consciousness states by magnetic resonance imaging in brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescot, Thomas; Galanaud, Damien; Puybasset, Louis

    2009-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs abruptly, involves multiple specialized teams, calls on the health-care system in its emergency dimension, and engages the well-being of the patient and his relatives for a lifetime period. Clinicians in charge of these patients are faced with issues of uppermost importance: medical issues such as predicting the long-term neurological outcome of the comatose patient; ethical issues because of the influence of intensive care on the long-term survival of patients in a vegetative and minimally conscious state; legal issues because of the law that has set the concept of proportionality of care as the legal rule; and social issues as the result of the very high cost of these pathologies. Today's larger availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ventilated patients and the recent improvements in hardware and in imaging techniques that have made the last-developed imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy available in brain-trauma patients, are changing the paradigm in neurointensive care regarding outcome prediction. The old paradigm that no individual prognosis could be made at the subacute phase in TBI patients does not hold true anymore. This major change opens new challenging ethical questions. This review focuses on the brain explorations that are required, such as MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion tensor imaging, to provide the clinician with a multimodal assessment of the brain state to predict outcome of coma. Such an assessment will become mandatory in the near future to answer the crucial question of proportionality of care in these patients.

  14. Is Social Categorization the Missing Link Between Weak Central Coherence and Mental State Inference Abilities in Autism? Preliminary Evidence from a General Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorich, Daniel P; May, Adrienne R; Talipski, Louisa A; Hall, Marnie H; Dolstra, Anita J; Gash, Tahlia B; Gunningham, Beth H

    2016-03-01

    We explore the relationship between the 'theory of mind' (ToM) and 'central coherence' difficulties of autism. We introduce covariation between hierarchically-embedded categories and social information--at the local level, the global level, or at both levels simultaneously--within a category confusion task. We then ask participants to infer the mental state of novel category members, and measure participants' autism-spectrum quotient (AQ). Results reveal a positive relationship between AQ and the degree of local/global social categorization, which in turn predicts the pattern of mental state inferences. These results provide preliminary evidence for a causal relationship between central coherence and ToM abilities. Implications with regard to ToM processes, social categorization, intervention, and the development of a unified account of autism are discussed.

  15. Individual and community-level determinants of mental and physical health after the deepwater horizon oil spill: findings from the gulf States population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Amy Z; Prescott, Marta R; Zhao, Guixiang; Gotway, Carol A; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill had enormous consequences on the environment. Prevalence of mental and physical health conditions among Gulf residents after the disaster, however, are still being assessed. The Gulf State Population Survey (GSPS) was a representative survey of 38,361 residents in four Gulf States and was conducted from December 2010 to December 2011. Analysis of the GSPS data showed that differences in individual characteristics and direct or indirect exposure to the disaster drove the individual-level variation in health outcomes (mental distress, physical distress, and depression). Direct exposure to the disaster itself was the most important determinant of health after this event. Selected county-level characteristics were not found to be significantly associated with any of our health indicators of interest. This study suggests that in the context of an overwhelming event, persons who are most directly affected through direct exposure should be the primary focus of any public health intervention effort.

  16. Abortion, substance abuse and mental health in early adulthood: Thirteen-year longitudinal evidence from the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Paul Sullins

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes (birth, abortion, or involuntary pregnancy loss) and mental health outcomes for US women during the transition into adulthood to determine the extent of increased risk, if any, associated with exposure to induced abortion. Method: Panel data on pregnancy history and mental health history for a nationally representative cohort of 8005 women at (average) ages 15, 22, and 28 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adu...

  17. Concordancia del mini mental state examination (mini mental) y el test del dibujo del reloj como pruebas de tamizaje en deterioro cognoscitivo / Concordance of the mini mental state examination (mini mental) and the clock drawing test as a screening test in cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Samboní Méndez, Mariela; Chavarro Carvajal, Diego Andrés

    2010-01-01

    No existe consenso claro sobre el test que debe utilizarse ante la sospecha de deterioro cognoscitivo; el mini-mental es poco sensible en sujetos muy educados, poco específico en aquellos con bajo nivel educativo, e inaplicable en analfabetas. El test del reloj es un instrumento rápido y sencillo y teóricamente puede ser aplicado a analfabetas o con bajo nivel educativo. Algunos estudios han demostrado una correlación moderada entre el test del reloj y el mini-mental. Métodos: se incluyeron a...

  18. Altered Resting-State Connectivity within Executive Networks after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

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    Monica Maher

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH is associated with significant mortality rates, and most survivors experience significant cognitive deficits across multiple domains, including executive function. It is critical to determine the neural basis for executive deficits in aSAH, in order to better understand and improve patient outcomes. This study is the first examination of resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a group of aSAH patients, used to characterize changes in functional connectivity of the frontoparietal network. We scanned 14 aSAH patients and 14 healthy controls, and divided patients into "impaired" and "unimpaired" groups based on a composite executive function score. Impaired patients exhibited significantly lower quality of life and neuropsychological impairment relative to controls, across multiple domains. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that unimpaired patients were not significantly different from controls, but impaired patients had increased frontoparietal connectivity. Patients evidenced increased frontoparietal connectivity as a function of decreased executive function and decreased mood (i.e. quality of life. In addition, T1 morphometric analysis demonstrated that these changes are not attributable to local cortical atrophy among aSAH patients. These results establish significant, reliable changes in the endogenous brain dynamics of aSAH patients, that are related to cognitive and mood outcomes.

  19. Zinc ions and alkaline pH alter the phosphorylation state of human erythrocyte membrane proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennell, R.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Since the phosphorylation state of the red cell membrane proteins in vitro is likely to be regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, this research was carried out to investigate the possible role of membrane-bound phosphatase activities. These studies were conducted with red blood cell ghosts and IOVs from normal individuals and from an individual with hereditary spherocytosis. In vitro phosphorylation with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P) ATP was conducted in the presence and the absence of Zn{sup ++}, or erythrocyte ghosts and IOVs were pretreated for 30 minutes at 37{degree}C and pH 7-11 in the presence and the absence of calf intestine alkaline phosphatase. The resulting phosphoproteins were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, stained with Coomassie blue, and fluorographed. In the presence of Zn{sup ++}, the red blood ghosts, with or without pretreatment, demonstrated enhanced phosphorylation of membrane proteins, including band 4.2. Preincubation at pH 10 in the presence of absence of exogenous phosphatase further stimulates phosphorylation of these proteins. Under similar conditions, the erythrocyte membranes also demonstrated the ability to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate and to remove {sup 32}P from red blood cell phosphoproteins.

  20. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of the insula in young adults with Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Zang, Yu-Feng; Shen, Zi-Jiao; Liu, Lu; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2016-05-01

    The insula has been implicated in salience processing, craving, and interoception, all of which are critical to the clinical manifestations of drug and behavioral addiction. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the insula and its association with Internet gaming characteristics in 74 young adults with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and 41 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects (HCs). In comparison with HCs, IGD subjects (IGDs) exhibited enhanced rsFC between the anterior insula and a network of regions including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), putamen, angular gyrus, and precuneous, which are involved in salience, craving, self-monitoring, and attention. IGDs also demonstrated significantly stronger rsFC between the posterior insula and postcentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplemental motor area, and superior temporal gyrus (STG), which are involved in interoception, movement control, and auditory processing. Furthermore, IGD severity was positively associated with connectivity between the anterior insula and angular gyrus, and STG, and with connectivity between the posterior insula and STG. Duration of Internet gaming was positively associated with connectivity between the anterior insula and ACC. These findings highlight a key role of the insula in manifestation of the core symptoms of IGD and the importance to examine functional abnormalities of the anterior and posterior insula separately in IGDs.

  1. Altered resting-state network connectivity in stroke patients with and without apraxia of speech

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    Anneliese B. New

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor speech disorders, including apraxia of speech (AOS, account for over 50% of the communication disorders following stroke. Given its prevalence and impact, and the need to understand its neural mechanisms, we used resting state functional MRI to examine functional connectivity within a network of regions previously hypothesized as being associated with AOS (bilateral anterior insula (aINS, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, and ventral premotor cortex (PM in a group of 32 left hemisphere stroke patients and 18 healthy, age-matched controls. Two expert clinicians rated severity of AOS, dysarthria and nonverbal oral apraxia of the patients. Fifteen individuals were categorized as AOS and 17 were AOS-absent. Comparison of connectivity in patients with and without AOS demonstrated that AOS patients had reduced connectivity between bilateral PM, and this reduction correlated with the severity of AOS impairment. In addition, AOS patients had negative connectivity between the left PM and right aINS and this effect decreased with increasing severity of non-verbal oral apraxia. These results highlight left PM involvement in AOS, begin to differentiate its neural mechanisms from those of other motor impairments following stroke, and help inform us of the neural mechanisms driving differences in speech motor planning and programming impairment following stroke.

  2. Altered resting-state network connectivity in stroke patients with and without apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Anneliese B; Robin, Donald A; Parkinson, Amy L; Duffy, Joseph R; McNeil, Malcom R; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael; Price, Cathy J; Eickhoff, Simon B; Ballard, Kirrie J

    2015-01-01

    Motor speech disorders, including apraxia of speech (AOS), account for over 50% of the communication disorders following stroke. Given its prevalence and impact, and the need to understand its neural mechanisms, we used resting state functional MRI to examine functional connectivity within a network of regions previously hypothesized as being associated with AOS (bilateral anterior insula (aINS), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and ventral premotor cortex (PM)) in a group of 32 left hemisphere stroke patients and 18 healthy, age-matched controls. Two expert clinicians rated severity of AOS, dysarthria and nonverbal oral apraxia of the patients. Fifteen individuals were categorized as AOS and 17 were AOS-absent. Comparison of connectivity in patients with and without AOS demonstrated that AOS patients had reduced connectivity between bilateral PM, and this reduction correlated with the severity of AOS impairment. In addition, AOS patients had negative connectivity between the left PM and right aINS and this effect decreased with increasing severity of non-verbal oral apraxia. These results highlight left PM involvement in AOS, begin to differentiate its neural mechanisms from those of other motor impairments following stroke, and help inform us of the neural mechanisms driving differences in speech motor planning and programming impairment following stroke.

  3. Self-report of cognitive impairment and Mini-Mental State Exam performance in PRKN, LRRK2, and GBA carriers with early onset Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalay, Roy N.; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Tang, Ming X.; Rakitin, Brian; Rosado, Llency; Ross, Barbara; Verbitsky, Miguel; Kisselev, Sergey; Louis, Elan D.; Comella, Cynthia; Colcher, Amy; Jennings, Danna; Nance, Martha; Bressman, Susan; William K Scott

    2010-01-01

    While little is known about risk factors for cognitive impairment in early onset Parkinson disease (EOPD), postmortem studies have shown an association between dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation. We compared Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) performance and self-reported cognitive impairment in 699 EOPD participants genotyped for mutations in parkin (PRKN), leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2), and GBA. Logistic regression was used to assess the associati...

  4. Trauma-Related Altered States of Consciousness (TRASC) and Functional Impairment II: Perceived Causal Relationships in an Online Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannidakis, Nicole C A; Frewen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research supports the existence of a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder, although studies have not directly compared the perceived impact of dissociative versus nondissociative posttraumatic symptoms on social and occupational functioning. In addition, research is beginning to differentiate between posttraumatic distress associated with normal waking consciousness (NWC) and dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along multiple phenomenological dimensions. The current study investigated perceived causal relationships between posttraumatic symptoms associated with NWC-distress and TRASC on the one hand and interpersonal and occupational functioning on the other. Although both TRASC and NWC-distress independently accounted for variance in self-reported interpersonal and occupational problems, perceived causal relationship results showed that individuals tended to attribute their social and work-related problems more strongly to NWC-distress than to TRASC. Future research directions are discussed.

  5. Stress biomarkers as predictors of transition to psychosis in at-risk mental states: roles for cortisol, prolactin and albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labad, Javier; Stojanovic-Pérez, Alexander; Montalvo, Itziar; Solé, Montse; Cabezas, Ángel; Ortega, Laura; Moreno, Irene; Vilella, Elisabet; Martorell, Lourdes; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Stress and inflammation are thought to play a role in the risk of developing a psychotic disorder. We aimed to identify stress-related biomarkers for psychosis transition in help-seeking individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS). We studied 39 ARMS subjects who were attending an Early Intervention Service. We included a control group of 44 healthy subjects (HS) matched by sex and age. Stressful life events and perceived stress were assessed. Stress-related biomarkers were determined in serum (cortisol, prolactin, C-reactive protein and albumin), plasma (fibrinogen) or saliva (morning cortisol, cortisol awakening response). All ARMS were followed-up at our Unit for at least one year. We divided the ARMS group into two subgroups based on the development of a psychotic disorder (ARMS-P, N = 10) or not (ARMS-NP, N = 29). ARMS-P reported more stressful life events and perceived stress than HS and ARMS-NP groups. In relation to baseline stress biomarkers, ARMS-P subjects had increased prolactin and lower albumin levels in serum, when compared to ARMS-NP and HS groups. These results did not change when repeated in a subsample of antipsychotic-naïve ARMS subjects. We also found significant differences between groups in the cortisol secretion after awakening. In a multinomial logistic regression adjusting for age, sex and life stress, prolactin was a predictor of psychosis transition whereas albumin levels had a protective effect. Our study underscores the role of stress and stress-related biomarkers (cortisol awakening response, prolactin and albumin) in the pathogenesis of psychosis.

  6. Anatomic Correlation of the Mini-Mental State Examination: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinomais, Mickael; Celle, Sebastien; Duval, Guillaume T.; Roche, Frederic; Henni, Samir; Bartha, Robert; Beauchet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The clinical utility of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its shorter version (SMMSE) is still debated. There is a need to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of these cognitive tests. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether lower MMSE and SMMSE scores correlated with focal brain volume reduction in older adults. Participants from the GAIT study (n = 207; mean, 70.9±5.9 years; 57% female; mean MMSE 26.2±3.9; mean SMMSE 5.1±1.1) were evaluated using the MMSE and SMMSE and received a 1.5-Tesla MRI scan of the brain. Cortical gray and white matter subvolumes were automatically segmented using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Age, gender, education level, and total intracranial volume were included as potential confounders. We found correlations between the MMSE score and specific cortical regions of the limbic system including the hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, independently of the diagnostic category (i.e., mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease or controls). Regarding correlations with the SMMSE score, only one cluster in the left hippocampus was identified, which overlapped with the cluster that was positively correlated with the MMSE score. There were no correlations with the volume of white matter. In conclusion, worse MMSE and SMMSE scores were associated with gray matter atrophy mainly in the limbic system. This finding highlights that atrophy of specific brain regions are related to performance on the MMSE and the SMMSE tests, and provides new insights into the cognitive function probed by these tests. PMID:27741236

  7. Mini Mental State Examination and the Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination: Effect of education and norms for a multicultural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathuranath P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To derive population norms on the Malayalam adaptation of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination (M-ACE and the inclusive Malayalam mini mental state examination (M-MMSE. Materials and Methods: Education-stratified norms were obtained on randomly selected cognitively unimpaired community elders (n = 519. Results: Valid data on norms was available on 488 subjects (age 68.5 ± 7.1 and education 7.9 ± 5.4. Education and age, but not gender had a significant effect on both M-ACE and M-MMSE. When compared to the effect of age, the effect of education was sevenfold more on the M-ACE and ninefold more on the M-MMSE. The mean composite score on the M-ACE (and the M-MMSE was 42.8 ± 9.8 (14.9 ± 3.1 for those with 0 (n = 72, 55.9 ± 12.5 (19.7 ± 4.1 with 1-4 (n = 96, 62.6 ± 11.4 (21.9 ± 3.7 with 5-8 (n = 81, 77 ± 10.2 (25.7 ± 2.4 with 9-12 (n = 136 and 83.4 ± 7.2 (26.7 ± 1.6 with> 12 (n = 103 years of formal education. Conclusions: Education has the most potent effect on performance on both M-ACE and M-MMSE in the Indian cohort. Education-stratified scores on the M-ACE and the M-MMSE, will provide a more appropriate means of establishing the cognitive status of patients. It is also our feeling that these cut-off scores will be useful across India.

  8. Combined Evaluations of Competency to Stand Trial and Mental State at the Time of the Offense: An Overlooked Methodological Consideration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kois, Lauren; Wellbeloved-Stone, James M; Chauhan, Preeti; Warren, Janet I

    2017-02-09

    Combined evaluations of competency to stand trial (CST; competency) and mental state at the time of the offense (MSO; sanity) frequently co-occur. However, most research examines the 2 as discrete constructs without considering 4 potential combined evaluation outcomes: competent-sane, incompetent-sane, competent-insane, and incompetent-insane. External validity can be improved if research more closely mirrored practice. It may be incorrect to assume incompetent defendants are similar across CST-only and combined evaluations, and insane defendants are similar across MSO-only and combined evaluations. Using a sample of 2,751 combined evaluations, we examined demographic, clinical, offense, evaluation, and psycholegal characteristics associated with evaluators' combined evaluation opinions. Multinomial regression analyses revealed older defendants were more likely to be opined incompetent-insane. Defendants with psychotic disorders were more often opined insane, regardless of competency status. Affective diagnoses predicted competent-insane opinions. Developmental disorders were closely related to incompetence, regardless of sanity status. Defendants with organic disorders tended to have global psycholegal impairment, in that they were more often opined incompetent-insane, incompetent-sane, or competent-insane, relative to competent-sane. Prior hospitalization predicted competent-insane relative to competent-sane opinions. Defendants not under the influence of a substance during the offense or with no prior convictions were more likely to be opined insane, regardless of competency status. We interpret these findings in light of psycholegal theory and provide recommendations for research and practice. Collectively, results suggest incorporation of combined evaluations into CST and MSO research is an important methodological consideration not to be overlooked. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Altered Resting-State Brain Activity and Connectivity in Depressed Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease (PD, but the neurophysiological mechanisms of depression in PD are poorly understood. The current study attempted to examine disrupted spontaneous local brain activities and functional connectivities that underlie the depression in PD. We recruited a total of 20 depressed PD patients (DPD, 40 non-depressed PD patients (NDPD and 43 matched healthy controls (HC. All the subjects underwent neuropsychological tests and resting-state fMRI scanning. The between-group differences in the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF of BOLD signals were examined using post-hoc tests after the analysis of covariance. Compared with the NDPD and HC, the DPD group showed significantly increased ALFF in the left median cingulated cortex (MCC. The functional connectivity (FC between left MCC and all the other voxels in the brain were then calculated. Compared with the HC and NDPD group, the DPD patients showed stronger FC between the left MCC and some of the major nodes of the default mode network (DMN, including the post cingulated cortex/precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and cerebellum. Correlation analysis revealed that both the ALFF values in the left MCC and the FC between the left MCC and the nodes of DMN were significantly correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score. Moreover, higher local activities in the left MCC were associated with increased functional connections between the MCC and the nodes of DMN in PD. These abnormal activities and connectivities of the limbic-cortical circuit may indicate impaired high-order cortical control or uncontrol of negative mood in DPD, which suggested a possible neural mechanism of the depression in PD.

  10. Theory of mind and first- and second-order mental states / Teoria da mente e estados mentais de primeira e segunda ordem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roazzi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aimed at studying the knowledge about the comprehension of first- and second-order mental states taking into account the influence of different linguistic expressions in the judgments produced by 113 children from low-socioeconomic background divided into four groups. Each group was controlled by gender and age (5- and 6-year-old and took part in one of four conditions which involved two inanimate subjects (dolls and answering a series of questions about mental and emotional states. Each condition consisted of four different verbal expressions involving first- and second-order types of questions: (C1 "search in the first place"; (C2 "search"; (C3 "think"; (C4 "hope to find". Analyses of the false belief questions revealed a main effect on age and type of question. The means of correct answers in the three types of false belief questions when compared indicated that the first-order false belief questions (37.80% were easier than the two kinds of second-order type of questions (25.20% and 22.50%. These results are discussed in light of the previous results found in the literature, both concerning the influence of age, and the type of mental state and verbal expression involved.

  11. Beliefs and emotions have different roles in generating attitudes toward providing personal help and state-sponsored help for people with a mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obonsawin, Marc C; Lindsay, Amanda; Hunter, Simon C

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of emotions like pity and anger in mediating the relationship between beliefs about the controllability of a mental illness, and the willingness to help someone with a mental illness. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of beliefs about controllability on the willingness to provide personal help are mediated by the emotions of pity and anger, but that the effects of beliefs about controllability on the willingness to condone state-organised help were more direct, and not mediated by emotions. A between-groups design was employed to investigate the effects of manipulating controllability attributions via 3 hypothetical vignettes. ANOVA analysis of responses to a revised version of the AQ-27 from 371 participants demonstrated that beliefs about controllability lead to significantly higher personal responsibility beliefs, negative affective reactions and decreased helping intentions in comparison to when the cause of mental illness was believed to be uncontrollable. A mediation analysis demonstrated that pity and anger fully mediate the relationship between beliefs about controllability and the willingness to offer personal help, and also demonstrated that pity and anger partially mediate the relationship between beliefs about controllability and the willingness to condone help provided by the state. The partial mediation may indicate that the effects of beliefs about controllability on state-sponsored may be mediated by pity in some people, but that in other people, beliefs have a more proximal effect on behavior.

  12. Methods of Assessing the Mental State of the Others by the Expression of the Eyes of Adolescents in Health and Schizophrenia

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    Rumyantseva E.E.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a study involving 72 mentally healthy adolescents (13-17 years, 24 young men (15 ± 1,4 years, 48 women (15 ± 1,4 years and 8 children (13-18 years, 6 boys (15 ± 1,9 years and 2 women (16 ± 2,1 years who had undergone previous episode of schizophrenia (F 20, ICD-10 and at the time of the survey being in remission. We tested the hypotheses about differences in the development of the theory of mind in different groups of adolescents. The study was conducted using test of "Reading the mental state of the other by his gaze" and a test of social intelligence by Gilford and Sullivan. It was found that the healthy adolescents build better mental models of the other person than adolescents with schizophrenia (U = 102, p≤0,05. In the group of mentally healthy women, we found a statistically significant relationship between the understanding of mind by the gaze and social intelligence (r = 0,6; p = 0.01. The used test proved to be a representative tool for the study of mind in different groups of adolescents

  13. Histórias infantis: um recurso para a compreensão dos estados mentais Children's storybooks: a resource to the understanding of mental states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Cosenza Rodrigues

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo examinou uma amostra de 100 livros de histórias infantis nacionais para crianças pré-escolares de quatro a seis anos de idade quanto à ocorrência de termos/expressões referentes a estados mentais a partir de três eixos de análise: via palavras e expressões no texto; via figuras; e via presença de ironia e crença falsa na narrativa. A análise dos termos mentais foi realizada por um grupo de três avaliadores. Foi encontrado que 92% dos livros analisados apresentavam termos denotando estados mentais, 12% apresentavam ironia situacional, 11% continham crença falsa e que as figuras representavam o estado mental expresso no texto. Os resultados sugerem que os livros infantis nacionais podem ser utilizados como recurso para promover o desenvolvimento sociocognitivo das crianças.This study examined a sample of 100 national children's storybooks directed to pre-school children aged four to six years to identify words/utterances that denote mental states according to three views of analysis: via words and expressions in the text; via the pictures; and via presence of irony or false beliefs in the narrative. The analysis of mental words was realized by a group of tree people. It was found that 92% of the analyzed books contained internal state language, 12% contained situational irony, 11% contained false belief and the pictures represented the mental state concepts expressed in the text. The results point out that the national children's storybooks can be used as a resource to promote socio-cognitive development of clildren.

  14. Altered regional homogeneity in post-traumatic stress disorder: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yin; Baoci Shan; Qiyong Gong; Lingjiang Li; Changfeng Jin; Lisa T.Eyler; Hua Jin; Xiaolei Hu; Lian Duan; Huirong Zheng; Bo Feng; Xuanyin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the brain systems that contribute to vulnerability to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Comparison of the resting-state patterns of intrinsic functional synchronization,as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),between groups with and without PTSD following a traumatic event can help identify the neural mechanisms of the disorder and targets for intervention.Methods Fifty-four PTSD patients and 72 matched traumatized subjects who experienced the 2008 Sichuan earthquake were imaged with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI and analyzed using the measure of regional homogeneity (ReHo) during the resting state.Results PTSD patients presented enhanced ReHo in the left inferior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus,and reduced ReHo in the right middle temporal gyrus and lingual gyrus,relative to traumatized individuals without PTSD.Conclusion Our findings showed that abnormal brain activity exists under resting conditions in PTSD patients who had been exposed to a major earthquake.Alterations in the local functional connectivity of cortical regions are likely to contribute to the neural mechanisms underlying PTSD.

  15. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with acute spinal cord injury revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

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    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of structural and functional reorganization of brain in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI. However, it remains unknown whether the spontaneous brain activity changes in acute SCI. In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain activity in acute SCI patients using a regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.A total of 15 patients with acute SCI and 16 healthy controls participated in the study. The ReHo value was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity, and voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to identify brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between groups. We also assessed the associations between ReHo and the clinical scores in brain regions showing changed spontaneous brain activity.Compared with the controls, the acute SCI patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral caudate; and increased ReHo in bilateral precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left brainstem/hippocampus, the left cingulate motor area, bilateral insula, bilateral thalamus and bilateral cerebellum. The average ReHo values of the left thalamus and right insula were negatively correlated with the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury motor scores.Our findings indicate that acute distant neuronal damage has an immediate impact on spontaneous brain activity. In acute SCI patients, the ReHo was prominently altered in brain regions involved in motor execution and cognitive control, default mode network, and which are associated with sensorimotor compensatory reorganization. Abnormal ReHo values in the left thalamus and right insula could serve as potential biomarkers for

  16. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  17. E-Mental Health Self-Management for Psychotic Disorders : State of the Art and Future Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Krieke, Lian; Wunderink, Lex; Emerencia, Ando; de Jonge, Peter; Sytema, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate to what extent information technology may support self-management among service users with psychotic disorders. The investigation aimed to answer the following questions: What types of e mental health self-management interventions have been developed and eva

  18. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  19. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  20. Alterations in Cortical Sensorimotor Connectivity following Complete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Prospective Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwunmi Oni-Orisan

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have demonstrated alterations during task-induced brain activation in spinal cord injury (SCI patients. The interruption to structural integrity of the spinal cord and the resultant disrupted flow of bidirectional communication between the brain and the spinal cord might contribute to the observed dynamic reorganization (neural plasticity. However, the effect of SCI on brain resting-state connectivity patterns remains unclear. We undertook a prospective resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI study to explore changes to cortical activation patterns following SCI. With institutional review board approval, rs-fMRI data was obtained in eleven patients with complete cervical SCI (>2 years post injury and nine age-matched controls. The data was processed using the Analysis of Functional Neuroimages software. Region of interest (ROI based analysis was performed to study changes in the sensorimotor network using pre- and post-central gyri as seed regions. Two-sampled t-test was carried out to check for significant differences between the two groups. SCI patients showed decreased functional connectivity in motor and sensory cortical regions when compared to controls. The decrease was noted in ipsilateral, contralateral, and interhemispheric regions for left and right precentral ROIs. Additionally, the left postcentral ROI demonstrated increased connectivity with the thalamus bilaterally in SCI patients. Our results suggest that cortical activation patterns in the sensorimotor network undergo dynamic reorganization following SCI. The presence of these changes in chronic spinal cord injury patients is suggestive of the inherent neural plasticity within the central nervous system.

  1. Trauma-Related Altered States of Consciousness (TRASC) and Functional Impairment I: Prospective Study in Acutely Traumatized Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul; Hegadoren, Kathy; Coupland, Nick J; Rowe, Brian H; Neufeld, Richard W J; Lanius, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework referred to as a 4-D model has been described for classifying posttraumatic stress symptoms into those potentially occurring within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those thought to intrinsically exemplify dissociative experiences, specifically, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). As a further test of this theoretical distinction, this prospective study evaluated whether TRASC and NWC forms of distress incrementally and prospectively predicted functional impairment at 6 and 12 weeks following presentation at hospital emergency departments in the acute aftermath of traumatic events in 180 persons. Establishing the clinical significance of both TRASC and NWC-distress symptoms, we found that 6-week markers of TRASC and NWC-distress independently predicted 12-week self-reported levels of social and occupational impairment. We also observed broad support for various predictions of the 4-D model except that, in contrast with hypotheses, childhood trauma history was generally more strongly correlated with symptoms of NWC-distress than with TRASC. Future research directions are discussed.

  2. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women with BPD with or without co-occurring PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Frewen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A “4-D model” was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC. Methods: The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD with (n=126 versus without (n=132 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Results: As measured by the Borderline Symptom List, consistent with the predictions of the 4-D model, in comparison with symptom endorsements theorized to be associated with NWC, measures of TRASC were less frequent, and more strongly correlated with both Dissociative Experience Scale scores and severity of childhood emotional neglect, particularly in persons with both BPD and PTSD. Our prediction that symptoms of TRASC would be less intercorrelated in comparison with distress associated with NWC symptoms, however, was not supported. Conclusions: Findings are discussed as they pertain to the symptomatology of BPD, PTSD, and dissociation.

  3. Trauma history and psychopathology in war-affected refugee children referred for trauma-related mental health services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Layne, Christopher M; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Ellis, Heidi; Birman, Dina

    2012-12-01

    There is an increasing need to deliver effective mental health services to refugee children and adolescents across the United States; however, the evidence base needed to guide the design and delivery of services is nascent. We investigated the trauma history profiles, psychopathology, and associated behavioral and functional indicators among war-affected refugee children presenting for psychological treatment. From the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set, 60 war-affected refugee children were identified (51.7% males, mean age = 13.1 years, SD = 4.13). Clinical assessments indicated high rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (30.4%), generalized anxiety (26.8%), somatization (26.8%), traumatic grief (21.4%), and general behavioral problems (21.4%). Exposure to war or political violence frequently co-occurred with forced displacement; traumatic loss; bereavement or separation; exposure to community violence; and exposure to domestic violence. Academic problems and behavioral difficulties were prevalent (53.6% and 44.6%, respectively); however, criminal activity, alcohol/drug use, and self-harm were rare (all < 5.45%). These findings highlight the complex trauma profiles, comorbid conditions, and functional problems that are important to consider in providing mental health interventions for refugee children and adolescents. Given the difficulties associated with access to mental health services for refugees, both preventive and community-based interventions within family, school, and peer systems hold particular promise.

  4. Performance of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in long-stay patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders in a psychiatric institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui Lin; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Wang, Peizhi; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Lee, Siau Pheng; Shafie, Saleha; Seow, Esmond; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-07-30

    Studies have found that age and education were associated with cognition in older adults. However, little is known how clinical factors (e.g. age of illness onset, length of hospital stay, type of antipsychotic medications, and duration of illness) are associated with cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to examine the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors on cognitive domains measured using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders residing in a psychiatric institute in Singapore. A single-phase interview was conducted at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH) in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (n=110). MMSE was administered to all participants. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol consumption, and medical history were collected. Age, gender, and level of education were significantly associated with MMSE scores. After adjusting for all socio-demographic correlates, longer length of hospital stay remained significant in predicting lower MMSE scores. Length of hospital stay was independently associated with cognitive functioning. Early interventions for cognition such as physical and mental exercises should be implemented for better prognosis.

  5. The concise cognitive test for dementia screening: Reliability and effects of demographic variables as compared to the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Srikanth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE is widely used for dementia screening but has several shortcomings such as prominent ceiling effects, inadequate sensitivity to mild cognitive impairment, and uneven sampling of the major cognitive domains. Aims: In this study, we pilot a new dementia screening test - the Concise Cognitive Test (CONCOG - designed to overcome the above short comings and describe the reliability measures and age, education, and gender effects. The CONCOG has a total score of 30, and has subtests for orientation, naming, registration, free recall and recognition of four words, semantic verbal fluency and copying. Patients and Methods: Participants were screened to exclude those with any neurological or psychiatric disease, simultaneously administered the CONCOG, and a Hybrid Mini Mental State Examination (HMMSE adapted from Folstein′s MMSE and Ganguli′s Hindi Mental State Examination. Results: The study sample had 204 subjects over the age of 60 years with a mean of 73 years and education level of 8 (4.5 years. Internal consistency for the CONCOG (Cronbach′s alpha was 0.74, inter-rater reliability (Kendall′s tau-b was 0.9, and the one-month test-retest reliability (Kendall′s tau-b was 0.7. Age and education level, but not gender, significantly influenced performance on both scales. Although the influence of age on the two scales was to a similar degree, the HMMSE was more affected by education than the CONCOG. Of 204 subjects, only 12 (5.7% subjects obtained the maximum score on the CONCOG compared with 30 (14.1% subjects on the HMMSE. The CONCOG took less than 10 minutes to complete in this sample. Age and education stratified norms are presented for the CONCOG. Conclusions: The CONCOG is a reliable cognitive screening measure. It has negligible ceiling effects, is less influenced by education compared with the HMMSE, and offers subscale scores for the major cognitive domains.

  6. Childhood emotional maltreatment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative adult sample from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Brownridge, Douglas A; Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health concern with well-established sequelae. However, compared to research on physical and sexual abuse, far less is known about the long-term impact of emotional maltreatment on mental health. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the association of emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and both emotional abuse and neglect with other types of child maltreatment, a family history of dysfunction, and lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Data were from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). The most prevalent form of emotional maltreatment was emotional neglect only (6.2%), followed by emotional abuse only (4.8%), and then both emotional abuse and neglect (3.1%). All categories of emotional maltreatment were strongly related to other forms of child maltreatment (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 2.1 to 68.0) and a history of family dysfunction (ORs ranged from 2.2 to 8.3). In models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of emotional maltreatment were associated with increased odds of almost every mental disorder assessed in this study (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4). Many relationships remained significant independent of experiencing other forms of child maltreatment and a family history of dysfunction (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 3.0). The effects appeared to be greater for active (i.e., emotional abuse) relative to passive (i.e., emotional neglect) forms of emotional maltreatment. Childhood emotional maltreatment, particularly emotionally abusive acts, is associated with increased odds of lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders.

  7. Mental Health and Resilience: Soldiers’ Perceptions about Psychotherapy, Medications, and Barriers to Care in the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    for anxiety and depression are highly addictive . Rate how each of the possible concerns might affect your decision to receive mental health counseling...anxiety and depression do not help a person cope better. 6. Most medications for anxiety and depression are highly addictive . Strongly Strongly DISAGREE...days after soldiers return home. After the soldier has been home for at least 90 days, a secure personal internet account (Army Knowledge On-line

  8. Mental Health and Exposure to the United States: Key Correlates from the Hispanic Community Health Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreira, Krista M; Gotman, Nathan; Isasi, Carmen R; Arguelles, William; Castañeda, Sheila F; Daviglus, Martha L; Giachello, Aida L; Gonzalez, Patricia; Penedo, Frank J; Salgado, Hugo; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

    2015-09-01

    We examined the association between exposure to the U.S. and symptoms of poor mental health among adult Hispanic/Latinos (N = 15,004) overall and by Hispanic/Latino background. Using data from the Hispanic Community Health Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), we estimated logistic regressions to model the risk of moderate to severe symptoms of psychological distress, depression, and anxiety as a function of years in the U.S. and six key psychosocial risk and protective factors. In unadjusted models, increased time in the U.S. was associated with higher risk of poor mental health. After adjustment for just three key factors--perceived discrimination, perceived U.S. social standing, and the size of close social networks--differences in the odds of poor mental health by years in the U.S became insignificant for Hispanics/Latinos overall. However, analyses by Hispanic/Latino background revealed different patterns of association with exposure to the U.S. that could not be fully explained.

  9. Cue-Reactive Altered State of Consciousness Mediates the Relationship Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Cue-Reactive Urge in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Christopher; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I

    2016-06-01

    In order to enhance our understanding of the nature of poker-machine problem-gambling, a community sample of 37 poker-machine gamblers (M age = 32 years, M PGSI = 5; PGSI = Problem Gambling Severity Index) were assessed for urge to gamble (responses on a visual analogue scale) and altered state of consciousness (assessed by the Altered State of Awareness dimension of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory) at baseline, after a neutral cue, and after a gambling cue. It was found that (a) problem-gambling severity (PGSI score) predicted increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .19, p = .006) and increase in altered state of consciousness (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .57, p gambling cue) mediated the relationship between problem-gambling severity and increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue; κ(2) = .40, 99 % CI [.08, .71]). These findings suggest that cue-reactive altered state of consciousness is an important component of cue-reactive urge in poker-machine problem-gamblers.

  10. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  11. Altered Functional Connectivity in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment--A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Ding

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that people with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (sVCI have structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites. In this study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC analysis and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC techniques to investigate the alteration of rsFC in patients with sVCI. rsFC and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for 51 patients with subcortical cerebrovascular disease. All patients were subdivided based on cognitive status into 29 with sVCI and 22 controls; patient characteristics were matched. rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and VMHC were calculated separately, and rsFC of the PCC and VMHC between the two groups were compared. The regions showing abnormal rsFC of the PCC or VMHC in sVCI patients were adopted as regions of interest for correlation analyses. Our results are as follows: The patients with sVCI exhibited increases in rsFC in the left middle temporal lobe, right inferior temporal lobe and left superior frontal gyrus, and significant decreases in rsFC of the left thalamus with the PCC. sVCI patients showed a significant deficit in VMHC between the bilateral lingual gyrus, putamen, and precentral gyrus. Additionally, the z-memory score was significantly positively associated with connectivity between the left thalamus and the PCC (r = 0.41, p = 0.03, uncorrected in the sVCI group. Our findings suggest that the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites play an important role in the pathogenesis of sVCI. Furthermore, rsFC between the left thalamus and the PCC might indicate the severity of sVCI.

  12. Alteration of the redox state with reactive oxygen species for 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Yoshino

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is often induced in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy treatment. It has been reported that oral mucositis can reduce quality of life, as well as increasing the incidence of mortality. The participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis is well known, but no report has actually demonstrated the presence of ROS. Thus, the purpose of this study was thus to demonstrate the involvement of ROS and the alteration of the redox state in oral mucositis using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance (ESR technique. An oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with 10% acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch was used. Lipid peroxidation was measured as the level of malondialdehyde determined by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. The rate constants of the signal decay of nitroxyl compounds using in vivo L-band ESR were calculated from the signal decay curves. Firstly, we established the oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch. An increased level of lipid peroxidation in oral mucositis was found by measuring malondialdehyde using isolated hamster cheek pouch ulcer. In addition, as a result of in vivo L-band ESR measurements using our model animals, the decay rate constants of carbamoyl-PROXYL, which is a reagent for detecting the redox balance in tissue, were decreased. These results suggest that a redox imbalance might occur by excessive generation of ROS at an early stage of oral mucositis and the consumption of large quantities of antioxidants including glutathione in the locality of oral mucositis. These findings support the presence of ROS involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis with anti-cancer therapy, and is useful for the development of novel therapies drugs for oral mucositis.

  13. Innovations in mental health services implementation: a report on state-level data from the U.S. Evidence-Based Practices Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnabosco Jennifer L

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Evidence-Based Practice (EBP Project has been investigating the implementation of evidence-based mental health practices (Assertive Community Treatment, Family Psychoeducation, Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment, Illness Management and Recovery, and Supported Employment in state public mental health systems in the United States since 2001. To date, Project findings have yielded valuable insights into implementation strategy characteristics and effectiveness. This paper reports results of an effort to identify and classify state-level implementation activities and strategies employed across the eight states participating in the Project. Methods Content analysis and Greenhalgh et al's (2004 definition of innovation were used to identify and classify state-level activities employed during three phases of EBP implementation: Pre-Implementation, Initial Implementation and Sustainability Planning. Activities were coded from site visit reports created from documents and notes from key informant interviews conducted during two periods, Fall 2002 – Spring 2003, and Spring 2004. Frequency counts and rank-order analyses were used to examine patterns of implementation activities and strategies employed across the three phases of implementation. Results One hundred and six discreet implementation activities and strategies were identified as innovative and were classified into five categories: 1 state infrastructure building and commitment, 2 stakeholder relationship building and communications, 3 financing, 4 continuous quality management, and 5 service delivery practices and training. Implementation activities from different categories were employed at different phases of implementation. Conclusion Insights into effective strategies for implementing EBPs in mental health and other health sectors require qualitative and quantitative research that seeks to: a empirically test the effects of tools and methods used to implement EBPs

  14. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon; Roh, Sungwon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods: This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organiza...

  15. Deficits of cognitive theory of mind and its relationship with functioning in individuals with an at-risk mental state and first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Sakuma, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Hamaie, Yumiko; Ito, Fumiaki; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2016-09-30

    Disturbance of theory of mind (ToM) and its relationship with functioning in schizophrenia is well documented; however, this is unclear in spectrum disorders like at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP). To assess mental state reasoning ability, the total score of the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task questionnaire was compared among 36 Japanese individuals with ARMS, 40 with FEP, and 25 healthy controls (HC). Pearson's correlations between ToM performance and global and social functioning indices were examined. ToM performance for FEP and ARMS subjects was significantly lower than that for HC, though the significance of the difference between the ARMS and HC disappeared when controlling for premorbid IQ. ToM deficits in ARMS subjects were confirmed only in the comprehension of higher-order false belief. Only among FEP subjects were ToM performance and global functioning significantly correlated, though the significance disappeared when controlling for neurocognitive performance or dose of antipsychotics. No significant correlation between ToM performance and social functioning was observed in the FEP and ARMS groups. The current findings suggest that ToM deficits emerge in ARMS subjects confined within a higher-order domain, and that the relationship between ToM impairment and functional deterioration might be established after psychosis onset.

  16. Post-hoc principal component analysis on a largely illiterate elderly population from North-west India to identify important elements of mini-mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE scale measures cognition using specific elements that can be isolated, defined, and subsequently measured. This study was conducted with the aim to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in a largely, illiterate, elderly population in India and to reduce the number of variables to a few meaningful and interpretable combinations. Methodology: Principal component analysis (PCA was performed post-hoc on the data generated by a research project conducted to estimate the prevalence of dementia in four geographically defined habitations in Himachal Pradesh state of India. Results: Questions on orientation and registration account for high percentage of cumulative variance in comparison to other questions. Discussion: The PCA conducted on the data derived from a largely, illiterate population reveals that the most important components to consider for the estimation of cognitive impairment in illiterate Indian population are temporal orientation, spatial orientation, and immediate memory.

  17. Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah: modal mineralogy, and geochemistry of sericite, chlorite, and feldspar from altered rocks, Thermal Power Company well Utah State 14-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.

    1978-11-01

    Sericites, chlorites, feldspars, biotite and hornblende from hydrothermally altered rocks at several depths in Thermal Power Company well Utah State 14-2, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah, have been analyzed using the electron microprobe. Sericites and ferromagnesian minerals have been analyzed for 12 major elements, and feldspars for 3. The results have been used, along with whole rock chemical analyses, to computer calculate modal mineralogy for samples from the drillhole. Calculated modes for hydrothermal minerals are in reasonable agreement with observations from thin sections.

  18. Afecções neurológicas associadas ao retardo mental em alunos de uma instituição especializada de Londrina, Estado do Paraná = Neural affections associated with mental retardation in students from Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Baroneza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Retardo mental (RM é um estado de desenvolvimento intelectual alterado que dificulta a integração social do indivíduo. Nosso objetivo foi estudar 147 portadores de RM, alunos da APAE de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, matriculados de 1989 a 2003. Através deum estudo descritivo, avaliamos a prevalência de neuropatologias em relação ao sexo, ao tipo de parto a que o afetado foi submetido, à idade materna ao nascimento e ao histórico de RM nas famílias. As patologias encontradas foram: RM – casos isolados, 34,8%; síndrome deDown (SD, 19,7%; paralisia cerebral (PC, 19,7%; outras síndromes, 15,6%; dislexia, 6,8%, e distúrbio comportamental, 3,4%. Dentre as variáveis que apresentaram maior diferença destacam-se: sexo, na diplegia-PC, 3 homens:1 mulher; tipo de parto, na hemiplegia-PC, 10normais: 1 cesariana; e história familiar de RM entre os portadores de SD, 24,1%. Entre os portadores de RM filhos de mãe com idade avançada (>41 anos, a SD apresentou maior prevalência (50%.Mental Retardation (MR is an altered state of intellectual development that makes the social integration of individuals difficult. The objective was to study 147 MR individuals, registered students of APAE, from the city of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, from 1989 to 2003. Through a descriptive approach, we were able to assess the prevalence of neural pathologies in relation to gender, the kind of birth delivery the individuals have undergone, the age of their mothers at their birth, and the MR family history. The following diseases were found: MR – isolated cases, 34.8%; DownSyndrome (DS, 19.7%; cerebral palsy (CP, 19.7%; other syndromes, 15.6%; dyslexia, 6.8%; and behavior disturbance, 3.4%. Among the variables that showed large differences were: the gender, in diplegia-CP, 3male:1female; kind of birth delivery, in hemiplegia-CP,10normal:1cesarean; family history of MR among DS individuals, 24.1%. Among the MR individuals from elder mothers (>41 years old

  19. News media framing of serious mental illness and gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-03-01

    Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and "dangerous people" with SMI were more likely than "dangerous weapons" to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence.

  20. 78 FR 45217 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases Disproportionate Share Hospital Limits... for mental diseases (IMDs) and other mental health facilities. This notice also includes background... diseases (IMDs) and other mental health facilities is limited to state- specific aggregate...

  1. Facilely Tuning Porous NiCo2 O4 Nanosheets with Metal Valence-State Alteration and Abundant Oxygen Vacancies as Robust Electrocatalysts Towards Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Fu, Shaofang; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-03-14

    Great efforts in developing clean electrochemical water splitting technology leads to the rational design and synthesis of highly efficient oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts with low overpotential and fast reaction kinetics. Herein, we focus on the role that morphology and composition play in the OER performance to rationally design freestanding 3D porous NiCo2O4 nanosheets with metal valence states alteration and abundant oxygen vacancies as robust electrocatalysts towards water splitting. Besides metal valence-state alteration, surface modification regarding the evolution of oxygen vacancies is facilely realized upon the sodium borohydride treatment, which is beneficial for the enhanced OER performance. Taking advantage of the porous nanostructures and abundant surface activity sites with high reactivity, the resultant nanostructures exhibit excellent OER activity and stability in alkaline electrolytes that outperform that of pristine NiCo2O4 and commercial RuO2, thus holding great potential for the water splitting.

  2. Analysis of the Treatment State of 261 Cases Vagrant Mental Patients%261例流浪精神病人救治状态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯燕华; 钟守昌; 赵贤玲; 桂格莉; 胡珊; 包黎

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解武汉市流浪精神病人的救治状态,探索其管理办法.方法 对2009年1月~2010年12月在武汉市精神病医院接受治疗的流浪精神病人进行调查,统计资料包括人口学特征、病人来源和入住原因、诊断及伴发躯体疾病情况、住院时间及出院及安置情况等.结果 流浪精神病人多由武汉市"110"联动送来以无名氏收治入院,其中男性123名(占47.13%),女性138名(占52.87%);当他们对社会治安造成影响时,由武汉市"110"联动送入武汉市精神病院;其中疾病诊断以精神分裂症(122例,占46.74% )为主;合并躯体性疾病的有119例,占45.60% ;住院天数最短为1天,最长6年,平均为(139.21±111.23)天;两年期间正式出院仅132例,其余129例流浪精神病人仍在医院继续接受治疗.结论 政府应继续加大投入、加快精神卫生防治体系建设、完善现行流浪乞讨精神病人的救助体制、完善法律等.%Objectives To understand the treatment state of the vagrant mental patients in Wuhan, and to explore the management method of them. Methods Investigating the vagrant mental patients in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2010, the statistics including ①demographic characteristics; ②source of the patients, check-in reason; ? diagnosis and concomitant somatic diseases; ③hospitalization time; ④discharged and resettlement. Results The vagrant mental patients were usually sent by "110" linkage, and were admitted to the hospital as anonymous, 123 were male (47. 13%) , and 138 were women (52. 87%). Disease diagnosis:schizophrenia dominated by 122(46. 74%) cases, and 119 cases (45. 60%) combined somatic diseases. Hospitalization time:a minimum of 1 day, up to six years, the average was (139. 21 ±111. 23)days. During the two years there were only 132 cases formally discharged from hospital, the remaining 129 cases continue received treatment in hospital. Conclusions Vagrant mental patients are admitted to

  3. Phosphorylation states of cell cycle and DNA repair proteins can be altered by the nsSNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savas Sevtap

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational modification that affects the intrinsic properties of proteins, such as structure and function. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs result in the substitution of the encoded amino acids and thus are likely to alter the phosphorylation motifs in the proteins. Methods In this study, we used the web-based NetPhos tool to predict candidate nsSNPs that either introduce or remove putative phosphorylation sites in proteins that act in DNA repair and cell cycle pathways. Results Our results demonstrated that a total of 15 nsSNPs (16.9% were likely to alter the putative phosphorylation patterns of 14 proteins. Three of these SNPs (CDKN1A-S31R, OGG1-S326C, and XRCC3-T241M have already found to be associated with altered cancer risk. We believe that this set of nsSNPs constitutes an excellent resource for further molecular and genetic analyses. Conclusion The novel systematic approach used in this study will accelerate the understanding of how naturally occurring human SNPs may alter protein function through the modification of phosphorylation mechanisms and contribute to disease susceptibility.

  4. [Reform in mental health services--from whence and to where].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haver, Eitan; Shani, Mordechai; Kotler, Moshe; Fast, Dov; Elizur, Avner; Baruch, Yehuda

    2005-05-01

    For years the subject of mental health has been neglected in Israel, and reform of mental health services is now of paramount importance. Psychiatric medicine has altered considerably over the years, and emphasis is shifting from treatment in mental health institutions to treatment at the community level. This transition is the result of the awakening of groups in our society advocating civil rights for the mentally ill and their integration into the community. This process is also bolstered by the advent of new anti-psychotic drugs. However, the social and medical infrastructure set up to deal with these issues has been found lacking. Over the past few years the Minister of Health has appointed a number of committees to address this issue, and they have all recommended extensive reform of mental health services in Israel. The recommendations handed down by the committees are for: (1) Restructure of mental health services, with emphasis on community services and gradual reduction of psychiatric beds; (2) Allocation of additional funding specifically ear-marked for the mentally challenged, enabling transfer of stabilized patients out of the hospital setting and often lengthy and unnecessary hospitalization, into community rehabilitation centers; (3) Transfer of responsibility for health insurance for mentally ill people from the State to the Health Funds, enabling integration of psychiatric treatment into the general treatment framework. The reform has already been initiated. This body of work will review the stages, processes and the difficulties that preceded the reform.

  5. Self-report of cognitive impairment and Mini-Mental State Exam performance in PRKN, LRRK2, and GBA carriers with early onset Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalay, Roy N.; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Tang, Ming X.; Rakitin, Brian; Rosado, Llency; Ross, Barbara; Verbitsky, Miguel; Kisselev, Sergey; Louis, Elan D.; Comella, Cynthia; Colcher, Amy; Jennings, Danna; Nance, Martha; Bressman, Susan; Scott, William K.; Tanner, Caroline; Mickel, Susan; Andrews, Howard; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Cote, Lucien; Frucht, Steven; Ford, Blair; Rezak, Michael; Novak, Kevin; Friedman, Joseph; Pfeiffer, Ronald; Marsh, Laura; Hiner, Bradley; Siderowf, Andrew; Ottman, Ruth; Clark, Lorraine; Marder, Karen; Caccappolo, Elise

    2010-01-01

    While little is known about risk factors for cognitive impairment in early onset Parkinson disease (EOPD), postmortem studies have shown an association between dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation. We compared Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) performance and self-reported cognitive impairment in 699 EOPD participants genotyped for mutations in parkin (PRKN), leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2), and GBA. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between reported cognitive impairment and MMSE score, as well as between GBA group membership and self-reported impairment and MMSE. GBA carriers reported more impairment, but MMSE performance did not differ among genetic groups. Detailed neuropsychological testing is required to explore the association between cognitive impairment and GBA mutations. PMID:20182943

  6. [Working conditions on public buses and common mental disorders among drivers and fare collectors: Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Silva, Luiz Sérgio da

    2013-12-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) contribute to overall burden of disease. The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of CMD among a sample of bus drivers and fare collectors in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigate whether traffic conditions and conditions inside buses were associated with the outcome. This non-probabilistic sample of 1,607 workers was estimated from the size of the effective workforce (n = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews used a digital questionnaire with online data processing. Overall prevalence of CMD was 23.6%. Bad traffic conditions lost statistical significance in the multivariate analysis, while higher income and adverse working conditions and inadequate safety remained associated with the outcome. Harmful behavior and vulnerable health situations were associated with CMD. This study of urban bus workers' health is a unique contribution that can provide backing for public policies targeting metropolitan populations.

  7. [Using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for preliminary assessment of cognitive impairment in subjects exposed to air pollution with particulate matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedata, Paola; Grella, Rodolfo; Lamberti, Monica; Bergamasco, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies have linked elevated concentrations of particulate matter to adverse health effects. In particular, has been demonstrated an association between UFPs exposure and occurrence of acute respiratory infections, lung cancer, chronic chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the exposure to particulate air pollution has been linked to cognitive decline. In this work, we used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a preliminary assessment of cognitive function in individuals who have lived and carried out work in heavily urbanized areas, where ambient levels of particulate air pollution were frequently above the standard of the law. The results showed the presence of mild-moderate cognitive impairment in 39.4% of the subjects examined compared to the control group.

  8. Giving Voice to Emotion: Voice Analysis Technology Uncovering Mental States is Playing a Growing Role in Medicine, Business, and Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Summer

    2016-01-01

    It's tough to imagine anything more frustrating than interacting with a call center. Generally, people don't reach out to call centers when they?re happy-they're usually trying to get help with a problem or gearing up to do battle over a billing error. Add in an automatic phone tree, and you have a recipe for annoyance. But what if that robotic voice offering you a smorgasbord of numbered choices could tell that you were frustrated and then funnel you to an actual human being? This type of voice analysis technology exists, and it's just one example of the many ways that computers can use your voice to extract information about your mental and emotional state-including information you may not think of as being accessible through your voice alone.

  9. The 37 item Version of the Mini-Mental State Examination: Normative Data in a Population-Based Cohort of Older Spanish Adults (NEDICES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contador, I; Bermejo-Pareja, F; Fernández-Calvo, B; Boycheva, E; Tapias, E; Llamas, S; Benito-León, J

    2016-05-01

    The 37-item version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-37) is an extended version of the original test for individuals with low education, which was adapted for different cultures. Despite its favorable psychometric properties, there is a lack of normative data for this instrument. We provide normative data for the MMSE-37 stratified by age, sex, and education in a large population-based cohort of older Spanish adults. The sample consisted of 3,777 participants without dementia (age range: 65-97 years) from different socioeconomic areas of central Spain. Normative data are presented in percentile ranks and divided into nine overlapping age tables with different midpoints, using the overlapping cell procedure. A hierarchical regression was performed to evaluate the effects of sociodemographic variables on MMSE-37 performance. Results showed that age, sex, and education affect test score. The norms presented herein are important for the correct interpretation of MMSE-37 scores when assessing older adults in Spain.

  10. [The implementation of integrated networks of mental health services in Quebec: context of introduction, state of implementation and the views of general practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the emerging context of integrated service networks (ISN), clarifies the concept of ISN, and highlights some of the key factors in the successful implementation of ISNs. The Quebec healthcare reform illustrates the current state of development of integrated care. The main targets of the reform are the consolidation of primary care and the development of collaborative models of mental health care (or shared care). Since they are very complex to operate (insofar as they require major system changes), ISNs are not widely developed. General practitioners are at the heart of the current reforms since they have a key role to play in the successful implementation of integrated care models, including ISN models.

  11. Residências terapêuticas: experiência dos residentes de saúde mental do programa da universidade do estado da Bahia (Therapeutic residency: the experience of mental health residents at the state university of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josenaide Engrácia dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo é produto da experiência dos residentes do Núcleo de Saúde Mental da Residência Multiprofi ssional em Saúde da Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB, na Residência Terapêutica (RT do distrito sanitário de Itapagipe, localizado em Salvador-Bahia. Essa experiência teve inicio com a inserção dos residentes no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial - CAPS II do referido distrito, que, no planejamento das ações desenvolvidas no território, priorizou a residência terapêutica como lugar para desenvolver cuidado, por considerá-la dispositivo com possibilidade de reinvenção do existir do sujeito na comunidade. A escuta, o vínculo, o corpo, a música e a rua foram os principais recursos utilizados no processo de aproximação entre os atores envolvidos. Apesar de enigmática, na medida em que suscitou vários problemas sem respostas, a experiência na RT mostrou-se um terreno fértil para promover a cidadania e autonomia. Foi também reveladora, porque sinalizou possibilidades de reinvenção da vida, considerando todas as controvérsias da estratégia utilizada.Abstract:The present paper is the outcome of the experience of residents of the multi professional residency program from the Mental Health Nucleus at the University of the State of Bahia (UNEB, specifi cally in the residency program in therapeutics, implemented in the health district of Itapagipe, Salvador, Bahia. The experience began at the Center for Psychosocial Healthcare (CAPS II in the aforementioned district, which, in planning the actions to be developed, gave priority to the use of the residential program as a means of developing a strategy of care, since it was considered that an initiative of this type would successfully redefi ne the existence of the individual in the community. The main resources used in the process of approximating the actors involved included listening, bonding, and the use of body language, music and the streets. The

  12. Effect of Memo®, a natural formula combination, on Mini-Mental State Examination scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot,1 Amel Salem,2 Sherine Helmy3 1Green Clinic and Research Center, 2Mabarrah Clinics, 3Pharco Pharmaceutical Industries, Alexandria, Egypt Background: Mild cognitive impairment encompasses the clinical continuum between physiologic age-related cognitive changes and dementia. A variety of medications, including herbal preparations (in particular Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng, have been advocated as treatments for cognitive impairment in the elderly. In this study, we investigated the effect of an already marketed dietary supplement (Memo® combining 750 mg of lyophilized royal jelly with standardized extracts of G. biloba 120 mg and P. ginseng 150 mg on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Methods: Sixty-six subjects presenting with forgetfulness and satisfying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR clinical criteria for mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into an experimental group treated with one Memo capsule before breakfast daily for 4 weeks and a control group who took placebo. The mean change in MMSE score from baseline and reported adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean change in MMSE score in the group treated with Memo for 4 weeks was significantly greater than in the control group (+2.07 versus +0.13, respectively by the Student’s t-test (t = 6.485, P < 0.0001. This was also true after adjusting for age as a covariate and educational level as a factor nested within the treatment groups in a general linear model (analysis of covariance, F = 9.675 [corrected model], P < 0.0001. Conclusion: This combined triple formula may be beneficial in treating the cognitive decline that occurs during the aging process as well as in the early phases of pathologic cognitive impairment typical of insidious-onset vascular dementia and in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Larger

  13. Electrophysiological, cognitive and clinical profiles of at-risk mental state: The longitudinal Minds in Transition (MinT) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Patricia T.; Ward, Philip B.; Todd, Juanita; Stain, Helen; Langdon, Robyn; Thienel, Renate; Paulik, Georgie; Cooper, Gavin; Schall, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The onset of schizophrenia is typically preceded by a prodromal period lasting several years during which sub-threshold symptoms may be identified retrospectively. Clinical interviews are currently used to identify individuals who have an ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing a psychotic illness with a view to provision of interventions that prevent, delay or reduce severity of future mental health issues. The utility of bio-markers as an adjunct in the identification of UHR individuals is not yet established. Several event-related potential measures, especially mismatch-negativity (MMN), have been identified as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia. In this 12-month longitudinal study, demographic, clinical and neuropsychological data were acquired from 102 anti-psychotic naive UHR and 61 healthy controls, of whom 80 UHR and 58 controls provided valid EEG data during a passive auditory task at baseline. Despite widespread differences between UHR and controls on demographic, clinical and neuropsychological measures, MMN and P3a did not differ between these groups. Of 67 UHR at the 12-month follow-up, 7 (10%) had transitioned to a psychotic illness. The statistical power to detect differences between those who did or did not transition was limited by the lower than expected transition rate. ERPs did not predict transition, with trends in the opposite direction to that predicted. In exploratory analysis, the strongest predictors of transition were measures of verbal memory and subjective emotional disturbance. PMID:28187217

  14. Mental health diagnoses and counseling among pilots of remotely piloted aircraft in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Jean L; Webber, Bryant J

    2013-03-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), also known as drones, have been used extensively in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although RPA pilots in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) have reported high levels of stress and fatigue, rates of mental health (MH) diagnoses and counseling in this population are unknown. We calculated incidence rates of 12 specific MH outcomes among all active component USAF RPA pilots between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2011, and by various demographic and military variables. We compared these rates to those among all active component USAF manned aircraft (MA) pilots deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan during the same period. The unadjusted incidence rates of all MH outcomes among RPA pilots (n=709) and MA pilots (n=5,256) were 25.0 per 1,000 person-years and 15.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.1, 95% confidence interval=0.9-1.5; adjusted for age, number of deployments, time in service, and history of any MH outcome). Th ere was no significant difference in the rates of MH diagnoses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders between RPA and MA pilots. Military policymakers and clinicians should recognize that RPA and MA pilots have similar MH risk profiles.

  15. Mental health state of female prisoners%女性服刑人员的心理健康状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental health is the most important internal resource that individual can depend on and also an important factor which affects the existence and development of individual. But there are few studies on the level and characteristics of mental health of female prisoners during serving a sentence.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the level and characteristics of mental health of the female prisoners in Shandong Province.DESIGN: Retrospective, cross sectional,multi-variable and sampling survey based on female prisoners.SETTING: Department of Technology in Shandong Police College.PARTICIPANTS: The investigation was completed in the Shandong Police College frotm January 2002 to March 2002.Totally 393 female prisoners from the Shandong Female Prison were selected with the grouping-sampling method to give the questionnaire and attend the investigation voluntarily,and the persons with definite mental disease were excluded.METHODS: The mental health items of female prisoners,including 9 factors such as somatization, obsessive-compulsion,sensitivity of human relations, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychosis,were explored with Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90), and the judging standard of psychologic obstacle was whether the total scores of positive symptoms were 2 standard deviations more than those of the norm or not.And combined with the archives of the female prisoners and the questionnaire of self-editing item,relative data were collected. The uniform instructional words and the methods of filling in were explained to the female prisoners firstly,and then the answers of the questionnaire were written collectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The mental health level and the psychological characteristics of female prisoners.RESULTS: 393 questionnaires were provided.There were 15 questionnaires excluded because more than 5 questions were missed in the paper or responsion consistency deviation appeared obviously after callback.378

  16. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral Suppression Doctor, Clinical & Dental Visits Treatment Adherence Mental Health Substance Abuse Issues Sexual Health Nutrition & Food Safety Exercise Immunizations Aging with HIV/AIDS Women’s Health Housing ...

  17. Mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke

    2013-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., & Kirschner, F. (2012). Mental effort. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning, Volume 5 (pp. 2182-2184). New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_226

  18. [Perioperative disorders of mental functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonković, Dinko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Kovacević, Marko; Bogović, Tajana Zah; Drvar, Zeljko; Baronica, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Mental disorders are characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, affect and behavior, which occur as a result of brain damage. Recognizing and treating these conditions is necessary not only for psychiatrists but for all physicians. Disorder of mental function is one of the most common associated conditions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, disturbances of mental function often remain unrecognized. In ICU patients, different types of mental function disorders may develop. They range from sleep disorders, severe depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to cognitive disorders including delirium. The causes of mental dysfunction in ICU patients can be divided into environmental and medical. Cognitive disorders are related to mental processes such as learning ability, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive disorders are usually not prominent in the early postoperative period and in many cases are discovered after hospital discharge because of difficulties in performing everyday activities at home or at work. The etiology of postoperative cognitive impairment is unclear. Older age, previous presence of cognitive dysfunction, severity of disease, and polypharmacy with more than four drugs are some of the risk factors identified. Delirium is a multifactorial disorder. It is an acute confusional state characterized by alteration of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is considered as the most common form of mental distress in ICU patients. Nearly 30% of all hospitalized patients pass through deliriant phase during their hospital stay. Delirium can last for several days to several weeks. Almost always it ends with complete withdrawal of psychopathological symptoms. Sometimes it can evolve into a chronic brain syndrome (dementia). The causes are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease the symptoms. Delirious patient is at risk of complications of immobility and

  19. [Mentalization and theory of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyl, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children.

  20. Prenatal arsenic exposure alters gene expression in the adult liver to a proinflammatory state contributing to accelerated atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Christopher States

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which environmental toxicants alter developmental processes predisposing individuals to adult onset chronic disease are not well-understood. Transplacental arsenic exposure promotes atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/- mice. Because the liver plays a central role in atherosclerosis, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, we hypothesized that accelerated atherosclerosis may be linked to altered hepatic development. This hypothesis was tested in ApoE(-/- mice exposed to 49 ppm arsenic in utero from gestational day (GD 8 to term. GD18 hepatic arsenic was 1.2 µg/g in dams and 350 ng/g in fetuses. The hepatic transcriptome was evaluated by microarray analysis to assess mRNA and microRNA abundance in control and exposed pups at postnatal day (PND 1 and PND70. Arsenic exposure altered postnatal developmental trajectory of mRNA and microRNA profiles. We identified an arsenic exposure related 51-gene signature at PND1 and PND70 with several hubs of interaction (Hspa8, IgM and Hnf4a. Gene ontology (GO annotation analyses indicated that pathways for gluconeogenesis and glycolysis were suppressed in exposed pups at PND1, and pathways for protein export, ribosome, antigen processing and presentation, and complement and coagulation cascades were induced by PND70. Promoter analysis of differentially-expressed transcripts identified enriched transcription factor binding sites and clustering to common regulatory sites. SREBP1 binding sites were identified in about 16% of PND70 differentially-expressed genes. Western blot analysis confirmed changes in the liver at PND70 that included increases of heat shock protein 70 (Hspa8 and active SREBP1. Plasma AST and ALT levels were increased at PND70. These results suggest that transplacental arsenic exposure alters developmental programming in fetal liver, leading to an enduring stress and proinflammatory response postnatally that may contribute to early onset of atherosclerosis. Genes

  1. Good Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trying to conceive, pregnancy, and mental health Menstruation, menopause, and mental health Women veterans and mental health When you need help Good mental ... in Spanish ( en español ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and mental health Sleep ...

  2. Issues in consumer mental health information.

    OpenAIRE

    Angier, J J

    1984-01-01

    Consumer health information as applied to mental health includes areas such as the diagnosis, management, and treatment of mental illness, as well as self-help, emotional wellness, and the relationship between life events, stress, and disease. This paper presents issues specific to the provision of mental health information to the layperson, e.g., confidentiality, literacy, competence, the social stigma of mental illness, the state of the art in psychiatry, popular psychology, and treatment f...

  3. Mental Byomdannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Boye, Anne Mette; Borchmann, Inger Haarup;

    Formålet med publikationen er at præsentere metoden "Mental byomdannelse". Metoden viser, hvordan man via midlertidig brug af grunde kan undersøge et steds potentialer, tage et område i brug tidligt i en byomdannelsesproces og derved bidrage til at opbygge en ny identitet for området. Mental...... byomdannelse går ud på at skabe bevidsthed om et byudviklingsområde overfor byens borgere, kommende beboere og fremtidige brugere af området allerede mens den fysiske omdannelse er i gang. I publikationen præsenteres en værktøjskasse, som giver redskaber og ideer til, hvordan man kan sætte en mental...... byomdannelsesproces i gang i byens rum. Publikationen udgør en afrapportering fra et støttet forsøgsprojekt hvor metoden ”Mental byomdannelse” er udviklet ved at afprøve ideerne om mental byomdannelse i to cases i Ålborg Kommune, hhv. i Østre Havn og Nibe by. Formålet med at anvende metoden i de to cases har været...

  4. Sakit Hati: A state of chronic mental distress related to resentment and anger amongst West Papuan refugees exposed to persecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick

    2011-07-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the role of gross injustices in generating pathological states of anger. The goal of this study amongst 41 West Papuan refugees conducted in Australia between 2007 and 2010 was to explore the phenomenology of Sakit Hati, a condition in which there appeared to be a close link between human rights violations and anger. West Papuan refugee participants made repeated reference to the condition of Sakit Hati in the early phase of the study so that the remainder of the study focused specifically on this construct. The qualitative approach involved an iterative process including focus groups, in-depth interviews, and semi-structured confirmatory interviews. The research revealed that Sakit Hati included elements of chronic brooding, resentment and anger attributed to experiences of injustice, a state that created vulnerability to episodes of explosive rage and aggression in response to reminders of persecution. Sakit Hati was distinguished from a depression-loss constellation, Susah Hati, although the two reactions overlapped. Sakit Hati led to substantial personal suffering and interpersonal difficulties. The intractable political conditions in West Papua made it difficult to achieve a durable resolution for the condition. Sakit Hati provides a cross-cultural illustration of the nexus between injustice and chronic anger, demonstrating how this dynamic interaction can be perpetuated by ongoing social and political forces. Greater attention may be warranted by psychiatric classification systems to the recognition of anger as an affective state that may be provoked and maintained by experiences of injustice.

  5. EEG Brain Activity in Dynamic Health Qigong Training: Same Effects for Mental Practice and Physical Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant uptake of meditation and related relaxation techniques, as a means of alleviating stress and fostering an attentive mind. Several electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have reported changes in spectral band frequencies during Qigong meditation indicating a relaxed state. Much less is reported on effects of brain activation patterns induced by Qigong techniques involving bodily movement. In this study, we tested whether (1) physical Qigong training alters EEG theta and alpha activation, and (2) mental practice induces the same effect as a physical Qigong training. Subjects performed the dynamic Health Qigong technique Wu Qin Xi (five animals) physically and by mental practice in a within-subjects design. Experimental conditions were randomized. Two 2-min (eyes-open, eyes-closed) EEG sequences under resting conditions were recorded before and immediately after each 15-min exercise. Analyses of variance were performed for spectral power density data. Increased alpha power was found in posterior regions in mental practice and physical training for eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Theta power was increased after mental practice in central areas in eyes-open conditions, decreased in fronto-central areas in eyes-closed conditions. Results suggest that mental, as well as physical Qigong training, increases alpha activity and therefore induces a relaxed state of mind. The observed differences in theta activity indicate different attentional processes in physical and mental Qigong training. No difference in theta activity was obtained in physical and mental Qigong training for eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state. In contrast, mental practice of Qigong entails a high degree of internalized attention that correlates with theta activity, and that is dependent on eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state.

  6. The role of education in mini-mental state examination: a study in Northeast Brazil O papel da educação no mini exame do estado mental: um estudo no Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Brito-Marques

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that schooling can influence performance in cognitive assessement tests. In developing countries, formal education is limited for most people. The use of tests such as Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, could have an adverse effect on the evaluation of illiterate and low education individuals. OBJECTIVE: To propose a new version of MMSE as a screening test to assess Illiterate and low education people. METHOD: A study was carried out enrolling 232 individuals, aged 60 or more of low and middle socio-economic classes. Three groups were studied: Illiterate;1-4 schooling years; 5-8 schooling years. The new version (MMSEmo consisted of modifications in copy and calculation items of the adapted MMSE (MMSEad to Portuguese language. The maximum possible score was the same in the two versions: total, 30; copy, 1 and calculation, 5. RESULTS: In the total test score ANOVA detected main effects for education and test, as well as an interaction between these factors: higher schooling individuals performed better than lower schooling ones in both test versions; scores in MMSE-mo were higher than in MMSE-ad in every schooling group. CONCLUSION: Higher schooling levels improve the perfomance in both test versions, the copy and calculation items contributing to this improvement. This might depend on cultural factors. The use of MMSE-mo in illiterate and low school individuals could prevent false positive and false negative cognitive evaluations.CONTEXTO: Existem evidências de que a escolaridade pode influenciar o desempenho em testes de avaliação cognitiva. Já que em paises subdesenvolvidos o nível educacional da maioria da população é baixo, isso poderia prejudicar resultados de avaliação por meio de testes. Assim é oportuno adequar o mini exame do estado mental (MEEM a populações de baixa escolaridade. OBJETIVO: Propor nova versão do MEEM como um teste geral para avaliar indivíduos analfabetos e com baixa

  7. Altering Public University Admission Standards to Preserve White Group Position in the United States: Results from a Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frank L.

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies a theoretical mechanism that could potentially affect public university admissions standards in a context of demographic change. I explore how demographic changes at a prestigious public university in the United States affect individuals' evaluations of college applications. Responding to a line graph that randomly displays a…

  8. Integration of Schools and Mental Health Systems: An Overview of the State Grants from the U.S. Department of Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Department of Education implemented a grant program for the Integration of Schools and Mental Health Systems. As described on the Department's website, "this program provides grants to SEAs, LEAs, and Indian tribes for the purpose of increasing student access to quality mental health care by developing innovative programs…

  9. New Approach in Translational Medicine: Effects of Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW on NF-κB/iNOS Pathway in U937 Cell Line under Altered Redox State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Franceschelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS can exert harmful effects, altering the cellular redox state. Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW produced near the cathode during water electrolysis exhibits high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and an extremely negative redox potential. Several findings indicate that ERW had the ability of a scavenger free radical, which results from hydrogen molecules with a high reducing ability and may participate in the redox regulation of cellular function. We investigated the effect of ERW on H2O2-induced U937 damage by evaluating the modulation of redox cellular state. Western blotting and spectrophotometrical analysis showed that ERW inhibited oxidative stress by restoring the antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Consequently, ERW restores the ability of the glutathione reductase to supply the cell of an important endogenous antioxidant, such as GSH, reversing the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on redox balance of U937 cells. Therefore, this means a reduction of cytotoxicity induced by peroxynitrite via a downregulation of the NF-κB/iNOS pathway and could be used as an antioxidant for preventive and therapeutic application. In conclusion, ERW can protect the cellular redox balance, reducing the risk of several diseases with altered cellular homeostasis such as inflammation.

  10. Alterations of EEG functional connectivity in resting state obese and overweight patients with binge eating disorder: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Farina, Benedetto; Innamorati, Marco; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Lamis, Dorian A; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2015-10-21

    Alterations in brain functional connectivity have been detected in patients with eating disorders, but have not been studied in binge eating disorder (BED). We have investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) functional connectivity in thirteen overweight and obese patients with BED and thirteen overweight and obese patients without BED during RS condition. EEG analyzes were conducted by means of the exact Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (eLORETA). Compared to patients without BED, patients with BED demonstrated an increase of lagged phase synchronization in the beta frequency band among the cortical areas explored by FC1-T3 (left superior frontal gyrus-left middle temporal gyrus), T5-O1 (left inferior temporal gyrus-left middle occipital gyrus), and C4-O1 (right postcentral gyrus-left middle occipital gyrus) electrodes (T=4.861, p<0.05). EEG connectivity values were also significantly related to binge eating symptomatology after controlling for depressive symptoms. Our results may reflect the impairment of frontal control network and visual processing networks, which lead patients with BED to be more vulnerable to food cues and lack of control with regards to over eating.

  11. Dam metrics representing stream fragmentation and flow alteration for the conterminous United States linked to the NHDPLUSV1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Arthur R.; Infante, Dana M.

    2017-01-01

    This CSV file contains 21 dam metrics representing stream fragmentation and flow alteration for nearly 2.3 million stream reaches in the conterminous USA. Dam metrics fall into four main categories: segment-based, count and density, distance-based, and cumulative reservoir storage (described below). These data were developed using spatially verified large dam locations (n=49,468) primarily from the National Anthropogenic Barrier Dataset (NABD) that were spatially linked to the National Hydrography Dataset Plus version 1 (NHDPlusV1). These dam metrics have been summarized using the unique identifier field native to the NHDPlusV1 (COMID) which can be used to join this table to spatial layers and data tables of the NHDPlusV1. Non-fluvial features in the NHDPlusV1 (lake and reservoir flow paths, coastlines, etc.) are excluded (see NFHP metadata). Please contact Arthur Cooper (coopera@msu.edu) for a copy of the publication associated with this data: Cooper, A.R., Infante, D.M., Daniel, W.M., Wehrly, K.E., Wang, L., Brenden, T.O. 2017. Assessment of dam effects for streams and fish assemblages of the conterminous USA. Science of the Total Environment doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.067

  12. Mental EEG Analysis Based on Infomax Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUXiao-pei; GuoXiao-jing; ZANGDao-xin; SHENQian

    2004-01-01

    The patterns of EEG will change with mental tasks performed by the subject. In the field of EEG signal analysis and application, the study to get the patterns of mental EEG and then to use them to classify mental tasks has the significant scientific meaning and great application value. But for the reasons of different artifacts existing in EEG, the pattern detection of EEG under normal mental states is a very difficult problem. In this paper, Independent Component Analysisis applied to EEG signals collected from performing different mental tasks. The experiment results show that when one subject performs a single mental task in different trials, the independent components of EEG are very similar. It means that the independent components can be used as the mental EEG patterns to classify the different mental tasks.

  13. Auditory and visual event-related potentials and flash visual evoked potentials in Alzheimer's disease: correlations with Mini-Mental State Examination and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, F; Kachi, T; Yamada, T; Sobue, G

    1998-01-01

    We investigated possible correlations among neurophysiological examinations [auditory and visual event-related potentials (A-ERPs, V-ERPs), and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEPs)] and neuropsychological tests [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM)] in 15 subjects with probable or possible Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) criteria. The P300 latency of A-ERPs was correlated with the scores of MMSE but not with those of RCPM. The P300 latency of V-ERPs was more significantly correlated with the scores of RCPM than with those of MMSE. The P2 latency of F-VEPs was more significantly correlated with the scores of RCPM than with those of MMSE. The P2 latency of F-VEPs was not correlated with the P300 latency of A-ERPs but was correlated with the P300 latency of V-ERPs. The close relationship among V-ERPs, F-VEPs and RCPM suggests that these examinations at least partly reflect the functions of visual association areas in AD. Furthermore, discrepancy between P300 latency by A-ERPs and V-ERPs suggests that the mechanism responsible for P300 generation is not identical between these two stimulus modalities.

  14. Field test of the feasibility and validity of using the Hoosier Assurance Plan Instrument for Adults in a state mental health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Frederick L; McGrew, John; Deliberty, Richard N

    2009-08-01

    The current paper reports on the feasibility of using the HAPI-A, an instrument designed to assess a person's level of functioning in the community: (1) to help determine eligibility to receive behavioral health services, (2) to assign reimbursement case rates; and (3) to provide data for a service provider report card. A 3-year field study of the use of the instrument across an entire state mental health system explored the effectiveness of methods to enhance data accuracy, including annual training and a professional clinical record audit, and the ability of the test to detect differences in improvement rates within risk-adjusted groupings. The combination of training and auditing produced statistically significant, cumulative reductions in data errors across all 3 years of the field test. The HAPI-A also was sensitive in detecting differences among service providers in outcome improvements for six of six risk-adjusted groups rated at the moderate level of impairment and for five of six groups rated at the mild level of impairment, but was inconsistent in detecting outcome differences for persons rated at the severe level of impairment.

  15. Mental States and Characteristics of Self-portrait--- Narcissism%自拍者的心理及其表现手法——自恋型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石竹

    2011-01-01

    自拍已成为摄影的一个重要分支,尤其是互联网兴起后,自拍成为网络图片、视频的重要传输内容之一,成为人们广泛关注的摄影艺术形式。当自拍形成潮流以后表现各异,但对其初步分类,其中自恋型是最为常见的一种白拍心理特征,本文从此种心理特征出发,结合摄影史上重要的不同类型摄影家的自拍照对自拍表现型心理做一个阐述,希望对自拍学术的发展有所裨益。%The self-portrait become a main branch of the photography, and i.s the main content of transferring the photos and videos via internet. Self-portrait has variety of ways of manifestation, but roughly speaking, narcissism is the most common characteristic. The article studies different mental states of self-portrait, combining psychological characteristics and self-portraits of several famous photographers. The author hopes this article can give some reference to the readers who are interested in self-portrait theory.

  16. Early-life stress exposure associated with altered prefrontal resting-state fMRI connectivity in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Ece Demir-Lira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress (ELS exposure is associated with adverse outcomes across the lifespan. We examined the relation of ELS exposure to resting-state fMRI in children ages 4–7 years. ELS in the first years of life, but not concurrent, was associated with higher regional homogeneity of resting-state fMRI in the left lateral frontal cortex. Resting-state fMRI functional connectivity analyses showed that the region of left lateral frontal cortex demonstrating heightened regional homogeneity associated with ELS was negatively correlated with right temporal/parahippocampal areas. Moreover, higher regional homogeneity in the left lateral frontal cortex and its negative coupling with the right middle temporal/parahippocampal areas were associated with poorer performance on a reversal-learning task performed outside the scanner. Association of ELS exposure with regional homogeneity was independent of other early adversities. These findings suggest that ELS may influence the development of cognitive control in the lateral prefrontal cortex and its interactions with temporal cortex.

  17. [Mental time dysfunction in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Kuroda, Takeshi; Futamura, Akinori; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2015-03-01

    Mental time is altered by a number of factors and the underlying neural processing involved is highly complicated. Recent research suggests that mental time in patients with particular neurological diseases is perceptually shorter than in normal individuals. This review introduces mental time dysfunction and a model for processing of mental time in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Although the two diseases show the same dysfunction of mental time in behavior, we expect the underlying neural mechanism to vary in each disease. It is possible that the dysfunction of mental time in Parkinson's disease is caused by the abnormal striatum acting as a pacemaker, while that in Alzheimer's disease is caused by abnormal hippocampal memory.

  18. A Study on Mental Health State and Related Factors of Medical College Students%医学生心理问题有关因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付云; 刘秀芬; 孙建功

    2001-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the mentalhealth state and the related factors of the students.Method The college students were investigated with the General Information Questionnaire and the Symptom Checklisk 90(SCL-90) Questionnaire.By analysis of variance and multiple linear regression,explored the related factors.Results Among the investigated students,the prevalence of mental problem was 10.4%.It showed that parental relationship and mother educational level were the related factors.And insomnia,poor achievement of stud,single hobby and so on was found among the students with psychological problems.Conclusions The results suggest that more attention must be paid to the psychological health of students.Meanwhile,colleges should be directed against the related factors of the psychological health to seek counsel and treat the college students with mental problems.%目的 了解大学生中存在的心理问题及其影响因素。方法 采用一般情况问卷、症状自评量表,通过单因素分析和多元线性回归分析,筛选心理问题的影响因素。结果 研究人群中有10.4%的大学生存在各种明显的心理健康问题,其影响因素有被试母亲文化程度、父母关系;心理健康水平较低的学生主要表现为学习成绩差、爱好单一等。结论 大学生的心理健康问题应引起足够重视,同时,高校应针对在校生的特点展开心理咨询,并对已有心理问题的学生给予指导和矫正。

  19. Prenatal nicotine alters vigilance states and AchR gene expression in the neonatal rat: implications for SIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M G; Srere, H; Ledezma, C; O'Hara, B; Heller, H C

    2001-04-01

    Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke predisposes infants to SIDS are not known. We examined the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on sleep/wake ontogenesis and central cholinergic receptor gene expression in the neonatal rat. Prenatal nicotine exposure transiently increased sleep continuity and accelerated sleep/wake ontogeny in the neonatal rat. Prenatal nicotine also upregulated nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor mRNAs in brain regions involved in regulating vigilance states. These findings suggest that the nicotine contained in cigarette smoke may predispose human infants to SIDS by interfering with the normal maturation of sleep and wake.

  20. Etiology in pediatric patient presented to emergency department with altered state of consciousness: Is it trauma or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şimşek ÇELİK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is the state of ability of a person to perceive himself/herself and environment and to give an appropriate response to stimuli. The most frequent causes of childhood consciousness change include electrolyte disorders, encephalopathy, infections, overdose, intoxication, uremia, trauma, seizures, stroke, hypo-hyperglycaemia. Hypoglycemia is a very common metabolic problem in children. Our aim is to make sure that the diagnosis of hypoglycemia, one of the most common causes of consciousness change in children, is kept in mind and considered in differential diagnosis.

  1. Mild mental stress in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Mehlsen, J; Sestoft, L;

    1985-01-01

    A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow (SBF), blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects. SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon-133. Measurements......--increase in blood-pressure was observed in both groups. In conclusion, we found that even mild mental strain influences SBF in both normal subjects and in diabetics. The induced alterations in the two groups are different, probably because of a slight parasympathetic dysfunction in the diabetics....

  2. Altered baseline brain activity with 72 h of simulated microgravity--initial evidence from resting-state fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liao

    Full Text Available To provide the basis and reference to further insights into the neural activity of the human brain in a microgravity environment, we discuss the amplitude changes of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations using a simulated microgravity model. Twelve male participants between 24 and 31 years old received resting-state fMRI scans in both a normal condition and after 72 hours in a -6° head down tilt (HDT. A paired sample t-test was used to test the amplitude differences of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations between these two conditions. With 72 hours in a -6° HDT, the participants showed a decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the left thalamus compared with the normal condition (a combined threshold of P<0.005 and a minimum cluster size of 351 mm(3 (13 voxels, which corresponded with the corrected threshold of P<0.05 determined by AlphaSim. Our findings indicate that a gravity change-induced redistribution of body fluid may disrupt the function of the left thalamus in the resting state, which may contribute to reduced motor control abilities and multiple executive functions in astronauts in a microgravity environment.

  3. Modafinil alters intrinsic functional connectivity of the right posterior insula: a pharmacological resting state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Cera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modafinil is employed for the treatment of narcolepsy and has also been, off-label, used to treat cognitive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. In a previous study, we have reported that single dose administration of modafinil in healthy young subjects enhances fluid reasoning and affects resting state activity in the Fronto Parietal Control (FPC and Dorsal Attention (DAN networks. No changes were found in the Salience Network (SN, a surprising result as the network is involved in the modulation of emotional and fluid reasoning. The insula is crucial hub of the SN and functionally divided in anterior and posterior subregions. METHODOLOGY: Using a seed-based approach, we have now analyzed effects of modafinil on the functional connectivity (FC of insular subregions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of FC with resting state fMRI (rs-FMRI revealed increased FC between the right posterior insula and the putamen, the superior frontal gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the modafinil-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: Modafinil is considered a putative cognitive enhancer. The rs-fMRI modifications that we have found are consistent with the drug cognitive enhancing properties and indicate subregional targets of action. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684306.

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency alters erythroblastic island formation, steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart T; Midwinter, Robyn G; Coupland, Lucy A; Kong, Stephanie; Berger, Birgit S; Yeo, Jia Hao; Andrade, Osvaldo Cooley; Cromer, Deborah; Suarna, Cacang; Lam, Magda; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Chong, Beng H; Parish, Christopher R; Stocker, Roland

    2015-05-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 is critical for iron recycling during red blood cell turnover, whereas its impact on steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan is not known. We show here that in 8- to 14-week old mice, heme oxygenase-1 deficiency adversely affects steady-state erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This is manifested by a decrease in Ter-119(+)-erythroid cells, abnormal adhesion molecule expression on macrophages and erythroid cells, and a greatly diminished ability to form erythroblastic islands. Compared with wild-type animals, red blood cell size and hemoglobin content are decreased, while the number of circulating red blood cells is increased in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, overall leading to microcytic anemia. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases oxidative stress in circulating red blood cells and greatly decreases the frequency of macrophages expressing the phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 in bone marrow, spleen and liver. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases spleen weight and Ter119(+)-erythroid cells in the spleen, although α4β1-integrin expression by these cells and splenic macrophages positive for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are both decreased. Red blood cell lifespan is prolonged in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that while macrophages and relevant receptors required for red blood cell formation and removal are substantially depleted in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, the extent of anemia in these mice may be ameliorated by the prolonged lifespan of their oxidatively stressed erythrocytes.

  5. Cognitive function of 320 people over 65 years from longevous areas in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region:Feasibility of the mini-mental state examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeguang Wu; Bin Wei; Xiaoming Zhang; Guobing Zhang; Chunlin Zhang; Zhibin Li; Chenghan Wei; Jinchao Chen; Donglan Huang; Rong Zhao; Jinrui Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) of Chinese version has been widely used to survey cognitive function of elder people; especially, it shows a good reliability and validity for elder people in city.However, whether it is beneficial to measure cognitive function of elder people in countries in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region should be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility, reliability and validity of the cognitive function among the elderly people aged over 65 years from Jiazhuan in Bama County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region by using the MMSE of Chinese version.DESIGN: Prevalence survey.SETTING: Department of Psychology, Nanjing Municipal Social Welfare Hospital; Department of Psychology,Yizhou Municipal Jiulong Railroad Hospital; Long Life's Institute of Bama County.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 320 old persons over 65 years old were sampled on the basis of the unit of village of Jiazhuan in Bama County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from the 12th to 28th, March 2004. All the subjects provided the confirmed consents.METHODS: ① Mental Health Questionnaire of long life's old man was adopted including demographic data and international standardized MMSE in Chinese. The survey of MMSE was divided into two phases: In the first phase, every case was examined by MMSE. The positive result was decided by the education level. Illiterate group, who was educated less than one year, then his MMSE scores must be less than 17; primary school group, who was educated from 1 to 6 years, then his MMSE must be less than 20; middle school group, who was educated more than 7 years, then his MMSE must be less than 24. In the second phase, these cases with positive MMSE score were given the neuro-psycho and mental health examination to confirm the dementia types after diagnosis. The content of the questionnaire was revised properly without changing the meaning of the questionnaire. The interclass correlation coefficient of MMSE was 0.89.

  6. Clinical survey on the mental state of infertile women%不孕症妇女心理状态调查以及护理干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小娟; 高翠萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:调查不孕症妇女心理状态并探讨其护理干预措施.方法:选取我院诊治的113例不孕症妇女为观察组,另选113例在我院接受体检的正常育龄期妇女为对照组.所有研究对象均填写焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)评估其心理状态,同时对不孕症妇女进行心理疏导、建立良好的医患关系、积极进行健康宣教、提供辅助生殖技术信息、鼓励夫妻同治、构建和谐人际关系及指导健康生活习惯等心理护理干预,比较护理前后评分变化.结果:观察组患者焦虑评分(60.7±3.8)及抑郁评分(61.5±4.9)均显著高于对照组(P<0.01);113例不孕症妇女中,有83.2%(94例)处于焦虑状态,有81.4%(92例)处于抑郁状态,且焦虑、抑郁程度随患者年龄、不孕时间、治疗周期、经济收入的增加和受教育程度的降低而增加,家庭不和睦患者焦虑及抑郁状态比家庭和睦患者严重(P<0.05);经心理护理干预后,观察组患者焦虑及抑郁评分均显著下降(P<0.01).结论:临床诊疗中应重视不孕症患者心理健康问题并采取相应心理护理措施.%Objectives: To investigate infertile women's psyehologieal status and to provide proper practical care interventions for them. Methods: 113 cases of infertile women were selected as the observation group, another 113 normal women of childbearing age as the control group. Patients from both groups filled in anxiety self - rating scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) to get their mental state assessed. Psychological nursing interventions were given to infertile women at the same time and score changes before and after care were evaluated. Results:The observation group with an anxiety score of (60. 7 ±3.8) and a depression scores of (61.5 ±4.9) were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0. 01 ) ; among 113 cases of infertile women, 83.2% (94 patients) were in the anxiety state, 81.4% (92 cases) in a state

  7. Altered Nutrition State in the Severe Multiple Trauma Patients Undergoing Adjuvant Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Nutritional Support Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yanqing; BAI Xiangjun; LIN Guanyu; TANG Zhaohui

    2007-01-01

    In order to observe the nutrition state in the severe multiple trauma patients undergoing adjuvant recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) nutritional support therapy, 45 patients with severe multiple traumas (ISS>25) were randomly divided into 3 groups. All the 3 groups had been supplied with nitrogen and caloricity according to the need of patients for 16 days. The rhGH therapy started 48 h after surgery and lasted for 14 days in two rhGH-treated groups in which rhGH was 0.2 and 0.4 U/(kg·d) respectively, and the resting group served as control one. The levels of nitrogen balance, prealbumin and safety variables (blood sugar, Na+, TT3 and TT4) were observed and compared among the three groups. The levels of nitrogen balance on the postoperative day (POD) 3 and 5 in the rhGH-treated groups were - 1.28±3.19, 5.45±2.00 and -0.18±2.55, 6.11±1.60, respectively,which were significantly higher than those in the control group (-5.17±1.68 and -1.08±3.31, P<0.01). The values of prealbumin on the POD 3 and 5 in the rhGH-treated groups were 180.19±27.15, 194.44±50.82 and 194.94±29.65, 194.11±16.17, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (117.42±19.10 and 135.63±28.31, P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the rhGH 0.2 U/(kg·d) group and rhGH 0.4 U/(kg·d) group in both of the levels of nitrogen balance and prealbumin. It is concluded that the nutritional support therapy with adjuvant rhGH which starts 48 h after surgery improves the nutrition state of the patients with severe multiple trauma. It is safe for severe multiple trauma patients who accept rhGH at the dose of 0.2 and 0.4 U/(kg·d).

  8. Mental Illness and Mental Health Defenses: Perceptions of the Criminal Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Richard L; Boyd, Mary S; Harper, Angela

    2015-12-01

    As the number of state mental hospital beds declines, persons with persistent mental illness are increasingly encountered by those working in the legal system. Attorneys may have little experience in working with this population. This research involved a 32-item written survey of the 492 members of the criminal bar in South Carolina. Demographic variables were surveyed, and attorneys were asked to define two common terms describing mental illnesses (delusion and psychosis) and the legal criteria for verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity and guilty but mentally ill. They were also asked to identify the most severe mental illness (schizophrenia). Attitudes about these verdicts and about working with defendants who are mentally ill were also surveyed. Results indicate that attorneys are fairly knowledgeable about mental illness, but not verdicts involving mental illness, particularly the verdict of guilty but mentally ill. Most attorneys prefer to work with clients who do not have mental illness. However, as they become more experienced interacting with defendants who are affected by mental illness, they become more knowledgeable and are more willing to defend them. A large majority believe that their law school education about mental illness was inadequate. When comparing attorney occupations, public defenders were the most knowledgeable about mental illness and mental health defenses, followed by prosecutors and private defense attorneys. Judges were the least knowledgeable group.

  9. The weekend effect alters the procurement and discard rates of deceased donor kidneys in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Sumit; Foley, Karl; Chiles, Mariana C; Dube, Geoffrey K; Patzer, Rachel E; Pastan, Stephen O; Crew, R John; Cohen, David J; Ratner, Lloyd E

    2016-07-01

    Factors contributing to the high rate of discard among deceased donor kidneys remain poorly understood and the influence of resource limitations of weekends on kidney transplantation is unknown. To quantify this we used data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and assembled a retrospective cohort of 181,799 deceased donor kidneys recovered for transplantation from 2000-2013. We identified the impact of the day of the week on the procurement and subsequent utilization or discard of deceased donor kidneys in the United States, as well as report the geographic variation of the impact of weekends on transplantation. Compared with weekday kidneys, organs procured on weekends were significantly more likely to be discarded than transplanted (odds ratio: 1.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.19), even after adjusting for organ quality (adjusted odds ratio: 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.17). Weekend discards were of a significantly higher quality than weekday discards (Kidney Donor Profile Index: 76.5% vs. 77.3%). Considerable geographic variation was noted in the proportion of transplants that occurred over the weekend. Kidneys available for transplant over the weekend were significantly more likely to be used at larger transplant centers, be shared without payback, and experienced shorter cold ischemia times. Thus, factors other than kidney quality are contributing to the discard of deceased donor kidneys, particularly during weekends. Policy prescriptions, administrative or organizational solutions within transplant programs may potentially mitigate against the recent increase in kidney discards.

  10. Altered effective connectivity network of the amygdala in social anxiety disorder: a resting-state FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liao

    Full Text Available The amygdala is often found to be abnormally recruited in social anxiety disorder (SAD patients. The question whether amygdala activation is primarily abnormal and affects other brain systems or whether it responds "normally" to an abnormal pattern of information conveyed by other brain structures remained unanswered. To address this question, we investigated a network of effective connectivity associated with the amygdala using Granger causality analysis on resting-state functional MRI data of 22 SAD patients and 21 healthy controls (HC. Implications of abnormal effective connectivity and clinical severity were investigated using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. Decreased influence from inferior temporal gyrus (ITG to amygdala was found in SAD, while bidirectional influences between amygdala and visual cortices were increased compared to HCs. Clinical relevance of decreased effective connectivity from ITG to amygdala was suggested by a negative correlation of LSAS avoidance scores and the value of Granger causality. Our study is the first to reveal a network of abnormal effective connectivity of core structures in SAD. This is in support of a disregulation in predescribed modules involved in affect control. The amygdala is placed in a central position of dysfunction characterized both by decreased regulatory influence of orbitofrontal cortex and increased crosstalk with visual cortex. The model which is proposed based on our results lends neurobiological support towards cognitive models considering disinhibition and an attentional bias towards negative stimuli as a core feature of the disorder.

  11. Solid-State (13)C NMR Delineates the Architectural Design of Biopolymers in Native and Genetically Altered Tomato Fruit Cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Matas, Antonio J; Isaacson, Tal; Kehlet, Cindie; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-01-11

    Plant cuticles on outer fruit and leaf surfaces are natural macromolecular composites of waxes and polyesters that ensure mechanical integrity and mitigate environmental challenges. They also provide renewable raw materials for cosmetics, packaging, and coatings. To delineate the structural framework and flexibility underlying the versatile functions of cutin biopolymers associated with polysaccharide-rich cell-wall matrices, solid-state NMR spectra and spin relaxation times were measured in a tomato fruit model system, including different developmental stages and surface phenotypes. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of the cutin ensures compatibility with the underlying polysaccharide cell walls; the hydroxy fatty acid structures of outer epidermal cutin also support deposition of hydrophobic waxes and aromatic moieties while promoting the formation of cell-wall cross-links that rigidify and strengthen the cuticle composite during fruit development. Fruit cutin-deficient tomato mutants with compromised microbial resistance exhibit less efficient local and collective biopolymer motions, stiffening their cuticular surfaces and increasing their susceptibility to fracture.

  12. Altered brain functional networks in people with Internet gaming disorder: Evidence from resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingxiao; Wu, Lingdan; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Yifen; Zhou, Hongli; Du, Xiaoxia; Dong, Guangheng

    2016-08-30

    Although numerous neuroimaging studies have detected structural and functional abnormality in specific brain regions and connections in subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD), the topological organization of the whole-brain network in IGD remain unclear. In this study, we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the intrinsic topological properties of brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). 37 IGD subjects and 35 matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The functional networks were constructed by thresholding partial correlation matrices of 90 brain regions. Then we applied graph-based approaches to analysis their topological attributes, including small-worldness, nodal metrics, and efficiency. Both IGD and HC subjects show efficient and economic brain network, and small-world topology. Although there was no significant group difference in global topology metrics, the IGD subjects showed reduced regional centralities in the prefrontal cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex, right amygdala, and bilateral lingual gyrus, and increased functional connectivity in sensory-motor-related brain networks compared to the HC subjects. These results imply that people with IGD may be associated with functional network dysfunction, including impaired executive control and emotional management, but enhanced coordination among visual, sensorimotor, auditory and visuospatial systems.

  13. Altering TCNQ-TCNQ interactions and a study of the spin-Peierls state including muon-fluorine entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlie, Adam; Terry, Ian; Giblin, Sean; Szablewski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Potassium TCNQ is a well known spin-Peierls system where a spin gap opens at 390 K due to the strong electron-phonon coupling within the material, essentially forming 1D stack of antiferromagnetially coupled anion TCNQ dimers. We show that on substitution of TCNQF4 for the TCNQ this changes the interaction of the anions and shifts Tsp to 150 K. Additionally, substitution of TCNQ by TCNQBr2 produces a sample with an even lower interaction strength. These observations demonstrate the ability to tune this system from a chemical point of view. Muon spin relaxation measurements show that in the vicinity of Tsp the system is dominated by magnetic fluctuations and these persist to lower temperatures until the moments exhibit a quasi-static state on the time scale of the μSR experiment (MHz range). Within the KTCNQF4 sample we also observe the emergence of a small contribution from an entangled F-μ+-F where the data could be modeled using two environments that can help suggest possible muon stopping sites. Also affiliated to The Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Australia.

  14. White matter damage and brain network alterations in concussed patients: a review of recent diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional connectivity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Catherine D; Schwedt, Todd J

    2015-05-01

    Over 2 million people are diagnosed with concussion each year in the USA, resulting in substantial individual and societal burdens. Although 'routine' clinical neuroimaging is useful for the diagnosis of more severe forms of traumatic brain injury, it is insensitive for detecting pathology associated with concussion. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) are techniques that allow for investigation of brain structural and functional connectivity patterns. DTI and rs-fMRI may be more sensitive than routine neuroimaging for detecting brain sequelae of concussion. This review summarizes recent DTI and rs-fMRI findings of altered structural and functional connectivity patterns in concussed patients.

  15. Ações de saúde mental na região norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Acciones de la salud mental en la región norte de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Mental health actions in the north of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vianna Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever as ações e projetos de intervenção em saúde mental nos serviços de saúde existentes nos municípios da área de abrangência da 15ª Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória, descritiva. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário, com profissionais e gestores que participam de fóruns regionais de saúde mental. A partir da análise do conteúdo emergiram categorias: uma aborda a descrição da atenção em saúde mental nos serviços de saúde, incluindo aspectos relativos aos transtornos mentais, a organização da equipe de saúde mental, as ações desenvolvidas e às dificuldades encontradas; a outra trata dos projetos de intervenção em saúde mental que, de acordo com os sujeitos, deverão ser implementados nos municípios. Foram identificados pontos relevantes da rede regional de atenção na saúde mental que poderão auxiliar no planejamento e na melhoria da assistência.El objetivo de este estudio es describir las actividades y proyectos de intervención en salud mental en los servicios de salud en los municipios de la zona cubierta por la 15ª Regional de Salud. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo. Los datos fueron recolectados en un cuestionario, con profesionales que participan en los foros regionales sobre la salud mental. A través del análisis de contenido se llegó a dos categorías: una trata de la descripción de la atención de la salud mental en los servicios, incluidas las cuestiones relacionadas con los trastornos mentales, la organización del personal de salud mental, las medidas adoptadas y las dificultades encontradas; otro trata de proyectos de intervención en salud mental que, de acuerdo con los sujetos, deben aplicarse en los municipios. Se identificaron los puntos relevantes de la red regional de atención en salud mental.The objective this study is to describe the actions and intervention

  16. Altered intrinsic regional spontaneous brain activity in patients with optic neuritis: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yi Shao,1,* Feng-Qin Cai,2,* Yu-Lin Zhong,1 Xin Huang,1,3 Ying Zhang,1 Pei-Hong Hu,1 Chong-Gang Pei,1 Fu-Qing Zhou,2 Xian-Jun Zeng2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 3Department of Ophthalmology, First People’s Hospital of Jiujiang, Jiujiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To investigate the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo in brain-activity deficit in patients with optic neuritis (ON and its relationship with behavioral performance.Materials and methods: In total, twelve patients with ON (four males and eight females and twelve (four males and eight females age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The ReHo method was used to assess the local features of spontaneous brain activity. Correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between the observed mean ReHo values of the different brain areas and the visual evoked potential (VEP in patients with ON.Results: Compared with the healthy controls, patients with ON showed lower ReHo in the left cerebellum, posterior lobe, left middle temporal gyrus, right insula, right superior temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus, and higher ReHo in the cluster of the left fusiform gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Meanwhile, we found that the VEP amplitude of the right eye in patients with ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the left cerebellum posterior lobe (r=0.701, P=0.011, the right superior frontal gyrus (r=0.731, P=0.007, and the left fusiform gyrus (r=0.644, P=0.024. We also found that the VEP latency of the right eye in ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the right insula (r=0.595, P=0

  17. Lithium alters brain activation in bipolar disorder in a task- and state-dependent manner: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Sanjay

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unknown if medications used to treat bipolar disorder have effects on brain activation, and whether or not any such changes are mood-independent. Methods Patients with bipolar disorder who were depressed (n = 5 or euthymic (n = 5 were examined using fMRI before, and 14 days after, being started on lithium (as monotherapy in 6 of these patients. Patients were examined using a word generation task and verbal memory task, both of which have been shown to be sensitive to change in previous fMRI studies. Differences in blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD magnitude between the pre- and post-lithium results were determined in previously defined regions of interest. Severity of mood was determined by the Hamilton Depression Scale for Depression (HAM-D and the Young mania rating scale (YMRS. Results The mean HAM-D score at baseline in the depressed group was 15.4 ± 0.7, and after 2 weeks of lithium it was 11.0 ± 2.6. In the euthymic group it was 7.6 ± 1.4 and 3.2 ± 1.3 respectively. At baseline mean BOLD signal magnitude in the regions of interest for the euthymic and depressed patients were similar in both the word generation task (1.56 ± 0.10 and 1.49 ± 0.10 respectively and working memory task (1.02 ± 0.04 and 1.12 ± 0.06 respectively. However, after lithium the mean BOLD signal decreased significantly in the euthymic group in the word generation task only (1.56 ± 0.10 to 1.00 ± 0.07, p Conclusion This is the first study to examine the effects of lithium on brain activation in bipolar patients. The results suggest that lithium has an effect on euthymic patients very similar to that seen in healthy volunteers. The same effects are not seen in depressed bipolar patients, although it is uncertain if this lack of change is linked to the lack of major improvements in mood in this group of patients. In conclusion, this study suggests that lithium may have effects on brain activation that are task- and state

  18. A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL trial

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    Delespaul Philippe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT in targeting cognitive biases that are involved in the formation of delusions in persons with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. A single blind randomised controlled trial compares CBT with treatment as usual in preventing or delaying the onset of psychosis. Method/design All help seeking patients aged 14 to 35 years referred to the mental health services in three regions in the Netherlands are pre-screened with the Prodromal Questionnaire during a period of two years. Patients with a score of 18 or more on the sub-clinical positive symptoms items (45 items in total will be assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental State (CAARMS. In a different pathway to care model all referrals from the mental health services in Amsterdam to the specialized psychosis clinic of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam are also assessed with the CAARMS. The primary outcome is the transition rate to psychosis according to the CAARMS-criteria. Group differences will be analysed with chi-square tests and survival analyses. Discussion CBT is a highly tolerated treatment. The psycho-educational CBT approach may prove to be a successful strategy since most people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS are distressed by odd disturbing experiences. Giving explanations for and normalising these experiences may reduce the arousal (distress and therefore may prevent people from developing a catastrophic delusional explanation for their odd experiences and thus prevent them from developing psychosis. Screening the entire help-seeking population referred to community mental health services with a two-stage strategy, as compared with traditional referral

  19. The film festival “AUSNAHME|ZUSTAND” (State of Emergency)--do feature films and documentaries on mental health reduce stigma and influence help-seeking attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Ines; Schulze, Beate; Corrieri, Sandro; Heider, Dirk; Schomerus, Georg; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-12-30

    The study aims at evaluating the impact of the Germany-wide film festival “AUSNAHME|ZUSTAND” on social distance and help-seeking attitudes of the adolescent audience. The festival, on the subject of mental health, was staged for the second time, aiming to give a podium to the topic mental health and to inform and entertain an adolescent audience that has not been in close contact with the subject before. A pre-post test was carried out to look for the effect of feature films and documentaries on social distance of the audience towards people with mental illness and on the change in help-seeking attitudes. A total of 532 young people with a mean age of 15.6 were questioned during the film festival in Leipzig. As the results show, the effect on the viewers׳ social distance and their help-seeking attitudes strongly depend on the content of the feature films and documentaries. Two films improved attitudes – one both social distance and help-seeking, one only help-seeking. One film increased social distance, and two films did not affect either outcome. Age, gender, and knowing someone with mental health problems also turned out to be decisive factors influencing the development of social distance and help-seeking attitudes. Feature films or documentaries about mental illness can reduce social distance or influence help-seeking attitudes, but effects strongly depend on the particular film.

  20. Federal disaster mental health response and compliance with best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jody; Nelson Goff, Briana S

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the comprehensiveness of disaster mental health state plans and their adherence to published best practices in three states that experienced post-9/11 federally-declared disasters. There were 59 disaster mental health best practices used in this study to assess each state disaster mental plan's compliance with best practices; the states demonstrated a range of adherence to the best practices. This research may serve as a guide for those developing disaster mental health plans and encourage further considerations in disaster mental health response.

  1. National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS), 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is designed to collect information from all specialty mental health facilities in the United States, both public...

  2. Afecções neurológicas associadas ao retardo mental em alunos de uma instituição especializada de Londrina, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1096 Neural affections associated with mental retardation in students from Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1096

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cristiane Bernardi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Retardo mental (RM é um estado de desenvolvimento intelectual alterado que dificulta a integração social do indivíduo. Nosso objetivo foi estudar 147 portadores de RM, alunos da APAE de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, matriculados de 1989 a 2003. Através de um estudo descritivo, avaliamos a prevalência de neuropatologias em relação ao sexo, ao tipo de parto a que o afetado foi submetido, à idade materna ao nascimento e ao histórico de RM nas famílias. As patologias encontradas foram: RM – casos isolados, 34,8%; síndrome de Down (SD, 19,7%; paralisia cerebral (PC, 19,7%; outras síndromes, 15,6%; dislexia, 6,8%, e distúrbio comportamental, 3,4%. Dentre as variáveis que apresentaram maior diferença destacam-se: sexo, na diplegia-PC, 3 homens:1 mulher; tipo de parto, na hemiplegia-PC, 10 normais: 1 cesariana; e história familiar de RM entre os portadores de SD, 24,1%. Entre os portadores de RM filhos de mãe com idade avançada (>41 anos, a SD apresentou maior prevalência (50%Mental Retardation (MR is an altered state of intellectual development that makes the social integration of individuals difficult. The objective was to study 147 MR individuals, registered students of APAE, from the city of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, from 1989 to 2003. Through a descriptive approach, we were able to assess the prevalence of neural pathologies in relation to gender, the kind of birth delivery the individuals have undergone, the age of their mothers at their birth, and the MR family history. The following diseases were found: MR – isolated cases, 34.8%; Down Syndrome (DS, 19.7%; cerebral palsy (CP, 19.7%; other syndromes, 15.6%; dyslexia, 6.8%; and behavior disturbance, 3.4%. Among the variables that showed large differences were: the gender, in diplegia-CP, 3male:1female; kind of birth delivery, in hemiplegia-CP, 10normal:1cesarean; family history of MR among DS individuals, 24.1%. Among the MR individuals from elder mothers (>41 years

  3. 77 FR 43301 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases Disproportionate Share Hospital Limits... institutions for mental diseases (IMD) and other mental health facilities. In addition, this notice includes... mental diseases (IMDs) and other mental health facilities that are in excess of State-specific...

  4. Triangles, tricks and tics: Hyper-mentalizing in response to animated shapes in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2015-10-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) can feature complex tics involving socially inappropriate behaviours. Adults with TS can also demonstrate differences to healthy controls when reasoning about mental states. This study investigated spontaneous mentalizing in TS. Twenty adults with TS and twenty healthy controls completed the animations task. Participants were asked to watch short ambiguous animations involving two triangles and describe what was happening. Some animations featured random movement of the triangles, while others depicted social interactions that were simple (e.g., dancing) or more complex (e.g., one triangle tricking the other). Measures were taken of executive functions, alexithymia and clinical symptoms. Individuals with TS responded similarly to controls when viewing animations featuring simple and complex interactions, demonstrating intact mentalizing ability. However, significant group differences were apparent for the random movement animations. TS was associated with a greater tendency to attribute mental states during this condition, and to describe random movements as motivated actions guided by the intentions of the triangles. There were no group differences for the alexithymia scale, but TS was associated with mild executive deficits. No relationships were apparent between animation responses and other measures. Our findings suggest that TS is associated with a propensity to adopt the intentional stance. Hyper-mentalizing in TS could be linked to both dopamine dysfunction and altered social behaviour, whereby amplified salience of social cues could contribute to the complex interplay between environmental context and tic expression. These observations may offer further insight into the potential effects of dopamine dysfunction on social cognition.

  5. Teen Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  6. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  7. Mental Health Stigma and Self-Concealment as Predictors of Help-Seeking Attitudes among Latina/o College Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Hadrian; Masuda, Akihiko; Swartout, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether mental health stigma and self-concealment are uniquely related to various dimensions of attitudes toward seeking professional psychological services (i.e., help-seeking attitudes) in Latina/o college students. Data from 129 Latina/o undergraduates (76% female) were used in the analysis. Results revealed that mental…

  8. Neurophysiological Correlates of Various Mental Perspectives

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    Thilo eHinterberger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A common view of consciousness is that our mind presents emotions, experiences and images in an internal mental (re-presentation space which in a state of wakefulness is triggered by the world outside. Consciousness can be defined as the observation of this inner mental space. We propose a new model, in which the state of the conscious observer is defined by the observer’s mental position and focus of attention. The mental position of the observer can either be within the mental self (intrapersonal space, in the mental outer world (extrapersonal space or in an empathic connection, i.e. within the intrapersonal space of another person (perspective taking. The focus of attention can be directed towards the self or towards the outside world. This mental space model can help us to understand the patterns of relationships and interactions with other persons as they occur in social life.To investigate the neurophysiological correlates and discriminability of the different mental states, we conducted an EEG experiment measuring the brain activity of 16 subjects via 64 electrodes while they engaged in different mental positions (intrapersonal, extrapersonal, perspective taking with different attentional foci (self, object. Compared to external mental locations, internal ones showed significantly increased alpha2 power, especially when the observer was focusing on an object. Alpha2 and beta2 were increased in the empathic condition compared to the extrapersonal perspective. Delta power was significantly higher when the attentional focus was directed towards an object in comparison to the participant’s own self. This exploratory study demonstrates highly significant differences between various mental locations and foci, suggesting that the proposed categories of mental location and intra- and interpersonal attentional foci are not only helpful theoretical concepts but are also physiologically relevant and therefore may relate to basic brain processing

  9. 静息态fMRI在神经、精神类疾病中的研究进展%Research Progress of Resting-state fMRI in Nerves and Mental Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光耀; 蒋健; 杨晓萍; 叶建军; 马强华

    2012-01-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI)is a new fMRI technology emergenced in recent years, through reserarch on the spontaneous activity of the resting state to reflect the complexity of human brain activity, it provide us a new way to fully explore the the internal mechanism of brain active. Because it need no complex task experiment, it is widely used in nerve and mental diseases of basic and clinical research. The latest research progress of resting-state functional MRI in nerves and mental diseases were reviewed in this article.%静息态功能磁共振(resting-state functional MRI,rs-fMRI)是近年出现的一种新的fMRI技术,它通过研究大脑静息状态的自发活动来反映复杂的人脑活动状态,可为我们探索大脑活动的内部机制提供新的途径.由于它无需复杂的任务实验,近年来被广泛用于神经、精神类疾病的基础与临床研究.本文就近年来国内外对静息态脑功能磁共振在神经、精神类疾病中的研究做一综述.

  10. Migrant Farmworker Stress: Mental Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mental health of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mental health. Methods: An…

  11. Five Keys for Teaching Mental Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James R.

    2015-01-01

    After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…

  12. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  13. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  14. Malarial Infection of Female BWF1 Lupus Mice Alters the Redox State in Kidney and Liver Tissues and Confers Protection against Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Al-Quraishy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by an imbalanced redox state and increased apoptosis. Tropical infections, particularly malaria, may confer protection against SLE. Oxidative stress is a hallmark of SLE. We have measured changes in the levels of nitric oxide (NO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glutathione (GSH in both kidney and liver tissues of female BWF1 lupus mice, an experimental model of SLE, after infection with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria. We observed a decrease in NO, H2O2, and MDA levels in kidney tissues after infection of lupus mice with live malaria. Similarly, the levels of NO and H2O2 were significantly decreased in the liver tissues of lupus mice after infection with live malaria. Conversely, GSH levels were obviously increased in both kidney and liver tissues after infection of lupus mice with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria. Liver and kidney functions were significantly altered after infection of lupus mice with live malaria. We further investigated the ultrastructural changes and detected the number of apoptotic cells in kidney and liver tissues in situ by electron microscopy and TUNEL assays. Our data reveal that infection of lupus mice with malaria confers protection against lupus nephritis.

  15. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  16. Issues in consumer mental health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angier, J J

    1984-07-01

    Consumer health information as applied to mental health includes areas such as the diagnosis, management, and treatment of mental illness, as well as self-help, emotional wellness, and the relationship between life events, stress, and disease. This paper presents issues specific to the provision of mental health information to the layperson, e.g., confidentiality, literacy, competence, the social stigma of mental illness, the state of the art in psychiatry, popular psychology, and treatment fads. The development of a community education pamphlet illustrates how one organization addressed these issues.

  17. Neuron-microglia interactions in mental health disorders: 'For better, and for worse'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Wohleb

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Persistent cognitive and behavioral symptoms that characterize many mental health disorders arise from impaired neuroplasticity in several key corticolimbic brain regions. Recent evidence suggest that reciprocal neuron-microglia interactions shape neuroplasticity during physiological conditions, implicating microglia in the neurobiology of mental health disorders. Neuron-microglia interactions are modulated by several molecular and cellular pathways and dysregulation of these pathways often have neurobiological consequences, including aberrant neuronal responses and microglia activation. The interactions between neurons and microglia have implications for mental health disorders as rodent stress models cause concomitant neuronal dystrophy and alterations in microglia morphology and function. In this context, functional changes in microglia may be indicative of an immune state termed parainflammation in which tissue-resident macrophages (i.e., microglia respond to malfunctioning cells by initiating modest inflammation in an attempt to restore homeostasis. Thus, aberrant neuronal activity and release of damage-associated signals during repeated stress exposure may contribute to functional changes in microglia and resultant parainflammation. Furthermore, accumulating evidence shows that uncoupling neuron-microglia interactions may contribute to altered neuroplasticity and associated anxiety- or depressive-like behaviors. Additional work shows that microglia have varied phenotypes in specific brain regions, which may underlie divergent neuroplasticity observed in corticolimbic structures following stress exposure. These findings indicate that neuron-microglia interactions are critical mediators of the interface between adaptive, homeostatic neuronal function and the neurobiology of mental health disorders.

  18. e mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria Viviani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the history of Educational Biology (1933-1970 taking into account the development of this discipline in the Normal Schools in São Paulo (Brazil. The investigation is based on several kinds of documents, mainly teaching plans, programs, schoolbooks and testimonies from former teachers. It considers the projects for schools renovation developed since the 1920’s, as they produced certain kind of needs for the teacher education. It examines three periods of that history: the insertion of the discipline in the curriculum, its stability and decline. The focus is on the organization of the school subjects built by the pair heritage-environment. The conclusion is that the organization of this Educational Biology was based in the idea that the educators should act in a double productive way: in one side, to direct the students for the best physical and mental efficiency; in the other, to build ideal outlines for shape the children, women and teachers’s social behavior.

  19. Childhood and adolescence: challenges in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Saurabh Rambiharilal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-05-01

    Mental health is an integral and essential component of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution states: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." More than 450 million people suffer from mental disorders worldwide. In India, mental health services, especially for children and adolescents, are limited both in terms of number of facilities as well as trained professionals. The majority of mental health services are restricted to urban areas, that is, medical colleges or regional mental health institutes. Mere presence of a treatment facility does not guarantee that all children/adolescents suffering from mental illness will utilize such services. In fact, most of the time there is a significant delay from the patient side in accessing mental health services either because of lack of awareness or associated stigma. It is high time to promote positive mental health in children, adolescents and their parents through health education. Parental counseling is of utmost importance in order to avoid the delay in treatment seeking.

  20. Changes in Disability, Physical/Mental Health States and Quality of Life during an 8-Week Multimodal Physiotherapy Programme in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (MPP), integrating physical land-based therapeutic exercise (TE), adapted swimming and health education, as a treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNSNP), on disability, general health/mental states and quality of life. Methods 175 CNSNP patients from a community-based centre were recruited to participate in this prospective study. Intervention: 60-minute session (30 minutes of land-based exercise dedicated to improving mobility, motor control, resistance and strengthening of the neck muscles, and 30 minutes of adapted swimming with aerobic exercise keeping a neutral neck position using a snorkel). Health education was provided using a decalogue on CNSNP and constant repetition of brief advice by the physiotherapist during the supervision of the exercises in each session. Study outcomes: primary: disability (Neck Disability Index); secondary: physical and mental health states and quality of life of patients (SF-12 and EuroQoL-5D respectively). Differences between baseline data and that at the 8-week follow-up were calculated for all outcome variables. Results Disability showed a significant improvement of 24.6% from a mean (SD) of 28.2 (13.08) at baseline to 16.88 (11.62) at the end of the 8-week intervention. All secondary outcome variables were observed to show significant, clinically relevant improvements with increase ranges between 13.0% and 16.3% from a mean of 0.70 (0.2) at baseline to 0.83 (0.2), for EuroQoL-5D, and from a mean of 40.6 (12.7) at baseline to 56.9 (9.5), for mental health state, at the end of the 8-week intervention. Conclusion After 8 weeks of a MPP that integrated land-based physical TE, health education and adapted swimming, clinically-relevant and statistically-significant improvements were observed for disability, physical and mental health states and quality of life in patients who suffer CNSNP. The clinical

  1. Changes in disability, physical/mental health states and quality of life during an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ignacio Cuesta-Vargas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (MPP, integrating physical land-based therapeutic exercise (TE, adapted swimming and health education, as a treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNSNP, on disability, general health/mental states and quality of life.175 CNSNP patients from a community-based centre were recruited to participate in this prospective study.60-minute session (30 minutes of land-based exercise dedicated to improving mobility, motor control, resistance and strengthening of the neck muscles, and 30 minutes of adapted swimming with aerobic exercise keeping a neutral neck position using a snorkel. Health education was provided using a decalogue on CNSNP and constant repetition of brief advice by the physiotherapist during the supervision of the exercises in each session.primary: disability (Neck Disability Index; secondary: physical and mental health states and quality of life of patients (SF-12 and EuroQoL-5D respectively. Differences between baseline data and that at the 8-week follow-up were calculated for all outcome variables.Disability showed a significant improvement of 24.6% from a mean (SD of 28.2 (13.08 at baseline to 16.88 (11.62 at the end of the 8-week intervention. All secondary outcome variables were observed to show significant, clinically relevant improvements with increase ranges between 13.0% and 16.3% from a mean of 0.70 (0.2 at baseline to 0.83 (0.2, for EuroQoL-5D, and from a mean of 40.6 (12.7 at baseline to 56.9 (9.5, for mental health state, at the end of the 8-week intervention.After 8 weeks of a MPP that integrated land-based physical TE, health education and adapted swimming, clinically-relevant and statistically-significant improvements were observed for disability, physical and mental health states and quality of life in patients who suffer CNSNP. The clinical efficacy requires verification using a randomised controlled study

  2. Education does not equally influence all the Mini Mental State Examination subscales and items: inferences from a Brazilian community sample A educação não influencia igualmente todas subescalas e itens do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental: inferências de uma amostra comunitária brasileira

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    Jerson Laks

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mini-Mental State Examination cutoffs have been presented for schooling levels to screen cognitive impairment. However, items may behave differently with regards to education. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of education on MMSE subscales and items. METHOD: Community-dwelling participants aged 65 years or more (n = 990, females = 637, age = 74.1 years, range 65-108 were stratified as illiterate (n = 373, 1-8 (n = 540, 9-12 (n = 63, and more than 12 years of schooling (n = 14 and were screened with MMSE and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire. To make the Mini-Mental State Examination items comparable, each item was transformed into z scores. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of schooling on MMSE subs and items controlling for age, sex, and activities of daily life. RESULTS: Temporal and space orientation, attention/calculation, repetition, reading, writing, and drawing scores improved as education increased, but not memory registration, three step command, and naming. Reading and writing displayed the largest coefficients, whereas education exerted no influence on naming and three step command tasks. CONCLUSION: Education does not exert an important effect on naming, three step command, memory registration, and delayed recall. As memory is a key factor for diagnosing dementia, these items could be considered despite education.OBJETIVO: Vários pontos de corte foram propostos para o Mini Exame do Estado Mental para rastrear cognição. Entretanto, os itens podem se comportar diferentemente dependendo da educação. O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar o impacto da educação nas subescalas e itens do Mini Exame do Estado Mental. MÉTODO: Participantes com idade de 65 anos ou mais e residentes na comunidade (n = 990, feminino = 637, idade = 74,1 anos, 65-108 foram estratificados como analfabetos (n = 373, 1-8 (n = 540, 9-12 (n = 63, e mais de 12 anos de escolaridade (n = 14 e foram

  3. Positive mental health and mental illness.

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    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health.

  4. Aftercare and Rehabilitation in a Community Mental Health Center

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    Scoles, Pascal; Fine, Eric W.

    1971-01-01

    The community, state mental hospitals, and a community mental health center work together to provide an environment conducive to the continued well being of chronic mental patients in an area of West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The authors describe a program that involves day care centers and the patients' everyday living. (Author)

  5. Altered Structural and Functional Connectivity in Late Preterm Preadolescence: An Anatomic Seed-Based Study of Resting State Networks Related to the Posteromedial and Lateral Parietal Cortex

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    Degnan, Andrew J.; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Choi, SoYoung; Ceschin, Rafael; Bhushan, Chitresh; Leahy, Richard M.; Corby, Patricia; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Late preterm birth confers increased risk of developmental delay, academic difficulties and social deficits. The late third trimester may represent a critical period of development of neural networks including the default mode network (DMN), which is essential to normal cognition. Our objective is to identify functional and structural connectivity differences in the posteromedial cortex related to late preterm birth. Methods Thirty-eight preadolescents (ages 9–13; 19 born in the late preterm period (≥32 weeks gestational age) and 19 at term) without access to advanced neonatal care were recruited from a low socioeconomic status community in Brazil. Participants underwent neurocognitive testing, 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI). Seed-based probabilistic diffusion tractography and RS-fMRI analyses were performed using unilateral seeds within the posterior DMN (posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus) and lateral parietal DMN (superior marginal and angular gyri). Results Late preterm children demonstrated increased functional connectivity within the posterior default mode networks and increased anti-correlation with the central-executive network when seeded from the posteromedial cortex (PMC). Key differences were demonstrated between PMC components with increased anti-correlation with the salience network seen only with posterior cingulate cortex seeding but not with precuneus seeding. Probabilistic tractography showed increased streamlines within the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus within late preterm children while decreased intrahemispheric streamlines were also observed. No significant differences in neurocognitive testing were demonstrated between groups. Conclusion Late preterm preadolescence is associated with altered functional connectivity from the PMC and lateral parietal cortex to known distributed functional cortical networks

  6. Altered Structural and Functional Connectivity in Late Preterm Preadolescence: An Anatomic Seed-Based Study of Resting State Networks Related to the Posteromedial and Lateral Parietal Cortex.

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    Andrew J Degnan

    Full Text Available Late preterm birth confers increased risk of developmental delay, academic difficulties and social deficits. The late third trimester may represent a critical period of development of neural networks including the default mode network (DMN, which is essential to normal cognition. Our objective is to identify functional and structural connectivity differences in the posteromedial cortex related to late preterm birth.Thirty-eight preadolescents (ages 9-13; 19 born in the late preterm period (≥32 weeks gestational age and 19 at term without access to advanced neonatal care were recruited from a low socioeconomic status community in Brazil. Participants underwent neurocognitive testing, 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI. Seed-based probabilistic diffusion tractography and RS-fMRI analyses were performed using unilateral seeds within the posterior DMN (posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and lateral parietal DMN (superior marginal and angular gyri.Late preterm children demonstrated increased functional connectivity within the posterior default mode networks and increased anti-correlation with the central-executive network when seeded from the posteromedial cortex (PMC. Key differences were demonstrated between PMC components with increased anti-correlation with the salience network seen only with posterior cingulate cortex seeding but not with precuneus seeding. Probabilistic tractography showed increased streamlines within the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus within late preterm children while decreased intrahemispheric streamlines were also observed. No significant differences in neurocognitive testing were demonstrated between groups.Late preterm preadolescence is associated with altered functional connectivity from the PMC and lateral parietal cortex to known distributed functional cortical networks despite no significant

  7. Schizophrenia, amphetamine-induced sensitized state and acute amphetamine exposure all show a common alteration: increased dopamine D2 receptor dimerization

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    Wang Min

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All antipsychotics work via dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs, suggesting a critical role for D2Rs in psychosis; however, there is little evidence for a change in receptor number or pharmacological nature of D2Rs. Recent data suggest that D2Rs form dimers in-vitro and in-vivo, and we hypothesized that schizophrenia, as well as preclinical models of schizophrenia, would demonstrate altered dimerization of D2Rs, even though the overall number of D2Rs was unaltered. Methods We measured the expression of D2Rs dimers and monomers in patients with schizophrenia using Western blots, and then in striatal tissue from rats exhibiting the amphetamine-induced sensitized state (AISS. We further examined the interaction between D2Rs and the dopamine transporter (DAT by co-immunoprecipitation, and measured the expression of dopamine D2High receptors with ligand binding assays in rat striatum slices with or without acute amphetamine pre-treatment. Results We observed significantly enhanced expression of D2Rs dimers (277.7 ± 33.6% and decreased expression of D2Rs monomers in post-mortem striatal tissue of schizophrenia patients. We found that amphetamine facilitated D2Rs dimerization in both the striatum of AISS rats and in rat striatal neurons. Furthermore, amphetamine-induced D2Rs dimerization may be associated with the D2R-DAT protein-protein interaction as an interfering peptide that disrupts the D2R-DAT coupling, blocked amphetamine-induced up-regulation of D2Rs dimerization. Conclusions Given the fact that amphetamine induces psychosis and that the AISS rat is a widely accepted animal model of psychosis, our data suggest that D2R dimerization may be important in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may be a promising new target for novel antipsychotic drugs.

  8. Mental health system historians: adults with schizophrenia describe changes in community mental health care over time.

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    Stein, Catherine H; Leith, Jaclyn E; Osborn, Lawrence A; Greenberg, Sarah; Petrowski, Catherine E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane W; May, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examined changes in community mental health care as described by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with long-term involvement in the mental health system to situate their experiences within the context of mental health reform movements in the United States. A sample of 14 adults with schizophrenia who had been consumers of mental health services from 12 to 40 years completed interviews about their hospital and outpatient experiences over time and factors that contributed most to their mental health. Overall, adults noted gradual changes in mental health care over time that included higher quality of care, more humane treatment, increased partnership with providers, shorter hospital stays, and better conditions in inpatient settings. Regardless of the mental health reform era in which they were hospitalized, participants described negative hospitalization experiences resulting in considerable personal distress, powerlessness, and trauma. Adults with less than 27 years involvement in the system reported relationships with friends and family as most important to their mental health, while adults with more than 27 years involvement reported mental health services and relationships with professionals as the most important factors in their mental health. The sample did not differ in self-reported use of services during their initial and most recent hospitalization experiences, but differences were found in participants' reported use of outpatient services over time. Findings underscore the importance of the lived experience of adults with schizophrenia in grounding current discourse on mental health care reform.

  9. Brief Mental Training Reorganizes Large-Scale Brain Networks

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    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Yan; Tang, Rongxiang; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidences have shown that one form of mental training—mindfulness meditation, can improve attention, emotion regulation and cognitive performance through changing brain activity and structural connectivity. However, whether and how the short-term mindfulness meditation alters large-scale brain networks are not well understood. Here, we applied a novel data-driven technique, the multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data to identify changes in brain activity patterns and assess the neural mechanisms induced by a brief mindfulness training—integrative body–mind training (IBMT), which was previously reported in our series of randomized studies. Whole brain rsfMRI was performed on an undergraduate group who received 2 weeks of IBMT with 30 min per session (5 h training in total). Classifiers were trained on measures of functional connectivity in this fMRI data, and they were able to reliably differentiate (with 72% accuracy) patterns of connectivity from before vs. after the IBMT training. After training, an increase in positive functional connections (60 connections) were detected, primarily involving bilateral superior/middle occipital gyrus, bilateral frontale operculum, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right superior temporal pole, bilateral insula, caudate and cerebellum. These results suggest that brief mental training alters the functional connectivity of large-scale brain networks at rest that may involve a portion of the neural circuitry supporting attention, cognitive and affective processing, awareness and sensory integration and reward processing.

  10. Programa de saúde mental Programme in mental health

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    Cid Guimarães

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o programa de Saúde Mental decorrente de convênio estabelecido pela Secretaria da Saúde do Estado de São Paulo com a Universidade de São Paulo, através da Faculdade de Saúde Pública. Este convênio tem por finalidade a realização de estudos na área de Saúde Mental, tais como assistência psiquiátrica preventiva e pesquisas visando a medir transtornos mentais através de casos de óbito e na população da cidade e de cursos e atividades curriculares e extra-curriculares.The School of Public Health is conducting a project, sponsored by the Health Department of the State of S. Paulo Government, aiming at: studying the integration of a team of mental health workers in a polivalent community health center; carrying out two large surveys on the incidence and prevalence of mental disorders and some of their characteristics; promoting courses and seminars on Mental Health for the personnel of Community Health Centers.

  11. [Neurocutaneous syndrome with hair alterations].

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    Camacho-Martínez, F

    1997-09-01

    There are multiple neurocutaneous syndromes that may show hair alterations such as the interglabellar peak or 'widow's peak', which is an alteration of the hair implantation, in addition to the genohypotrichosis, hypertrichosis and hair shaft dysplasias. In this chapter we will focus on the latter. Out of the unspecific hair shaft dysplasias the only ones showing neurological alterations are trichorrhexis invaginata, observed in the syndrome of Netherton. Among the specific dysplasias we would like to point out monilethrix, and very especially the moniliform hair syndrome, the trichorrhexis nodosa, the pili torti and trichotiodystrophy. The latter is actually a group of syndromes which associates a series of diverse symptoms that have in common hair brittleness, fertility problems and physical and mental retardation, and they constitute the basic syndrome know as 'BIDS syndrome.

  12. Inventory of Long-Term Braiding Activity at a Regional Scale as a Tool for Detecting Alterations to a Rivers' Hydromorphological State: A Case Study for Romania's South-Eastern Subcarpathians

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    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The inventory of long-term braiding activity is a useful tool for detecting alterations in a rivers' hydromorphological state and for a river's management in the context of the Water Framework Directive on integrated river basin management for Europe. Our study focuses on braided sectors of rivers in South-Eastern Subcarpathians (Romania). The inventory evaluates types of alterations based on the spatial analysis of fluvial morphology indicators (i.e., length of the river sector forming a braided pattern; width of the braided active channel), and vegetation cover (i.e., length of banks covered by forest and shrubs; area of in-stream patches of shrubs) accumulated over the last century. Furthermore, we performed a regional scale hierarchical cluster analysis to estimate the degree of alteration when compared to an historical baseline. In South-Eastern Subcarpathians, the studied rivers experienced a decrease of braiding activity revealed by the shortening and narrowing of their braided sectors, expansion of riparian forests, and the diminishment of vegetated islands' areas. We separated three types of river clusters, corresponding to low (cluster 1), moderate (cluster 2), and high (cluster 3) degree of alteration. Moreover, the clusters demonstrate the evolutionary path of the braided pattern alterations until the functioning of another channel pattern. The inventory is relevant for differing types and levels of alterations. Additionally, this tool may serve as a first step toward the restoration of altered sectors by identifying rivers in cluster 1 as potential candidates of present-day reference sites for altered rivers with similar natural conditions as in cluster 3.

  13. Mental Health Stigma about Serious Mental Illness among MSW Students: Social Contact and Attitude

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    Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…

  14. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

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    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  15. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation.

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    Grillon, Christian; Quispe-Escudero, David; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2015-06-01

    Because healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over 2 separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented with neutral and negative pictures, with instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotional reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation.