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Sample records for altered mental state

  1. Altered transfer of momentary mental states (ATOMS as the basic unit of psychosis liability in interaction with environment and emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna T W Wigman

    Full Text Available Psychotic disorders are thought to represent altered neural function. However, research has failed to map diagnostic categories to alterations in neural networks. It is proposed that the basic unit of psychotic psychopathology is the moment-to-moment expression of subtle anomalous experiences of subclinical psychosis, and particularly its tendency to persist from moment-to-moment in daily life, under the influence of familial, environmental, emotional and cognitive factors.In a general population twin sample (n = 579 and in a study of patients with psychotic disorder (n = 57, their non-psychotic siblings (n = 59 and unrelated controls (n = 75, the experience sampling paradigm (ESM; repetitive, random sampling of momentary mental states and context was applied. We analysed, in a within-person prospective design, (i transfer of momentary anomalous experience at time point (t-1 to time point (t in daily life, and (ii moderating effects of negative affect, positive affect, daily stressors, IQ and childhood trauma. Additionally, (iii familial associations between persistence of momentary anomalous experience and psychotic symptomatology were investigated. Higher level of schizotypy in the twins (but not higher level of psychotic symptoms in patients predicted more persistence of momentary anomalous experience in daily life, both within subjects and across relatives. Persistence of momentary anomalous experience was highest in patients, intermediate in their siblings and lowest in controls. In both studies, persistence of momentary anomalous experience was moderated by higher levels of negative affect, daily stressors and childhood trauma (only in twins, and by lower levels of positive affect. The study of alterations in the moment-to-moment transfer of subtle anomalous experience of psychosis, resulting in their persistence, helps to explain why psychotic and emotional dysregulation tend to cluster in a single phenotype such as

  2. Investigation of the cerebral blood flow of an Omani man with supposed ‘spirit possession’ associated with an altered mental state : a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Azri Faisal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The view that spirits may possess humans is found in 90% of the world population, including Arab/Islamic societies. Despite the association between possessive states and various neurological and psychiatric disorders, the available literature has yet to correlate possessive states with functional brain imaging modalities such as single-photon-emission computed tomography. Case presentation This paper describes the clinical case of a 22-year-old male Omani patient who presented to us with an altered state of consciousness that his caregiver attributed to possession. We examined whether the patient's mental state correlated with neuro-imaging data. The patient's distress was invariably associated with specific perfusion in the left temporal lobe and structural abnormality in the left basal ganglia. Conclusion We discuss the case in the context of possession as a culturally sanctioned idiom of distress, and highlight the importance of studying cross-cultural presentations of altered states of consciousness within biomedical models.

  3. Mental states in communication

    OpenAIRE

    Tirassa, Maurizio

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. This paper is concerned with the mental processes involved in intentional communication. I describe an agent's cognitive architecture as the set of cognitive dynamics (i.e., sequences of mental states with contents) she may entertain. I then describe intentional communication as one such specific dynamics, arguing against the prevailing view that communication consists in playing a role in a socially shared script. The cognitive capabilities needed for such dynamics are midreading (...

  4. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...

  5. THE STRUCTURE OF MENTAL STATE

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    Gulshat Tavkil’evna Shavalieva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the peculiarities of structural and functional organization of mental states of three age groups’ respondents. Depending on the degree of exposure in primary school children, adolescents, and adults similar in nature mental states, but different in their stability and structure are observed. It was found that children with different levels of mental development of a completely different operating parameters of the statesmental proces-ses, physiological reactivity, feelings and behavior. The specifics of the states and the reliefs showed different levels of mental activity of children of three age groups. The structural and functional organization of mental states to identify the different structures of blocks, their interconnectivity, and they differ in the degree of involvement of the parameters of mental states to each other. Each group revealed a different level of mental activity. The differences in the mechanisms of perception of children of three age groups depending on the level of mental development.The aim is to study the features of mental conditions of «school age» children, their structural and functional organization of the perception of the artistic image «Before the Wedding» picture of the famous Russian artist F.S. Zhuravlev’s «Before the Wedding». Identification of the mechanisms of perception of the image and the features state structures of subjects.Method and methodology of work. Research carried out on the basis of a systematic methodology and the theory of activity developed by Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria and A. Brushlinskii subject approach, SL Rubinstein and also theoretical principles and provisions of the concept of mental conditions of the person (A.O. Prohorov and concepts of color (J.W. Go-ethe, P.V. Yanshin et al.. The material of the study served as a theoretical analysis of the general and special literature on the perception of color and artistic images

  6. Epistemological implications of near-death experiences and other non-ordinary mental expressions: Moving beyond the concept of altered state of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Agrillo, Christian; Greyson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    During the last decades an increasing interest has developed in the so-called altered state of consciousness (ASCs); among these, near-death experiences (NDEs) are one of the most intriguing and debated examples. NDEs are deep and universal experiences with a clear phenomenology and incidence, while some of their features challenge the current views of human consciousness (focused on neural circuits and based on the concept of mind as a byproduct of brain circuitry) with relevant epistemological and historical implications. The origin of the ruling mechanist-reductionist paradigm can be traced back to Descartes' radical separation of res cogitans and res extensa and the conflict between the nascent science and the Inquisition; this led to removing the subjective properties of mind from the field of scientific interest, relegating them to philosophy and theology in order to enable the development of modern science. However, the physics of the 20th century has eventually moved beyond the classical paradigm, permitting a profound renewal of scientific interest in the mind. Modern research on NDEs has contributed to reopening the debate surrounding the Cartesian separation, the mind-brain relationship and the nature of consciousness. It is now time to reappraise the relevance, strengths, and weaknesses of the available scientific interpretations of NDEs, their relationship with other ASCs, as well as the very concept of ASC; the latter looks to be ill-founded, suggesting the need for: (a) a revision of the conventional approach to subjective phenomena, including both the third- and first-person perspective; and (b) a deep reflection on the possible links between different non-ordinary mental expression, as regards both their phenomenology and mechanisms from a non-pathological perspective. PMID:25892488

  7. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    OpenAIRE

    Vianney Rozand; Benjamin Pageaux

    2014-01-01

    Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), ii) moderate mental exertion (con...

  8. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    OpenAIRE

    Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congr...

  9. Learning Mental States from Biosignals

    OpenAIRE

    Kandemir, Melih

    2013-01-01

    As computing technology evolves, users perform more complex tasks with computers. Hence, users expect from user interfaces to be more proactive than reactive. A proactive interface should anticipate the user’s intentions and take the right action without requiring a user command. The crucial first step for such an interface is to infer the user’s mental state, which gives important cues about user intentions. This thesis consists of several case studies on inferring mental states of computer ...

  10. [Classification of mental phenomena as the highest integration level of man's relationship to the environment (with remarks on the phenomenon of altered states of consciousness)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickenhain, L

    1975-11-01

    In recent years mystical ideas have been spreading concerning "altered states of consciousness" as "new dimensions of experience and transpersonal communication". An analysis is given of the class-conditioned character of these concepts deriving from the insecure social conditions existing under moribund imperialism. This is contrasted with the dialectical materialist concept of psychic phenomena as the highest integration level of man's relationship to the environment. Psychic phenomena are interpreted not as epiphenomena but as an expression of the new quality attained in the evolution of man as a social being in the central control of all functions of man's organism. PMID:1215439

  11. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ellen M.; Klement, Kathryn R.; Ambler, James K.; Loewald, Tonio; Comber, Evelyn M.; Hanson, Sarah A.; Pruitt, Bria; Sagarin, Brad J.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc.) are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness—subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984)—but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the “Dance of Souls”, a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to m...

  12. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness. PMID:24061599

  13. Mental state talk by Danish preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Knüppel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen 4 to 6-year-old Danish children were video-recorded, while interacting spontaneously with their family in their homes. The mental state talk of the children was identified and analysed with respect to three mental domains: desire, feeling and cognition, and was compared to data from a similar study carried out with Canadian families (Jenkins et al., 2003. Our results suggest some cross-cultural differences in children’s mental state talk. First, Danish children produce a larger variation of mental state talk words than Canadian children do, and second, the distribution of mental state talk across the three domains differed for the two language groups. Semantic variation between Danish and English was identified in the study, which may partly explain the findings. Furthermore we present a usage-based approach to the investigation of children’s development of psychological categories in language as well as cross-linguistically.

  14. Investigation of the cerebral blood flow of an Omani man with supposed ‘spirit possession’ associated with an altered mental state : a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Azri Faisal; Hussain Samir; Obeid Yousif A; Al Hussaini Ala'Alddin; Guenedi Amr A; Al-Adawi Samir

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The view that spirits may possess humans is found in 90% of the world population, including Arab/Islamic societies. Despite the association between possessive states and various neurological and psychiatric disorders, the available literature has yet to correlate possessive states with functional brain imaging modalities such as single-photon-emission computed tomography. Case presentation This paper describes the clinical case of a 22-year-old male Omani patient who pre...

  15. A Model of Mental State Transition Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hua; Jiang, Peilin; Xiao, Shuang; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Emotion is one of the most essential and basic attributes of human intelligence. Current AI (Artificial Intelligence) research is concentrating on physical components of emotion, rarely is it carried out from the view of psychology directly(1). Study on the model of artificial psychology is the first step in the development of human-computer interaction. As affective computing remains unpredictable, creating a reasonable mental model becomes the primary task for building a hybrid system. A pragmatic mental model is also the fundament of some key topics such as recognition and synthesis of emotions. In this paper a Mental State Transition Network Model(2) is proposed to detect human emotions. By a series of psychological experiments, we present a new way to predict coming human's emotions depending on the various current emotional states under various stimuli. Besides, people in different genders and characters are taken into consideration in our investigation. According to the psychological experiments data derived from 200 questionnaires, a Mental State Transition Network Model for describing the transitions in distribution among the emotions and relationships between internal mental situations and external are concluded. Further more the coefficients of the mental transition network model were achieved. Comparing seven relative evaluating experiments, an average precision rate of 0.843 is achieved using a set of samples for the proposed model.

  16. Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben Morgan; And Others

    This document contains the reports of research at a symposium on "Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol." The participants primarily agreed that alcohol induces an altered state of consciousness similar to other drugs, but that this phenomenon has not been explicitly stated due to the current interest in newer and more novel drugs. The…

  17. Mental state decoding v. mental state reasoning as a mediator between cognitive and social function in psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Corvin, Aiden; Donohoe, Gary; Gill, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia have been parsed into mental state reasoning and mental state decoding components. We report that mental state decoding as measured by the `Eyes task? better predicted social function than mental state reasoning as measured by the `Hinting task? in 73 out-patients with chronic schizophrenia. Mental state decoding task performance also partly mediated the influence of basic neuropsychological performance on social function. We discuss these findings in ...

  18. INSTITUTIONALISED MENTALLY RETARDED IN A STATE MENTAL HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, O.; Papakumari, M.; V Jayanthini; Kumar, M Suresh

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY 298 institutionalised mentally retarded patients in Institute of Mental Health, Madras were studied for the aetiological factors, levels of intelligence, associated disorders and family structure and compared with 163 matched group of mentally retarded attending the outpatient services of the Institute of Mental Health. In 41% of the institutionalised the cause was unknown, 29.3% had infective aetiology, 18% formed the primary group and 6.4% were due to genetic and chromosomal factors...

  19. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewald, Tonio; Comber, Evelyn M.; Hanson, Sarah A.; Pruitt, Bria

    2016-01-01

    Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc.) are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness—subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984)—but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the “Dance of Souls”, a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress), self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers) and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders) showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test) and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale). Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers) and in participants adopting other roles. PMID:27175897

  20. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Lee

    Full Text Available Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc. are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness-subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984-but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the "Dance of Souls", a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress, self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale. Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers and in participants adopting other roles.

  1. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellen M; Klement, Kathryn R; Ambler, James K; Loewald, Tonio; Comber, Evelyn M; Hanson, Sarah A; Pruitt, Bria; Sagarin, Brad J

    2016-01-01

    Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc.) are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness-subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984)-but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the "Dance of Souls", a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress), self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers) and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders) showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test) and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale). Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers) and in participants adopting other roles. PMID:27175897

  2. Combined heat and mental stress alters neurovascular control in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Jenna C.; Crandall, Craig G.; Matthew Brothers, R.; Carter, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of combined heat and mental stress on neurovascular control. We hypothesized that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and forearm vascular responses to mental stress would be augmented during heat stress. Thirteen subjects performed 5 min of mental stress during normothermia (Tcore; 37 ± 0°C) and heat stress (38 ± 0°C). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), MSNA, forearm vascular conductance (FVC; venous occlusion plethysmography), and forearm skin vasc...

  3. Intrinsic Brain Activity in Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, M.; Phillips, C.; Tshibanda, L.; Vanhaudenhuyse, A.; Schabus, M.; Dang-Vu, T.T.; Moonen, G.; Hustinx, R.; Maquet, P.; Laureys, S.

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has recently received increasing interest in the neuroimaging community. However, the value of resting-state studies to a better understanding of brain–behavior relationships has been challenged. That altered states of consciousness are a privileged way to study the relationships between spontaneous brain activity and behavior is proposed, and common resting-state brain activity features observed in various states of altered consciousness are reviewed. Early positron emission tomography studies showed that states of extremely low or high brain activity are often associated with unconsciousness. However, this relationship is not absolute, and the precise link between global brain metabolism and awareness remains yet difficult to assert. In contrast, voxel-based analyses identified a systematic impairment of associative frontoparieto–cingulate areas in altered states of consciousness, such as sleep, anesthesia, coma, vegetative state, epileptic loss of consciousness, and somnambulism. In parallel, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have identified structured patterns of slow neuronal oscillations in the resting human brain. Similar coherent blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) systemwide patterns can also be found, in particular in the default-mode network, in several states of unconsciousness, such as coma, anesthesia, and slow-wave sleep. The latter results suggest that slow coherent spontaneous BOLD fluctuations cannot be exclusively a reflection of conscious mental activity, but may reflect default brain connectivity shaping brain areas of most likely interactions in a way that transcends levels of consciousness, and whose functional significance remains largely in the dark. PMID:18591474

  4. Fast mental states decoding in mixed reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eDe Massari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Brain-Computer Interface technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. In this context, assessing to what extent brain states can be discriminated during mixed reality experience is critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded EEG data while participants experienced a mixed reality scenario implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM. The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in mixed reality, using LDA and SVM classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled mixed reality scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in mixed reality.

  5. Acting: An Altered State of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiffele, Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Uses notions from the field Psychology of Consciousness, including an explanation of how psychologists define and investigate Altered States of Consciousness (ASCs). Argues that actors routinely enter an ASC. Establishes acting as a way to enter an ASC and discusses why theater artists, educators, and advocates need to be aware of both the dangers…

  6. Reorientation from Altered States: Please, More Carefully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Claims counselors too often appear to forget to reorient clients from altered states of consciousness used in counseling and that failure to reorient can result in unnecessary discomfort for clients. Provides suggestions for when and how to reorient to avoid unwanted, lingering aftereffects. (Author/ABL)

  7. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  8. Altered Mental Status in a Child With an Unwitnessed Fall: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurat, Michelle R; Zaia, Brita E

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of altered mental status in a 5-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department after presumed head trauma. A computed tomography head was conducted and its findings were normal, and the boy was discharged home. He returned the next day with persistent altered mental status and was found to have an abnormal MR brain suggestive of embolic strokes. An echocardiogram revealed a large atrial mass that was later confirmed by pathology to be an atrial myxoma. This is a unique and, to our knowledge, unreported presentation of a known but rare disease process in a pediatric patient. PMID:27253357

  9. Altered regional homogeneity with short-term simulated microgravity and its relationship with changed performance in mental transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liao

    Full Text Available In order to further the insight into the explanation of changed performance in mental transformation under microgravity, we discuss the change of performance in mental transformation and its relationship with altered regional homogeneity (ReHo in resting-state brain by using simulated weightlessness model. Twelve male subjects with age between 24 and 31 received resting-state fMRI scan and mental transformation test both in normal condition and immediately after 72 hours -6° head down tilt (HDT. A paired sample t-test was used to test the difference of behavior performance and brain activity between these two conditions. Compare with normal condition, subjects showed a changed performance in mental transformation with short term simulated microgravity and appeared to be falling. Meanwhile, decreased ReHo were found in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and left inferior parietal lobule (IPL after 72 hours -6° HDT, while increased ReHo were found in bilateral medial frontal gyrus (MFG and left superior frontal gyrus (SFG (P<0.05, corrected. Particularly, there was a significant correlation between ReHo values in left IPL and velocity index of mental transformation. Our findings indicate that gravity change may disrupt the function of right IFG and left IPL in the resting-state, among of which functional change in left IPL may contribute to changed abilities of mental transformation. In addition, the enhanced activity of the bilateral MFG and decreased activity of right IFG found in the current study maybe reflect a complementation effect on inhibitory control process.

  10. Eye Movements Reveal Sustained Implicit Processing of Others' Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dana; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Becker, Stefanie I.; Dux, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to attribute mental states to others is crucial for social competency. To assess mentalizing abilities, in false-belief tasks participants attempt to identify an actor's belief about an object's location as opposed to the object's actual location. Passing this test on explicit measures is typically achieved by 4 years of age, but…

  11. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants' subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability (HRV) increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources. PMID:26217203

  12. Effects of user mental state on EEG-BCI performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMyrden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in psychological state have been proposed as a cause of variation in brain-computer interface performance, but little formal analysis has been conducted to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of three mental states - fatigue, frustration, and attention - on BCI performance. Twelve able-bodied participants were trained to use a two-class EEG-BCI based on the performance of user-specific mental tasks. Following training, participants completed three testing sessions, during which they used the BCI to play a simple maze navigation game while periodically reporting their perceived levels of fatigue, frustration, and attention. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between frustration and BCI performance while the relationship between fatigue and BCI performance approached significance. BCI performance was 7% lower than average when self-reported fatigue was low and 10% lower than average when self-reported frustration was low. A multivariate analysis of mental state revealed the presence of contiguous regions in mental state space where BCI performance was more accurate than average, suggesting the importance of moderate fatigue for achieving effortless focus on BCI control, frustration as a potential motivating factor, and attention as a compensatory mechanism to increasing frustration. Finally, a visual analysis showed the sensitivity of underlying class distributions to changes in mental state. Collectively, these results indicate that mental state is closely related to BCI performance, encouraging future development of psychologically adaptive BCIs.

  13. Undifferentiated altered mental status: a late presentation of toxic acetaminophen ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Thomas E; Melnick, Edward R

    2012-01-01

    Altered mental status is a common undifferentiated presentation in the emergency department. We describe a case of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure that was diagnosed and treated prior to obtaining definitive historical or laboratory information about the etiology. The physical exam finding of scleral icterus in this case was a key element to rapid identification and treatment of this life-threatening condition. A discussion of appropriate N-acetylcysteine treatment for acute liver failure and acetaminophen intoxication is included. PMID:23326702

  14. Undifferentiated Altered Mental Status: A Late Presentation of Toxic Acetaminophen Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Robey, Thomas E.; Melnick, Edward R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered mental status is a common undifferentiated presentation in the emergency department. We describe a case of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure that was diagnosed and treated prior to obtaining definitive historical or laboratory information about the etiology. The physical exam finding of scleral icterus in this case was a key element to rapid identification and treatment of this life-threatening condition. A discussion of appropriate N-acetylcysteine treatment for acute liver f...

  15. Accuracy of the initial diagnosis among patients with an acutely altered mental status

    OpenAIRE

    Sporer, KA; Solares, M; Edward, JD; Wang, W.; Alan, HBW; Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this prospective observational study were to: (1) determine the accuracy of physician diagnosis in patients with an acutely altered mental status (AMS) within the first 20 min of emergency department (ED) presentation; and (2) access if physician confidence in early diagnosis correlates with accuracy of diagnosis. Methods: A prospective observational convenience study was conducted of 112 adult patients who presented to an urban county ED with AMS (Glasgow Coma S...

  16. Altered mental status and complete heart block: an unusual presentation of aspirin toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Kupfer, Yizhak; Chawla, Kabu; Tessler, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin is one of the most commonly used medications. We report a patient who presented with severe weakness, altered mental status and complete heart block requiring temporary pacing. Despite the patient's family denying that the patient used aspirin, an arterial blood gas that revealed a respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis suggested the diagnosis of salicylate toxicity. The salicylate level was extremely elevated and the patient was successfully treated with haemodialysis. Our case...

  17. The value of electroencephalography in differential diagnosis of altered mental status in emergency departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of electroencephalography in patients with altered mental status in emergency departments. Methods: Demographical characteristics, types and aetiologies of seizures, and clinical outcomes of the patients were recorded. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the complaints of admission: findings and symptoms of seizure; stroke and symptoms of stroke-related seizures; syncope; and metabolic abnormalities and other causes of altered mental status. The electroencephalography findings were classified into 3 groups: epileptiform discharges; paroxysmal electroencephalography abnormalities; and background slowing. Electroencephalography abnormalities in each subgroup were evaluated. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 190 patients in the study, 117(61.6%) had pathological electroencephalography findings. The main reason for electroencephalography in the emergency department was the presence of seizure findings and symptoms in 98(51.6%) patients. The ratio of electroencephalography abnormality was higher in patients who were admitted with complaints of metabolic abnormality-related consciousness disturbances (p<0.001). A total of 124(65.3%) patients had neuroimagings. Electroencephalography abnormalities were found to be significantly higher in patients with neuroimagings compared to those without neuroimagings (p<0.003). Conclusion: Despite advanced neuroimaging techniques, electroencephalography is still an important tool in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status such as epileptic seizures, metabolic abnormalities, pseudo-seizures and syncope. (author)

  18. Time is the key Music and Altered States of Consciusness

    OpenAIRE

    Fachner, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In this chapter, I will summarize the literature on how music and altered states of consciousness (ASC) are connected. Essential aspects include induction and expression of emotions and rhythmic body movements to music and how an altered experience of music is connected to states of altered temporality. Winkelman (2000) stressed the human capacity for experiencing ASC as a fundamental biological function. Studies on brain functions of altered music experience a...

  19. Predicting user mental states in spoken dialogue systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griol David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we propose a method for predicting the user mental state for the development of more efficient and usable spoken dialogue systems. This prediction, carried out for each user turn in the dialogue, makes it possible to adapt the system dynamically to the user needs. The mental state is built on the basis of the emotional state of the user and their intention, and is recognized by means of a module conceived as an intermediate phase between natural language understanding and the dialogue management in the architecture of the systems. We have implemented the method in the UAH system, for which the evaluation results with both simulated and real users show that taking into account the user's mental state improves system performance as well as its perceived quality.

  20. Predicting user mental states in spoken dialogue systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas, Zoraida; Griol, David; López-Cózar, Ramón

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we propose a method for predicting the user mental state for the development of more efficient and usable spoken dialogue systems. This prediction, carried out for each user turn in the dialogue, makes it possible to adapt the system dynamically to the user needs. The mental state is built on the basis of the emotional state of the user and their intention, and is recognized by means of a module conceived as an intermediate phase between natural language understanding and the dialogue management in the architecture of the systems. We have implemented the method in the UAH system, for which the evaluation results with both simulated and real users show that taking into account the user's mental state improves system performance as well as its perceived quality.

  1. Predicting user mental states in spoken dialogue systems

    OpenAIRE

    Griol David; Callejas Zoraida; López-Cózar Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we propose a method for predicting the user mental state for the development of more efficient and usable spoken dialogue systems. This prediction, carried out for each user turn in the dialogue, makes it possible to adapt the system dynamically to the user needs. The mental state is built on the basis of the emotional state of the user and their intention, and is recognized by means of a module conceived as an intermediate phase between natural language understanding a...

  2. Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health: United States-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlot, Lauren; Beasley, Joan B.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, research directed specifically at improving our understanding of the psychiatric assessment and treatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has grown, yet lags far behind efforts for typically developing children and adults. In the United States, a lack of a national approach to the mental health problems of…

  3. Seeing other minds: attributed mental states influence perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Christoph; Fletcher, Paul C; Davis, Greg

    2010-08-01

    A current consensus views social perception as a bottom-up process in which the human brain uses social signals to make inferences about another's mental state. Here we propose that, contrary to this model, even the most basic perceptual processing of a social stimulus and closely associated automatic responses are modulated by mental-state attribution. We suggest that social perception is subserved by an interactive bidirectional relationship between the neural mechanisms supporting basic sensory processing of social information and the theory-of-mind system. Consequently, processing of a social stimulus cannot be divorced from its representation in terms of mental states. This hypothesis has far-reaching implications for our understanding of both the healthy social brain and characteristic social failures in psychopathology. PMID:20576464

  4. Altered states of consciousness and ritual in late Bronze Age Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis combines an anthropological approach to the study of Altered States of Consciousness (ASCs) with a detailed analysis of previously published evidence for the consumption of psychoactives from Late Bronze Age Cypriote (Late Cypriote) contexts to investigate the possibility that such mental phenomena may have been utilised within religious rituals of this period. This evidence primarily consists of ceramic vessels associated with the consumption of opium and alcohol (often supported...

  5. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  6. Decoding subjective mental states from fMRI activity patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding has emerged as a powerful tool to read out detailed stimulus features from multi-voxel brain activity patterns. Moreover, the method has been extended to perform a primitive form of 'mind-reading,' by applying a decoder 'objectively' trained using stimulus features to more 'subjective' conditions. In this paper, we first introduce basic procedures for fMRI decoding based on machine learning techniques. Second, we discuss the source of information used for decoding, in particular, the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel neural structures. We next introduce two experimental designs for decoding subjective mental states: the 'objective-to-subjective design' and the 'subjective-to-subjective design.' Then, we illustrate recent studies on the decoding of a variety of mental states, such as, attention, awareness, decision making, memory, and mental imagery. Finally, we discuss the challenges and new directions of fMRI decoding. (author)

  7. Maternal Mental State Talk and Infants' Early Gestural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Carpenter, Malinda

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four infants were tested monthly for the production of imperative and declarative gestures between 0 ; 9 and 1 ; 3 and concurrent mother-infant free-play sessions were conducted at 0 ; 9, 1 ; 0 and 1 ; 3 (Carpenter, Nagell & Tomasello, 1998). Free-play transcripts were subsequently coded for maternal talk about mental states. Results…

  8. Employee Performance and State Mental Health Manpower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Paul M.

    A project explored the manpower issue termed "burnout" and the impact of this phenomenon on mental health service programs. (In the framework of this study burnout is defined as that state of non-productivity, non-motivation, and indifference which interferes with a worker's delivering services effectively.) Existing literature does not clearly…

  9. Towards a Physical Theory of Subjective Mental States

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Any complete theory of physical reality must allow for the ubiquitous phenomenon of subjective experience at some level, or risk being conceptually incoherent. However, as long as the ontological status of subjectivity itself remains unresolved, the topic will be seen as more within the purview of philosophy than of physics. Towards a resolution of this issue within empirically motivated physical theory, this article introduces an operational definition that ultilizes the general consensus that subjective mental states, whatever else is controversial about them, at least correlate in some way to physical states. It is shown here that implementing this underappreciated assumption within the framework of a physical theory in fact leads to wide-ranging consequences. In particular, a correlation requires there exist a well-defined mapping from a space of subjective mental states onto a space of information-bearing elements of some physical theory. Given the peculiar nature of subjective states as inherently priva...

  10. Mental States as Macrostates Emerging from EEG Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Allefeld, Carsten; Wackermann, Jiri

    2008-01-01

    Psychophysiological correlations form the basis for various disciplines, but the nature of the relation between mind and body has not yet been fully understood. We propose to understand the mental as ``emerging'' from neural processes in the precise sense that psychology and physiology provide two different descriptions of the same system. Stating the two descriptions in terms of coarser- and finer-grained system states, both descriptions may be equally adequate if the coarse-graining preserves the possibility to obtain a dynamical rule for the system. To test the empirical validity of our approach, we describe an algorithm to obtain a specific form of such a coarse-graining from empirical data. After illustrating the method using a simulated system, we apply the algorithm to electroencephalographic data, where we are able to identify states that correspond to mental states of the subject.

  11. An Unusual Cause of Altered Mental Status in Multiple Myeloma: An Extraosseous Manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruvongvanich, Veeravich; Spanuchart, Ittikorn; O-Charoen, Pichaya; Kitamura, Christian; Sumida, Lauren; Roytman, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Multiple myeloma typically presents as lytic bony lesions, hypercalcemia, anemia, and renal failure. Extraosseous manifestations are rare. We report on a patient who was recently diagnosed with multiple myeloma and completed the first cycle of bortezomib, dexamethasone, and palliative radiation therapy with good response. Two weeks after discharge, she became confused and was re-admitted. Despite treatment with lactulose and rifaximin, altered mental status worsened. Computer tomographic scan of abdomen showed hepatomegaly and numerous ill-defined small hyperdense nodules scattered throughout the liver. Liver biopsy demonstrated aggregation of plasma cell myeloma. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed dural thickening. Patient's altered mental status was likely from leptomeningeal myelomatosis and hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Although extraosseous manifestations in multiple myeloma including liver and leptomeningeal involvement are rare, its incidence has increased. This condition portends a poor prognosis. The non-specific manifestations of extraosseous myeloma can be confused with complications of multiple sclerosis and lead to incorrect management, thus clinicians should be aware of these pathologies and perform proper diagnostic tests including imaging and tissue pathology. The most effective treatment is unknown, however bortezomib and thalidomide show promise. PMID:27099806

  12. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we meas...

  13. Teaching medical students a clinical approach to altered mental status: simulation enhances traditional curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Sperling

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simulation-based medical education (SBME is increasingly being utilized for teaching clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. Studies have evaluated the impact of adding SBME to third- and fourth-year curriculum; however, very little research has assessed its efficacy for teaching clinical skills in pre-clerkship coursework. To measure the impact of a simulation exercise during a pre-clinical curriculum, a simulation session was added to a pre-clerkship course at our medical school where the clinical approach to altered mental status (AMS is traditionally taught using a lecture and an interactive case-based session in a small group format. The objective was to measure simulation's impact on students’ knowledge acquisition, comfort, and perceived competence with regards to the AMS patient. Methods: AMS simulation exercises were added to the lecture and small group case sessions in June 2010 and 2011. Simulation sessions consisted of two clinical cases using a high-fidelity full-body simulator followed by a faculty debriefing after each case. Student participation in a simulation session was voluntary. Students who did and did not participate in a simulation session completed a post-test to assess knowledge and a survey to understand comfort and perceived competence in their approach to AMS. Results: A total of 154 students completed the post-test and survey and 65 (42% attended a simulation session. Post-test scores were higher in students who attended a simulation session compared to those who did not (p<0.001. Students who participated in a simulation session were more comfortable in their overall approach to treating AMS patients (p=0.05. They were also more likely to state that they could articulate a differential diagnosis (p=0.03, know what initial diagnostic tests are needed (p=0.01, and understand what interventions are useful in the first few minutes (p=0.003. Students who participated in a simulation session

  14. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  15. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims' mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  16. Property features and mental state university students of modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belykh S.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of values and mental conditions of typical Ukrainian university students. It is shown that mental health - a state of psychic sphere. It is based on the general state of peace of mind, which gives adequate behavioral reaction. Moral health - a set of motivational characteristics, need and informative aspects of life. Its basis is determined by the system of values, attitudes and motivations of individual behavior. It is established that the existing level of organization of the educational process in physical education does not create the necessary framework for the effective development of physical culture of the students and getting them non-professional physical education, only partially solves the problem of their physical fitness and recreation.

  17. Brief mindfulness meditation improves mental state attribution and empathizing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy B G Tan

    Full Text Available The ability to infer and understand the mental states of others (i.e., Theory of Mind is a cornerstone of human interaction. While considerable efforts have focused on explicating when, why and for whom this fundamental psychological ability can go awry, considerably less is known about factors that may enhance theory of mind. Accordingly, the current study explored the possibility that mindfulness-based meditation may improve people's mindreading skills. Following a 5-minute mindfulness induction, participants with no prior meditation experience completed tests that assessed mindreading and empathic understanding. The results revealed that brief mindfulness meditation enhanced both mental state attribution and empathic concern, compared to participants in the control group. These findings suggest that mindfulness may be a powerful technique for facilitating core aspects of social-cognitive functioning.

  18. Relation between neurophysiological and mental states: possible limits of decodability

    OpenAIRE

    Gierer, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Validity of physical laws for any aspect of brain activity and strict correlation of mental to physical states of the brain do not imply, with logical necessity, that a complete algorithmic theory of the mind-body relation is possible. A limit of decodability may be imposed by the finite number of possible analytical operations which is rooted in the finiteness of the world. It is considered as a fundamental intrinsic limitation of the scientific approach comparable to quantum indeterminacy a...

  19. Altered states of consciousness in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Impaired states of consciousness can be relatively easily identified, although it can occasionally be difficult to assess whether there is a pure disorder of wakefulness or awareness. Regardless, such impairments represent dysfunction of the brainstem and or cerebrum. Acute and severe impairments of consciousness can require immediate assessment, in part currently performed using the modified Glasgow coma scoring system, and emergency stabilization. The prognosis is always guarded and highly sensitive to the underlying etiology. PMID:25441625

  20. States Pass Diverse Slate of Mental Health Legislation in 2013. Mental Health: 2013 Legislative Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…

  1. ALTERED STATES OF LITERATURE: SHAMANIC ASSIMILATION AND ROMANTIC INSPIRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel de Lima Santos

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the connections between the assimilation of certain shamanic practices related to Romantic inspiration in English literature. The interest in the world of altered states of consciousness as a manifestation of the sacred is typical among Romantic writers in nineteenth-century England. These writers in fact sought the manifestation of the world of dreams by means of ingesting substances that alter consciousness, thus assimilating a practice that is likewise and primarily...

  2. Decoding the Large-Scale Structure of Brain Function by Classifying Mental States Across Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Poldrack, Russell A.; Halchenko, Yaroslav ,; Hanson, Stephen José

    2009-01-01

    Brain-imaging research has largely focused on localizing patterns of activity related to specific mental processes, but recent work has shown that mental states can be identified from neuroimaging data using statistical classifiers. We investigated whether this approach could be extended to predict the mental state of an individual using a statistical classifier trained on other individuals, and whether the information gained in doing so could provide new insights into how mental processes ar...

  3. Mini mental state examination. Validering af en ny dansk udgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korner, E.A.; Lauritzen, L.; Nilsson, F.M.;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...... correlations to the global scales. However, there were considerable variations in mean score (+/-SD) as well as median score and range in relation to CGI and GDS values. The MMSE score is independent of sex and educational level. CONCLUSION: The MMSE also proved to be a robust scale in the present Danish...

  4. Knowledge as a mental state? A Study on Oxford Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Kohne, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Subject of this book is an epistemological consideration - a consideration which could be characterised as a main theme - maybe the main theme - of that part of philosophy we all know as epistemology: the nature of knowledge. But other than the most essays on the subject of knowledge, here I am going to deal with a largely overlooked account to try to find an answer to the epistemological question of knowledge. This is the mental state account of knowledge (Price in his 'Belief' the formulati...

  5. Cobalamin C deficiency in an adolescent with altered mental status and anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandar, Maria H; Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E; Hamid, Rizwan

    2014-12-01

    Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient's diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.(1.) PMID:25367534

  6. The Chutzpah Factor in Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Kenneth; Peper, Erik

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the "chutzpah factor", the ability to transcend fear and enter into the unknown, in altered states of consciousness, especially in what are known as "adept" individuals. Examines the powerful effect a person's belief system has upon what he or she is able to do and endure. (Editor/RK)

  7. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid KHOSROSHAHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Khosroshahi N, Alizadeh P, Khosravi M, Salamati P, Kamrani K. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:31-36.AbstractObjectiveAltered mental status is a common cause of intensive care unit admission inchildren. Differentiating structural causes of altered mental status from metabolic etiologies is of utmost importance in diagnostic approach and management of the patients. Among many biomarkers proposed to help stratifying patients with altered mental status, spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase appears to be the most promising biomarker to predict cellular necrosis.Materials & MethodsIn this cross sectional study we measured spinal fluid level of lactatedehydrogenase in children 2 months to 12 years of age admitted to a single center intensive care unit over one year. Spinal fluid level of lactate dehydrogenase in 40 pediatric cases of febrile seizure was also determined as the control group.ResultsThe study group included 35 boys (58.3% and 25 girls (41.7%. Their meanage was 2.7+/-3 years and their mean spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase levelwas 613.8+/-190.4 units/liter. The control group included 24 boys (55.8% and19 girls (44.2%. Their mean age was 1.3+/-1.2 years and their mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level was 18.9+/-7.5 units/liter. The mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level in children with abnormal head CT scan was246.3+/-351.5 units/liter compared to 164.5+/-705.7 in those with normal CTscan of the head (p=0.001.ConclusionSpinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level is useful in differentiating structural andmetabolic causes of altered mental status in children. ReferencesFesk SK. Coma and confusional states: emergency diagnosis and management. Neurol Clin 1998; 16: 237- 56.Cucchiara BL, Kanser SE, Wolk DA, et al. Early impairment in consciousness Predicts

  8. Classification of EGC output and Mental State Transition Networkusing Self Organizing Map

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, Kazuya; Ichimura, Takumi

    2011-01-01

    Mental State Transition Network which consists of mental states connected one another is a basic concept of approximating to human psychological and mental responses. It can represent transition from an emotional state to other one with stimulus by calculating Emotion Generating Calculations method. However, this method ignores most of emotions except for an emotion which has the strongest effect although EGC can calculate the degree of 20 emotions in parallel. In this pa...

  9. Mental state language and quality of conversational experience in deaf and hearing children

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, G; Meristo, M.; Mann, W.; Hjelmquist, E; Surian, L.; Siegal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children from hearing parents show a protracted delay in their performance on standard ‘theory of mind’ measures that concern their knowledge of false beliefs and other reality incongruent mental states. Considerable evidence indicates that children’s early experience of adults’ mental state talk predicts their later social cognitive development. However, no previous study has analyzed access to conversation about mental states in very young deaf children. We compared the conversational ...

  10. School mental health services: signpost for out-of-school service utilization in adolescents with mental disorders? : a nationally representative United States cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Marion Tegethoff; Esther Stalujanis; Angelo Belardi; Gunther Meinlschmidt

    2014-01-01

    Background: School mental health services are important contact points for children and adolescents with mental disorders, but their ability to provide comprehensive treatment is limited. The main objective was to estimate in mentally disordered adolescents of a nationally representative United States cohort the role of school mental health services as guide to mental health care in different out-of-school service sectors. Methods: Analyses are based on weighted data (N = 6483) fro...

  11. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... vulnerability pathways. This review therefore evaluated the evidence for whether gene expression in bipolar disorder is state or trait related. Methods:  A systematic review, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline for reporting systematic reviews, based...... on comprehensive database searches for studies on gene expression in patients with bipolar disorder in specific mood states, was conducted. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library, supplemented by manually searching reference lists from retrieved publications. Results:  A...

  12. Prolonged mental exertion does not alter neuromuscular function of the knee extensors

    OpenAIRE

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that prolonged mental exertion i) reduces maximal muscle activation and ii) increases the extent of central fatigue induced by subsequent endurance exercise. Methods: Neuromuscular function of the knee extensor muscles was assessed in 10 male subjects in two different conditions: i) before and after prolonged mental exertion leading to mental fatigue; ii) before and after an easy cognitive task (control). Both cognitive tasks lasted 90...

  13. The interdependence of mental health service systems: the effects of VA mental health funding on veterans' use of state mental health inpatient facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2000-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There are relatively few published data on how the financial structures of different health systems affect each other. With increasing financial restrictions in both public and private healthcare systems, it is important to understand how changes in one system (e.g. VA mental healthcare) affect utilization of other systems (e.g. state hospitals). AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study utilizes data from state hospitals in eight states to examine the relationship of VA per capita mental health funding and state per capita mental health expenditures to veterans' use of state hospitals, adjusting for other determinants of utilization. METHODS: This study utilized a large database that included records from all male inpatient admissions to state hospitals between 1984 and 1989 in eight states (n = 152541). Funding levels for state hospitals and VA mental health systems were examined as alternative enabling factors for veterans' use of state hospital care. Logistic regression models were adjusted for other determinants of utilization such as socio-economic status, diagnosis, travel distances to VA and non-VA facilities and the proportion of veterans in the population. RESULTS: The single strongest predictor of whether a state hospital patient would be a veteran was the level of VA mental healthcare funding (OR = 0.81 per $10 of funding per veteran in the population, p = 0.0001), with higher VA funding associated with less use of state hospitals by veterans. Higher per capita state funding, reciprocally, increased veterans' use of state hospitals. We also calculated elasticities for state hospital use with respect to VA mental healthcare funding and with respect to state hospital per capita funding. A 50% increase in VA per capita mental health spending was associated with a 30% decrease in veterans' use of state hospitals (elasticity of -0.6). Conversely, a 50% increase in state hospital per capita funding was associated with only an 11% increase in veterans' use of

  14. An Exploration of Secondary Students' Mental States When Learning About Acids and Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Hou, I.-Lin; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Treagust, David F.

    2014-02-01

    This study explored factors of students' mental states, including emotion, intention, internal mental representation, and external mental representation, which can affect their learning performance. In evaluating students' mental states during the science learning process and the relationship between mental states and learning achievement, valid, reliable, and scalable measures of students' mental states and learning achievement are needed. This paper presents the development of the Mental State Conceptual Learning Inventory (MSCLI) to identify students' mental states before and after learning about acids and bases. This instrument is time efficient and convenient and can be administered to large student samples so that teachers and researchers can gain profound insights into their students' learning of acids and bases in science class. The results of this study indicate that students' mental states are highly correlated with their achievement. As a whole, low-achieving students tended to have negative emotions and low intentions, were not good at internal visualization, and were unable to interpret graphics and draw pictures. In contrast, high-achieving students had positive emotions and intentions when learning life-related topics about acids and bases, and were good at internal visualization and drawing and interpreting graphics.

  15. Effects of Exercise in Immersive Virtual Environments on Cortical Neural Oscillations and Mental State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Tobias; Herpers, Rainer; Askew, Christopher D; Scherfgen, David; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the addition of a real exercise within a virtual environment alters sense of presence perception, or the accompanying physiological changes, is not known. In a randomized and controlled study design, moderate-intensity Exercise (i.e., self-paced cycling) and No-Exercise (i.e., automatic propulsion) trials were performed within three levels of virtual environment exposure. Each trial was 5 minutes in duration and was followed by posttrial assessments of heart rate, perceived sense of presence, EEG, and mental state. Changes in psychological strain and physical state were generally mirrored by neural activation patterns. Furthermore, these changes indicated that exercise augments the demands of virtual environment exposures and this likely contributed to an enhanced sense of presence. PMID:26366305

  16. Effects of Exercise in Immersive Virtual Environments on Cortical Neural Oscillations and Mental State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Vogt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the addition of a real exercise within a virtual environment alters sense of presence perception, or the accompanying physiological changes, is not known. In a randomized and controlled study design, moderate-intensity Exercise (i.e., self-paced cycling and No-Exercise (i.e., automatic propulsion trials were performed within three levels of virtual environment exposure. Each trial was 5 minutes in duration and was followed by posttrial assessments of heart rate, perceived sense of presence, EEG, and mental state. Changes in psychological strain and physical state were generally mirrored by neural activation patterns. Furthermore, these changes indicated that exercise augments the demands of virtual environment exposures and this likely contributed to an enhanced sense of presence.

  17. Altered states of consciousness are related to higher sexual responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui M; Pestana, José; Costa, David; Wittmann, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Altered states of consciousness lead to profound changes in the sense of self, time and space. We assessed how these changes were related to sexual responsiveness during sex. 116 subjects reported (a) intensity of awareness concerning body, space and time, and (b) satisfaction, desire, arousal, and orgasm occurrence. We differentiated vaginal intercourse orgasm from noncoital orgasm. Female vaginal intercourse orgasm was further differentiated as with or without concurrent clitoral masturbation. Overall, sexual responsiveness was related to greater body awareness and lesser time and space awareness. Satisfaction, desire, and arousal were especially associated with less time awareness in women. Female orgasms during vaginal intercourse were related to greater body awareness and lesser time awareness, but noncoital orgasms were unrelated. Our findings provide empirical support for the hypotheses that altered states of consciousness with attentional absorption are strongly related to sexual responsiveness in women, and to a lesser extent in men. PMID:27003264

  18. Revealing Variations in Perception of Mental States from Dynamic Facial Expressions: A Cautionary Note

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Back; Timothy R Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Although a great deal of research has been conducted on the recognition of basic facial emotions (e.g., anger, happiness, sadness), much less research has been carried out on the more subtle facial expressions of an individual's mental state (e.g., anxiety, disinterest, relief). Of particular concern is that these mental state expressions provide a crucial source of communication in everyday life but little is known about the accuracy with which natural dynamic facial expressions of mental st...

  19. The nose and altered states of consciousness: Tascodrugites and Ezekiel

    OpenAIRE

    John J. Pilch

    2002-01-01

    The Church Father Epiphanius' description of the Tascodrugite practice of placing the forefinger on the nostril during prayer call be plausibly interpreted as a strategy for inducing an altered state of consciousness (ASC). Anthropological and neurophysiological research on how this human gesture achieves such an effect which is a pan-human potential suggests a similar plausible interpretation for Ezekiel 8:17 and the experience of Jesus in the Garden on the night of his arrest (Luke 22:43-44).

  20. Theory of Mind and Mental State Discourse during Book Reading and Story-Telling Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Douglas K.; Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia; Roche, Jackie; Doyle, Emily

    2005-01-01

    This article presents three studies conducted in Canada and Australia that relate theory of mind (ToM) development to mental state discourse. In Study 1, mental state discourse was examined while parents and their 5-7-year-old children jointly read a storybook which had a surprise ending about the identity of the main character. Comments specific…

  1. Why Talk about Mental States? The Significance of Children's Conversations with Friends, Siblings, and Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jane R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined four-year olds' use of mental state terms in conversations. Found that more references to mental states were made in conversations with siblings and friends than with mothers. Frequent use of terms by both partners was related to cooperative interaction in child-friend and child-sibling dyads. Found associations with measures of language…

  2. Revealing variations in perception of mental states from dynamic facial expressions: a cautionary note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Back

    Full Text Available Although a great deal of research has been conducted on the recognition of basic facial emotions (e.g., anger, happiness, sadness, much less research has been carried out on the more subtle facial expressions of an individual's mental state (e.g., anxiety, disinterest, relief. Of particular concern is that these mental state expressions provide a crucial source of communication in everyday life but little is known about the accuracy with which natural dynamic facial expressions of mental states are identified and, in particular, the variability in mental state perception that is produced. Here we report the findings of two studies that investigated the accuracy and variability with which dynamic facial expressions of mental states were identified by participants. Both studies used stimuli carefully constructed using procedures adopted in previous research, and free-report (Study 1 and forced-choice (Study 2 measures of response accuracy and variability. The findings of both studies showed levels of response accuracy that were accompanied by substantial variation in the labels assigned by observers to each mental state. Thus, when mental states are identified from facial expressions in experiments, the identities attached to these expressions appear to vary considerably across individuals. This variability raises important issues for understanding the identification of mental states in everyday situations and for the use of responses in facial expression research.

  3. Circadian rhythm-dependent alterations of gene expression in Drosophila brain lacking fragile X mental retardation protein.

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    Shunliang Xu

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is caused by the loss of the FMR1 gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. The loss of FMRP leads to altered circadian rhythm behaviors in both mouse and Drosophila; however, the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon remains elusive. Here we performed a series of gene expression analyses, including of both mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs, and identified a number of mRNAs and miRNAs (miRNA-1 and miRNA-281 with circadian rhythm-dependent altered expression in dfmr1 mutant flies. Identification of these RNAs lays the foundation for future investigations of the molecular pathway(s underlying the altered circadian rhythms associated with loss of dFmr1.

  4. Altered causal connectivity of resting state brain networks in amnesic MCI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipeng Liang

    Full Text Available Most neuroimaging studies of resting state networks in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have concentrated on functional connectivity (FC based on instantaneous correlation in a single network. The purpose of the current study was to investigate effective connectivity in aMCI patients based on Granger causality of four important networks at resting state derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data--default mode network (DMN, hippocampal cortical memory network (HCMN, dorsal attention network (DAN and fronto-parietal control network (FPCN. Structural and functional MRI data were collected from 16 aMCI patients and 16 age, gender-matched healthy controls. Correlation-purged Granger causality analysis was used, taking gray matter atrophy as covariates, to compare the group difference between aMCI patients and healthy controls. We found that the causal connectivity between networks in aMCI patients was significantly altered with both increases and decreases in the aMCI group as compared to healthy controls. Some alterations were significantly correlated with the disease severity as measured by mini-mental state examination (MMSE, and California verbal learning test (CVLT scores. When the whole-brain signal averaged over the entire brain was used as a nuisance co-variate, the within-group maps were significantly altered while the between-group difference maps did not. These results suggest that the alterations in causal influences may be one of the possible underlying substrates of cognitive impairments in aMCI. The present study extends and complements previous FC studies and demonstrates the coexistence of causal disconnection and compensation in aMCI patients, and thus might provide insights into biological mechanism of the disease.

  5. ALTERED STATES OF LITERATURE: SHAMANIC ASSIMILATION AND ROMANTIC INSPIRATION

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    Marcel de Lima Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the connections between the assimilation of certain shamanic practices related to Romantic inspiration in English literature. The interest in the world of altered states of consciousness as a manifestation of the sacred is typical among Romantic writers in nineteenth-century England. These writers in fact sought the manifestation of the world of dreams by means of ingesting substances that alter consciousness, thus assimilating a practice that is likewise and primarily shamanic. This search is the object under investigation in this article, which aims at showing that, despite conspicuous cultural differences, there are indeed similarities that pervade shamanic practices and the Romantic ideal in their quests toward the sacred.

  6. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE in First Episode of Psychosis

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    Fariborz Kazemi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Neurocognitive deficits are now recognized as part of the fundamental disturbances and are a major determinant of functional outcome in psychosis. A cross-sectional association between cognitive deficits and poor social and occupational outcomes has been demonstrated; and treatment of cognitive impairment at the time of the first episode may have the potential to change functional outcomes of the illness. We conducted this study to evaluate cognitive function in first episode of psychosis by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. "nMethod: Sixty two patients with first episode of psychosis were selected and underwent psychiatric interview and took MMSE test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-18 software. "nResults: According to MMSE scale, 47 patients (75.8% showed definite cognitive impairment, 8(12.9% showed possible impairment ,and 7(11.3% showed no cognitive impairment. According to MMSE subscale, registration (69.4% and recall (77.3% were the most impaired cognitive areas.  "nConclusions:  The results of the current study indicate significant cognitive impairment in patients with first episode of psychosis. We recommend future studies with larger sample size and control group for further evaluation of cognitive function as early treatment of cognitive impairments may have important implications in the course of illness.

  7. Mental Development of Children with Non-epileptic Paroxysmal States in Medical History

    OpenAIRE

    Turovskaya N.G.,

    2015-01-01

    The author studied mental functions disorders in children with a history of paroxysmal states of various etiologies and compared mental development disorder patterns in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms. Study sample were 107 children, aged 6 to 10 years. The study used experimental psychological and neuropsychological techniques. According to the empirical study results, non-epileptic paroxysms unlike epileptic much less combined with a number of mental functions disorders ...

  8. The nose and altered states of consciousness: Tascodrugites and Ezekiel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Pilch

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The Church Father Epiphanius' description of the Tascodrugite practice of placing the forefinger on the nostril during prayer call be plausibly interpreted as a strategy for inducing an altered state of consciousness (ASC. Anthropological and neurophysiological research on how this human gesture achieves such an effect which is a pan-human potential suggests a similar plausible interpretation for Ezekiel 8:17 and the experience of Jesus in the Garden on the night of his arrest (Luke 22:43-44.

  9. mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dadalte Carniel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La reforma psiquiátrica posibilitó transformaciones en la atención a la salud mental y el acompañante terapéutico (AT hace parte de esas transformaciones. La finalidad de este estudio fue trabajar esta práctica con el portador de trastorno mental bajo tratamiento realizado por un equipo multiprofesional y, para eso, se utilizaron 16 sesiones de AT, que fueron registradas. Los resultados mostraron la contribución positiva de este tipo de modalidad terapéutica en la atención a este portador, posibilitándole el rescate de diversas cosas que le gustaba hacer y no más hacía, debido a la falta de estímulos, y a la influencia negativa de la institución en la evolución de este trastorno.

  10. The Role of Language Games in Children's Understanding of Mental States: A Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornaghi, Veronica; Brockmeier, Jens; Grazzani Gavazzi, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated whether training preschool children in the use of mental state lexicon plays a significant role in bringing about advanced conceptual understanding of mental terms and improved performance on theory-of-mind tasks. A total of 70 participants belonging to two age groups (3 and 4 years old) were randomly…

  11. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1

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    Hardoy Maria

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004 and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1 highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters; distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under

  12. Amygdala volume linked to individual differences in mental state inference in early childhood and adulthood

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    Katherine Rice

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of the amygdala in mental state inference in a sample of adults and in a sample of children aged 4 and 6 years. This period in early childhood represents a time when mentalizing abilities undergo dramatic changes. Both children and adults inferred mental states from pictures of others’ eyes, and children also inferred the mental states of others from stories (e.g., a false belief task. We also collected structural MRI data from these participants, to determine whether larger amygdala volumes (controlling for age and total gray matter volume were related to better face-based and story-based mentalizing. For children, larger amygdala volumes were related to better face-based, but not story-based, mentalizing. In contrast, in adults, amygdala volume was not related to face-based mentalizing. We next divided the face-based items into two subscales: cognitive (e.g., thinking, not believing versus affective (e.g., friendly, kind items. For children, performance on cognitive items was positively correlated with amygdala volume, but for adults, only performance on affective items was positively correlated with amygdala volume. These results indicate that the amygdala's role in mentalizing may be specific to face-based tasks and that the nature of its involvement may change over development.

  13. Metabolic state alters economic decision making under risk in humans.

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    Mkael Symmonds

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals' attitudes to risk are profoundly influenced by metabolic state (hunger and baseline energy stores. Specifically, animals often express a preference for risky (more variable food sources when below a metabolic reference point (hungry, and safe (less variable food sources when sated. Circulating hormones report the status of energy reserves and acute nutrient intake to widespread targets in the central nervous system that regulate feeding behaviour, including brain regions strongly implicated in risk and reward based decision-making in humans. Despite this, physiological influences per se have not been considered previously to influence economic decisions in humans. We hypothesised that baseline metabolic reserves and alterations in metabolic state would systematically modulate decision-making and financial risk-taking in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a controlled feeding manipulation and assayed decision-making preferences across different metabolic states following a meal. To elicit risk-preference, we presented a sequence of 200 paired lotteries, subjects' task being to select their preferred option from each pair. We also measured prandial suppression of circulating acyl-ghrelin (a centrally-acting orexigenic hormone signalling acute nutrient intake, and circulating leptin levels (providing an assay of energy reserves. We show both immediate and delayed effects on risky decision-making following a meal, and that these changes correlate with an individual's baseline leptin and changes in acyl-ghrelin levels respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that human risk preferences are exquisitely sensitive to current metabolic state, in a direction consistent with ecological models of feeding behaviour but not predicted by normative economic theory. These substantive effects of state changes on economic decisions perhaps reflect shared evolutionarily conserved neurobiological mechanisms. We suggest that

  14. Altered mental status, an unusual manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chabria Shiven B; Lawrason Jock

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Early disseminated Lyme disease can have a myriad of central nervous system manifestations. These run the gamut from meningitis to radiculopathy and cranial neuropathy. Here we present a case that manifested with only acute mental status change in the setting of central nervous system involvement with Lyme disease. A paucity of other central nervous system manifestations is rare, especially with positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid markers. This article underscores the importance o...

  15. School mental health services: signpost for out-of-school service utilization in adolescents with mental disorders? A nationally representative United States cohort.

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    Marion Tegethoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School mental health services are important contact points for children and adolescents with mental disorders, but their ability to provide comprehensive treatment is limited. The main objective was to estimate in mentally disordered adolescents of a nationally representative United States cohort the role of school mental health services as guide to mental health care in different out-of-school service sectors. METHODS: Analyses are based on weighted data (N = 6483 from the United States National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (participants' age: 13-18 years. Lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed using the fully structured WHO CIDI interview, complemented by parent report. Adolescents and parents provided information on mental health service use across multiple sectors, based on the Service Assessment for Children and Adolescents. RESULTS: School mental health service use predicted subsequent out-of-school service utilization for mental disorders i in the medical specialty sector, in adolescents with affective (hazard ratio (HR = 3.01, confidence interval (CI = 1.77-5.12, anxiety (HR = 3.87, CI = 1.97-7.64, behavior (HR = 2.49, CI = 1.62-3.82, substance use (HR = 4.12, CI = 1.87-9.04, and eating (HR = 10.72, CI = 2.31-49.70 disorders, and any mental disorder (HR = 2.97, CI = 1.94-4.54, and ii in other service sectors, in adolescents with anxiety (HR = 3.15, CI = 2.17-4.56, behavior (HR = 1.99, CI = 1.29-3.06, and substance use (HR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.94 disorders, and any mental disorder (HR = 2.33, CI = 1.54-3.53, but iii not in the mental health specialty sector. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in the United States, school mental health services may serve as guide to out-of-school service utilization for mental disorders especially in the medical specialty sector across various mental disorders, thereby

  16. Mental health needs in New York state following the september 11th attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Daniel; Felton, Chip; Susser, Ezra

    2002-01-01

    In October 2001, the New York State Office of Mental Health and the Department of Epidemiology of the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University conducted a rapid assessment of the nature and magnitude of mental health needs in the state resulting from the September 11th terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. This effort was carried out during a period of great turmoil and uncertaintyas New Yorkers responded to the shocking events of this unprecedented disaster. Using the li...

  17. Altered mental status, an unusual manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabria Shiven B

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early disseminated Lyme disease can have a myriad of central nervous system manifestations. These run the gamut from meningitis to radiculopathy and cranial neuropathy. Here we present a case that manifested with only acute mental status change in the setting of central nervous system involvement with Lyme disease. A paucity of other central nervous system manifestations is rare, especially with positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid markers. This article underscores the importance of a high index of clinical suspicion in detection of Lyme disease related manifestations in endemic areas.

  18. What should be the roles of conscious states and brain states in theories of mental activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donelson E Dulany

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the title's question have been influenced by a history in which an early science of consciousness was rejected by behaviourists on the argument that this entails commitment to ontological dualism and "free will" in the sense of indeterminism. This is, however, a confusion of theoretical assertions with metaphysical assertions. Nevertheless, a legacy within computational and information-processing views of mind rejects or de-emphasises a role for consciousness. This paper sketches a mentalistic metatheory in which conscious states are the sole carriers of symbolic representations, and thus have a central role in the explanation of mental activity and action-while specifying determinism and materialism as useful working assumptions. A mentalistic theory of causal learning, experimentally examined with phenomenal reports, is followed by examination of these questions: Are there common roles for phenomenal reports and brain imaging? Is there defensible evidence for unconscious brain states carrying symbolic representations? Are there interesting dissociations within consciousness?

  19. What should be the roles of conscious States and brain States in theories of mental activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2011-01-01

    Answers to the title's question have been influenced by a history in which an early science of consciousness was rejected by behaviourists on the argument that this entails commitment to ontological dualism and "free will" in the sense of indeterminism. This is, however, a confusion of theoretical assertions with metaphysical assertions. Nevertheless, a legacy within computational and information-processing views of mind rejects or de-emphasises a role for consciousness. This paper sketches a mentalistic metatheory in which conscious states are the sole carriers of symbolic representations, and thus have a central role in the explanation of mental activity and action-while specifying determinism and materialism as useful working assumptions. A mentalistic theory of causal learning, experimentally examined with phenomenal reports, is followed by examination of these questions: Are there common roles for phenomenal reports and brain imaging? Is there defensible evidence for unconscious brain states carrying symbolic representations? Are there interesting dissociations within consciousness? PMID:21694964

  20. What should be the roles of conscious states and brain states in theories of mental activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulany Donelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the title′s question have been influenced by a history in which an early science of consciousness was rejected by behaviourists on the argument that this entails commitment to ontological dualism and "free will" in the sense of indeterminism. This is, however, a confusion of theoretical assertions with metaphysical assertions. Nevertheless, a legacy within computational and information-processing views of mind rejects or de-emphasises a role for consciousness. This paper sketches a mentalistic metatheory in which conscious states are the sole carriers of symbolic representations, and thus have a central role in the explanation of mental activity and action-while specifying determinism and materialism as useful working assumptions. A mentalistic theory of causal learning, experimentally examined with phenomenal reports, is followed by examination of these questions: Are there common roles for phenomenal reports and brain imaging? Is there defensible evidence for unconscious brain states carrying symbolic representations? Are there interesting dissociations within consciousness?

  1. Resting State Brain Entropy Alterations in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqing; Zhuang, Ying; Gong, Honghan; Zhan, Jie; Grossman, Murray; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Brain entropy (BEN) mapping provides a novel approach to characterize brain temporal dynamics, a key feature of human brain. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), reliable and spatially distributed BEN patterns have been identified in normal brain, suggesting a potential use in clinical populations since temporal brain dynamics and entropy may be altered in disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize BEN in multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of people. Since currently there is no cure for MS, developing treatment or medication that can slow down its progression represents a high research priority, for which validating a brain marker sensitive to disease and the related functional impairments is essential. Because MS can start long time before any measurable symptoms and structural deficits, assessing the dynamic brain activity and correspondingly BEN may provide a critical way to study MS and its progression. Because BEN is new to MS, we aimed to assess BEN alterations in the relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients using a patient versus control design, to examine the correlation of BEN to clinical measurements, and to check the correlation of BEN to structural brain measures which have been more often used in MS studies. As compared to controls, RRMS patients showed increased BEN in motor areas, executive control area, spatial coordinating area, and memory system. Increased BEN was related to greater disease severity as measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and greater tissue damage as indicated by the mean diffusivity. Patients also showed decreased BEN in other places, which was associated with less disability or fatigue, indicating a disease-related BEN re-distribution. Our results suggest BEN as a novel and useful tool for characterizing RRMS. PMID:26727514

  2. Resting State Brain Entropy Alterations in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqing Zhou

    Full Text Available Brain entropy (BEN mapping provides a novel approach to characterize brain temporal dynamics, a key feature of human brain. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI, reliable and spatially distributed BEN patterns have been identified in normal brain, suggesting a potential use in clinical populations since temporal brain dynamics and entropy may be altered in disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize BEN in multiple sclerosis (MS, a neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of people. Since currently there is no cure for MS, developing treatment or medication that can slow down its progression represents a high research priority, for which validating a brain marker sensitive to disease and the related functional impairments is essential. Because MS can start long time before any measurable symptoms and structural deficits, assessing the dynamic brain activity and correspondingly BEN may provide a critical way to study MS and its progression. Because BEN is new to MS, we aimed to assess BEN alterations in the relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS patients using a patient versus control design, to examine the correlation of BEN to clinical measurements, and to check the correlation of BEN to structural brain measures which have been more often used in MS studies. As compared to controls, RRMS patients showed increased BEN in motor areas, executive control area, spatial coordinating area, and memory system. Increased BEN was related to greater disease severity as measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS and greater tissue damage as indicated by the mean diffusivity. Patients also showed decreased BEN in other places, which was associated with less disability or fatigue, indicating a disease-related BEN re-distribution. Our results suggest BEN as a novel and useful tool for characterizing RRMS.

  3. Intestinal Oxidative State Can Alter Nutrient and Drug Bioavailability

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    Faria Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic cations (OCs are substances of endogenous (e.g., dopamine, choline or exogenous (e.g., drugs like cimetidine origin that are positively charged at physiological ph. since many of these compounds can not pass the cell membrane freely, their transport in or out of cells must be mediated by specific transport systems. Transport by organic cation transporters (OCTs can be regulated rapidly by altering their trafficking and/or affinities in response to stimuli. However, for example, a specific disease could lead to modifications in the expression of OCTs. Chronic exposure to oxidative stress has been suggested to alter regulation and functional activity of proteins through several pathways. According to results from a previous work, oxidation-reduction pathways were thought to be involved in intestinal organic cation uptake modulation. The present work was performed in order to evaluate the influence of oxidative stressors, especially glutathione, on the intestinal organic cation absorption. For this purpose, the effect of compounds with different redox potential (glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant, and procyanidins, diet antioxidants was assessed on MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide uptake in an enterocyte cell line (Caco-2. Caco-2 cells were subcultured with two different media conditions (physiological: 5 mM glucose, referred as control cells; and high-glucose: 25 mM glucose, referred as HG cells. In HG cells, the uptake was significantly lower than in control cells. Redox changing interventions affected Mpp+ uptake, both in control and in high-glucose Caco-2 cells. Cellular glutathione levels could have an important impact on membrane transporter activity. The results indicate that modifications in the cellular oxidative state modulate MPP+ uptake by Caco-2 cells. Such modifications may reflect in changes of nutrient and drug bioavailability.

  4. Resting state networks and consciousness Alterations of multiple resting state network connectivity in physiological, pharmacological and pathological consciousness states

    OpenAIRE

    Heine, Lizette; Soddu, Andrea; Gomez Jaramillo, Francisco Albeiro(*); Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Tshibanda, Luaba; Thonnard, Marie; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Kirsch, Murielle; Laureys, Steven; Demertzi, Athina

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the functional contribution of resting state activity to conscious cognition, we aimed to review increases and decreases in fMRI functional connectivity under physiological (sleep), pharmacological (anesthesia) and pathological altered states of consciousness, such as brain death, coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and minimally conscious state. The reviewed RSNs were the DMN, left and right executive control, salience, sensorimotor, audito...

  5. A rare cause of altered mental status and fever in a young military recruit in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodosingh, Dev Richard; Robles-Arias, Carlos; Alemán-Ortiz, Jesse R; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William

    2014-12-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is a medical emergency characterized by increased core body temperature with associated systemic inflammatory response leading to a syndrome of multi-organ damage in which encephalopathy predominates. We describe a case of a 29 year old male recruit presenting with altered mental status during military training in Puerto Rico. Associated symptoms included high grade fever, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and profuse sweating followed by loss of consciousness. Upon arrival to medical evaluation the patient was found with dry skin and depressed Glasgow Coma Score. Initial laboratories, clinical evolution of symptoms and imaging studies were consistent with the diagnosis of HS. Patient was managed with mechanical ventilatory support, intravenous fluids and external cooling measures. He was later discharged home without any neurological sequelae. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of HS in Puerto Rico. PMID:25563039

  6. Conversations about mental states and theory of mind development during middle childhood: A training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Federica; Lecce, Serena; Banerjee, Robin

    2016-09-01

    Despite 30years of productive research on theory of mind (ToM), we still know relatively little about variables that influence ToM development during middle childhood. Recent experimental studies have shown that conversations about the mind affect ToM abilities, but they have not explored the mechanisms underlying this developmental effect. In the current study, we examined two potential mechanisms through which conversations about mental states are likely to influence ToM: an increased frequency of references to mental states when explaining behavior and an increased accuracy of mental-state attributions. To this aim, we conducted a training study in which 101 children were assigned to either an intervention condition or a control condition. The conversation-based intervention was made up of four sessions scheduled over 2weeks. Children completed a battery of assessments before and after the intervention as well as 2months later. The groups were equivalent at Time 1 (T1) for age, family affluence, vocabulary, and executive functions. The ToM group showed an improvement in ToM skills (as evaluated on both the practiced tasks and a transfer task). Mediation analyses demonstrated that the accuracy of mental-state attributions, but not the mere frequency of mental-state references, mediated the positive effect of conversations about the mind on ToM development. Our results indicate that conversational experience can enhance mental-state reasoning not by simply drawing children's attention to mental states but rather by scaffolding a mature understanding of social situations. PMID:26723472

  7. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995–2014

    OpenAIRE

    McGinty, Emma E.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-01-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995–2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overa...

  8. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  9. Mental Development of Children with Non-epileptic Paroxysmal States in Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turovskaya N.G.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author studied mental functions disorders in children with a history of paroxysmal states of various etiologies and compared mental development disorder patterns in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms. Study sample were 107 children, aged 6 to 10 years. The study used experimental psychological and neuropsychological techniques. According to the empirical study results, non-epileptic paroxysms unlike epileptic much less combined with a number of mental functions disorders and intelligence in general. However, non-epileptic paroxysmal states as well as epileptic seizure associated with increasing activity exhaustion and abnormal function of the motor analyzer (dynamic and kinesthetic dyspraxia. Visual memory disorders and modal-nonspecific memory disorders have more pronounced importance in the mental ontogenesis structure in children with convulsive paroxysms compared to children with cerebral pathology without paroxysms history

  10. Early maladaptive schema-related impairment and co-occurring current major depressive episode-related enhancement of mental state decoding ability in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt Szabolcs; Fogd, Dóra; Seres, Imola; Kéri, Szabolcs; Csukly, Gábor

    2015-04-01

    Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD. PMID:24932871

  11. Chromophore Deprotonation State Alters the Optical Properties of Blue Chromoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Chromoproteins (CPs have unique colors and can be used in biological applications. In this work, a novel blue CP with a maximum absorption peak (λmax at 608 nm was identified from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla gigantea (sgBP. In vivo expression of sgBP in zebrafish would change the appearance of the fishes to have a blue color, indicating the potential biomarker function. To enhance the color properties, the crystal structure of sgBP at 2.25 Å resolution was determined to allow structure-based protein engineering. Among the mutations conducted in the Gln-Tyr-Gly chromophore and chromophore environment, a S157C mutation shifted the λmax to 604 nm with an extinction coefficient (ε of 58,029 M-1·cm-1 and darkened the blue color expression. The S157C mutation in the sgBP chromophore environment could affect the color expression by altering the deprotonation state of the phenolic group in the chromophore. Our results provide a structural basis for the blue color enhancement of the biomarker development.

  12. Mental Health of Survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake Living in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-16

    Thousands of survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake are currently living in the United States. This podcast features a brief non-disease-specific interview with Dr. Marc Safran, CDC's longest serving psychiatrist, about a few of the mental health challenges such survivors may face.  Created: 4/16/2010 by CDC Center of Attribution: Mental and Behavioral Health Team, 2010 CDC Haiti Earthquake Mission, CDC Emergency Operations Center.   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  13. Biological Alteration of Basaltic Glass With Altered Composition and Oxidation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, B. E.; Staudigel, H.; Templeton, A.; Tebo, B. M.; Ryerson, F.; Plank, T.; Schroder, C.; Klingelhoefer, G.

    2004-12-01

    The ocean crust is an extreme and oligotrophic environment and yet recent studies have shown that reactions between oceanic crust and seawater are capable of supporting microbial life. We are specifically targeting volcanic glass as a source of energy and nutrients necessary to support endolithic microbial communities. A significant amount of chemical energy is available from the process of iron oxidation and our goal is to determine the ability of microorganisms to use Fe(II) as an energy source as well as liberate other essential nutrients from the host rock. In addition, microbes may oxidize Mn or use phosphate from glass. To explore the dependency of microbial life on these nutrients and energy sources, we produce basaltic glasses with varying Fe oxidation states and relative abundance of iron, manganese and phosphate and introduce them to microbial isolates and consortia both in the laboratory and in deep-ocean environments. The natural exposure experiments occur in a variety of settings including hydrothermal vents and cold deep seawater (Loihi Seamount), brines (Mediterranean), and basaltic flows at spreading ridges (EPR), when possible on submarine lava flows of recent and known age. Upon collection of the exposure experiments, we compare basalt colonizing microbial communities on our synthetic glasses with the in situ glass communities through a large culturing effort and molecular (t-RFLP) studies. So far we have produced a number of enrichment cultures and isolated several iron-oxidizing and manganese-oxidizing bacteria that were used to inoculate glasses in the laboratory. Laboratory experiments concentrate on biofilm formation and dissolution of the colonized glasses. Continued collection of exposure experiments on a yearly time-scale provides valuable information regarding spatial and temporal variations in microbial community diversity and structure. We have also analyzed the authigenic reaction products of seafloor, microbially mediated alteration

  14. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding. PMID:26612541

  15. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995–2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media’s continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031

  16. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995-2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media's continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031

  17. Primitive mental states and the body: a personal view of Armando B. Ferrari's concrete original object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Riccardo

    2002-04-01

    The author explores some psychoanalytic hypotheses about primitive mental states and their implications for a direct focus on body experience in clinical work. Some aspects of current clinical research about the patient's difficulty in achieving awareness of his emotional life as it emerges from object relations are presented, and this problem is viewed in connection with the relation of the analysand to his own body and to his capacity to pass through the different levels of mental elaboration, from motor discharge to abstraction. Ferrari's theories on the body-mind relationship are discussed and compared with the work of other authors. Ferrari calls the body the Concrete Original Object to indicate that it is the first source, differing from person to person, from which mental phenomena are generated and against which they are constantly measured. A clinical case serves as an illustration of the importance of the perception of the body for the birth of genuine, non-imitative mental activity. PMID:12040702

  18. Contagious yawning: the role of self-awareness and mental state attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Steven M; Critton, Samuel R; Myers, Thomas E; Gallup, Gordon G

    2003-07-01

    Contagious yawning is a common, but poorly understood phenomenon. We hypothesized that contagious yawning is part of a more general phenomenon known as mental state attribution (i.e. the ability to inferentially model the mental states of others). To test this hypothesis we compared susceptibility to contagiously yawn with performance on a self-face recognition task, several theory of mind stories, and on a measure of schizotypal personality traits. Consistent with the hypothesis, susceptibility to contagiously yawn was positively related to performance on self-face recognition and faux pas theory of mind stories, and negatively related to schizotypal personality traits. These data suggest that contagious yawning may be associated with empathic aspects of mental state attribution and are negatively affected by increases in schizotypal personality traits much like other self-processing related tasks. PMID:12880893

  19. Music Composition from the Brain Signal: Representing the Mental State by Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.

  20. Music Composition from the Brain Signal: Representing the Mental State by Music

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Wu; Chaoyi Li; Yu Yin; Changzheng Zhou; Dezhong Yao

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics...

  1. Resumption of nuclear glass alteration: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of nuclear glass alteration kinetics have shown that after the beginning of a rate drop due to the approach of silica saturation of the solution and the formation of a passivating layer, a resumption of alteration is possible. This phenomenon corresponding to an acceleration of the glass dissolution rate is systematically associated with the precipitation of zeolites and, to a lesser extent, calcium silicate hydrates. Secondary phases which precipitate from the major glass network-forming elements (Si, Al) strongly impact the dissolution kinetics. The literature data are generally consistent and the results are reproducible, showing that the resumption of alteration is observed at high pH, temperature, and S/V ratio during laboratory experiments. The studies also show that the resumption of alteration is strongly dependent on the composition of the glass and the leaching solutions. The wide range of glass compositions studied (about 60 glasses in the articles reviewed) and the variable test conditions (temperature, pH, and solution composition) make it extremely difficult to compare and compile the data, or to decorrelate the effects of the composition on the time before the resumption of alteration and on its magnitude. The observations to date have led to a proposed macroscopic mechanism based on the loss of the passivating properties of the alteration layer after consumption of a fraction of the network-forming elements by precipitation of zeolites. No multiscale mechanistic approach exists, however, to account for the nucleation and growth of zeolites at the expense of the glass. For example, the effect of aluminum in the gel or in solution on the glass alteration kinetics is not sufficiently understood today. Although thermodynamic models have been proposed to delimit the ranges of glass compositions subject to a resumption of alteration, their development is hampered by inadequate knowledge of the newly formed phases and their nucleation

  2. Complexity and time asymmetry of heart rate variability are altered in acute mental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to study the complexity and time asymmetry of short-term heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of complex neurocardiac control in response to stress using symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility methods. ECG was recorded at rest and during and after two stressors (Stroop, arithmetic test) in 70 healthy students. Symbolic dynamics parameters (NUPI, NCI, 0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%), and time irreversibility indices (P%, G%, E) were evaluated. Additionally, HRV magnitude was quantified by linear parameters: spectral powers in low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands. Our results showed a reduction of HRV complexity in stress (lower NUPI with both stressors, lower NCI with Stroop). Pattern classification analysis revealed significantly higher 0V% and lower 2LV% with both stressors, indicating a shift in sympathovagal balance, and significantly higher 1V% and lower 2UV% with Stroop. An unexpected result was found in time irreversibility: significantly lower G% and E with both stressors, P% index significantly declined only with arithmetic test. Linear HRV analysis confirmed vagal withdrawal (lower HF) with both stressors; LF significantly increased with Stroop and decreased with arithmetic test. Correlation analysis revealed no significant associations between symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility. Concluding, symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility could provide independent information related to alterations of neurocardiac control integrity in stress-related disease. (paper)

  3. Brain electrical activity and subjective experience during altered states of consciousness: ganzfeld and hypnagogic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jiri; Pütz, Peter; Büchi, Simone; Strauch, Inge; Lehmann, Dietrich

    2002-11-01

    Manifestations of experimentally induced altered states of consciousness in the brain's electrical activity as well as in subjective experience were explored via the hypnagogic state at sleep onset, and the state induced by exposure to an unstructured perceptual field (ganzfeld). Twelve female paid volunteers participated in sessions involving sleep onset, ganzfeld, and eyes-closed relaxed waking, and were repeatedly prompted for recall of their momentary mentation, according to a predefined schedule. Nineteen channel EEG, two channels EOG and EMG were recorded simultaneously. The mentation reports were followed by the subjects' ratings of their experience on a number of ordinal scales. Two-hundred and forty-one mentation reports were collected. EEG epochs immediately preceding the mentation reports were FFT-analysed and the spectra compared between states. The ganzfeld EEG spectrum, showing no signs of decreased vigilance, was very similar to the EEG spectrum of waking states, even showed a minor acceleration of alpha activity. The subjective experience data were reduced to four principal components: Factor I represented the subjective vigilance dimension, as confirmed by correlations with EEG spectral indices. Only Factor IV, the 'absorption' dimension, differentiated between the ganzfeld state (more absorption) and other states. In waking states and in ganzfeld, the subjects estimated elapsed time periods significantly shorter than in states at sleep onset. The results did not support the assumption of a hypnagogic nature of the ganzfeld imagery. Dream-like imagery can occur in various global functional states of the brain; hypnagogic and ganzfeld-induced states should be conceived as special cases of a broader class of 'hypnagoid' phenomena. PMID:12433389

  4. Audio-Visual and Autogenic Relaxation Alter Amplitude of Alpha EEG Band, Causing Improvements in Mental Work Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikicin, Mirosław; Kowalczyk, Marek

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes. PMID:26016588

  5. Alterations of multiple resting state network connectivity in physiological, pharmacological and pathological consciousness states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LizetteHeine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the functional contribution of resting state activity to conscious cognition, we aimed to review increases and decreases in fMRI functional connectivity under physiological (sleep, pharmacological (anesthesia and pathological altered states of consciousness, such as brain death, coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and minimally conscious state. The reviewed RSNs were the DMN, left and right executive control, salience, sensorimotor, auditory and visual networks. We highlight some methodological issues concerning resting state analyses in severely injured brains mainly in terms of hypothesis-driven seed-based correlation analysis and data-driven independent components analysis approaches. Finally, we attempt to contextualize our discussion within theoretical frameworks of conscious processes. We think that this “lesion” approach allows us to better determine the necessary conditions under which normal conscious cognition takes place. At the clinical level, we acknowledge the technical merits of the resting state paradigm. Indeed, fast and easy acquisitions are preferable to activation paradigms in clinical populations. Finally, we emphasize the need to validate the diagnostic and prognostic value of fMRI resting state measurements in non-communicating brain damaged patients.

  6. General Anesthesia and Altered States of Arousal: A Systems Neuroscience Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emery N Brown; Purdon, Patrick L.; Van Dort, Christa J.

    2011-01-01

    Placing a patient in a state of general anesthesia is crucial for safely and humanely performing most surgical and many nonsurgical procedures. How anesthetic drugs create the state of general anesthesia is considered a major mystery of modern medicine. Unconsciousness, induced by altered arousal and/or cognition, is perhaps the most fascinating behavioral state of general anesthesia. We perform a systems neuroscience analysis of the altered arousal states induced by five classes of intraveno...

  7. Suicidal Ideation and Mental Health of Bhutanese Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong; Shetty, Sharmila; Sivilli, Teresa; Blanton, Curtis; Ellis, Heidi; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer; Taylor, Eboni; Lankau, Emily W; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Refugee agencies noticed a high number of suicides among Bhutanese refugees resettled in the United States between 2009 and 2012. We aimed to estimate prevalence of mental health conditions and identify factors associated with suicidal ideation among Bhutanese refugees. We conducted a stratified random cross-sectional survey and collected information on demographics, mental health conditions, suicidal ideation, and post-migration difficulties. Bivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation. Prevalence of mental health conditions were: depression (21 %), symptoms of anxiety (19 %), post-traumatic stress disorder (4.5 %), and suicidal ideation (3 %), significant risk factors for suicidal ideation included: not being a provider of the family; perceiving low social support; and having symptoms of anxiety and depression. These findings suggest that Bhutanese refugees in the United States may have a higher burden of mental illness relative to the US population and may benefit from mental health screening and treatment. Refugee communities and service providers may benefit from additional suicide awareness training to identify those at highest risk. PMID:26711245

  8. Exploring mental-state reasoning as a social-cognitive mechanism for social loafing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce; Thornton, Bill

    2007-04-01

    The authors explored mental-state reasoning ability among 72 preschoolers (ages 3-5 years) as a possible developmental mechanism for the well-known social loafing effect: diminished individual effort in a collaborative task. The authors expected that older children would outperform young children on standard mental-state reasoning tests and that they would display greater social loafing than younger children. In addition, we hypothesized that the ability to infer the mental states of others would be predictive of social loafing, but that the ability to reason about one's own knowledge would not. The authors gave children three standard false-belief tasks and participated in a within-subjects balloon inflation task that they performed both individually and as part of a group. Results indicated that 3-year-olds performed significantly below older preschoolers on mental-state reasoning tasks. Only 4- and 5-year-olds displayed diminished individual effort. Multiple regression analysis indicated that only the ability to reason about others' false beliefs accounted for a significant amount of variance in social loafing; age (in months) and own false-belief reasoning did not. The authors discussed theoretical and pedagogical implications. PMID:17601078

  9. Theory of Mind: Children's Understanding of Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades, theory of mind (ToM) has been one of the leading and prevalent issues in developmental psychology. ToM is the ability to ascribe mental states (e.g. beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge) to oneself and others as well as to recognise that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that differ from…

  10. The Current Mental State of School Students in Online Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalevskaya E.V.,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a study of actual mental state of high school students who are active subjects of career self-determination in terms of interactive learning. There are four groups of methods of interactive training: psychological training, art therapy, cognitive, and game training. The main task, which is solved by a researcher in a formative experiment with the use of each of these methods, is to establish significant differences in health, activity and mood as the indicators of current mental state of students in the classroom. As a result, we found that the most significant improvements in the current mental state takes place when using art and game therapy, so these techniques should be used in groups of students with low motivation to work, as well as in the adverse psychological climate. Less significant was the improvement of the current mental state after psychological training due to the fact that this method allow to update and seek solutions to the most important intrapersonal issues and require the implementation of a deeper reflection

  11. Developing communicative competence: A longitudinal study of the acquisition of mental state terms and indirect requests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mulder, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The resu

  12. Mental Health of Two-Way Migrants: From Puerto Rico to the United States and Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.; Draguns, Juris G.

    The mental health needs of two-way migrants from Puerto Rico to the United States and back again are discussed in this paper. Four factors affecting Puerto Rican migrants are outlined. First, the relationship between migration and stress is considered. Often, it is noted, in migrating away from stressful economic conditions, the Puerto Rican…

  13. O papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil The role of States in mental health policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gabriela Simon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil no período de 1990 a 2009. A metodologia incluiu a aplicação de questionário eletrônico nas coordenações estaduais de saúde mental de 24 estados brasileiros, revisão documental e análise de base de dados oficiais. Os resultados obtidos apontaram que os estados utilizam várias estratégias e instrumentos na condução da política de saúde mental, principalmente no monitoramento e na prestação de serviços. No entanto, percebeu-se que os estados ainda não desenvolvem de forma sistemática as funções de planejamento, coordenação federativa e coordenação da atenção. O financiamento em saúde mental representa um dos grandes desafios para a gestão dessa área nos estados. Os achados deste estudo sugerem que a superação dos desafios relacionados à condução estadual da política de saúde mental depende da articulação entre governo federal, estados e municípios na elaboração de políticas que atendam à especificidade de cada região, da promoção de um planejamento participativo e de investimentos para o setor.This article examines the role of States in mental health policy in Brazil from 1990 to 2009. The methods included the use of an electronic questionnaire on State coordination of mental health in 24 Brazilian States, document review, and analysis based on official data. The results showed that the States use various strategies and tools to conduct mental health policy, especially in monitoring and services delivery. However, the study showed that States have not developed systematic approaches to planning, coordination with other levels of government, or coordination of care. Funding poses a major challenge for management of mental health at the State level. The study suggests that overcoming the challenges in mental health policy depends on the relationship between the Federal government, States, and Municipalities in drafting

  14. Altered resting state brain networks in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Göttlich

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leading to dysfunctional cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical loops. In addition to the characteristic motor symptoms, PD patients often show cognitive impairments, affective changes and other non-motor symptoms, suggesting system-wide effects on brain function. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph-theory based analysis methods to investigate altered whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in PD patients (n = 37 compared to healthy controls (n = 20. Global network properties indicated less efficient processing in PD. Analysis of brain network modules pointed to increased connectivity within the sensorimotor network, but decreased interaction of the visual network with other brain modules. We found lower connectivity mainly between the cuneus and the ventral caudate, medial orbitofrontal cortex and the temporal lobe. To identify regions of altered connectivity, we mapped the degree of intrinsic functional connectivity both on ROI- and on voxel-level across the brain. Compared to healthy controls, PD patients showed lower connectedness in the medial and middle orbitofrontal cortex. The degree of connectivity was also decreased in the occipital lobe (cuneus and calcarine, but increased in the superior parietal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, supramarginal gyrus and supplementary motor area. Our results on global network and module properties indicated that PD manifests as a disconnection syndrome. This was most apparent in the visual network module. The higher connectedness within the sensorimotor module in PD patients may be related to compensation mechanism in order to overcome the functional deficit of the striato-cortical motor loops or to loss of mutual inhibition between brain networks. Abnormal connectivity in the visual network may be related to adaptation and compensation processes as a consequence

  15. Broadcast Media Intervention in Mental Health Challenge in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osakue Stevenson Omoera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available n most communities, especially in Africa, people with mental health challenges are denigrated; the society is not sympathetic with sufferers of mental illness. A lot of issues can trigger mental illness. These can be stress (economic stress, social stress, educational stress, etc; hereditary factors; war and aggression; rape; spiritual factors, to mention a few. Therefore, there is the need for understanding and awareness creation among the people as one of the ways of addressing the problem. Methodologically, this study deploys analytical, observation and interview techniques. In doing this, it uses the Edo State, Nigeria scenario to critically reflect, albeit preliminarily, on the interventionist role the broadcast media have played/are playing/should play in creating awareness and providing support systems for mentally challenged persons in urban and rural centres in Nigeria. The study argues that television and radio media are very innovative and their innovativeness can be deployed in the area of putting mental health issue in the public discourse and calling for action.

  16. What makes the dorsomedial frontal cortex active during reading the mental states of others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eIsoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The dorsomedial frontal part of the cerebral cortex is consistently activated when people read the mental states of others, such as their beliefs, desires, and intentions, the ability known as having a theory of mind (ToM or mentalizing. This ubiquitous finding has led many researchers to conclude that the dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC constitutes a core component in mentalizing networks. Despite this, it remains unclear why the DMFC becomes active during ToM tasks. We argue that key psychological and behavioral aspects in mentalizing are closely associated with DMFC functions. These include executive inhibition, distinction between self and others, prediction under uncertainty, and perception of intentions, all of which are important for predicting others’ intention and behavior. We review the literature supporting this claim, ranging in fields from developmental psychology to human neuroimaging and macaque electrophysiology. Because perceiving intentions in others’ actions initiates mentalizing and forms the basis of virtually all types of social interaction, the fundamental issue in social neuroscience is to determine the aspects of physical entities that make an observer perceive that they are intentional beings and to clarify the neurobiological underpinnings of the perception of intentionality in others’ actions.

  17. What makes the dorsomedial frontal cortex active during reading the mental states of others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Masaki; Noritake, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The dorsomedial frontal part of the cerebral cortex is consistently activated when people read the mental states of others, such as their beliefs, desires, and intentions, the ability known as having a theory of mind (ToM) or mentalizing. This ubiquitous finding has led many researchers to conclude that the dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC) constitutes a core component in mentalizing networks. Despite this, it remains unclear why the DMFC becomes active during ToM tasks. We argue that key psychological and behavioral aspects in mentalizing are closely associated with DMFC functions. These include executive inhibition, distinction between self and others, prediction under uncertainty, and perception of intentions, all of which are important for predicting others' intention and behavior. We review the literature supporting this claim, ranging in fields from developmental psychology to human neuroimaging and macaque electrophysiology. Because perceiving intentions in others' actions initiates mentalizing and forms the basis of virtually all types of social interaction, the fundamental issue in social neuroscience is to determine the aspects of physical entities that make an observer perceive that they are intentional beings and to clarify the neurobiological underpinnings of the perception of intentionality in others' actions. PMID:24367287

  18. Right Frontoinsular Cortex and Subcortical Activity to Infant Cry Is Associated with Maternal Mental State Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L.; Swain, James E.; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L.

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to examine neural correlates of a specific component of human caregiving: maternal mental state talk, reflecting a mother's proclivity to attribute mental states and intentionality to her infant. Using a potent, ecologically relevant stimulus of infant cry during fMRI, we tested hypotheses that postpartum neural response to the cry of “own” versus a standard “other” infant in the right frontoinsular cortex (RFIC) and subcortical limbic network would be associated with independent observations of maternal mental state talk. The sample comprised 76 urban-living, low socioeconomic mothers (82% African American) and their 4-month-old infants. Before the fMRI scan, mothers were filmed in face-to-face interaction with their infant, and maternal behaviors were coded by trained researchers unaware of all other information about the participants. The results showed higher functional activity in the RFIC to own versus other infant cry at the group level. In addition, RFIC and bilateral subcortical neural activity (e.g., thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, putamen) was associated positively with maternal mental state talk but not with more global aspects of observed caregiving. These findings held when accounting for perceptual and contextual covariates, such as maternal felt distress, urge to help, depression severity, and recognition of own infant cry. Our results highlight the need to focus on specific components of caregiving to advance understanding of the maternal brain. Future work will examine the predictive utility of this neural marker for mother–child function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The current study advances extant literature examining the neural underpinning of early parenting behavior. The findings highlight the special functional importance of the right frontoinsular cortex–thalamic–limbic network in a mother's proclivity to engage in mental state talk with her preverbal infant, a circumscribed aspect of maternal caregiving

  19. Effects of flotation therapy on relaxation and mental state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佩诚; 苏英

    2004-01-01

    @@ Flotation therapy is one of the models of Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST). It has been studied and used in clinics in western countries for many years. According to the research results, flotation therapy can be used effectively in many ways.1 Some of the research done in China showed that flotation therapy could be helpful in the treatment of hypertension2 as well as cerebral paraplegia. It has also been observed in clinics that flotation therapy can induce deep relaxation, improve emotional states and have beneficial effects on some kinds of neurosis and psychosomatic diseases. But the effect of flotation therapy on the basic psychological and physiological function of ordinary Chinese has not been studied systemically. And there is no objective research result that has demonstrated the benefits of flotation therapy in Chinese clinics.

  20. Incongruity, Incongruity Resolution, and Mental States: The Measure and Modification of Situational Awareness and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.

    1997-01-01

    Cognition and emotion combine to define mental states. Situational awareness depends on both knowledge of the environment and the mood of the individual. Cognitive scientists from William James and Sigmond Freud to contemporary theorists in artificial intelligence and neuropsychology have acknowledged the critical role of subjective state in determining the efficiency and flexibility of information processing. One of the most explicit computational models of mental states to incorporate both knowledge and arousal has been described. Knowledge is carried in a typical neural net with categorical nodes and probabilistic links. Arousal determines the focus among these nodes and links. High arousal results in a restricted range of activation. Low arousal causes a wider range of stimulation and a broader linking of categories or "ideas." From this model Gerlernter generates "creativity" in problem solving from a network that is widely active and the possibility of "fixation" from a highly aroused system.

  1. Accounting for ecosystem alteration doubles estimates of conservation risk in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaty, Randy; Blankenship, Kori; Hagen, Sarah; Fargione, Joseph; Smith, Jim; Patton, Jeannie

    2011-01-01

    Previous national and global conservation assessments have relied on habitat conversion data to quantify conservation risk. However, in addition to habitat conversion to crop production or urban uses, ecosystem alteration (e.g., from logging, conversion to plantations, biological invasion, or fire suppression) is a large source of conservation risk. We add data quantifying ecosystem alteration on unconverted lands to arrive at a more accurate depiction of conservation risk for the conterminous United States. We quantify ecosystem alteration using a recent national assessment based on remote sensing of current vegetation compared with modeled reference natural vegetation conditions. Highly altered (but not converted) ecosystems comprise 23% of the conterminous United States, such that the number of critically endangered ecoregions in the United States is 156% higher than when calculated using habitat conversion data alone. Increased attention to natural resource management will be essential to address widespread ecosystem alteration and reduce conservation risk. PMID:21850248

  2. Accounting for ecosystem alteration doubles estimates of conservation risk in the conterminous United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Swaty

    Full Text Available Previous national and global conservation assessments have relied on habitat conversion data to quantify conservation risk. However, in addition to habitat conversion to crop production or urban uses, ecosystem alteration (e.g., from logging, conversion to plantations, biological invasion, or fire suppression is a large source of conservation risk. We add data quantifying ecosystem alteration on unconverted lands to arrive at a more accurate depiction of conservation risk for the conterminous United States. We quantify ecosystem alteration using a recent national assessment based on remote sensing of current vegetation compared with modeled reference natural vegetation conditions. Highly altered (but not converted ecosystems comprise 23% of the conterminous United States, such that the number of critically endangered ecoregions in the United States is 156% higher than when calculated using habitat conversion data alone. Increased attention to natural resource management will be essential to address widespread ecosystem alteration and reduce conservation risk.

  3. Altered state and trait disgust in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienle, Anne; Haas-Krammer, Alexandra; Schöggl, Helmut; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Ille, Rottraut

    2013-02-01

    Clinical experience suggests that the emotion disgust plays an important role in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We investigated 30 female patients with BPD and 30 healthy women who answered different measures of trait disgust, specifically disgust proneness, disgust sensitivity, and self-disgust. Moreover, all participants rated affective facial expressions as well as affective scenes according to perceived or elicited basic emotions. The patients with BPD reported elevated trait disgust, especially for the area of self-disgust. They also rated facial expressions of disgust as more intense than did the healthy women but only when the person who displayed this emotion was male. This sex-specific disgust bias was independent of depression and experienced sexual/physical abuse in the clinical group. Altogether, the patients with BPD showed a broad spectrum of altered disgust processes, which was positively correlated with disorder severity. Consequently, the assessment of disgust reactivity should be introduced as a diagnostic tool for this disorder. PMID:23364118

  4. Addiction Related Alteration in Resting-state Brain Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Ying; Li, Nan; Wang, Chang-Xin; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hu-Sheng; Fu, Xian-ming; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that addictive drug use is related to abnormal functional organization in the user’s brain. The present study aimed to identify this type of abnormality within the brain networks implicated in addiction by resting-state functional connectivity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). With fMRI data acquired during resting state from 14 chronic heroin users (12 of whom were being treated with methadone) and 13 non-addicted controls, we investigated the ...

  5. Resting state networks and consciousness: alterations of multiple resting state network connectivity in physiological, pharmacological, and pathological consciousness States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Lizette; Soddu, Andrea; Gómez, Francisco; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Tshibanda, Luaba; Thonnard, Marie; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Kirsch, Murielle; Laureys, Steven; Demertzi, Athena

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the functional contribution of resting state activity to conscious cognition, we aimed to review increases and decreases in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) functional connectivity under physiological (sleep), pharmacological (anesthesia), and pathological altered states of consciousness, such as brain death, coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and minimally conscious state. The reviewed resting state networks were the DMN, left and right executive control, salience, sensorimotor, auditory, and visual networks. We highlight some methodological issues concerning resting state analyses in severely injured brains mainly in terms of hypothesis-driven seed-based correlation analysis and data-driven independent components analysis approaches. Finally, we attempt to contextualize our discussion within theoretical frameworks of conscious processes. We think that this "lesion" approach allows us to better determine the necessary conditions under which normal conscious cognition takes place. At the clinical level, we acknowledge the technical merits of the resting state paradigm. Indeed, fast and easy acquisitions are preferable to activation paradigms in clinical populations. Finally, we emphasize the need to validate the diagnostic and prognostic value of fMRI resting state measurements in non-communicating brain damaged patients. PMID:22969735

  6. Changes in cognitive state alter human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the brain as a whole system can be accomplished using network theory principles. Research has shown that human functional brain networks during a resting state exhibit small-world properties and high degree nodes, or hubs, localized to brain areas consistent with the default mode network (DMN. However, the study of brain networks across different tasks and or cognitive states has been inconclusive. Research in this field is important because the underpinnings of behavioral output are inherently dependent on whether or not brain networks are dynamic. This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate multiple network metrics at a voxel-wise resolution in the human brain at both the whole brain and regional level under various conditions: resting state, visual stimulation, and multisensory (auditory and visual stimulation. Our results show that despite global network stability, functional brain networks exhibit considerable task-induced changes in connectivity, efficiency, and community structure at the regional level.

  7. New Architecture for Mental Health; New York State Health and Mental Hygiene Facilities Improvement Corporation - Report to the Governor, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Health and Mental Hygiene Facilities Improvement Corp., Albany.

    The accomplishments of The Health and Mental Hygiene Facilities Improvement Corporation during the past years in creating needed hospitals and health centers for the mentally disabled is documented. The new facilities show awareness of architectural trends and new objectives in design in order to better serve the needs of the patient. Pictures and…

  8. Iodinated contrast media alter immune responses in pro-inflammatory states.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2010-07-01

    Hypertonic saline causes a transient elevation of blood osmolality and has been shown to alter cellular inflammatory responses in pro-inflammatory states. Intravascular administration of iodine contrast media also causes a transient elevation of blood osmolarity.

  9. Modeling altered functional connectivity in brain disease states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jaroslav

    Lorentz Center, 2011. [Computational Neuroscience and the Dynamics of Disease States. 08.08.2012-12.08.2012, Leiden] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : synchronization * brain disease * computational modelling * functional connectivity * graph theory * structural connectivity Subject RIV: FH - Neurology http://www.lorentzcenter.nl/lc/web/2011/457/abstracts.php3?wsid=457&type=presentations

  10. Minding the Gap: Narrative Descriptions about Mental States Attenuate Parochial Empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile G Bruneau

    Full Text Available In three experiments, we examine parochial empathy (feeling more empathy for in-group than out-group members across novel group boundaries, and test whether we can mitigate parochial empathy with brief narrative descriptions. In the absence of individuating information, participants consistently report more empathy for members of their own assigned group than a competitive out-group. However, individualized descriptions of in-group and out-group targets significantly reduce parochial empathy by interfering with encoding of targets' group membership. Finally, the descriptions that most effectively decrease parochial empathy are those that describe targets' mental states. These results support the role of individuating information in ameliorating parochial empathy, suggest a mechanism for their action, and show that descriptions emphasizing targets' mental states are particularly effective.

  11. Here, There and Everywhere: Emotion and Mental State Talk in Different Social Contexts Predicts Empathic Helping in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eDrummond

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature suggests that parents socialize early-emerging prosocial behavior across varied contexts and in subtle yet powerful ways. We focus on discourse about emotions and mental states as one potential socialization mechanism given its conceptual relevance to prosocial behavior and its known positive relations with emotion understanding and social-cognitive development, as well as parents’ frequent use of such discourse beginning in infancy. Specifically, we ask how parents’ emotion and mental state talk with their toddlers relates to toddlers’ helping and how these associations vary by context. Children aged 18- to 30-months (n=38 interacted with a parent during book reading and joint play with toys, two everyday contexts that afford parental discussion of emotions and mental states. Children also participated in instrumental and empathic helping tasks. Results revealed that although parents discuss mental states with their children in both contexts, the nature of their talk differs: during book reading parents labeled emotions and mental states significantly more often than during joint play, especially simple affect words (e.g. happy, sad and explanations or elaborations of emotions; whereas they used more desire talk and mental state words (e.g. think, know in joint play. Parents’ emotion and mental state discourse related to children’s empathic, emotion-based helping behavior; however, it did not relate to instrumental, action-based helping. Moreover, relations between parent talk and empathic helping varied by context: children who helped more quickly had parents who labeled emotion and mental states more often during joint play and who elicited this talk more often during book reading. As emotion and mental state talk both varies between contexts and exhibits context-specific associations with empathic prosocial behavior early in development, we conclude that such discourse may be a key form of socialization

  12. Effect Of Single And Short-Term Aerobics On Selected Mental State Parametres In Adult Females

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    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

  13. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT STYLES OF MUSIC ON YOUNG PEOPLE’S MENTAL STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Yerkinbekova, Meyrim; Kasumova, Roza; Shagurbaeva, Mentay; Sametova, Fauzya

    2014-01-01

    Currently one of the most important differentiating and integrating factors, young people are the musical preferences that affect the formation of associations of fans of those or other performers. Among modern youth popular musical subcultures distinguish reivers, rockers; hip-hop-representatives of these subcultures would be considered in the work. The relevance of studying the impact of different contemporary styles of music (electronic music, rock, RAP) on the mental state of the people, ...

  14. Criminal responsibility, abnormal mental states, and the functions of expert medico-psychological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    James, Hazel

    2005-01-01

    This thesis exammes the interaction of law and medico-psychology in homicide cases, where the defences of insanity and diminished responsibility in particular are raised. If the defendant's mental state is subject to scrutiny through the defences, then expert medico-psychological evidence is required, yet law and medico-psychology have very different understandings on the mind and very different roles with regard to assessing individuals. Expert medico-psychological evidence can be submitted ...

  15. Decline in Mentalising Ability with Healthy Aging: Evidence from Mental State Decoding and Reasoning Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Koegel, LaKrista, M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether individuals constituting an older population would display deficits in tasks assessing aspects of ToM compared to younger participants; secondary goals were to evaluate whether older participants would be differentially affected on cognitive versus affective aspects of the tasks and/or differentially affected on mental state decoding versus reasoning tasks, as well as to asses the role that executive functioning has on thes...

  16. Alterations of the rainfall in some counties of Pernambuco State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renilson Targino Dantas

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available It was utilized rainfall data referring to the 1961-2000 period of the cities of Cabrobó, Garanhuns and Triunfo, they are located in the Pernambuco State, with the objective to evaluated the temporal variation of this meteorological element in this period. In this way the data of rainfall it were distributed in ten years series, correspondent to the 1961-70, 1971-80, 1981-90 and 1991-00 periods, being analyzed the variations of this element, utilizing the normalized devotions and the method of least squares to evaluated the rainfall tendencies. It was verified a reduction of the rainfall in the last decade, principally, with the minimum value of 67,0 mm in Cabrobó, this fact is associated to the El-Niño phenomenon occurred in 1993 and 1997/1998. Finally, the conclusion is that the period of 1961-2000 there was a decrease of the rainfall in the Pernambuco State nearby 11,8 mm in regards to historical average.

  17. School Mental Health: The Impact of State and Local Capacity-Building Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing number of collaborative partnerships between schools and community-based organizations to expand school mental health (SMH service capacity in the United States, there have been relatively few systematic initiatives focused on key strategies for large-scale SMH capacity building with state and local education systems. Based on a framework of ten critical factors for capacity building, as well as existing best practices, two case studies were utilized to develop a replicable capacity-building model to advance interagency SMH development. Seventy education and mental health stakeholders from two selected states participated in baseline assessments of skill com-petency and critical factor implementation followed by two-day trainings (one in each state; 29 (41% of the participants also completed a six month follow-up assessment. Targeted competencies increased significantly for participants from both states, with large effect sizes (d = 2.05 and 2.56, from pre- to post-training. Participant reports of critical factor implementation increased significantly for one of the two states (t[15] = -6.40, p < .001, d = 1.77. Results inform specific training recommendations for stakeholders and collaborative teams, as well as policy implications to support future development of SMH service capacity.

  18. Using fiction to assess mental state understanding: a new task for assessing theory of mind in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dodell-Feder

    Full Text Available Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others--an ability known as theory of mind (ToM. Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task--the Short Story Task (SST--intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters' mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability.

  19. Identification of visual evoked response parameters sensitive to pilot mental state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    Systems analysis techniques were developed and demonstrated for modeling the electroencephalographic (EEG) steady state visual evoked response (ssVER), for use in EEG data compression and as an indicator of mental workload. The study focused on steady state frequency domain stimulation and response analysis, implemented with a sum-of-sines (SOS) stimulus generator and an off-line describing function response analyzer. Three major tasks were conducted: (1) VER related systems identification material was reviewed; (2) Software for experiment control and data analysis was developed and implemented; and (3) ssVER identification and modeling was demonstrated, via a mental loading experiment. It was found that a systems approach to ssVER functional modeling can serve as the basis for eventual development of a mental workload indicator. The review showed how transient visual evoked response (tVER) and ssVER research are related at the functional level, the software development showed how systems techniques can be used for ssVER characterization, and the pilot experiment showed how a simple model can be used to capture the basic dynamic response of the ssVER, under varying loads.

  20. The brain on silent: mind wandering, mindful awareness, and states of mental tranquility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, David R; Zeidan, Fadel

    2016-06-01

    Mind wandering and mindfulness are often described as divergent mental states with opposing effects on cognitive performance and mental health. Spontaneous mind wandering is typically associated with self-reflective states that contribute to negative processing of the past, worrying/fantasizing about the future, and disruption of primary task performance. On the other hand, mindful awareness is frequently described as a focus on present sensory input without cognitive elaboration or emotional reactivity, and is associated with improved task performance and decreased stress-related symptomology. Unfortunately, such distinctions fail to acknowledge similarities and interactions between the two states. Instead of an inverse relationship between mindfulness and mind wandering, a more nuanced characterization of mindfulness may involve skillful toggling back and forth between conceptual and nonconceptual processes and networks supporting each state, to meet the contextually specified demands of the situation. In this article, we present a theoretical analysis and plausible neurocognitive framework of the restful mind, in which we attempt to clarify potentially adaptive contributions of both mind wandering and mindful awareness through the lens of the extant neurocognitive literature on intrinsic network activity, meditation, and emerging descriptions of stillness and nonduality. A neurophenomenological approach to probing modality-specific forms of concentration and nonconceptual awareness is presented that may improve our understanding of the resting state. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27398642

  1. Investigation of the alteration of gray matter volume in children with mental retardation with the optimal voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect brain structural difference between children with unexplained mental retardation and children with typically normal development. Methods: The high-resolution magnetic MR imaging were obtained from 21 children with unexplained mental retardation and 30 age-matched control children without intellectual disabilities. Voxel-based morphometry analysis with an optimization of spatial segmentation and normalization procedures were applied to compare differences of gray matter volume between the two groups. The total and regional gray matter volume were compared between the two groups with independent t test. Meanwhile, correlation was conducted to analyze the relationship between the total gray matter volume and intelligence quotient (IQ) with partial correlation test. Results: The total gray matter volume was significantly increased in the mental retardation children (1.012±0.079) × 106 mm3] in relative to the controls [(0.956±0.059)×106 mm3, t=-2.80, P0.05). Conclusions: VBM would detect the gray matter abnormalities that were not founded in routine MR scanning. The increase of gray matter volume in the frontal-thalamus network might indicate the delayed maturation of the brain development. This might be one of the causations of' mental retardation in children. (authors)

  2. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Parcesepe, Angela M.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental...

  3. Consumption of alcohol in mental health services in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Prado Kantorski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcoholism has been a major concern of public health worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, approximately 76.3 million people presented problems of alcohol abuse in 2004. Therefore, the risks arising from the association of psychiatric disorders with alcohol consumption should also be considered in the context of mental health services. Objective: This study aimed to analyze alcohol consumption by the users of Therapeutic Residential Services- SRT and Psychosocial Care Centers- CAPS in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methodology: The present study is part of a research entitled Rehabilitation Networks - REDESUL, carried out from September to December 2009 in five municipalities of the aforementioned Brazilian state. The total sample comprised 392 users: 143 from the SRT and 270 from the CAPS services, with intersection of 21 members. Results: The results showed that of the 392 care service users, only 29 had consumed alcohol during the four weeks prior to the survey. The majority of these 29 users were between 31 and 59 years old, male, single, and only n = 13 (48.28% reported being aware of their psychiatric disorders, with prevalence of schizophrenia n = 7 (24.13% followed by bipolar disorders n = 3 (10.34%. Conclusion: It is necessary that the mental health teams are also trained to work with alcohol users, regardless of the type of mental health service they work for, and that they develop actions in relation to guidance on alcohol consumption, treatment adherence, rehabilitation, and integration of users to the community.

  4. Second-order Mental State Attribution in Children with Intellectual Disability: Cognitive Functioning and Some Educational Planning Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Alevriadou; Stergiani Giaouri

    2011-01-01

    Second-order mental state attribution in two groups of children with non-specific intellectual disability andDown syndrome was investigated. The children were compared to overall mental age-matched group of typicallydeveloping children. The aim of the present study was to determine the specificity of the theory of mind deficitto different groups of children with intellectual disability. The results clearly showed that children with Downsyndrome performed more poorly than the children with non...

  5. Self-knowledge and attribution of mental states in Theory of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidelsky, Liza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many philosophers consider that self-knowledge reflects the particularity that we can know what we think, believe, desire, in a different way in which we know the mental states of other people. This is the claim of an asymmetry between first and third person. Several approaches han been offered in the epistemological literature in order to account for this asymmetry. Nonetheless, unlike the expected compatibility between adjacent fields, the literature related to the attribution and self-attribution of mental states or, in general, what is called Theory of Mind, does not seem either to preserve this asymmetry or the attempt to preserve it undermines the fundamental role of the different Theory of Mind proposals. This paper will show this in two parts. Firstly, it addresses how the asymmetry thesis han been defended in the epistemological literature. The aim of this section is to offer a geography of the different approaches. Secondly, two proposals in Theory of Mind, the theory theory and simulation theory, will be evaluated in order to show why they do not account for the asymmetry thesis, and some of the consequences that would be gather from the attempt to conciliate these Theory of Mind proposals with the epistemological approaches that defend the asymmetry thesis will be analized.

  6. Altered mental status and low anion gap in a patient with sickle cell anemia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Wartak Siddharth A; Mehendale Reshma A; Freda Benjamin; Verma Ashish; Rose David N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction It is challenging to diagnose two coexisting medical conditions if the symptoms are overlapping. This is further confounded if the patient presents with an unexplained deterioration in mental status. A low anion gap or a zero anion gap is an uncommon clinical finding and has few differential diagnoses. This test therefore has important implications in correctly identifying underlying medical conditions. Case presentation A 50-year-old African American male patient with s...

  7. An Eight Month Randomized Controlled Exercise Intervention Alters Resting State Synchrony in Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Krafft, Cynthia E.; Pierce, Jordan E.; Schwarz, Nicolette F.; Chi, Lingxi; Weinberger, Abby L.; Schaeffer, David J.; Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Camchong, Jazmin; Allison, Jerry D.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L.; McDowell, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) children 8–11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional...

  8. Altered Default Network Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Wei-na; Sun, Jin-Hua; Sun, Ya-Wen; Zhou, Yan; Li, Lei; Xu, Jian-Rong; Du, Ya-Song

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Methods Seventeen adolescents with IGA and 24 normal control adolescents underwent a 7.3 minute resting-state fMRI scan. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) connectivity was determined in all subjects by inve...

  9. Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrou Francis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in recent population-wide surveys. Methods Survey data from the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication conducted in 2001–2003, the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, and the 2007 US National Health Interview Survey were used to investigate the relationship between current smoking, ICD-10 mental disorders and non-specific psychological distress. Population weighted estimates of smoking rates by disorder, and mental disorder rates by smoking status were calculated. Results In both the US and Australia, adults who met ICD-10 criteria for mental disorders in the 12 months prior to the survey smoked at almost twice the rate of adults without mental disorders. While approximately 20% of the adult population had 12-month mental disorders, among adult smokers approximately one-third had a 12-month mental disorder – 31.7% in the US (95% CI: 29.5%–33.8% and 32.4% in Australia (95% CI: 29.5%–35.3%. Female smokers had higher rates of mental disorders than male smokers, and younger smokers had considerably higher rates than older smokers. The majority of mentally ill smokers were not in contact with mental health services, but their rate of smoking was not different from that of mentally ill smokers who had accessed services for their mental health problem. Smokers with high levels of psychological distress smoked a higher average number of cigarettes per day. Conclusion Mental illness is associated with both higher rates of smoking and higher

  10. Amicus Curiae Brief for the United States Supreme Court on Mental Health Issues Associated with "Physician-Assisted Suicide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Gordon, Judith R.

    2002-01-01

    After providing background material related to the Supreme Court cases on "physician-assisted suicide" (Washington v. Glucksberg, 1997, and Vacco v. Quill, 1997), this article presents the amicus curiae brief that was submitted to the United States Supreme Court by 2 national mental health organizations, a state psychological association, and an…

  11. Solid-State NMR Examination of Alteration Layers on a Nuclear Waste Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Kelly A. [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Science Lab.; Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pantano, Carlo G. [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Mueller, Karl T. [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Science Lab.

    2013-06-01

    Solid-state NMR is a powerful tool for probing the role and significance of alteration layers in determining the kinetics for the corrosion of nuclear waste glass. NMR methods are used to probe the chemical structure of the alteration layers to elucidate information about their chemical complexity, leading to increased insight into the mechanism of altered layer formation. Two glass compositions were examined in this study: a glass preliminarily designed for nuclear waste immobilization (called AFCI) and a simplified version of this AFCI glass (which we call SA1R). Powdered glasses with controlled and known particles sizes were corroded at 90 °C for periods of one and five months with a surface-area to solution-volume ratio of 100,000 m-1. 1H-29Si CP-CPMG MAS NMR, 1H-27Al CP-MAS NMR, 1H-11B CP-MAS NMR, and 1H-23Na CP-MAS NMR experiments provide isolated structural information about the alteration layers, which differ in structure from that of the pristine glass. Both glasses studied here develop alteration layers composed primarily of [IV]Si species. Aluminum is also retained in the alteration layers, perhaps facilitated by the observed increase in coordination from [IV]Al to [VI]Al, which correlates with a loss of charge balancing cations. 1H-11B CP-MAS NMR observations indicated a retention of boron in hydrated glass layers, which has not been characterized by previous work. For the AFCI glass, secondary phase formation begins during the corrosion times considered here, and these neophases are detected within the alteration layers. We identify precursor phases as crystalline sodium metasilicates. An important finding is that layer thickness depends on the length of the initial alteration stages and varies only with respect to silicon species during the residual rate regime.

  12. Solid-State NMR Examination of Alteration Layers on a Nuclear Waste Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid-state NMR is a powerful tool for probing the role and significance of alteration layers in determining the kinetics for the corrosion of nuclear waste glass. NMR methods are used to probe the chemical structure of the alteration layers to elucidate information about their chemical complexity, leading to increased insight into the mechanism of altered layer formation. Two glass compositions were examined in this study: a glass preliminarily designed for nuclear waste immobilization (called AFCI) and a simplified version of this AFCI glass (which we call SA1R). Powdered glasses with controlled and known particles sizes were corroded at 90 °C for periods of one and five months with a surface-area to solution-volume ratio of 100,000 m-1. 1H-29Si CP-CPMG MAS NMR, 1H-27Al CP-MAS NMR, 1H-11B CP-MAS NMR, and 1H-23Na CP-MAS NMR experiments provide isolated structural information about the alteration layers, which differ in structure from that of the pristine glass. Both glasses studied here develop alteration layers composed primarily of [IV]Si species. Aluminum is also retained in the alteration layers, perhaps facilitated by the observed increase in coordination from [IV]Al to [VI]Al, which correlates with a loss of charge balancing cations. 1H-11B CP-MAS NMR observations indicated a retention of boron in hydrated glass layers, which has not been characterized by previous work. For the AFCI glass, secondary phase formation begins during the corrosion times considered here, and these neophases are detected within the alteration layers. We identify precursor phases as crystalline sodium metasilicates. An important finding is that layer thickness depends on the length of the initial alteration stages and varies only with respect to silicon species during the residual rate regime

  13. Mental Health Facilities, Licensed Mental Health Hospitals, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of California - Office of the State Chief Information Officer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mental Health Facilities dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  14. Mental health of refugees following state-sponsored repatriation from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, Voluntary Assisted Return Programmes (VARPs have received increasing funding as a potential way of reducing the number of refugees in EU member states. A number of factors may affect the mental well-being of returnees. These include adjustment to the home country following return, difficult living conditions, and long-term effects resulting from the severe traumatic stress that had originally driven the affected out of their homes. Little is known about the extent to which these and other factors may promote or inhibit the willingness of refugees to return to their country of origin. The present pilot study investigated refugees who returned to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 13 years. Methods Forty-seven VARP participants were interviewed concerning their present living conditions, their views of their native country, and their attitudes towards a potential return prior to actually returning. 33 participants were interviewed nine months after returning to their country of origin. Mental health and well-being were assessed using the questionnaires Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS and EUROHIS and the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Our objectives were to examine the mental health status of refugees returning to their home country following an extended period of exile. We also aimed to assess the circumstances under which people decided to return, the current living conditions in their home country, and retrospective returnee evaluations of their decision to accept assisted return. Results Prior to returning to their home country, participants showed a prevalence rate of 53% for psychiatric disorders. After returning, this rate increased to a sizeable 88%. Substantial correlations were found between the living situation in Germany, the disposition to return, and mental health. For two thirds of the participants, the decision

  15. Mental states as part of countertransference responses in psychotherapists facing reports of traumatic events of mourning and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Patricia; Terra, Luciana; Abuchaim, Claudio; Sordi, Anne; Wiethaeuper, Daniela; Bouchard, Marc-Andrè; Mardini, Victor; Baumgardt, Rosana; Lauerman, Marta; Ceitlin, Lúcia Helena

    2008-09-01

    The study aims to compare the mental states and countertransference responses of 92 psychodynamically oriented psychotherapists, male and female, experienced and inexperienced, facing written reports of real patients who experienced traumatic events. Two vignettes were presented: one of a sexual violence, the other the sudden death of a significant person. The Mental States Rating System (MSRS; Bouchard, Picard, Audet, Brisson, & Carrier, 1998), the MSRS Self-Report (Goldfeld & Bouchard, 2004), and the Inventory of Countertransference Behavior (ICB; Friedman & Gelso, 2000) were used. Results showed that the mourning vignette led to more reflective responses (MSRS) and the rape case was associated with more negative countertransference reactions (ICB). Female participants were more reflective (MSRS); male therapists used less mentalized states (MSRS Self-Report) and expressed more negative reactions (ICB) for both scenarios. Experienced therapists showed more positive reactions on the ICB. The construct validity of the instruments is discussed in relation to the findings. PMID:18816003

  16. New measures of mental state and behavior based on data collected from sensors, smartphones, and the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Tasha; Monteith, Scott

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid and ubiquitous acceptance of new technologies, algorithms will be used to estimate new measures of mental state and behavior based on digital data. The algorithms will analyze data collected from sensors in smartphones and wearable technology, and data collected from Internet and smartphone usage and activities. In the future, new medical measures that assist with the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of psychiatric disorders will be available despite unresolved reliability, usability, and privacy issues. At the same time, similar non-medical commercial measures of mental state are being developed primarily for targeted advertising. There are societal and ethical implications related to the use of these measures of mental state and behavior for both medical and non-medical purposes. PMID:25308392

  17. The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2012-09-01

    It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. PMID:22530616

  18. Altered regional homogeneity in pediatric bipolar disorder during manic state: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xiao

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD is a severely debilitating illness, which is characterized by episodes of mania and depression separated by periods of remission. Previous fMRI studies investigating PBD were mainly task-related. However, little is known about the abnormalities in PBD, especially during resting state. Resting state brain activity measured by fMRI might help to explore neurobiological biomarkers of the disorder. METHODS: Regional homogeneity (ReHo was examined with resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI on 15 patients with PBD in manic state, with 15 age-and sex-matched healthy youth subjects as controls. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, the patients with PBD showed altered ReHo in the cortical and subcortical structures. The ReHo measurement of the PBD group was negatively correlated with the score of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS in the superior frontal gyrus. Positive correlations between the ReHo measurement and the score of YMRS were found in the hippocampus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the PBD group. CONCLUSIONS: Altered regional brain activity is present in patients with PBD during manic state. This study presents new evidence for abnormal ventral-affective and dorsal-cognitive circuits in PBD during resting state and may add fresh insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PBD.

  19. Congruencies in Increased Mortality Rates, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Causes of Death Among Public Mental Health Clients in Eight States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig W. Colton, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mortality rates are used as global measures of a population’s health status and as indicators for public health efforts and medical treatments. Elevated mortality rates among individuals with mental illness have been reported in various studies, but very little focus has been placed on interstate comparisons and congruency of mortality and causes of death among public mental health clients. Methods Using age-adjusted death rates, standardized mortality ratios, and years of potential life lost, we compared the mortality of public mental health clients in eight states with the mortality of their state general populations. The data used in our study were submitted by public mental health agencies in eight states (Arizona, Missouri, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, and Virginia for 1997 through 2000 during the Sixteen-State Study on Mental Health Performance Measures, a multistate study federally funded by the Center for Mental Health Services in collaboration with the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors. Results In all eight states, we found that public mental health clients had a higher relative risk of death than the general populations of their states. Deceased public mental health clients had died at much younger ages and lost decades of potential life when compared with their living cohorts nationwide. Clients with major mental illness diagnoses died at younger ages and lost more years of life than people with non-major mental illness diagnoses. Most mental health clients died of natural causes similar to the leading causes of death found nationwide, including heart disease, cancer, and cerebrovascular, respiratory, and lung diseases. Conclusion Mental health and physical health are intertwined; both types of care should be provided and linked together within health care delivery systems. Research to track mortality and primary care should be increased to provide information for additional

  20. Oral contraceptive pill use and menstrual cycle phase are associated with altered resting state functional connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Nicole; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Goharzad, Azaadeh; Cahill, Larry

    2013-01-01

    At rest, brain activity can be characterized not by an absence of organized activity but instead by spatially and temporally correlated patterns of activity. In this experiment, we investigated whether and to what extent resting state functional connectivity is modulated by sex hormones in women, both across the menstrual cycle and when altered by oral contraceptive pills. Sex hormones have been shown to have important effects on task-related activity, but few studies have investigated the ex...

  1. Psychometric evaluation of the altered states of consciousness rating scale (OAV)

    OpenAIRE

    Studerus, E; Gamma, A.; Vollenweider, F X

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The OAV questionnaire has been developed to integrate research on altered states of consciousness (ASC). It measures three primary and one secondary dimensions of ASC that are hypothesized to be invariant across ASC induction methods. The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation modeling techniques and its psychometric properties ...

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (OAV)

    OpenAIRE

    Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2010-01-01

    Background The OAV questionnaire has been developed to integrate research on altered states of consciousness (ASC). It measures three primary and one secondary dimensions of ASC that are hypothesized to be invariant across ASC induction methods. The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation modeling techniques and its psychometric properties h...

  3. Trauma-Related Altered States of Consciousness: Exploring the 4-D Model

    OpenAIRE

    Paul A. Frewen; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion. The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with ...

  4. MMN and Novelty P3 in Coma and Other Altered States of Consciousness: A Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Morlet, Dominique; Fischer, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    International audience In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the assessment of patients in altered states of consciousness. There is a need for accurate and early prediction of awakening and recovery from coma. Neurophysiological assessment of coma was once restricted to brainstem auditory and primary cortex somatosensory evoked potentials elicited in the 30 ms range, which have both shown good predictive value for poor coma outcome only. In this paper, we review how pass...

  5. The evolution of brain waves in altered states of consciousness (REM sleep and meditation)

    OpenAIRE

    Irina E. Chiş

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the brain activity in REM sleep andmeditation; it was also studied in which way an appropriate musical background would affect theevolution of brain waves in these altered states of consciousness. Material and Method: The recordingswere done with a portable electroencephalograph, on a homogeneous group of human subjects (menaged 30-50 years). The subjects were monitored in their own bed, the length of sleep and how earlythey went to bed was up to ...

  6. Social technology restriction alters state-anxiety but not autonomic activity in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Durocher, John J.; Lufkin, Kelly M.; King, Michelle E.; Carter, Jason R.

    2011-01-01

    Social technology is extensively used by young adults throughout the world, and it has been suggested that interrupting access to this technology induces anxiety. However, the influence of social technology restriction on anxiety and autonomic activity in young adults has not been formally examined. Therefore, we hypothesized that restriction of social technology would increase state-anxiety and alter neural cardiovascular regulation of arterial blood pressure. Twenty-one college students (ag...

  7. Acculturation and Self-Rated Mental Health Among Latino and Asian Immigrants in the United States: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Elif; Gayman, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses variations in acculturation experiences by identifying distinct acculturation classes, and investigates the role of these acculturation classes for self-rated mental health among Latino and Asian immigrants in the United States. Using 2002-2003 the National Latino and Asian American Study, Latent Class Analysis is used to capture variations in immigrant classes (recent arrivals, separated, bicultural and assimilated), and OLS regressions are used to assess the link between acculturation classes and self-rated mental health. For both Latinos and Asians, bicultural immigrants reported the best mental health, and separated immigrants and recent arrivals reported the worst mental health. The findings also reveal group differences in acculturation classes, whereby Latino immigrants were more likely to be in the separated class and recent arrivals class relative to Asian immigrants. While there was not a significant group difference in self-rated mental health at the bivariate level, controlling for acculturation classes revealed that Latinos report better self-rated mental health than Asians. Thus, Latino immigrants would actually have better self-rated mental health than their Asian counterparts if they were not more likely to be represented in less acculturated classes (separated class and recent arrivals) and/or as likely to be in the bicultural class as their Asian counterparts. Together the findings underscore the nuanced and complex nature of the acculturation process, highlighting the importance of race differences in this process, and demonstrate the role of acculturation classes for immigrant group differences in self-rated mental health. PMID:26250609

  8. Intrinsic Brain Activity in Altered States of Consciousness: How Conscious Is the Default Mode of Brain Function?

    OpenAIRE

    Boly, M; Phillips, C.; Tshibanda, L; Vanhaudenhuyse, A.; Schabus, M.; Dang-Vu, T.T.; Moonen, G.; Hustinx, R.; Maquet, P; Laureys, S.

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has recently received increasing interest in the neuroimaging community. However, the value of resting-state studies to a better understanding of brain–behavior relationships has been challenged. That altered states of consciousness are a privileged way to study the relationships between spontaneous brain activity and behavior is proposed, and common resting-state brain activity features observed in various states of altered consciousness are reviewed. Early positro...

  9. 'Void existence' as against 'annihilation existence': Differentiating two qualities in primitive mental states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdarsky, Irit Hameiri

    2015-10-01

    This paper attempts to distil out a particular quality of psychic (non)existence, which I call here 'void existence', from the quality predominantly explored in the psychoanalytic discourse on primitive mental states, which I call 'annihilation existence'. Achieving this phenomenological differentiation may make it easier to identify and work through extreme states in the analytic situation, when the patient is under the dominance of 'void existence'. I suggest that it is, as it were, a one-dimensional existence, in an infinite contour-less void, lacking any substantial internal object, lacking any substantial sense of psychic and/or somatic occurrences, and lacking any live representation of this very state of being. Hence, it lacks distress and anxiety, as well as calmness and peace. One might say that it is the inorganic within the organic; a quality of non-alive-ness within life. 'Annihilation existence' is existence in a two- or three-dimensional hollowed world, with flat and/or partial representations of self and object, which attracts acute distress and annihilation anxiety. It is a sort of existence on the brink of non-life, on the brink of the void; where a sense of catastrophic danger is brought on by the never-ending potentiality of the annihilation's realization. Both these psychic qualities can be encapsulated within neurotic and personality disorders, and the dominance of each can serve as defence against the dominance of the other. The theoretical discussion is supported by excerpts from an analysis. PMID:26298559

  10. Stress Coping Levels and Mental States of Police Vocational School of Higher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Yildirim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: This study was planned and carried out with the objective of determining stress coping levels and mental state of students attending Police Vocational Schools of Higher Education, in addition to factors effecting these. MATERIAL and METHOD: This desciptive and cross-sectional study consisted of 300 male students enrolled in the 2005-2006 academic year, at Police Vocational School of Higher Education, located in central Erzincan, Turkey. In this study, instead of random sampling, 281 (93.7% students who were present at the school at the time of the study and accepted to partipate in it were included. Data for this study was collected using a desciptive form created by the researchers, Rosenbaum’s Learned Resourcefulness Scale (RLRS and The Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R. During the data analysis, frequency distributions, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA were used; and for analysis of independent groups, t-test was used. RESULTS: Among the students, it was determined that 54.8% were 1. grade, 90.7% had their parents living together, 43.5% had a father and 60.5% had a mother who graduated from elementary school, fathers of 23.5% of students were retired, 93.6% of them had mothers who were home makers. In addition, it was found out that 78.6% of students chose their profession willingly, the average family income of 71.5% of students were at medium levels, 82.9% always believed in themselves and 63.3% of students did not smoke. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that second grade students, those with mothers who are highly educated and those who trusted themselved all the time had significantly high stress coping levels; students who chose their own profession, believed in themselves and did not smoke had significantly low levels of mental symptom indications. CONCLUSION: In this study, the students were determined to posess averge levels of stress coping skills and they were found

  11. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  12. "Do" Sweat It: Using a Fitness Session as an Introduction to Research on the Relationship between Physical and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Amy L.; Hrivnak, George A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a hands-on experiential exercise session in a fitness center is presented as a teaching tool for management instructors to facilitate a theoretically based discussion about the connection between individuals' physical and mental states. Before discussing the components of the exercise session itself, a rationale for integrating…

  13. Screening for Early Alzheimer's Disease: Is There Still a Role for the Mini-Mental State Examination?

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Aaron D.; Slavin, Melissa J; Tran, Thanh-Thu; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Doraiswamy, P. Murali

    2005-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) total score as well as item scores in separating 4 groups of elderly (55–85 years of age) subjects—normal controls, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease, and subjects with depression.

  14. How Do Use and Comprehension of Mental-State Language Relate to Theory of Mind in Middle Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzani, Ilaria; Ornaghi, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between mental-state language and theory of mind in primary school children. The participants were 110 primary school students (mean age = 9 years and 7 months; SD = 12.7 months). They were evenly divided by gender and belonged to two age groups (8- and 10-year-olds). Linguistic, metacognitive and cognitive…

  15. Maternal Discussions of Mental States and Behaviors: Relations to Emotion Situation Knowledge in European American and Immigrant Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the…

  16. Mental health first aid training for the Bhutanese refugee community in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Parangkush; Li, Changwei; Gurung, Ashok; Bizune, Destani; Dogbey, M Christina; Johnson, Caroline C; Yun, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for Bhutanese refugee community leaders in the U.S. We hypothesized that training refugee leaders would improve knowledge of mental health problems and treatment process and decrease negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Methods One hundred and twenty community leaders participated in MHFA training, of whom 58 had sufficient English proficiency to complete pre- and post-t...

  17. Chronic whiplash symptoms are related to altered regional cerebral blood flow in the resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Appel, Lieuwe; Söderlund, Anne; Frans, Orjan; Engler, Henry; Furmark, Tomas; Gordh, Torsten; Långström, Bengt; Fredrikson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    The neural pathogenic mechanisms involved in mediating chronic pain and whiplash associated disorders (WAD) after rear impact car collisions are largely unknown. This study's first objective was to compare resting state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by means of positron emission tomography with (15)O labelled water in 21 WAD patients with 18 healthy, pain-free controls. A second objective was to investigate the relations between brain areas with altered rCBF to pain experience, somatic symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms and personality traits in the patient group. Patients had heightened resting rCBF bilaterally in the posterior parahippocampal and the posterior cingulate gyri, in the right thalamus and the right medial prefrontal gyrus as well as lowered tempero-occipital blood flow compared with healthy controls. The altered rCBF in the patient group was correlated to neck disability ratings. We thus suggest an involvement of the posterior cingulate, parahippocampal and medial prefrontal gyri in WAD and speculate that alterations in the resting state are linked to an increased self-relevant evaluation of pain and stress. PMID:18486506

  18. Altered baseline brain activity in children with bipolar disorder during mania state: a resting-state study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu D

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dali Lu,1 Qing Jiao,2 Yuan Zhong,3,4 Weijia Gao,1 Qian Xiao,1 Xiaoqun Liu,1 Xiaoling Lin,5 Wentao Cheng,6 Lanzhu Luo,6 Chuanjian Xu,3 Guangming Lu,2 Linyan Su1 1Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Taishan Medical University, Taian, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, People's Republic of China; 4School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China; 5School of Nursing of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 6Department of Pediatric and Geriatric Psychiatry, Fuzhou Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China Background: Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in regions involved in emotion processing and regulation in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD. Recent studies indicate, however, that task-dependent neural changes only represent a small fraction of the brain's total activity. How the brain allocates the majority of its resources at resting state is still unknown. We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF method of fMRI to explore the spontaneous neuronal activity in resting state in PBD patients. Methods: Eighteen PBD patients during the mania phase and 18 sex-, age- and education-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this study and all patients underwent fMRI scanning. The ALFF method was used to compare the resting-state spontaneous neuronal activity between groups. Correlation analysis was performed between the ALFF values and Young Mania Rating Scale scores. Results: Compared with healthy controls, PBD patients presented increased ALFF in bilateral caudate and left pallidum as well as decreased ALFF in left precuneus

  19. Towards a system-paced near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interface: differentiating prefrontal activity due to mental arithmetic and mental singing from the no-control state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah D.; Kushki, Azadeh; Chau, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently been investigated as a non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) for individuals with severe motor impairments. For the most part, previous research has investigated the development of NIRS-BCIs operating under synchronous control paradigms, which require the user to exert conscious control over their mental activity whenever the system is vigilant. Though functional, this is mentally demanding and an unnatural way to communicate. An attractive alternative to the synchronous control paradigm is system-paced control, in which users are required to consciously modify their brain activity only when they wish to affect the BCI output, and can remain in a more natural, 'no-control' state at all other times. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one intentional control (IC) state corresponding to the performance of either mental arithmetic or mental singing. In particular, this involved determining if these tasks could be distinguished, individually, from the unconstrained 'no-control' state. Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations (International 10-20 System) while eight able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and mental singing to answer multiple-choice questions within a system-paced paradigm. With a linear classifier trained on a six-dimensional feature set, an overall classification accuracy of 71.2% across participants was achieved for the mental arithmetic versus no-control classification problem. While the mental singing versus no-control classification was less successful across participants (62.7% on average), four participants did attain accuracies well in excess of chance, three of which were above 70%. Analyses were performed offline. Collectively, these results are encouraging, and demonstrate the potential of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one IC state corresponding to

  20. Common Mental Disorders at the Time of Deportation: A Survey at the Mexico-United States Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Aguilera, Rosa M; Ramírez, Jacobo; Cerecero, Diego; Mejía, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Deportations from the Unites States (US) to Mexico increased substantially during the last decade. Considering deportation as a stressful event with potential consequences on mental health, we aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) among deported migrants; and (2) explore the association between migratory experience, social support and psychological variables, and CMD in this group. In repatriation points along the border, a probability sample of deportees responded to the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). The prevalence of CMD was 16.0% (95% CI 12.3, 20.6). There was a U-shaped association between time in the US and SRQ score. Times returned to Mexico, having a spouse in the US, number of persons in household, less social support, anxiety as a personality trait, and avoidant coping style were directly associated with SRQ score. Public health policies should address the need for mental health care among deported migrants. PMID:25118675

  1. The long-term mental health effects of nuclear trauma in recent Russian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rosemarie Perez

    2002-10-01

    The long-term mental health sequelae (15 years) of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster in the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed in survivors migrated to the United States, as part of an ongoing study. Using a retrospective, cross-sectional design with standardized Russian mental health measures, a sample of 261 Russians residing in the New York tristate area were tested for multiple domains of mental health functioning. Multivariate analyses pointed to aspects of the accident and its negative repercussions as reliable predictors of current psychological distress. Russians who had lived closer to the disaster, and had greater exposure to it, currently experience higher levels of anxiety (p Israel (Remennick, 2002), as well as those remaining in the FSU (Havenaar et al., 1997). Implications of long-term traumatic sequelae, especially in the complex perimigration context, are discussed. PMID:15792035

  2. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaudreau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 30 healthy control (HC subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing.

  3. Theory of Mind: Understanding Young Children's Pretence and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, research has focused on the understanding of pretence as an important means for young children to conceptualise the mind. Many use the phrase "mental representation" to a mental model of some entity or concept, which describes what is inside the minds of young children in relation to a real-world situation or…

  4. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, G.; Monetta, L.; Macoir, J.; Poulin, S.; Laforce, R. Jr.; Hudon, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing. PMID:26199459

  5. Modelling chronotaxicity of cellular energy metabolism to facilitate the identification of altered metabolic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Gemma; Suprunenko, Yevhen F.; Jenkins, Kirsten; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Altered cellular energy metabolism is a hallmark of many diseases, one notable example being cancer. Here, we focus on the identification of the transition from healthy to abnormal metabolic states. To do this, we study the dynamics of energy production in a cell. Due to the thermodynamic openness of a living cell, the inability to instantaneously match fluctuating supply and demand in energy metabolism results in nonautonomous time-varying oscillatory dynamics. However, such oscillatory dynamics is often neglected and treated as stochastic. Based on experimental evidence of metabolic oscillations, we show that changes in metabolic state can be described robustly by alterations in the chronotaxicity of the corresponding metabolic oscillations, i.e. the ability of an oscillator to resist external perturbations. We also present a method for the identification of chronotaxicity, applicable to general oscillatory signals and, importantly, apply this to real experimental data. Evidence of chronotaxicity was found in glycolytic oscillations in real yeast cells, verifying that chronotaxicity could be used to study transitions between metabolic states. PMID:27483987

  6. The alteration of gray matter volume in children with mental retardation: the differences between the patients presented with operation deficit predominantly and those presented with language deficit mainly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect the differences of grey matter volume between the patients with mental retardation (MR) presented clinically as operation deficit (OD) or as language deficit (LD) and the children with typical normal development using optimal VBM. The developmental connections between brain gray matter and language or operation skills were examined. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained from 9 children with mental retardation presented as OD predominantly and 11 children with mental retardation presented as LD mainly, as well as the age-matched control group (11 and 14 normal children,respectively) on a 1.5 T scanner. Voxel-based morphometry analysis with an optimization of spatial segmentation and normalization procedures was applied to compare the volume of grey matter between the two groups (OD VS.control; LD VS.control). Statistically, the total and local gray matter volumes were compared between the two groups with t test. Results: The total gray matter volume of OD group was [(1.030 ± 0.078) × 106 mm3]. Compared to that of controls [(0.984 ± 0.058) × 106 mm3], it was increased significantly (t=-2.6, P<0.05). And the gray matter volume in the posterior cingulated gyrus, left superior prefrontal gyrus, left cuneus, left middle prefrontal gyrus and the body of left caudate nucleus showed significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total gray matter volume of the MR children presented as LD [(1.002 ± 0.068) × 106 mm3] showed significantly increased(t=-3.0, P<0.05) compared with that of control group [(0.957 ±0.057) × 106 mm3]. The gray matter volume in bilateral thalami, the left inferior temporal gyrus,the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left cerebellum of the LD group was more than that of normal children. Conclusion: As revealed by VBM, there are differences in alterations of gray matter volume between MR children presented with OD and with LD relative to control. (authors)

  7. Exercise alters resting state functional connectivity of motor circuits in Parkinsonian rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G.; Heintz, Ryan; Peng, Yu-Hao; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined changes in functional connectivity after long-term aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of forced running wheel exercise on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of motor circuits of rats subjected to bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the dorsal striatum. Our results showed substantial similarity between lesion-induced changes in rsFC in the rats and alterations in rsFC reported in Parkinson’s disease subjects, including disconnection o...

  8. Bias against disconfirmatory evidence in the 'at-risk mental state' and during psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenacher, Sarah; Rausch, Franziska; Mier, Daniela; Fenske, Sabrina; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Englisch, Susanne; Becker, Anna; Andreou, Christina; Moritz, Steffen; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2016-04-30

    Prior studies have confirmed a bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) in schizophrenia which has been associated with delusions. However, its role in the pathogenesis of psychosis is yet unclear. The objective was to investigate BADE for the first time in subjects with an at-risk-mental-state for psychosis (ARMS), patients with a first episode of psychosis without antipsychotic treatment (FEP) and healthy controls (HC). A standard BADE test presenting written scenarios was employed. In addition, psychometric rating scales and a neuropsychological test battery were applied. A three-staged image was revealed. FEP-patients showed a significant BADE compared to the other groups. The performance of ARMS-patients lay in between HC and FEP-patients. A trend towards significance became evident for a bias against confirmatory evidence (BACE) in FEP-patients. Results were not attributable to antipsychotic or other medication or depressive symptoms. Correlations with delusions reached medium effect sizes but failed significance after Bonferroni-corrections. These results provide evidence for aberrations in evidence integration in the pathogenesis of psychosis and contribute to our knowledge of metacognitive functioning which can be used for (meta-)cognitive intervention in psychosis. PMID:27086240

  9. SCREENING FOR POSTSTROKE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT VIA MINI MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION AND MONTREAL COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to examine cognitive performance after mild stroke via Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA and to compare the results.Material and methods: We examined 54 patients with mild stroke (aged 52 to 72 (mean 63.17, SD 5.96; 34 males and 20 females and 54 controls, adjusted by age, sex and education level. All subjects were tested via MMSE (Bulgarian version and MoCa (Bulgarian version. Data was collected in the single step model at the 90th day after stroke incident for patients and at the day of obtaining informed consent for controls. Results: Patients have poorer performance on both MMSE and MoCa than controls. MoCa has comparatively good discriminative validity and sensitivity.Conclusions: Although MMSE is one of the classical screening tools for cognitive impairment widely used in Bulgaria, other screening tools should not be ignored. On the basis of our results, MoCa is also a good screening instrument, especially for poststroke cognitive impairment.

  10. Child and mother mental-state talk in shared pretense as predictors of children's social symbolic play abilities at age 3.

    OpenAIRE

    Osório, Ana Alexandra Caldas; Meins, Elizabeth; Martins, Carla; Martins, Eva Costa; Soares, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated relations between mother and child (N = 49) mental-state talk during shared pretense and children’s social symbolic play at age 3. Social symbolic play was not related to mothers’ mental-state talk. In contrast, children’s own use of desire-state talk in shared pretense was a better predictor of social symbolic play than their general use of mental-state talk, even after accounting for general verbal ability as well as mothers’ use of desires terms. Conclusion: These r...

  11. Family Culture in Mental Health Help-Seeking and Utilization in a Nationally Representative Sample of Latinos in the United States: The NLAAS

    OpenAIRE

    Villatoro, Alice P.; Morales, Eduardo S.; Mays, Vickie M

    2014-01-01

    Considering the central role of familismo in Latino culture, it is important to assess the extent to which familismo affects mental health help-seeking. This study examined the role of behavioral familismo, the level of perceived family support, in the use of mental health services of Latinos in the United States. Data come from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a representative household survey examining the prevalence of mental disorders and services utilization among La...

  12. An eight month randomized controlled exercise intervention alters resting state synchrony in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, C E; Pierce, J E; Schwarz, N F; Chi, L; Weinberger, A L; Schaeffer, D J; Rodrigue, A L; Camchong, J; Allison, J D; Yanasak, N E; Liu, T; Davis, C L; McDowell, J E

    2014-01-01

    Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) children 8-11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Independent components analysis identified several networks, with four chosen for between-group analysis: salience, default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks. The default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks showed more spatial refinement over time in the exercise group compared to controls. The motor network showed increased synchrony in the exercise group with the right medial frontal gyrus compared to controls. Exercise behavior may enhance brain development in children. PMID:24096138

  13. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

    OpenAIRE

    Lanius, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) ...

  14. HIV Testing Among Adults with Mental Illness in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yehia, Baligh R.; Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M.; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E.; Blank, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital ...

  15. Health related quality of life and mental distress after PCI: restoring a state of equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Sipötz, Johann; Friedrich, Oliver; Höfer, Stefan; Benzer, Werner; Chatsakos, Thomas; Gaul, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient self reported measures for Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and mental distress are frequently used to evaluate outcome of therapeutic strategies in cardiac patients. Our study aims to describe changes in HRQOL and mental distress after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) focusing on temporal pattern of change and interdependences between both outcome measures. Method 163 PCI patients recruited at 7 cardiovascular care units in Austria answered MacNew Health Rela...

  16. Mental health state and quality of life questionnaire in low vision assessment: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Rokiah; Rahman, Mohd Harimi Abd; Knight, Victor Feizal; Mustaphal, Mushawiahti; Mohammed, Zainora

    2014-01-01

    Background Vision impairment associated with diabetic retinopathy, is well known and low vision rehabilitation is always recommended. In this report, the importance of objective measure of mental health and quality of life screening in diabetic retinopathy low-vision assessment is discussed. Case presentation We describe the case of a 43-year-old Asian female who has mild vision impairment due to tractional retinal detachment secondary to diabetic retinopathy and how mental health screening a...

  17. When will Little Red Riding Hood become scared? Children's attribution of mental states to a story character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfard, Samuel; Harris, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    As children listen to a simple action-based narrative, they construct a dynamic representation of the protagonist's movements, visual perspective, and goal-directed thoughts. We examined children's representations of more complex narratives in which the protagonist will encounter an unexpected outcome upon reaching his or her goal. Three studies involving 105 children between 3 and 6 years of age showed that children shifted in the mental states they attributed depending on the distance of the protagonist from the unexpected outcome. Even though children consistently recognized that the protagonist did not know about the surprise at any point, they increasingly attributed feelings and thoughts consistent with the surprise. The studies highlight the degree to which children's mental state attributions are dynamic rather than fixed by their current theory of mind. PMID:23688172

  18. O desempenho de idosas institucionalizadas no miniexame do estado mental El desempeño de adultas mayores institucionalizadas en el mini examen del estado mental Institutionalized elder women's performance in the mini-mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Lenardt

    2009-10-01

    ás avanzadas se correlacionaron con una menor puntuación.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate institutionalized elder women's performance in the mini-mental state examination. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 34 elder women who were residents in a long term facility in Curitiba, PR. Data were collected with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE and analyzed with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 79.82 ± 8.23 and their overall mean score on the MMSE was 16.62 ± 5.60. The mean score of performance among illiterates and literate participants were 14.90 and 19.75 points, respectively. The mean score of performance among participants aged 65 to 79 and participants aged 80 and over were 18 and 15.65 points, respectively. CONCLUSION: There were a large number of elder women (26.5% with cognitive impairment. Lower educational level and advanced age were associated with lower scores on the mini-mental status examination.

  19. Mental health and substance abuse parity: a case study of Ohio's state employee program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Goldman, William; McCulloch, Joyce

    1998-10-01

    BACKGROUND: In the United States, insurance benefits for treating alcohol, drug abuse and mental health (ADM) problems have been much more limited than medical care benefits. To change that situation, more than 30 states were considering legislation that requires equal benefits for ADM and medical care ("parity") in the past year. Uncertainty about the cost consequences of such proposed legislation remains a major stumbling block. There has been no information about the actual experience of implementing parity benefits under managed care or the effects on access to care and utilization. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Document the experience of the State of Ohio with adopting full parity for ADM care for its state employee program under managed care. Ohio provides an unusually long time series with seven years of managed behavioral health benefits, which allows us to study inflationary trends in a plan with unlimited ADM benefits. METHODS: Primarily a case study, we describe the implementation of the program and track utilization, and costs of ADM care from 1989 to 1997. We use a variety of administrative and claims data and reports provided by United Behavioral Health and the state of Ohio. The analysis of the utilization and cost effect of parity and managed care is pre-post, with a multiyear follow-up period. RESULTS: The switch from unmanaged indemnity care to managed carve-out care was followed by a 75% drop in inpatient days and a 40% drop in outpatient visits per 1000 members, despite the simultaneous increase in benefits. The subsequent years saw a continuous decline in inpatient days and an increased use of intermediate services, such as residential care and intensive outpatient care. The number of outpatient visits stabilized in the range of 500-550 visits per 1000. There was no indication that costs started to increase during the study period; instead, costs continued to decline. A somewhat different picture emerges when comparing utilization under HMOs with

  20. Observations of a Small Sample of Adolescents Experiencing an At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) for Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, Patrick; Tiffin, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Some commentaries express concern that the At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) designation can be stigmatizing and induce a lasting sense of personal fragility. However, no studies have actually explored the personal perspectives of those so categorized. The purpose of this study was to explore how adolescents with an ARMS label understand and experience their condition medically and personally. Six participants receiving an ARMS diagnosis were interviewed and the data analyzed using interpretative p...

  1. The modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is more predictive of memory abilities than the Mini Mental State Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Although not as popular as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these two cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (i.e., delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after one year. Both the M...

  2. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Moogala; Sahitya Sanivarapu; Ramanarayana Boyapati; Narasimha Swamy Devulapalli; Swarna Chakrapani; Laxmikanth Kolaparthy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and m...

  3. The role of second person narration in representing mental states in Sylvia Plath’s Smith Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Demjen, Zsofia

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at instances of second person narration in the first journal published in The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath (Kukil, 2000) in order to determine the potential that second person narration can have for the linguistic representation of mental states. The contributions of different disciplines (narratology, linguistics, psychology) to the study of second person narration are considered and their findings are re-applied to a non-fictional text. In a corpus-informed comparati...

  4. Altered default network resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-na Ding

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGA. METHODS: Seventeen adolescents with IGA and 24 normal control adolescents underwent a 7.3 minute resting-state fMRI scan. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. To assess the relationship between IGA symptom severity and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas correlated with PCC connectivity were correlated with the scores of the 17 subjects with IGA on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11 and their hours of Internet use per week. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the distributions of the age, gender, and years of education between the two groups. The subjects with IGA showed longer Internet use per week (hours (p<0.0001 and higher CIAS (p<0.0001 and BIS-11 (p = 0.01 scores than the controls. Compared with the control group, subjects with IGA exhibited increased functional connectivity in the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe and middle temporal gyrus. The bilateral inferior parietal lobule and right inferior temporal gyrus exhibited decreased connectivity. Connectivity with the PCC was positively correlated with CIAS scores in the right precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, caudate, nucleus accumbens, supplementary motor area, and lingual gyrus. It was negatively correlated with the right cerebellum anterior lobe and left superior parietal lobule. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that adolescents with IGA exhibit different resting-state patterns of brain activity. As these alterations are partially consistent with those in patients

  5. Effects of acute organophosphate ingestion on cognitive function, assessed with the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Jayasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chronic damage to the central nervous system resulting in cognitive impairment has been shown with repeated, low doses of organophosphorus (OP exposure over month or years. Aim: The study aimed to find out whether there is any cognitive impairment following acute OP exposure that could be detected by a simple screening instrument, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, in clinical settings. Settings and Design: A cohort study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with matched controls. Consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with acute ingestion of OP were recruited. Cognitive function was assessed with the MMSE, digit span test, test of long-term memory function and concentration. Patients were assessed twice: at 1 and 6 weeks of exposure. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were analyzed with the paired and unpaired T-tests. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: There were 60 patients and 61 controls. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls was 31.5 (11.6 and 31.3 (11.8 years, respectively. Forty-two patients turned up for the second assessment. Significant impairment of cognitive function was seen in the total score of MMSE (95% CI -2.5 to -0.3, orientation (95% CI -1 to -0.2 and language (95% CI -0.9 to -0.1 domains of MMSE, digit span test (95% CI 0.1-1.7 and test of long-term memory function (95% CI 0.3-2.3 in the first assessment compared with the controls. When the results of the second assessment were compared with the controls, no significant differences were seen. Conclusion: Although there was a slight transient cognitive impairment detected with the screening tests following acute OP ingestion, no long-term cognitive defects was detected.

  6. Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Modified Mini Mental State Examination in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaycee M. Sink

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sparse data limit the interpretation of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores, particularly in minority populations. Additionally, there are no published data on how MoCA scores compare to the widely used Modified Mini Mental State Examination (3MSE. We provide performance data on the MoCA in a large cohort of African Americans and compare 3MSE and MoCA scores, providing a “crosswalk” for interpreting scores. Methods. Five hundred and thirty African Americans with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in African American-Diabetes Heart Study-MIND, a cross-sectional study of cognition and structural and functional brain imaging. After excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment (n=115, mean (SD MoCA and 3MSE scores are presented stratified by age and education. Results. Participant mean age was 58.2 years (range: 35-83; 61% were female; and 64.9% had >12 years of education. Mean (SD 3MSE and MoCA scores were 86.9 (8.2 and 19.8 (3.8, respectively. 93.5% of the cohort had a “positive” screen on the MoCA, scoring <26 (education-adjusted, compared with 47.5% on the 3MSE (cut-point < 88. A 3MSE score of 88 corresponded to a MoCA score of 20 in this population. Conclusion. The present data suggest the need for caution when applying proposed MoCA cutoffs to African Americans.

  7. Seeing emotions in the eyes – Inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWagenbreth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAutomatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming.MethodsSixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories fear, disgust, happiness and neutral.ResultsA general valence effect for positive words was observed: Responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words - with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words - with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs.ConclusionReduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT.

  8. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guangheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Internet gaming addiction (IGA, as a subtype of internet addiction disorder, is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IGA should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity of IGA. This study investigated the brain functions in IGA patients with resting-state fMRI. Methods Fifteen IGA subjects and fourteen healthy controls participated in this study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo measures were used to detect the abnormal functional integrations. Results Comparing to the healthy controls, IGA subjects show enhanced ReHo in brainstem, inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus. All of these regions are thought related with sensory-motor coordination. In addition, IGA subjects show decreased ReHo in temporal, occipital and parietal brain regions. These regions are thought responsible for visual and auditory functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-time online game playing enhanced the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and decreased the excitability in visual and auditory related brain regions.

  9. The nightmares of Puerto Ricans: an embodied 'altered states of consciousness' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, C Jeffrey

    2009-06-01

    This article examines nightmare narratives collected as part of a person-centered ethnographic study of altered states of consciousness (ASCs) and supernaturalism in a mainland Puerto Rican community in the late 1990s. Utilizing a descriptive backdrop informed by cross-cultural studies of ASCs and highlighting the relevance of recent insights from the cognitive sciences of religion and from the anthropology of embodiment or cultural phenomenology, I examine the lived experience and psychocultural elaboration of diverse Puerto Rican nightmare events. Taking the nightmare to be a trauma in its waking-nightmare sense (i.e., through the extreme fright caused by sleep paralysis) as well as an intrusive, traumatic memory in its posttraumatic sense (i.e., a reliving of trauma themes in dreams), I show how the perceptual and interpretive processes evoked by intensely affective ASCs both inform and are informed by Puerto Rican religious and spiritualistic orientations and values. PMID:19326194

  10. Resting-State Brain Functional Connectivity Is Altered in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Musen, Gail; Jacobson, Alan M.; Bolo, Nicolas R.; Simonson, Donald C.; Martha E. Shenton; McCartney, Richard L.; Flores, Veronica L.; Hoogenboom, Wouter S.

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Populations at risk for AD show altered brain activity in the default mode network (DMN) before cognitive dysfunction. We evaluated this brain pattern in T2DM patients. We compared T2DM patients (n = 10, age = 56 ± 2.2 years, fasting plasma glucose [FPG] = 8.4 ± 1.3 mmol/L, HbA1c = 7.5 ± 0.54%) with nondiabetic age-matched control subjects (n = 11, age = 54 ± 1.8 years, FPG = 4.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L) using resting-state fun...

  11. Determination of oxidation state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla-Masztafiak, J.; Lis, G. J.; Gajda, M.; Jasek, E.; Czubek, U.; Bolechała, F.; Borca, C.; Kwiatek, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate changes in chemical state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves X-ray absorption spectroscopy was applied. Since Fe is suspected to play detrimental role in aortic valve stenosis pathogenesis the oxidation state of this element has been determined. The experimental material consisted of 10 μm sections of valves excised during routine surgery and from autopsies. The experiment was performed at the MicroXAS beamline of the SLS synchrotron facility in Villigen (Switzerland). The Fe K-edge XANES spectra obtained from tissue samples were carefully analyzed and compared with the spectra of reference compounds containing iron in various chemical structures. The analysis of absorption edge position and shape of the spectra revealed that both chemical forms of iron are presented in valve tissue but Fe3+ is the predominant form. Small shift of the absorption edge toward higher energy in the spectra from stenotic valve samples indicates higher content of the Fe3+ form in pathological tissue. Such a phenomenon suggests the role of Fenton reaction and reactive oxygen species in the etiology of aortic valve stenosis. The comparison of pre-edge regions of XANES spectra for control and stenotic valve tissue confirmed no differences in local symmetry or spin state of iron in analyzed samples.

  12. A default mode of brain function in altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldenmund, P; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Boly, M; Laureys, S; Soddu, A

    2012-01-01

    Using modern brain imaging techniques, new discoveries are being made concerning the spontaneous activity of the brain when it is devoid of attention-demanding tasks. Spatially separated patches of neuronal assemblies have been found to show synchronized oscillatory activity behavior and are said to be functionally connected. One of the most robust of these is the default mode network, which is associated with intrinsic processes like mind wandering and self-projection. Furthermore, activity in this network is anticorrelated with activity in a network that is linked to attention to external stimuli. The integrity of both networks is disturbed in altered states of consciousness, like sleep, general anesthesia and hypnosis. In coma and related disorders of consciousness, encompassing the vegetative state (unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) and minimally conscious state, default mode network integrity correlates with the level of remaining consciousness, offering the possibility of using this information for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Functional brain imaging is currently being validated as a valuable addition to the standardized behavioral assessments that are already in use. PMID:23165872

  13. The evolution of brain waves in altered states of consciousness (REM sleep and meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina E. Chiş

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the brain activity in REM sleep andmeditation; it was also studied in which way an appropriate musical background would affect theevolution of brain waves in these altered states of consciousness. Material and Method: The recordingswere done with a portable electroencephalograph, on a homogeneous group of human subjects (menaged 30-50 years. The subjects were monitored in their own bed, the length of sleep and how earlythey went to bed was up to them. This was made to avoid errors that could compromise the wholestudy. Results: It was shown that an appropriate musical background has a positive effect on brainactivity and especially on alpha waves. There were no significant results regarding REM sleep, althougha slight increase in the frequency by which the periods of REM sleep occurred was noticed. On theother hand, in meditation, the appropriate musical background had a major influence on the period inwhich the subjects entered the alpha state. This period was considerably reduced. Conclusion: Anadequate type of music can help our brain entering in, and maintaining the alpha state.

  14. Prevalence of Mental Disorders, Psychological Distress, and Mental Health Services Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Susan D; Sullivan, J. Greer; Mays, Vickie M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent estimates of mental health morbidity among adults reporting same-gender sexual partners suggest that lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals may experience excess risk for some mental disorders as compared with heterosexual individuals. However, sexual orientation has not been measured directly. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 2,917 midlife adults, the authors examined possible sexual orientation-related differences in morbidity, distress, and mental health se...

  15. Substance Use, Mental Disorders and Physical Health of Caribbeans at-Home Compared to Those Residing in the United States

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    Krim K. Lacey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the health conditions of domestic Caribbeans with those living in the United States to explore how national context and migration experiences might influence substance use (i.e., alcohol or drug and other mental and physical health conditions. The study is based upon probability samples of non-institutionalized Caribbeans living in the United States (1621, Jamaica (1216 and Guyana (2068 18 years of age and over. Employing descriptive statistics and multivariate analytic procedures, the results revealed that substance use and other physical health conditions and major depressive disorder and mania vary by national context, with higher rates among Caribbeans living in the United States. Context and generation status influenced health outcomes. Among first generation black Caribbeans, residing in the United States for a longer length of time is linked to poorer health outcomes. There were different socio-demographic correlates of health among at-home and abroad Caribbeans. The results of this study support the need for additional research to explain how national context, migratory experiences and generation status contribute to understanding substance use and mental disorders and physical health outcomes among Caribbean first generation and descendants within the United States, compared to those remaining in the Caribbean region.

  16. O processo de trabalho do militar estadual e a saúde mental Working process of military police state officers and mental health

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    Maurivan Batista da Silva

    2008-12-01

    relate it to mental health. We tried to contextualize the purposes of public safety services through a brief history of the state police, its division and how it has been used against daily violence. Based on labor psychology view, we made use of techniques and concepts based on the Ergonomics of the Activity and on Labor Psychodynamics; observing the work process, document research, individual and collective interviews. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that military officers are in the center of a link of forces coming from work organization, the precariousness of the work and, finally, from the contemporary society. The ways these relationships of forces are joined contribute to harmful implications to the mental health of professionals, favoring the increase in psychological suffering and it can lead to alcoholism, depression, and even suicide. Data from Medical Council of João Pessoa, (2003 to 2005, show an average of 489 military officers who retired from work on medical grounds. These are worrisome figures in an area of public service that is essential to the population. These figures would be higher if the leaves granted in the workplace were also included. Procedures for granting internal leaves occur in an attempt to mediate the possible long period of health treatment.

  17. Mental Health Treatment Program Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... County or Zip By Name Other Links State Mental Health Agencies Frequently Asked Questions Links Comments or Questions ... a Facility in Your State To locate the mental health treatment programs nearest you, find your State on ...

  18. Length of Stay of Pediatric Mental Health Emergency Department Visits in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Sarah D.; Case, Brady G.; Olfson, Mark; Linakis, James G.; Laska, Eugene M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare pediatric mental health emergency department visits to other pediatric emergency department visits, focusing on length of stay. Method: We analyzed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a nationally representative sample of US emergency department visits from 2001 to 2008, for patients aged less than…

  19. Altered regional and circuit resting-state activity associated with unilateral hearing loss.

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    Xingchao Wang

    Full Text Available The deprivation of sensory input after hearing damage results in functional reorganization of the brain including cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortex and changes in cognitive processing. However, it remains unclear whether partial deprivation from unilateral auditory loss (UHL would similarly affect the neural circuitry of cognitive processes in addition to the functional organization of sensory cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate intrinsic activity in 34 participants with UHL from acoustic neuroma in comparison with 22 matched normal controls. In sensory regions, we found decreased regional homogeneity (ReHo in the bilateral calcarine cortices in UHL. However, there was an increase of ReHo in the right anterior insular cortex (rAI, the key node of cognitive control network (CCN and multimodal sensory integration, as well as in the left parahippocampal cortex (lPHC, a key node in the default mode network (DMN. Moreover, seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis showed an enhanced relationship between rAI and several key regions of the DMN. Meanwhile, lPHC showed more negative relationship with components in the CCN and greater positive relationship in the DMN. Such reorganizations of functional connectivity within the DMN and between the DMN and CCN were confirmed by a graph theory analysis. These results suggest that unilateral sensory input damage not only alters the activity of the sensory areas but also reshapes the regional and circuit functional organization of the cognitive control network.

  20. The Environmental Pollutant Cadmium Promotes Influenza Virus Replication in MDCK Cells by Altering Their Redox State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Nencioni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a toxic heavy metal that is considered an environmental contaminant. Several sources of human exposure to Cd, including employment in primary metal industries, production of certain batteries, foods, soil and cigarette smoke, are known. Its inhalation has been related to different respiratory diseases and toxic effects, among which alterations of the physiological redox state in individuals exposed to the metal have been described. Host-cell redox changes characteristic of oxidative stress facilitate the progression of viral infection through different mechanisms. In this paper, we have demonstrated that pre-treatment with CdCl2 of MDCK cells increased influenza virus replication in a dose-dependent manner. This phenomenon was related to increased viral protein expression (about 40% compared with untreated cells. The concentration of CdCl2, able to raise the virus titer, also induced oxidative stress. The addition of two antioxidants, a glutathione (GSH derivative or the GSH precursor, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, to Cd pre-treated and infected cells restored the intracellular redox state and significantly inhibited viral replication. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that Cd-induced oxidative stress directly increases the ability of influenza virus to replicate in the host-cell, thus suggesting that exposure to heavy metals, such as this, could be a risk factor for individuals exposed to a greater extent to the contaminant, resulting in increased severity of virus-induced respiratory diseases.

  1. MMN and novelty P3 in coma and other altered states of consciousness: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlet, Dominique; Fischer, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the assessment of patients in altered states of consciousness. There is a need for accurate and early prediction of awakening and recovery from coma. Neurophysiological assessment of coma was once restricted to brainstem auditory and primary cortex somatosensory evoked potentials elicited in the 30 ms range, which have both shown good predictive value for poor coma outcome only. In this paper, we review how passive auditory oddball paradigms including deviant and novel sounds have proved their efficiency in assessing brain function at a higher level, without requiring the patient's active involvement, thus providing an enhanced tool for the prediction of coma outcome. The presence of an MMN in response to deviant stimuli highlights preserved automatic sensory memory processes. Recorded during coma, MMN has shown high specificity as a predictor of recovery of consciousness. The presence of a novelty P3 in response to the subject's own first name presented as a novel (rare) stimulus has shown a good correlation with coma awakening. There is now a growing interest in the search for markers of consciousness, if there are any, in unresponsive patients (chronic vegetative or minimally conscious states). We discuss the different ERP patterns observed in these patients. The presence of novelty P3, including parietal components and possibly followed by a late parietal positivity, raises the possibility that some awareness processes are at work in these unresponsive patients. PMID:24281786

  2. Altered cerebellar-amygdala connectivity in violent offenders: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutgeb, Verena; Wabnegger, Albert; Leitner, Mario; Zussner, Thomas; Scharmüller, Wilfried; Klug, Doris; Schienle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    It has repeatedly been reported, that there are differences in grey matter volume (GMV) between violent offenders and non-violent controls. However, it remains unclear, if structural brain abnormalities influence resting-state functional connectivity (RS-fc) between brain regions. Therefore, in the present investigation, 31 male high-risk violent prisoners were compared to 30 non-criminal controls with respect to RS-fc between brain areas. Seed regions for resting-state analysis were selected based on GMV differences between the two groups. Overall, inmates had more GMV in the cerebellum than controls and revealed higher RS-fc between the cerebellum and the amygdala. In contrast, controls relative to prisoners showed higher RS-fc between the cerebellum and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, controls showed more GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Inmates relative to controls had higher RS-fc within the DLPFC. Results are discussed with respect to cerebellar contributions to a brain network underlying moral behavior and violence. Enhanced cerebellar-amygdala connectivity in violent offenders might reflect alterations in the processing of moral emotions. Heightened functional connectivity between cerebellar hemispheres and the OFC in controls could be a correlate of enhanced emotion regulation capacities. Higher functional intra-DLPFC connectivity in violent offenders might represent an effort to regulate emotions. PMID:26523791

  3. Foods that are perceived as healthy or unhealthy differentially alter young women's state body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jacqueline F; D'Anci, Kristen E; Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-10-01

    Body image can be influenced by day-to-day events, including food intake. The present study investigated the effects of foods typically perceived as "healthy" or "unhealthy" on state body image and mood. College-aged women were told the experiment was designed to assess the effects of food on cognition. Using a between-subjects design, participants consumed isocaloric amounts of foods perceived to be healthy (banana) or unhealthy (donut) or ate nothing. Next, participants completed three cognitive tasks. Prior to eating and following the cognitive tests, participants completed the BISS, POMS, the Figure Rating Scale, and the Restraint Scale. Body satisfaction decreased following intake of a donut, but was not altered in the other conditions. Depression scores significantly decreased after intake of either a donut or banana, but did not decrease in the no-food condition. Tension scores decreased significantly after consumption of a banana and in the no-food condition, but did not decrease following consumption of a donut. These results indicate that intake of a food that is perceived as unhealthy negatively affects state body image. PMID:21669241

  4. Altered baseline brain activity in children with bipolar disorder during mania state: a resting-state study

    OpenAIRE

    Lu D; Jiao Q; Zhong Y; Gao W; Xiao Q; Liu X.; Lin X; Cheng W; Luo L; Xu C.; Lu G; Su L.

    2014-01-01

    Dali Lu,1 Qing Jiao,2 Yuan Zhong,3,4 Weijia Gao,1 Qian Xiao,1 Xiaoqun Liu,1 Xiaoling Lin,5 Wentao Cheng,6 Lanzhu Luo,6 Chuanjian Xu,3 Guangming Lu,2 Linyan Su1 1Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Taishan Medical University, Taian, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospi...

  5. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Moogala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  6. Effects of Exercise in Immersive Virtual Environments on Cortical Neural Oscillations and Mental State

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Vogt; Rainer Herpers; Askew, Christopher D.; David Scherfgen; Strüder, Heiko K.; Stefan Schneider

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the addit...

  7. Discrimination and Mental Health Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; Boyd, Carol J.; HUGHES, TONDA L.; West, Brady

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities among sexual minority groups, particularly mental health disparities, are well-documented. Numerous studies have demonstrated heightened prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual groups as compared to heterosexuals. Some authors posit that these disparities are the result of the stress that prejudice and perceived discrimination can cause. The current study extends previous research by examining the associations between multiple types o...

  8. A review of translations and adaptations of the Mini-Mental State Examination in languages other than English and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steis, Melinda R; Schrauf, Robert W

    2009-07-01

    This article provides a systematic review of linguistically and culturally adapted versions (translations) of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in languages other than English and Spanish. Adapted versions were found via database search (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts). Source information (where available) is provided for each instrument. To facilitate comparison of the instruments, we developed an assessment framework that provides an organizational structure for the assessment of the quality of translation (linguistic and cultural), psychometric properties, educational considerations, and quality of field testing. The search resulted in 20 articles reporting on 15 language versions of the MMSE. PMID:20078011

  9. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Xiao, Shifu; Rahardjo, Tri Budi; Hogervorst, Eef

    2015-01-01

    Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM) in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of subjective memory complaints (SMC) were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects. PMID:26854166

  10. Exploratory case study of students' main explanatory approaches to science concepts and their states of mental engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicdao-Quita, Maria Isabel T.

    This study explored students' dominant ways of operating in science; the types of structuring that is evident, not in terms of ideas, but in terms of how the students think about, imagine, and relate to the physical processes. As the study progressed, the investigation of the students' ideas went beyond their prior knowledge; other significant dimensions emerged as these students interacted with the heating process. The students demonstrated rich and dynamic pictures of the heating process, and from these images, a larger picture of the mental entities and processes dominant in their understanding of the physical phenomenon. Four Filipino students studying in the United States were individually observed in their science classes, were visited at home, and were interviewed about water being heated. The analysis of each student's data led to the two constructs, the main explanatory approach and the students' states of mental engagement (SOME), while the student was cognitively and affectively connected with the phenomenon. The features of the main explanatory approach include an explanatory element and an affective element that pervade the students' thinking about the phenomenon. It is common to and dominant in students' thinking across time. It is the approach of the student taken as a holistic organization within the student when he or she starts dealing with the phenomenon. One of the assumptions behind dealing with the main explanatory approach is that it is much more connected with what kind of person the student is and with the state of mental engagement (SOME) the student is in. SOME refers to the personal energy of a student as he or she relates to and becomes involved with the physical process--there is absorption into the object of study. SOME is related to energizing the main explanatory approach. The interconnectedness of these two constructs can be viewed as a different level of abstraction or interpretation of the students' ways of thinking about the

  11. Incentives, Optimality, and Publicly Provided Goods: The Case of Mental Health Services

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Frank; Martin Gaynor

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the incentives present in intergovernmental transfers for public mental health care. This represents an important issue due to the large portion of mental health care that is provided by local governments, the central role of states in financing care via intergovernmental transfers, and recent innovations adopted by some states altering the traditional terms of these transfers. Using a relatively simple model we show that when a state government provides both fina...

  12. Differentiated approach to improving the mental and physical state freshmen higher education sector as a problem of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukavenko A.V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The state issues related to implementation of the differentiated and individual approach to first-year institutions of higher learning in the process of improving their mental and physical state of the means of physical education. Analysis of scientific literature revealed that such a state of the vast majority of students below this, and adaptation to the training activities carried out by the irrational. In this connection it is necessary to improve student performance marked by using one of the most effective means - exercise, and taking into account their interests, needs, motives. One solution to this problem is the differentiation of the content of exercise on the basis of features, which are characterized by the representatives of different somatotype. At the same time, research in this area are rare, hence the need to address this problem.

  13. Neurophenomenology of an Altered State of Consciousness: An fMRI Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestino, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    A research participant came to our lab with self-proclaimed, ecstatic, Kundalini meditative experiences. Using neurophenomenology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we were able to identify brain activation in the left prefrontal cortex [primarily in left Brodmann׳s areas (BAs) 46 and 10, but also extending into BAs 11, 47, and 45] associated with this experience. The Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory provided evidence that this was a perceived altered state of consciousness. Additionally, the Physio-Kundalini Syndrome Index strongly suggested that what he was experiencing was indeed Kundalini. The feelings of joy, happiness and the left prefrontal brain region found in this study are consistent with many published neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies of meditation. This case study suggests that using first-person subjective experience within a phenomenological reduction process can be combined with neuroimaging to divulge objective brain regions associated with such experiences. Furthermore, this provides evidence that at least in this participant, the Kundalini experience is associated with brain activation in the left prefrontal cortex. Future research is needed to confirm these results in a large group study, perhaps contrasting brain activation of those who experience spontaneously emerging Kundalini with trained Kundalini practitioners. PMID:26775225

  14. Altered resting-state functional activity in posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Junran; Zhan, Wang; Li, Lei; Wu, Min; Huang, Hua; Zhu, Hongyan; Kemp, Graham J; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Many functional neuroimaging studies have reported differential patterns of spontaneous brain activity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the findings are inconsistent and have not so far been quantitatively reviewed. The present study set out to determine consistent, specific regional brain activity alterations in PTSD, using the Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping technique to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis of resting-state functional neuroimaging studies of PTSD that used either a non-trauma (NTC) or a trauma-exposed (TEC) comparison control group. Fifteen functional neuroimaging studies were included, comparing 286 PTSDs, 203 TECs and 155 NTCs. Compared with NTC, PTSD patients showed hyperactivity in the right anterior insula and bilateral cerebellum, and hypoactivity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); compared with TEC, PTSD showed hyperactivity in the ventral mPFC. The pooled meta-analysis showed hypoactivity in the posterior insula, superior temporal, and Heschl's gyrus in PTSD. Additionally, subgroup meta-analysis (non-medicated subjects vs. NTC) identified abnormal activation in the prefrontal-limbic system. In meta-regression analyses, mean illness duration was positively associated with activity in the right cerebellum (PTSD vs. NTC), and illness severity was negatively associated with activity in the right lingual gyrus (PTSD vs. TEC). PMID:27251865

  15. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects. PMID:26048176

  16. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness: exploring the 4-D model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul A; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion. The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma. The aim of the present research was to begin to evaluate these 4 predictions of the 4-D model. Within a sample of 74 women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) primarily due to histories of childhood trauma, as well as within a 2nd sample of 504 undergraduates (384 females), the 1st 2 hypotheses of the 4-D model were supported. In addition, within the PTSD sample, the 3rd hypothesis was supported. However, inconsistent with the 4th hypothesis, severity of childhood trauma history was not strongly associated with TRASC. We conclude that the hypotheses articulated by the 4-D model were generally supported, although further research in different trauma-related disorders is needed, and the role of childhood trauma history in the etiology of TRASC requires further research. PMID:24650122

  17. Scaling up evidence-based practices for children and families in New York State: toward evidence-based policies on implementation for state mental health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Olin, S Serene; Horwitz, Sarah; McKay, Mary; Cleek, Andrew; Gleacher, Alissa; Lewandowski, Eric; Nadeem, Erum; Acri, Mary; Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Kuppinger, Anne; Burton, Geraldine; Weiss, Dara; Frank, Samantha; Finnerty, Molly; Bradbury, Donna M; Woodlock, Kristin M; Hogan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination of innovations is widely considered the sine qua non for system improvement. At least two dozen states are rolling out evidence-based mental health practices targeted at children and families using trainings, consultations, webinars, and learning collaboratives to improve quality and outcomes. In New York State (NYS) a group of researchers, policymakers, providers, and family support specialists have worked in partnership since 2002 to redesign and evaluate the children's mental health system. Five system strategies driven by empirically based practices and organized within a state-supported infrastructure have been used in the child and family service system with more than 2,000 providers: (a) business practices, (b) use of health information technologies in quality improvement, (c) specific clinical interventions targeted at common childhood disorders, (d) parent activation, and (e) quality indicator development. The NYS system has provided a laboratory for naturalistic experiments. We describe these initiatives, key findings and challenges, lessons learned for scaling, and implications for creating evidence-based implementation policies in state systems. PMID:24460518

  18. Criticism and Depression among the Caregivers of At-Risk Mental State and First-Episode Psychosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaie, Yumiko; Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Ito, Fumiaki; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Expressed emotion (EE), especially criticism, is an important predictor of outcomes for the patient for a wide range of mental health problems. To understand complex links between EE and various relevant variables in early phase psychosis, this study examined criticism, distress of caregivers, other patients’, and caregivers’ variables, and links between criticism and these variables in those with at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP). The participants were 56 patients (mean age 18.8 ± 4.2 years) with ARMS and their caregivers (49.4 ± 5.8 years) and 43 patients (21.7 ± 5.2 years) with FEP and their caregivers (49.3 ± 7.4 years). We investigated criticisms made by caregivers using the Japanese version of the Family Attitude Scale and caregiver depressive symptoms via the self-report Beck Depression Inventory. We also assessed psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the patients. Approximately one-third of caregivers of patients with ARMS or FEP had depressive symptoms, predominately with mild-to-moderate symptom levels, whereas only a small portion exhibited high criticism. The level of criticism and depression were comparable between ARMS and FEP caregivers. The link between criticism, caregivers’ depression, and patients’ symptoms were observed in FEP but not in ARMS caregivers. These findings imply that the interaction between criticism and caregivers’ and patients’ mental states may develop during or after the onset of established psychosis and interventions for the caregivers should be tailored to the patient’s specific stage of illness. Interventions for FEP caregivers should target their emotional distress and include education about patient’s general symptoms. PMID:26918629

  19. Criticism and Depression among the Caregivers of At-Risk Mental State and First-Episode Psychosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Hamaie

    Full Text Available Expressed emotion (EE, especially criticism, is an important predictor of outcomes for the patient for a wide range of mental health problems. To understand complex links between EE and various relevant variables in early phase psychosis, this study examined criticism, distress of caregivers, other patients', and caregivers' variables, and links between criticism and these variables in those with at-risk mental state (ARMS for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP. The participants were 56 patients (mean age 18.8 ± 4.2 years with ARMS and their caregivers (49.4 ± 5.8 years and 43 patients (21.7 ± 5.2 years with FEP and their caregivers (49.3 ± 7.4 years. We investigated criticisms made by caregivers using the Japanese version of the Family Attitude Scale and caregiver depressive symptoms via the self-report Beck Depression Inventory. We also assessed psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the patients. Approximately one-third of caregivers of patients with ARMS or FEP had depressive symptoms, predominately with mild-to-moderate symptom levels, whereas only a small portion exhibited high criticism. The level of criticism and depression were comparable between ARMS and FEP caregivers. The link between criticism, caregivers' depression, and patients' symptoms were observed in FEP but not in ARMS caregivers. These findings imply that the interaction between criticism and caregivers' and patients' mental states may develop during or after the onset of established psychosis and interventions for the caregivers should be tailored to the patient's specific stage of illness. Interventions for FEP caregivers should target their emotional distress and include education about patient's general symptoms.

  20. Altered brain morphology and functional connectivity reflect a vulnerable affective state after cumulative multigenerational stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, J Keiko; Truica, L Sorina; Friesen, Becky; Yao, Youli; Olson, David M; Kovalchuk, Igor; Cross, Albert R; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-08-25

    Prenatal stress is a risk factor for abnormal neuroanatomical, cognitive, behavioral and mental health outcomes with potentially transgenerational consequences. Females in general seem more resilient to the effects of prenatal stress than males. Here, we examined if repeated stress across generations may diminish stress resiliency and cumulatively enhance the susceptibility for adverse health outcomes in females. Pregnant female rats of three successive generations were exposed to stress from gestational days 12-18 to generate multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) in the maternal lineage. Stress response was measured by plasma corticosterone levels and open-field exploration in each generation. Neuromorphological consequences of MPS were investigated in the F3 generation using in vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), T2-relaxometry, and cytoarchitectonics in relation to candidate gene expression involved in brain plasticity and mental health. Each additional generation of prenatal stress incrementally elevated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, anxiety-like and aversive behaviors in adult female offspring. Elevated stress responses in the MPS F3 generation were accompanied by reduced neural density in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and whole brain along with altered brain activation patterns in in vivo MEMRI. MPS increased ephrin receptor A5 (Epha5), neuronal growth regulator (Negr1) and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25) gene expression and reduced fibroblast growth factor 12 (Fgf12) in prefrontal cortex. These genes regulate neuronal maturation, arborization and synaptic plasticity and may explain altered brain cytoarchitectonics and connectivity. These findings emphasize that recurrent stress across generations may cumulatively increase stress vulnerability and the risk of adverse health outcomes through perinatal programing in females. PMID:27241944

  1. Estimated mental retardation and school dropout in a sample of students from state public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Tramontina Silzá

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between estimated Mental Retardation (MR and school dropout in a sample of students of the third and fourth grades at state schools in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost state of Brazil. METHOD: In this case - control study, students that dropped out from schools (n=44 and a control group who continued attending schools (n=44 had their intelligence quotient (IQ determined by the vocabulary and cubes subtests of the Wescheler Intelligence Scale fraction three-quarters third edition (WISCfraction three-quartersIII. Students with IQ lower than 70 were considered as potential cases of MR. Other prevalent mental disorders in this age range were assessed in both groups using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Schoolfraction three-quarters Age Children, Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential MR was significantly higher in the dropped out group than in the control group (p<0.001. Odds ratio for school dropout was significantly higher in the presence of MR even after controlling for potentially confounding factors (age, conduct disorder, grade repetition, family structure and income (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Children with IQ lower than 70 (potential MR were at higher risk for school dropout. These children need to be identified at school and specific educational strategies should be implemented to assure their inclusion in the learning process.

  2. Frequency-dependent brain regional homogeneity alterations in patients with mild cognitive impairment during working memory state relative to resting state

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    Pengyun eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported working memory deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, previous studies investigating the neural mechanisms of MCI have primarily focused on brain activity alterations during working memory tasks. No study to date has compared brain network alterations in the working memory state between MCI patients and normal control subjects. Therefore, using the index of regional homogeneity (ReHo, we explored brain network impairments in MCI patients during a working memory task relative to the resting state, and identified frequency-dependent effects in separate frequency bands.Our results indicate that, in MCI patients, ReHo is altered in the posterior cingulate cortex in the slow-3 band (0.073–0.198 Hz, and in the bottom of the right occipital lobe and part of the right cerebellum, the right thalamus, a diffusing region in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, the left and right parietal-occipital regions, and the right angular gyrus in the slow-5 band (0.01–0.027 Hz. Furthermore, in normal controls, the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the default mode network decreased, while the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the attentional network increased during the task state. However, this pattern was reversed in MCI patients, and was associated with decreased working memory performance. In addition, we identified altered functional connectivity of the abovementioned regions with other parts of the brain in MCI patients.This is the first study to compare frequency-dependent alterations of ReHo in MCI patients between resting and working memory states. The results provide a new perspective regarding the neural mechanisms of working memory deficits in MCI patients, and extend our knowledge of altered brain patterns in resting and task-evoked states.

  3. Altered Functional Connectivity within and between Brain Modules in Absence Epilepsy: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Ping Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity has been correlated with a patient’s level of consciousness and has been found to be altered in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Absence epilepsy patients, who experience a loss of consciousness, are assumed to suffer from alterations in thalamocortical networks; however, previous studies have not explored the changes at a functional module level. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the alteration in functional connectivity that occurs in absence epilepsy patients. By parcellating the brain into 90 brain regions/nodes, we uncovered an altered functional connectivity within and between functional modules. Some brain regions had a greater number of altered connections and therefore behaved as key nodes in the changed network pattern; these regions included the superior frontal gyrus, the amygdala, and the putamen. In particular, the superior frontal gyrus demonstrated both an increased value of connections with other nodes of the frontal default mode network and a decreased value of connections with the limbic system. This divergence is positively correlated with epilepsy duration. These findings provide a new perspective and shed light on how functional connectivity and the balance of within/between module connections may contribute to both the state of consciousness and the development of absence epilepsy.

  4. The impact of familism on physical and mental health among Hispanics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiria Perez, Giselle; Cruess, Dean

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly expanding number of Hispanics living in USA has increased the need for their inclusion in research on physical and mental health. Current studies that have explored health outcomes among Hispanics have often noted an 'epidemiological paradox', in which there is a discrepancy between their minority status and positive health outcomes when compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Certain socio-cultural variables, in particular the value placed on family, have been largely implicated in these findings. This review will provide a summary of the literature exploring familism within the structure of the Hispanic family and its potential impact on health. We will focus on research exploring the plausible impact that family and familism values may have on the physical health (particularly within the HIV, diabetes, and breast cancer literature) and also on health behaviours of Hispanics, as well as its effect on mental health (particularly related to acculturative stress and caregiver stress). Throughout the review, we highlight some of the potential mechanisms by which familism may impact on the health status of Hispanics. We conclude the review by noting some of the clinical and ethical implications of this research, and by offering suggestions for future work in this area. PMID:25053010

  5. Psychometric evaluation of the altered states of consciousness rating scale (OAV.

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    Erich Studerus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The OAV questionnaire has been developed to integrate research on altered states of consciousness (ASC. It measures three primary and one secondary dimensions of ASC that are hypothesized to be invariant across ASC induction methods. The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation modeling techniques and its psychometric properties have never been examined in large samples of experimentally induced ASC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study conducted a psychometric evaluation of the OAV in a sample of psilocybin (n = 327, ketamine (n = 162, and MDMA (n = 102 induced ASC that was obtained by pooling data from 43 experimental studies. The factorial structure was examined by confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, hierarchical item clustering (ICLUST, and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC modeling. The originally proposed model did not fit the data well even if zero-constraints on non-target factor loadings and residual correlations were relaxed. Furthermore, ICLUST suggested that the "oceanic boundlessness" and "visionary restructuralization" factors could be combined on a high level of the construct hierarchy. However, because these factors were multidimensional, we extracted and examined 11 new lower order factors. MIMIC modeling indicated that these factors were highly measurement invariant across drugs, settings, questionnaire versions, and sexes. The new factors were also demonstrated to have improved homogeneities, satisfactory reliabilities, discriminant and convergent validities, and to differentiate well among the three drug groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The original scales of the OAV were shown to be multidimensional constructs. Eleven new lower order scales were constructed and demonstrated to have desirable psychometric

  6. Neurotransmitter alterations in embryonic succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH deficiency suggest a heightened excitatory state during development

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    Snead O Carter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SSADH (aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 (Aldh5a1; γ-hydroxybutyric (GHB aciduria deficiency is a defect of GABA degradation in which the neuromodulators GABA and GHB accumulate. The human phenotype is that of nonprogressive encephalopathy with prominent bilateral discoloration of the globi pallidi and variable seizures, the latter displayed prominently in Aldh5a1-/- mice with lethal convulsions. Metabolic studies in murine neural tissue have revealed elevated GABA [and its derivatives succinate semialdehyde (SSA, homocarnosine (HC, 4,5-dihydroxyhexanoic acid (DHHA and guanidinobutyrate (GB] and GHB [and its analogue D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG] at birth. Because of early onset seizures and the neurostructural anomalies observed in patients, we examined metabolite features during Aldh5a1-/- embryo development. Methods Embryos were obtained from pregnant dams sacrificed at E (embryo day of life 10–13, 14–15, 16–17, 18–19 and newborn mice. Intact embryos were extracted and metabolites quantified by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (n = 5–15 subjects, Aldh5a1+/+ and Aldh5a1-/- for each gestational age group. Data was evaluated using the t test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analysis. Significance was set at the 95th centile. Results GABA and DHHA were significantly elevated at all gestational ages in Aldh5a1-/- mice, while GB was increased only late in gestation; SSA was not elevated at any time point. GHB and D-2-HG increased in an approximately linear fashion with gestational age. Correlative studies in human amniotic fluid from SSADH-deficient pregnancies (n = 5 also revealed significantly increased GABA. Conclusion Our findings indicate early GABAergic alterations in Aldh5a1-/- mice, possibly exacerbated by other metabolites, which likely induce a heightened excitatory state that may predispose neural networks to epilepsy in these animals.

  7. Decoding motor responses from the EEG during altered states of consciousness induced by propofol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokland, Yvonne; Farquhar, Jason; Lerou, Jos; Mourisse, Jo; Scheffer, Gert Jan; van Geffen, Geert-Jan; Spyrou, Loukianos; Bruhn, Jörgen

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Patients undergoing general anesthesia may awaken and become aware of the surgical procedure. Due to neuromuscular blocking agents, patients could be conscious yet unable to move. Using brain-computer interface (BCI) technology, it may be possible to detect movement attempts from the EEG. However, it is unknown how an anesthetic influences the brain response to motor tasks. Approach. We tested the offline classification performance of a movement-based BCI in 12 healthy subjects at two effect-site concentrations of propofol. For each subject a second classifier was trained on the subject’s data obtained before sedation, then tested on the data obtained during sedation (‘transfer classification’). Main results. At concentration 0.5 μg ml-1, despite an overall propofol EEG effect, the mean single trial classification accuracy was 85% (95% CI 81%-89%), and 83% (79%-88%) for the transfer classification. At 1.0 μg ml-1, the accuracies were 81% (76%-86%), and 72% (66%-79%), respectively. At the highest propofol concentration for four subjects, unlike the remaining subjects, the movement-related brain response had been largely diminished, and the transfer classification accuracy was not significantly above chance. These subjects showed a slower and more erratic task response, indicating an altered state of consciousness distinct from that of the other subjects. Significance. The results show the potential of using a BCI to detect intra-operative awareness and justify further development of this paradigm. At the same time, the relationship between motor responses and consciousness and its clinical relevance for intraoperative awareness requires further investigation.

  8. Altered resting-state frontoparietal control network in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Matsuo, Kayako; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-01

    The frontoparietal control network, anatomically and functionally interposed between the dorsal attention network and default mode network, underpins executive control functions. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly exhibit deficits in executive functions, which are mainly mediated by the frontoparietal control network. Involvement of the frontoparietal control network based on the anterior prefrontal cortex in neurobiological mechanisms of ADHD has yet to be tested. We used resting-state functional MRI and seed-based correlation analyses to investigate functional connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in a sample of 25 children with ADHD (7-14 years; mean 9.94 ± 1.77 years; 20 males), and 25 age-, sex-, and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children. All participants had limited in-scanner head motion. Spearman's rank correlations were used to test the associations between altered patterns of functional connectivity with clinical symptoms and executive functions, measured by the Conners' Continuous Performance Test and Spatial Span in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Compared with TD children, children with ADHD demonstrated weaker connectivity between the right anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right ventrolateral PFC, and between the left anterior PFC and the right inferior parietal lobule. Furthermore, this aberrant connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in ADHD was associated with symptoms of impulsivity and opposition-defiance, as well as impaired response inhibition and attentional control. The findings support potential integration of the disconnection model and the executive dysfunction model for ADHD. Atypical frontoparietal control network may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. PMID:25928822

  9. The influence of several changes in atmospheric states over semi-arid areas on the incidence of mental health disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Todder, Doron; Kaplan, Zeev

    2011-05-01

    The incidence of suicide attempts [Deliberate Self Harm (DSH); ICD-10: X60-X84] and psychotic attacks (PsA; ICD-10, F20-F29) in association with atmospheric states, typical for areas close to big deserts, was analyzed. A retrospective study is based on the 4,325 cases of DSH and PsA registered in the Mental Health Center (MHC) of Ben-Gurion University (Be'er-Sheva, Israel) during 2001-2003. Pearson and Spearman test correlations were used; the statistical significance was tested at p 0.1). Correlation coefficients between N SU and N PS and speed WS of westerly wind reaches 0.3 ( p 0.09). Variations in easterly wind direction WD influence N SU and N PS values ( p 0.3). Obviously ,in transition areas located between different regions ,the main role of air streams in meteorological-biological impact can scarcely be exaggerated. An unstable balance in the internal state of a weather-sensitive person is disturbed when the atmospheric state is changed by specific desert winds, which can provoke significant perturbations in meteorological parameters. Results indicate the importance of wind direction, defining mainly the atmospheric situation in semi-arid areas: changes in direction of the easterly wind influence N SU and N PS , while changes in WS are important for mental health under westerly air streams. Obviously, N SU and N PS are more affected by the disturbance of weather from its normal state, for a given season, to which the local population is accustomed, than by absolute values of meteorological parameters.

  10. Accounting for Ecosystem Alteration Doubles Estimates of Conservation Risk in the Conterminous United States

    OpenAIRE

    Randy Swaty; Kori Blankenship; Sarah Hagen; Joseph Fargione; Jim Smith; Jeannie Patton

    2011-01-01

    Previous national and global conservation assessments have relied on habitat conversion data to quantify conservation risk. However, in addition to habitat conversion to crop production or urban uses, ecosystem alteration (e.g., from logging, conversion to plantations, biological invasion, or fire suppression) is a large source of conservation risk. We add data quantifying ecosystem alteration on unconverted lands to arrive at a more accurate depiction of conservation risk for the conterminou...

  11. Mental health of returnees: refugees in Germany prior to their state-sponsored repatriation

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    Elbert Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many refugees live for years in exile. The combination of stress in the host country, together with long-term effects resulting from traumatic stress usually experienced in the home country may affect mental health. Little is known, to what extent these and other factors promote or stall the willingness to return to the country of origin. Here, we investigate, as an example, refugees who will return to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 11 years. Objective What is the mental health status of returnees before the actual return who have been living in exile for an extended period? We also asked, what are the current living conditions in Germany and what are the motives for and reasons against a voluntary return to the country of origin? Methods Forty-seven participants of programs for assisted voluntarreturn were interviewed about their present living situation, their view regarding their home country and voluntary return. These findings were compared to a group of 53 refugees who had decided to remain in Germany (stayers. Participants were recruited by means of advertisements posted in refugee centres, language schools, at doctors' offices and in organisations involved in the management of voluntary return in Germany. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among respondents was tested using the structured interview M.I.N.I. The Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS was used to assess PTSD in more detail and EUROHIS was applied to measure the subjective quality of life of participants. Results We found a prevalence rate of 44% psychiatric disorders in the group of returnees and a rate of 78% in the group of stayers. We also recorded substantial correlations between the living situation in Germany, disposition to return and mental health. In almost two thirds of the participants the decision to return was not voluntary but strongly influenced by immigration authorities. The most

  12. Out of time? - Music, consciousness states and neuropharmacological mechanisms of an altered temporality

    OpenAIRE

    Fachner, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced altered temporality is a well-known effect of cannabis action that is utilised from musicians and music listeners for music appreciation since the early days of jazz. Cannabis has an influence on timing processes at short time scales of hundreds of milliseconds as O’Leary et al (2003) have shown in their tapping studies, proving evidence of an altered cerebellar functioning. This paper will focus on cannabis and its action on timing and aims to discuss selected scientific streams...

  13. Processing deficits in monitoring analog and digital displays: Implications for attentional theory and mental-state estimation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, David G.; Gunther, Virginia A. L.

    1988-01-01

    Subjects performed short term memory tasks, involving both spatial and verbal components, and a visual monitoring task involving either analog or digital display formats. These two tasks (memory vs. monitoring) were performed both singly and in conjunction. Contrary to expectations derived from multiple resource theories of attentional processes, there was no evidence that when the two tasks involved the same cognitive codes (i.e., either both spatial or both verbal/linguistics) there was more of a dual task performance decrement than when the two tasks employed different cognitive codes/processes. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for theories of attentional processes and also for research in mental state estimation.

  14. Relationship between weak central coherence and mental states understanding in children with Autism and in children with ADHD.

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    Pina Filippello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The central coherence involves the processes of perceptual coding and attention mechanisms, highly deficient in children with ADHD (Booth & Happé, 2010. According to this theory, also children with autism are overly focused on details to the expense of a global perspective, and this negatively affects their ability to integrate environmental stimuli into a coherent whole (Happé, Booth, Charlton, Hughes, 2006. The aim of this study was to determine differences in central coherence of children with high functioning autism (ASD; n=10, children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=10 and typically developing peers (n=10. Individuals with ADHD exhibit significant deficits in perceptual skills and problem solving, failing also in mental states understanding tasks. While the children with autism spectrum disorder show impairments in making pragmatic inferences. Future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of the cognitive and psychological mechanisms underlying these effects.

  15. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai

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    Xin Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM cases were identified. Risk factors, such as advanced age (≥68 years, low education (no or primary level, self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects.

  16. The organizational social context of mental health services and clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice: a United States national study

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    Aarons Gregory A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practices have not been routinely adopted in community mental health organizations despite the support of scientific evidence and in some cases even legislative or regulatory action. We examined the association of clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice with organizational culture, climate, and other characteristics in a nationally representative sample of mental health organizations in the United States. Methods In-person, group-administered surveys were conducted with a sample of 1,112 mental health service providers in a nationwide sample of 100 mental health service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study examines these associations with a two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM analysis of responses to the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS at the individual clinician level as a function of the Organizational Social Context (OSC measure at the organizational level, controlling for other organization and clinician characteristics. Results We found that more proficient organizational cultures and more engaged and less stressful organizational climates were associated with positive clinician attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Conclusions The findings suggest that organizational intervention strategies for improving the organizational social context of mental health services may contribute to the success of evidence-based practice dissemination and implementation efforts by influencing clinician attitudes.

  17. Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis Reveals a Link between ETHE1-Mediated Disruptive Redox State and Altered Metabolic Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahebekhtiari, Navid; Nielsen, Camilla Bak; Johannsen, Mogens; Palmfeldt, Johan

    2016-01-01

    analyze the molecular phenotype of the disease, we applied an untargeted metabolomics approach on cultivated fibroblasts of EE patients for pinpointing alterations in metabolite levels. Metabolites, as direct signatures of biochemical functions, can decipher biochemical pathways involved in the cellular...... phenotype of patient cells. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics, we identified 18 metabolites that have altered levels in fibroblasts from EE patients. Our data demonstrate disrupted redox state in EE patient cells, which is reflected by significantly decreased level...... the β-citrylglutamate with a putative role in brain development had an increased level in the EE patient cells. These observations indicate the severe impact of ETHE1 deficiency on cellular physiology and redox state, meanwhile suggesting targets for experimental studies on novel treatment options for...

  18. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) thought; (3) body; and (4) emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation. PMID:25994026

  19. The experience of altered states of consciousness in shamanic ritual: the role of pre-existing beliefs and affective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Vince; Langdon, Robyn; Brown, Jac

    2010-12-01

    Much attention has been paid recently to the role of anomalous experiences in the aetiology of certain types of psychopathology, e.g. in the formation of delusions. We examine, instead, the top-down influence of pre-existing beliefs and affective factors in shaping an individual's characterisation of anomalous sensory experiences. Specifically we investigated the effects of paranormal beliefs and alexithymia in determining the intensity and quality of an altered state of consciousness (ASC). Fifty five participants took part in a sweat lodge ceremony, a traditional shamanic ritual which was unfamiliar to them. Participants reported significant alterations in their state of consciousness, quantified using the 'APZ' questionnaire, a standardized measure of ASC experience. Participants endorsing paranormal beliefs compatible with shamanic mythology, and those showing difficulty identifying feelings scored higher on positive dimensions of ASC experience. Our findings demonstrate that variation in an individual's characterisation of anomalous experiences is nuanced by pre-existing beliefs and affective factors. PMID:20558090

  20. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Lanius

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015. This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1 those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2 those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC along four dimensions: (1 time; (2 thought; (3 body; and (4 emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  1. Beyond Trauma: Post-resettlement Factors and Mental Health Outcomes Among Latino and Asian Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Isok

    2016-08-01

    War-related traumas impact refugees' mental health. Recent literature suggests that structural and sociocultural factors related to the resettlement also become critical in shaping refugees' mental health. So far, there is limited empirical evidence to support this claim among resettled refugees. Resettlement contextual factors that influence mental health outcomes were examined using Latino and Asian refugees (n = 656) from a nationally representative survey. Linear and logistic regressions predicted factors associated with the study's outcomes (self-reported mental health, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders). Post-resettlement traumas were significantly associated with mental health outcomes, but pre-resettlement traumas were not. Unemployment, everyday discrimination, and limited English were significantly associated with mental health outcomes among both Latino and Asian refugees. The outcomes indicate that resettlement contextual factors have a significant association with refugees' mental health. Therefore, future studies with refugees must pay closer attention to structural and sociocultural factors after resettlement. PMID:26169507

  2. Altered functional connectivity of fusiform gyrus in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a resting state fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Liyu Huang

    2015-01-01

    Visual cognition such as face recognition requires a high level of functional interaction between distributed regions of a network. It has been reported that the fusiform gyrus (FG) is an important brain area involved in facial cognition; altered connectivity of FG to some other regions may lead to a deficit in visual cognition especially face recognition. However, whether functional connectivity between the FG and other brain regions changes remains unclear during the resting state in amnest...

  3. Alteration of the Redox State with Reactive Oxygen Species for 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Oral Mucositis in Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Ayaka; Nakajima, Atsushi; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Lee, Masaichi Chang-il

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucositis is often induced in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy treatment. It has been reported that oral mucositis can reduce quality of life, as well as increasing the incidence of mortality. The participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis is well known, but no report has actually demonstrated the presence of ROS. Thus, the purpose of this study was thus to demonstrate the involvement of ROS and the alteration of the redox state in oral muc...

  4. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women with BPD with or without co-occurring PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Frewen, Paul; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Lanius, Ruth; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background: A “4-D model” was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion) that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC) or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC).Methods: The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder...

  5. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state...

  6. Neural correlate of the projection of mental states on the not-structured visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Massimiliano; Cecchini, Marco; Altavilla, Daniela; Palumbo, Letizia; Aceto, Paola; Ruggeri, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Lai, Carlo

    2014-06-24

    Projection is a spontaneous and complex mental activity responsible for the subjective meaning attribution. The hypotheses of this study were that the neural correlate of projection may involve frontal, parietal, and temporal brain areas, and that alexithymia may be negatively associated with intensities in limbic and paralimbic areas during projection. EEG data were recorded continuously at 250 Hz using NetStation 4.5.1 with 256-channels HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net in 20 healthy subjects during the presentation of structured and not-structured visual stimuli. The tasks were paying attention to the stimuli and thinking about the possible meaning of each image. Event related potential (ERP) components and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLoreta) were analyzed. Participants were administered the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale before stimulus presentation. Source analyses (sLORETA) showed a greater activated source in the left primary somatosensory cortex (BA1) compared to all the others BA in both conditions through all the ERP components. An involvement of the frontal (right-BA4, left- and right-BA9, left-BA11) and parietal (left and right-BA2 and left-BA7) areas was found in projective response to not-structured visual stimuli. Alexithymia levels were negatively correlated with the anterior (right-BA32) and posterior (left-BA29) cingulate cortex. Findings show the relevance of fronto-parieto circuits during projection, where the internally generating somatosensory representations could drive an intermodal meaning attribution during the task. Moreover, high alexithymia levels were associated with a reduced activation of the cingulated cortex. PMID:24831184

  7. Distributions of Irritative Zones Are Related to Individual Alterations of Resting-State Networks in Focal Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinchen; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Lin, Wei-Chiang; Riera, Jorge J

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the connectivity patterns of the fMRI-based resting-state networks (RSNs) have been reported in several types of epilepsies. Evidence pointed out these alterations might be associated with the genesis and propagation of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). IEDs also evoke blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses, which have been used to delineate irritative zones during preoperative work-up. Therefore, one may expect a relationship between the topology of the IED-evoked BOLD response network and the altered spatial patterns of the RSNs. In this study, we used EEG recordings and fMRI data obtained simultaneously from a chronic model of focal epilepsy in Wistar rats to verify our hypothesis. We found that IED-evoked BOLD response networks comprise both cortical and subcortical structures with a rat-dependent topology. In all rats, IEDs evoke both activation and deactivation types of BOLD responses. Using a Granger causality method, we found that in many cases areas with BOLD deactivation have directed influences on areas with activation (paltered consciousness. In our opinion, the shutdown of specific nodes of the default mode network may cause uncontrollable excitability in other functionally connected brain areas. We conclude that IED-evoked BOLD responses (i.e., activation and deactivation) and alterations of RSNs are intrinsically related, and speculate that an understanding of their interplay is necessary to discriminate focal epileptogenesis and network propagation phenomena across different brain modules via hub-based connectivity. PMID:26226628

  8. Resting-state functional connectivity bias of middle temporal gyrus and caudate with altered gray matter volume in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqiong Ma

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have indicated that the structure deficits and resting-state functional connectivity (FC imbalances in cortico-limbic circuitry might underline the pathophysiology of MDD. Using structure and functional MRI, our aim is to investigate gray matter abnormalities in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD and treatment-responsive depression (TSD, and test whether the altered gray matter is associated with altered FC. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the regions with gray matter abnormality and FC analysis was further conducted between each gray matter abnormal region and the remaining voxels in the brain. Using one-way analysis of variance, we found significant gray matter abnormalities in the right middle temporal cortex (MTG and bilateral caudate among the TRD, TSD and healthy controls. For the FC of the right MTG, we found that both the patients with TRD and TSD showed altered connectivity mainly in the default-mode network (DMN. For the FC of the right caudate, both patient groups showed altered connectivity in the frontal regions. Our results revealed the gray matter reduction of right MTG and bilateral caudate, and disrupted functional connection to widely distributed circuitry in DMN and frontal regions, respectively. These results suggest that the abnormal DMN and reward circuit activity might be biomarkers of depression trait.

  9. State- and trait-related alterations of motor cortex excitability in tinnitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schecklmann, Martin; Landgrebe, Michael; Kleinjung, Tobias; Frank, Elmar; Rupprecht, Rainer; Sand, Philipp G.; Eichhammer, Peter; Hajak, Göran; Langguth, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a brain network disorder with involvement of auditory and non-auditory areas. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the temporal cortex has been investigated for the treatment of tinnitus. Several small studies suggest that motor cortex excitability is altered in people with tinnitus. We retrospectively analysed data from 231 patients with chronic tinnitus and 120 healthy controls by pooling data from different studies. Variables of interest were resting...

  10. Alterations in Resting-State Activity Relate to Performance in a Verbal Recognition Task

    OpenAIRE

    López Zunini, Rocío A.; Thivierge, Jean-Philippe; Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Taler, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    In the brain, resting-state activity refers to non-random patterns of intrinsic activity occurring when participants are not actively engaged in a task. We monitored resting-state activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) both before and after a verbal recognition task. We show a strong positive correlation between accuracy in verbal recognition and pre-task resting-state alpha power at posterior sites. We further characterized this effect by examining resting-state post-task activity. We fou...

  11. Human rights and mental health among Latin American women in situations of state-sponsored violence. Bibliographic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykes, M B; Brabeck, M M; Ferns, T; Radan, A

    1993-12-01

    The Task Force of the American Psychological Association Division 35, Psychology of Women, conducted a literature review of resources from Latin America to examine the social dimensions of state-sponsored violence in Latin America, their effects on socialization and community, and some responses of women surviving these experiences. It limited its review to works of women's groups, progressive organizations, and individual women exploring the effects of war and state-sponsored violence on women's mental health. Recurring emergent themes included the false dichotomy of violence committed against women in public versus that committed in private, silencing of women accompanies state imposed terror, collective resistance to such terror. The resources addressed 3 types of women's experiences of violence: exile within and beyond one's national borders; torture--an extreme form of state-sponsored violence; and nontraditional, culturally appropriate interventions--alternatives to Western models. This review motivated the Task Force to call on their colleagues to contribute to the on-going documentation of state-sponsored violence. Task Force members identified several areas for collaborative research and/or theory development. Psychologists should question the validity of clinical neutrality and examine the particular meanings of non-neutrality within different cultures. For example, some Latin American psychologists reject diagnoses of intrapsychic syndromes (e.g., post-traumatic stress syndrome) and propose concepts that center on the nexus of individuals and social life. The Task Force sees great opportunities for US psychologists to network and to form solidarity-based relationships with Latin American women. It has identified many women's groups working in Latin America. Human rights organizations (e.g., Americas Watch) have formed women's projects. Further work should be done to improve resource exchanges. PMID:12288466

  12. Alterations in Neuronal Activity in Basal Ganglia-Thalamocortical Circuits in the Parkinsonian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Galvan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials, electroencephalograms or electrocorticograms. Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation therapy.

  13. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information…

  14. Mental State Verb Production in the Oral Narratives of English- and Spanish-Speaking Preadolescents: An Exploratory Study of Lexical Diversity and Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuste-Herrmann, Belinda; Silliman, Elaine R.; Bahr, Ruth H.; Fasnacht, Kyna S.; Federico, Jeanne E.

    2006-01-01

    As a preface to future studies on language impairment in bilingual children, an exploratory analysis of lexical diversity and depth in the production of mental state verbs was conducted on the oral narratives of 9- and 11-year-old children who differed by language status. English-only (EO), bilingual (Spanish-English), and Spanish-only (SO)…

  15. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

  16. The Effect of Bicycle Ergometer Exercise at Varying Intensities on the Heart Rate, EMG and Mood State Responses to a Mental Arithmetic Stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Colleen R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the effect of bicycle ergometer exercise at varying metabolic intensities upon the heart rate, electromyographic (EMG), and mood state responses to a timed mental arithmetric stressor of 12 adult males. Exercise influenced heart rate and EMG but not physiological and psychological responses to the arithmetic stressor.…

  17. Insulin Resistance-Associated Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity Alterations in T2DM: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to investigate whether decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity exists in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI. In addition, we sought to determine whether interhemispheric functional connectivity deficits associated with cognition and insulin resistance (IR among T2DM patients. We compared the interhemispheric resting state functional connectivity of 32 T2DM patients and 30 healthy controls using rs-fMRI. Partial correlation coefficients were used to detect the relationship between rs-fMRI information and cognitive or clinical data. Compared with healthy controls, T2DM patients showed bidirectional alteration of functional connectivity in several brain regions. Functional connectivity values in the middle temporal gyrus (MTG and in the superior frontal gyrus were inversely correlated with Trail Making Test-B score of patients. Notably, insulin resistance (log homeostasis model assessment-IR negatively correlated with functional connectivity in the MTG of patients. In conclusion, T2DM patients exhibit abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity in several default mode network regions, particularly in the MTG, and such alteration is associated with IR. Alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity might contribute to cognitive dysfunction in T2DM patients.

  18. Individual and Social Factors Related to Mental Health Concerns among Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Reece, Michael; Martinez, Omar; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Research has not yet explored the potential impact of social stress, biphobia, and other factors on the mental health of bisexual men. In-depth interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Interviewers explored potential mental health stressors and supports. Many participants reported personal and social challenges associated with bisexuality, which in turn influenced their mental health. Reported instances of stigma to...

  19. Studies on the Mental Processes in Translation Memory-assisted Translation – the State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the mental translation processes involved in translation memory-assisted translation. First, based on recent developments in cognitive science the article provides a working definition of mental TM research. Next the article analyses a selection of mental TM studies...... is needed which takes into account the recent developments within TM technology and looks into both internal and external translation processes....

  20. Altered resting-state neural activity and changes following a craving behavioral intervention for Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Potenza, Marc N; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Ma, Shan-Shan; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. Evaluating the benefits of interventions for IGD is of great significance. Thirty-six young adults with IGD and 19 healthy comparison (HC) subjects were recruited and underwent resting-state fMRI scanning. Twenty IGD subjects participated in a group craving behavioral intervention (CBI) and were scanned before and after the intervention. The remaining 16 IGD subjects did not receive an intervention. The results showed that IGD subjects showed decreased amplitude of low fluctuation in the orbital frontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and exhibited increased resting-state functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, compared with HC subjects. Compared with IGD subjects who did not receive the intervention, those receiving CBI demonstrated significantly reduced resting-state functional connectivity between the: (1) orbital frontal cortex with hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus; and, (2) posterior cingulate cortex with supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. These findings suggest that IGD is associated with abnormal resting-state neural activity in reward-related, default mode and executive control networks. Thus, the CBI may exert effects by reducing interactions between regions within a reward-related network, and across the default mode and executive control networks. PMID:27381822

  1. Telling the Story of Theory of Mind: Deaf and Hearing Children's Narratives and Mental State Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia P.

    2006-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) was examined in late-signing deaf children in two studies by using standard tests and measures of spontaneous talk about inner states of perception, affect and cognition during storytelling. In Study 1, there were 21 deaf children aged 6 to 11 years and 13 typical-hearing children matched with the deaf by chronological age. In…

  2. Distributions of Irritative Zones Are Related to Individual Alterations of Resting-State Networks in Focal Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinchen Song

    Full Text Available Alterations in the connectivity patterns of the fMRI-based resting-state networks (RSNs have been reported in several types of epilepsies. Evidence pointed out these alterations might be associated with the genesis and propagation of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs. IEDs also evoke blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD responses, which have been used to delineate irritative zones during preoperative work-up. Therefore, one may expect a relationship between the topology of the IED-evoked BOLD response network and the altered spatial patterns of the RSNs. In this study, we used EEG recordings and fMRI data obtained simultaneously from a chronic model of focal epilepsy in Wistar rats to verify our hypothesis. We found that IED-evoked BOLD response networks comprise both cortical and subcortical structures with a rat-dependent topology. In all rats, IEDs evoke both activation and deactivation types of BOLD responses. Using a Granger causality method, we found that in many cases areas with BOLD deactivation have directed influences on areas with activation (p<0.05. We were able to predict topological properties (i.e., focal/diffused, unilateral/bilateral of the IED-evoked BOLD response network by performing hierarchical clustering analysis on major spatial features of the RSNs. All these results suggest that IEDs and disruptions in the RSNs found previously in humans may be different manifestations of the same transient events, probably reflecting altered consciousness. In our opinion, the shutdown of specific nodes of the default mode network may cause uncontrollable excitability in other functionally connected brain areas. We conclude that IED-evoked BOLD responses (i.e., activation and deactivation and alterations of RSNs are intrinsically related, and speculate that an understanding of their interplay is necessary to discriminate focal epileptogenesis and network propagation phenomena across different brain modules via hub

  3. Adaptation of muscle coordination to altered task mechanics during steady-state cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neptune, R R; Herzog, W

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this work was to increase our understanding of how motor patterns are produced during movement tasks by quantifying adaptations in muscle coordination in response to altered task mechanics. We used pedaling as our movement paradigm because it is a constrained cyclical movement that allows for a controlled investigation of test conditions such as movement speed and effort. Altered task mechanics were introduced using an elliptical chainring. The kinematics of the crank were changed from a relatively constant angular velocity using a circular chainring to a widely varying angular velocity using an elliptical chainring. Kinetic, kinematic and muscle activity data were collected from eight competitive cyclists using three different chainrings--one circular and two different orientations of an elliptical chainring. We tested the hypotheses that muscle coordination patterns (EMG timing and magnitude), specifically the regions of active muscle force production, would shift towards regions in the crank cycle in which the crank angular velocity, and hence muscle contraction speeds, were favorable to produce muscle power as defined by the skeletal muscle power-velocity relationship. The results showed that our hypothesis with regards to timing was not supported. Although there were statistically significant shifts in muscle timing, the shifts were minor in absolute terms and appeared to be the result of the muscles accounting for the activation dynamics associated with muscle force development (i.e. the delay in muscle force rise and decay). But, significant changes in the magnitude of muscle EMG during regions of slow crank angular velocity for the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris were observed. Thus, the nervous system used adaptations to the muscle EMG magnitude, rather than the timing, to adapt to the altered task mechanics. The results also suggested that cyclists might work on the descending limb of the power-velocity relationship when pedaling at

  4. Altered resting state neuromotor connectivity in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A MAPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J. Kutch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain network activity associated with altered motor control in individuals with chronic pain is not well understood. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS is a debilitating condition in which previous studies have revealed altered resting pelvic floor muscle activity in men with CP/CPPS compared to healthy controls. We hypothesized that the brain networks controlling pelvic floor muscles would also show altered resting state function in men with CP/CPPS. Here we describe the results of the first test of this hypothesis focusing on the motor cortical regions, termed pelvic-motor, that can directly activate pelvic floor muscles. A group of men with CP/CPPS (N = 28, as well as group of age-matched healthy male controls (N = 27, had resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network study. Brain maps of the functional connectivity of pelvic-motor were compared between groups. A significant group difference was observed in the functional connectivity between pelvic-motor and the right posterior insula. The effect size of this group difference was among the largest effect sizes in functional connectivity between all pairs of 165 anatomically-defined subregions of the brain. Interestingly, many of the atlas region pairs with large effect sizes also involved other subregions of the insular cortices. We conclude that functional connectivity between motor cortex and the posterior insula may be among the most important markers of altered brain function in men with CP/CPPS, and may represent changes in the integration of viscerosensory and motor processing.

  5. Mechanisms driving alteration of the Landau state in the vicinity of a second-order phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rearrangement of the Fermi surface of a homogeneous Fermi system upon approach to a second-order phase transition is studied at zero temperature. The analysis begins with an investigation of solutions of the equation ε(p) = μ, a condition that ordinarily has the Fermi momentum pF as a single root. The emergence of a bifurcation point in this equation is found to trigger a qualitative alteration of the Landau state, well before the collapse of the collective degree of freedom that is responsible for the second-order transition. The competition between mechanisms that drive rearrangement of the Landau quasiparticle distribution is explored, taking into account the feedback of the rearrangement on the spectrum of critical fluctuations. It is demonstrated that the transformation of the Landau state to a new ground state may be viewed as a first-order phase transition

  6. New methods for the measurement and alteration of quantum states; Neue Methoden zur Messung und Veraenderung von Quantenzustaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuernagel, O.

    1996-07-01

    Themes of this thesis are the mathematical representation, measurement-technical reconstruction, and preparation of quantum states as well as their alteration by measurement. The main topics of the considerations are quantum-mechanical system states, the complet description of which pursues by means of density operators. The first chapter presents a general mathematical scheme for the representaion of density operators by means of projection operators. The second chapter explains a scheme for the syntehsis of Fock states by means of a linear mixer. The third chapter answers the question, whether spontaneous emitted light, which is emitted by an atom with large spatial extension, can show self-interferences and lets conclude on thee coherent structure of the c.m. wave function of the emitting atom. The last chapter reconstructs measurement results on the coherence loss of atoms in an atomic-beam experiment by spontaneous emission in the language of the density-operator formalism.

  7. Altered Regional Homogeneity in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder during Manic State: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Xiao; Yuan Zhong; Dali Lu; Weijia Gao; Qing Jiao; Guangming Lu; Linyan Su

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is a severely debilitating illness, which is characterized by episodes of mania and depression separated by periods of remission. Previous fMRI studies investigating PBD were mainly task-related. However, little is known about the abnormalities in PBD, especially during resting state. Resting state brain activity measured by fMRI might help to explore neurobiological biomarkers of the disorder. METHODS: Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was examined with...

  8. Features of the mental state of patients with myocardial infarction at a sanatorium stage of rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putrov S.Yu.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available It is analysed the results of a research of psychological state defining of patients with myocardial infarction at a sanatorium stage of rehabilitation. It is identified a positive dynamics in the integrated application of means and methods of physical rehabilitation, and psychotherapeutic factors. The features of physical rehabilitation of patients are exposed by the heart attack of myocardium that is making program of rehabilitation on the sanatorium stage. It is certain that the program of physical rehabilitation is based on the complex of such measures as a morning hygienical gymnastics, medical gymnastics, medical dosed walking, training walking by steps.

  9. Classification model of arousal and valence mental states by EEG signals analysis and Brodmann correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Rodriguez Aguinaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology to perform emotional states classification by the analysis of EEG signals, wavelet decomposition and an electrode discrimination process, that associates electrodes of a 10/20 model to Brodmann regions and reduce computational burden. The classification process were performed by a Support Vector Machines Classification process, achieving a 81.46 percent of classification rate for a multi-class problem and the emotions modeling are based in an adjusted space from the Russell Arousal Valence Space and the Geneva model.

  10. Steady-State Methadone Blocks Cocaine Seeking and Cocaine-Induced Gene Expression Alterations in the Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Leri, Francesco; Zhou, Yan; Goddard, Benjamin; Levy, AnneMarie; Jacklin, Derek; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    To elucidate the effects of steady-state methadone exposure on responding to cocaine conditioned stimuli and on cocaine-induced alterations in central opioid, hypocretin/orexin, and D2 receptor systems, male Sprague-Dawley rats received intravenous infusions of 1 mg/kg/inf cocaine paired with an audiovisual stimulus over three days of conditioning. Then, mini pumps releasing vehicle or 30 mg/kg/day methadone were implanted (SC), and lever pressing for the stimulus was assessed in the absence ...

  11. The Mood Induction Task: A standardized, computerized laboratory procedure for altering mood state in humans

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Oliver J Robinson, Christian Grillon & Barbara J Sahakian ### Abstract Mood states are an integral component of our everyday lives and have wide-ranging impacts upon psychological health and well-being. Moreover, disorders of mood, such as major depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders are amongst the most common and most deleterious diseases facing society. Clarifying the neurobiological underpinnings of mood states is therefore of utmost importance. Experiment...

  12. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR: a flow-like mental state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Barratt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9% within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.

  13. Altered regional homogeneity in spontaneous cluster headache attacks: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU En-chao; YU Sheng-yuan; LIU Ruo-zhuo; WANG Yan; MA Lin; TIAN Li-xia

    2012-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging study has opened an avenue for exploring the pathophysiology of cluster headache (CH).The aim of our study was to assess the changes in brain activity in CH patients by the regional homogeneity method using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging technique.Methods The functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for 12 male CH patients with spontaneous right-sided headache attacks during “in attack” and “out of attack” periods and 12 age- and sex-matched normal controls.The data were analyzed to detect the altered brain activity by the regional homogeneity method using statistical parametric mapping software.Results Altered regional homogeneity was detected in the anterior cingulate cortex,the posterior cingulate cortex,the prefrontal cortex,insular cortex,and other brain regions involved in pain processing and modulation among different groups.Conclusion It is referred that these brain regions with altered regional homogeneity might be related to the pain processing and modulation of CH.

  14. [Economic restructuring and impacts on health and mental distress: the case of a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Pinheiro, Tarcísio Márcio Magalhães; Sakurai, Emília

    2007-12-01

    Restructuring of the Brazilian financial sector was consolidated through the combination of mass lay-offs, automation, and outsourcing, in addition to business re-engineering with leveling of hierarchical echelons, labor casualization, and multi-function jobs. In order to comply and deal with the new demands, bank employees had to increase their schooling, become multi-functional and expert sales attendants, and submit to substandard conditions in the workplace, increased workload, overtime, and low wages. The purpose of the current study was to examine the restructuring process in a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and its impacts on workers' health. The study also analyzes absenteeism rates from 1998 to 2003, when there was an increase in diseases such as repetitive stress injury (RSI)/work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD) and mental/behavioral disorders, accounting for 56% and 19% of sick leaves. The process has continued to the present, with a restrictive recruitment policy. Further study is needed to confirm the results. PMID:18157337

  15. Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah: characterization of rock types and alteration in Getty Oil Company well Utah state 52-21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, G.H.

    1978-11-01

    Getty Oil Company well 52-21 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area was drilled to 7500 feet in predominantly upper amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks. All lithologies in the drill hole are pervasively but weakly altered: the alteration assemblage is chlorite + sericite + clays with occasional traces of calcite, above 2300 feet, and chlorite + sericite + clays + calcite +- epidote below 2500 feet. A zone of increased alteration intensity from approximately 1800 feet to 2300 feet occurs within and adjacent to a dacite dike which cuts the metamorphic rocks. A second zone of stronger alteration extends from 6000 feet to the bottom of the drill hole. The drill hole which is located approximately 5000 feet south of the center of the silica apron known as the Opal Mound was apparently drilled beyond the influence of acid, high-sulfate brines such as have affected the upper portions of drill holes 72-16, 76-1 and University of Utah 1A and 1B.

  16. The modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is more predictive of memory abilities than the Mini Mental State Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Although not as popular as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these two cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (i.e., delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after one year. Both the MMSE and mTICS significantly correlated with the memory composite at baseline (r’s of 0.41 and 0.62, respectively) and one year (r’s of 0.36 and 0.50, respectively). At baseline, stepwise linear regression indicated that the mTICS and gender best predicted the memory composite score (R2=0.45, p<.001), and the MMSE and other demographic variables did not significantly improve the prediction. At one year, the results were very similar. Despite its lesser popularity, the mTICS may be a more attractive option when screening for cognitive abilities in this age range. PMID:25722349

  17. 'Yes' ifs, ands or buts: examining performance and correlates of the repetition task in the mini-mental state examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, P; Heinik, J; Lin, R; Bleich, A

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the type of sentence used in the repetition task included in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) affected performance in a group of 79 demented and 19 non-demented Hebrew-speaking elderly persons. The cognitive functioning of the participants was assessed using the MMSE and CAMCOG examinations. The performance of the repetition task was evaluated by using three sentences: the literal translation of the English language expression used in the original MMSE; a well-known Hebrew proverb consisting of monosyllabic words and rhythmic effects; and another well-known Hebrew proverb without such attributes. Only a third of the participants successfully repeated the literally translated expression. It showed low predictive value and was highly affected by education. The well-known Hebrew monosyllabic proverb showed moderate predictive value but no discriminatory ability. The other well-known Hebrew proverb performed the best. The translation of the repetition task in the MMSE to other languages is problematic. Strict adherence to the original language proved to be the least desirable choice. PMID:10479742

  18. O processo de trabalho do militar estadual e a saúde mental Working process of military police state officers and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Maurivan Batista da Silva; Sarita Brazão Vieira

    2008-01-01

    A Polícia Militar está balizada em dois pilares fundamentais: a disciplina e a hierarquia. O que a faz uma organização complexa com feixes de interesses que obstam a capacidade de resistência à mudança. Identificar como essa organização se estrutura e, sobretudo, relacioná-la com a saúde mental é o objetivo deste artigo. Buscamos contextualizar as finalidades dos serviços de segurança pública via breve histórico da polícia estadual, sua divisão e aplicabilidade frente à violência cotidiana. A...

  19. [Neuroimaging technique: a diagnostic tool to detect altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonnard, Marie; Boly, Mélanie; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Chatelle, Camille; Gosseries, Olivia; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    Vegetative and minimally conscious states diagnosis remained a major clinical challenge. New paradigms such as measurement of the global cerebral metabolism, the structural and functional integrity of fronto-parietal network, or the spontaneous activity in resting state have been shown to be helpful to disentangle vegetative from minimally conscious patients. Active neuroimagery paradigms also allow detecting voluntary and conscious activity in non-communicative patients. The implementation of these methods in clinical routine could permit to reduce the current high rate of misdiagnosis (40%). PMID:21299966

  20. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Betel Quid Dependence: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Zhong-Yan; Yang, Guo-Shuai; Pan, Meng-Jie; Li, Chang-Qing; Pan, Su-Yue; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested by the first voxel-based morphometry investigation that betel quid dependence (BQD) individuals are presented with brain structural changes in previous reports, and there may be a neurobiological basis for BQD individuals related to an increased risk of executive dysfunction and disinhibition, subjected to the reward system, cognitive system, and emotion system. However, the effects of BQD on neural activity remain largely unknown. Individuals with impaired cognitive control of behavior often reveal altered spontaneous cerebral activity in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and those changes are usually earlier than structural alteration.Here, we examined BQD individuals (n = 33) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control participants (n = 32) in an resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study to observe brain function alterations associated with the severity of BQD. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) values were both evaluated to stand for spontaneous cerebral activity. Gray matter volumes of these participants were also calculated for covariate.In comparison with healthy controls, BQD individuals demonstrated dramatically decreased ALFF and ReHo values in the prefrontal gurus along with left fusiform, and increased ALFF and ReHo values in the primary motor cortex area, temporal lobe as well as some regions of occipital lobe. The betel quid dependence scores (BQDS) were negatively related to decreased activity in the right anterior cingulate.The abnormal spontaneous cerebral activity revealed by ALFF and ReHo calculation excluding the structural differences in patients with BQD may help us probe into the neurological pathophysiology underlying BQD-related executive dysfunction and disinhibition. Diminished spontaneous brain activity in the right anterior cingulate cortex may, therefore, represent a biomarker of BQD individuals. PMID:26844480

  1. Mentalizacja. Cz. 1: Wprowadzenie do zagadnienia, wymiary mentalizacji [Mentalization. Part 1: Introduction, dimensions of mentalization

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a review of a construct of mentalization as it is developed by P. Fonagy and his collaborators. Mentalizing is the process of making sense of mental states in oneself and other persons in terms of subjective states (e.g. wishes, desires, beliefs) and mental processes. The concept of mentalization is rooted in the attachment theory and theory of mind (ToM). Mentalization is assessed by the measure of the reflective function.

  2. Mentalizacja. Cz. 1: Wprowadzenie do zagadnienia, wymiary mentalizacji [Mentalization. Part 1: Introduction, dimensions of mentalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczyk, Leszek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author presents a review of a construct of mentalization as it is developed by P. Fonagy and his collaborators. Mentalizing is the process of making sense of mental states in oneself and other persons in terms of subjective states (e.g. wishes, desires, beliefs and mental processes. The concept of mentalization is rooted in the attachment theory and theory of mind (ToM. Mentalization is assessed by the measure of the reflective function.

  3. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA. Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  4. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in patients with chronic bilateral vestibular failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Göttlich

    2014-01-01

    Using whole brain resting-state connectivity analysis in BVF patients we show that enduring bilateral deficient or missing vestibular input leads to changes in resting-state connectivity of the brain. These changes in the resting brain are robust and task-independent as they were found in the absence of sensory stimulation and without a region-related a priori hypothesis. Therefore they may indicate a fundamental disease-related change in the resting brain. They may account for the patients' persistent deficits in visuo-spatial attention, spatial orientation and unsteadiness. The relation of increasing connectivity in the inferior parietal lobe, specifically SMG, to improvement of VOR during active head movements reflects cortical plasticity in BVF and may play a clinical role in vestibular rehabilitation.

  5. Lingual muscle activity across sleep-wake states in rats with surgically altered upper airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma eRukhadze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients have increased upper airway muscle activity, including such lingual muscles as the genioglossus (GG, geniohyoid (GH and hyoglossus (HG. This adaptation partially protects their upper airway against obstructions. Rodents are used to study the central neural control of sleep and breathing but they do not naturally exhibit OSA. We investigated whether, in chronically instrumented, behaving rats, disconnecting the GH and HG muscles from the hyoid (H apparatus would result in a compensatory increase of other upper airway muscle activity (EMG and/or other signs of upper airway instability. We first determined that, in intact rats, lingual (GG and intrinsic muscles maintained stable activity levels when quantified based on 2 h-long recordings conducted on days 6 through 22 after instrumentation. We then studied 5 rats in which the tendons connecting the GH and HG muscles to the H apparatus were experimentally severed. When quantified across all recording days, lingual EMG during SWS was modestly but significantly increased in rats with surgically altered upper airway (8.6% ±0.7(SE vs. 6.2% ±0.7 of the mean during wakefulness; p=0.012. Respiratory modulation of lingual EMG occurred mainly during SWS and was similarly infrequent in both groups, and the incidence of sighs and central apneas also was similar. Thus, a weakened action of selected lingual muscles did not produce sleep-disordered breathing but resulted in a relatively elevated activity in other lingual muscles during SWS. These results encourage more extensive surgical manipulations with the aim to obtain a rodent model with collapsible upper airway.

  6. Aggregation of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in vitro involves a conformationally altered monomeric state

    OpenAIRE

    Raso, Stephen W; Abel, Jeff; Barnes, Jesse M.; Maloney, Kevin M.; Pipes, Gary; Treuheit, Michael J; King, Jonathan; Brems, David N.

    2005-01-01

    Aggregation of partially folded intermediates populated during protein folding processes has been described for many proteins. Likewise, partially unfolded chains, generated by perturbation of numerous proteins by heat or chemical denaturants, have also been shown to aggregate readily. However, the process of protein aggregation from native-state conditions is less well understood. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a member of the four-helix bundle class of cytokines, is a therap...

  7. Stimulating brain tissue with bright light alters functional connectivity in brain at the resting state

    OpenAIRE

    Timo Takala; Markku Timonen; Juha Nikkinen; Jukka Remes; Antti Aunio; Ahmed Abou-Elseoud; Juuso Nissilä; Tuomo Starck; Osmo Tervonen; Vesa Kiviniemi

    2012-01-01

    Light is considered to modulate human brain function only via the retinal pathway, a way of thinking that we aimed to challenge in the present study. Literature provides evidence of inherent phototransduction for instance in the rat brain and there are potentially photosensitive opsin proteins like melanopsin and panopsin in the human brain too. In order to investigate a short term response, functional connectivity changes of the brain were studied in the resting state with functional magneti...

  8. Altered Enthalpy-Entropy Compensation in Picomolar Transition State Analogues of Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase†

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Achelle A.; Mason, Jennifer M.; Clinch, Keith; Tyler, Peter C.; Evans, Gary B.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2009-01-01

    Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) belongs to the trimeric class of PNPs and is essential for catabolism of deoxyguanosine. Genetic deficiency of PNP in humans causes a specific T-cell immune deficiency and transition state analogue inhibitors of PNP are in development for treatment of T-cell cancers and autoimmune disorders. Four generations of Immucillins have been developed, each of which contains inhibitors binding with picomolar affinity to human PNP. Full inhibition of PNP occu...

  9. Altered resting state functional brain network topology in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Jennifer; Hosseini, SM Hadi; Kesler, Shelli

    2012-01-01

    Many women with breast cancer, especially those treated with chemotherapy, experience cognitive decline due in part to neurotoxic brain injury. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest widespread brain structural abnormalities pointing to disruption of large-scale brain networks. We applied resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theoretical analysis to examine the connectome in breast cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy relative to healthy comparison women. Compared t...

  10. Political violence, psychosocial trauma, and the context of mental health services use among immigrant Latinos in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Lisa R.; Porche, Michelle V.; Alegria, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We present the prevalence of political violence (PV) of immigrant Latinos in the US, and perceived need for and correlates of mental health services use among this population. Methods We use the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a nationally representative epidemiological survey of US Latinos, including a probability sample of 1630 immigrant Latinos. We use a conceptual framework that assumes a strong role of social and cultural factors in understanding the risk for psychopathology and mental health service use. Results Eleven percent of all immigrant Latinos reported PV exposure and 76% described additional lifetime traumas. Among those with a history of PV, an increased likelihood of using mental health services was associated with female gender, English language proficiency, experiencing personal assaults, higher perceived discrimination, and having an anxiety or substance disorder. Specific subgroups of Latinos, including men and Mexican immigrants, were less likely to access mental health services after experiencing PV. Perceived need for mental health services use is the strongest correlate of any lifetime and last 12 months service use. Conclusions The strong consequences of PV suggest the need for systematic screening and referral strategies. Specific outreach interventions focused on perceptions of need could be helpful for subgroups of Latinos including men who are particularly underrepresented in mental health services but who exhibit significant trauma histories. PMID:18850369

  11. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder: a perfusion MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baojuan; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hong-Bing; Yin, Hong

    2013-03-01

    The majority of studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) so far have focused on delineating patterns of activations during cognitive processes. Recently, more and more researches have started to investigate functional connectivity in PTSD subjects using BOLD-fMRI. Functional connectivity analysis has been demonstrated as a powerful approach to identify biomarkers of different brain diseases. This study aimed to detect resting-state functional connectivity abnormities in patients with PTSD using arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI. As a completely non-invasive technique, ASL allows quantitative estimates of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Compared with BOLD-fMRI, ASL fMRI has many advantages, including less low-frequency signal drifts, superior functional localization, etc. In the current study, ASL images were collected from 10 survivors in mining disaster with recent onset PTSD and 10 survivors without PTSD. Decreased regional CBF in the right middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and postcentral gyrus was detected in the PTSD patients. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis was performed using an area in the right middle temporal gyrus as region of interest. Compared with the non-PTSD group, the PTSD subjects demonstrated increased functional connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right superior temporal gyrus, the left middle temporal gyrus. Meanwhile, decreased functional connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right postcentral gyrus, the right superior parietal lobule was also found in the PTSD patients. This is the first study which investigated resting-state functional connectivity in PTSD using ASL images. The results may provide new insight into the neural substrates of PTSD.

  12. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  13. Utility of electroencephalogram in altered states of consciousness in intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapadia F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EEG is an investigative tool for assessing cerebral activity. Although certain EEG patterns may have a specific diagnostic or prognostic inference, they may not be precise for any sole etiology in majority of cases and may need clinical correlation. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to assess the severity and prognosis of cerebral dysfunction in patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU and to evaluate the incidence of non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE. DESIGN: A prospective study, wherein we analyzed EEG characteristics in a series of 70 patients. SETTING: A tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India. PATIENTS: EEG characteristics of 70 patients admitted in ICU over a period of 9 months were comprehensively analyzed. These patients were clinically examined and a questionnaire was completed without knowledge of the EEG findings. EEGs were requested for by neurologist or intensivist and our inclusion criteria were (i patients with altered sensorium of varying etiology, (ii unconscious patients at risk for non-convulsive status epilepticus (those with a history of epilepsy, and (iii unconscious patients with involuntary jerky eye movements. RESULTS: Of the various clinical presentations on ICU admission, there were 20 patients with seizures, 15 with metabolic disorders, 13 with infective causes, 9 with hypoxia, 9 with cerebro-vascular accident on presentation, 1 patient with alcohol/drug overdose, 2 with intra-cerebral space occupying lesion and 1 with ambiguous etiology on admission (there being an overlap among the presentation. Mean duration from presentation to performing EEG was 13 hours. 64 (91.42% patients had abnormal EEGs. 32(50% patients had EEG slowing and 4(6.25% patient had electro cerebral inactivity. Eleven (21.87% patients had epileptiform activity on the EEG of which seven did not have overt seizures (NCSE. Follow-up EEGs of these patients showed resolution of the epileptiform activity. CONCLUSIONS: EEG is useful

  14. Perbandingan Akurasi Diagnostik Antara Cognitive Performance Scale Dan Mini Mental State Examination Terhadap General Practioner Assessment Of Cognition Untuk Menilai Fungsi Kognitif Pada Usia Lanjut

    OpenAIRE

    Sibarani, Rita Magda Helena

    2014-01-01

    Background : The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) (Folstein et al., 1975) is probably the most widely used screening measure of cognitive functioning. In the past, the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) corresponded closely with scores generated by the MMSE. However, no standard diagnostic accuracy study, comparing both CPS and MMSE with a gold standard, is yet available. Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the CPS and the MMSE for the detection of...

  15. On the Existence of Quantum Wave Function and Quantum Interference Effects in Mental States: An Experimental Confirmation during Perception and Cognition in Humans

    CERN Document Server

    Conte, Elio; Todarello, Orlando; Federici, Antonio; Zbilut, Joseph P

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the quantum theoretical formulation to determine a posteriori, if existing, the quantum wave functions and to estimate the quantum interference effects of mental states. Such quantum features are actually found in the case of an experiment involving the perception and the cognition in humans. Also some specific psychological variables are introduced and it is obtained that they characterize in a stringent manner the quantum behaviour of mind during such performed experiment.

  16. Altered resting-state brain activity at functional MRI during automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tingyong; Feng, Pan; Chen, Zhencai

    2013-07-26

    Investigations of fear conditioning in rodents and humans have illuminated the neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and extinction. However, the neural mechanism of automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning is still unclear. To address this question, we measured brain activity following fear acquisition using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). In the current study, we used a marker of fMRI, amplitude of low-frequency (0.01-0.08Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) to quantify the spontaneous brain activity. Brain activity correlated to fear memory consolidation was observed in parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus in resting-state. Furthermore, after acquired fear conditioning, compared with control group some brain areas showed ALFF increased in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the experimental group, whereas some brain areas showed decreased ALFF in striatal regions (caudate, putamen). Moreover, the change of ALFF in vmPFC was positively correlated with the subjective fear ratings. These findings suggest that the parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus are the neural substrates of fear memory consolidation. The difference in activity could be attributed to a homeostatic process in which the vmPFC and ACC were involved in the fear recovery process, and change of ALFF in vmPFC predicts subjective fear ratings. PMID:23726994

  17. Altered periaqueductal gray resting state functional connectivity in migraine and the modulation effect of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Mailan; Lan, Lei; Zeng, Fang; Makris, Nikos; Liang, Yilin; Guo, Taipin; Wu, Feng; Gao, Yujie; Dong, Mingkai; Yang, Jie; Li, Ying; Gong, Qiyong; Liang, Fanrong; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) compare resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a key region in the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS) between migraine without aura (MwoA) patients and healthy controls (HC), and 2) investigate how an effective treatment can influence the PAG rs-fc in MwoA patients. One hundred MwoA patients and forty-six matched HC were recruited. Patients were randomized to verum acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and waiting list groups. Resting state fMRI data were collected and seed based functional connectivity analysis was applied. Compared with HC, MwoA patients showed reduced rs-fc between the PAG and rostral anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (rACC/mPFC), key regions in the DPMS and other pain related brain regions. The reduced rs-fc between the PAG and rACC/mPFC was associated with increased migraine headache intensity at the baseline. After treatments, rs-fc between the PAG and the rACC in MwoA patients significantly increased. The changes of rs-fc among the PAG, rACC and ventral striatum were significantly associated with headache intensity improvement. Impairment of the DPMS is involved in the neural pathophysiology of migraines. Impaired DPMS in migraine patients can be normalized after effective treatment. PMID:26839078

  18. Altered resting state cortico-striatal connectivity in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngbin Kwak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by dopamine depletion in the striatum. One consistent pathophysiological hallmark of PD is an increase in spontaneous oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia thalamocortical networks. We evaluated these effects using resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s patients on and off L-DOPA and age-matched controls using six different striatal seed regions. We observed an overall increase in the strength of cortico-striatal functional connectivity in PD patients off L-DOPA compared to controls. This enhanced connectivity was down-regulated by L-DOPA as shown by an overall decrease in connectivity strength, particularly within motor cortical regions. We also performed a frequency content analysis of the BOLD signal time course extracted from the six striatal seed regions. PD off L-DOPA exhibited increased power in the frequency band 0.02 – 0.05 Hz compared to controls and to PD on L-DOPA. The L-DOPA associated decrease in the power of this frequency range modulated the L-DOPA associated decrease in connectivity strength between striatal seeds and the thalamus. In addition, the L-DOPA associated decrease in power in this frequency band also correlated with the L-DOPA associated improvement in cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that PD and L-DOPA modulate striatal resting state BOLD signal oscillations and corticostriatal network coherence.

  19. Altered gene synchrony suggests a combined hormone-mediated dysregulated state in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gaiteri

    Full Text Available Coordinated gene transcript levels across tissues (denoted "gene synchrony" reflect converging influences of genetic, biochemical and environmental factors; hence they are informative of the biological state of an individual. So could brain gene synchrony also integrate the multiple factors engaged in neuropsychiatric disorders and reveal underlying pathologies? Using bootstrapped Pearson correlation for transcript levels for the same genes across distinct brain areas, we report robust gene transcript synchrony between the amygdala and cingulate cortex in the human postmortem brain of normal control subjects (n = 14; Control/Permutated data, p<0.000001. Coordinated expression was confirmed across distinct prefrontal cortex areas in a separate cohort (n = 19 subjects and affected different gene sets, potentially reflecting regional network- and function-dependent transcriptional programs. Genewise regional transcript coordination was independent of age-related changes and array technical parameters. Robust shifts in amygdala-cingulate gene synchrony were observed in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD, denoted here "depression" (n = 14; MDD/Permutated data, p<0.000001, significantly affecting between 100 and 250 individual genes (10-30% false discovery rate. Biological networks and signal transduction pathways corresponding to the identified gene set suggested putative dysregulated functions for several hormone-type factors previously implicated in depression (insulin, interleukin-1, thyroid hormone, estradiol and glucocorticoids; p<0.01 for association with depression-related networks. In summary, we showed that coordinated gene expression across brain areas may represent a novel molecular probe for brain structure/function that is sensitive to disease condition, suggesting the presence of a distinct and integrated hormone-mediated corticolimbic homeostatic, although maladaptive and pathological, state in major depression.

  20. Inferences about mental states

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    Human social cognition relies on an ability to predict what others will think, feel or do in novel situations. Research in social neuroscience has consistently observed several brain regions that contribute ubiquitously to these abilities, including medial prefrontal cortex and aspects of lateral and medial parietal cortex. Interestingly, parallel work has suggested that this same network of regions subserves several seemingly distinct phenomena—notably, the abilities to remember the past, im...

  1. Mentalization based treatment for borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mentalizing is the process by which we make sense of each other and ourselves, implicitly and explicitly, in terms of subjective states and mental processes. It is a profoundly social construct in the sense that we are attentive to the mental states of those we are with, physically or psychologically. Given the generality of this definition, most mental disorders will inevitably involve some difficulties with mentalization, but it is the application of the concept to the tre...

  2. Hydrothermal alteration of silicate minerals: effects of crystallographic orientation and fluid saturation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet-Villard, M.; Daval, D.; Saldi, G.; Knauss, K.; Wild, B.; Guyot, F. J.; Cabié, M.; Fritz, B.

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of reaction kinetics of fluid/rock interactions represents a critical issue for several geological and engineering concerns. In the specific context of geothermal energy, the relative intensities of primary mineral leaching and secondary phase formation significantly affect porosity and permeability of the reservoir, thereby influencing its hydraulic performance and the efficiency of a geothermal site. Moreover, it is noteworthy that in general, the circulation of aqueous fluids induces only modest modifications of their chemical composition, which slightly deviate from an equilibrium state. Therefore, fluid rock interactions take place at close-to-equilibrium conditions, where the rate-affinity relations are poorly known and intensively debated [1]. To unravel these points, in the context of the geothermal power station of Soultz-sous-Forêts (Alsace, France), our strategy consists in (1) investigating the dissolution of the main cleavages of K-spar, one of the prevalent primary minerals in the reservoir, in order to decipher the impact of crystallographic orientation and microstructural surface modifications on the dissolution kinetics and (2) proposing a relation between K-spar dissolution rate and the Gibbs free energy of reaction (∆G) over a wide range of ∆G conditions. Our experimental work relies on a coupled approach which combines classical experiments of K-spar dissolution monitored by aqueous chemical analyses (ICPAES) and innovative techniques of nm to μm-scale characterization of solid surface (FIB-TEM, AFM, VSI) [2]. Our ongoing experiments evidence that K-spar dissolution is an anisotropic process, with faces (-1-1 1) dissolving up to ten times faster than the slowest (001) faces. The complex evolution of surface topography with the occurrence of etch pits is at odds with the shrinking core model implemented in most of reactive-transport codes, representing a possible cause of an apparent modification of silicate dissolution rate over

  3. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act ... handle stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  4. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  5. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  6. Trauma-Related Altered States of Consciousness (TRASC) and Functional Impairment II: Perceived Causal Relationships in an Online Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannidakis, Nicole C A; Frewen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research supports the existence of a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder, although studies have not directly compared the perceived impact of dissociative versus nondissociative posttraumatic symptoms on social and occupational functioning. In addition, research is beginning to differentiate between posttraumatic distress associated with normal waking consciousness (NWC) and dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along multiple phenomenological dimensions. The current study investigated perceived causal relationships between posttraumatic symptoms associated with NWC-distress and TRASC on the one hand and interpersonal and occupational functioning on the other. Although both TRASC and NWC-distress independently accounted for variance in self-reported interpersonal and occupational problems, perceived causal relationship results showed that individuals tended to attribute their social and work-related problems more strongly to NWC-distress than to TRASC. Future research directions are discussed. PMID:26308190

  7. Zinc ions and alkaline pH alter the phosphorylation state of human erythrocyte membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the phosphorylation state of the red cell membrane proteins in vitro is likely to be regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, this research was carried out to investigate the possible role of membrane-bound phosphatase activities. These studies were conducted with red blood cell ghosts and IOVs from normal individuals and from an individual with hereditary spherocytosis. In vitro phosphorylation with (γ-32P) ATP was conducted in the presence and the absence of Zn++, or erythrocyte ghosts and IOVs were pretreated for 30 minutes at 37 degree C and pH 7-11 in the presence and the absence of calf intestine alkaline phosphatase. The resulting phosphoproteins were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, stained with Coomassie blue, and fluorographed. In the presence of Zn++, the red blood ghosts, with or without pretreatment, demonstrated enhanced phosphorylation of membrane proteins, including band 4.2. Preincubation at pH 10 in the presence of absence of exogenous phosphatase further stimulates phosphorylation of these proteins. Under similar conditions, the erythrocyte membranes also demonstrated the ability to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate and to remove 32P from red blood cell phosphoproteins

  8. Data on intracellular localization of RPSA upon alteration of its redox state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas-Boas, Filipe; Bagulho, Ana; Jerónimo, Ana; Tenente, Rita; Real, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal Protein SA (RPSA), a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit, was identified as a H2O2 target in HeLa cells [1]. In order to analyze the intracellular localization of RPSA in different redox states we overexpressed wild-type RPSA (RPSAwt) or RPSA containing two cysteine to serine residue substitutions at positions 148 and 163 (RPSAmut) in HeLa cells. The transfected cells were exposed to H2O2 or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and RPSA subcellular localization was assessed by immunofluorescence in permeabilized cells. In addition, co-immunofluorescence for RPSA and Ribosomal Protein S6 (RPS6) was performed in cells overexpressing RPSAwt or RPSAmut. Finally, the ribosomal expression of endogenous RPSA in the presence or absence of H2O2 was analyzed by Western blot. The data presented in this work is related to the research article entitled “Hydrogen peroxide regulates cell adhesion through the redox sensor RPSA” [1]. PMID:26862576

  9. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of the insula in young adults with Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Zang, Yu-Feng; Shen, Zi-Jiao; Liu, Lu; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2016-05-01

    The insula has been implicated in salience processing, craving, and interoception, all of which are critical to the clinical manifestations of drug and behavioral addiction. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the insula and its association with Internet gaming characteristics in 74 young adults with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and 41 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects (HCs). In comparison with HCs, IGD subjects (IGDs) exhibited enhanced rsFC between the anterior insula and a network of regions including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), putamen, angular gyrus, and precuneous, which are involved in salience, craving, self-monitoring, and attention. IGDs also demonstrated significantly stronger rsFC between the posterior insula and postcentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplemental motor area, and superior temporal gyrus (STG), which are involved in interoception, movement control, and auditory processing. Furthermore, IGD severity was positively associated with connectivity between the anterior insula and angular gyrus, and STG, and with connectivity between the posterior insula and STG. Duration of Internet gaming was positively associated with connectivity between the anterior insula and ACC. These findings highlight a key role of the insula in manifestation of the core symptoms of IGD and the importance to examine functional abnormalities of the anterior and posterior insula separately in IGDs. PMID:25899520

  10. Altered response of protein synthesis to nutritional state and endurance training in old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoni, L; Valluy, M C; Serrurier, B; Prugnaud, J; Obled, C; Guezennec, C Y; Mirand, P P

    1995-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the loss of muscle protein mass during aging could be explained by a reduced sensitivity of muscle protein synthesis to feeding and exercise. Male Wistar rats aged 12 and 24 mo were exercised by treadmill running for 4 mo. Protein synthesis was measured by the flooding dose method in tibialis anterior, soleus, and liver of conscious rested, trained rats and age-matched controls in the postprandial or in the postabsorptive state. No marked change with age could be detected in basal muscle protein synthesis. In contrast, protein synthesis was stimulated in adult but not in old rats by feeding in tibialis anterior and by exercise in soleus. In liver, protein synthesis was not modified by age but was stimulated by feeding and by exercise, which improved the response to feeding. We conclude that the impact of nutrition on muscle protein synthesis is blunted in old age, which could contribute to the age-related loss of nutrition-sensitive muscle proteins. PMID:7864110

  11. Altered resting-state network connectivity in stroke patients with and without apraxia of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneliese B. New

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor speech disorders, including apraxia of speech (AOS, account for over 50% of the communication disorders following stroke. Given its prevalence and impact, and the need to understand its neural mechanisms, we used resting state functional MRI to examine functional connectivity within a network of regions previously hypothesized as being associated with AOS (bilateral anterior insula (aINS, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, and ventral premotor cortex (PM in a group of 32 left hemisphere stroke patients and 18 healthy, age-matched controls. Two expert clinicians rated severity of AOS, dysarthria and nonverbal oral apraxia of the patients. Fifteen individuals were categorized as AOS and 17 were AOS-absent. Comparison of connectivity in patients with and without AOS demonstrated that AOS patients had reduced connectivity between bilateral PM, and this reduction correlated with the severity of AOS impairment. In addition, AOS patients had negative connectivity between the left PM and right aINS and this effect decreased with increasing severity of non-verbal oral apraxia. These results highlight left PM involvement in AOS, begin to differentiate its neural mechanisms from those of other motor impairments following stroke, and help inform us of the neural mechanisms driving differences in speech motor planning and programming impairment following stroke.

  12. Histórias infantis: um recurso para a compreensão dos estados mentais Children's storybooks: a resource to the understanding of mental states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Cosenza Rodrigues

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo examinou uma amostra de 100 livros de histórias infantis nacionais para crianças pré-escolares de quatro a seis anos de idade quanto à ocorrência de termos/expressões referentes a estados mentais a partir de três eixos de análise: via palavras e expressões no texto; via figuras; e via presença de ironia e crença falsa na narrativa. A análise dos termos mentais foi realizada por um grupo de três avaliadores. Foi encontrado que 92% dos livros analisados apresentavam termos denotando estados mentais, 12% apresentavam ironia situacional, 11% continham crença falsa e que as figuras representavam o estado mental expresso no texto. Os resultados sugerem que os livros infantis nacionais podem ser utilizados como recurso para promover o desenvolvimento sociocognitivo das crianças.This study examined a sample of 100 national children's storybooks directed to pre-school children aged four to six years to identify words/utterances that denote mental states according to three views of analysis: via words and expressions in the text; via the pictures; and via presence of irony or false beliefs in the narrative. The analysis of mental words was realized by a group of tree people. It was found that 92% of the analyzed books contained internal state language, 12% contained situational irony, 11% contained false belief and the pictures represented the mental state concepts expressed in the text. The results point out that the national children's storybooks can be used as a resource to promote socio-cognitive development of clildren.

  13. Mental health counseling in third-party reproduction in the United States: evaluation, psychoeducation, or ethical gatekeeping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Andrea Mechanick

    2015-09-01

    The role of mental health professionals (MHPs) in third-party reproduction has grown and evolved in service to patient care and the needs of medical infertility practices. The need for mental health evaluation and psychoeducation has increased as the psychosocial considerations for the stakeholders and families created through gamete donation and surrogacy are increasingly understood and considered. The conflicting definitions of these roles of evaluation and psychoeducation often leave MHPs in the role of de facto ethical gatekeepers in third-party reproduction. Both the medical team and the MHP need to clarify their role effectively, for themselves, as well as any intended parent. PMID:26171997

  14. Alterations in functional connectivity of resting state networks during experimental endotoxemia - An exploratory study in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrenz, Franziska; Wrede, Karsten; Forsting, Michael; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Benson, Sven

    2016-05-01

    Systemic inflammation impairs mood and cognitive functions, and seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies revealed altered task-related blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses during experimental endotoxemia, but little is known about effects of systemic inflammation on resting-state activity of the brain. Thus, we conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study in healthy men receiving an intravenous injection of either low-dose (0.4ng/kg) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (N=20) or placebo (N=25). Resting state activity was measured at baseline and 3.5h post-injection. Based on a two (condition)×two (group) design, we used multi-subject independent component analysis (ICA) to decompose and estimate functional connectivity within resting-state networks (RSNs). Seed-based analyses were applied to investigate the effect of LPS on the functional coupling for a priori-defined regions-of-interest (ROIs). ICA analyses identified 13 out of 35 components displaying common RSNs. Seed based analysis revealed greater functional connectivity between the left thalamus and the cerebellum after LPS compared to placebo administration, while the functional coupling between seeds within the amygdala, insula, and cingulate cortex and various brain regions including parieto-frontal networks was significantly reduced. Within the LPS group, endotoxin-induced increases in Interleukin (IL)-6 were significantly associated with resting-state connectivity between the left thalamus and left precuneus as well as the right posterior cingulate cortex. In summary, this exploratory study provides first evidence that systemic inflammation affects the coupling and regulation of multiple networks within the human brain at rest. PMID:26597151

  15. Analysis of Altered Baseline Brain Activity in Drug-Naive Adult Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Using Resting-State Functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Changjian; Feng, Yuan; Meng, Yajing; Liao, Wei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lui, Su; Zhu, Chunyan; Chen, Huafu; Gong, Qiyong; ZHANG Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective We hypothesize that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) is involved in the altered regional baseline brain function in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of the study was to analyze the altered baseline brain activity in drug-naive adult patients with SAD. Methods We investigated spontaneous and baseline brain activities by obtaining the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 20 drug-naïve adult SAD patients and 19 healthy controls. Voxels wer...

  16. Altered regional homogeneity in post-traumatic stress disorder: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yin; Baoci Shan; Qiyong Gong; Lingjiang Li; Changfeng Jin; Lisa T.Eyler; Hua Jin; Xiaolei Hu; Lian Duan; Huirong Zheng; Bo Feng; Xuanyin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the brain systems that contribute to vulnerability to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Comparison of the resting-state patterns of intrinsic functional synchronization,as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),between groups with and without PTSD following a traumatic event can help identify the neural mechanisms of the disorder and targets for intervention.Methods Fifty-four PTSD patients and 72 matched traumatized subjects who experienced the 2008 Sichuan earthquake were imaged with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI and analyzed using the measure of regional homogeneity (ReHo) during the resting state.Results PTSD patients presented enhanced ReHo in the left inferior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus,and reduced ReHo in the right middle temporal gyrus and lingual gyrus,relative to traumatized individuals without PTSD.Conclusion Our findings showed that abnormal brain activity exists under resting conditions in PTSD patients who had been exposed to a major earthquake.Alterations in the local functional connectivity of cortical regions are likely to contribute to the neural mechanisms underlying PTSD.

  17. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with acute spinal cord injury revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of structural and functional reorganization of brain in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI. However, it remains unknown whether the spontaneous brain activity changes in acute SCI. In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain activity in acute SCI patients using a regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.A total of 15 patients with acute SCI and 16 healthy controls participated in the study. The ReHo value was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity, and voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to identify brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between groups. We also assessed the associations between ReHo and the clinical scores in brain regions showing changed spontaneous brain activity.Compared with the controls, the acute SCI patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral caudate; and increased ReHo in bilateral precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left brainstem/hippocampus, the left cingulate motor area, bilateral insula, bilateral thalamus and bilateral cerebellum. The average ReHo values of the left thalamus and right insula were negatively correlated with the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury motor scores.Our findings indicate that acute distant neuronal damage has an immediate impact on spontaneous brain activity. In acute SCI patients, the ReHo was prominently altered in brain regions involved in motor execution and cognitive control, default mode network, and which are associated with sensorimotor compensatory reorganization. Abnormal ReHo values in the left thalamus and right insula could serve as potential biomarkers for

  18. Altered states of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Carrilho, I.

    2008-01-01

    As alterações do estado de consciência constituem uma das principais emergências neurológicas. É fundamental que o médico saiba reconhecer essas situações e identificar as principais causas, de modo a poder fazer uma correcta avaliação clínica e orientar rapidamente a investigação e o tratamento. Define-se alteração do estado de consciência quando a actividade espontânea e a resposta aos estímulos são diferentes do esperado. Faz-se aqui uma apresentação da ...

  19. Performance of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in long-stay patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders in a psychiatric institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui Lin; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Wang, Peizhi; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Lee, Siau Pheng; Shafie, Saleha; Seow, Esmond; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-07-30

    Studies have found that age and education were associated with cognition in older adults. However, little is known how clinical factors (e.g. age of illness onset, length of hospital stay, type of antipsychotic medications, and duration of illness) are associated with cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to examine the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors on cognitive domains measured using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders residing in a psychiatric institute in Singapore. A single-phase interview was conducted at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH) in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (n=110). MMSE was administered to all participants. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol consumption, and medical history were collected. Age, gender, and level of education were significantly associated with MMSE scores. After adjusting for all socio-demographic correlates, longer length of hospital stay remained significant in predicting lower MMSE scores. Length of hospital stay was independently associated with cognitive functioning. Early interventions for cognition such as physical and mental exercises should be implemented for better prognosis. PMID:27203153

  20. Trauma history and psychopathology in war-affected refugee children referred for trauma-related mental health services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Layne, Christopher M; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Ellis, Heidi; Birman, Dina

    2012-12-01

    There is an increasing need to deliver effective mental health services to refugee children and adolescents across the United States; however, the evidence base needed to guide the design and delivery of services is nascent. We investigated the trauma history profiles, psychopathology, and associated behavioral and functional indicators among war-affected refugee children presenting for psychological treatment. From the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set, 60 war-affected refugee children were identified (51.7% males, mean age = 13.1 years, SD = 4.13). Clinical assessments indicated high rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (30.4%), generalized anxiety (26.8%), somatization (26.8%), traumatic grief (21.4%), and general behavioral problems (21.4%). Exposure to war or political violence frequently co-occurred with forced displacement; traumatic loss; bereavement or separation; exposure to community violence; and exposure to domestic violence. Academic problems and behavioral difficulties were prevalent (53.6% and 44.6%, respectively); however, criminal activity, alcohol/drug use, and self-harm were rare (all mental health interventions for refugee children and adolescents. Given the difficulties associated with access to mental health services for refugees, both preventive and community-based interventions within family, school, and peer systems hold particular promise. PMID:23225034

  1. Integrating physical and mental health promotion strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Jessica Anne

    2010-01-01

    While health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, physical and mental health have traditionally been separated. This paper explores the question: How can physical and mental health promotion strategies be integrated and addressed simultaneously? A literature review on why physical and mental health are separated and why these two areas need to be integrated was conducted. A conceptual framework for how to integrate physical and mental health promotion st...

  2. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon; Roh, Sungwon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods: This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organiza...

  3. The concise cognitive test for dementia screening: Reliability and effects of demographic variables as compared to the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Srikanth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE is widely used for dementia screening but has several shortcomings such as prominent ceiling effects, inadequate sensitivity to mild cognitive impairment, and uneven sampling of the major cognitive domains. Aims: In this study, we pilot a new dementia screening test - the Concise Cognitive Test (CONCOG - designed to overcome the above short comings and describe the reliability measures and age, education, and gender effects. The CONCOG has a total score of 30, and has subtests for orientation, naming, registration, free recall and recognition of four words, semantic verbal fluency and copying. Patients and Methods: Participants were screened to exclude those with any neurological or psychiatric disease, simultaneously administered the CONCOG, and a Hybrid Mini Mental State Examination (HMMSE adapted from Folstein′s MMSE and Ganguli′s Hindi Mental State Examination. Results: The study sample had 204 subjects over the age of 60 years with a mean of 73 years and education level of 8 (4.5 years. Internal consistency for the CONCOG (Cronbach′s alpha was 0.74, inter-rater reliability (Kendall′s tau-b was 0.9, and the one-month test-retest reliability (Kendall′s tau-b was 0.7. Age and education level, but not gender, significantly influenced performance on both scales. Although the influence of age on the two scales was to a similar degree, the HMMSE was more affected by education than the CONCOG. Of 204 subjects, only 12 (5.7% subjects obtained the maximum score on the CONCOG compared with 30 (14.1% subjects on the HMMSE. The CONCOG took less than 10 minutes to complete in this sample. Age and education stratified norms are presented for the CONCOG. Conclusions: The CONCOG is a reliable cognitive screening measure. It has negligible ceiling effects, is less influenced by education compared with the HMMSE, and offers subscale scores for the major cognitive domains.

  4. Mimicking family like attributes to enable a state of personal recovery for persons with mental illness in institutional care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gopikumar, Vandana; Easwaran, Kamala; Ravi, Mrinalini; Jude, Nirmal; Bunders, Joske

    2015-01-01

    Background The convergence between mental ill health and homelessness is well documented, but critical events that precipitate the downward spiral into homelessness, and promote personal recovery remain only partially explored in India. Aims To explore causative factors of the descent into homelessness, and gain insight into creative and innovative approaches that promote personal recovery, specifically in institutional care settings. Methods This qualitative study used focus group discussion...

  5. Mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moreira

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The mental models subject is presented particularly in the light of Johnson-Laird’s theory. Views from different authors are also presented but the emphasis lies in Johson-Laird’s approach, proposing mental models as a third path in the images x propositions debate. In this perspective, the nature, content, and typology of mental models are discussed, as well as the issue of conciousness and computability. In addition, the methodology of research studies are provided. Essentially, the aim of the paper is to provide an introduction to the mental models topic, having science education research in mind.

  6. Trauma-Related Altered States of Consciousness (TRASC) and Functional Impairment I: Prospective Study in Acutely Traumatized Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul; Hegadoren, Kathy; Coupland, Nick J; Rowe, Brian H; Neufeld, Richard W J; Lanius, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework referred to as a 4-D model has been described for classifying posttraumatic stress symptoms into those potentially occurring within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those thought to intrinsically exemplify dissociative experiences, specifically, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). As a further test of this theoretical distinction, this prospective study evaluated whether TRASC and NWC forms of distress incrementally and prospectively predicted functional impairment at 6 and 12 weeks following presentation at hospital emergency departments in the acute aftermath of traumatic events in 180 persons. Establishing the clinical significance of both TRASC and NWC-distress symptoms, we found that 6-week markers of TRASC and NWC-distress independently predicted 12-week self-reported levels of social and occupational impairment. We also observed broad support for various predictions of the 4-D model except that, in contrast with hypotheses, childhood trauma history was generally more strongly correlated with symptoms of NWC-distress than with TRASC. Future research directions are discussed. PMID:26378486

  7. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women with BPD with or without co-occurring PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Frewen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A “4-D model” was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC. Methods: The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD with (n=126 versus without (n=132 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Results: As measured by the Borderline Symptom List, consistent with the predictions of the 4-D model, in comparison with symptom endorsements theorized to be associated with NWC, measures of TRASC were less frequent, and more strongly correlated with both Dissociative Experience Scale scores and severity of childhood emotional neglect, particularly in persons with both BPD and PTSD. Our prediction that symptoms of TRASC would be less intercorrelated in comparison with distress associated with NWC symptoms, however, was not supported. Conclusions: Findings are discussed as they pertain to the symptomatology of BPD, PTSD, and dissociation.

  8. Task and Resting-State fMRI Reveal Altered Salience Responses to Positive Stimuli in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhong, Ning; Imamura, Kazuyuki; Lu, Shengfu; Li, Mi; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Huaizhou; Yang, Xiaojing; Wan, Zhijiang; Wang, Gang; Hu, Bin; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Altered brain function in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been repeatedly demonstrated by task-based and resting-state studies, respectively. However, less is known concerning whether overlapped abnormalities in functional activities across modalities exist in MDD patients. To find out the answer, we implemented an fMRI experiment and collected both task and resting-state data from 19 MDD patients and 19 matched, healthy, controls. A distraction paradigm involving emotionally valenced pictures was applied to induce affective responses in subjects. As a result, concurrent deficits were found in arousing activation during a positive task in both the reward circuit and salience network (SN) that is composed of the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and bilateral anterior insulae (AI) in only the MDD group. Subsequent amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and functional connectivity analyses based on resting-state data exhibited consistent alterations in the bilateral AI of MDD patients, and indicated patients’ difficulties in regulating the balance between central executive network (CEN) and default mode network (DMN) due to altered connectivity among the CEN, DMN, and SN. Our findings provide new evidence demonstrating impaired salience processing and resulting alterations in responses to positive stimuli in MDD patients. Furthermore, brain abnormalities synchronized across functional states in MDD patients can be evidenced by a combination of task and resting-state fMRI analyses. PMID:27192082

  9. Altered functional connectivity of fusiform gyrus in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a resting state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual cognition such as face recognition requires a high level of functional interaction between distributed regions of a network. It has been reported that the fusiform gyrus (FG is an important brain area involved in facial cognition; altered connectivity of FG to some other regions may lead to a deficit in visual cognition especially face recognition. However, whether functional connectivity between the FG and other brain regions changes remains unclear during the resting state in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI subjects. Here, we employed a resting state functional MRI (fMRI to examine changes in functional connectivity of left/right FG comparing aMCI patients with age-matched control subjects. Forty-eight aMCI and thirty-eight control subjects from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI were analyzed. We focused on the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the FG and those in all other brain regions. Compared to the control group, we found some discrepant regions in the aMCI group which presented increased or decreased connectivity with the left/right FG including the left precuneus, left lingual gyrus, right thalamus, supramarginal gyrus, left supplementary motor area, left inferior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampus. More importantly, we also obtained that both left and right FG have increased functional connections with the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG and right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC in aMCI patients. That was not a coincidence and might imply that the MOG and ACC also play a critical role in visual cognition, especially face recognition. These findings in a large part supported our hypothesis and provided a new insight in understanding the important subtype of MCI.

  10. Mental activity during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Igino

    2002-08-01

    Since remote antiquity humankind has believed in the supernatural origin of dreaming. The scientific approach to mental activity during sleep dates back to the eighteenth century. One hundred years ago, psychoanalysis introduced dream analysis for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Only 50 years ago psychophysiology made it possible to collect mental sleep activity by means of experimental awakenings while monitoring physiological variables; this approach encouraged investigation into the relationship between the features of sleep activity and sleep state (REM versus NREM). Advances in neurophysiology, in neurochemistry, and recently in brain imaging techniques, have shed light on the roles played by the different cerebral structures in determining specific characteristics of mental activity during sleep. The development of cognitive psychology has enabled investigation of dream generation in terms of output from a complex multilevel system of information processing. In addition to sleep state, other factors, such as the time of the night and the sequence of the NREM-REM cycles, have been shown to influence the characteristics of mental activity. The usefulness of investigation of mental sleep activity as a clinical tool is controversial. The psychophysiological approach to mental sleep activity in clinical contexts has enabled the exploration of adaptation processes and contributed to neuropsychological studies on focal and systemic brain pathology. PMID:12531134

  11. Innovations in mental health services implementation: a report on state-level data from the U.S. Evidence-Based Practices Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnabosco Jennifer L

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Evidence-Based Practice (EBP Project has been investigating the implementation of evidence-based mental health practices (Assertive Community Treatment, Family Psychoeducation, Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment, Illness Management and Recovery, and Supported Employment in state public mental health systems in the United States since 2001. To date, Project findings have yielded valuable insights into implementation strategy characteristics and effectiveness. This paper reports results of an effort to identify and classify state-level implementation activities and strategies employed across the eight states participating in the Project. Methods Content analysis and Greenhalgh et al's (2004 definition of innovation were used to identify and classify state-level activities employed during three phases of EBP implementation: Pre-Implementation, Initial Implementation and Sustainability Planning. Activities were coded from site visit reports created from documents and notes from key informant interviews conducted during two periods, Fall 2002 – Spring 2003, and Spring 2004. Frequency counts and rank-order analyses were used to examine patterns of implementation activities and strategies employed across the three phases of implementation. Results One hundred and six discreet implementation activities and strategies were identified as innovative and were classified into five categories: 1 state infrastructure building and commitment, 2 stakeholder relationship building and communications, 3 financing, 4 continuous quality management, and 5 service delivery practices and training. Implementation activities from different categories were employed at different phases of implementation. Conclusion Insights into effective strategies for implementing EBPs in mental health and other health sectors require qualitative and quantitative research that seeks to: a empirically test the effects of tools and methods used to implement EBPs

  12. Cue-Reactive Altered State of Consciousness Mediates the Relationship Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Cue-Reactive Urge in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Christopher; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I

    2016-06-01

    In order to enhance our understanding of the nature of poker-machine problem-gambling, a community sample of 37 poker-machine gamblers (M age = 32 years, M PGSI = 5; PGSI = Problem Gambling Severity Index) were assessed for urge to gamble (responses on a visual analogue scale) and altered state of consciousness (assessed by the Altered State of Awareness dimension of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory) at baseline, after a neutral cue, and after a gambling cue. It was found that (a) problem-gambling severity (PGSI score) predicted increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .19, p = .006) and increase in altered state of consciousness (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .57, p gambling cue) mediated the relationship between problem-gambling severity and increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue; κ(2) = .40, 99 % CI [.08, .71]). These findings suggest that cue-reactive altered state of consciousness is an important component of cue-reactive urge in poker-machine problem-gamblers. PMID:26026986

  13. What a sentence can tell you about cognitive decline and mortality : an investigation using the sentence writing component of the Mini Mental State Exam and the 1921 Lothian Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Samantha

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated a number of aspects of written sentences and their relationship to overall cognitive ability and mortality. There were 197 subjects from the 1921 Lothian Birth cohort whom had sat a mental ability test at age 11 and a number of other tests relating to intelligence, health and cognitive ability, including the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) at a later testing in 1997 or later. Following McCarthy et al’s (2004) experiment, sentence length, polarity, l...

  14. Deficits in Mental State Attributions in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Jennifer S.; Radoeva, Petya D.; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Chow, Carolyn; Hopkins, Jessica; Tran, Wen-Ching; Mehta, Ami; Enrique, Nicole; Gilbert, Chelsea; Antshel, Kevin M.; Fremont, Wanda; Kates, Wendy R.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) results from a genetic mutation that increases risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We compared Theory of Mind (ToM) skills in 63 individuals with VCFS (25% with an ASD diagnosis) and 43 typically-developing controls, and investigated the relationship of ToM to reciprocal social behavior. We administered a video-based task to assess mentalizing at two sites (UCLA and SUNY Upstate Medical University). The videos depicted interac...

  15. Alteration of the redox state with reactive oxygen species for 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

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    Fumihiko Yoshino

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is often induced in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy treatment. It has been reported that oral mucositis can reduce quality of life, as well as increasing the incidence of mortality. The participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis is well known, but no report has actually demonstrated the presence of ROS. Thus, the purpose of this study was thus to demonstrate the involvement of ROS and the alteration of the redox state in oral mucositis using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance (ESR technique. An oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with 10% acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch was used. Lipid peroxidation was measured as the level of malondialdehyde determined by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. The rate constants of the signal decay of nitroxyl compounds using in vivo L-band ESR were calculated from the signal decay curves. Firstly, we established the oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch. An increased level of lipid peroxidation in oral mucositis was found by measuring malondialdehyde using isolated hamster cheek pouch ulcer. In addition, as a result of in vivo L-band ESR measurements using our model animals, the decay rate constants of carbamoyl-PROXYL, which is a reagent for detecting the redox balance in tissue, were decreased. These results suggest that a redox imbalance might occur by excessive generation of ROS at an early stage of oral mucositis and the consumption of large quantities of antioxidants including glutathione in the locality of oral mucositis. These findings support the presence of ROS involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis with anti-cancer therapy, and is useful for the development of novel therapies drugs for oral mucositis.

  16. Altered Functional Connectivity in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment--A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Ding

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that people with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (sVCI have structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites. In this study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC analysis and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC techniques to investigate the alteration of rsFC in patients with sVCI. rsFC and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for 51 patients with subcortical cerebrovascular disease. All patients were subdivided based on cognitive status into 29 with sVCI and 22 controls; patient characteristics were matched. rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and VMHC were calculated separately, and rsFC of the PCC and VMHC between the two groups were compared. The regions showing abnormal rsFC of the PCC or VMHC in sVCI patients were adopted as regions of interest for correlation analyses. Our results are as follows: The patients with sVCI exhibited increases in rsFC in the left middle temporal lobe, right inferior temporal lobe and left superior frontal gyrus, and significant decreases in rsFC of the left thalamus with the PCC. sVCI patients showed a significant deficit in VMHC between the bilateral lingual gyrus, putamen, and precentral gyrus. Additionally, the z-memory score was significantly positively associated with connectivity between the left thalamus and the PCC (r = 0.41, p = 0.03, uncorrected in the sVCI group. Our findings suggest that the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites play an important role in the pathogenesis of sVCI. Furthermore, rsFC between the left thalamus and the PCC might indicate the severity of sVCI.

  17. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latinos Inmates and Parolees International Populations LGBT Populations Low Income Populations Men Military and Veterans Native Hawaiians and ... Health Grant Awards Mark the Launch of Landmark Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study Addiction Science Can ...

  18. Afecções neurológicas associadas ao retardo mental em alunos de uma instituição especializada de Londrina, Estado do Paraná = Neural affections associated with mental retardation in students from Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Baroneza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Retardo mental (RM é um estado de desenvolvimento intelectual alterado que dificulta a integração social do indivíduo. Nosso objetivo foi estudar 147 portadores de RM, alunos da APAE de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, matriculados de 1989 a 2003. Através deum estudo descritivo, avaliamos a prevalência de neuropatologias em relação ao sexo, ao tipo de parto a que o afetado foi submetido, à idade materna ao nascimento e ao histórico de RM nas famílias. As patologias encontradas foram: RM – casos isolados, 34,8%; síndrome deDown (SD, 19,7%; paralisia cerebral (PC, 19,7%; outras síndromes, 15,6%; dislexia, 6,8%, e distúrbio comportamental, 3,4%. Dentre as variáveis que apresentaram maior diferença destacam-se: sexo, na diplegia-PC, 3 homens:1 mulher; tipo de parto, na hemiplegia-PC, 10normais: 1 cesariana; e história familiar de RM entre os portadores de SD, 24,1%. Entre os portadores de RM filhos de mãe com idade avançada (>41 anos, a SD apresentou maior prevalência (50%.Mental Retardation (MR is an altered state of intellectual development that makes the social integration of individuals difficult. The objective was to study 147 MR individuals, registered students of APAE, from the city of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, from 1989 to 2003. Through a descriptive approach, we were able to assess the prevalence of neural pathologies in relation to gender, the kind of birth delivery the individuals have undergone, the age of their mothers at their birth, and the MR family history. The following diseases were found: MR – isolated cases, 34.8%; DownSyndrome (DS, 19.7%; cerebral palsy (CP, 19.7%; other syndromes, 15.6%; dyslexia, 6.8%; and behavior disturbance, 3.4%. Among the variables that showed large differences were: the gender, in diplegia-CP, 3male:1female; kind of birth delivery, in hemiplegia-CP,10normal:1cesarean; family history of MR among DS individuals, 24.1%. Among the MR individuals from elder mothers (>41 years old

  19. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can be diagnosed and begin in childhood. Mental disorders among children are described ...

  20. Health Care, Family, and Community Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders in Early Childhood - United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsko, Rebecca H; Holbrook, Joseph R; Robinson, Lara R; Kaminski, Jennifer W; Ghandour, Reem; Smith, Camille; Peacock, Georgina

    2016-03-11

    Sociodemographic, health care, family, and community attributes have been associated with increased risk for mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) in children (1,2). For example, poverty has been shown to have adverse effects on cognitive, socio-emotional, and physical development (1). A safe place to play is needed for gross motor development, and accessible health care is needed for preventive and illness health care (3). Positive parenting and quality preschool interventions have been shown to be associated with prosocial skills, better educational outcomes, and fewer health risk behaviors over time (2). Protective factors for MBDDs are often shared (4) and conditions often co-occur; therefore, CDC considered MBDDs together to facilitate the identification of factors that could inform collaborative, multidisciplinary prevention strategies. To identify specific factors associated with MBDDs among U.S. children aged 2-8 years, parent-reported data from the most recent (2011-2012) National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) were analyzed. Factors associated with having any MBDD included inadequate insurance, lacking a medical home, fair or poor parental mental health, difficulties getting by on the family's income, employment difficulties because of child care issues, living in a neighborhood lacking support, living in a neighborhood lacking amenities (e.g., sidewalks, park, recreation center, and library), and living in a neighborhood in poor condition. In a multivariate analysis, fair or poor parental mental health and lacking a medical home were significantly associated with having an MBDD. There was significant variation in the prevalence of these and the other factors by state, suggesting that programs and policies might use collaborative efforts to focus on specific factors. Addressing identified factors might prevent the onset of MBDDs and improve outcomes among children who have one or more of these disorders. PMID:26963052

  1. News media framing of serious mental illness and gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-03-01

    Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and "dangerous people" with SMI were more likely than "dangerous weapons" to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence. PMID:24432874

  2. Neuroimaging and treatment evidence for clinical staging in psychotic disorders: from the at-risk mental state to chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen J; Yung, Alison R; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos

    2011-10-01

    A new approach to understanding severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia is to adopt a clinical staging model. Such a model defines the extent of the illness such that earlier and milder phenomena are distinguished from later, more impairing features. Specifically, a clinical staging model makes three key predictions. First, pathologic measures should be more abnormal in more severe stages. Second, patients who progress between the stages should show change in these same pathologic measures. Finally, treatment should be more effective in the earlier stages, as well as more benign. In this article, we review the evidence for these three predictions from studies of psychotic disorders, with a focus on neuroimaging data. For all three, the balance of evidence supports the predictions of the staging model. However, there are a number of alternative explanations for these findings, including the effects of medication and symptom heterogeneity. PMID:21762875

  3. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias Bipolar disorder Depression Mood disorders Personality disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ...

  4. Attitudes towards the mental disorder and towards the search of professional psychological support. A systematic revision of studies in Europe, United States, Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yovany Álvarez Ramírez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the intention to review like a systematicmethod the studies carried out in countries of Europe, United States,Latin America, and the Caribbean about attitudes towards the mentaldisorder and the search of professional support in case of mentalsdisorders, its convergences, divergences, limitations, tendenciesand profits. The systematic revision followed the methodology ofdocumentary investigation. The search of studies was carried outfrom 1962 to 2006, in the data bases Ebsco and Proquest using thekey words: “attitudes about mental illness”, “perceptions and beliefsabout mental disorders”, “psychological help-seeking attitudes” and“attitudes toward seeking psychological help”. The strategy searchthrew 160 articles; 38 articles finally fulfilled the criteria to be considered in the revision, of these, 21 was in base Proquest and the rest in Ebsco. The revision puts in evidence the use of nonprobabilistic designs of sampling, limitations for the generalization of the findings,poor man information on the sociodemographic characteristics of thesamples, instruments very varied that make difficult the comparison.Predominantly favorable attitudes were specially towards the mentalupheaval and the search of professional aid in urban women of zone. There was predominance of the studies with population of great urban centers in comparison with countryside.

  5. [Perioperative disorders of mental functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonković, Dinko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Kovacević, Marko; Bogović, Tajana Zah; Drvar, Zeljko; Baronica, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Mental disorders are characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, affect and behavior, which occur as a result of brain damage. Recognizing and treating these conditions is necessary not only for psychiatrists but for all physicians. Disorder of mental function is one of the most common associated conditions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, disturbances of mental function often remain unrecognized. In ICU patients, different types of mental function disorders may develop. They range from sleep disorders, severe depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to cognitive disorders including delirium. The causes of mental dysfunction in ICU patients can be divided into environmental and medical. Cognitive disorders are related to mental processes such as learning ability, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive disorders are usually not prominent in the early postoperative period and in many cases are discovered after hospital discharge because of difficulties in performing everyday activities at home or at work. The etiology of postoperative cognitive impairment is unclear. Older age, previous presence of cognitive dysfunction, severity of disease, and polypharmacy with more than four drugs are some of the risk factors identified. Delirium is a multifactorial disorder. It is an acute confusional state characterized by alteration of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is considered as the most common form of mental distress in ICU patients. Nearly 30% of all hospitalized patients pass through deliriant phase during their hospital stay. Delirium can last for several days to several weeks. Almost always it ends with complete withdrawal of psychopathological symptoms. Sometimes it can evolve into a chronic brain syndrome (dementia). The causes are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease the symptoms. Delirious patient is at risk of complications of immobility and

  6. Residências terapêuticas: experiência dos residentes de saúde mental do programa da universidade do estado da Bahia (Therapeutic residency: the experience of mental health residents at the state university of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josenaide Engrácia dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo é produto da experiência dos residentes do Núcleo de Saúde Mental da Residência Multiprofi ssional em Saúde da Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB, na Residência Terapêutica (RT do distrito sanitário de Itapagipe, localizado em Salvador-Bahia. Essa experiência teve inicio com a inserção dos residentes no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial - CAPS II do referido distrito, que, no planejamento das ações desenvolvidas no território, priorizou a residência terapêutica como lugar para desenvolver cuidado, por considerá-la dispositivo com possibilidade de reinvenção do existir do sujeito na comunidade. A escuta, o vínculo, o corpo, a música e a rua foram os principais recursos utilizados no processo de aproximação entre os atores envolvidos. Apesar de enigmática, na medida em que suscitou vários problemas sem respostas, a experiência na RT mostrou-se um terreno fértil para promover a cidadania e autonomia. Foi também reveladora, porque sinalizou possibilidades de reinvenção da vida, considerando todas as controvérsias da estratégia utilizada.Abstract:The present paper is the outcome of the experience of residents of the multi professional residency program from the Mental Health Nucleus at the University of the State of Bahia (UNEB, specifi cally in the residency program in therapeutics, implemented in the health district of Itapagipe, Salvador, Bahia. The experience began at the Center for Psychosocial Healthcare (CAPS II in the aforementioned district, which, in planning the actions to be developed, gave priority to the use of the residential program as a means of developing a strategy of care, since it was considered that an initiative of this type would successfully redefi ne the existence of the individual in the community. The main resources used in the process of approximating the actors involved included listening, bonding, and the use of body language, music and the streets. The

  7. Mini-Mental State Examination norms in a community-dwelling sample of elderly with low schooling in Brazil Normas do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental para uma amostra de idosos com baixa escolaridade residentes na comunidade no Brasil

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    Jerson Laks

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess Mini-Mental State Examination norms of a functionally normal sample of community-dwelling elderly. Illiterate and low-educated subjects who scored less than 5 on the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ [n = 397; female = 269; mean age = 72.15 (SD = 7.24 years] had the 5th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles calculated according to age (65-74; 75-84 years. Overall MMSE score was 21.97 (SD = 4.48. Mean MMSE for illiterate younger individuals was 19.46 (SD = 3.47, and the quartile distribution was 14, 17, 19, and 21. MMSE of subjects with 1-8 years of schooling was 23.90 (3.87, and the distribution was 15, 22, 24, and 27. MMSE of older illiterate subjects was 18.11 (SD = 3.63, and the distribution of scores was 13, 16, 18, and 20, whereas subjects with 1-8 years of schooling scored 23.81 (SD = 4.01 and the distribution was 15, 22, 24, and 27. These MMSE normative data may help improve the detection of cognitive impairment in Brazil, mainly in the primary clinical setting.Avaliar normas do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM de acordo com a idade e escolaridade de idosos vivendo na comunidade. Calcularam-se os quartis do MEEM para idosos com 65 a 74 e 75 a 84 anos, analfabetos e com 1-8 anos de escolaridade, com pontuação menor que cinco no Questionário de Atividades Funcional de Pfeffer (QAF [n = 397; feminino = 269; idade = 72,15 (dp = 7,24 anos].O MEEM total foi 21,97 (dp = 4,48. Nos indivíduos mais jovens, o MEEM entre analfabetos foi 19 (3,47 com quartis de 14, 17, 19, 21. O MEEM dos com 1-8 anos de escolaridade foi 23,90 (dp = 3,87, e a distribuição foi 15, 22, 24, 27. O MEEM dos analfabetos mais idosos foi 18,11 (dp = 3,63 com quartis de 13, 16, 18, 20, enquanto a pontuação dos sujeitos com 1-8 anos foi 23,81 (dp = 4,01, quartis de 15, 22, 24, 27. Os dados de normatização do MEEM podem ajudar o reconhecimento de distúrbios cognitivos no Brasil, principalmente no atendimento primário.

  8. Facilely Tuning Porous NiCo2 O4 Nanosheets with Metal Valence-State Alteration and Abundant Oxygen Vacancies as Robust Electrocatalysts Towards Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Fu, Shaofang; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-03-14

    Great efforts in developing clean electrochemical water splitting technology leads to the rational design and synthesis of highly efficient oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts with low overpotential and fast reaction kinetics. Herein, we focus on the role that morphology and composition play in the OER performance to rationally design freestanding 3D porous NiCo2O4 nanosheets with metal valence states alteration and abundant oxygen vacancies as robust electrocatalysts towards water splitting. Besides metal valence-state alteration, surface modification regarding the evolution of oxygen vacancies is facilely realized upon the sodium borohydride treatment, which is beneficial for the enhanced OER performance. Taking advantage of the porous nanostructures and abundant surface activity sites with high reactivity, the resultant nanostructures exhibit excellent OER activity and stability in alkaline electrolytes that outperform that of pristine NiCo2O4 and commercial RuO2, thus holding great potential for the water splitting. PMID:26845062

  9. NIMH Support of Rural Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutner, Michael; Windle, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) aims to improve mental health services by funding research projects and research centers. NIMH also supports state planning, protection of and advocacy for the mentally ill, disaster relief, professional training, and public information programs. (DM)

  10. Mental Health Counseling: A Stakeholder's Manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Edward S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the original dreams of the founders of the American Mental Health Counselors Association; looks at history and comments on the state of mental health counseling as it has struggled to evolve as a profession. Urges those in the counseling profession to consider an acquisitions and mergers corporate mentality to ensure and enhance the…

  11. Giving Voice to Emotion: Voice Analysis Technology Uncovering Mental States is Playing a Growing Role in Medicine, Business, and Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Summer

    2016-01-01

    It's tough to imagine anything more frustrating than interacting with a call center. Generally, people don't reach out to call centers when they?re happy-they're usually trying to get help with a problem or gearing up to do battle over a billing error. Add in an automatic phone tree, and you have a recipe for annoyance. But what if that robotic voice offering you a smorgasbord of numbered choices could tell that you were frustrated and then funnel you to an actual human being? This type of voice analysis technology exists, and it's just one example of the many ways that computers can use your voice to extract information about your mental and emotional state-including information you may not think of as being accessible through your voice alone. PMID:27187541

  12. Sex differences moderate the relationship between adolescent language and mentalization

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Helena J.V.; Wareham, Justin D.; Vrouva, Ioanna; Mayes, Linda C.; Fonagy, Peter; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Mentalization refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others, and this capacity facilitates social interactions. Advances in mentalization theory have proposed that there are both explicit and implicit mentalizing capacities and language may be identified as being an important factor in differentiating these two components of mentalization. Moreover, given apparent sex differences in language and mentalization, we hypothesized that sex may moderate the relationship between la...

  13. Altered lipoprotein metabolism in chronic inflammatory states: proinflammatory high-density lipoprotein and accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Bevra H; Grossman, Jennifer; Ansell, Benjamin J; Skaggs, Brian J; McMahon, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    In this review, the authors discuss the formation and structure of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and how those particles are altered in inflammatory or stress states to lose their capacity for reverse cholesterol transport and for antioxidant activity. In addition, abnormal HDLs can become proinflammatory (piHDLs) and actually contribute to oxidative damage. The assay by which piHDLs are identified involves studying the ability of test HDLs to prevent oxidation of low-density lipoproteins....

  14. Effect of Memo®, a natural formula combination, on Mini-Mental State Examination scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot,1 Amel Salem,2 Sherine Helmy3 1Green Clinic and Research Center, 2Mabarrah Clinics, 3Pharco Pharmaceutical Industries, Alexandria, Egypt Background: Mild cognitive impairment encompasses the clinical continuum between physiologic age-related cognitive changes and dementia. A variety of medications, including herbal preparations (in particular Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng, have been advocated as treatments for cognitive impairment in the elderly. In this study, we investigated the effect of an already marketed dietary supplement (Memo® combining 750 mg of lyophilized royal jelly with standardized extracts of G. biloba 120 mg and P. ginseng 150 mg on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Methods: Sixty-six subjects presenting with forgetfulness and satisfying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR clinical criteria for mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into an experimental group treated with one Memo capsule before breakfast daily for 4 weeks and a control group who took placebo. The mean change in MMSE score from baseline and reported adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean change in MMSE score in the group treated with Memo for 4 weeks was significantly greater than in the control group (+2.07 versus +0.13, respectively by the Student’s t-test (t = 6.485, P < 0.0001. This was also true after adjusting for age as a covariate and educational level as a factor nested within the treatment groups in a general linear model (analysis of covariance, F = 9.675 [corrected model], P < 0.0001. Conclusion: This combined triple formula may be beneficial in treating the cognitive decline that occurs during the aging process as well as in the early phases of pathologic cognitive impairment typical of insidious-onset vascular dementia and in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Larger

  15. Mental health diagnoses and counseling among pilots of remotely piloted aircraft in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Jean L; Webber, Bryant J

    2013-03-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), also known as drones, have been used extensively in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although RPA pilots in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) have reported high levels of stress and fatigue, rates of mental health (MH) diagnoses and counseling in this population are unknown. We calculated incidence rates of 12 specific MH outcomes among all active component USAF RPA pilots between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2011, and by various demographic and military variables. We compared these rates to those among all active component USAF manned aircraft (MA) pilots deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan during the same period. The unadjusted incidence rates of all MH outcomes among RPA pilots (n=709) and MA pilots (n=5,256) were 25.0 per 1,000 person-years and 15.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.1, 95% confidence interval=0.9-1.5; adjusted for age, number of deployments, time in service, and history of any MH outcome). Th ere was no significant difference in the rates of MH diagnoses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders between RPA and MA pilots. Military policymakers and clinicians should recognize that RPA and MA pilots have similar MH risk profiles. PMID:23550927

  16. Mental health state of female prisoners%女性服刑人员的心理健康状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental health is the most important internal resource that individual can depend on and also an important factor which affects the existence and development of individual. But there are few studies on the level and characteristics of mental health of female prisoners during serving a sentence.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the level and characteristics of mental health of the female prisoners in Shandong Province.DESIGN: Retrospective, cross sectional,multi-variable and sampling survey based on female prisoners.SETTING: Department of Technology in Shandong Police College.PARTICIPANTS: The investigation was completed in the Shandong Police College frotm January 2002 to March 2002.Totally 393 female prisoners from the Shandong Female Prison were selected with the grouping-sampling method to give the questionnaire and attend the investigation voluntarily,and the persons with definite mental disease were excluded.METHODS: The mental health items of female prisoners,including 9 factors such as somatization, obsessive-compulsion,sensitivity of human relations, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychosis,were explored with Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90), and the judging standard of psychologic obstacle was whether the total scores of positive symptoms were 2 standard deviations more than those of the norm or not.And combined with the archives of the female prisoners and the questionnaire of self-editing item,relative data were collected. The uniform instructional words and the methods of filling in were explained to the female prisoners firstly,and then the answers of the questionnaire were written collectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The mental health level and the psychological characteristics of female prisoners.RESULTS: 393 questionnaires were provided.There were 15 questionnaires excluded because more than 5 questions were missed in the paper or responsion consistency deviation appeared obviously after callback.378

  17. Mental Byomdannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Boye, Anne Mette; Borchmann, Inger Haarup; Jørgensen, Anne Lærke

    Formålet med publikationen er at præsentere metoden "Mental byomdannelse". Metoden viser, hvordan man via midlertidig brug af grunde kan undersøge et steds potentialer, tage et område i brug tidligt i en byomdannelsesproces og derved bidrage til at opbygge en ny identitet for området. Mental...... byomdannelse går ud på at skabe bevidsthed om et byudviklingsområde overfor byens borgere, kommende beboere og fremtidige brugere af området allerede mens den fysiske omdannelse er i gang. I publikationen præsenteres en værktøjskasse, som giver redskaber og ideer til, hvordan man kan sætte en mental...... byomdannelsesproces i gang i byens rum. Publikationen udgør en afrapportering fra et støttet forsøgsprojekt hvor metoden ”Mental byomdannelse” er udviklet ved at afprøve ideerne om mental byomdannelse i to cases i Ålborg Kommune, hhv. i Østre Havn og Nibe by. Formålet med at anvende metoden i de to cases har været at...

  18. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  19. Differential Cysteine Labeling and Global Label-Free Proteomics Reveals an Altered Metabolic State in Skeletal Muscle Aging

    OpenAIRE

    McDonagh, Brian; Giorgos K. Sakellariou; Neil T. Smith; Brownridge, Philip; Jackson, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle aging and associated sarcopenia have been linked to an altered oxidative status of redox-sensitive proteins. Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generated by contracting skeletal muscle are necessary for optimal protein function, signaling, and adaptation. To investigate the redox proteome of aging gastrocnemius muscles from adult and old male mice, we developed a label-free quantitative proteomic approach that includes a...

  20. Occurrence of retained placenta is preceded by an inflammatory state and alterations of energy metabolism in transition dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Dervishi, Elda; Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dunn, Suzana M; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Failure to expel fetal membranes within 24 h of calving is a pathological condition defined as retained placenta (RP). The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether there are alterations in several selected serum variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism that precede occurrence of RP in transition Holstein dairy cows. Methods One hundred multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study. Blood samples were collected from the c...

  1. Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  2. Mental EEG Analysis Based on Infomax Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUXiao-pei; GuoXiao-jing; ZANGDao-xin; SHENQian

    2004-01-01

    The patterns of EEG will change with mental tasks performed by the subject. In the field of EEG signal analysis and application, the study to get the patterns of mental EEG and then to use them to classify mental tasks has the significant scientific meaning and great application value. But for the reasons of different artifacts existing in EEG, the pattern detection of EEG under normal mental states is a very difficult problem. In this paper, Independent Component Analysisis applied to EEG signals collected from performing different mental tasks. The experiment results show that when one subject performs a single mental task in different trials, the independent components of EEG are very similar. It means that the independent components can be used as the mental EEG patterns to classify the different mental tasks.

  3. 初产妇围生期心理状态及其影响因素%Perinatal mental state of primiparas and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秀琼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the perinatal mental state of primiparas and its influenc-ing factors.Methods HAD scale was applied for 148 primiparas,and the results of evaluation a-mong primiparas with different ages,education levels,gestational diseases and history of natural abortion were compared.Results Scores of anxiety and depression as well as positive rate of HAD score were high in 148 primiparas,and the scores of anxiety and depression and positive rate of HAD score in primiparas with lower education levels,gestational diseases and history of natural abortion were significantly higher than those in primiparas with higher education levels and without gestational diseases and history of natural abortion (P 0.05).Conclusion Expressions of bad perinatal mental states in primiparas are significant,and the lower education levels,gestational diseases and history of natural abortion are the bad influencing factors.%目的:探讨初产妇围生期心理状态及其影响因素。方法对本院的148例初产妇采用 HAD 量表进行评估,并对其中不同年龄段、文化层次及妊娠期疾病、自然流产史者的评估结果进行比较。结果148例初产妇 HAD 量表中焦虑和抑郁评分与阳性率均较高,且其中低文化层次及伴发妊娠期疾病、有自然流产史者评分与阳性率均高于高文化层次及无妊娠期疾病、自然流产史者(P 均<0.05);不同年龄段者比较无显著差异(P 均>0.05)。结论初产妇围生期的不良心理表现较为明显,且低文化层次、伴发妊娠期疾病及有自然流产史均为不利因素。

  4. Caracterização e análise do estado mental e funcional de idosos institucionalizados em instituições públicas de longa permanência Analysis and characterization of functional capacity and mental state in residents in old folk’s home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estelita Rojas Converso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo objetivou caracterizar os idosos institucionalizados residentes em três instituições de longa permanência para idosos, quanto a sua capacidade funcional e seu estado mental, e verificar se existe correlação entre ambas. MÉTODOS: Para isso foram utilizados três instrumentos: um formulário de identificação, o Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM e o Índice de Barthel. Foram utilizados como tratamento estatístico a Correlação de Person e o Teste da ANOVA. RESULTADOS: A população avaliada consistiu de 115 idosos com idades entre 62 e 104 anos, sendo 40,66% do sexo feminino e 59,13% do sexo masculino. São alfabetizados 49,56% e analfabetos 50,43%, quanto ao estado civil predominaram os solteiros (46,65% e viúvos (21,8%. Quanto ao estado mental e funcional, houve alta taxa de idosos apresentando déficit cognitivo (76,72% e de idosos independentes funcionalmente (75,65%. CONCLUSÕES: De acordo com os resultados observa-se que existe correlação significativa entre o Índice de Barthel e o MEEM (r = 0,441; p BACKGROUND: This study had as objective to characterize the institutionalized elderly residents in three long-term care facilities, about their functional capacity and mental state, and to evaluate if there is a correlation between both. METHODS: To do so, three instruments were used: an identification form, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Barthel’s Index. For statistical analysis the Person’s Correlation and ANOVA Test were used. RESULTS: The population studied consisted of 115 elders with ages between 62 and 104 years old, 40.66% females and 59.13% males. 49.56% are literate and 50.43% illiterate. Regarding the marital status, singles (46.65% and widows (21.8% were predominant. About the mental and functional state, there was a high rate of elders showing cognitive decline (76.72% and functionally independent (75.65%. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, one can notice that there is a mild

  5. Altered resting state functional connectivity of anterior cingulate cortex in drug naïve adolescents at the earliest stages of anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudio, Santino; Piervincenzi, Claudia; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Romana Montecchi, Francesca; Riva, Giuseppe; Carducci, Filippo; Cosimo Quattrocchi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Previous Resting-State Functional Connectivity (RSFC) studies have shown several functional alterations in adults with or recovered from long Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this paper was to investigate whole brain RSFC in adolescents with AN in the earliest stages, less than 6 months, of the disorder. Sixteen drug-naïve outpatient female adolescents with AN-restrictive type (AN-r) (mean age: 15,8; SD 1,7) were compared to 16 age-matched healthy female (mean age: 16,3; SD 1,4). Relevant re...

  6. Integration of Schools and Mental Health Systems: An Overview of the State Grants from the U.S. Department of Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Department of Education implemented a grant program for the Integration of Schools and Mental Health Systems. As described on the Department's website, "this program provides grants to SEAs, LEAs, and Indian tribes for the purpose of increasing student access to quality mental health care by developing innovative programs that…

  7. Fed State Prior to Hemorrhagic Shock and Polytrauma in a Porcine Model Results in Altered Liver Transcriptomic Response

    OpenAIRE

    Determan, Charles; Anderson, Rebecca; Becker, Aaron; Witowski, Nancy; Lusczek, Elizabeth; Mulier, Kristine; Beilman, Greg J.

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is a leading cause of trauma-related mortality in both civilian and military settings. Resuscitation often results in reperfusion injury and survivors are susceptible to developing multiple organ failure (MOF). The impact of fed state on the overall response to shock and resuscitation has been explored in some murine models but few clinically relevant large animal models. We have previously used metabolomics to establish that the fed state results in a different metabolic re...

  8. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based. PMID:27428034

  9. Field test of the feasibility and validity of using the Hoosier Assurance Plan Instrument for Adults in a state mental health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Frederick L; McGrew, John; Deliberty, Richard N

    2009-08-01

    The current paper reports on the feasibility of using the HAPI-A, an instrument designed to assess a person's level of functioning in the community: (1) to help determine eligibility to receive behavioral health services, (2) to assign reimbursement case rates; and (3) to provide data for a service provider report card. A 3-year field study of the use of the instrument across an entire state mental health system explored the effectiveness of methods to enhance data accuracy, including annual training and a professional clinical record audit, and the ability of the test to detect differences in improvement rates within risk-adjusted groupings. The combination of training and auditing produced statistically significant, cumulative reductions in data errors across all 3 years of the field test. The HAPI-A also was sensitive in detecting differences among service providers in outcome improvements for six of six risk-adjusted groups rated at the moderate level of impairment and for five of six groups rated at the mild level of impairment, but was inconsistent in detecting outcome differences for persons rated at the severe level of impairment. PMID:19551504

  10. Total Mini-Mental State Examination score and regional cerebral blood flow using Z score imaging and automated ROI analysis software in subjects with memory impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is considered a useful supplementary method to diagnose dementia and evaluate the severity of cognitive disturbance. However, the region of the cerebrum that correlates with the MMSE score is not clear. Recently, a new method was developed to analyze regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using a Z score imaging system (eZIS). This system shows changes of rCBF when compared with a normal database. In addition, a three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT), fully automated ROI analysis software was developed. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between rCBF changes and total MMSE score using these new methods. The association between total MMSE score and rCBF changes was investigated in 24 patients (mean age±standard deviation (SD) 71.5±9.2 years; 6 men and 18 women) with memory impairment using eZIS and 3DSRT. Step-wise multiple regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis, with the total MMSE score as the dependent variable and rCBF change in 24 areas as the independent variable. Total MMSE score was significantly correlated only with the reduction of left hippocampal perfusion but not with right (P<0.01). Total MMSE score is an important indicator of left hippocampal function. (author)

  11. New Approach in Translational Medicine: Effects of Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW on NF-κB/iNOS Pathway in U937 Cell Line under Altered Redox State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Franceschelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS can exert harmful effects, altering the cellular redox state. Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW produced near the cathode during water electrolysis exhibits high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and an extremely negative redox potential. Several findings indicate that ERW had the ability of a scavenger free radical, which results from hydrogen molecules with a high reducing ability and may participate in the redox regulation of cellular function. We investigated the effect of ERW on H2O2-induced U937 damage by evaluating the modulation of redox cellular state. Western blotting and spectrophotometrical analysis showed that ERW inhibited oxidative stress by restoring the antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Consequently, ERW restores the ability of the glutathione reductase to supply the cell of an important endogenous antioxidant, such as GSH, reversing the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on redox balance of U937 cells. Therefore, this means a reduction of cytotoxicity induced by peroxynitrite via a downregulation of the NF-κB/iNOS pathway and could be used as an antioxidant for preventive and therapeutic application. In conclusion, ERW can protect the cellular redox balance, reducing the risk of several diseases with altered cellular homeostasis such as inflammation.

  12. Photoprotection in a purple phototrophic bacterium mediated by oxygen-dependent alteration of carotenoid excited-state properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, V.; Chábera, P.; Olsen, J.D.; Martin, E.C.; Qian, P.; Hunter, C.N.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 22 (2012), s. 8570-8575. ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : charge-transfer state * photoprotection * purple bacteria * photosynthesis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 9.737, year: 2012

  13. Altered baseline brain activities before food intake in obese men: a resting state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Tian, Derun; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Jing; Tian, Xiao; von Deneen, Karen M; Zang, Yufeng; Walter, Martin; Liu, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity as a chronic disease has become a global epidemic. However, why obese individuals eat more still remains unclear. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have found abnormal brain activations in obese people. In the present study, we used resting state functional MRI to observe spontaneous blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations during both hunger and satiety states in 20 lean and 20 obese men. Using a regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis method, we measured temporal homogeneity of the regional BOLD signals. We found that, before food intake, obese men had significantly increased synchronicity of activity in the left putamen relative to lean men. Decreased synchronicity of activity was found in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial prefrontal cortex(MPFC) in the obese subjects. And, the ratings of hunger of the obese subjects were higher than those of the lean subjects before food intake. After food intake, we did not find the significant differences between the obese men and the lean men. In all participations, synchronicity of activity increased from the fasted to the satiated state in the OFC. The results indicated that OFC plays an important role in feeding behavior, and OFC signaling may be disordered in obesity. Obese men show less inhibitory control during fasting state. This study has provided strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is a hypo-functioning reward circuitry in obese individuals, in which the frontal cortex may fail to inhibit the striatum, and consequently lead to overeating and obesity. PMID:25459293

  14. Psychometric Testing of the Method of Generations’ Mentality Type Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Vlada I. Pishchik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the mentality phenomenon in psychology and states the lack of clear, definite positions, concerning mentality, presents author's concept of mentality system, including nuclear and peripheral elements. On this basis, the initial survey, helping to develop the method of mentality measurement was conducted. The article presents author's method of generations’ mentality type measurement, carries out psychometric testing of method paragraphs. The paragraphs were tested on reli...

  15. Cognitive function of 320 people over 65 years from longevous areas in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region:Feasibility of the mini-mental state examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeguang Wu; Bin Wei; Xiaoming Zhang; Guobing Zhang; Chunlin Zhang; Zhibin Li; Chenghan Wei; Jinchao Chen; Donglan Huang; Rong Zhao; Jinrui Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) of Chinese version has been widely used to survey cognitive function of elder people; especially, it shows a good reliability and validity for elder people in city.However, whether it is beneficial to measure cognitive function of elder people in countries in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region should be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility, reliability and validity of the cognitive function among the elderly people aged over 65 years from Jiazhuan in Bama County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region by using the MMSE of Chinese version.DESIGN: Prevalence survey.SETTING: Department of Psychology, Nanjing Municipal Social Welfare Hospital; Department of Psychology,Yizhou Municipal Jiulong Railroad Hospital; Long Life's Institute of Bama County.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 320 old persons over 65 years old were sampled on the basis of the unit of village of Jiazhuan in Bama County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from the 12th to 28th, March 2004. All the subjects provided the confirmed consents.METHODS: ① Mental Health Questionnaire of long life's old man was adopted including demographic data and international standardized MMSE in Chinese. The survey of MMSE was divided into two phases: In the first phase, every case was examined by MMSE. The positive result was decided by the education level. Illiterate group, who was educated less than one year, then his MMSE scores must be less than 17; primary school group, who was educated from 1 to 6 years, then his MMSE must be less than 20; middle school group, who was educated more than 7 years, then his MMSE must be less than 24. In the second phase, these cases with positive MMSE score were given the neuro-psycho and mental health examination to confirm the dementia types after diagnosis. The content of the questionnaire was revised properly without changing the meaning of the questionnaire. The interclass correlation coefficient of MMSE was 0.89.

  16. Altered Resting-State Amygdala Functional Connectivity after Real-Time fMRI Emotion Self-Regulation Training

    OpenAIRE

    Zhonglin Li; Li Tong; Min Guan; Wenjie He; Linyuan Wang; Haibin Bu; Dapeng Shi; Bin Yan

    2016-01-01

    Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) is a promising tool for enhancing emotion regulation capability of subjects and for the potential alleviation of neuropsychiatric disorders. The amygdala is composed of structurally and functionally distinct nuclei, such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA), both of which are involved in emotion processing, generation, and regulation. However, the effect of rtfMRI-nf on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of BL...

  17. Clinical survey on the mental state of infertile women%不孕症妇女心理状态调查以及护理干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小娟; 高翠萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:调查不孕症妇女心理状态并探讨其护理干预措施.方法:选取我院诊治的113例不孕症妇女为观察组,另选113例在我院接受体检的正常育龄期妇女为对照组.所有研究对象均填写焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)评估其心理状态,同时对不孕症妇女进行心理疏导、建立良好的医患关系、积极进行健康宣教、提供辅助生殖技术信息、鼓励夫妻同治、构建和谐人际关系及指导健康生活习惯等心理护理干预,比较护理前后评分变化.结果:观察组患者焦虑评分(60.7±3.8)及抑郁评分(61.5±4.9)均显著高于对照组(P<0.01);113例不孕症妇女中,有83.2%(94例)处于焦虑状态,有81.4%(92例)处于抑郁状态,且焦虑、抑郁程度随患者年龄、不孕时间、治疗周期、经济收入的增加和受教育程度的降低而增加,家庭不和睦患者焦虑及抑郁状态比家庭和睦患者严重(P<0.05);经心理护理干预后,观察组患者焦虑及抑郁评分均显著下降(P<0.01).结论:临床诊疗中应重视不孕症患者心理健康问题并采取相应心理护理措施.%Objectives: To investigate infertile women's psyehologieal status and to provide proper practical care interventions for them. Methods: 113 cases of infertile women were selected as the observation group, another 113 normal women of childbearing age as the control group. Patients from both groups filled in anxiety self - rating scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) to get their mental state assessed. Psychological nursing interventions were given to infertile women at the same time and score changes before and after care were evaluated. Results:The observation group with an anxiety score of (60. 7 ±3.8) and a depression scores of (61.5 ±4.9) were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0. 01 ) ; among 113 cases of infertile women, 83.2% (94 patients) were in the anxiety state, 81.4% (92 cases) in a state

  18. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of the frontal-striatal reward system in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Joshua; Reynolds, Gretchen; Saygin, Zeynep M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Pollack, Mark; Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated differences in the intrinsic functional brain organization (functional connectivity) of the human reward system between healthy control participants and patients with social anxiety disorder. Functional connectivity was measured in the resting-state via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 53 patients with social anxiety disorder and 33 healthy control participants underwent a 6-minute resting-state fMRI scan. Functional connectivity of the reward system was analyzed by calculating whole-brain temporal correlations with a bilateral nucleus accumbens seed and a ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed. Patients with social anxiety disorder, relative to the control group, had (1) decreased functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens seed and other regions associated with reward, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex; (2) decreased functional connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed and lateral prefrontal regions, including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices; and (3) increased functional connectivity between both the nucleus accumbens seed and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed with more posterior brain regions, including anterior cingulate cortex. Social anxiety disorder appears to be associated with widespread differences in the functional connectivity of the reward system, including markedly decreased functional connectivity between reward regions and between reward regions and lateral prefrontal cortices, and markedly increased functional connectivity between reward regions and posterior brain regions. PMID:25928647

  19. Altered baseline brain activity with 72 h of simulated microgravity--initial evidence from resting-state fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liao

    Full Text Available To provide the basis and reference to further insights into the neural activity of the human brain in a microgravity environment, we discuss the amplitude changes of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations using a simulated microgravity model. Twelve male participants between 24 and 31 years old received resting-state fMRI scans in both a normal condition and after 72 hours in a -6° head down tilt (HDT. A paired sample t-test was used to test the amplitude differences of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations between these two conditions. With 72 hours in a -6° HDT, the participants showed a decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the left thalamus compared with the normal condition (a combined threshold of P<0.005 and a minimum cluster size of 351 mm(3 (13 voxels, which corresponded with the corrected threshold of P<0.05 determined by AlphaSim. Our findings indicate that a gravity change-induced redistribution of body fluid may disrupt the function of the left thalamus in the resting state, which may contribute to reduced motor control abilities and multiple executive functions in astronauts in a microgravity environment.

  20. Altered Resting-State Amygdala Functional Connectivity after Real-Time fMRI Emotion Self-Regulation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonglin; Tong, Li; Guan, Min; He, Wenjie; Wang, Linyuan; Bu, Haibin; Shi, Dapeng; Yan, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) is a promising tool for enhancing emotion regulation capability of subjects and for the potential alleviation of neuropsychiatric disorders. The amygdala is composed of structurally and functionally distinct nuclei, such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA), both of which are involved in emotion processing, generation, and regulation. However, the effect of rtfMRI-nf on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of BLA and CMA remains to be elucidated. In our study, participants were provided with ongoing information on their emotion states by using real-time multivariate voxel pattern analysis. Results showed that participants presented significantly increased rsFC of BLA and CMA with prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and some others related to emotion after rtfMRI-nf training. The findings provide important evidence for the emotion regulation effectiveness of rtfMRI-nf training and indicate its usefulness as a tool for the self-regulation of emotion. PMID:26998482

  1. 42 CFR 456.201 - UR plan required for inpatient mental hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false UR plan required for inpatient mental hospital... inpatient mental hospital services. (a) The State plan must provide that each mental hospital furnishing...'s need for the services that the mental hospital furnishes him. (b) Each written mental hospital...

  2. A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delespaul Philippe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT in targeting cognitive biases that are involved in the formation of delusions in persons with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. A single blind randomised controlled trial compares CBT with treatment as usual in preventing or delaying the onset of psychosis. Method/design All help seeking patients aged 14 to 35 years referred to the mental health services in three regions in the Netherlands are pre-screened with the Prodromal Questionnaire during a period of two years. Patients with a score of 18 or more on the sub-clinical positive symptoms items (45 items in total will be assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental State (CAARMS. In a different pathway to care model all referrals from the mental health services in Amsterdam to the specialized psychosis clinic of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam are also assessed with the CAARMS. The primary outcome is the transition rate to psychosis according to the CAARMS-criteria. Group differences will be analysed with chi-square tests and survival analyses. Discussion CBT is a highly tolerated treatment. The psycho-educational CBT approach may prove to be a successful strategy since most people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS are distressed by odd disturbing experiences. Giving explanations for and normalising these experiences may reduce the arousal (distress and therefore may prevent people from developing a catastrophic delusional explanation for their odd experiences and thus prevent them from developing psychosis. Screening the entire help-seeking population referred to community mental health services with a two-stage strategy, as compared with traditional referral

  3. Altered baseline brain activity with 72 h of simulated microgravity--initial evidence from resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yang; Zhang, Jinsong; Huang, Zhiping; Xi, Yibin; Zhang, Qianru; Zhu, Tianli; Liu, Xufeng

    2012-01-01

    To provide the basis and reference to further insights into the neural activity of the human brain in a microgravity environment, we discuss the amplitude changes of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations using a simulated microgravity model. Twelve male participants between 24 and 31 years old received resting-state fMRI scans in both a normal condition and after 72 hours in a -6° head down tilt (HDT). A paired sample t-test was used to test the amplitude differences of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations between these two conditions. With 72 hours in a -6° HDT, the participants showed a decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the left thalamus compared with the normal condition (a combined threshold of Pmicrogravity environment. PMID:23285086

  4. DISCRIMINATION OF ALTERED BASALTIC ROCKS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES BY ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Berlin, Graydon L.; Chavez, Pat S.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper image data were analyzed to determine their ability to discriminate red cone basalts from gray flow basalts and sedimentary country rocks for three volcanic fields in the southwestern United States. Analyses of all of the possible three-band combinations of the six nonthermal bands indicate that the combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 best discriminates among these materials. The color-composite image of these three bands unambiguously discriminates 89 percent of the mapped red volcanic cones in the three volcanic fields. Mineralogic and chemical analyses of collected samples indicate that discrimination is facilitated by the presence of hematite as a major mineral phase in the red cone basalts (hematite is only a minor mineral phase in the gray flow basalts and red sedimentary rocks).

  5. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  6. Good Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and to address the stigma associated with mental health. It provides information on the signs and symptoms of mental illness and solutions for preventing and coping with mental illness. Insomnia Fact Sheet - This fact sheet provides information on ...

  7. Teen Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  8. National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS), 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is designed to collect information from all specialty mental health facilities in the United States, both public...

  9. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is superior to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detection of Korsakoff's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudman, Erik; Postma, Albert; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Appelhof, Britt; Wijnia, Jan W; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2014-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) are brief screening instruments for cognitive disorders. Although these instruments have frequently been used in the detection of dementia, there is currently little knowledge on the validity to detect Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) with both screening instruments. KS is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder associated with profound declarative amnesia after thiamine deficiency. A representative sample of 30 patients with KS and 30 age-, education-, gender- and premorbid-IQ-matched controls was administered the MoCA and MMSE. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated in addition to the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for various cut-off points on the MoCA and MMSE. Compared with the MMSE, the MoCA demonstrated consistently superior psychometric properties and discriminant validity--AUC: MoCA (1.00 SE .003) and MMSE (0.92 SE .033). When applying a cut-off value as suggested in the manuals of both instruments, the MMSE (< 24) misdiagnosed 46.7% of the patients, while the MoCA (< 26) diagnosed all patients correctly. As a screening instrument with the most optimal cut-offs, the MoCA (optimal cutoff point 22/23, 98.3% correctly diagnosed) was superior to the MMSE (optimal cutoff point 26/27, 83.3% correctly diagnosed). We conclude that both tests have adequate psychometric properties as a screening instrument for the detection of KS, but the MoCA is superior to the MMSE for this specific patient population. PMID:25249353

  10. Incidence of Brain Atrophy and Decline in Mini-Mental State Examination Score After Whole-Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With Brain Metastases: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of brain atrophy and dementia after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases not undergoing surgery. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients underwent WBRT to 40 Gy in 20 fractions with or without a 10-Gy boost. Brain magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were performed before and soon after radiotherapy, every 3 months for 18 months, and every 6 months thereafter. Brain atrophy was evaluated by change in cerebrospinal fluid-cranial ratio (CCR), and the atrophy index was defined as postradiation CCR divided by preradiation CCR. Results: Of 101 patients (median age, 62 years) entering the study, 92 completed WBRT, and 45, 25, and 10 patients were assessable at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Mean atrophy index was 1.24 ± 0.39 (SD) at 6 months and 1.32 ± 0.40 at 12 months, and 18% and 28% of the patients had an increase in the atrophy index by 30% or greater, respectively. No apparent decrease in mean MMSE score was observed after WBRT. Individually, MMSE scores decreased by four or more points in 11% at 6 months, 12% at 12 months, and 0% at 18 months. However, about half the decrease in MMSE scores was associated with a decrease in performance status caused by systemic disease progression. Conclusions: Brain atrophy developed in up to 30% of patients, but it was not necessarily accompanied by MMSE score decrease. Dementia after WBRT unaccompanied by tumor recurrence was infrequent

  11. Integration of mental healthcare into primary healthcare in Lagos, Nigeria: the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Coker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Lagos State Ministry of Health recently launched its Mental Health Policy aimed at addressing the mental health needs the residents of the State. The policy also aimed at reducing the mental disorders treatment gap in the state by integrating mental healthcare into the primary healthcare in order to make mental healthcare services closer and accessible for residents of the State. This paper therefore critically reviews the rationale for the integration, magnitude of problems in Lagos State with regards to mental healthcare services, available resources, challenges in providing mental healthcare services, recommendations for successful integration, the necessary advocacy needed to implement the integration and benefits of the integration.

  12. Peptides from adipose tissue in mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Zając, Andrzej; Pilecki, Maciej; Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that is essential to regulation of metabolism in humans. A new approach to mental disorders led to research on involvement of adipokines in the etiology of mental disorders and mood states and their impact on the health status of psychiatric patients, as well as the effects of treatment for mental health disorders on plasma levels of adipokines. There is evidence that disturbances in adipokine secretion are important in the pathogenesis, clinical pr...

  13. Integration of mental healthcare into primary healthcare in Lagos, Nigeria: the way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodele O. Coker; Olufemi B. Olugbile; Olufemi Oluwatayo

    2015-01-01

    The Lagos State Ministry of Health recently launched its Mental Health Policy aimed at addressing the mental health needs the residents of the State. The policy also aimed at reducing the mental disorders treatment gap in the state by integrating mental healthcare into the primary healthcare in order to make mental healthcare services closer and accessible for residents of the State. This paper therefore critically reviews the rationale for the integration, magnitude of problems in Lagos Stat...

  14. Altered intra- and interregional synchronization in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lin Wu,1,2,* Yue Zhang,3,* Fuqing Zhou,1,2,* Lei Gao,2 Laichang He,1,2 Xianjun Zeng,1,2 Honghan Gong1,2 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, 2Jiangxi Province Medical Imaging Research Institute, 3Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and purpose: Neuroimaging studies of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS have found structural disconnection and large-scale neural network dysfunction. However, few studies have explored the local brain activity of RRMS patients in the resting state. Patients and methods: In this study, regional homogeneity (ReHo and resting-state functional connectivity (FC were used to investigate intra- and interregional synchronized activity in 22 patients with RRMS and 22 matched healthy controls (HCs. Results: Compared with HCs, patients with RRMS showed significantly decreased ReHo in the left insula and right caudate. Through further seed-based FC analysis, we found decreased FC between the left insula and left precentral gyrus in patients with RRMS compared with HCs, as well as increased FC between the right caudate and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that a decreased ReHo value in the left insula was associated with an increased total white matter lesion loads (TWMLL score (r=-0.594, P=0.004 or a worsened paced auditory serial addition test score (r=0.536, P=0.010. No other significant correlations were observed between the FC value (left insula - left precentral gyrus and clinical scores (P=0.246–0.982. The ReHo value of the right caudate was negatively correlated with disease duration (r=-0.526, P=0.012 and with the TWMLL score (r=-0.596, P=0.003. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between the FC value (right caudate - right

  15. Altered Nutrition State in the Severe Multiple Trauma Patients Undergoing Adjuvant Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Nutritional Support Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yanqing; BAI Xiangjun; LIN Guanyu; TANG Zhaohui

    2007-01-01

    In order to observe the nutrition state in the severe multiple trauma patients undergoing adjuvant recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) nutritional support therapy, 45 patients with severe multiple traumas (ISS>25) were randomly divided into 3 groups. All the 3 groups had been supplied with nitrogen and caloricity according to the need of patients for 16 days. The rhGH therapy started 48 h after surgery and lasted for 14 days in two rhGH-treated groups in which rhGH was 0.2 and 0.4 U/(kg·d) respectively, and the resting group served as control one. The levels of nitrogen balance, prealbumin and safety variables (blood sugar, Na+, TT3 and TT4) were observed and compared among the three groups. The levels of nitrogen balance on the postoperative day (POD) 3 and 5 in the rhGH-treated groups were - 1.28±3.19, 5.45±2.00 and -0.18±2.55, 6.11±1.60, respectively,which were significantly higher than those in the control group (-5.17±1.68 and -1.08±3.31, P<0.01). The values of prealbumin on the POD 3 and 5 in the rhGH-treated groups were 180.19±27.15, 194.44±50.82 and 194.94±29.65, 194.11±16.17, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (117.42±19.10 and 135.63±28.31, P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the rhGH 0.2 U/(kg·d) group and rhGH 0.4 U/(kg·d) group in both of the levels of nitrogen balance and prealbumin. It is concluded that the nutritional support therapy with adjuvant rhGH which starts 48 h after surgery improves the nutrition state of the patients with severe multiple trauma. It is safe for severe multiple trauma patients who accept rhGH at the dose of 0.2 and 0.4 U/(kg·d).

  16. What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. Mental illness usually strike individuals in the prime of their lives, often during adolescence and young ... Illness page. Get more Mental Illness: Facts and Numbers from NAMI's Fact Sheet . Back

  17. The Existence of a Hypnotic State Revealed by Eye Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Sakari; Hyönä, Jukka; Revonsuo, Antti; Sikka, Pilleriin; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    Hypnosis has had a long and controversial history in psychology, psychiatry and neurology, but the basic nature of hypnotic phenomena still remains unclear. Different theoretical approaches disagree as to whether or not hypnosis may involve an altered mental state. So far, a hypnotic state has never been convincingly demonstrated, if the criteria for the state are that it involves some objectively measurable and replicable behavioural or physiological phenomena that cannot be faked or simulat...

  18. Altered regional homogeneity in epileptic patients with infantile spasm: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhen; Li, Yongxin; Zang, Dongdong; Zhang, Heye; Zhao, Cailei; Jiang, Haibo; Chen, Yan; Cao, Dezhi; Chen, Li; Liao, Jianxiang; Chen, Qian; Luan, Guoming

    2016-09-14

    Infantile spasm (IS) syndrome is an age-related epileptic encephalopathy that occurs in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes in IS patients. Resting-state fMRI was performed on 11 patients with IS, along with 35 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Group comparisons between the two groups demonstrate that the pattern of regional synchronization synchronization in IS patients is changed. Decreased ReHo values were found in default mode network, bilateral motor-related areas and left occipital gyrus of the patient group. Increased ReHo was found in regions of cingulum, cerebellum, supplementary motor area and brain deep nucleus, such as hippocampus, caudate, thalamus and insula. The significant differences might indicate that epileptic action have some injurious effects on the motor, executive and cognitive related regions. In addition, ReHo values of left precuneus and right superior frontal gyrus were associated with the epilepsy duration in the IS group. The correlation results indicate that the involvement of these regions may be related to the seizure generation. Our results suggest that IS may have an injurious effect on the brain activation. The findings may shed new light on the understanding the neural mechanism of IS epilepsy. PMID:27002912

  19. Solid-State (13)C NMR Delineates the Architectural Design of Biopolymers in Native and Genetically Altered Tomato Fruit Cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Matas, Antonio J; Isaacson, Tal; Kehlet, Cindie; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-01-11

    Plant cuticles on outer fruit and leaf surfaces are natural macromolecular composites of waxes and polyesters that ensure mechanical integrity and mitigate environmental challenges. They also provide renewable raw materials for cosmetics, packaging, and coatings. To delineate the structural framework and flexibility underlying the versatile functions of cutin biopolymers associated with polysaccharide-rich cell-wall matrices, solid-state NMR spectra and spin relaxation times were measured in a tomato fruit model system, including different developmental stages and surface phenotypes. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of the cutin ensures compatibility with the underlying polysaccharide cell walls; the hydroxy fatty acid structures of outer epidermal cutin also support deposition of hydrophobic waxes and aromatic moieties while promoting the formation of cell-wall cross-links that rigidify and strengthen the cuticle composite during fruit development. Fruit cutin-deficient tomato mutants with compromised microbial resistance exhibit less efficient local and collective biopolymer motions, stiffening their cuticular surfaces and increasing their susceptibility to fracture. PMID:26652188

  20. The weekend effect alters the procurement and discard rates of deceased donor kidneys in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Sumit; Foley, Karl; Chiles, Mariana C; Dube, Geoffrey K; Patzer, Rachel E; Pastan, Stephen O; Crew, R John; Cohen, David J; Ratner, Lloyd E

    2016-07-01

    Factors contributing to the high rate of discard among deceased donor kidneys remain poorly understood and the influence of resource limitations of weekends on kidney transplantation is unknown. To quantify this we used data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and assembled a retrospective cohort of 181,799 deceased donor kidneys recovered for transplantation from 2000-2013. We identified the impact of the day of the week on the procurement and subsequent utilization or discard of deceased donor kidneys in the United States, as well as report the geographic variation of the impact of weekends on transplantation. Compared with weekday kidneys, organs procured on weekends were significantly more likely to be discarded than transplanted (odds ratio: 1.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.19), even after adjusting for organ quality (adjusted odds ratio: 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.17). Weekend discards were of a significantly higher quality than weekday discards (Kidney Donor Profile Index: 76.5% vs. 77.3%). Considerable geographic variation was noted in the proportion of transplants that occurred over the weekend. Kidneys available for transplant over the weekend were significantly more likely to be used at larger transplant centers, be shared without payback, and experienced shorter cold ischemia times. Thus, factors other than kidney quality are contributing to the discard of deceased donor kidneys, particularly during weekends. Policy prescriptions, administrative or organizational solutions within transplant programs may potentially mitigate against the recent increase in kidney discards. PMID:27182001

  1. Daily Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation Alters Verbal Episodic Memory and Resting State Network Connectivity in Healthy Elderly Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokicki, Jaroslav; Li, Lucia; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Kaneko, Jun; Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Carnosine and anserine are strong antioxidants, previously demonstrated to reduce cognitive decline in animal studies. We aimed to investigate their cognitive and neurophysiological effects, using functional MRI, on humans. Thirty-one healthy participants (age 40-78, 10 male/21 female) were recruited to a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants were assigned to twice-daily doses of imidazole dipeptide formula (n = 14), containing 500 mg (carnosine/anserine, ratio 1/3) or an identical placebo (n = 17). Functional MRI and neuropsychological assessments were carried out at baseline and after 3 months of supplementation. We analyzed resting state functional connectivity with the FSL fMRI analysis package. There were no differences in neuropsychological scores between the groups at baseline. After 3 months of supplementation, the carnosine/anserine group had better verbal episodic memory performance and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, the posterior cingulate cortex and the right fronto parietal network, as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the extents of cognitive and neuroimaging changes. These results suggest that daily carnosine/anserine supplementation can impact cognitive function and that network connectivity changes are associated with its effects. PMID:26640437

  2. Daily carnosine and anserine supplementation alters verbal episodic memory and resting state network connectivity in healthy elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav eRokicki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carnosine and anserine are strong antioxidants, previously demonstrated to reduce cognitive decline in animal studies. We aimed to investigate their cognitive and neurophysiological effects, using functional MRI, on humans.Thirty-one healthy participants (age 40-78, 10~male/21~female were recruited to a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants were assigned to twice-daily doses of imidazole dipeptide formula ($n = 14$, containing 500~mg (carnosine/anserine, ratio 1/3 or an identical placebo ($n = 17$. Functional MRI and neuropsychological assessments were carried out at baseline and after 3 months of supplementation. We analyzed resting state functional connectivity with the FSL fMRI analysis package. There were no differences in neuropsychological scores between the groups at baseline. After 3 months of supplementation, the carnosine/anserine group had better verbal episodic memory performance and decreased connectivity in the Default Mode Network, the Posterior Cingulate Cortex and the Right Fronto Parietal Network, as compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the extents of cognitive and neuroimaging changes. These results suggest that daily carnosine/anserine supplementation can impact cognitive function and that network connectivity changes are associated with its effects.

  3. Early altered resting-state functional connectivity predicts the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in acutely traumatized subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity and the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in 15 people who developed PTSD following recent trauma. Fifteen participants who experienced acute traumatic events underwent a 7.3-min resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan within 2 days post-event. All the patients were diagnosed with PTSD within 1 to 6 months after trauma. Brain areas in which activity was correlated with that of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC were assessed. To assess the relationship between the severity of PTSD symptoms and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas positively correlated with the PCC were correlated with the subject's Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores (CAPS when they were diagnosed. Furthermore, the PCC, medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdala were selected to assess the correlation of the strength of functional connectivity with the CAPS. Resting state connectivity with the PCC was negatively correlated with CAPS scores in the left superior temporal gyrus and right hippocampus/amygdala. Furthermore, the strength of connectivity between the PCC and bilateral amygdala, and even between the bilateral amygdala could predict the severity of PTSD symptoms later. These results suggest that early altered resting-state functional connectivity of the PCC with the left superior temporal gyrus, right hippocampus and amygdala could predict the severity of the disease and may be a major risk factor that predisposes patients to develop PTSD.

  4. Residências terapêuticas: experiência dos residentes de saúde mental do programa da universidade do estado da Bahia (Therapeutic residency: the experience of mental health residents at the state university of Bahia)

    OpenAIRE

    Josenaide Engrácia dos Santos; Noêmia Aragão Casais; Miriam Santos Alves

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: O presente artigo é produto da experiência dos residentes do Núcleo de Saúde Mental da Residência Multiprofi ssional em Saúde da Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), na Residência Terapêutica (RT) do distrito sanitário de Itapagipe, localizado em Salvador-Bahia. Essa experiência teve inicio com a inserção dos residentes no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial - CAPS II do referido distrito, que, no planejamento das ações desenvolvidas no território, priorizou a residência terapêutica com...

  5. Afecções neurológicas associadas ao retardo mental em alunos de uma instituição especializada de Londrina, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1096 Neural affections associated with mental retardation in students from Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1096

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cristiane Bernardi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Retardo mental (RM é um estado de desenvolvimento intelectual alterado que dificulta a integração social do indivíduo. Nosso objetivo foi estudar 147 portadores de RM, alunos da APAE de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, matriculados de 1989 a 2003. Através de um estudo descritivo, avaliamos a prevalência de neuropatologias em relação ao sexo, ao tipo de parto a que o afetado foi submetido, à idade materna ao nascimento e ao histórico de RM nas famílias. As patologias encontradas foram: RM – casos isolados, 34,8%; síndrome de Down (SD, 19,7%; paralisia cerebral (PC, 19,7%; outras síndromes, 15,6%; dislexia, 6,8%, e distúrbio comportamental, 3,4%. Dentre as variáveis que apresentaram maior diferença destacam-se: sexo, na diplegia-PC, 3 homens:1 mulher; tipo de parto, na hemiplegia-PC, 10 normais: 1 cesariana; e história familiar de RM entre os portadores de SD, 24,1%. Entre os portadores de RM filhos de mãe com idade avançada (>41 anos, a SD apresentou maior prevalência (50%Mental Retardation (MR is an altered state of intellectual development that makes the social integration of individuals difficult. The objective was to study 147 MR individuals, registered students of APAE, from the city of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, from 1989 to 2003. Through a descriptive approach, we were able to assess the prevalence of neural pathologies in relation to gender, the kind of birth delivery the individuals have undergone, the age of their mothers at their birth, and the MR family history. The following diseases were found: MR – isolated cases, 34.8%; Down Syndrome (DS, 19.7%; cerebral palsy (CP, 19.7%; other syndromes, 15.6%; dyslexia, 6.8%; and behavior disturbance, 3.4%. Among the variables that showed large differences were: the gender, in diplegia-CP, 3male:1female; kind of birth delivery, in hemiplegia-CP, 10normal:1cesarean; family history of MR among DS individuals, 24.1%. Among the MR individuals from elder mothers (>41 years

  6. Altered intrinsic regional spontaneous brain activity in patients with optic neuritis: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yi Shao,1,* Feng-Qin Cai,2,* Yu-Lin Zhong,1 Xin Huang,1,3 Ying Zhang,1 Pei-Hong Hu,1 Chong-Gang Pei,1 Fu-Qing Zhou,2 Xian-Jun Zeng2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 3Department of Ophthalmology, First People’s Hospital of Jiujiang, Jiujiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To investigate the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo in brain-activity deficit in patients with optic neuritis (ON and its relationship with behavioral performance.Materials and methods: In total, twelve patients with ON (four males and eight females and twelve (four males and eight females age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The ReHo method was used to assess the local features of spontaneous brain activity. Correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between the observed mean ReHo values of the different brain areas and the visual evoked potential (VEP in patients with ON.Results: Compared with the healthy controls, patients with ON showed lower ReHo in the left cerebellum, posterior lobe, left middle temporal gyrus, right insula, right superior temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus, and higher ReHo in the cluster of the left fusiform gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Meanwhile, we found that the VEP amplitude of the right eye in patients with ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the left cerebellum posterior lobe (r=0.701, P=0.011, the right superior frontal gyrus (r=0.731, P=0.007, and the left fusiform gyrus (r=0.644, P=0.024. We also found that the VEP latency of the right eye in ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the right insula (r=0.595, P=0

  7. Lithium alters brain activation in bipolar disorder in a task- and state-dependent manner: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Sanjay

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unknown if medications used to treat bipolar disorder have effects on brain activation, and whether or not any such changes are mood-independent. Methods Patients with bipolar disorder who were depressed (n = 5 or euthymic (n = 5 were examined using fMRI before, and 14 days after, being started on lithium (as monotherapy in 6 of these patients. Patients were examined using a word generation task and verbal memory task, both of which have been shown to be sensitive to change in previous fMRI studies. Differences in blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD magnitude between the pre- and post-lithium results were determined in previously defined regions of interest. Severity of mood was determined by the Hamilton Depression Scale for Depression (HAM-D and the Young mania rating scale (YMRS. Results The mean HAM-D score at baseline in the depressed group was 15.4 ± 0.7, and after 2 weeks of lithium it was 11.0 ± 2.6. In the euthymic group it was 7.6 ± 1.4 and 3.2 ± 1.3 respectively. At baseline mean BOLD signal magnitude in the regions of interest for the euthymic and depressed patients were similar in both the word generation task (1.56 ± 0.10 and 1.49 ± 0.10 respectively and working memory task (1.02 ± 0.04 and 1.12 ± 0.06 respectively. However, after lithium the mean BOLD signal decreased significantly in the euthymic group in the word generation task only (1.56 ± 0.10 to 1.00 ± 0.07, p Conclusion This is the first study to examine the effects of lithium on brain activation in bipolar patients. The results suggest that lithium has an effect on euthymic patients very similar to that seen in healthy volunteers. The same effects are not seen in depressed bipolar patients, although it is uncertain if this lack of change is linked to the lack of major improvements in mood in this group of patients. In conclusion, this study suggests that lithium may have effects on brain activation that are task- and state

  8. Neurophysiological Correlates of Various Mental Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo eHinterberger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A common view of consciousness is that our mind presents emotions, experiences and images in an internal mental (re-presentation space which in a state of wakefulness is triggered by the world outside. Consciousness can be defined as the observation of this inner mental space. We propose a new model, in which the state of the conscious observer is defined by the observer’s mental position and focus of attention. The mental position of the observer can either be within the mental self (intrapersonal space, in the mental outer world (extrapersonal space or in an empathic connection, i.e. within the intrapersonal space of another person (perspective taking. The focus of attention can be directed towards the self or towards the outside world. This mental space model can help us to understand the patterns of relationships and interactions with other persons as they occur in social life.To investigate the neurophysiological correlates and discriminability of the different mental states, we conducted an EEG experiment measuring the brain activity of 16 subjects via 64 electrodes while they engaged in different mental positions (intrapersonal, extrapersonal, perspective taking with different attentional foci (self, object. Compared to external mental locations, internal ones showed significantly increased alpha2 power, especially when the observer was focusing on an object. Alpha2 and beta2 were increased in the empathic condition compared to the extrapersonal perspective. Delta power was significantly higher when the attentional focus was directed towards an object in comparison to the participant’s own self. This exploratory study demonstrates highly significant differences between various mental locations and foci, suggesting that the proposed categories of mental location and intra- and interpersonal attentional foci are not only helpful theoretical concepts but are also physiologically relevant and therefore may relate to basic brain processing

  9. Relationship between Freshmen's Mental Health State and Academic Achievement in the First Year%大一新生心理健康状况与第一学年成绩的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜巧玲; 朱千; 伍露阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between the freshmen's academic achievement and mental health state. Methods UPI was employed to evaluate 2783 freshmen's mental health state. The correlation between the academic achievements and their mental health state was studied. Results ①About 17. 75% freshmen were abnormal mental health state,the ratio of normal or abnormal mental health state between male and female students was significantly different(P<0. 01 or P<0.001);The average score of the students of UPI second category were significantly better than those students of UPI first and third categories. ②The major factors of UPI that correlated to the freshmen's academic achievements were psychosis(r=0. 83,P<0. 01),depression(r= 0. 73,P<0. 01), neurosis (r=0. 97,P<0. 01) ;The mental health state of those students who had excellent performances in academic achievements was worse sand the differences between male or female students and the only children or not were significant in several factors of UPI. Furthermore,gender,factors of neurosis and Somatic symptoms of UPI had some prediction to freshmen's academic achievements. Conclusion There are significant correlations between the academic achievements and mental health state,and the correlation was different in different groups.%目的 探讨大一新生入学心理健康状况与第一学年成绩之间的关系.方法 采用大学生人格问卷(UPI),对某二级本科院校2783名大一新生入学时的心理健康状况测试结果与第一学年学业成绩(包括平均成绩和班级排名)进行统计分析.结果 ①大一新生中有17.75%的学生心理异常,男女学生在心理健康状况和学业成绩上都有显著差异(P<0.01或0.001),UPI第二类学生的平均成绩显著优于第一类和第三类学生;②UPI的精神分裂、抑郁症、神经症与学业成绩之间存在显著相关(r=0.83,0.73,0.97;P均<0.01),成绩越优秀的学生在UPI多项因子上更容易出现问题,这

  10. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  11. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  12. Poverty and Mental Retardation: A Causal Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Rodger L.

    The incidence of mental retardation among the poor and the reasons for such high prevalence are the focus of the text which is based largely on the state of New Jersey. Mental retardation is viewed as a social pathology which thrives in the ghetto; the effects of poverty and racial prejudice are explored as are the assessment of intelligence and…

  13. Five Keys for Teaching Mental Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James R.

    2015-01-01

    After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…

  14. Altered resting state functional connectivity of anterior cingulate cortex in drug naïve adolescents at the earliest stages of anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Santino; Piervincenzi, Claudia; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Romana Montecchi, Francesca; Riva, Giuseppe; Carducci, Filippo; Cosimo Quattrocchi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Previous Resting-State Functional Connectivity (RSFC) studies have shown several functional alterations in adults with or recovered from long Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this paper was to investigate whole brain RSFC in adolescents with AN in the earliest stages, less than 6 months, of the disorder. Sixteen drug-naïve outpatient female adolescents with AN-restrictive type (AN-r) (mean age: 15,8; SD 1,7) were compared to 16 age-matched healthy female (mean age: 16,3; SD 1,4). Relevant resting state networks (RSNs) were identified using independent component analysis (ICA) from functional magnetic resonance imaging data; a dual regression technique was used to detect between-group differences in the RSNs. Between-group differences of the functional connectivity maps were found in the executive control network (ECN). Particularly, decreased temporal correlation was observed in AN-r patients relative to healthy controls between the ECN functional connectivity maps and the anterior cingulate cortex (p < 0.05 corrected). Our results in AN adolescents may represent an early trait-related biomarker of the disease. Considering that the above mentioned network and its area are mainly involved in cognitive control and emotional processing, our findings could explain the impaired cognitive flexibility in relation to body image and appetite in AN patients. PMID:26043139

  15. Altered resting state functional connectivity of anterior cingulate cortex in drug naïve adolescents at the earliest stages of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Santino; Piervincenzi, Claudia; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Romana Montecchi, Francesca; Riva, Giuseppe; Carducci, Filippo; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    Previous Resting-State Functional Connectivity (RSFC) studies have shown several functional alterations in adults with or recovered from long Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this paper was to investigate whole brain RSFC in adolescents with AN in the earliest stages, less than 6 months, of the disorder. Sixteen drug-naïve outpatient female adolescents with AN-restrictive type (AN-r) (mean age: 15,8; SD 1,7) were compared to 16 age-matched healthy female (mean age: 16,3; SD 1,4). Relevant resting state networks (RSNs) were identified using independent component analysis (ICA) from functional magnetic resonance imaging data; a dual regression technique was used to detect between-group differences in the RSNs. Between-group differences of the functional connectivity maps were found in the executive control network (ECN). Particularly, decreased temporal correlation was observed in AN-r patients relative to healthy controls between the ECN functional connectivity maps and the anterior cingulate cortex (p emotional processing, our findings could explain the impaired cognitive flexibility in relation to body image and appetite in AN patients. PMID:26043139

  16. Long-term-stable ether-lipid vs conventional ester-lipid bicelles in oriented solid-state NMR: altered structural information in studies of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Kresten; Vad, Brian; Nielsen, Erik H; Hansen, Sara K; Skrydstrup, Troels; Otzen, Daniel E; Vosegaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2011-03-01

    Recently, ether lipids have been introduced as long-term stable alternatives to the more natural, albeit easier degradable, ester lipids in the preparation of oriented lipid bilayers and bicelles for oriented-sample solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Here we report that ether lipids such as the frequently used 14-O-PC (1,2-di-O-tetradecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) may induce significant changes in the structure and dynamics, including altered interaction between peptides and lipids relative to what is observed with the more conventionally used DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayers. Such effects are demonstrated for the antimicrobial peptide novicidin, for which 2D separate-local-field NMR and circular dichroism experiments reveal significant structural/conformational differences for the peptide in the two different lipid systems. Likewise, we observe altered secondary structure and different temperature-dependent membrane anchoring for the antimicrobial peptide alamethicin depending on whether the peptide is reconstituted into ester or ether lipids. Such observations are not particularly surprising considering the significant difference of the lipids in the phosphorus headgroup and they may provide important new insight into the delicate peptide-membrane interactions in the systems studied. In contrast, these observations reinforce the need to carefully consider potential structural changes in addition to long-term stability prior to the selection of membrane environment of membrane proteins in the analysis of their structure and dynamics. In more general terms, the results underscore the necessity in structural biology to address both the protein and its environments in studies relating structure to function. PMID:21309516

  17. The Development of Mental State Attributions in Women with X-Monosomy, and the Role of Monoamine Oxidase B in the Sociocognitive Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K.; Jones, A.; Oreland, L.; Spektor, D.; Mandy, W.; Campbell, R.; Skuse, D.

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that women with Turner syndrome (45,X) with a single X-chromosome inherited from their mother may show mentalizing deficits compared to women of normal karyotype with two X-chromosomes (46,X). Simple geometrical animation events (two triangles moving with apparent intention in relation to each other) which usually elicit…

  18. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health. PMID:25229895

  19. Asian American Mental Health: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saad, Carmel S.; Chu, Joyce P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) was arguably the best single scholarly contribution on the mental health of ethnic minority groups in the United States. Over 10 years have now elapsed…

  20. Saúde mental e trabalho interdisciplinar: a experiência do "Cândido Ferreira"em Campinas Mental health and interdisciplinary work: the experience in "Candido Ferreira", in Campinas, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Souza Queiroz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o processo de reforma psiquiátrica a partir de um foco dirigido ao trabalho interdisciplinar dos profissionais de nível superior do serviço de saúde Dr. Cândido Ferreira, em Campinas. Trata-se de uma instituição filantrópica que contribui expressivamente com a rede de assistência à saúde mental deste município. Embora integrada à rede de assistência de saúde mental desta cidade, o serviço apresenta certa independência financeira, administrativa e gerencial em relação à ela, o que lhe permite implementar algumas experiências terapêuticas e inovações gerenciais. Mais especificamente, este artigo focaliza o processo de tomada de decisão da equipe interdisciplinar, envolvendo diagnóstico e processo terapêutico. Também aborda a organização do serviço no processo de desospitalização, como o remanejamento de pacientes em residências fora da parte central do serviço, a manutenção dessas unidades, o gerenciamento das oficinas de trabalho na instituição, que preveem um rendimento financeiro para o paciente, e a implementação de um programa de três anos de residência em psiquiatria na instituição. A abordagem metodológica da pesquisa é essencialmente qualitativa, constituindo-se de entrevistas e observação participante relacionados com os profissionais desse serviço de saúde.This article analyses the process on the psychiatric reform, with a focus on the interdisciplinary work developed by the health professionals from the health service "Dr. Candido Ferreira"in Campinas, Brazil. This is a philanthropic institution which contributes significantly to public mental health network in this city. Even though the service is integrated to the Unified Heath System (SUS, it presents a financial, administrative and managerial independence, which allows implementing some therapeutic experiences and managerial innovations. More specifically, this article focuses on the process of decision making by

  1. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    de Menil Victoria; Wood Sarah K; Raja Shoba; Mannarath Saju C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key inf...

  2. Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Project (CIMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; von Wowern, Rie Krondorf;

    Introduction: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and childhood stress has life-long consequences for the affected children. One in five Danish families is at risk of inadequate parenting resources and child neglect. There is a lack of knowledge on best...... practice in screening for and preventing adverse infant mental health risks. Aims: The overall aim of CIMHP is to test the feasibility of an infant mental health screening and indicated prevention system and its capacity to (1) detect children at risk of longer term mental health adversities and (2) alter...... these risks in a cost effective way in a general population. Methods: In a period of 20 months 8.800 mothers and infants in Copenhagen are screened (at 2, 4 and 8 months) using two standardized screening instruments: 1) Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) in detecting infant social withdrawal and 2) Edinburg...

  3. Malarial Infection of Female BWF1 Lupus Mice Alters the Redox State in Kidney and Liver Tissues and Confers Protection against Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Al-Quraishy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by an imbalanced redox state and increased apoptosis. Tropical infections, particularly malaria, may confer protection against SLE. Oxidative stress is a hallmark of SLE. We have measured changes in the levels of nitric oxide (NO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glutathione (GSH in both kidney and liver tissues of female BWF1 lupus mice, an experimental model of SLE, after infection with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria. We observed a decrease in NO, H2O2, and MDA levels in kidney tissues after infection of lupus mice with live malaria. Similarly, the levels of NO and H2O2 were significantly decreased in the liver tissues of lupus mice after infection with live malaria. Conversely, GSH levels were obviously increased in both kidney and liver tissues after infection of lupus mice with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria. Liver and kidney functions were significantly altered after infection of lupus mice with live malaria. We further investigated the ultrastructural changes and detected the number of apoptotic cells in kidney and liver tissues in situ by electron microscopy and TUNEL assays. Our data reveal that infection of lupus mice with malaria confers protection against lupus nephritis.

  4. Physical victimization in prison: The role of mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Blitz, Cynthia L.; Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2008-01-01

    This study compares prison physical victimization rates (inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate) for people with mental disorder to those without mental disorder in a state prison system. Inmate subjects were drawn from 14 adult prisons operated by a single mid-Atlantic State. A sample of 7528 subjects aged 18 or older (7221 men and 564 women) completed an audio-computer administered survey instrument. Mental disorder was based on self-reported mental health treatment ever for particular mental...

  5. Mental health parity legislation: much ado about nothing?

    OpenAIRE

    Pacula, R L; Sturm, R.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether state-level parity legislation has led to an increase in utilization of mental health services. DATA SOURCES: Healthcare For Communities (HCC), a multi-site nationally representative study sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation that tracks health care system changes for mental health and substance abuse treatment. Information on state-level parity legislation was provided by state offices of the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI); local and ...

  6. Changes in disability, physical/mental health states and quality of life during an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ignacio Cuesta-Vargas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (MPP, integrating physical land-based therapeutic exercise (TE, adapted swimming and health education, as a treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNSNP, on disability, general health/mental states and quality of life.175 CNSNP patients from a community-based centre were recruited to participate in this prospective study.60-minute session (30 minutes of land-based exercise dedicated to improving mobility, motor control, resistance and strengthening of the neck muscles, and 30 minutes of adapted swimming with aerobic exercise keeping a neutral neck position using a snorkel. Health education was provided using a decalogue on CNSNP and constant repetition of brief advice by the physiotherapist during the supervision of the exercises in each session.primary: disability (Neck Disability Index; secondary: physical and mental health states and quality of life of patients (SF-12 and EuroQoL-5D respectively. Differences between baseline data and that at the 8-week follow-up were calculated for all outcome variables.Disability showed a significant improvement of 24.6% from a mean (SD of 28.2 (13.08 at baseline to 16.88 (11.62 at the end of the 8-week intervention. All secondary outcome variables were observed to show significant, clinically relevant improvements with increase ranges between 13.0% and 16.3% from a mean of 0.70 (0.2 at baseline to 0.83 (0.2, for EuroQoL-5D, and from a mean of 40.6 (12.7 at baseline to 56.9 (9.5, for mental health state, at the end of the 8-week intervention.After 8 weeks of a MPP that integrated land-based physical TE, health education and adapted swimming, clinically-relevant and statistically-significant improvements were observed for disability, physical and mental health states and quality of life in patients who suffer CNSNP. The clinical efficacy requires verification using a randomised controlled study

  7. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  8. Mental Health Stigma about Serious Mental Illness among MSW Students: Social Contact and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…

  9. Women and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience symptoms of mental disorders at times of hormone change, such as perinatal depression , premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and perimenopause-related depression. When it comes to other mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder , research has not found differences ...

  10. Mental toughness in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diment, Gregory Michael

    2014-01-01

    a systematic observation checklist of mental toughness behavior in professional soccer. Consistent with existing studies, the results created a systematic observation instrument containing 15 mental toughness behaviors. Practical implications include goal-setting, game analysis and self-modeling interventions...

  11. Mental Health and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  12. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  13. REVIEW ON TUBERCULOSIS AND MENTAL DISORDERS COMMON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleide Santos de Araújo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite having vaccine and treatment , TB remains a public health problem . Publications have described high proportion of TB among people with anxiety , depression and mental disorders . This study aimed to identify publications on the association between common mental disorders and tuberculosis and describe the state of the art . This is a literature review with keywords tuberculosis,common mental disorders , anxiety and depression , we excluded studies of extra- pulmonary tuberculosis and animals. 09 articles, only on a specific common mental disorders , comparing the proportion of these in tuberculosis cases ( 46.7 % and tuberculosis infected by the human immunodeficiency virus ( 63.7 % , there are few studies concerning the topic were elected , the most specific problems of anxiety and depression , are from countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is high, ethodological strategies have low analytical power and do not investigate the causal mechanisms underlying the relationship between mental health and tuberculosis.

  14. Schizophrenia, amphetamine-induced sensitized state and acute amphetamine exposure all show a common alteration: increased dopamine D2 receptor dimerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Min

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All antipsychotics work via dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs, suggesting a critical role for D2Rs in psychosis; however, there is little evidence for a change in receptor number or pharmacological nature of D2Rs. Recent data suggest that D2Rs form dimers in-vitro and in-vivo, and we hypothesized that schizophrenia, as well as preclinical models of schizophrenia, would demonstrate altered dimerization of D2Rs, even though the overall number of D2Rs was unaltered. Methods We measured the expression of D2Rs dimers and monomers in patients with schizophrenia using Western blots, and then in striatal tissue from rats exhibiting the amphetamine-induced sensitized state (AISS. We further examined the interaction between D2Rs and the dopamine transporter (DAT by co-immunoprecipitation, and measured the expression of dopamine D2High receptors with ligand binding assays in rat striatum slices with or without acute amphetamine pre-treatment. Results We observed significantly enhanced expression of D2Rs dimers (277.7 ± 33.6% and decreased expression of D2Rs monomers in post-mortem striatal tissue of schizophrenia patients. We found that amphetamine facilitated D2Rs dimerization in both the striatum of AISS rats and in rat striatal neurons. Furthermore, amphetamine-induced D2Rs dimerization may be associated with the D2R-DAT protein-protein interaction as an interfering peptide that disrupts the D2R-DAT coupling, blocked amphetamine-induced up-regulation of D2Rs dimerization. Conclusions Given the fact that amphetamine induces psychosis and that the AISS rat is a widely accepted animal model of psychosis, our data suggest that D2R dimerization may be important in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may be a promising new target for novel antipsychotic drugs.

  15. Inventory of Long-Term Braiding Activity at a Regional Scale as a Tool for Detecting Alterations to a Rivers' Hydromorphological State: A Case Study for Romania's South-Eastern Subcarpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The inventory of long-term braiding activity is a useful tool for detecting alterations in a rivers' hydromorphological state and for a river's management in the context of the Water Framework Directive on integrated river basin management for Europe. Our study focuses on braided sectors of rivers in South-Eastern Subcarpathians (Romania). The inventory evaluates types of alterations based on the spatial analysis of fluvial morphology indicators (i.e., length of the river sector forming a braided pattern; width of the braided active channel), and vegetation cover (i.e., length of banks covered by forest and shrubs; area of in-stream patches of shrubs) accumulated over the last century. Furthermore, we performed a regional scale hierarchical cluster analysis to estimate the degree of alteration when compared to an historical baseline. In South-Eastern Subcarpathians, the studied rivers experienced a decrease of braiding activity revealed by the shortening and narrowing of their braided sectors, expansion of riparian forests, and the diminishment of vegetated islands' areas. We separated three types of river clusters, corresponding to low (cluster 1), moderate (cluster 2), and high (cluster 3) degree of alteration. Moreover, the clusters demonstrate the evolutionary path of the braided pattern alterations until the functioning of another channel pattern. The inventory is relevant for differing types and levels of alterations. Additionally, this tool may serve as a first step toward the restoration of altered sectors by identifying rivers in cluster 1 as potential candidates of present-day reference sites for altered rivers with similar natural conditions as in cluster 3.

  16. 心理护理对肺尘埃沉着症患者心理状态的影响%Effects of mental nursing on psychological state of patients with pnemnoconiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁美霞; 温尔雅; 庄静英

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察心理护理对肺尘埃沉着症患者心理状态的影响.方法 选取160例肺尘埃沉着症患者,随机分为8组,每组20例,观察心理护理前和心理护理后15,30,60 d的心理特征,并比较青年、中年和老年组心理护理60 d后肺尘埃沉着症患者存在4种或以上心理特征病例数;另选取320例同类患者,随机分为两方面心理护理组和全方面心理护理组各160例,记录2组心理护理前和心理护理60 d后的心理特征.统计明显存在4种或以上心理特征的患者数.结果 心理护理15d后明显存在4种或者以上肺尘埃沉着症患者心理特征病例数有所减少;心理护理30,60 d后病例数进一步减少,与15 d后比较差异显著;且60 d较30 d减少更显著.两方面心理护理组和多方面心理护理组在进行60 d心理护理后,病例数明显减少,差异显著;多方面心理护理组减少更显著.经60 d心理护理后,青年组病例数减少最显著,与中年组、老年组相比差异显著;而中年组、老年组间比较无显著差异.结论 对肺尘埃沉着症患者的心理护理过程是一个长期的、循序渐进的过程,而且全面的心理护理对改善肺尘埃沉着症患者心理状态有极大影响;心理护理对于不同年龄层次患者的影响存在较大差异.%Objective To investigate effects of mental nursing on psychological state of patients with pneumoconiosis. Methods 160 pneumoconiosis patients were divided into 8 groups randomly,and 20 patients were included in each group. Psychological characteristics were observed before mental nurs-ing, and 15, 30 and 60 days after mental nursing. The numbers of the youth, the middle-aged and the el-derly patients who demonsrated four or more kinds of psychological characteristics after 60 days mental nursing were compared.320 patients of the same kind were divided into the two aspects of mental nursing group and all aspects of mental nursing group, the number of patients

  17. The Effects of Romantic Love on Mentalizing Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the human pair-bonded state of “romantic love” on cognitive function remain relatively unexplored. Theories on cognitive priming suggest that a state of love may activate love-relevant schemas, such as mentalizing about the beliefs of another individual, and may thus improve mentalizing abilities. On the other hand, recent functional MRI (fMRI) research on individuals who are in love suggests that several brain regions associated with mentalizing may be “deactivated” during the...

  18. Zambia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is

  19. Mental health reform, economic globalization and the practice of citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Marina

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on research conducted in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec it is argued that tension exists between mental health reforms born out of concern for the well-being and care of people and those that are being driven by cost-containment and efficiency. Contributing to this tension are competing discourses about mental health and mental illness. It is argued that progressive change requires the meaningful engagement of mental health care recipients in policy decision-making processes and ongoing analysis about the interconnections between economic globalization, social welfare state restructuring and mental health reform. PMID:16138645

  20. Determinants of mental health service use in the national mental health survey of the elderly in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kua Ee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite high prevalence of mental health problems, only a minority of elderly people seek treatment. Although need-for-care factors are primary determinants of mental health service use, personal predisposing or enabling factors including health beliefs are important but are not well studied. Method In the National Mental Health Survey of Elderly in Singapore, 2003, 1092 older adults aged 60 and above were interviewed for diagnosis of mental disorders (using Geriatric Mental State and treatment, and their health beliefs about the curability of mental illness, embarrassment and stigma, easiness discussing mental problems, effectiveness and safety of treatment and trust in professionals. Results The prevalence of mental disorders was 13%, but only a third of mentally ill respondents had sought treatment. Increased likelihood of seeking treatment was significantly associated with the presence of a mental disorder (OR = 5.27, disability from mental illness (OR = 79.9, and poor or fair self-rated mental health (OR = 2.63, female gender (OR = 2.25, and formal education (OR = 2.40. The likelihood of treatment seeking was lower in those reporting financial limitations for medical care (OR = 0.38, but also higher household income (OR = 0.31. Negative beliefs showed no meaningful associations, but the positive belief that 'to a great extent mental illness can be cured' was associated with increased mental health service use (OR = 6.89. The availability of family caregiver showed a negative association (OR = 0.20. Conclusion The determinants of mental health service use in the elderly included primary need factors, and female gender and socioeconomic factors. There was little evidence of influences by negative health beliefs, but a positive health belief that 'mental illness can be cured' is a strongly positive determinant The influence of family members and care-givers on senior's use of mental health service should be further explored.

  1. Altered intrinsic regional brain spontaneous activity and subjective sleep quality in patients with chronic primary insomnia: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai XJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Jian Dai,1,2 De-Chang Peng,1 Hong-Han Gong,1 Ai-Lan Wan,3 Xiao Nie,1 Hai-Jun Li,1 Yi-Xiang J Wang2 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong; 3Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nangchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China Study objective: To prospectively explore the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo brain-activity deficit in patients with chronic primary insomnia (PCPIs and its relationship with clinical features.Design: The ReHo method and Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software were used to evaluate whether resting-state localized brain activity was modulated between PCPIs and good sleepers (GSs, and correlation analysis between altered regional brain areas and clinical features was calculated. Patients and participants: Twenty-four PCPIs (17 females, seven males and 24 (12 females, 12 males age-, sex-, and education-matched GSs.Measurements and results: PCPIs disturbed subjective sleep quality, split positive mood, and exacerbated negative moods. Compared with GSs, PCPIs showed higher ReHo in left fusiform gyrus, and lower ReHo in bilateral cingulate gyrus and right cerebellum anterior lobe. Compared with female GSs, female PCPIs showed higher ReHo in the left fusiform gyrus and right posterior cingulate, and lower ReHo in the left cerebellum anterior lobe and left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with male GSs, male PCPIs showed higher ReHo in the right temporal lobe and lower ReHo in the bilateral frontal lobe. The fusiform gyrus showed strong positive correlations and the frontal lobe showed negative correlations with the clinical measurements.Conclusion: The ReHo analysis is a useful noninvasive imaging tool for the detection of cerebral changes and

  2. Interaction matters: A perceived social partner alters the neural processing of human speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that social interaction changes how communicative behaviors (e.g., spoken language, gaze) are processed, but the precise neural bases by which social-interactive context may alter communication remain unknown. Various perspectives suggest that live interactions are more rewarding, more attention-grabbing, or require increased mentalizing-thinking about the thoughts of others. Dissociating between these possibilities is difficult because most extant neuroimaging paradigms examining social interaction have not directly compared live paradigms to conventional "offline" (or recorded) paradigms. We developed a novel fMRI paradigm to assess whether and how an interactive context changes the processing of speech matched in content and vocal characteristics. Participants listened to short vignettes--which contained no reference to people or mental states--believing that some vignettes were prerecorded and that others were presented over a real-time audio-feed by a live social partner. In actuality, all speech was prerecorded. Simply believing that speech was live increased activation in each participant's own mentalizing regions, defined using a functional localizer. Contrasting live to recorded speech did not reveal significant differences in attention or reward regions. Further, higher levels of autistic-like traits were associated with altered neural specialization for live interaction. These results suggest that humans engage in ongoing mentalizing about social partners, even when such mentalizing is not explicitly required, illustrating how social context shapes social cognition. Understanding communication in social context has important implications for typical and atypical social processing, especially for disorders like autism where social difficulties are more acute in live interaction. PMID:26608245

  3. Immigration and Mental Disorders among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, David T.; Zane, Nolan; Hong, Seunghye; Chae, David H.; Gong, Fang; Gee, Gilbert C.; Walton, Emily; Sue, Stanley; Alegria, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined lifetime and 12-month rates of any depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders in a national sample of Asian Americans. We focused on factors related to nativity and immigration as possible correlates of mental disorders. Methods. Data were derived from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological survey of Asian Americans in the United States. Results. The relationships between immigration-related factors and mental disorders...

  4. Mental Health of Prisoners of Ilam’s Jails andits Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Almasi; Golmorad Moradi

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the mental state of prisoners, the present study examines factors associated with mental health of prison inmates is Ilam. Required information was collected through a questionnaire which was distributed among 343 prisoners who were selected by quota sampling method.Research findings indicate that the mean of mental health scores for subjects is. 83.17, which is below the appropriate level of mental health.. mental health variable was divided into its constituent componen...

  5. Mentalization-based treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Eizirik, M.; Fonagy, P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the concept of mentalization, and its application in understanding the development of psychopathology in patients with borderline personality disorder; to give an account of the main features of mentalization-based treatment; to summarise the evidence supporting its effectiveness. Discussion: Mentalization is a predominantly preconscious mental activity that enables the individual to understand him/herself and others in terms of subjective states and mental processes. P...

  6. Mental Roots of Terror

    OpenAIRE

    Saruhan, Müfit Selim

    2004-01-01

    In this article, I deal with mental and terror relationship. Mental roots of terror are being examined. Religion has nothing to do with terrorism. Terrorist tries to misuse religion. Mental with prejudice and lack of knowledge occupies the personality of individual and his ability to judge. Purification of mind from any external and internal prejudices is the unique solution of terrorism. Only within extensive education we can overcome terrorism. Terrorism could not apply to a religion or a n...

  7. Disaster mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  8. Crime and Mental Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Cornaglia, Francesca; Feldman, Naomi E.; Leigh, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence of crime's impact on the mental wellbeing of both victims and non-victims. We differentiate between the direct impact to victims and the indirect impact to society due to the fear of crime. The results show a decrease in mental wellbeing after violent crime victimization and that the violent crime rate has a negative impact on mental wellbeing of non-victims. Property crime victimization and property crime rates show no such comparable impact. Finally, we estimat...

  9. GENETIC DETERMINATIONS OF MENTALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Osadcha, L. V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The article is devoted to clarifying the role of physicality and psycho-physical characteristics of a person as a preconditions of the mentality forming. It is conducted a retrospective analysis of discourse on the mentality, the history of the concept, its temporal characteristics and collective conditioning. The concept of mentality has been widely studied in various fields of socio-humanities such as: history, psychology, and even marginal context of scientific discourses, includi...

  10. Are maternal reflective functioning and attachment security associated with preadolescent mentalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Anna Maria; Viterbori, Paola; Scopesi, Alda M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of maternal reflective functioning (RF) and attachment security on children's mentalization. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered to mothers in a sample of 41 mother-preadolescent dyads. AAI transcripts were rated in terms of the Berkeley AAI System (Main and Goldwyn, 1998) and the Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS; Fonagy et al., 1998). Preadolescent mentalization was assessed using a semi-structured interview adapted from O'Connor and Hirsch (1999) and also by analyzing mental-state talk produced during an autobiographical interview. Relationships between maternal RF and children's mentalization were analyzed, with consideration given to the different RFS markers and references to positive, negative, and mixed-ambivalent mental states. Children's mentalization was positively correlated with the mother's RF, particularly the mother's ability to mentalize negative or mixed-ambivalent mental states. No significant differences in mentalization were observed between children of secure and insecure mothers. PMID:26300824

  11. Reestruturação produtiva, impactos na saúde e sofrimento mental: o caso de um banco estatal em Minas Gerais, Brasil Economic restructuring and impacts on health and mental distress: the case of a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sérgio Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A reestruturação produtiva no setor financeiro brasileiro instalou-se por meio do trinômio demissões em massa, automação e terceirização, além de processos de reengenharia empresarial, com redução de níveis hierárquicos, flexibilização e polivalência de funções. O bancário, para se adaptar e resistir às exigências, aumentou seu nível de escolaridade, tornou-se polivalente e exímio vendedor, submetendo-se à precariedade das condições de trabalho, aumento da carga de serviços, longas jornadas e baixos salários. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o processo de reestruturação produtiva em um banco público do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, e seus possíveis impactos na saúde de seus trabalhadores. Analisou-se também o absenteísmo no período entre 1998 e 2003, quando houve maior desenvolvimento de doenças, como lesão por esforço repetitivo/distúrbios osteomusculares relacionados ao trabalho (LER/DORT e os distúrbios mentais e comportamentais, sendo responsáveis, respectivamente, por 56% e 19% do número de dias de afastamentos. O processo continuou até os dias atuais, com uma política restritiva de contratações. Novos estudos se fazem necessários para a continuidade desta análise e para confirmar os resultados encontrados.Restructuring of the Brazilian financial sector was consolidated through the combination of mass lay-offs, automation, and outsourcing, in addition to business reengineering with leveling of hierarchical echelons, labor casualization, and multi-function jobs. In order to comply and deal with the new demands, bank employees had to increase their schooling, become multi-functional and expert sales attendants, and submit to substandard conditions in the workplace, increased workload, overtime, and low wages. The purpose of the current study was to examine the restructuring process in a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and its impacts on workers' health. The study also

  12. Salud mental y adicciones

    OpenAIRE

    Boccalari, Paola

    2013-01-01

    La recientemente reglamentada Ley Nacional de Salud Mental 26.657 plantea amplias reformas en el ámbito de la salud pública. Este escrito se detendrá en uno de los puntos de la ley referido al lugar de las adicciones en las políticas de salud mental. Reflexionará sobre las conexiones entre la salud mental y adicciones. Si bien desde la nueva ley las adicciones forman parte de las políticas de salud mental, la “Y” conectora entre ambas, a la vez que unifica ambos campos, también hace pensar en...

  13. Mental hospitals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

    2000-04-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  14. Atribuição de estados mentais no discurso de crianças do espectro autístico The attribution of mental states in the speech of children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyvia Christina Camarotto Battiston Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a atribuição de estados mentais no discurso de crianças pertencentes aos Distúrbios do Espectro Autístico e verificar a modificação no vocabulário e extensão frasal desses, após período de terapia fonoaudiológica. MÉTODOS: Foram colhidas amostras de fala da avaliação fonoaudiológica inicial, após seis meses e um ano de terapia fonoaudiológica, registradas nos prontuários de cinco crianças com autismo infantil e cinco com síndrome de Asperger para caracterização do desempenho verbal e da habilidade de atribuição de estados mentais de cada criança. Considerando-se apenas as emissões espontâneas, foram verificadas as palavras pertencentes às classes substantivo e verbo e classificadas como termos que referem estados físicos e mentais. A comparação entre os três momentos foi realizada por meio da avaliação da significância entre as medianas das amostras obtidas (teste da mediana, com diferença significativa ao nível de 10%. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se aumento no número de palavras emitidas e também no número de palavras por frase emitida entre os períodos de avaliação e após um ano de terapia fonoaudiológica para crianças com autismo infantil. Não foram encontradas diferenças para a atribuição de verbos de estados físicos e mentais e substantivos de estados mentais para ambos os grupos, sendo observada diminuição na emissão de substantivos de estados físicos no grupo autismo infantil. CONCLUSÃO: A atribuição de estados mentais aumentou após período de intervenção terapêutica fonoaudiológica, porém, sem diferença significativa, verificando-se aumento no comportamento verbal de crianças com autismo infantil.PURPOSE: To analyze the attribution of mental states in the speech of children within the Autistic Spectrum Disorders, and verify the modification in their vocabulary and phrasal extension, after a period of speech-language therapy. METHODS: Speech samples from the

  15. Promoting Access Through Integrated Mental Health Care Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kverno, Karan

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorders are the leading cause of non-communicable disability worldwide. Insufficient numbers of psychiatrically trained providers and geographic inequities impair access. To close this treatment gap, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the integration of mental health services with primary care. A new innovative online program is presented that increases access to mental health education for primary care nurse practitioners in designated mental health professional shortage areas. To create successful and sustainable change, an overlapping three-phase strategy is being implemented. Phase I is recruiting and educating primary care nurse practitioners to become competent and certified psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners. Phase II is developing partnerships with state and local agencies to identify and support the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner education and clinical training. Phase III is sustaining integrated mental health care services through the development of nurse leaders who will participate in interdisciplinary coalitions and educate future students. PMID:27347257

  16. Promoting Access Through Integrated Mental Health Care Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kverno, Karan

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorders are the leading cause of non-communicable disability worldwide. Insufficient numbers of psychiatrically trained providers and geographic inequities impair access. To close this treatment gap, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the integration of mental health services with primary care. A new innovative online program is presented that increases access to mental health education for primary care nurse practitioners in designated mental health professional shortage areas. To create successful and sustainable change, an overlapping three-phase strategy is being implemented. Phase I is recruiting and educating primary care nurse practitioners to become competent and certified psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners. Phase II is developing partnerships with state and local agencies to identify and support the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner education and clinical training. Phase III is sustaining integrated mental health care services through the development of nurse leaders who will participate in interdisciplinary coalitions and educate future students. PMID:27347257

  17. Mental Mapping: A Lesson that Creates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comenetz, Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Mental image and place-preference maps of college students in Florida were created through a two-part lesson. The patterns revealed by these maps were linked to students' life experiences, census data on migration and income, and similar studies conducted in other states. Students prefer states with established migration links to Florida and…

  18. Effects of mental state on patients with high altitude pulmonary edema%心理状态对高原肺水肿患者病情的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符中明; 任雨笙; 陈玉玲; 杨芬; 达文玲; 赵庆辉

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨心理因素 对高原肺水肿治疗与转归的影响。方法:选择165例高原肺水肿住院患者, 采用医院焦虑抑郁情绪测定量表(HAD)进行问卷调查,对其中152例有效问卷资料进行统计学 分析。结果:152例患者中,出现焦虑者61例,占40.13%;抑郁者29例 ,占19.08%。进藏前接受高原疾病预防教育、初次发病、患者性格、病情轻重及自付医疗费 用对患者的心理影响较大;而年龄、性别、职业、文化程度等对患者焦虑、抑郁状况影响较 小。心理异常的高原肺水肿患者其肺部音消失时间、治愈时间明显较心理正常患者延长。 结论:焦虑、抑郁等情绪变化可加重高原肺水肿病情,影响其发生、 发展及转归。%Objective: To investigate the effects of psycholog ical factors on treatment and outcome of patients with high altitude pulmonary e dema(HAPE). Methods: In the present study, one hundred and fifty -two patients with HAPE were tested by hospital anxiety and depression scale. Results: The results showed that there were 61 patients (40.13%) with anxiety and 29 patients (19.08%) with depression. The important factors on mental state of patients were preventive education, the first time suffering HA PE, characters of patients, degree of the disease and the medical fee, the less w ere age, sex, occupation and education of patients. Duration of rales of lung an d course of illness were significantly prolonged in HAPE patients with mental di sorders compared to the patients without mental disorder. Conclusion:The study suggests that anxiety and depression might aggravate the state of HAPE.

  19. Retrospective karyotype study in mentally retarded patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wellcy Gonçalves Teixeira; Fabiana Kalina Marques; Maíra Cristina Menezes Freire

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective: To describe the chromosomal alterations in patients with mental retardation (MR) using G-banding karyotype analysis. Method: A retrospective study of the results G-banding karyotype analysis of 369 patients investigated for MR was performed. Based on the structural rearrangements found, the authors searched all chromosomal regions related with breakpoints, and these were compared with the literature on MR and databases. Results: 338 (91.6%) normal cases, and 31 (8.4%) wi...

  20. Mental fatigue detection using electrophysiological measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, François

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of a mental fatigue detector that would exploit electrophysiological signals for discriminating time windows associated with a "fatigue" state of windows associated with a "no fatigue" state. In the first experiment, subjects performed a task switching task for about 2 h. Two segments of 20 min were selected for each subject. The first one was associated with the "no fatigue" state and the other one with the "fatigue" state. These seg...