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Sample records for altered anxiety behavior

  1. Altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors in rats exposed to early life seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelisandra S. S. Castelhano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal seizures are the most common manifestation of neurological dysfunction in the neonate. The prognosis of neonatal seizures is highly variable, and the controversy remains whether the severity, duration or frequency of seizures may contribute to brain damage independently of its etiology. Animal data indicates that seizures during development are associated with a high probability of long-term adverse effects such as learning and memory impairment, behavioral changes and even epilepsy, which is strongly age dependent, as well as the severity, duration and frequency of seizures. In preliminary studies, we demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to one-single neonatal status epilepticus (SE episode showed social behavior impairment, and we proposed the model as relevant for studies of developmental disorders. Based on these facts, the goal of this study was to verify the existence of a persistent deficit and if the anxiety-related behavior could be associated with that impairment. To do so, male Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were submitted to a single episode of status epilepticus (SE by pilocarpine injection (380 mg/kg, i.p. and control animals received saline (0.9 %, 0,1mL/10 g. It was possible to demonstrate that in adulthood, animals exposed to neonatal SE displayed low preference for social novelty, anxiety-related behavior and increased stereotyped behavior in anxiogenic environment with no locomotor activity changes. On the balance, these data suggests that neonatal status epilepticus in rodents leads to altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors.

  2. Ancient Anxiety Pathways Influence Drosophila Defense Behaviors

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    Mohammad, Farhan; Aryal, Sameer; Ho, Joses; Stewart, James Charles; Norman, Nurul Ayuni; Tan, Teng Li; Eisaka, Agnese; Claridge-Chang, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Anxiety helps us anticipate and assess potential danger in ambiguous situations [1, 2, 3]; however, the anxiety disorders are the most prevalent class of psychiatric illness [4, 5, 6]. Emotional states are shared between humans and other animals [7], as observed by behavioral manifestations [8], physiological responses [9], and gene conservation [10]. Anxiety research makes wide use of three rodent behavioral assays—elevated plus maze, open field, and light/dark box—that present a choice between sheltered and exposed regions [11]. Exposure avoidance in anxiety-related defense behaviors was confirmed to be a correlate of rodent anxiety by treatment with known anxiety-altering agents [12, 13, 14] and is now used to characterize anxiety systems. Modeling anxiety with a small neurogenetic animal would further aid the elucidation of its neuronal and molecular bases. Drosophila neurogenetics research has elucidated the mechanisms of fundamental behaviors and implicated genes that are often orthologous across species. In an enclosed arena, flies stay close to the walls during spontaneous locomotion [15, 16], a behavior proposed to be related to anxiety [17]. We tested this hypothesis with manipulations of the GABA receptor, serotonin signaling, and stress. The effects of these interventions were strikingly concordant with rodent anxiety, verifying that these behaviors report on an anxiety-like state. Application of this method was able to identify several new fly anxiety genes. The presence of conserved neurogenetic pathways in the insect brain identifies Drosophila as an attractive genetic model for the study of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, complementing existing rodent systems. PMID:27020741

  3. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors

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    Letícia Scheidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36 were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16, 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12, or water (n = 12 every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  4. Repeated social defeat causes increased anxiety-like behavior and alters splenocyte function in C57BL/6 and CD-1 mice.

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    Kinsey, Steven G; Bailey, Michael T; Sheridan, John F; Padgett, David A; Avitsur, Ronit

    2007-05-01

    The experimental model, social disruption (SDR), is a model of social stress in which mice are repeatedly attacked and defeated in their home cage by an aggressive conspecific. In terms of the impact of this stressor on the immune response, SDR has been reported to cause hyperinflammation and glucocorticoid insensitivity. To this point however, the behavioral consequences of SDR have not been thoroughly characterized. Because social defeat has been reported to cause anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, the current study was designed to assess whether SDR also causes anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Using the light/dark preference test and the open field test as tools to measure behaviors characteristic of anxiety, the data showed that C57BL/6 and CD-1 male mice subjected to SDR displayed increased anxiety-like behavior. The increase in anxiety-like behaviors persisted for at least 1 week after the cessation of the stressor. In contrast, depressive-like behaviors were not elicited by SDR as assessed by the forced swim test or the tail suspension test. These data indicate that social disruption stress causes an increase in anxiety-like behaviors, but not depressive-like behaviors.

  5. Single episode of mild murine malaria induces neuroinflammation, alters microglial profile, impairs adult neurogenesis, and causes deficits in social and anxiety-like behavior.

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    Guha, Suman K; Tillu, Rucha; Sood, Ankit; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Nanavaty, Ishira N; Sengupta, Arjun; Sharma, Shobhona; Vaidya, Vidita A; Pathak, Sulabha

    2014-11-01

    Cerebral malaria is associated with cerebrovascular damage and neurological sequelae. However, the neurological consequences of uncomplicated malaria, the most prevalent form of the disease, remain uninvestigated. Here, using a mild malaria model, we show that a single Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection in adult mice induces neuroinflammation, neurogenic, and behavioral changes in the absence of a blood-brain barrier breach. Using cytokine arrays we show that the infection induces differential serum and brain cytokine profiles, both at peak parasitemia and 15days post-parasite clearance. At the peak of infection, along with the serum, the brain also exhibited a definitive pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, and gene expression analysis revealed that pro-inflammatory cytokines were also produced locally in the hippocampus, an adult neurogenic niche. Hippocampal microglia numbers were enhanced, and we noted a shift to an activated profile at this time point, accompanied by a striking redistribution of the microglia to the subgranular zone adjacent to hippocampal neuronal progenitors. In the hippocampus, a distinct decline in progenitor turnover and survival was observed at peak parasitemia, accompanied by a shift from neuronal to glial fate specification. Studies in transgenic Nestin-GFP reporter mice demonstrated a decline in the Nestin-GFP(+)/GFAP(+) quiescent neural stem cell pool at peak parasitemia. Although these cellular changes reverted to normal 15days post-parasite clearance, specific brain cytokines continued to exhibit dysregulation. Behavioral analysis revealed selective deficits in social and anxiety-like behaviors, with no change observed in locomotor, cognitive, and depression-like behaviors, with a return to baseline at recovery. Collectively, these findings indicate that even a single episode of mild malaria results in alterations of the brain cytokine profile, causes specific behavioral dysfunction, is accompanied by hippocampal microglial

  6. Neuropeptide s alters anxiety but not depression-like behaviors in the flinders sensitive line rats, a genetic animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, A.; Wegener, Gregers; Finger, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) have been implicated in the mediation of anxiolytic-like behavior in rodents. However, little knowledge is available to what extent the NPS system is involved in depression-related behaviors. The aim of the present work was to characterize ...

  7. Caffeine increases food intake while reducing anxiety-related behaviors.

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    Sweeney, Patrick; Levack, Russell; Watters, Jared; Xu, Zhenping; Yang, Yunlei

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of caffeine on appetite and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, we sought to determine if withdrawal from chronic caffeine administration promotes anxiety. In this study, we utilized rodent open field testing and feeding behavior assays to determine the effects of caffeine on feeding and anxiety-related behavior (n = 8 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We also measured 2 h and 24 h food intake and body-weight during daily administration of caffeine (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). To test for caffeine withdrawal induced anxiety, anxiety-related behavior in rodents was quantified following withdrawal from four consecutive days of caffeine administration (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We find that acute caffeine administration increases food intake in a dose-dependent manner with lower doses of caffeine more significantly increasing food intake than higher doses. Acute caffeine administration also reduced anxiety-related behaviors in mice without significantly altering locomotor activity. However, we did not observe any differences in 24 h food intake or body weight following chronic caffeine administration and there were no observable differences in anxiety-related behaviors during caffeine withdrawal. In conclusion, we find that caffeine can both increase appetite and decrease anxiety-related behaviors in a dose dependent fashion. Given the complex relationship between appetite and anxiety, the present study provides additional insights into potential caffeine-based pharmacological mechanisms governing appetite and anxiety disorders, such as bulimia nervosa.

  8. Repeated Social Defeat Causes Increased Anxiety-Like Behavior and Alters Splenocyte Function in C57BL/6 and CD-1 Mice

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    Kinsey, Steven G.; Bailey, Michael T.; Sheridan, John F.; Padgett, David A.; Avitsur, Ronit

    2006-01-01

    The experimental model, social disruption (SDR), is a model of social stress in which mice are repeatedly attacked and defeated in their home cage by an aggressive conspecific. In terms of the impact of this stressor on the immune response, SDR has been reported to cause hyperinflammation and glucocorticoid insensitivity. To this point however, the behavioral consequences of SDR have not been thoroughly characterized. Because social defeat has been reported to cause anxiety- and depressive-li...

  9. Catechol-O-methlytransferase inhibition alters pain and anxiety-related volitional behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the rat

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    Kline, R. H.; Exposto, F. G.; O’Buckley, S. C.; Westlund, K. N.; Nackley, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity resulting from genetic variation or pharmacological depletion results in enhanced pain perception in humans and nociceptive behaviors in animals. Using phasic mechanical and thermal reflex tests (e.g. von Frey, Hargreaves), recent studies show that acute COMT-dependent pain in rats is mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs). In order to more closely mimic the characteristics of human chronic pain conditions associated with prolonged reductions in COMT, the present study sought to determine volitional pain-related and anxiety-like behavioral responses following sustained as well as acute COMT inhibition using an operant 10–45°C thermal place preference task and a light/dark preference test. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effects of sustained COMT inhibition on generalized body pain by measuring tactile sensory thresholds of the abdominal region. Results demonstrated that acute and sustained administration of the COMT inhibitor OR486 increased pain behavior in response to thermal heat. Further, sustained administration of OR486 increased anxiety behavior in response to bright light, as well as abdominal mechanosensation. Finally, all pain-related behaviors were blocked by the non-selective βAR antagonist propranolol. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of ARs following acute or chronic COMT inhibition drives cognitive-affective behaviors associated with heightened pain that affects multiple body sites. PMID:25659347

  10. Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition alters pain and anxiety-related volitional behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the rat.

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    Kline, R H; Exposto, F G; O'Buckley, S C; Westlund, K N; Nackley, A G

    2015-04-02

    Reduced catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity resulting from genetic variation or pharmacological depletion results in enhanced pain perception in humans and nociceptive behaviors in animals. Using phasic mechanical and thermal reflex tests (e.g. von Frey, Hargreaves), recent studies show that acute COMT-dependent pain in rats is mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs). In order to more closely mimic the characteristics of human chronic pain conditions associated with prolonged reductions in COMT, the present study sought to determine volitional pain-related and anxiety-like behavioral responses following sustained as well as acute COMT inhibition using an operant 10-45°C thermal place preference task and a light/dark preference test. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effects of sustained COMT inhibition on generalized body pain by measuring tactile sensory thresholds of the abdominal region. Results demonstrated that acute and sustained administration of the COMT inhibitor OR486 increased pain behavior in response to thermal heat. Further, sustained administration of OR486 increased anxiety behavior in response to bright light, as well as abdominal mechanosensation. Finally, all pain-related behaviors were blocked by the non-selective βAR antagonist propranolol. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of βARs following acute or chronic COMT inhibition drives cognitive-affective behaviors associated with heightened pain that affects multiple body sites.

  11. Rat dams exposed repeatedly to a daily brief separation from the pups exhibit increased maternal behavior, decreased anxiety and altered levels of receptors for estrogens (ERα, ERβ), oxytocin and serotonin (5-HT1A) in their brain.

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    Stamatakis, Antonios; Kalpachidou, Theodora; Raftogianni, Androniki; Zografou, Efstratia; Tzanou, Athanasia; Pondiki, Stavroula; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2015-02-01

    In the present study we investigated the neurobiological mechanisms underlying expression of maternal behavior. Increased maternal behavior was experimentally induced by a brief 15-min separation between the mother and the pups during postnatal days 1 to 22. On postnatal days (PND) 12 and 22, we determined in experimental and control dams levels of anxiety in the elevated plus maze (EPM) as well as the levels of receptors for estrogens (ERα, ERβ), oxytocin (OTR) and serotonin (5-HT1AR) in areas of the limbic system (prefrontal cortex-PFC, hippocampus, lateral septum-SL, medial preoptic area-MPOA, shell of nucleus accumbens-nAc-Sh, central-CeA and basolateral-BLA amygdala), involved in the regulation of maternal behavior. Experimental dams, which showed increased maternal behavior towards their offspring, displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM on both PND12 and PND22. These behavioral differences could be attributed to neurochemical alterations in their brain: On both PND12 and PND22, experimental mothers had higher levels of ERα and OTRs in the PFC, hippocampus, CeA, SL, MPOA and nAc-Sh. The experimental manipulation-induced increase in ERβ levels was less widespread, being localized in PFC, the hippocampal CA2 area, MPOA and nAc-Sh. In addition, 5-HT1ARs were reduced in the PFC, hippocampus, CeA, MPOA and nAc-Sh of the experimental mothers. Our results show that the experience of the daily repeated brief separation from the pups results in increased brain ERs and OTRs, as well as decreased 5-HT1ARs in the dam's brain; these neurochemical changes could underlie the observed increase in maternal behavior and the reduction of anxiety.

  12. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor ligands WIN 55,212-2 and AM 251 alter anxiety-like behaviors of marmoset monkeys in an open-field test.

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    Cagni, Priscila; Barros, Marilia

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1r) are an important modulatory site for emotional behavior. However, little is known on the effects of CB1r ligands on emotionality aspects of primates, even with their highly similar behavioral response and receptor density/distribution as humans. Thus, we analyzed the effects of the CB1r agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 1mg/kg) and the antagonist AM 251 (AM; 2mg/kg), systemically administered prior to a single brief (15 min) exposure to a novel open-field (OF) environment, on the behavior of individually tested adult black tufted-ear marmosets. Both WIN- and AM-treated subjects, compared to vehicle controls, had significantly lower rates of long (contact) calls and exploration, while higher levels of vigilance-related behaviors (scan/glance); these are indicators of anxiolysis in this setup. Changes in locomotion were not detected. However, in the vehicle and AM-groups, sojourn in the peripheral zone of the OF was significantly higher than in its central region. WIN-treated marmosets spent an equivalent amount of time in both zones. Therefore, activation or blockade CB1r function prior to a short and individual exposure to an unfamiliar environment exerted a significant and complex influence on different behavioral indicators of anxiety in these monkeys (i.e., a partially overlapping anxiolytic-like profile). AM 251, however, has no anxiolytic effect when the time spent in the center of the OF is considered. This is a major difference when compared to the WIN-treated group. Data were compared to the response profile reported in other pre-clinical (rodent) and clinical studies.

  13. Developmental regulation of fear learning and anxiety behavior by endocannabinoids.

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    Lee, T T-Y; Hill, M N; Lee, F S

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain undergoes substantial maturation into adulthood and the development of specific neural structures occurs on differing timelines. Transient imbalances between developmental trajectories of corticolimbic structures, which are known to contribute to regulation over fear learning and anxiety, can leave an individual susceptible to mental illness, particularly anxiety disorders. There is a substantial body of literature indicating that the endocannabinoid (eCB) system critically regulates stress responsivity and emotional behavior throughout the life span, making this system a novel therapeutic target for stress- and anxiety-related disorders. During early life and adolescence, corticolimbic eCB signaling changes dynamically and coincides with different sensitive periods of fear learning, suggesting that eCB signaling underlies age-specific fear learning responses. Moreover, perturbations to these normative fluctuations in corticolimbic eCB signaling, such as stress or cannabinoid exposure, could serve as a neural substrate contributing to alterations to the normative developmental trajectory of neural structures governing emotional behavior and fear learning. In this review, we first introduce the components of the eCB system and discuss clinical and rodent models showing eCB regulation of fear learning and anxiety in adulthood. Next, we highlight distinct fear learning and regulation profiles throughout development and discuss the ontogeny of the eCB system in the central nervous system, and models of pharmacological augmentation of eCB signaling during development in the context of fear learning and anxiety.

  14. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

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    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

  15. Social Anxiety and Aggression in Behaviorally Disordered Children.

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    Gonzalez, Ketty P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-nine boys in classes for students with behavioral disturbances were given questionnaires on trait anxiety, social anxiety, empathy, depression, and self-esteem, while teachers rated their aggression. Results showed that anxiety and empathy scores were not correlated with aggression, while social anxiety was positively correlated with trait…

  16. Fibroblast growth factor deficiencies impact anxiety-like behavior and the serotonergic system.

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    Brooks, Leah R; Enix, Courtney L; Rich, Samuel C; Magno, Jinno A; Lowry, Christopher A; Tsai, Pei-San

    2014-05-01

    Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) are organized in anatomically distinct subregions that form connections with specific brain structures to modulate diverse behaviors, including anxiety-like behavior. It is unclear if the functional heterogeneity of these neurons is coupled to their developmental heterogeneity, and if abnormal development of specific DR serotonergic subregions can permanently impact anxiety circuits and behavior. The goal of this study was to examine if deficiencies in different components of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling could preferentially impact the development of specific populations of DR serotonergic neurons to alter anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. Wild-type and heterozygous male mice globally hypomorphic for Fgf8, Fgfr1, or both (Fgfr1/Fgf8) were tested in an anxiety-related behavioral battery. Both Fgf8- and Fgfr1/Fgf8-deficient mice display increased anxiety-like behavior as measured in the elevated plus-maze and the open-field tests. Immunohistochemical staining of a serotonergic marker, tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph), revealed reductions in specific populations of serotonergic neurons in the ventral, interfascicular, and ventrolateral/ventrolateral periaqueductal gray subregions of the DR in all Fgf-deficient mice, suggesting a neuroanatomical basis for increased anxiety-like behavior. Overall, this study suggests Fgf signaling selectively modulates the development of different serotonergic neuron subpopulations. Further, it suggests anxiety-like behavior may stem from developmental disruption of these neurons, and individuals with inactivating mutations in Fgf signaling genes may be predisposed to anxiety disorders.

  17. Reducing Supervisee Anxiety: A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach.

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    Dodge, Jacqueline

    1982-01-01

    Presents an anxiety management approach which suggests supervisors of counselors-in-training can help supervisees resolve approval and performance anxiety through rational-emotive and cognitive-behavior therapies. Stresses cognitive restructuring and risk-taking. (Author/MCF)

  18. Beyond Behavioral Inhibition: Etiological Factors in Childhood Anxiety

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    Manassis, Katharina; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Webb, Alicia; Albano, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical models of childhood anxiety have emphasized temperamental vulnerability, principally behavioral inhibition, and its interaction with various environmental factors promoting anxiety (for example, overprotective parenting, insecure attachment, life stress). Although clearly establishing the importance of both nature and nurture in…

  19. Behavioral measures of anxiety during opiate withdrawal.

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    Grasing, K; Wang, A; Schlussman, S

    1996-10-01

    Heightened anxiety is a major component of the withdrawal syndromes associated with ethanol and sedative hypnotic medications. Because of similarities between the opiate and sedative-hypnotic withdrawal syndromes as well as data implicating heightened noradrenergic tone with opiate withdrawal, we investigated changes in anxiety measures identified by plus-maze and social interaction testing during opiate withdrawal. Because Sprague Dawley rats had very low levels of entry into plus-maze open arms, further studies were conducted using the Long-Evans strain. Long-Evans rats received continuous infusions of morphine sulfate at 44 mg/kg per day delivered by osmotic pump over 7 days while control animals received inert implants. During the first 3 days of withdrawal, the number and time of entries into open and closed arms of a plus-maze was recorded. Both social and aggressive behaviors were scored durings pairings of groups of two socially naive animals. Body weight was significantly reduced in morphine-treated animals prior to and during withdrawal. Both the number of entries into open plus-maze arms and the time spent in open areas increased over the 3 days of testing. However, no difference in plus-maze activity was detected between morphine-treated and control subjects. On the third day of withdrawal, social interaction time was greater in pairs of withdrawn and control subjects compared to pairs of two control subjects. In conclusion, behavioral measures of anxiety are not increased during opiate withdrawal.

  20. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

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    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration.

  1. A multimodal behavioral approach to performance anxiety.

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    Lazarus, Arnold A; Abramovitz, Arnold

    2004-08-01

    Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) stresses a trimodal assessment framework (affect, behavior, and cognition [ABC]), whereas the multimodal approach assesses seven discrete but interactive components--behavior, affect, sensation, imagery, cognition, interpersonal relationships, and drugs/biological factors (BASIC I.D.). Only complex or recalcitrant cases call for the entire seven-pronged range of multimodal interventions. Various case illustrations are offered as examples of how a clinician might proceed when confronted with problems that fall under the general heading of performance anxiety. The main example is of a violinist in a symphony orchestra whose career was in serious jeopardy because of his extreme fear of performing in public. He responded very well to a focused but elaborate desensitization procedure. The hierarchy that was eventually constructed contained many dimensions and subhierarchies featuring interlocking elements that evoked his anxiety. In addition to imaginal systematic desensitization, sessions were devoted to his actual performance in the clinical setting. As a homework assignment, he found it helpful to listen to a long-playing record of an actual rehearsal and to play along with the world-renowned orchestra and conductor. The subsequent disclosure by the client of an important sexual problem was dealt with concomitantly by using a fairly conventional counseling procedure. Therapy required 20 sessions over a 3-month period.

  2. Crh and Oprm1 mediate anxiety-related behavior and social approach in a mouse model of MECP2 duplication syndrome

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    Samaco, Rodney C; Mandel-Brehm, Caleigh; McGraw, Christopher M.; Shaw, Chad A.; McGill, Bryan E; Zoghbi, Huda Y.

    2012-01-01

    Genomic duplications spanning Xq28 are associated with a spectrum of phenotypes including anxiety and autism. The minimal region shared among affected individuals includes MECP2 and IRAK1, however, it is unclear which gene, when overexpressed, causes anxiety and social behavior deficits. We report that doubling MeCP2 levels causes heightened anxiety and autism-like features in mice, and alters the expression of genes that influence anxiety and social behavior, such as Crh and Oprm1. To test t...

  3. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation.

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    Khdour, Hussain Y; Abushalbaq, Oday M; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T; Imam, Aya F; Gluck, Mark A; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of medication-free patients with GAD, SAD, and PAD, along with matched healthy participants using a probabilistic category-learning task that allows the dissociation between positive and negative feedback learning. We also fitted all participants' data to a Q-learning model and various actor-critic models that examine learning rate parameters from positive and negative feedback to investigate effects of valence vs. action on performance. SAD and GAD patients were more sensitive to negative feedback than either PAD patients or healthy participants. PAD, SAD, and GAD patients did not differ in positive-feedback learning compared to healthy participants. We found that Q-learning models provide the simplest fit of the data in comparison to other models. However, computational analysis revealed that groups did not differ in terms of learning rate or exploration values. These findings argue that (a) not all anxiety spectrum disorders share similar cognitive correlates, but are rather different in ways that do not link them to the hallmark of anxiety (higher sensitivity to negative feedback); and (b) perception of negative consequences is the core feature of GAD and SAD, but not PAD. Further research is needed to examine the similarities and differences between anxiety spectrum disorders in other cognitive domains and potential implementation of behavioral therapy to remediate cognitive deficits.

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Gül Kapçı

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study examined the effectiveness of a school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT program for school aged children with high levels of anxiety symptoms. Method: The study design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing CBT to a waitlist-control condition. A total of 61 children (37 girls and 24 boys; age range 8-13 with high scores on either self-report or parental reports of anxiety participated in the study. The treatment group received 10 weekly sessions over three months that was administered using the Cool Kids treatment manual (Lyneham 2003. Outcome measures included parent-rated scales of anxiety and anxiety interference, and child self-report scales of anxiety, anxiety interference, depression and self-esteem. Both study groups were comparable at baseline for clinical and demographic variables. A mixed design ANOVA with pre-post treatment as within and CBT vs waitlist groups as between group variable was used for statistical analysis. Results: At post-test, CBT group had lower scores on anxiety, interference of anxiety and depression scales and higher scores on self-esteem scales of scholastic competence, social acceptance and behavioral conduct, but not physical appearance and athletic ability compared to the waitlist control group. Conclusions: The study presents empirical evidence for the effectiveness of a school based CBT Cool Kids program for reducing anxiety symptoms and increasing self-esteem in elementary school children. Future studies may examine the durability of treatment gains

  5. Dual mechanisms of rapid expression of anxiety-related behavior in pilocarpine-treated epileptic mice.

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    Otsuka, Shintaro; Ohkido, Taro; Itakura, Makoto; Watanabe, Shigeru; Yamamori, Saori; Iida, Yuuki; Saito, Masanori; Miyaoka, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Masami

    2016-07-01

    A mouse model of epilepsy was generated by inducing status epilepticus (SE) for either 1.5 or 4.5h with pilocarpine to study anxiety-related behaviors, changes in the electroencephalogram of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and expression of hippocampal proteins. The viability and rate of success of SE induction were high in C57BL/6N mice but not in C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6N mice were immotile during the first 2days after SE; however, by the third day, most mice were recovered and exhibited strong anxiety-related behaviors in response to the light/dark preference test and open field test. There was a striking difference in the temporal appearance of anxiety-related behavior between the two SE durations: 1.5h SE mice exhibited strong anxiety-related behavior 3days after SE that gradually attenuated over the next few weeks, whereas 4.5h SE mice exhibited strong anxiety-related behavior 3days after SE that persisted even at nearly 1year after SE. Mice receiving both SE durations exhibited generalized seizures (GS) after SE; however, there was a marked difference in the timing and duration of GS appearance. Mice in the 4.5h SE group exhibited spontaneous GS from 4days to at least 96days after SE. In contrast, mice in the 1.5h SE group exhibited GS only within the first several days after SE; however, epileptic spike clusters continuously appeared in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus for up to twelve days after SE. Among the hippocampal proteins tested, only brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exhibited altered expression in parallel with anxiety-related behavior. These results showed the possibility that BDNF expression in the hippocampus might cause anxiety-related behavior in adulthood.

  6. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Youth

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    Seligman, Laura D.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Randomized clinical trials indicate that approximately two-thirds of children treated with CBT will be free of their primary diagnosis at posttreatment. Although several CBT treatment packages have been investigated in youth with diverse anxiety disorders, common core components have been identified. A comprehensive assessment, development of a good therapeutic relationship and working alliance, cognitive restructuring, repeated exposure with reduction of avoidance behavior, and skills training comprise the core procedures for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. PMID:21440852

  7. Preoperative anxiety and emergence delirium and postoperative maladaptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Zeev N; Caldwell-Andrews, Alison A; Maranets, Inna; McClain, Brenda; Gaal, Dorothy; Mayes, Linda C; Feng, Rui; Zhang, Heping

    2004-12-01

    Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the clinical phenomena of preoperative anxiety, emergence delirium, and postoperative maladaptive behavioral changes were closely related. We examined this issue using data obtained by our laboratory over the past 6 years. Only children who underwent surgery and general anesthesia using sevoflurane/O(2)/N(2)O and who did not receive midazolam were recruited. Children's anxiety was assessed preoperatively with the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS), emergence delirium was assessed in the postanesthesia care unit, and behavioral changes were assessed with the Post Hospital Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ) on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14. Regression analysis showed that the odds of having marked symptoms of emergence delirium increased by 10% for each increment of 10 points in the child's state anxiety score (mYPAS). The odds ratio of having new-onset postoperative maladaptive behavior changes was 1.43 for children with marked emergence status as compared with children with no symptoms of emergence delirium. A 10-point increase in state anxiety scores led to a 12.5% increase in the odds that the child would have a new-onset maladaptive behavioral change after the surgery. This finding is highly significant to practicing clinicians, who can now predict the development of adverse postoperative phenomena, such as emergence delirium and postoperative behavioral changes, based on levels of preoperative anxiety.

  8. Avoidance, Safety Behavior, And Reassurance Seeking In Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beesdo-Baum, K.; Jenjahn, E.; Höfler, M.; Lüken, U.; Becker, E.S.; Hoyer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The behavioral symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) are not well characterized. This study examines behavioral symptoms in patients with GAD compared to healthy participants, their change during behavioral therapy, and their role for predicting short- and long-term outcome. Meth

  9. Fmr1 knockout mice show reduced anxiety and alterations in neurogenesis that are specific to the ventral dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, B D; Zhang, W N; Boehme, F; Gil-Mohapel, J; Kainer, L; Simpson, J M; Christie, B R

    2009-11-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by the selective loss of the expression of the Fmr1 gene. Key symptoms in FXS include intellectual impairment and abnormal anxiety-related behaviors. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited reduced anxiety on two behavioral tests as well as a blunted corticosterone response to acute stress. Spatial learning and memory was not impaired when tested with both the classic Morris water and Plus-shaped mazes. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been associated with spatial learning and memory and emotions such as anxiety and depression. The process of neurogenesis appears abnormal in young adult Fmr1 KO mice, with significantly fewer bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells surviving for at least 4 weeks in the ventral subregion of the dentate gyrus (DG), a hippocampal subregion more closely associated with emotion than the dorsal DG. Within this smaller pool of surviving cells, we observed a concomitant increase in the proportion of surviving cells that acquire a neuronal phenotype. We did not observe a clear difference in cell proliferation using both endogenous and exogenous markers. This work indicates that loss of Fmr1 expression can alter anxiety-related behaviors in mice as well as produce region-specific alterations in hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

  10. Inactivation of fibroblast growth factor binding protein 3 causes anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yasunari; Kitano, Ayumi; Takao, Keizo; Prasansuklab, Anchalee; Mushiroda, Taisei; Yamazaki, Keiko; Kumada, Tomohiro; Shibata, Minoru; Takaoka, Yuki; Awaya, Tomonari; Kato, Takeo; Abe, Takaya; Iwata, Nakao; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Heike, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms of emotional modulation and the molecular pathophysiology of anxiety disorders are largely unknown. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family has been implicated in the regulation of many physiological and pathological processes, which include the control of emotional behaviors. The present study examined mice with a targeted deletion of the fgf-bp3 gene, which encodes a novel FGF-binding protein, in animal models relevant to anxiety. To define the behavioral consequences of FGF-BP3 deficiency, we evaluated fgf-bp3-deficient mice using anxiety-related behavioral paradigms that provide a conflict between the desire to explore an unknown area or objects and the aversion to a brightly lit open space. The fgf-bp3-deficient mice exhibited alterations in time spent in the central area of the open-field arena, were less active in the lit areas of a light/dark transition test, and had a prolonged latency to feed during a novelty-induced hypophagia test. These changes were associated with alterations in light-induced orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that FGF-BP3 is a potent mediator of anxiety-related behaviors in mice and suggest that distinct pathways regulate emotional behaviors. Therefore, FGF-BP3 plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional states and in the development of anxiety disorders and should be investigated as a therapeutic target for anxiety disease in humans.

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Social Anxiety Disorder: Current Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Fistikci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapy is still one of the most important treatment modalities in social anxiety disorder with a high level of evidence. However, some patients do not fully benefit from these therapies and this fact leads to ongoing search for new approaches. This paper reviews use of cognitive behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder studies and discusses related updated concepts. The frequent use of computer-assisted therapy for most of recent studies was found noteworthy. Recent studies regarding social anxiety disorder focused on concepts such as attention bias, biased information processing, attention training, judgment biases, internet-based cognitive behavioral therapies and social mishap exposure. Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy seemed to be a good option for people who were unable to access face to face treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 229-243

  12. Glutamatergic mechanisms associated with stress-induced amygdala excitability and anxiety-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masneuf, Sophie; Lowery-Gionta, Emily; Colacicco, Giovanni; Pleil, Kristen E; Li, Chia; Crowley, Nicole; Flynn, Shaun; Holmes, Andrew; Kash, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The neural factors underlying individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress remain poorly understood. Preclinical studies demonstrate that mouse strains vary greatly in anxiety-related responses to chronic stress in a manner paralleled by differential stress-induced changes in glutamatergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Previous work has also shown that alterations in the amygdala gene expression of the GluN1 NMDA and the GluK1 kainate receptors are associated with stress-induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior in the C57BL/6J mouse strain. Using in vivo behavioral pharmacological and ex vivo physiological approaches, the aim of the current study was to further elucidate changes in glutamate neurotransmission in the BLA caused by stress and to test the functional roles of GluN1 and GluK1 in mediating stress-related changes in behavior. Results showed that stress-induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior (light/dark exploration test) were absent following bilateral infusion of the GluK1 agonist ATPA into the BLA. Intra-BLA infusion of the competitive NMDA antagonist AP5 produced a generalized behavioral disinhibition/locomotor hyperactivity, irrespective of stress. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that ATPA augmented BLA GABAergic neurotransmission and that stress increased the amplitude of network-dependent spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents and amplitude of GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in BLA. These findings could indicate stress-induced BLA glutamatergic neuronal network hyperexcitability and a compensatory increase in GABAergic neurotransmission, suggesting that GluK1 agonism augmented GABAergic inhibition to prevent behavioral sequelae of stress. Current data could have implications for developing novel therapeutic approaches, including GluK1 agonists, for stress-related anxiety disorders.

  13. Essential role of interleukin-15 receptor in normal anxiety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojun; He, Yi; Hsuchou, Hung; Kastin, Abba J; Rood, Jennifer C; Pan, Weihong

    2010-11-01

    The interactions between the cytokine interleukin (IL)-15 and the classical neurotransmitter GABA have been shown in IL15Rα receptor knockout mice by observations of memory deficits and reduction of GABA. To test the hypothesis that IL15 affects anxiety-like behavior, knockout mice without IL15, IL15Rα, or the co-receptor IL2Rγ were subjected to open-field and elevated plus maze tests. All three strains showed reduction of anxiety, with greater changes in the IL15Rα knockout mice than in the IL15 or IL2Rγ knockout mice. This unexpected observation is opposite to the reported increase of anxiety in mice lacking other proinflammatory cytokines or their receptors. The reduced anxiety was not associated with changes in associated serum cytokines. However, Western blotting, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry all showed that IL15Rα knockout mice had mild microgliosis and astrogliosis in the hippocampus. To determine whether this gliosis plays a role in decreasing anxiety, IL15Rα knockout mice were treated with minocycline, but this did not cause a change in open field performance. To determine whether IL15 plays a direct role in anxiety, wildtype mice were treated with IL15 by intraperitoneal injection. This also failed to cause a change in open field behavior under the experimental conditions tested. Thus, IL15Rα is essential for normal anxiety-like behavior, but inhibition of gliosis in the fearless IL15Rα knockout mice or IL15 treatment of normal mice did not acutely modulate behavioral performance as tested.

  14. Direct and indirect predictors of social anxiety: The role of anxiety sensitivity, behavioral inhibition, experiential avoidance and self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Karekla, Maria; Panayiotou, Margarita

    2014-11-01

    Using mediated and moderated regression, this study examined the hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity, the tendency to be concerned about anxiety symptoms, and behavioral inhibition, the tendency to withdraw from novel and potentially dangerous stimuli, predict social anxiety indirectly through experiential avoidance as measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II and self-consciousness, as measured by the Self-Consciousness Scale. Behavioral inhibition and anxiety sensitivity are operationalized as temperamental traits, while experiential avoidance and self-consciousness are seen as learned emotion regulation strategies. Study 1 included college student groups from Cyprus scoring high and low on social anxiety (N=64 and N=63) as measured by the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Study 2 examined a random community sample aged 18-65 (N=324) treating variables as continuous and using the Psychiatric Disorders Screening Questionnaire to screen for social anxiety. Results suggest that experiential avoidance, but not self-consciousness mediates the effects of anxiety sensitivity on predicting social anxiety status, but that behavioral inhibition predicts social anxiety directly and not through the proposed mediators. Moderation effects were not supported. Overall, the study finds that social anxiety symptomatology is predicted not only by behavioral inhibition, but also anxiety sensitivity, when individuals take actions to avoid anxious experiences. Modifying such avoidant coping approaches may be more beneficial for psychological treatments than attempts to change long-standing, temperamental personality traits.

  15. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  16. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  17. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xie

    Full Text Available There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  18. Parental anxiety, parenting behavior, and infant anxiety: differential associations for fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Möller; M. Majdandžić; S.M. Bögels

    2014-01-01

    Most studies investigating the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of anxiety from parents to children have focused on mothers. However, recent research suggests that mothers and fathers may parent differently and may differentially affect the development of child anxiet

  19. Parental anxiety, parenting behavior, and infant anxiety: differential associations for fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, E.L.; Majdandžić, M.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies investigating the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of anxiety from parents to children have focused on mothers. However, recent research suggests that mothers and fathers may parent differently and may differentially affect the development of child anxiet

  20. [D2-type dopaminergic receptors and anxiety-depression-like behavior in female rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, Iu O

    2012-01-01

    Results of a comparative study of the effects of chronic administration of the D2-receptor agonist quinperole (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and the D2-receptor antagonist sulpiride (10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) for 14 days on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in key phases of the ovarian cycle in adult female rats are presented. The model of depression in rats was implemented in Porsolt test, while the anxiety level was assessed in the elevated plus maze test. It is established that the chronic administration of quinperole produced an anxiolytic action in female rats during diesrous, estrous and proestrous phases, but failed to modify depression-like behavior during the entire ovarian cycle. Sulpiride administration resulted in anxiogenic effect in all phases of the ovarian cycle. It was also found that sulpiride produced some modulation of depression-like behavior in connection to ovarian cycle phases, which was a prodepressive action at a moderate level of estrogens and an antidepressant effect at a reduced/enhanced level of estrogen. It is suggested that the extent of involvement of D2-receptors in the mechanisms of anxiety-depressive-like behavior can vary depending on alterations of the hormonal balance during the ovarian cycle. The data obtained are indicative of a close interaction between ovarian hormonal and dopaminergic systems of the brain involved in the mechanisms of anxiety and depression.

  1. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective, and behavioral parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations, appraisals, and behaviors of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 mothers who were not anxious [NONANX] and 44 mothers with a current anxiety disorder [ANX]) when interacting with their 7-12-year-old children. There were no observed differences in anxiety and avoidance among children of ANX and NONANX mothers, but, compared with NONANX mothers, ANX mothers held more negative expectations, and they differed on observations of intrusiveness, expressed anxiety, warmth, and the quality of the relationship. Associations were moderated by the degree to which children expressed anxiety during the tasks. Maternal-reported negative emotions during the task significantly mediated the association between maternal anxiety status and the observed quality of the relationship. These findings suggest that maternal anxiety disorder is associated with reduced tolerance of children's negative emotions. This may interfere with the maintenance of a positive, supportive mother-child interaction under conditions of stress and, as such, this may impede optimum treatment outcomes. The findings identify potential cognitive, affective, and behavioral targets to improve treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders in the context of a current maternal anxiety disorder.

  2. Effects of Infantile Repeated Hyperglycemia on Behavioral Alterations in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Moghadami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety symptoms have been reported to be present in many patients with diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia in critical periods of the central nervous system development. We assessed locomotive, exploratory, and anxiety behaviors in adult rats that remained from infantile repeated hyperglycemia by the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Our findings showed significant hypo activity, reduced locomotive/exploratory activities, increased fear related behaviors, and anxiety state between hyperglycemic and control adult males and the same differences were observed among females. In addition, no significant behavioral alterations between male and female animals were observed. This study determined that repeated increments in daily blood sugar levels in newborns may affect neuronal functions and provide behavioral abnormalities in adults.

  3. Mild traumatic brain injury with social defeat stress alters anxiety, contextual fear extinction, and limbic monoamines in adult rats

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    Daniel eDavies

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI induction, and 6 days later were tested either for anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM, or for contextual fear conditioning and extinction. Brains were collected 24 hr after EPM testing, and tissue from various limbic regions analyzed for content of monoamines, their precursors and metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Either social defeat or mTBI alone decreased time spent in open arms of the EPM, indicating greater anxiety-like behavior. However, this effect was enhanced by the combination of treatments. Further, rats exposed to both social defeat and mTBI exhibited greater freezing within extinction sessions compared to all other groups, suggesting impaired contextual fear extinction. Social defeat combined with mTBI also had greater effects on limbic monoamines than either insult alone, particularly with respect to serotonergic effects associated with anxiety and fear learning. The results suggest social stress concurrent with mTBI produces provides a relevant animal model for studying the prevention and treatment of post-concussive psychobiological outcomes.

  4. Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms of Overgeneralization in Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Offir; Israeli, David; Paz, Rony

    2016-03-21

    Overgeneralization of dangerous stimuli is a possible etiological account for anxiety disorders, yet the underlying behavioral and neural origins remain vague. Specifically, it is unclear whether this is a choice behavior in an unsafe environment ("better safe than sorry") or also a fundamental change in how the stimulus is perceived. We show that anxiety patients have wider generalization for loss-conditioned tone when compared to controls and do so even in a safe context that requires a different behavioral policy. Moreover, patients overgeneralized for gain-conditioned tone as well. Imaging (fMRI) revealed that in anxiety only, activations during conditioning in the dACC and the putamen were correlated with later overgeneralization of loss and gain, respectively, whereas valence distinction in the amygdala and hippocampus during conditioning mediated the difference between loss and gain generalization. During generalization itself, neural discrimination based on multivoxel patterns in auditory cortex and amygdala revealed specific stimulus-related plasticity. Our results suggest that overgeneralization in anxiety has perceptual origins and involves affective modulation of stimulus representations in primary cortices and amygdala.

  5. The Worry Behaviors Inventory : Assessing the behavioral avoidance associated with generalized anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahoney, Alison E J; Hobbs, Megan J; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D; Sunderland, Matthew; Andrews, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding behavioral avoidance associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has implications for the classification, theoretical conceptualization, and clinical management of the disorder. This study describes the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a self-re

  6. GABAergic control of critical developmental periods for anxiety- and depression-related behavior in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Shen

    Full Text Available Vulnerability for anxiety and depressive disorders is thought to have origins in early life and is increasingly recognized to involve deficits in GABAergic neurotransmission. Mice that were rendered heterozygous for the γ2 subunit gene of GABA(A receptors (GABA(ARs show behavioral, cognitive, neuroendocrine and pharmacologic features expected of a mouse model of melancholic anxious depression, including reduced survival of adult-born hippocampal neurons. Here we embarked on elucidating the developmental substrate underlying this phenotype, focusing on the Elevated Plus Maze and Forced Swim Test as relevant behavioral paradigms. In a first series of experiments using hemizygous tamoxifen-induced genetic inactivation of a floxed γ2 genomic locus we show that reducing the gene dosage at postnatal days (P13/14 but not P27/28 results in altered behavior in both of these tests in adulthood, reminiscent of the anxious-depressive phenotype previously described for global heterozygous mice. However, in contrast to global heterozygous mice, the behavioral changes induced by γ2 subunit knockdown at P13/14 occurred without changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, indicating that altered neurogenesis is not an absolute prerequisite for anxiety- and depression-related behavior in this model. In a separate series of experiments using a pharmacological approach, acute but transient potentiation of GABA(ARs with diazepam uncovered distinct developmental vulnerabilities for altered behavior in the Elevated Plus Maze and Forced Swim Test, respectively. Specifically, diazepam given during P10-16 but not during later weeks resulted in increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood, while diazepam administered during P29-35 but not earlier nor later resulted in increased immobility behavior in adulthood. We conclude that anxiety-like behavior in the Elevated Plus Maze and behavioral despair-like immobility in the Forced Swim Test are controlled by separate

  7. Altered default mode network activity in patient with anxiety disorders: An fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xiaohu [Imaging Department of Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China) and Bio-X lab, Department of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: xhzhao999@263.net; Wang Peijun [Imaging Department of Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: tongjipjwang@vip.sina.com; Li Chunbo [Department of Psychiatry, Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: licb@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Hu Zhenghui [Department of Electrical and Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: eezhhu@ust.hk; Xi Qian [Imaging Department of Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: 96125007@sina.com.cn; Wu Wenyuan [Department of Psychiatry, Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: wuwy@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Tang Xiaowei [Bio-X lab, Department of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: tangxw@zju.edu.cn

    2007-09-15

    Anxiety disorder, a common mental disorder in our clinical practice, is characterized by unprovoked anxiety. Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which closely involved in emotional processing, are critical regions in the default mode network. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether default mode network activity is altered in patients with anxiety disorder. Ten anxiety patients and 10 healthy controls underwent fMRI while listening to emotionally neutral words alternating with rest (Experiment 1) and threat-related words alternating with emotionally neutral words (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, regions of deactivation were observed in patients and controls. In Experiment 2, regions of deactivation were observed only in patients. The observed deactivation patterns in the two experiments, which included MPFC, PCC, and inferior parietal cortex, were similar and consistent with the default model network. Less deactivation in MPFC and greater deactivation in PCC were observed for patients group comparing to controls in Experiment 1. Our observations suggest that the default model network is altered in anxiety patients and dysfunction in MPFC and PCC may play an important role in anxiety psychopathology.

  8. Acute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-01-25

    Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab.

  9. Predictors in Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and behavioral stress management for severe health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2015-01-01

    Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety.

  10. Age-dependent relevance of endogenous 5-lipoxygenase derivatives in anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Luciana M; Almeida-Corrêa, Suellen; Canetti, Claudio A; Amaral, Olavo B; Bozza, Fernando A; Pamplona, Fabricio A

    2014-01-01

    When 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is inhibited, roughly half of the CNS effect of the prototypic endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is lost. Therefore, we decided to investigate whether inhibiting this enzyme would influence physiological functions classically described as being under control of the endocannabinoid system. Although 5-LO inhibition by MK-886 reduced lipoxin A4 levels in the brain, no effect was found in the elevated plus maze (EPM), even at the highest possible doses, via i.p. (10 mg/kg,) or i.c.v. (500 pmol/2 µl) routes. Accordingly, no alterations in anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test were observed in 5-LO KO mice. Interestingly, aged mice, which show reduced circulating lipoxin A4 levels, were sensitive to MK-886, displaying an anxiogenic-like state in response to treatment. Moreover, exogenous lipoxin A4 induced an anxiolytic-like profile in the EPM test. Our findings are in line with other reports showing no difference between FLAP KO or 5-LO KO and their control strains in adult mice, but increased anxiety-like behavior in aged mice. We also show for the first time that lipoxin A4 affects mouse behavior. In conclusion, we propose an age-dependent relevancy of endogenous 5-LO derivatives in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior, in addition to a potential for exogenous lipoxin A4 in producing an anxiolytic-like state.

  11. Anorexia nervosa as a motivated behavior: Relevance of anxiety, stress, fear and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda, Angela S; Schreyer, Colleen C; Boersma, Gretha J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Moran, Timothy H

    2015-12-01

    The high comorbidity between anorexia nervosa (AN) and anxiety disorders is well recognized. AN is a motivated behavioral disorder in which habit formation is likely to contribute to the persistence of abnormal eating and exercise behaviors. Secondary alterations in brain circuitry underlying the reward value of food and exercise, along with disturbances in neuroendocrine hunger and satiety signaling arising from starvation and excessive exercise, are likely contributors to the maintenance of anorectic behaviors in genetically vulnerable individuals. The potential role of fear conditioning in facilitating onset of AN, or of impaired fear extinction in contributing to the high relapse rates observed following weight restoration, is of interest. Evidence from animal models of anxiety and human laboratory studies indicate that low estrogen impairs fear extinction. Low estradiol levels in AN may therefore play a role in perpetuating fear of food and fat in recently weight restored patients. Translational models including the activity based anorexia (ABA) rodent model of AN, and neuroimaging studies of fear extinction and conditioning, could help clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms and neurocircuitry involved in food avoidance behaviors in AN. Moreover, the adaptation of novel treatment interventions with efficacy in anxiety disorders may contribute to the development of new treatments for this impairing disorder.

  12. [Correction of experimental anxiety behavior by meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerovskiĭ, A I; Suslov, N I; Kaĭgorodtsev, A V

    2011-01-01

    Influence of aqueous and aqueous-ethanol extracts of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) on the behavior of albino mice in anxiety models has been studied. It is established that the aqueous and 95% aqueous ethanol extracts of meadowsweet produce the most expressed anxiolytic action in the elevated plus-maze, open field, and emotional reaction tests. The anxiolytic activity of these extracts exceeds that of the reference valerian extract.

  13. The cognitive architecture of anxiety-like behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dominik R

    2017-01-01

    The combination of reward and potential threat is termed approach/avoidance conflict and elicits specific behaviors, including passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition (BI). Anxiety-relieving drugs reduce these behaviors, and a rich psychological literature has addressed how personality traits dominated by BI predispose for anxiety disorders. Yet, a formal understanding of the cognitive inference and planning processes underlying anxiety-like BI is lacking. Here, we present and empirically test such formalization in the terminology of reinforcement learning. We capitalize on a human computer game in which participants collect sequentially appearing monetary tokens while under threat of virtual "predation." First, we demonstrate that humans modulate BI according to experienced consequences. This suggests an instrumental implementation of BI generation rather than a Pavlovian mechanism that is agnostic about action outcomes. Second, an internal model that would make BI adaptive is expressed in an independent task that involves no threat. The existence of such internal model is a necessary condition to conclude that BI is under model-based control. These findings relate a plethora of human and nonhuman observations on BI to reinforcement learning theory, and crucially constrain the quest for its neural implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Social Functioning in Youth with Anxiety Disorders: Association with Anxiety Severity and Outcomes from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipani, Cara A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer…

  15. Effect of olfactory manganese exposure on anxiety-related behavior in a mouse model of iron overload hemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Qi; Kim, Jonghan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese in excess promotes unstable emotional behavior. Our previous study showed that olfactory manganese uptake into the brain is altered in Hfe−/− mice, a model of iron overload hemochromatosis, suggesting that Hfe deficiency could modify the neurotoxicity of airborne manganese. We determined anxiety-related behavior and monoaminergic protein expression after repeated intranasal instillation of MnCl2 to Hfe−/− mice. Compared with manganese-instilled wild-type mice, Hfe−/− mice showed dec...

  16. The Effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Anxiety Reduction of First Normal Vaginal Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Imanparast

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Consequently the cognitive behavior therapy causes to decrease the anxiety with enduring effect at first normal vaginal delivery. Therefore, this treatment is proposed to reduce the anxiety of first delivery women.

  17. Inflammasome signaling affects anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and gut microbiome composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M-L; Inserra, A; Lewis, M D; Mastronardi, C A; Leong, L; Choo, J; Kentish, S; Xie, P; Morrison, M; Wesselingh, S L; Rogers, G B; Licinio, J

    2016-06-01

    The inflammasome is hypothesized to be a key mediator of the response to physiological and psychological stressors, and its dysregulation may be implicated in major depressive disorder. Inflammasome activation causes the maturation of caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, two proinflammatory cytokines involved in neuroimmunomodulation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In this study, C57BL/6 mice with genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 were screened for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and locomotion at baseline and after chronic stress. We found that genetic deficiency of caspase-1 decreased depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and conversely increased locomotor activity and skills. Caspase-1 deficiency also prevented the exacerbation of depressive-like behaviors following chronic stress. Furthermore, pharmacological caspase-1 antagonism with minocycline ameliorated stress-induced depressive-like behavior in wild-type mice. Interestingly, chronic stress or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 per se altered the fecal microbiome in a very similar manner. When stressed mice were treated with minocycline, the observed gut microbiota changes included increase in relative abundance of Akkermansia spp. and Blautia spp., which are compatible with beneficial effects of attenuated inflammation and rebalance of gut microbiota, respectively, and the increment in Lachnospiracea abundance was consistent with microbiota changes of caspase-1 deficiency. Our results suggest that the protective effect of caspase-1 inhibition involves the modulation of the relationship between stress and gut microbiota composition, and establishes the basis for a gut microbiota-inflammasome-brain axis, whereby the gut microbiota via inflammasome signaling modulate pathways that will alter brain function, and affect depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Our data also suggest that further elucidation of the gut microbiota

  18. Inflammasome signaling affects anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and gut microbiome composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M-L; Inserra, A; Lewis, M D; Mastronardi, C A; Leong, L; Choo, J; Kentish, S; Xie, P; Morrison, M; Wesselingh, S L; Rogers, G B; Licinio, J

    2016-01-01

    The inflammasome is hypothesized to be a key mediator of the response to physiological and psychological stressors, and its dysregulation may be implicated in major depressive disorder. Inflammasome activation causes the maturation of caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, two proinflammatory cytokines involved in neuroimmunomodulation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In this study, C57BL/6 mice with genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 were screened for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and locomotion at baseline and after chronic stress. We found that genetic deficiency of caspase-1 decreased depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and conversely increased locomotor activity and skills. Caspase-1 deficiency also prevented the exacerbation of depressive-like behaviors following chronic stress. Furthermore, pharmacological caspase-1 antagonism with minocycline ameliorated stress-induced depressive-like behavior in wild-type mice. Interestingly, chronic stress or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 per se altered the fecal microbiome in a very similar manner. When stressed mice were treated with minocycline, the observed gut microbiota changes included increase in relative abundance of Akkermansia spp. and Blautia spp., which are compatible with beneficial effects of attenuated inflammation and rebalance of gut microbiota, respectively, and the increment in Lachnospiracea abundance was consistent with microbiota changes of caspase-1 deficiency. Our results suggest that the protective effect of caspase-1 inhibition involves the modulation of the relationship between stress and gut microbiota composition, and establishes the basis for a gut microbiota–inflammasome–brain axis, whereby the gut microbiota via inflammasome signaling modulate pathways that will alter brain function, and affect depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Our data also suggest that further elucidation of the gut microbiota

  19. CO2-induced ocean acidification increases anxiety in rockfish via alteration of GABAA receptor functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Holcombe, Adam; Tresguerres, Martin

    2014-01-22

    The average surface pH of the ocean is dropping at a rapid rate due to the dissolution of anthropogenic CO2, raising concerns for marine life. Additionally, some coastal areas periodically experience upwelling of CO2-enriched water with reduced pH. Previous research has demonstrated ocean acidification (OA)-induced changes in behavioural and sensory systems including olfaction, which is due to altered function of neural gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. Here, we used a camera-based tracking software system to examine whether OA-dependent changes in GABAA receptors affect anxiety in juvenile Californian rockfish (Sebastes diploproa). Anxiety was estimated using behavioural tests that measure light/dark preference (scototaxis) and proximity to an object. After one week in OA conditions projected for the next century in the California shore (1125 ± 100 µatm, pH 7.75), anxiety was significantly increased relative to controls (483 ± 40 µatm CO2, pH 8.1). The GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol, but not the antagonist gabazine, caused a significant increase in anxiety consistent with altered Cl(-) flux in OA-exposed fish. OA-exposed fish remained more anxious even after 7 days back in control seawater; however, they resumed their normal behaviour by day 12. These results show that OA could severely alter rockfish behaviour; however, this effect is reversible.

  20. The interaction of disrupted type II neuregulin 1 and chronic adolescent stress on adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Taylor, A R; Koenig, J I

    2013-09-26

    The incidence of anxiety, mood, substance abuse disorders and schizophrenia increases during adolescence. Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to stress during sensitive periods of development can create vulnerabilities that put genetically predisposed individuals at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a frequently identified schizophrenia susceptibility gene that has also been associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder. Previously, we established that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neurocircuitry. We also found, using a line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)), that genetic disruption of Type II NRG1 results in altered HPA axis function and environmental reactivity. The present studies used the Nrg1(Tn) rats to test whether Type II NRG1 gene disruption and chronic stress exposure during adolescence interact to alter adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Male and female Nrg1(Tn) and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during mid-adolescence and then tested for anxiety-like behavior, cued fear conditioning and basal corticosterone secretion in adulthood. The disruption of Type II NRG1 alone significantly impacts rat anxiety-related behavior by reversing normal sex-related differences and impairs the ability to acquire cued fear conditioning. Sex-specific interactions between genotype and adolescent stress also were identified such that CVS-treated wild-type females exhibited a slight reduction in anxiety-like behavior and basal corticosterone, while CVS-treated Nrg1(Tn) females exhibited a significant increase in cued fear extinction. These studies confirm the importance of Type II NRG1 in anxiety and fear behaviors and point to adolescence as a time when stressful experiences can shape adult behavior and HPA axis function.

  1. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Yu-Min; Cheng, Jen-Wen; Liu, Tai-Ling; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Pinchen; Chou, Wen-Jiun

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this intervention study were to examine the effects of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) based on the modified Coping Cat Program on improving anxiety symptoms and behavioral problems in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and parenting stress perceived by their mothers. A total of 24 children with anxiety disorders in the treatment group completed the 17-session individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program, and 26 children in the control group received the treatment as usual intervention. The Taiwanese version of the MASC (MASC-T), the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) and the Chinese version of the Parenting Stress Index (C-PSI) were applied to assess the severities of anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress, respectively. The effects of CBT on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress were examined by using linear mixed-effect model with maximum likelihood estimation. The results indicated that the CBT significantly improved the severities of MASC-T Physical Symptoms and Social Anxiety subscales, CBCL/6-18 DSM-oriented Anxiety Problem subscale, and C-PSI Child domains Mood and Adaptability subscales. Individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program can potentially improve anxiety symptoms in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and some child domains of parenting stress perceived by their mothers.

  2. Activin tunes GABAergic neurotransmission and modulates anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, F; Adelsberger, H; Müller, M R; Fritschy, J-M; Werner, S; Alzheimer, C

    2009-03-01

    Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, affords neuroprotection in acute brain injury, but its physiological functions in normal adult brain are largely unknown. Using transgenic (tg) mice expressing a dominant-negative activin receptor mutant under the control of the CaMKIIalpha promoter in forebrain neurons, we identified activin as a key regulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synapses and anxiety-like behavior. In the open field, wild-type (wt) and tg mice did not differ in spontaneous locomotion and exploration behavior. However, tg mice visited inner fields significantly more often than wt mice. In the light-dark exploration test, tg mice made more exits, spent significantly more time on a well-lit elevated bar and went farther away from the dark box as compared to wt mice. In addition, the anxiolytic effect of diazepam was abrogated in tg mice. Thus the disruption of activin receptor signaling produced a low-anxiety phenotype that failed to respond to benzodiazepines. In whole-cell recordings from hippocampal pyramidal cells, enhanced spontaneous GABA release, increased GABA tonus, reduced benzodiazepine sensitivity and augmented GABA(B) receptor function emerged as likely substrates of the low-anxiety phenotype. These data provide strong evidence that activin influences pre- and postsynaptic components of GABAergic synapses in a highly synergistic fashion. Given the crucial role of GABAergic neurotransmission in emotional states, anxiety and depression, dysfunctions of activin receptor signaling could be involved in affective disorders: and drugs affecting this pathway might show promise for psychopharmacological treatment.

  3. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Casey E; Newsom, Ryan J; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C; Spencer, Robert L; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2016-05-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood (P62) 7 days after removal of caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption enhanced anxiety-related behavior in an open field, social interaction test, and elevated plus maze. Similar caffeine consumption in adult rats did not alter anxiety-related behavior after caffeine removal. Characterization of neuroendocrine measures was next assessed to determine whether the changes in anxiety were associated with modifications in the HPA axis. Blood plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were assessed throughout the caffeine consumption procedure in adolescent rats. Adolescent caffeine consumption elevated plasma CORT 24h after initiation of caffeine consumption that normalized over the course of the 28-day consumption procedure. CORT levels were also elevated 24h after caffeine removal and remained elevated for 7 days. Despite elevated basal CORT in adult rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT response to placement on an elevated pedestal (a mild stressor) was significantly blunted. Lastly, we assessed changes in basal and stress-induced c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) mRNA expression in brain tissue collected at 7 days withdrawal from adolescent caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption increased basal c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adolescent caffeine consumption had no other effects on the basal or stress-induced c-fos mRNA changes. Caffeine consumption during adolescence increased

  4. Third trimester-equivalent ethanol exposure increases anxiety-like behavior and glutamatergic transmission in the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baculis, Brian C; Diaz, Marvin R; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2015-10-01

    Ethanol consumption during pregnancy produces a wide range of morphological and behavioral alterations known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Among the behavioral deficits associated with FASD is an increased probability of developing anxiety disorders. Studies with animal models of FASD have demonstrated that ethanol exposure during the equivalent to the 1(st) and 2(nd) trimesters of human pregnancy increases anxiety-like behavior. Here, we examined the impact on this type of behavior of exposure to high doses of ethanol in vapor inhalation chambers during the rat equivalent to the human 3rd trimester of pregnancy (i.e., neonatal period in these animals). We evaluated anxiety-like behavior with the elevated plus maze. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques in brain slices, we also characterized glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission in the basolateral amygdala, a brain region that has been implicated to play a role in emotional behavior. We found that ethanol-exposed adolescent offspring preferred the closed arms over the open arms in the elevated plus maze and displayed lower head dipping activity than controls. Electrophysiological measurements showed an increase in the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in pyramidal neurons from the ethanol group. These findings suggest that high-dose ethanol exposure during the equivalent to the last trimester of human pregnancy can persistently increase excitatory synaptic inputs to principal neurons in the basolateral amygdala, leading to an increase in anxiety-like behaviors.

  5. Altered Gray Matter Volume and School Age Anxiety in Children Born Late Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Barch, Deanna M; Sylvester, Chad M; Pagliaccio, David; Harms, Michael P; Botteron, Kelly N; Luby, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if late preterm (LP) children differ from full term (FT) children in volumes of the cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, or amygdala and whether these differences are associated with anxiety symptoms at school-age. Study design LP children born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation and FT children born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation from a larger longitudinal cohort had MRI scans at school-age. Brain volumes, cortical surface area and thickness measures were obtained. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview annually beginning at preschool-age and following the MRI. Results LP children (n=21) had a smaller percentage of total, right parietal, and right temporal lobe gray matter volume than FT children (n=87). There were no differences in hippocampal, callosal, or amygdala volumes or cortical thickness. LP children also had a relative decrease in right parietal lobe cortical surface area. LP children had greater anxiety symptoms over all assessments. The relationship between late prematurity and school-age anxiety symptoms was mediated by the relative decrease in right temporal lobe volume. Conclusion LP children, comprising 70% of preterm children, are also at increased risk for altered brain development particularly in the right temporal and parietal cortices. Alterations in the right temporal lobe cortical volume may underlie the increased rate of anxiety symptoms among these LP children. These findings suggest that LP delivery may disrupt temporal and parietal cortical development that persists until school-age with the right temporal lobe conferring risk for elevated anxiety symptoms. PMID:25108541

  6. Blood gene expression profiles suggest altered immune function associated with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Aliza P; Gibson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can impair immune function and increase risk for cardiovascular disease or events. Mechanisms underlying the physiological reverberations of anxiety, however, are still elusive. Hence, we aimed to investigate molecular processes mediating effects of anxiety on physical health using blood gene expression profiles of 336 community participants (157 anxious and 179 control). We examined genome-wide differential gene expression in anxiety, as well as associations between nine major modules of co-regulated transcripts in blood gene expression and anxiety. No significant differential expression was observed in women, but 631 genes were differentially expressed between anxious and control men at the false discovery rate of 0.1 after controlling for age, body mass index, race, and batch effect. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that genes with altered expression levels in anxious men were involved in response of various immune cells to vaccination and to acute viral and bacterial infection, and in a metabolic network affecting traits of metabolic syndrome. Further, we found one set of 260 co-regulated genes to be significantly associated with anxiety in men after controlling for the relevant covariates, and demonstrate its equivalence to a component of the stress-related conserved transcriptional response to adversity profile. Taken together, our results suggest potential molecular pathways that can explain negative effects of GAD observed in epidemiological studies. Remarkably, even mild anxiety, which most of our participants had, was associated with observable changes in immune-related gene expression levels. Our findings generate hypotheses and provide incremental insights into molecular mechanisms mediating negative physiological effects of GAD.

  7. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Hong

    Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  8. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia

    2015-02-01

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library's good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.

  9. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy, E-mail: p.alexopoulou@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: an-kotsopoulou@yahoo.com; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia, E-mail: p.alexopoulou@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: an-kotsopoulou@yahoo.com [City Unity College, Thiseos 15-17, Athens, 105 62 (Greece)

    2015-02-09

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library’s good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Behice ÖZTOP

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.

  11. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of Ox1r-/- mice showed implication of orexin receptor-1 in mood, anxiety and social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Golam Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological studies using selective antagonists have suggested that orexin receptor-1 (OX1R is involved in physiological processes that regulate emotion, the reward system and autonomic nervous system. Here, we examined Ox1r-/- mice with a comprehensive behavioral test battery to screen additional OX1R functions. Ox1r-/- mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, altered depression-like behavior, slightly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, reduced social interaction, increased startle response and decreased prepulse inhibition. These results suggest that OX1R plays roles in social behaviour and sensory motor gating in addition to roles in mood and anxiety.

  12. Maternal separation and lesion of adtn alters anxiety and adrenal activity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Bárbara Bárcena; Levin, Gloria; Rivarola, María Angélica; Suárez, Marta Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of early maternal separation on anxiety and hypophyso-adrenal system activity to anterodorsal thalamic nuclei (ADTN) lesion in male rats as adults in order to compare this with previous results with female rats. During the first 3 weeks of life, male rats were isolated 4.5 hr daily and tested as adults. Thirty days after ADTN lesion we found that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) plasma levels were affected neither by maternal separation nor by ADTN lesion. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration was increased with lesion of the ADTN in maternally separated rats. A significant increase in plasma catecholamine concentration was induced by early maternal separation. In ADTN-lesioned rats, plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration was significantly lower than in the respective sham-lesioned groups. In terms of anxiety, there were no significant effects of early experience. However, the ADTN lesion tended to decrease anxiety-related behavior.

  13. Fear Generalization and Anxiety: Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Paz, Rony

    2015-09-01

    Fear can be an adaptive emotion that helps defend against potential danger. Classical conditioning models elegantly describe how animals learn which stimuli in the environment signal danger, but understanding how this learning is generalized to other stimuli that resemble aspects of a learned threat remains a challenge. Critically, the overgeneralization of fear to harmless stimuli or situations is a burden to daily life and characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders. Here, we review emerging evidence on behavioral and neural mechanisms of generalization of emotional learning with the goal of encouraging further research on generalization in anxiety disorders. We begin by placing research on fear generalization in a rich historical context of stimulus generalization dating back to Pavlov, which lays the foundation for theoretical and experimental approaches used today. We then transition to contemporary behavioral and neurobiological research on generalization of emotional learning in humans and nonhuman animals and discuss the factors that promote generalization on the one hand from discrimination on the other hand.

  14. Neudesin is involved in anxiety behavior: structural and neurochemical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eNovais

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neudesin (also known as neuron derived neurotrophic factor, Nenf is a scarcely studied putative non-canonical neurotrophic factor. In order to understand its function in the brain, we performed an extensive behavioral characterization (motor, emotional and cognitive dimensions of neudesin-null mice. The absence of neudesin leads to an anxious-like behavior as assessed in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box and novelty suppressed feeding tests, but not in the acoustic startle test. This anxious phenotype is associated with reduced dopaminergic input and impoverished dendritic arborizations in the dentate gyrus granule neurons of the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, shorter dendrites are also observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST of neudesin-null mice. These findings lead us to suggest that neudesin is a novel relevant player in the maintenance of the anxiety circuitry.

  15. Study of neurometabolic and behavioral alterations in rodent model of mild traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Trivedi, Richa; Haridas, Seenu; Manda, Kailash; Khushu, Subash

    2016-12-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common form of TBI (70-90%) with consequences of anxiety-like behavioral alterations in approximately 23% of mTBI cases. This study aimed to assess whether mTBI-induced anxiety-like behavior is a consequence of neurometabolic alterations. mTBI was induced using a weight drop model to simulate mild human brain injury in rodents. Based on injury induction and dosage of anesthesia, four animal groups were included in this study: (i) injury with anesthesia (IA); (ii) sham1 (injury only, IO); (iii) sham2 (only anesthesia, OA); and (iv) control rats. After mTBI, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) and neurobehavioral analysis were performed in these groups. At day 5, reduced taurine (Tau)/total creatine (tCr, creatine and phosphocreatine) levels in cortex were observed in the IA and IO groups relative to the control. These groups showed mTBI-induced anxiety-like behavior with normal cognition at day 5 post-injury. An anxiogenic effect of repeated dosage of anesthesia in OA rats was observed with normal Tau/tCr levels in rat cortex, which requires further examination. In conclusion, this mTBI model closely mimics human concussion injury with anxiety-like behavior and normal cognition. Reduced cortical Tau levels may provide a putative neurometabolic basis of anxiety-like behavior following mTBI.

  16. Genetical Genomics of Behavior: A Novel Chicken Genomic Model for Anxiety Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Martin; Williams, Michael J; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    The identification of genetic variants responsible for behavioral variation is an enduring goal in biology, with wide-scale ramifications, ranging from medical research to evolutionary theory on personality syndromes. Here, we use for the first time a large-scale genetical genomics analysis in the brains of chickens to identify genes affecting anxiety as measured by an open field test. We combine quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis in 572 individuals and expression QTL (eQTL) analysis in 129 individuals from an advanced intercross between domestic chickens and Red Junglefowl. We identify 10 putative quantitative trait genes affecting anxiety behavior. These genes were tested for an association in the mouse Heterogeneous Stock anxiety (open field) data set and human GWAS data sets for bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. Although comparisons between species are complex, associations were observed for four of the candidate genes in mice and three of the candidate genes in humans. Using a multimodel approach we have therefore identified a number of putative quantitative trait genes affecting anxiety behavior, principally in chickens but also with some potentially translational effects as well. This study demonstrates that chickens are an excellent model organism for the genetic dissection of behavior.

  17. Transgenerational effects of 17α-ethinyl estradiol on anxiety behavior in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Porseryd, Tove; Hallgren, Stefan; Dinnetz, Patrik; Olsén, Håkan; Porsch Hällström, Inger

    2015-11-01

    Environmental contaminants can cause alterations that can be transgenerationally transmitted to subsequent generations. Estrogens are among those contaminants shown to induce heritable changes that persist over generations in mammals. Results in other vertebrates are few. We have analyzed the effects on anxiety of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in the F1 and F2 generations in guppies, Poecilia reticulata, obtained from F0 fish maternally exposed to 0 or 20ng/L EE2 until birth. F0 males and females were bred with fish of the same treatment but different families producing F1 offspring. Behavior in the novel tank test at 6months revealed that males with EE2-exposed parents had significantly longer latency to the upper half of the tank than control males, while no EE2 effects were observed in females. Also in F2, obtained from F1 as above, males in the EE2 group had longer latency time compared to control males, with no differences due to EE2-exposure of F0 observed in females. In the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test, latency to first transition to black compartment and total transitions to black were significantly altered in females due to EE2 exposure of F0 while the total time in black was higher in males with EE2-exposed F0 compared with controls. The increased anxiety in the F2 generation demonstrates a transgenerational anxiety phenotype and shows that non-reproductive behavior can be transgenerationally modified by estrogens in fish.

  18. Cognitive-behavioral group treatment for perinatal anxiety: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sheryl M; Haber, Erika; Frey, Benicio N; McCabe, Randi E

    2015-08-01

    Along with physical and biological changes, a tremendous amount of upheaval and adjustment accompany the pregnancy and postpartum period of a woman's life that together can often result in what is commonly known as postpartum depression. However, anxiety disorders have been found to be more frequent than depression during pregnancy and at least as common, if not more so, during the postpartum period, e.g., Brockington et al., (Archieves Women's Ment Health 9:253-263, 2006; Wenzel et al. (J Anxiety Disord, 19:295-311, 2005). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established psychological treatment of choice for anxiety; however, few studies have specifically examined a cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting perinatal anxiety. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group treatment (CBGT) program specifically tailored to address perinatal anxiety in 10 women who were either pregnant or within 12 months postpartum. Participants were recruited from a women's clinic at an academic hospital setting, with anxiety identified as their principal focus of distress. Following a diagnostic interview confirming a primary anxiety disorder and completion of assessment measures, participants completed a 6-week CBGT program. There was a statistically significant reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following the CBGT program (all p treatment for addressing their perinatal anxiety. These findings suggest that CBGT for perinatal anxiety is a promising treatment for both anxiety and depressive symptoms experienced during the perinatal period. Further studies are needed to evaluate the treatment efficacy through larger controlled trials.

  19. Anterior olfactory organ removal produces anxiety-like behavior and increases spontaneous neuronal firing rate in basal amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Carlos M; Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Molina-Jiménez, Tania

    2013-09-01

    Some chemical cues may produce signs of anxiety and fear mediated by amygdala nuclei, but unknown is the role of two anterior olfactory epithelial organs, the septal and vomeronasal organs (SO-VNOs). The effects of SO-VNO removal were explored in different groups of Wistar rats using two complementary approaches: (i) the assessment of neuronal firing rate in basal and medial amygdala nuclei and (ii) behavioral testing. Fourteen days after SO-VNO removal, spontaneous activity in basal and medial amygdala nuclei in one group was determined using single-unit extracellular recordings. A separate group of rats was tested in the elevated plus maze, social interaction test, and open field test. Compared with sham-operated and intact control rats, SO-VNO removal produced a higher neuronal firing rate in the basal amygdala but not medial amygdala. In the behavioral tests, SO-VNO removal increased signs of anxiety in the elevated plus maze, did not alter locomotion, and increased self-directed behavior, reflecting anxiety-like behavior. Histological analysis showed neuronal destruction in the accessory olfactory bulb but not anterior olfactory nucleus in the SO-VNO group. The present results suggest the participation of SO-VNO/accessory olfactory bulb/basal amygdala relationships in the regulation of anxiety through a process of disinhibition.

  20. Behavioral Inhibition and Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Inhibitory Control and Attention Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament identified in early childhood, is associated with social reticence in childhood and an increased risk for anxiety problems in adolescence and adulthood. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children remain reticent or develop an anxiety disorder. One possible mechanism accounting for the variability in…

  1. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children with ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Nicholas, Jude; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children…

  2. IL-1 receptor-antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout mice show anxiety-like behavior by aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Chisato; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Odaka, Haruki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Kiyama, Yuji; Manabe, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2015-07-10

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays a critical role in stress responses, and its mRNA is induced in the brain by restraint stress. Previously, we reported that IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout (KO) mice, which lacked IL-1Ra molecules that antagonize the IL-1 receptor, showed anti-depression-like behavior via adrenergic modulation at the age of 8 weeks. Here, we report that IL-1Ra KO mice display an anxiety-like phenotype that is induced spontaneously by aging in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. This anxiety-like phenotype was improved by the administration of diazepam. The expression of the anxiety-related molecule glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was significantly reduced in 20-week-old but not in 11-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. The expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was not altered between IL-1Ra KO mice and WT littermates at either 11 or 20 weeks old. Analysis of monoamine concentration in the hippocampus revealed that tryptophan, the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly increased in 20-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to littermate WT mice. These findings strongly suggest that the anxiety-like behavior observed in older mice was caused by the complicated alteration of monoamine metabolism and/or GR expression in the hippocampus.

  3. Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-09-01

    Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes.

  4. Amygdalar orexinergic-GABAergic interactions regulate anxiety behaviors of the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Ennio; Alò, Raffaella; Carelli, Antonio; Canonaco, Marcello

    2011-04-15

    At present neurobiological interests are directing more attention towards the major role of the amygdalar GABA(A) receptor on orexin-dependent behaviors. This telencephalic region has been widely studied especially in view of its control on various psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Recently, cross-talking relationships between these two specific neuroreceptor systems of the central-cortical amygdalar complex has been considered an important element for anxiety type of behaviors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of central amygdalar infusions with orexin-A, orexin-B±GABA(A) receptor α₂ subunit agonist (flunitrazepam) on elevated plus-maze and light-dark explorative behaviors of the facultative hibernating Syrian hamster. In a first case, it seemed that doses of orexin administered directly into the central nucleus were responsible for greater anxiogenic type of effects as shown by more time being spent both in the dark compartment and the closed arm of the elevated plus-maze, whereas, these effects were suppressed in the presence of flunitrazepam. At the cellular level, the effects of orexin accounted for evident argyrophilic reactions (neurodegeneration phenomena) including altered cell membrane and loss of cytoplasmic architecture in most amygdalar and hippocampal neuronal fields, while in the presence of flunitrazepam these reactions resulted to either be unappreciable or absent. Overall the actions of α₂-dependent inhibitory signals tend to corroborate, for the first time, a neuroprotective role against the over-excitatory orexinergic neurodegeneration reactions and thus its abnormal anxiety-like indications may prove to be therapeutically useful for orexin-dependent sleeping disorders.

  5. Decreased daytime illumination leads to anxiety-like behaviors and HPA axis dysregulation in the diurnal grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Tomoko; Deats, Sean P; Soler, Joel; Lonstein, Joseph S; Yan, Lily

    2016-03-01

    The impact of ambient light on mood and anxiety is best exemplified in seasonal affective disorder, in which patients experience depression and anxiety in winter when there is less light in the environment. However, the brain mechanisms underlying light-dependent changes in affective state remain unclear. Our previous work revealed increased depression-like behaviors in the diurnal Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) housed in a dim light-dark (dim-LD) cycle as compared to the controls housed in a bright light-dark (bright-LD) condition. As depression is often comorbid with anxiety and is associated with dysregulation of the body's stress response system, the present study examined the anxiety-like behaviors as well as indicators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in the grass rats. Animals housed in dim-LD showed increased anxiety-like behaviors compared to bright-LD controls, as revealed by fewer entries and less time spent at the center in the open field test and more marbles buried during the marble-burying test. Following the marble-burying test, dim-LD animals showed higher plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels and hippocampal Fos expression. Although the daily CORT rhythm was comparable between bright-LD and dim-LD groups, the day/night variation of corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus was diminished in dim-LD animals. In addition, glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA expression were higher in the hippocampus of dim-LD animals. The results suggest that in diurnal species, reduced daytime illumination can lead to increased anxiety-like behaviors and altered HPA axis functioning, providing insights into the link between decreased environmental illumination and negative emotion.

  6. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children With ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children with a "pure" ADHD (n = 23), a "pure" anxiety (n = 24) and a group without any diagnosis (n = 104) in a 2 (ADHD vs. no ADHD) x 2 (anxiety vs. no anxiety) design. Results: The children with ADHD and anxiety disorder scored significantly higher on the Inhibit...... scale than children within the other three groups. Main effects of diagnosis appeared in ADHD children on the Inhibit, Emotional Control, and Working Memory scales, and on the Shift and Emotional Control scales in anxious children. Conclusion: The results indicate that a behavioral dysregulation in ADHD...

  7. Abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yun-Fang; Song, Ning-Ning; Mao, Rong-Rong; Li, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Han, Hui-Li; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of central serotonin (5-HT) system has been proposed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for anxiety and depression, and the association of diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders has been noticed by the high prevalence of anxiety/depression in patients with diabetes mellitus. This promoted us to examine these behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice and those also suffering with diabetes mellitus. Mice lacking either 5-HT or central serotonergic neurons were generated by conditional deletion of Tph2 or Lmx1b respectively. Simultaneous depletion of both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) in Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DT receptor (DTR) mice. The central 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced anxiety-like behaviors as they spent more time in and entered more often into the light box in the light/dark box test compared with controls; similar results were observed in the elevated plus maze test. However, they displayed no differences in the immobility time of the forced swimming and tail suspension tests suggesting normal depression-like behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice. As expected, DT-treated Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DTR mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet endocrine cells exhibited several classic diabetic symptoms. Interestingly, they displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors but reduced immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Furthermore, the hippocampal neurogenesis was dramatically enhanced in these mice. These results suggest that the deficiency of central 5-HT may not be sufficient to induce anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice, and the enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to the altered depression-like behaviors in the 5-HT-deficient mice with diabetes. Our current investigation provides understanding the relationship between diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders.

  8. Abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Fang eJia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of central serotonin (5-HT system has been proposed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for anxiety and depression, and the association of diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders has been noticed by the high prevalence of anxiety/depression in patients with diabetes mellitus. This promoted us to examine these behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice and those also suffering with diabetes mellitus. Mice lacking either 5-HT or central serotonergic neurons were generated by conditional deletion of Tph2 or Lmx1b respectively. Simultaneous depletion of both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT in Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DT receptor (DTR mice. The central 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced anxiety-like behaviors as they spent more time in and entered more often into the light box in the light/dark box test compared with controls; similar results were observed in the elevated plus maze test. However, they displayed no differences in the immobility time of the forced swimming and tail suspension tests suggesting normal depression-like behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice. As expected, DT-treated Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DTR mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet endocrine cells exhibited several classic diabetic symptoms. Interestingly, they displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors but reduced immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Furthermore, the hippocampal neurogenesis was dramatically enhanced in these mice. These results suggest that the deficiency of central 5-HT may not be sufficient to induce anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice, and the enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to the altered depression-like behaviors in the 5-HT-deficient mice with diabetes. Our current investigation provides a novel insight into understanding the relationship between diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders.

  9. The role of taurine on anxiety-like behaviors in zebrafish: A comparative study using the novel tank and the light-dark tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Nathana J; Silveira, Ariane; Giuliani, Giulie S; Quadros, Vanessa A; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2016-02-01

    Taurine (TAU) is an amino sulfonic acid with several functions in central nervous system. Mounting evidence suggests that it acts in osmoregulation, neuromodulation and also as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. However, the effects of TAU on behavioral functions, especially on anxiety-related parameters, are limited. The adult zebrafish is a suitable model organism to examine anxiety-like behaviors since it presents neurotransmitter systems and behavioral functions evolutionary conserved. Anxiety in zebrafish can be measured by different tasks, analyzing the habituation to novelty, as well as the response to brightly lit environments. The aim of this study was to investigate whether acute TAU treatment alters anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish using the novel tank and the light-dark tests. Fish were individually treated with TAU (42, 150, and 400mg/L) for 1h and the behaviors were further analyzed for 6min in the novel tank or in the light-dark test. Control fish were handled in a similar manner, but kept only in home tank water. Although TAU did not alter locomotor and vertical activities, all concentrations significantly increased shuttling and time spent in lit compartment. Moreover, TAU 150 group showed a significant decrease in the number of risk assessment episodes. Overall, these data suggest that TAU exerts an anxiolytic-like effect in zebrafish and the comparative analysis of behavior using different tasks is an interesting strategy for neuropsychiatric studies related to anxiety in this species.

  10. Daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa: associations with eating disorder behaviors in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; De Young, Kyle P; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    The role of anxiety has been emphasized in etiological/maintenance models of anorexia nervosa. This study identified daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa and examined the likelihood of the occurrence of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, the daily temporal distribution of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, and the extent to which the tendency to exhibit particular anxiety trajectories was associated with baseline diagnostic and trait-level personality variables. Women with full or subthreshold anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol during which they reported on a variety of behavioral and affective variables, including anxiety and eating disorder behaviors. Using latent growth mixture modeling to classify EMA days (N = 1,526) based on anxiety ratings, we identified 7 distinct daily anxiety trajectories. Overall differences between trajectories were found for rates of binge eating, self-induced vomiting, body checking, skipping meals, and dietary restriction. Furthermore, distinct daily temporal distributions of eating disorder behaviors were found across the trajectories, with peaks in the probability of behaviors frequently coinciding with high levels of anxiety. Finally, traits of personality pathology (affective lability, self-harm, social avoidance, and oppositionality) and the presence of a co-occurring mood disorder were found to be associated with the tendency to experience particular daily anxiety trajectories (e.g., stable high anxiety). Findings support the presence of within-person variability in daily anxiety patterns in anorexia nervosa and also provide evidence for an association between these anxiety patterns and eating disorder behaviors.

  11. Evaluation of heat hyperalgesia and anxiety like-behaviors in a rat model of orofacial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambeta, Eder; Kopruszinski, Caroline Machado; Dos Reis, Renata Cristiane; Zanoveli, Janaina Menezes; Chichorro, Juliana Geremias

    2016-04-21

    Pain and anxiety are commonly experienced by cancer patients and both significantly impair their quality of life. Some authors claim that there is a relationship between pain and anxiety, while others suggest that there is not a direct association. In any case, there is indeed a consensus that anxiety impairs the pain condition beyond be under diagnosed and undertreated in cancer pain patients. Herein we investigated if rats presenting heat hyperalgesia induced by orofacial cancer cell inoculation would display anxiety-like behaviors. In addition, we evaluated if pain blockade would result in alleviation of anxiety behaviors, as well as, if blockade of anxiety would result in pain relief. Orofacial cancer was induced in male Wistar rats by inoculation of Walker-256 cells into the right vibrissal pad. Heat facial hyperalgesia was assessed on day 6 after the inoculation, and on this time point rats were submitted to the elevated plus maze and the light-dark transition tests. The influence of lidocaine and midazolam on heat hyperalgesia and anxiety-like behaviors was assessed. The peak of facial heat hyperalgesia was detected 6 days after cancer cells inoculation, and at this time point, rats exhibited increased anxiety-like behaviors. Local treatment with lidocaine (2%/50μL) caused a marked reduction of heat hyperalgesia, but failed to affect the anxiety-like behaviors, while midazolam (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) treatment failed to change the heat threshold, but induced an anxiolytic-like effect. Altogether, our data demonstrated that rats with orofacial cancer present pain- and anxiety-like behaviors, but brief heat hyperalgesia relief does not affect the anxiety-like behaviors, and vice-versa, in our experimental conditions.

  12. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; van Brakel, Anna M L; Arntz, Arnoud; Schouten, Erik

    2011-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control children, were followed during a 3-year period. Assessments took place on three occasions to measure children's level of behavioral inhibition, anxiety disorder symptoms, other psychopathological symptoms, and a number of other vulnerability factors such as insecure attachment, negative parenting styles, adverse life events, and parental anxiety. Results obtained with Structural Equation Modeling indicated that behavioral inhibition primarily acted as a specific risk factor for the development of social anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, the longitudinal model showed additive as well as interactive effects for various vulnerability factors on the development of anxiety symptoms. That is, main effects of anxious rearing and parental trait anxiety were found, whereas behavioral inhibition and attachment had an interactive effect on anxiety symptomatology. Moreover, behavioral inhibition itself was also influenced by some of the vulnerability factors. These results provide support for dynamic, multifactorial models for the etiology of child anxiety problems.

  13. An EJC factor RBM8a regulates anxiety behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachkar, A; Jiang, D; Harrison, M; Zhou, Y; Chen, G; Mao, Y

    2013-07-01

    Neuroplasticity depends on the precise timing of gene expression, which requires accurate control of mRNA stability and rapid elimination of abnormal mRNA. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is an RNA surveillance mechanism that ensures the speedy degradation of mRNAs carrying premature termination codons (PTCs). This mechanism relies on several key Exon Junction Complex (EJC) factors to distinguish PTCs from normal stop codons. NMD degrades not only aberrant transcripts carrying PTCs, but also normal transcripts harboring a normal stop codon [1]. Intriguingly, mutations in an NMD factor, Upf3b, have been found in patients with autism [2, 3]. A binding partner of Upf3b, RBM8a, is located in the 1q21.1 copy-number variation (CNV) associated with mental retardation, autism [4], schizophrenia [5], and microcephaly [6]. However, the functions of EJC factors and their roles in behavioral regulation are still elusive. RBM8a protein is a core component of the EJC that plays an important role in NMD. Recent genetic study indicated that RBM8a gain-of-function significantly associated with intellectual disability [7]. In this study we investigated the effect of RBM8a overexpression on affective behaviors in mice. Lentivirus expressing RBM8a was infused into the hippocampus of adult mice to conduct behavioral studies including social interaction, open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Our results showed that overexpression of RBM8a in the mouse dentate gyrus (DG) leads to increased anxiety-like behavior, abnormal social interaction and decreased immobile time in forced swimming test (FST). To examine the underlying mechanism, we found that overexpressing RBM8a in cultured primary neurons lead to significant higher frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). To explore the underlying mechanism of RBM8a mediated behavioral changes, RNA-immunoprecipitation (RNA-IP) detected that RBM8a binds to CaMK2, GluR1 and Egr1 mRNA, suggesting that

  14. Functional and morphological alterations associated with working memory dysfunction in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-03-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been related to functional brain activities and structural brain abnormalities. Purpose To investigate the neural mechanism on working memory dysfunction in patients with GAD in terms of the combined functional and morphological brain abnormalities. Material and Methods Patients with GAD and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted (T1W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI). In this study, fMRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used for assessing the differential brain activation patterns, as well as for comparing the morphological alterations between the two groups. Results In response to the neutral distractors, the patients showed significantly lower activities in the regions of the fusiform gyrus (FuG), superior parietal gyrus (SPG), precuneus (PCu), superior occipital gyrus (SOG), lingual gyrus (LiG), cuneus (Cun), calcarine cortex (CaC), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and cerebellar cortex (Cb) compared to the controls. In response to the anxiety-inducing distractors, the patients showed significantly higher activity in the hippocampus and lower activities in the regions of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), FuG, SPG, PCu, SOG, and Cb. Also, the patients showed a significant reduction of the white matter volumes in the DLPFC, anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) and midbrain. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence for the association between the morphometric alterations and functional deficit in the working memory processing with the neutral and anxiety-inducing distractors in GAD patients. These findings would be helpful to understand the neural mechanisms on working memory impairment in connection with GAD symptoms.

  15. Environmental enrichment increases doublecortin-associated new neurons and decreases neuronal death without modifying anxiety-like behavior in mice chronically exposed to toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez-Martinez, Nayeli; Flores-Serrano, Zoraida; Ortiz-Lopez, Leonardo; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    Toluene misuse is a health problem worldwide with broad effects at the level of the central nervous system; however, therapeutic alternatives for inhalant abusers are limited. Chronic use of volatile substances is associated with different neurological and cognitive alterations, being anxiety a psychiatric condition with high prevalence. At cellular level toluene reduces neurogenesis and induces neuronal death. On the other hand, environmental enrichment has demonstrated to produce positive effects at behavioral and neuronal levels. Thus, the aim of the present work was to model alterations occasioned after repeated exposure to toluene (anxiety, reduction in neurogenesis - measured as doublecortin-labeled cells - and neuronal death). Subsequently, the influence of environmental enrichment on these effects was evaluated. Adolescent mice were exposed to toluene vapors from 1 to 4 weeks. Effects on anxiety were evaluated with the burying behavior test, whereas neurogenesis and hippocampal cell death were analyzed with immunohistochemistry, using anti-doublecortin or anti-active-Caspase-3 antibodies, respectively. Results showed that chronic toluene exposure increased anxiety in the burying behavior test; additionally, toluene decreased neurogenesis and enhanced neuronal death. Environmental enrichment (EE) enhanced the anxiety like response in air-exposed mice but did not modify the toluene anxiety response. Additionally, EE enhanced neurogenesis in toluene-pretreated animals at the same level to that found in animals unexposed to toluene and decreased neuronal death. Overall, the present study showed that environmental enrichment positively impacts some effects produced by repeated exposure to toluene.

  16. A prospective study of anxiety in ICD patients with a pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with moderate to severe anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qintar, Mohammed; George, Jason J; Panko, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Stress and anxiety are potential consequences from arrhythmias and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks that can contribute to substantial morbidity. We assessed anxiety associated with an ICD and whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) reduces anxiety. METHODS: The stu......Trials.gov identifier: NCT00851071. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00851071?term=anxiety+in+icd+patients+cleveland+clinic&rank=1....

  17. Central nervous system-specific knockout of steroidogenic factor 1 results in increased anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Kim, Ki Woo; Ikeda, Yayoi; Anderson, Kimberly K; Beck, Laurel; Chase, Stephanie; Tobet, Stuart A; Parker, Keith L

    2008-06-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) plays key roles in adrenal and gonadal development, expression of pituitary gonadotropins, and development of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH). If kept alive by adrenal transplants, global knockout (KO) mice lacking SF-1 exhibit delayed-onset obesity and decreased locomotor activity. To define specific roles of SF-1 in the VMH, we used the Cre-loxP system to inactivate SF-1 in a central nervous system (CNS)-specific manner. These mice largely recapitulated the VMH structural defect seen in mice lacking SF-1 in all tissues. In multiple behavioral tests, mice with CNS-specific KO of SF-1 had significantly more anxiety-like behavior than wild-type littermates. The CNS-specific SF-1 KO mice had diminished expression or altered distribution in the mediobasal hypothalamus of several genes whose expression has been linked to stress and anxiety-like behavior, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the type 2 receptor for CRH (Crhr2), and Ucn 3. Moreover, transfection and EMSAs support a direct role of SF-1 in Crhr2 regulation. These findings reveal important roles of SF-1 in the hypothalamic expression of key regulators of anxiety-like behavior, providing a plausible molecular basis for the behavioral effect of CNS-specific KO of this nuclear receptor.

  18. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Long-Term Effects on Anxiety and Secondary Disorders in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Lissette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Kurtines, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study's aim was to examine the long-term effects (8 to 13 years post-treatment; M = 9.83 years; SD = 1.71) of the most widely used treatment approaches of exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (i.e., group treatment and two variants of individual…

  19. Effect of behavioral intervention using smartphone application for preoperative anxiety in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Jung, Han-Kil; Lee, Gang-geun; Kim, Han-Young; Park, Sun-Gyoo; Woo, Seong-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Background Children and parents experience significant anxiety and distress during the preoperative period. This is important because preoperative anxiety in children is associated with adverse postoperative outcome. So we suggest behaviorally oriented preoperative anxiety intervention program based on the anesthesia and psychology with smartphone application, world-widely used. Methods A total 120 patients (aged 1-10 years old) who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia...

  20. The Effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Anxiety Reduction of First Normal Vaginal Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    R Imanparast; H Bermas; S.Danesh; Z Ajoudani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety has an impressive effect on normal vaginal delivery. Since no study has been conducted in this regard, this research is designed to determine the effect of cognitive behavior therapy on the reduction of anxiety at first normal vaginal delivery. Methods: A semi-experimental study was carried out on 40 nulliparous women with six months age of pregnancy and without abortion and infertility background. After the completion of testimonial, the rate of anxiety was evaluated...

  1. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muris, Peter; Brakel, Anna; Arntz, Arnoud; Schouten, Erik

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control children, were followed during a 3-year period. Assessments took place on three occasions to measure children's level of behavioral inhibition, anxiety disorder symptoms, other psychopathological symptoms...

  2. Behavior modification and pharmacotherapy for separation anxiety in a 2-year-old pointer cross

    OpenAIRE

    Lem, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Separation anxiety is a common behavioral problem in dogs. Treatment is based on developing a behavior modification protocol that gradually desensitizes and counter-conditions the dog to being left alone, by rewarding calm, relaxed behavior. Judicious use of pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunct to a behavior modification program.

  3. Behavior modification and pharmacotherapy for separation anxiety in a 2-year-old pointer cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Michelle

    2002-03-01

    Separation anxiety is a common behavioral problem in dogs. Treatment is based on developing a behavior modification protocol that gradually desensitizes and counter-conditions the dog to being left alone, by rewarding calm, relaxed behavior. Judicious use of pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunct to a behavior modification program.

  4. Effects of attachment and rearing behavior on anxiety in normal developing youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Modification Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…

  6. An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that experiential avoidance may play an important role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; see Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S.M. (2002). "Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models." "Clinical…

  7. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions for reducing anxiety sensitivity: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Berry, A.C.; Tart, C.D.; Powers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    The present study meta-analytically reviewed the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) vs. control conditions in the reduction of anxiety sensitivity. A computerized search was conducted to indentify CBT outcome studies that included the Anxiety Sensitivity Index as a dependent variable. Of

  8. Behavioral Relaxation Training for Parkinson's Disease Related Dyskinesia and Comorbid Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of brief Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT) on anxiety and dyskinesia of a 57-year-old female, with an 11-year history of Parkinson's disease (PD) and 18-months post-deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, were evaluated. Multiple process and outcome measures were used including the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS),…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety and Phobic Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of cognitive-behavioural strategies used in the treatment of child-anxiety problems, emphasizing the need for exposure and caregiver involvement. Most of the paper focuses on developments in empirically supported cognitive-behavioral intervention protocols for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  10. Computer-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Muniya S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of Camp Cope-A-Lot (CCAL), a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in youth. Method: Children (49; 33 males) ages 7-13 (M = 10.1 [plus or minus] 1.6; 83.7% Caucasian, 14.2% African American, 2% Hispanic) with a principal anxiety disorder were…

  11. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  12. The Coronary-Prone Behavior Pattern and Trait Anxiety: Evidence for Discriminant Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Warren R.; Dobson, Keith S.

    1980-01-01

    Supports the discriminant validity of the Coronary-Prone Behavior Pattern, as assessed by the Jenkins Activity Survey, in relation to trait anxiety. Future research should include measures of trait anxiety to collaborate findings in a laboratory setting. (Author/JAC)

  13. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Anxiety Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  14. Histopathological Analysis from Gallic Acid Administration on Hippocampal Cell Density, Depression, and Anxiety Related Behaviors in A Trimethyltin Intoxication Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Moghadas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated the effects of gallic acid (GA administration on trimethyltin chloride (TMT induced anxiety, depression, and hippocampal neurodegeneration in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the rats received intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of TMT (8 mg/kg. The animals received either GA (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg or saline as the vehicle for 14 consecutive days. We measured depression and anxiety levels of the rats by conducting the behavioral tail suspension (TST, elevatedplusmaze (EPM, and novelty suppressed feeding (NSF tests. Histological analyses were then used to determine the cell densities of different hippocampal subdivisions. The data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: GA administration ameliorated anxiety and depression in the behavioral tests. The cell densities in the CA1, CA2, CA3 and DG hippocampal subdivisionsfrom GA-treated rats were higher than saline treated rats. Conclusion: GA treatment against TMT-induced hippocampal degeneration altered cellular loss in the hippocampus and ameliorated the depression-anxiety state in rats.

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Late-Life Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenstein, Ethan E.; Papp, Lazlo A.

    In the absence of data, pharmacotherapy with benzodiazepines has become the mainstay of anxiety management in the elderly population. However, the use of benzodiazepines in the elderly has many problems. Elderly persons are more sensitive to anti-anxiety medications and are subject to a variety of increased risks, including cognitive impairment,…

  16. Fluoxetine treatment reverses the intergenerational impact of maternal separation on fear and anxiety behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Cao, Jun; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Early life stress increases risks of fear and anxiety related disorders in adulthood, which may be alleviated by fluoxetine treatment. However, the intergenerational impacts of maternal separation (MS) on fear and anxiety behaviors from father to their offspring are little known. And the potential effects of fluoxetine treatment on the intergenerational transmission have not been well tested. Here, we investigated whether fluoxetine can reverse the intergenerational effects of MS on fear and anxiety behaviors. The first generation (F1) male rats were exposed to MS 3 h daily from postnatal day 2-14 and then treated with fluoxetine for four weeks during adulthood before fear conditioning. We found that maternal separation significantly impaired contextual fear extinction in F1 adult male rats but not in their second generation (F2). Although no obvious effects of MS on anxiety were observed in F1 male rats, the F2 offspring displayed a phenotype of low anxiety-like behaviors despite they were reared in normal condition. Fluoxetine treatment in F1 males not only reversed the impairment of fear extinction in F1 males but also the low anxiety-like behaviors in their F2 offspring. These findings highlight the intergenerational impacts of early life stress on fear and anxiety behaviors, and provide a new sight of the intergenerational effect of fluoxetine therapy for early life stress related mental problems.

  17. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: an update on the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Foa, Edna B

    2015-09-01

    A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and discuss the current empirical research regarding the usefulness of these techniques for each anxiety disorder. Additionally, we discuss the difficulties that arise when comparing active CBT treatments, and we suggest directions for future research. Overall, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but dismantling studies are needed to determine which specific treatment components lead to beneficial outcomes and which patients are most likely to benefit from these treatment components.

  18. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohar, J.; Insel, T.R.; Berman, K.F.; Foa, E.B.; Hill, J.L.; Weinberger, D.R.

    1989-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO/sub 2/ did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow.

  19. Increased anxiety-like behaviors in rats experiencing chronic inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Alexandre J; Beaudet, Nicolas; Beaudry, Hélène; Bergeron, Jenny; Bérubé, Patrick; Drolet, Guy; Sarret, Philippe; Gendron, Louis

    2012-04-01

    For many patients, chronic pain is often accompanied, and sometimes amplified, by co-morbidities such as anxiety and depression. Although it represents important challenges, the establishment of appropriate preclinical behavioral models contributes to drug development for treating chronic inflammatory pain and associated psychopathologies. In this study, we investigated whether rats experiencing persistent inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) developed anxiety-like behaviors, and whether clinically used analgesic and anxiolytic drugs were able to reverse CFA-induced anxiety-related phenotypes. These behaviors were evaluated over 28 days in both CFA- and saline-treated groups with a variety of behavioral tests. CFA-induced mechanical allodynia resulted in increased anxiety-like behaviors as evidenced by: (1) a significant decrease in percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arms of the elevated-plus maze (EPM), (2) a decrease in number of central squares visited in the open field (OF), and (3) a reduction in active social interactions in the social interaction test (SI). The number of entries in closed arms in the EPM and the distance traveled in the OF used as indicators of locomotor performance did not differ between treatments. Our results also reveal that in CFA-treated rats, acute administration of morphine (3mg/kg, s.c.) abolished tactile allodynia and anxiety-like behaviors, whereas acute administration of diazepam (1mg/kg, s.c) solely reversed anxiety-like behaviors. Therefore, pharmacological treatment of anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic inflammatory pain can be objectively evaluated using multiple behavioral tests. Such a model could help identify/validate alternative potential targets that influence pain and cognitive dimensions of anxiety.

  20. Social isolation mediated anxiety like behavior is associated with enhanced expression and regulation of BDNF in the female mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anita; Singh, Padmanabh; Baghel, Meghraj Singh; Thakur, M K

    2016-05-01

    Adverse early life experience is prominent risk factors for numerous psychiatric illnesses, including mood and anxiety disorders. It imposes serious long-term costs on the individual as well as health and social systems. Hence, developing therapies that prevent the long-term consequences of early life stress is of utmost importance, and necessitates a better understanding of the mechanisms by which early life stress triggers long-lasting alterations in gene expression and behavior. Post-weaning isolation rearing of rodents models the behavioral consequences of adverse early life experiences in humans and it is reported to cause anxiety like behavior which is more common in case of females. Therefore, in the present study, we have studied the impact of social isolation of young female mice for 8weeks on the anxiety like behavior and the underlying molecular mechanism. Elevated plus maze and open field test revealed that social isolation caused anxiety like behavior. BDNF, a well-known molecule implicated in the anxiety like behavior, was up-regulated both at the message and protein level in cerebral cortex by social isolation. CREB-1 and CBP, which play a crucial role in BDNF transcription, were up-regulated at mRNA level in cerebral cortex by social isolation. HDAC-2, which negatively regulates BDNF expression, was down-regulated at mRNA and protein level in cerebral cortex by social isolation. Furthermore, BDNF acts in concert with Limk-1, miRNA-132 and miRNA-134 for the regulation of structural and morphological plasticity. Social isolation resulted in up-regulation of Limk-1 mRNA and miRNA-132 expression in the cerebral cortex. MiRNA-134, which inhibits the translation of Limk-1, was decreased in cerebral cortex by social isolation. Taken together, our study suggests that social isolation mediated anxiety like behavior is associated with up-regulation of BDNF expression and concomitant increase in the expression of CBP, CREB-1, Limk-1 and miRNA-132, and decrease

  1. The effects of teaching contrastive skills of Islam and cognitive-behavioral for coping on anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Asadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of teaching contrastive skills of Islam originated from versus of holly book of Quran and cognitive-behavioral for coping on anxiety among some high school students in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses a standard method developed by Cattell and Scheier (1963 [Cattell, R. B., & Scheier, I. H. (1963. Handbook for the IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire: Self Analysis Form. Institute for Personality & Ability Testing.] to measure the anxiety. The results have indicated that both methods, contrastive skills and cognitive-behavioral, not only could reduce anxiety in short term but also it could reduce the anxiety over the long term period.

  2. Behavioral Indexes of Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Senior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL MACÍAS-MARTÍNEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of Mathematics has been and is still a source of frustration and anxiety for a large number of students. The purpose of this study was to inquire systematically upon levels of test anxiety through behavioral and physiological procedures before and after a Math test, in 205 senior high school students. Academic worries were assessed by means of a computerized task based on the emotional version of the Stroop paradigm designed ex profeso to measure school anxiety (Hernández-Pozo, Macías & Torres, 2004. The Stroop task was administered, along with recordings of blood pressure and pulse, before and after the first Math test of the course. Academic general scores were inverse to the behavioral anxiety level, however the best Math scores were associated to middle levels of behavioral anxiety. Contradictory findings between academic performance in Math and global score, and the apparent lack of gender difference in anxiety measured through behavioral procedures suggests the need to review the generality of previous assertions relating academic performance inversely with levels of anxiety of high school students.

  3. [Treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in terms of cognitive behavioral].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrowska, Anna; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Risk of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) within life is estimated at 2.6-5.1%. Amongst etiological factors that affect the development of the disorder are: biological and psychological problems, including cognitive models. There are known several cognitive models: metacognitive, Borkovec'c model and the model developed in Quebec. Key cognitive contents that occur with generalized anxiety disorder are focused on two aspects: metacognitive beliefs and intolerance of uncertainty. A primary purpose of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the modification of dysfunctional beliefs about worry. Cognitive behavioural therapy is effective in reducing anxiety, makes it easier to operate in the professional sphere and improves the quality of life.

  4. Focus-of-attention behavioral experiment: an examination of a therapeutic procedure to reduce social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Kerry A; Valentiner, David P; Holzman, Jacob B

    2017-01-01

    A clinical protocol based on contemporary cognitive behavioral treatment for social anxiety was developed and examined. Previously published instructions for conducting a focus-of-attention behavioral experiment targeting self-focused attention and safety behaviors during exposure were used to create a structured protocol. Individuals (n = 45) with high levels of social anxiety and public-speaking anxiety were randomly assigned to either a focus-of-attention behavioral experiment (FABE) or an Exposure-Only Control (EOC) condition. During four exposure trials, those in the FABE condition (n = 24) were alternately instructed to engage in self-focused attention vs. externally focused attention and to eliminate safety behaviors. Those in the EOC condition (n = 21) were not so instructed. At post-intervention, individuals in the FABE condition showed significantly less self-focused attention and anxiety, and better observed performance as rated by audience members. Focus-of-attention statistically mediated the effect of condition on anxiety. For those in the FABE condition, the degree of association between focus-of-attention and anxiety during the intervention predicted less self-focused attention post-intervention. The FABE appears to be a useful procedure for implementing part of the contemporary cognitive behavioral treatment model.

  5. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  6. Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety and Their Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of…

  7. How Menthol Alters Tobacco-Smoking Behavior: A Biological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, R J

    2015-09-01

    Mentholated cigarettes gained popularity in the 1950s and were often marketed as "healthy" cigarettes, attributable to their pleasurable mint flavor and cooling sensation in the mouth, lungs, and throat. While it is clear that nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco cigarettes, recent work has suggested that menthol may also play a role in exacerbating smoking behavior, despite original health claims. Recent evidence highlights four distinct biological mechanisms that can alter smoking behavior: 1) menthol acts to reduce the initially aversive experiences associated with tobacco smoking; 2) menthol can serve as a highly reinforcing sensory cue when associated with nicotine and promote smoking behavior; 3) menthol's actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may change the reinforcing value of nicotine; and 4) menthol can alter nicotine metabolism, thus increasing nicotine bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to highlight and evaluate potential biological mechanisms by which menthol can alter smoking behavior.

  8. Mefloquine in the nucleus accumbens promotes social avoidance and anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Mitra; Golden, Sam A; Pfau, Madeline L; Christoffel, Daniel J; Seeley, Elena L; Cahill, Michael E; Khibnik, Lena A; Russo, Scott J

    2016-02-01

    Mefloquine continues to be a key drug used for malaria chemoprophylaxis and treatment, despite reports of adverse events like depression and anxiety. It is unknown how mefloquine acts within the central nervous system to cause depression and anxiety or why some individuals are more vulnerable. We show that intraperitoneal injection of mefloquine in mice, when coupled to subthreshold social defeat stress, is sufficient to produce depression-like social avoidance behavior. Direct infusion of mefloquine into the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region, increased stress-induced social avoidance and anxiety behavior. In contrast, infusion into the ventral hippocampus had no effect. Whole cell recordings from NAc medium spiny neurons indicated that mefloquine application increases the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents, a synaptic adaptation that we have previously shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to social defeat stress. Together, these data demonstrate a role for the NAc in mefloquine-induced depression and anxiety-like behaviors.

  9. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Ersöz, Ersin Altiparmak, F. Hülya Aşçı

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI. 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification.

  10. Mathematics achievement and anxiety and their relation to internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S; Willcutt, Erik G; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of 366 second and third graders. Math achievement was significantly correlated with attentional difficulties and social problems but not with internalizing symptoms. The relation between math achievement and externalizing behavioral problems was stronger in girls than in boys. Math achievement was not correlated with trait anxiety but was negatively correlated with math anxiety. Critically, math anxiety differed significantly between children classified as math learning disabled (MLD), low achieving (LA), and typically developing (TD), with math anxiety significantly higher in the MLD and LA groups compared to the TD group. Our findings suggest that, even in nonclinical samples, math difficulties at the earliest stages of formal math learning are associated with attentional difficulties and domain-specific anxiety. These findings underscore the need for further examination of the shared cognitive, neural, and genetic influences underlying problem solving and nonverbal learning difficulties and accompanying internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

  11. Investigation of diazepam efficacy on anxiety-like behavior in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Katherine A; Feustel, Paul J; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Molho, Eric; Pilitsis, Julie G; Shin, Damian S

    2016-03-15

    There is growing recognition that anxiety disorders have a greater impact on quality of life in Parkinson's disease than motor symptoms. Yet, little is known about the pathophysiology underlying this non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease which poses a considerable barrier in developing effective treatment strategies. Here, we administered diazepam to hemiparkinsonian and non-parkinsonian rats and assessed its efficacy in three anxiety behavioral tests. At present, no information about this exists in preclinical research with sparse data in the clinical literature. Moreover, diazepam is an acute anxiolytic which makes this drug a suitable research tool to unmask differences in anxiety-like behavior. Using the unilateral, medial forebrain bundle 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease, we noted that hemiparkinsonian rats had more baseline anxiety-like behavior with 60% of them exhibiting high anxiety (HA) behavior in the elevated plus maze. In contrast, 41% of sham-lesioned rats and 8% of naïve rats exhibited HA behavior. Next, we employed the elevated plus maze and noted that diazepam (1.5mg/kg) was anxiolytic in low anxiety (LA) sham-lesioned (p=0.006) and HA sham-lesioned rats (p=0.016). Interestingly, diazepam was anxiolytic for LA hemiparkinsonian rats (p=0.017), but not for HA hemiparkinsonian rats (p=0.174) despite both groups having similar motor impairment and parkinsonian phenotype. Overall, diazepam administration unmasked differences in anxiolytic efficacy between HA hemiparkinsonian rats, LA hemiparkinsonian rats and non-parkinsonian rats. Our data suggests that neuro-circuits involved in anxiety-like behavior may differ within these groups and posits that diazepam may have reduced efficacy in certain individuals with PD anxiety disorders.

  12. Maternal separation altered behavior and neuronal spine density without influencing amphetamine sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Arif; Kolb, Bryan

    2011-09-30

    We studied the long-term influence of maternal separation (MS) on periadolescent behavior, adult amphetamine (AMPH) sensitization, and structural plasticity in the corticolimbic regions in rats. Male and female pups, separated daily for 3h from the dam during postnatal day 3-21, were tested for periadolescent exploratory, emotional, cognitive, and social behaviors. The development and persistence of drug-induced behavioral sensitization were tested by repeated AMPH administration and a challenge, respectively. The spine density was examined in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) from Golgi-Cox stained neurons. The results showed that MS enhanced anxiety-like behavior in males. MS abolished the sex difference in playful attacks observed in controls with resultant feminization of male play behavior. Furthermore, the probability of complete rotation defense to face an attack was decreased in females. AMPH administration resulted in the development of behavioral sensitization that persisted at least for two weeks. Sensitization was not influenced by MS. MS increased the spine density in the NAc, the mPFC, and the OFC. Repeated AMPH administration increased the spine density in the NAc and the mPFC, and decreased it in the OFC. MS blocked the drug-induced alteration in these regions. In sum, MS during development influenced periadolescent behavior in males, and structurally reorganized cortical and subcortical brain regions without affecting AMPH-induced behavioral sensitization.

  13. Astrocytic IL-6 mediates locomotor activity, exploration, anxiety, learning and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erta, Maria; Giralt, Mercedes; Esposito, Flavia Lorena; Fernandez-Gayol, Olaya; Hidalgo, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine in the central nervous system, secreted by different brain cells and with roles in a number of physiological functions. We herewith confirm and expand the importance of astrocytic production of and response to IL-6 by using transgenic mice deficient in astrocytic IL-6 (Ast-IL-6 KO) or in its receptor (Ast-IL-6R KO) in full C57Bl/6 genetic background. A major prosurvival effect of astrocytic IL-6 at early ages was clearly demonstrated. Robust effects were also evident in the control of activity and anxiety in the hole-board and elevated plus-maze, and in spatial learning in the Morris water-maze. The results also suggest an inhibitory role of IL-6 in the mechanism controlling the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning. Less robust effects of astrocytic IL-6 system were also observed in despair behavior in the tail suspension test, and social behavior in the dominance and resident-intruder tests. The behavioral phenotype was highly dependent on age and/or sex in some cases. The phenotype of Ast-IL-6R KO mice mimicked only partially that of Ast-IL-6KO mice, which indicates both a role of astrocytes in behavior and the participation of other cells besides astrocytes. No evidences of altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis were observed. These results demonstrate that astrocytic IL-6 (acting at least partially in astrocytes) regulates normal behavior in mice.

  14. Androgen insensitive male rats display increased anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamson, Dwayne K; Jones, Bryan A; Csupity, Attila S; Ali, Faezah M; Watson, Neil V

    2014-02-01

    Male rats carrying the testicular feminization mutation (Tfm-affected males) are insensitive to androgens, resulting in a female-typical peripheral phenotype despite possession of inguinal testes that are androgen secretory. Androgen-dependent neural and behavioral processes may likewise show atypical sexual differentiation. Interestingly, these mutant rats display elevated serum corticosterone, suggesting a chronic anxiety phenotype and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In order to understand if elevated anxiety-like behavior is a possible mediating variable affecting the display of certain androgen-dependent behaviors, we compared the performance of Tfm-affected males to wild type males and females in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Two well-established indicators of anxiety-like behavior in the EPM were analyzed: total percentage of time spent on the open arms, and the percentage of open arm entries. We also analyzed the total number of open arm entries. Interestingly, Tfm-affected males spent less percentage of time on the open arms than both males and females, suggesting increased anxiety-like behavior. Percentage of open arm entries and the total number of arm entries was comparable between the groups, indicating that the observed decrease in the percentage of time spent on the open arms was not due to a global reduction in exploratory behavior. These data, in contrast to earlier reports, thus implicate androgen receptor-mediated functions in the expression of anxiety behaviors in male rats. Given that anxiety is widely reported as a precipitating factor in depression, studying the role of the androgen receptor in anxiety may give insights into the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder.

  15. Tempol treatment reduces anxiety-like behaviors induced by multiple anxiogenic drugs in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Patki

    Full Text Available We have published that pharmacological induction of oxidative stress (OS causes anxiety-like behavior in rats. Using animal models, we also have established that psychological stress induces OS and leads to anxiety-like behaviors. All evidence points towards the causal role of OS in anxiety-like behaviors. To fully ascertain the role of OS in anxiety-like behaviors, it is reasonable to test whether the pro-anxiety effects of anxiogenic drugs caffeine or N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142 can be mitigated using agents that minimize OS. In this study, osmotic pumps were either filled with antioxidant tempol or saline. The pumps were attached to the catheter leading to the brain cannula and inserted into the subcutaneous pocket in the back pocket of the rat. Continuous i.c.v. infusion of saline or tempol in the lateral ventricle of the brain (4.3 mmol/day was maintained for 1 week. Rats were intraperitoneally injected either with saline or an anxiogenic drug one at a time. Two hours later all groups were subjected to behavioral assessments. Anxiety-like behavior tests (open-field, light-dark and elevated plus maze suggested that tempol prevented anxiogenic drug-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats. Furthermore, anxiogenic drug-induced increase in stress examined via plasma corticosterone and increased oxidative stress levels assessed via plasma 8-isoprostane were prevented with tempol treatment. Protein carbonylation assay also suggested preventive effect of tempol in the prefrontal cortex brain region of rats. Antioxidant protein expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels indicate compromised antioxidant defense as well as an imbalance of inflammatory response.

  16. Anxiety, attention problems, hyperactivity, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne; Raspa, Melissa; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen; Hessl, David; Sacco, Pat; Bailey, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Behavior problems are a common challenge for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and constitute the primary clinical outcome domain in trials testing new FXS medications. However, little is known about the relationship between caregiver-reported behavior problems and co-occurring conditions such as anxiety and attention problems. In this study, 350 caregivers, each with at least one son or daughter with full-mutation FXS, rated one of their children with FXS using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Version (ABC-C); the Anxiety subscale of the Anxiety, Depression, and Mood Scale; and the Attention/Hyperactivity Items from the Symptom Inventories. In addition to examining family consequences of these behaviors, this study also sought to replicate psychometric findings for the ABC-C in FXS, to provide greater confidence for its use in clinical trials with this population. Psychometric properties and baseline ratings of problem behavior were consistent with other recent studies, further establishing the profile of problem behavior in FXS. Cross-sectional analyses suggest that selected dimensions of problem behavior, anxiety, and hyperactivity are age related; thus, age should serve as an important control in any studies of problem behavior in FXS. Measures of anxiety, attention, and hyperactivity were highly associated with behavior problems, suggesting that these factors at least coincide with problem behavior. However, these problems generally did not add substantially to variance in caregiver burden predicted by elevated behavior problems. The results provide further evidence of the incidence of problem behaviors and co-occurring conditions in FXS and the impact of these behaviors on the family.

  17. Insulin reverses anxiety-like behavior evoked by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and preclinical data suggest that diabetes is often associated with anxiety. Insulin, a peptide hormone has been reported to have key functions in the brain and in alleviating several psychological impairments, occur as a consequence of diabetes. However, its effects in diabetes-induced anxiety are scanty. The present study examined whether; insulin can reverse the anxiety-like behavior in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in mice. After 8-weeks of diabetes induced by STZ (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), mice were given insulin (1-2 IU/kg/day, i.p.)/ diazepam (1 mg/kg/day, i.p.)/ vehicle for 14 days and evaluated for behavioral effects in three validated models of anxiety viz. elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark (L/D) and hole board (HB) tests. STZ-induced diabetic mice elicited significant behavioral effects which include, decreased percentage open arm entries and time in EPM, reduced latency and time spent in light chamber in L/D, decreased number of head dips, squares crossed and rearings in HB tests respectively. Insulin treatment attenuated the behavioral effects evoked by STZ-induced diabetes in mice as indicated by increased open arms activity in EPM, decreased aversion in light chamber during L/D test and increased exploratory behavior in HB test. In conclusion, this study revealed that insulin can reverse anxiety-like behavior in STZ-induced diabetes in mice.

  18. The effect of virtual reality during dental treatment on child anxiety and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C; Schneider, P E; Musselman, R J; Dummett, C O; Gardiner, D

    2000-01-01

    Virtual reality, a three-dimensional computer generated world, has been shown to relax adults during dental treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of virtual reality on the behavior and anxiety of children during dental treatment. The behavior, anxiety and heart rate of twenty-six children, ages five to seven years were evaluated for the first five minutes of two restorative treatment visits. Thirteen children viewed virtual reality at their first restorative visit and not the second, and thirteen children viewed virtual reality at the second restorative visit and not the first. Before and immediately following the restorative visits, each child was instructed to draw a human figure. The restorative appointments were video recorded and heart rate monitored. The drawings and videotapes were rated independently by two examiners. The Koppitz method of evaluating drawings was used to measure anxiety. The Frankl behavior rating scale was used to evaluate behavior. Differences (ANOVA) in behavior (p < or = 0.50) and anxiety (p < or = 0.65) were not significant. The overall pulse rate was significantly lower (ANOVA p < or = 0.001) when the child was wearing glasses and viewing virtual reality. In conclusion, virtual reality during dental treatment had no significant effect on the behavior or anxiety but significantly reduced the pulse.

  19. Behavioral sexual dimorphism in models of anxiety and depression due to changes in HPA axis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokras, Nikolaos; Dalla, Christina; Sideris, Antonios C; Dendi, Artemis; Mikail, Hudu G; Antoniou, Katerina; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are considered as stress-related disorders, which present considerable sex differentiation. In animal models of anxiety and depression sex differences have been described and linked to the sexually dimorphic hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenals (HPA) axis. The present study aimed to adjust corticosterone, the main HPA axis stress hormone, in male and female adrenalectomized rats with oral (25 μg/ml) corticosterone replacement (ADXR). Subsequently we investigated the behavioral performance of ADXR rats in the open field, light/dark and forced swim test (FST). Male ADXR rats showed less anxiety-like behavior when compared to sham-operated controls, despite adequate corticosterone replacement. They further showed increased swimming and reduced climbing behavior in the FST, while immobility duration did not differ from sham-operated males. On the contrary, adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement did not have significant effects on the female behavioral response. Females were generally more active and presented less anxiety-like behavior than males, while they exhibited higher depressive-like symptomatology in the FST. ADXR affected behavioral responses predominantly in males, which in turn modified sex differences in the behavioral profile. Females in proestrous and estrous did not differ from females in diestrous and methestrous in any measured behavioral response. Present results suggest that the male and not the female behavioral responses in models of anxiety and depression were mainly affected by ADXR. These findings may play a significant role in explaining the differential coping strategy of the two sexes in response to stressful experiences. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

  20. Shame and guilt in social anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy and association with social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD, characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67 with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72 and a replication sample (n = 22. Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44. Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD.

  1. Aniracetam does not alter cognitive and affective behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Elston

    Full Text Available There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs.

  2. Self-care behaviors and activities for managing HIV-related anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Wantland, Dean; Voss, Joachim; Nicholas, Patrice; Kirksey, Kenn M; Corless, Inge B; Willard, Suzanne; Holzemer, William L; Robinson, Linda; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Huang, Emily; Arudo, John; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Cuca, Yvette; Lindgren, Terri; Portillo, Carmen J; Maryland, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the baseline prevalence and effectiveness of anxiety self-management strategies in a convenience sample of persons living with HIV (PLWH; n = 343) in the United States, Puerto Rico, Kenya, and South Africa who reported HIV-related anxiety symptoms. Relationships between demographics and anxiety characteristics were determined, as was the effectiveness of self-care activities/behaviors to reduce anxiety. We found that the use of anxiety self-management strategies varied by gender and that ratings of effectiveness varied by country. Highest anxiety intensity scores were found in participants who were taking antiretroviral medications and who had undetectable viral loads. Forty-five percent of the persons with a diagnosis of AIDS reported anxiety symptoms. As HIV increases in areas of the world where self-care is the primary approach to managing HIV, additional research will be needed to address the effectiveness of cross-cultural differences in strategies for self-managing HIV-related anxiety.

  3. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety in patients with dementia: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Cynthia A; Seignourel, Paul; Balasubramanyam, Valli; Snow, A Lynn; Wilson, Nancy L; Kunik, Mark E; Schulz, Paul E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2008-05-01

    Anxiety is common in dementia and is associated with decreased independence and increased risk of nursing home placement. However, little is known about the treatment of anxiety in dementia. This article reports results from two patients who were treated with a modified version of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in dementia (CBT-AD). Modifications were made in the content, structure, and learning strategies of CBT to adapt skills to the cognitive limitations of these patients and include collaterals (i.e., family members, friends, or other caregivers) in the treatment process. The patients received education and awareness training and were taught the skills of diaphragmatic breathing, coping self-statements, exposure, and behavioral activation. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale was used to characterize dementia severity and determine eligibility for treatment (a CDR score of 0.5 to 2.0 was required for participation). Other measures included the Rating Anxiety in Dementia scale, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Anxiety subscale, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Outcome data showed improvement in anxiety as measured by standardized rating scales. We conclude that CBT-AD is potentially useful in treating anxiety in dementia patients and that this technique merits further study.

  4. Behavioral Indexes of Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Senior High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL MACÍAS-MARTÍNEZ; MARÍA DEL ROCÍO HERNÁNDEZ-POZO

    2008-01-01

    The study of Mathematics has been and is still a source of frustration and anxiety for a large number of students. The purpose of this study was to inquire systematically upon levels of test anxiety through behavioral and physiological procedures before and after a Math test, in 205 senior high school students. Academic worries were assessed by means of a computerized task based on the emotional version of the Stroop paradigm designed ex profeso to measure school anxiety (Hernández-Pozo, Mací...

  5. Effects of reconcile (fluoxetine) chewable tablets plus behavior management for canine separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Barbara Sherman; Landsberg, Gary M; Reisner, Ilana R; Ciribassi, John J; Horwitz, Debra; Houpt, Katherine A; Kroll, Tracy L; Luescher, Andrew; Moffat, Kelly S; Douglass, Genefer; Robertson-Plouch, Carol; Veenhuizen, Melissa F; Zimmerman, Alan; Clark, Terrence P

    2007-01-01

    Canine separation anxiety is a common behavioral problem presented to veterinarians. Associated behaviors are distressing to both dog and owner, have the potential to disrupt the human-companion animal bond, and may lead to euthanasia. The results of this study demonstrate the clinical efficacy and safety of Reconcile (fluoxetine, 1 to 2 mg/kg/day [0.45 to 0.91 mg/lb/day]), in conjunction with behavior management, for the treatment of canine separation anxiety. The beef flavored chewable formulation was palatable to treated dogs and easy to administer. This study provides to veterinarians and owners valuable information about an effective separation anxiety treatment plan that combines use of Reconcile with behavior modification.

  6. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children With ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... scale than children within the other three groups. Main effects of diagnosis appeared in ADHD children on the Inhibit, Emotional Control, and Working Memory scales, and on the Shift and Emotional Control scales in anxious children. Conclusion: The results indicate that a behavioral dysregulation in ADHD...

  7. Predictors of Change Following Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Children with Anxiety Problems: A Preliminary Investigation on Negative Automatic Thoughts and Anxiety Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; den Adel, Madelon; Roos, Tamara; van Wamelen, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate negative automatic thoughts and anxiety control as predictors of change produced by cognitive-behavioral treatment of youths with anxiety disorders. Forty-five high-anxious children aged between 9 and 12 years who were selected from the primary school population, received a standardized CBT…

  8. Deletion of PTEN produces autism-like behavioral deficits and alterations in synaptic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Joaquin N; Smith, Gregory D; Arbuckle, Erin P; White, Jessika; Holley, Andrew J; Floruta, Crina M; Ahmed, Nowrin; Gomez, Maribel C; Okonkwo, Obi

    2014-01-01

    Many genes have been implicated in the underlying cause of autism but each gene accounts for only a small fraction of those diagnosed with autism. There is increasing evidence that activity-dependent changes in neuronal signaling could act as a convergent mechanism for many of the changes in synaptic proteins. One candidate signaling pathway that may have a critical role in autism is the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. A major regulator of this pathway is the negative repressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). In the current study we examined the behavioral and molecular consequences in mice with neuron subset-specific deletion of PTEN. The knockout (KO) mice showed deficits in social chamber and social partition test. KO mice demonstrated alterations in repetitive behavior, as measured in the marble burying test and hole-board test. They showed no changes in ultrasonic vocalizations emitted on postnatal day 10 or 12 compared to wildtype (WT) mice. They exhibited less anxiety in the elevated-plus maze test and were more active in the open field test compared to WT mice. In addition to the behavioral alterations, KO mice had elevation of phosphorylated AKT, phosphorylated S6, and an increase in S6K. KO mice had a decrease in mGluR but an increase in total and phosphorylated fragile X mental retardation protein. The disruptions in intracellular signaling may be why the KO mice had a decrease in the dendritic potassium channel Kv4.2 and a decrease in the synaptic scaffolding proteins PSD-95 and SAP102. These findings demonstrate that deletion of PTEN results in long-term alterations in social behavior, repetitive behavior, activity, and anxiety. In addition, deletion of PTEN significantly alters mGluR signaling and many synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. Our data demonstrates that deletion of PTEN can result in many of the behavioral features of autism and may provide insights into the regulation of intracellular signaling on synaptic proteins.

  9. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Techniques on Anxiety and Depression in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Soylu, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are generally considered to be the most important psychopathological comorbidities of cancer patients and experienced by approximately one-third of cancer patients. In the literature, studies have reported that patient characteristics such as gender, age, education level and disease characteristics such as recurrence, stage of cancer and metestazis are associated with anxiety and depression among cancer patients. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and techni...

  10. Pain-related anxiety-like behavior requires CRF1 receptors in the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruppert Katherine A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor CRF1 has been implicated in the neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety and depression. The amygdala plays an important role in affective states and disorders such as anxiety and depression. The amygdala is also emerging as a neural substrate of pain affect. However, the involvement of the amygdala in the interaction of pain and anxiety remains to be determined. This study tested the hypothesis that CRF1 receptors in the amygdala are critically involved in pain-related anxiety. Anxiety-like behavior was determined in adult male rats using the elevated plus maze (EPM test. The open-arm preference (ratio of open arm entries to the total number of entries was measured. Nocifensive behavior was assessed by measuring hindlimb withdrawal thresholds for noxious mechanical stimulation of the knee. Measurements were made in normal rats and in rats with arthritis induced in one knee by intraarticular injections of kaolin/carrageenan. A selective CRF1 receptor antagonist (NBI27914 or vehicle was administered systemically (i.p. or into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA, by microdialysis. The arthritis group showed a decreased preference for the open arms in the EPM and decreased hindlimb withdrawal thresholds. Systemic or intraamygdalar (into the CeA administration of NBI27914, but not vehicle, inhibited anxiety-like behavior and nocifensive pain responses, nearly reversing the arthritis pain-related changes. This study shows for the first time that CRF1 receptors in the amygdala contribute critically to pain-related anxiety-like behavior and nocifensive responses in a model of arthritic pain. The results are a direct demonstration that the clinically well-documented relationship between pain and anxiety involves the amygdala.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Behavioral Activation Treatment of Anxiety (BATA) in Three Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jarrod S.; Leach, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three single-case experimental evaluations of Behavioral Activation Treatment of Anxiety (BATA) applied with a 51-year-old male, a 62-year-old female, and a 53-year-old female, each of whom met DSM-IV criteria for anxiety. Each case was a clinical replication of an initial trial of BATA reported in Turner and Leach (2009).…

  12. The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling on Anxiety and Aggression Women with Sexual Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim: According to the American Psychiatric Association female sexual dysfunction are classified in four categories: sexual desire disorders, arousal, orgasm and pain. Having chronic Sexual dysfunction can lead to anxiety, depression, aggression and create problems in other aspects of life. The aim of this study was to Investigate the effect of cognitive-behavior counseling on anxiety and aggression in women with sexual dysfunction. Methods: In thi...

  13. Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and Anxiety: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaven, Judy; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Culhane-Shelburne, Kathy; Hepburn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for developing significant anxiety. Anxiety can adversely impact functioning across school, home and community environments. Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are frequently used with success for children with anxiety symptoms. Modified CBT interventions…

  14. Chronic alcohol alters rewarded behaviors and striatal plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    DePoy, Lauren; Daut, Rachel; Wright, Tara; Camp, Marguerite; Crowley, Nicole; Noronha, Bianca; Lovinger, David; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) alters neural functions and behaviors mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and prefrontal cortex. Here, we examined the effects of prolonged (16-bout) CIE on DLS plasticity and DLS-mediated behaviors. Ex vivo electrophysiological recordings revealed loss in efficacy of DLS synaptically induced activation and absent long-term depression after CIE. CIE increased two-bottle choice drinking and impaired Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer but not discrimin...

  15. Adolescents' Aggressive and Prosocial Behavior: Associations with Jealousy and Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culotta, Carmen M.; Goldstein, Sara E.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined how relational aggression, physical aggression, and proactive prosocial behavior were associated with jealousy and social anxiety in a diverse sample of 60 middle school students. After the authors controlled for gender and race, jealousy predicted relational aggression and proactive prosocial behavior, but it did not predict…

  16. Anxiety and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Perceptions of Social Prominence among Incarcerated Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Goldweber, Aska; Meyer, Kristen; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how perceptions of social prominence and attitudes toward antisocial behavior among peers moderate the association between anxiety and antisocial behavior among incarcerated females. Latent profile analysis identified two classes of females distinguished by their perceptions and attitudes. Individuals in both classes…

  17. The Effects of Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports on Teacher Self-Efficacy and Teaching Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanParys Couet, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) is a process designed to improve disruptive behavior and increase student's achievement at the primary and secondary level. Although the success of PBIS programs with student achievement is well documented, the impact of PBIS on teachers' teaching anxiety and self-efficacy levels has yet to be…

  18. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Fibromyalgia-Related Pain Anxiety Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Effects of Behavioral Activation Treatment (BAT) on pain anxiety, depression, and pain interference on a 43-year-old female with an 11-year history of chronic fibromyalgia pain are described. Analgesic, anxyiolytic, and antidepressant medications were stabilized prior to participation. Dependent measures were the Behavioral Relaxation Scale, a…

  19. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); A.M.L. van Brakel (Anna); A. Arntz (Arnoud); E. Schouten (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control childre

  20. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders is here to stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, Gavin; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common and disabling. Cognitive behavior therapy is the treatment of choice but is often difficult to obtain. Automated, internet-delivered, cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) courses may be an answer. There are three recent systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials tha

  1. Altered brain functional connectivity in relation to perception of scrutiny in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Mónica; Pujol, Jesús; Ortiz, Hector; Soriano-Mas, Carles; López-Solà, Marina; Farré, Magí; Deus, Joan; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Martín-Santos, Rocio

    2012-06-30

    Although the fear of being scrutinized by others in a social context is a key symptom in social anxiety disorder (SAD), the neural processes underlying the perception of scrutiny have not previously been studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used fMRI to map brain activation during a perception-of-scrutiny task in 20 SAD patients and 20 controls. A multi-dimensional analytic approach was used. Scrutiny perception was mediated by activation of the medial frontal cortex, insula-operculum region and cerebellum, and the additional recruitment of visual areas and the thalamus in patients. Between-group comparison demonstrated significantly enhanced brain activation in patients in the primary visual cortex and cerebellum. Functional connectivity mapping demonstrated an abnormal connectivity between regions underlying general arousal and attention. SAD patients showed significantly greater task-induced functional connectivity in the thalamo-cortical and the fronto-striatal circuits. A statistically significant increase in task-induced functional connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and scrutiny-perception-related regions was observed in the SAD patients, suggesting the existence of enhanced behavior-inhibitory control. The presented data indicate that scrutiny perception in SAD enhances brain activity in arousal-attention systems, suggesting that fMRI may be a useful tool to explore such a behavioral dimension.

  2. Comparison of remote versus in-person behavioral consultation for treatment of canine separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, Nicole; Dodman, Nicholas H; Moon-Fanelli, Alice A; Patronek, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the validity of remote consultation for treatment of canine separation anxiety, this study compared the efficacy of 2 types of behavioral services offered by Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine (TCSVM): (a) "PetFax," a remote consultation service in which dog caregivers (owners) and a certified applied animal behaviorist correspond via fax or email and (b) in-person clinic consultation, which requires that owners bring their dogs to the Animal Behavior Clinic at TCSVM to consult with a board-certified veterinary behaviorist, a veterinary behavior resident, or a certified applied animal behaviorist. The study tested 4 variables for significant differences between PetFax users and clinic visitors: (a) pre- and posttreatment anxiety scores; (b) owner-reported improvement; (c) percentage of rehomed dogs, dogs relinquished or euthanized because of separation anxiety; and (d) clarity of communication with owners. The study found no significant differences between the groups. Difference scores and owner reports demonstrated substantial reduction in separation anxiety in both groups. Results indicate remote consultation is a valid way for behavioral professionals to share behavior modification advice with owners regarding canine separation anxiety.

  3. Central anandamide deficiency predicts stress-induced anxiety: behavioral reversal through endocannabinoid augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluett, R J; Gamble-George, J C; Hermanson, D J; Hartley, N D; Marnett, L J; Patel, S

    2014-07-08

    Stress is a major risk factor for the development of mood and anxiety disorders; elucidation of novel approaches to mitigate the deleterious effects of stress could have broad clinical applications. Pharmacological augmentation of central endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling may be an effective therapeutic strategy to mitigate the adverse behavioral and physiological consequences of stress. Here we show that acute foot-shock stress induces a transient anxiety state measured 24 h later using the light-dark box assay and novelty-induced hypophagia test. Acute pharmacological inhibition of the anandamide-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), reverses the stress-induced anxiety state in a cannabinoid receptor-dependent manner. FAAH inhibition does not significantly affect anxiety-like behaviors in non-stressed mice. Moreover, whole brain anandamide levels are reduced 24 h after acute foot-shock stress and are negatively correlated with anxiety-like behavioral measures in the light-dark box test. These data indicate that central anandamide levels predict acute stress-induced anxiety, and that reversal of stress-induced anandamide deficiency is a key mechanism subserving the therapeutic effects of FAAH inhibition. These studies provide further support that eCB-augmentation is a viable pharmacological strategy for the treatment of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for children with epilepsy and anxiety: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, Jacquelyn B; Fujikawa, Mayu; Sung, Connie; Jackson, Daren C; Jones, Jana E

    2013-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are prevalent in children with epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, adaptability, and feasibility of a manual-based, computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for anxiety disorders in children with epilepsy. Fifteen anxious youth (aged 8-13 years) with epilepsy completed 12 weeks of manualized computer-assisted CBT. The children and parents completed a semi-structured interview at baseline, and questionnaires assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and behavior problems were completed prior to treatment, at treatment midpoint, after treatment completion, and at three months posttreatment. There were significant reductions in the symptoms of anxiety and depression reported by the children at completion of the intervention and at the three-month follow-up. Similarly, the parents reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and a reduction in behavior problems. No adverse events were reported. This CBT intervention for children with epilepsy and anxiety disorders appears to be safe, effective, and feasible and should be incorporated into future intervention studies.

  5. Effect of prenatal haloperidol exposure on behavioral alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K P; Singh, Mandavi

    2002-01-01

    Pregnant Charles-Foster rats were exposed to haloperidol (HAL), a neuroleptic drug that binds to and blocks dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (intraperitoneally) from Gestation Day (GD) 12 to 20. The animals from both treated as well as vehicle control groups were allowed to deliver on GD 21. The offspring culled at birth on the basis of sex and weight were subjected to behavioral tests at the age of 8 weeks. The HAL-treated rat offspring showed a significant increase in anxiogenic behavior on the open field, elevated plus-maze and elevated zero-maze tests when compared with the vehicle-treated (control) rat offspring of the same age group. These findings suggest that prenatal exposure to HAL during a critical period of brain development leaves a lasting imprint on the brain, resulting in abnormal anxiety states, possibly through dopaminergic neurotransmission mechanisms.

  6. Increasing Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis is Sufficient to Reduce Anxiety and Depression-Like Behaviors.

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    Hill, Alexis S; Sahay, Amar; Hen, René

    2015-09-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is increased by antidepressants, and is required for some of their behavioral effects. However, it remains unclear whether expanding the population of adult-born neurons is sufficient to affect anxiety and depression-related behavior. Here, we use an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the pro-apoptotic gene Bax is deleted from neural stem cells and their progeny in the adult brain, and thereby increases adult neurogenesis. We find no effects on baseline anxiety and depression-related behavior; however, we find that increasing adult neurogenesis is sufficient to reduce anxiety and depression-related behaviors in mice treated chronically with corticosterone (CORT), a mouse model of stress. Thus, neurogenesis differentially affects behavior under baseline conditions and in a model of chronic stress. Moreover, we find no effect of increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, either at baseline or following chronic CORT administration, suggesting that increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis can affect anxiety and depression-related behavior through a mechanism independent of the HPA axis. The use of future techniques to specifically inhibit BAX in the hippocampus could be used to augment adult neurogenesis, and may therefore represent a novel strategy to promote antidepressant-like behavioral effects.

  7. Targeted Behavioral Therapy for childhood generalized anxiety disorder: a time-series analysis of changes in anxiety and sleep.

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    Clementi, Michelle A; Alfano, Candice A

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the efficacy of Targeted Behavioral Therapy (TBT), a newly developed intervention targeting features of childhood generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Using a time-series design, 4 children (7-12 years) with primary GAD were treated with TBT, which includes sleep improvement strategies, systematic desensitization for reducing intolerance of uncertainty, and in vivo exposures for anxiety. Diagnostic interviews and questionnaires were administered at baseline, post-treatment and 3 months follow-up. Anxiety symptoms and sleep characteristics/problems were rated weekly during a 4-week baseline and 14-weeks of treatment. Two children remitted at post-treatment and no child had a GAD diagnosis at follow-up. Child but not parent report revealed improvements in both worry and sleep. Despite improvements from pre- to post-assessment, considerable symptom fluctuation observed during the baseline period preclude conclusion that symptom changes are specifically attributable to the course of treatment. Overall, preliminary support is provided for the efficacy of TBT for childhood GAD.

  8. Grooming analysis algorithm: use in the relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel N; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2013-03-01

    Increased anxiety is a classic effect of sleep deprivation. However, results regarding sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior are contradictory in rodent models. The grooming analysis algorithm is a method developed to examine anxiety-like behavior and stress in rodents, based on grooming characteristics and microstructure. This study evaluated the applicability of the grooming analysis algorithm to distinguish sleep-deprived and control rats in comparison to traditional grooming analysis. Forty-six animals were distributed into three groups: control (n=22), paradoxical sleep-deprived (96 h, n=10) and total sleep deprived (6 h, n=14). Immediately after the sleep deprivation protocol, grooming was evaluated using both the grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures (grooming latency, frequency and duration). Results showed that both paradoxical sleep-deprived and total sleep-deprived groups displayed grooming in a fragmented framework when compared to control animals. Variables from the grooming analysis algorithm were successful in distinguishing sleep-deprived and normal sleep animals regarding anxiety-like behavior. The grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures were strongly correlated. In conclusion, the grooming analysis algorithm is a reliable method to assess the relationship between anxiety-like behavior and sleep deprivation.

  9. The impact of cognitive behavioral therapy on post event processing among those with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2011-02-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment.

  10. Brief cognitive behavior therapy in patients with social anxiety disorder: A preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikant G Pinjarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT is the treatment of choice in anxiety disorders. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness brief CBT in social anxiety. Aims: We examined the effectiveness of a brief CBT of six sessions in patients with social anxiety disorder. Settings and Design: A single case design study baseline; post and 1 month follow-up was adopted. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of social anxiety underwent 6 weekly sessions of brief CBT. Their diagnosis was confirmed using structured diagnostic interviews. They were assessed at baseline, post and 1-month follow-up on CGI- Severity, Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, Social Phobia Rating Scale, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Beck′s Depression Inventory. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using the method of clinical significance. Results: Results indicated that brief CBT was effective in reducing social anxiety in all patients. Brief CBT was also effective in reducing social avoidance and self consciousness. However, brief CBT was not effective in reducing fear of negative evaluation in all patients, suggesting the need for longer duration for cognitive changes in some dysfunctional beliefs. Conclusions: This preliminary case series indicates that brief CBT may be a promising and a cost and time effective approach to managing for social anxiety.

  11. Artificially reared mice exhibit anxiety-like behavior in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    It is important to establish experimental animal techniques that are applicable to the newborn and infant phases for nutrition and pharmacological studies. Breeding technology using the artificial suckling method without breast milk is very effective for the study of newborn nutrition. Using this method, we separated newborn mice from dams within 48 h of birth and provided them with artificial milk. We evaluated mouse anxiety levels after early postnatal maternal separation. Artificially rear...

  12. Associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors, anxiety and its precursors in early childhood: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Eline L; Nikolić, Milica; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-04-01

    In this meta-analysis we investigated differential associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors (overcontrol, overprotection, overinvolvement, autonomy granting, challenging parenting) and anxiety and its precursors (fearful temperament, behavioral inhibition, shyness) in children (0-5years). Two meta-analyses were conducted, one for mothers (k=28, N=5,728), and one for fathers (k=12, N=1,019). In general, associations between parenting and child anxiety were small. Associations between child anxiety and overcontrol, overprotection, and overinvolvement did not differ for mothers and fathers. Maternal autonomy granting was not significantly related to child anxiety, and no studies examined fathers' autonomy granting. A significant difference was found for challenging parenting; mothers' challenging parenting was not significantly related to child anxiety, whereas fathers' challenging parenting was related to less child anxiety. Post-hoc meta-analyses revealed that mothers' and fathers' parenting was more strongly related to children's anxiety symptoms than to child anxiety precursors. Moreover, the association between parenting and child anxiety symptoms was stronger for fathers than for mothers. In conclusion, although parenting plays only a small role in early childhood anxiety, fathers' parenting is at least as important as mothers'. Paternal challenging behavior even seems more important than maternal challenging behavior. Research is needed to determine whether challenging fathering can prevent child anxiety development.

  13. Prototypical anxiolytics do not reduce anxiety-like behavior in the open field in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Trey; Grabowski-Boase, Laura; Tarantino, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding and effectively treating anxiety disorders are a challenge for both scientists and clinicians. Despite a variety of available therapies, the efficacy of current treatments is still not optimal and adverse side effects can result in non-compliance. Animal models have been useful for studying the underlying biology of anxiety and assessing the anxiolytic properties of potential therapeutics. The open field (OF) is a commonly used assay of anxiety-like behavior. The OF was developed and validated in rats and then transferred to use in the mouse with only limited validation. The present study tests the efficacy of prototypical benzodiazepine anxiolytics, chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and diazepam (DZ), for increasing center time in the OF in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Multiple doses of CDP and DZ did not change time spent in the center of the OF. Increasing illumination in the OF did not alter these results. The non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic, buspirone (BUSP) also failed to increase center time in the OF while the anxiogenic meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) increased center time. Additional inbred mouse strains, BALB/cJ (BALB) and DBA/2J (D2) did not show any change in center time in response to CDP. Moreover, evaluation of CDP in B6 mice in the elevated plus maze (EPM), elevated zero maze (EZM) and light dark assay (LD) did not reveal changes in anxiety-like behavior while stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was decreased by DZ. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies suggest that adequate CDP is present to induce anxiolysis. We conclude that the measure of center time in the OF does not show predictive validity for anxiolysis in these inbred mouse strains.

  14. Cannabinoids Prevent the Development of Behavioral and Endocrine Alterations in a Rat Model of Intense Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganon-Elazar, Eti; Akirav, Irit

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids have recently emerged as a possible treatment of stress- and anxiety-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined whether cannabinoid receptor activation could prevent the effects of traumatic stress on the development of behavioral and neuroendocrine measures in a rat model of PTSD, the single-prolonged stress (SPS) model. Rats were injected with the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) systemically or into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) at different time points following SPS exposure and were tested 1 week later for inhibitory avoidance (IA) conditioning and extinction, acoustic startle response (ASR), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, and anxiety levels. Exposure to SPS enhanced conditioned avoidance and impaired extinction while enhancing ASR, negative feedback on the HPA axis, and anxiety. WIN (0.5 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally 2 or 24 h (but not 48 h) after SPS prevented the trauma-induced alterations in IA conditioning and extinction, ASR potentiation, and HPA axis inhibition. WIN microinjected into the BLA (5 μg/side) prevented SPS-induced alterations in IA and ASR. These effects were blocked by intra-BLA co-administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (0.3 ng/side), suggesting the involvement of CB1 receptors. These findings suggest that (i) there may be an optimal time window for intervention treatment with cannabinoids after exposure to a highly stressful event, (ii) some of the preventive effects induced by WIN are mediated by an activation of CB1 receptors in the BLA, and (iii) cannabinoids could serve as a pharmacological treatment of stress- and trauma-related disorders. PMID:21918506

  15. Grape powder treatment prevents anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Ali, Quaisar; Pokkunuri, Indira; Asghar, Mohammad; Salim, Samina

    2015-06-01

    Earlier, we have reported that grape powder (GP) treatment prevented pharmacologic and psychological stress-induced anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment in rats. Protective effects of GP were attributed to its antioxidant effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that age-associated behavioral and cognitive deficits such as anxiety and memory impairment will be ameliorated with GP treatment. Using a National Institute of Aging recommended rodent model of aging, we examined a potentially protective role of antioxidant-rich GP in age-associated anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: young rats (3 months old) provided with tap water or with 15 g/L GP dissolved in tap water for 3 weeks, aged rats (21 months old) provided with tap water or with GP-treated tap water for 3 weeks (AG-GP). Anxiety-like behavior was significantly greater in aged rats compared with young rats, GP-treated young rats, or aged control rats (P treatment prevented age-induced anxiety-like behavior in AG-GP rats (P treatment in AG-GP rats. Furthermore, aged rats showed increased level of physiological stress (corticosterone) and increased oxidative stress in the plasma (8-isoprostane) as well as in selected brain areas (protein carbonylation). Grape powder treatment prevented age-induced increase in corticosterone levels and plasma 8-isoprostane levels in aged rats (P anxiety-like behavior in rats, whereas age-associated memory deficits seem unaffected with GP treatment.

  16. Effects of yokukansan on anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of cerebrovascular dementia.

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    Nogami, Ai; Sakata, Yuri; Uchida, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Kazuko; Kawasaki, Chihiro; Shindo, Taro; Kubota, Kaori; Katsurabayashi, Shutaro; Takasaki, Kotaro; Mishima, Kenichi; Nishimura, Ryoji; Fujiwara, Michihiro; Iwasaki, Katsunori

    2011-04-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are commonly seen in patients with dementia. Current pharmacological approaches to treatment are inadequate, despite the availability of serotonergic agents to ameliorate anxiety, one of the symptoms of BPSD. The herbal medicine yokukansan has been demonstrated to improve BPSD in a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study. However, the mechanisms of the anxiolytic effect of yokukansan have not been clarified. There are also no reports on the anxiolytic effect of yokukansan in cerebrovascular ischemia models. In this study, we examined whether rats subjected to repeated cerebral ischemia exhibited anxiety-like behavior in a plus-maze task, a light/dark box test and an open-field task. We then investigated the effect of yokukansan on anxiety-like behavior in ischemic rats. Repeated ischemia was induced by the four-vessel occlusion method in which a 10-min ischemic episode was repeated once after 60 min. Yokukansan was orally administered once a day for 14 days from 7 days before ischemia induction. The last administration was performed 1 h before the behavioral experiments. The ischemic rats showed anxiety-like behavior in all three tasks, suggesting that this rat may be a good model for anxiety in cerebrovascular dementia. Yokukansan exhibited anxiolytic effects on the anxiety-like behavior in rats subjected to repeated cerebral ischemia, and exerted antagonistic effects on the wet-dog shakes induced by 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-indophenyl)-2-amino propane, a serotonin receptor (5-HT(2A)) agonist. This study revealed that yokukansan shows anxiolytic effects not only in normal animals but also in cerebrovascular model rats.

  17. Reductions in the diurnal rigidity of anxiety predict treatment outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aaron J; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-04-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic and disabling disorder which is characterized by worrisome mentation about future outcomes. Because the evocative stimuli in GAD are largely internally derived, the feared outcomes contained in worry episodes can be invoked--and responded to--regardless of external context. We hypothesized that individuals with GAD would be entrained to internally-regulated, fixed patterns of anxiety on a day-to-day basis and that successful therapeutic intervention would serve to mitigate this entrainment. Thus, the present study examined the constructs of flexibility and rigidity as they apply to the daily fluctuation of anxious symptoms in individuals with GAD. We aimed to demonstrate that an apparently variable system can be conceptualized as rigid when the variability maps onto stable and predictable periodic oscillations. Sixty-nine individuals completed cognitive-behavioral treatment for GAD. Average age was 36.62 years (SD = 11.56), and participants were mostly Caucasian (89.5%) and female (68.4%). Daily-diary data indicating level of anxiety on a 0 to 100-point scale and collected four times per day were subjected to spectral analysis in order to determine the spectral power attributable to daily oscillations--which was related to the degree of rigidity in daily anxiety. Diurnal rigidity decreased throughout therapy and the degree to which rigidity was reduced significantly predicted reliable change at post-treatment. Thus, symptom rigidity can be conceptualized as stable periodic fluctuation and is discernible from other metrics of volatility in repeated measures data. Moreover, diurnal rigidity is significantly reduced during treatment, facilitating flexible responding to environmental demands.

  18. Individual differences in behavioral and cardiovascular reactivity to emotive stimuli and their relationship to cognitive flexibility in a primate model of trait anxiety.

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    Yoshiro eShiba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High trait anxiety is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Like the disorders themselves high trait anxiety has marked phenotypic variation at the level of symptomatology and neural circuits, suggesting that there may be different symptoms and distinct neural circuits associated with risk for these disorders. To address these issues, it is essential to develop reliable animal models of trait anxiety in a non-human primate whose brain bears structural and functional similarity to humans. The present study investigated individual variation in responsivity to fearful and anxiety provoking stimuli in the common marmoset monkey. Seven out of 27 animals failed to display discriminative, conditioned cardiovascular and behavioral responses on an auditory fear discrimination task, similar to that seen in high anxious humans and rodents. Their heightened emotionality to a rubber snake was consistent with the hypothesis that they were high in trait-like anxiety. Evidence for phenotypic variation in the high anxiety group was provided by the finding that discrimination failure was predicted early in conditioning by either hyper-vigilant scanning to the cues or a reduction in blood pressure to the context, i.e. test apparatus. Given that high trait anxiety in humans can be associated with altered prefrontal cognitive functioning and previously we implicated the marmoset anterior orbitofrontal (antOFC and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC in negative emotion regulation, we also tested the marmosets on two tests of cognitive flexibility differentially dependent on these two regions. While the high anxious group did not differ overall in their perseverative performance, the two distinct phenotypes were differentially correlated with reduced perseverative responding on the OFC- and vlPFC-dependent flexibility tests. Together, this study provides a new model of trait anxiety in marmosets amenable to analysis of phenotypic variation and

  19. Hoarding in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Anxiety: Incidence, Clinical Correlates, and Behavioral Treatment Response.

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    Storch, Eric A; Nadeau, Joshua M; Johnco, Carly; Timpano, Kiara; McBride, Nicole; Jane Mutch, P; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of hoarding among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder were administered a battery of clinician-administered measures assessing presence of psychiatric disorders and anxiety severity. Parents completed questionnaires related to child hoarding behaviors, social responsiveness, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and functional impairment. We examined the impact of hoarding behaviors on treatment response in a subsample of twenty-six youth who completed a course of personalized cognitive-behavioral therapy targeting anxiety symptoms. Hoarding symptoms were common and occurred in a clinically significant manner in approximately 25 % of cases. Overall hoarding severity was associated with increased internalizing and anxiety/depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and attention problems. Discarding items was associated with internalizing and anxious/depressive symptoms, but acquisition was not. Hoarding decreased following cognitive-behavioral therapy but did not differ between treatment responders and non-responders. These data are among the first to examine hoarding among youth with ASD; implications of study findings and future directions are highlighted.

  20. From the Behavioral Pharmacology of Beta-Carbolines to Seizures, Anxiety, and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Venault

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of beta-carbolines are inverse agonists of the GABA-A receptor complex, acting on the benzodiazepine site. They show convulsive properties when administered at high doses, anxiogenic properties at moderate doses, and learning-enhancing effects at low doses. These data suggest a possible physiological relationship, through the GABA-A receptor channel, between memory processes, anxiety, and ultimately, in pathological states, epileptic seizures. This relationship seems to be confirmed partially by experiments on mouse strains selected for their resistance (BR and sensitivity (BS to a single convulsive dose of a beta-carboline. These two strains also show differences in anxiety and learning abilities. However, some opposite results found while observing the behavior of the two strains suggest that in addition to pharmacologically induced anxiety, there is spontaneous anxiety, no doubt involving other brain mechanisms.

  1. Putative Epigenetic Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in Anxiety- and Depression-Related Behaviors Caused by Nicotine as a Stressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Hayase

    Full Text Available Like various stressors, the addictive use of nicotine (NC is associated with emotional symptoms such as anxiety and depression, although the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated due to the complicated involvement of target neurotransmitter systems. In the elicitation of these emotional symptoms, the fundamental involvement of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation has recently been suggested. Furthermore, among the interacting neurotransmitter systems implicated in the effects of NC and stressors, the endocannabinoid (ECB system is considered to contribute indispensably to anxiety and depression. In the present study, the epigenetic involvement of histone acetylation induced by histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors was investigated in anxiety- and depression-related behavioral alterations caused by NC and/or immobilization stress (IM. Moreover, based on the contributing roles of the ECB system, the interacting influence of ECB ligands on the effects of HDAC inhibitors was evaluated in order to examine epigenetic therapeutic interventions. Anxiety-like (elevated plus-maze test and depression-like (forced swimming test behaviors, which were observed in mice treated with repeated (4 days NC (subcutaneous 0.8 mg/kg and/or IM (10 min, were blocked by the HDAC inhibitors sodium butyrate (SB and valproic acid (VA. The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 agonist ACPA (arachidonylcyclopropylamide; AC also antagonized these behaviors. Conversely, the CB1 antagonist SR 141716A (SR, which counteracted the effects of AC, attenuated the anxiolytic-like effects of the HDAC inhibitors commonly in the NC and/or IM groups. SR also attenuated the antidepressant-like effects of the HDAC inhibitors, most notably in the IM group. From these results, the combined involvement of histone acetylation and ECB system was shown in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. In the NC treatment groups, the limited influence of SR against the HDAC inhibitor

  2. Oxytocin in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex reduces anxiety-like behavior in female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabihi, Sara; Durosko, Nicole E; Dong, Shirley M; Leuner, Benedetta

    2014-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is anxiolytic in rodents and humans. However, the specific brain regions where OT acts to regulate anxiety requires further investigation. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been shown to play a role in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior. In addition, the mPFC contains OT-sensitive neurons, expresses OT receptors, and receives long range axonal projections from OT-producing neurons in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the mPFC may be a target where OT acts to diminish anxiety. To investigate this possibility, female rats were administered OT bilaterally into the prelimbic (PL) region of the mPFC and anxiety-like behavior assessed. In addition, to determine if the effects of OT on anxiety-like behavior are sex dependent and to evaluate the specificity of OT, male and female anxiety-like behavior was tested following delivery of either OT or the closely related neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) into the PL mPFC. Finally, the importance of endogenous OT in the regulation of anxiety-like behavior was examined in male and female rats that received PL infusions of an OT receptor antagonist (OTR-A). Overall, even though males and females showed some differences in their baseline levels of anxiety-like behavior, OT in the PL region of the mPFC decreased anxiety regardless of sex. In contrast, neither AVP nor an OTR-A affected anxiety-like behavior in males or females. Together, these findings suggest that although endogenous OT in the PL region of the mPFC does not influence anxiety, the PL mPFC is a site where exogenous OT may act to attenuate anxiety-related behavior independent of sex.

  3. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  4. Resistant Starch Alters the Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis: Implications for Dietary Modulation of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, Mark; Chapel, Ashley; Lyte, Joshua M; Ai, Yongfeng; Proctor, Alexandra; Jane, Jay-Lin; Phillips, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The increasing recognition that the gut microbiota plays a central role in behavior and cognition suggests that the manipulation of microbial taxa through diet may provide a means by which behavior may be altered in a reproducible and consistent manner in order to achieve a beneficial outcome for the host. Resistant starch continues to receive attention as a dietary intervention that can benefit the host through mechanisms that include altering the intestinal microbiota. Given the interest in dietary approaches to improve health, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of dietary resistant starch in mice to alter the gut microbiota also results in a change in behavior. Forty-eight 6 week-old male Swiss-Webster mice were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (n = 16 per group) and fed either a normal corn starch diet (NCS) or diets rich in resistant starches HA7 diet (HA7) or octenyl-succinate HA7 diet (OS-HA7) for 6 week and monitored for weight, behavior and fecal microbiota composition. Animals fed an HA7 diet displayed comparable weight gain over the feeding period to that recorded for NCS-fed animals while OS-HA7 displayed a lower weight gain as compared to either NCS or HA7 animals (ANOVA p = 0.0001; NCS:HA7 p = 0.244; HA7:OS-HA7 pBehavioral analysis revealed that animals demonstrated profound anxiety-like behavior as observed by performance on the elevated-plus maze with time spent by the mice in the open arm (ANOVA p = 0.000; NCS:HA7 p = 0.004; NCS:OS-HA7 p = 1.000; HA7:OS-HA7 p = 0.0001) as well as entries in the open arm (ANOVA p = 0.039; NCS:HA7 p = 0.041; HA7:OS-HA7 p = 0.221; NCS:OS-HA7 p = 1.000). Open-field behavior, a measure of general locomotion and exploration, revealed statistically significant differences between groups in locomotion as a measure of transitions across quadrant boundaries. Additionally, the open-field assay revealed decreased exploration as well as decreased rearing in HA7 and OS-HA7 fed mice demonstrating a

  5. Resistant Starch Alters the Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis: Implications for Dietary Modulation of Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lyte

    Full Text Available The increasing recognition that the gut microbiota plays a central role in behavior and cognition suggests that the manipulation of microbial taxa through diet may provide a means by which behavior may be altered in a reproducible and consistent manner in order to achieve a beneficial outcome for the host. Resistant starch continues to receive attention as a dietary intervention that can benefit the host through mechanisms that include altering the intestinal microbiota. Given the interest in dietary approaches to improve health, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of dietary resistant starch in mice to alter the gut microbiota also results in a change in behavior. Forty-eight 6 week-old male Swiss-Webster mice were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (n = 16 per group and fed either a normal corn starch diet (NCS or diets rich in resistant starches HA7 diet (HA7 or octenyl-succinate HA7 diet (OS-HA7 for 6 week and monitored for weight, behavior and fecal microbiota composition. Animals fed an HA7 diet displayed comparable weight gain over the feeding period to that recorded for NCS-fed animals while OS-HA7 displayed a lower weight gain as compared to either NCS or HA7 animals (ANOVA p = 0.0001; NCS:HA7 p = 0.244; HA7:OS-HA7 p<0.0001; NCS:OS-HA7 p<0.0001. Analysis of fecal microbiota using 16s rRNA gene taxonomic profiling revealed that each diet corresponded with a unique gut microbiota. The distribution of taxonomic classes was dynamic over the 6 week feeding period for each of the diets. At the end of the feeding periods, the distribution of taxa included statistically significant increases in members of the phylum Proteobacteria in OS-HA7 fed mice, while the Verrucomicrobia increased in HA7 fed mice over that of mice fed OS-HA7. At the class level, members of the class Bacilli decreased in the OS-HA7 fed group, and Actinobacteria, which includes the genus Bifidobacteria, was enriched in the HA7 fed group compared to

  6. Magnesium deficiency induces anxiety-and depression-like behavior and metabolic dysfunction in C57Bl/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.; Wang, T.; Singewald, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are indications that balance of magnesium (Mg) ions may regulate mood. Magnesium deficiency is also linked with altered glucose metabolism and an inflammatory response in the gut. In addition, mood disorders have been linked to a dysfunctional metabolism. Aim: In this study we...... investigated the involvement of Mg in regulating depression-and anxiety-like behaviour and metabolism, by using mice that have been deprived of dietary Mg and studying several behavioral and metabolic markers. Methods: We examined the behavioral effects of Mg deficiency (deprival of dietary Mg for 6 weeks...... metabolic function in Mg deficient mice. Results: We found that, compared to control (n=10), mice receiving Mg deficient diet (n=10) (10 % RDA), were more immobile in the forced swim test....

  7. Parental educational practices in relation to children's anxiety disorder-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Robert C; Moutavelis, Adrianos G

    2011-08-01

    Schoolchildren reported their parents' use of aversive control and positive reinforcement contingencies in their educational interventions, as well as parental non-responsiveness to their requests for educational assistance. They also reported their own levels of six dimensions of anxiety disorder-related phenomena. Both parental use of aversive control and non-responsiveness were directly related to overall levels of child anxiety disorder-related behavior; these correlations were more robust than those observed in previous investigations of more diffuse dimensions of parenting style and trait anxiety. Panic disorder/agoraphobia and Generalized anxiety disorder were the dimensions most strongly correlated with both parental aversive control and non-responsiveness, while Compulsive behavior was uniquely uncorrelated with parental non-responsiveness and uniquely correlated with parental use of positive reinforcement contingencies. Differences in the magnitudes of correlations between anxiety disorder-related dimensions and parental educational practices are interpreted in terms of the probable differential effectiveness of their constituent behaviors in terminating parent-mediated negative reinforcers.

  8. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz, Gözde; Altiparmak, Ersin; Aşçı, F Hülya

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI). 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification. Key pointsNormal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons.Underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation.Underweighted participants had higher dispositional flow.Underweighted participants have lower social physique anxiety scores than normal weighted, overweight and obese participants.

  9. Attention Bias Modification Treatment for children with anxiety disorders who do not respond to cognitive behavioral therapy: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechor, Michele; Pettit, Jeremy W; Silverman, Wendy K; Bar-Haim, Yair; Abend, Rany; Pine, Daniel S; Vasey, Michael W; Jaccard, James

    2014-03-01

    Evidence is emerging to support the promise of Attention Bias Modification Treatment (ABMT), a computer-based attention training program, in reducing anxiety in children. ABMT has not been tested as an adjuvant for children with anxiety disorders who do not respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This case series presents findings from an open trial of ABMT among six children (four girls; M age = 11.2 years) who completed a CBT protocol and continued to meet diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder. All children completed the ABMT protocol with no canceled or missed sessions. Child self-ratings on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms significantly decreased from pretreatment to posttreatment, as did parent ratings on child anxiety-related impairment. Parent ratings on child anxiety and internalizing symptoms displayed non-significant decreases from pretreatment to posttreatment. These findings support the potential promise of ABMT as a feasible adjuvant treatment that reduces anxiety and impairment among child anxiety CBT nonresponders.

  10. The Survey of Behavioral Systems in Relation to Test Anxiety: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir ABDOLHOSSEINI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to compare the behavioral activation systems between students with test anxiety (TA and without TA. Methods: This study included undergraduate students registered at the Medical Science University of during 2009-2010. The selected female students (N=300 completed Test Anxiety Scale (TAS and Gray-Wilson personality questionnaire (GWPQ and 100 students who have obtained the lowest and highest scores in TA questionnaire, were further compared according to Grays Brine-Behavioral questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a T-test. Results: The results showed that samples were significantly different in total scores of Gray-Wilson personality questionnaire. In terms of subscales of Gray-Wilson personality questionnaire, there was a significant difference between the two groups in the behavioral inhabitation system (BIS and fight -flight system (FFS but no significant differences found between two groups in the behavioral activation system (BAS. Conclusion: Test Anxiety was corresponded with brain systems behavior theory, and anxiety increased in the avoidance system activation.

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Youth with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles, Robert R.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed…

  12. Associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors, anxiety and its precursors in early childhood: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Möller; M. Nikolić; M. Majdandžić; S.M. Bögels

    2016-01-01

    In this meta-analysis we investigated differential associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors (overcontrol, overprotection, overinvolvement, autonomy granting, challenging parenting) and anxiety and its precursors (fearful temperament, behavioral inhibition, shyness) in children

  13. Benefits of agomelatine in behavioral, neurochemical and blood brain barrier alterations in prenatal valproic acid induced autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, B M; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2015-12-01

    Valproic acid administration during gestational period causes behavior and biochemical deficits similar to those observed in humans with autism spectrum disorder. Although worldwide prevalence of autism spectrum disorder has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the social impairment are very limited. The present study has been structured to investigate the therapeutic potential of melatonin receptor agonist, agomelatine in prenatal valproic acid (Pre-VPA) induced autism spectrum disorder in animals. Pre-VPA has produced reduction in social interaction (three chamber social behavior apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complex I, II, IV). Furthermore, Pre-VPA has increased locomotor activity (actophotometer), anxiety, brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, and catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium levels and blood brain barrier leakage in animals. Treatment with agomelatine has significantly attenuated Pre-VPA induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, agomelatine also attenuated Pre-VPA induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium levels and blood brain barrier leakage. It is concluded that, Pre-VPA has induced autism spectrum disorder, which was attenuated by agomelatine. Agomelatine has shown ameliorative effect on behavioral, neurochemical and blood brain barrier alteration in Pre-VPA exposed animals. Thus melatonin receptor agonists may provide beneficial therapeutic strategy for managing autism spectrum disorder.

  14. Mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy in patients with anxiety disorders: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra P Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MBCBT for reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety and modifying dysfunctional cognitions in patients with anxiety disorders. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Four patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Three patients received a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, while the fourth patient was diagnosed with Panic Disorder. Patients were assessed on the Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ, Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ, Hamilton′s Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A, and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding nature of anxiety, training in different versions of mindfulness meditation, cognitive restructuring, and strategies to handle worry, such as, worry postponement, worry exposure, and problem solving. A total of 23 sessions over four to six weeks were conducted for each patient. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the available research, and implications and limitations are highlighted along with suggestions for future research.

  15. The effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety on sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Jeremy S; Carper, Matthew M; Elkins, R Meredith; Comer, Jonathan S; Pincus, Donna B; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (a) whether sleep related problems (SRPs) improved following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with anxiety disorders, (b) whether variables that may link anxiety and SRPs (e.g., pre-sleep arousal, family accommodation, sleep hygiene) changed during treatment, and (c) whether such changes predicted SRPs at posttreatment. Youth were diagnosed with anxiety at pretreatment and received weekly CBT that targeted their principal anxiety diagnosis at one of two specialty clinics (N=69 completers, Mage=10.86). Results indicated that parent-reported SRPs improved from pre- to post-treatment and that treatment responders with regard to anxiety yielded greater SRP improvements than nonresponders. Parent report of bedtime resistance and sleep anxiety showed significant improvements. Youth reported lower rates of SRPs compared to their parents and did not demonstrate pre- to post-treatment changes in SRPs. Pre-sleep arousal and family accommodation decreased over treatment but did not predict lower SRPs at posttreatment. Higher accommodation was correlated with greater SRPs. Sleep hygiene evidenced no change and did not mediate links between accommodation and posttreatment SRPs.

  16. Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) injury induces chronic facial pain and susceptibility to anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, D N; Kniffin, T C; Zhang, L P; Danaher, R J; Miller, C S; Bocanegra, J L; Carlson, C R; Westlund, K N

    2015-06-04

    Our laboratory previously developed a novel neuropathic and inflammatory facial pain model for mice referred to as the Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) model. Rather than inducing whole nerve ischemia and neuronal loss, this injury induces only slight peripheral nerve demyelination triggering long-term mechanical allodynia and cold hypersensitivity on the ipsilateral whisker pad. The aim of the present study is to further characterize the phenotype of the TIC injury model using specific behavioral assays (i.e. light-dark box, open field exploratory activity, and elevated plus maze) to explore pain- and anxiety-like behaviors associated with this model. Our findings determined that the TIC injury produces hypersensitivity 100% of the time after surgery that persists at least 21 weeks post injury (until the animals are euthanized). Three receptive field sensitivity pattern variations in mice with TIC injury are specified. Animals with TIC injury begin displaying anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box preference and open field exploratory tests at week eight post injury as compared to sham and naïve animals. Panic anxiety-like behavior was shown in the elevated plus maze in mice with TIC injury if the test was preceded with acoustic startle. Thus, in addition to mechanical and cold hypersensitivity, the present study identified significant anxiety-like behaviors in mice with TIC injury resembling the clinical symptomatology and psychosocial impairments of patients with chronic facial pain. Overall, the TIC injury model's chronicity, reproducibility, and reliability in producing pain- and anxiety-like behaviors demonstrate its usefulness as a chronic neuropathic facial pain model.

  17. Anxiety sensitivity uniquely predicts exercise behaviors in young adults seeking to increase physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshier, S.J.; Szuhany, K.L.; Hearon, B.A.; Smits, J.A.J.; Otto, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS) may be motivated to avoid aversive emotional or physical states, and therefore may have greater difficulty achieving healthy behavioral change. This may be particularly true for exercise, which produces many of the somatic sensations withi

  18. Anxiety and the Use of Alcohol-Related Protective Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2015-01-01

    Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are useful skills for reducing the negative consequences of alcohol. The moderating effects of anxiety on the relationship between 3 different types of PBS and negative consequences were examined among students accessing college counseling services. Results revealed a significant interaction between anxiety…

  19. Behavioral profiles of genetically selected aggressive and nonaggressive male wild house mice in two anxiety tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, S; Wurbel, H; Steimer, T; de Ruiter, A; Koolhaas, J; Sluyter, F; Driscoll, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Artificially selected aggressive (SAL) and non-aggressive (LAL) male house mice were tested in a hexagonal tunnel maze and light-dark preference (LD) box to determine if the bidirectional selection for aggressive behavior leads to a coselection for different levels of trait anxiety. The tunnel maze

  20. D-cycloserine augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, S.; Otto, M.W.; Pollack, M.H.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a generally effective treatment for treating anxiety disorders, there is clearly still room for further improvements. Recent advances in neuroscience of extinction learning led to novel clinical strategies to augment exposure-based treatments with d-cyc

  1. Anxiety sensitivity and working memory capacity: Risk factors and targets for health behavior promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, M.W.; Eastman, A.; Lo, S.; Hearon, B.A.; Bickel, W.K.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.; Doan, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature and influence of specific risk profiles is increasingly important for health behavior promotion. The purpose of this article is to document the value of two factors - anxiety sensitivity (AS) and working memory capacity (WMC) - for enhancing risk for the initiation and/or ma

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Techniques on Anxiety and Depression in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem SOYLU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are generally considered to be the most important psychopathological comorbidities of cancer patients and experienced by approximately one-third of cancer patients. In the literature, studies have reported that patient characteristics such as gender, age, education level and disease characteristics such as recurrence, stage of cancer and metestazis are associated with anxiety and depression among cancer patients. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT and techniques are one of the most frequently used approach in studying the effects of psychological intervention on anxiety and depression in cancer patients and its value has been demonstrated in reducing distress with diverse cancer populations. The aim of cognitive-behavioral interventions is to change particular thoughts and behaviors and teach specific coping skills, such as cognitive restructuring, behavior modification, relaxation training and activity plan by using specific techniques. Cognitive restructing, stress management and desensitization, relaxation and activity scheduling with use of diary sheet are most used among CBT techniques. This review summarizes the diagnosis, prevalence, risk factors and treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with cancer and CBT techniques applied to these symptoms and study findings related to treatment.

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Joane; Dugas, Michel J.; Marchand, Andre; Letarte, Andree

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment package for comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). A single-case, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used with 3 primary GAD patients with secondary PDA. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated with…

  4. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…

  5. Mediated Moderation in Combined Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Component Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…

  6. Virtual Reality Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Helene S.; Safir, Marilyn P.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2009-01-01

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common phobia. Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is preferred, difficulties arise with the exposure component (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, loss of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT (VRCBT) enables a high degree of therapist…

  7. Cognitive behavioral therapy age effects in child and adolescent anxiety : An individual patient data metaanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, Kathryn; Manassis, Katharina; Walter, Stephen D.; Cheung, Amy; Wilansky-Traynor, Pamela; Diaz-Granados, Natalia; Duda, Stephanie; Rice, Maureen; Baer, Susan; Barrett, Paula; Bodden, Denise; Cobham, Vanessa E.; Dadds, Mark R.; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Ginsburg, Golda; Heyne, David; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.; Liber, Juliette; Warner, Carrie Masia; Mendlowitz, Sandra; Nauta, Maaike H.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Silverman, Wendy; Siqueland, Lynne; Spence, Susan H.; Utens, Elisabeth; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Investigations of age effects on youth anxiety outcomes in randomized trials (RCTs) of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have failed to yield a clear result due to inadequate statistical power and methodologic weaknesses. We conducted an individual patient data metaanalysis to address this

  8. Cognitive behavioral therapy age effects in child and adolescent anxiety: An individual patient data metaanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, K.; Manassis, K.; Walter, S.D.; Cheung, A.; Wilansky-Traynor, P.; Diaz-Granados, N.; Duda, S.; Rice, M.; Baer, S.; Barrett, P.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Cobham, V.E.; Dadds, M.R.; Flannery-Schroeder, E.; Ginsburg, G.; Heyne, D.; Hudson, J.L.; Kendall, P.C.; Liber, J.; Masia-Warner, C.; Mendlowitz, S.; Nauta, M.H.; Rapee, R.M.; Silverman, W.; Siqueland, L.; Spence, S.H.; Utens, E.; Wood, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Investigations of age effects on youth anxiety outcomes in randomized trials (RCTs) of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have failed to yield a clear result due to inadequate statistical power and methodologic weaknesses. We conducted an individual patient data metaanalysis to address this

  9. Children with Anxiety Disorders: Use of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model within a Social Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearny, Regina; Pawlukewicz, Justine; Guardino, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Because anxiety is the most common mental health disorder diagnosed in children, early intervention is crucial for fundamental coping. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the preferred treatment method for this affective disorder, instruction for children needs to be specific for them to successfully acquire and implement essential CBT…

  10. Facets of clinicians' anxiety and the delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levita, Liat; Salas Duhne, Paulina Gonzalez; Girling, Carla; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Psychological therapists commonly fail to adhere to treatment protocols in everyday clinical practice. In part, this pattern of drift is attributable to anxious therapists being less likely to undertake some elements of evidence-based therapies - particularly the exposure-based elements. This study considers what facets of anxiety (cognitive, behavioral, physiological) are related to junior clinicians' reported use of cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques. Thirty-two clinicians (mean age = 28.9 years; mean length of CBT experience = 1.5 years; 23 female, nine male) who offered CBT were assessed for their cognitive, behavioral and physiological characteristics (Intolerance of Uncertainty scale; risk taking; skin conductance response and heart rate variability). While the three different facets of anxiety were relatively poorly associated with each other, as is usual in this literature, each facet was linked differently to the reported delivery of CBT techniques (P < .05). Overall, higher anxiety levels were associated with a poorer use of exposure methods or with a greater use of other behavioral or cognitive methods. Of the three facets of anxiety, only physiological reactivity showed an association with the clinicians' temporal characteristics, with more experienced therapists being more likely to have greater skin conductance responses to positive and negative outcomes. These findings suggest that clinicians who are more anxious are less likely to deliver the full evidence-based form of CBT and to focus instead on less challenging elements of the therapy. Potential ways of overcoming this limitation are discussed.

  11. Friends or foes ? : predictors of treatment outcome of cognitieve behavioral therapy for childhood anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liber, Juliëtte Margo

    2008-01-01

    The present dissertation had as its central focus the prediction of outcome of the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. In the present study a selection of variables that were thought to have prognostic validity for successful cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) outcome were explored in a popu

  12. Behavioral Inhibition and Risk for Developing Social Anxiety Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Jacqueline A.; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral inhibition (BI) has been associated with increased risk for developing social anxiety disorder (SAD); however, the degree of risk associated with BI has yet to be systematically examined and quantified. The goal of the present study was to quantify the association between childhood BI and risk for developing SAD. Method: A…

  13. The Impact of Motivational Interviewing on Client Experiences of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Angela; Westra, Henny A.; Angus, Lynne; Marcus, Madalyn

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) has recently been applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders in an effort to bolster engagement with and response rates to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a recent randomized control trial, the addition of MI as a pretreatment compared to no pretreatment was found to significantly improve response to CBT…

  14. Virtual Reality Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: One-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safir, Marilyn P.; Wallach, Helene S.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2012-01-01

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common social phobia. Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice, difficulties arise with both in vivo and in vitro exposure (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, and a lack of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT…

  15. Effects of Premature Parental Death on Subjective Life Expectancy, Death Anxiety, and Health Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes-Raj, Veronika; Ehrlichman, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Subjective life expectancy, death anxiety, and health behavior were assessed in college students (n=36) with at least one parent who died prematurely of illness (PD group) and students (n=36) with both parents alive (PA group). PD group estimated their life expectancy to be shorter than the PA; subgroup of PD reported poorer diet. (Author/ABL)

  16. Psychodynamic psychotherapy versus cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder: An efficacy and partial effectiveness trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bögels; P. Wijts; F.J. Oort; S.J.M. Sallaerts

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Comparing the overall and differential effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) versus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Design: Patients with a primary SAD (N = 47) were randomly assigned to PDT (N = 22) or CBT (N = 27). Both PDT and CBT consisted o

  17. Neither state or trait anxiety alter the response to distracting emotionally neutral sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Robert; Hunter, Mike D; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory suggests that heightened anxiety, whether due to trait or state factors, causes an increased vulnerability to distraction even when the distracters are emotionally neutral. Recent passive oddball studies appear to support this theory in relation to the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds. However such studies have manipulated emotional state via the content of task stimuli, thus potentially confounding changes in emotion with differences in task demands. To identify the effect of anxiety on the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds, 50 participants completed a passive oddball task requiring emotionally neutral sounds to be ignored. Crucially, state anxiety was manipulated independent of the task stimuli (via unrelated audiovisual stimuli) thus removing confounds relating to task demands. Neither state or trait anxiety was found to influence the susceptibility to distraction by emotionally neutral sounds. These findings contribute to the ongoing debate concerning the impact of emotion on attention.

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy for public-speaking anxiety using virtual reality for exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Page L; Zimand, Elana; Hodges, Larry F; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    2005-01-01

    This study used an open clinical trial to test a cognitive-behavioral treatment for public-speaking anxiety that utilized virtual reality as a tool for exposure therapy. Treatment was completed by participants (n = 10) meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria for social phobia, or panic disorder with agoraphobia in which public speaking was the predominantly feared stimulus. Treatment was conducted by a licensed psychologist in an outpatient clinic. Treatment consisted of eight individual therapy sessions, including four sessions of anxiety management training and four sessions of exposure therapy using a virtual audience, according to a standardized treatment manual. Participants completed standardized self-report questionnaires assessing public-speaking anxiety at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants were asked to give a speech to an actual audience at pre- and post-treatment. Results showed decreases on all self-report measures of public-speaking anxiety from pre- to post-treatment, which were maintained at follow-up (n = 8; all P = 05). Participants were no more likely to complete a speech post-treatment than at pre-treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that a cognitive-behavioral treatment using virtual reality for exposure to public speaking may reduce public-speaking anxiety and suggests that further research with a controlled design is needed.

  19. Differential genetic regulation of motor activity and anxiety-related behaviors in mice using an automated home cage task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Martien J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, Annetrude J G; Olivier, Berend; Spruijt, Berry M; van Ree, Jan M

    2008-08-01

    Traditional behavioral tests, such as the open field test, measure an animal's responsiveness to a novel environment. However, it is generally difficult to assess whether the behavioral response obtained from these tests relates to the expression level of motor activity and/or to avoidance of anxiogenic areas. Here, an automated home cage environment for mice was designed to obtain independent measures of motor activity levels and of sheltered feeding preference during three consecutive days. Chronic treatment with the anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (5 and 10 mg/kg/day) in C57BL/6J mice reduced sheltered feeding preference without altering motor activity levels. Furthermore, two distinct chromosome substitution strains, derived from C57BL/6J (host strain) and A/J (donor strain) inbred strains, expressed either increased sheltering preference in females (chromosome 15) or reduced motor activity levels in females and males (chromosome 1) when compared to C57BL/6J. Longitudinal behavioral monitoring revealed that these phenotypic differences maintained after adaptation to the home cage. Thus, by using new automated behavioral phenotyping approaches, behavior can be dissociated into distinct behavioral domains (e.g., anxiety-related and motor activity domains) with different underlying genetic origin and pharmacological responsiveness.

  20. Behavioral Parenting Interventions for Child Disruptive Behaviors and Anxiety: What’s Different and What’s the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of parents in behavioral interventions with children’s disruptive and anxiety problems. The evolution of interventions for these two types of problems differs, as has the role of parents in these interventions. In contrast to the central role of parents in the conceptualization and treatment of disruptive behaviors, parents have played a more varied and less prominent role in the conceptualization and treatment of children’s anxiety. Furthermore, the literature involving parents in the treatment of children’s anxiety indicates these interventions are more efficacious than control groups but not more efficacious than intervening with the child alone. Some limited evidence emerges for parenting as a mediator in the treatment of disruptive behaviors, but not of anxiety, where the role of parenting has rarely been measured. Implications for conceptualizing the role of parents in intervention programs for youth are discussed and directions for future research are delineated (e.g., collecting long term follow-up data, examine moderators of treatment response, develop programs for comorbid diagnoses). PMID:23178234

  1. Neuropeptide AF induces anxiety-like and antidepressant-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotai, Miklós; Telegdy, Gyula; Tanaka, Masaru; Bagosi, Zsolt; Jászberényi, Miklós

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the action of neuropeptide AF (NPAF) on anxiety and depression. Only our previous study provides evidence that NPAF induces anxiety-like behavior in rats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the action of NPAF on depression-like behavior and the underlying neurotransmissions in mice. In order to determine whether there are species differences between rats and mice, we have investigated the action of NPAF on anxiety-like behavior in mice as well. A modified forced swimming test (mFST) and an elevated plus maze test (EPMT) were used to investigate the depression and anxiety-related behaviors, respectively. Mice were treated with NPAF 30min prior to the tests. In the mFST, the animals were pretreated with a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine, a non-selective 5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine, a mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, methysergide, a D2/D3/D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, a α1/α2β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin or a non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol 30min before the NPAF administration. In the mFST, NPAF decreased the immobility time and increased the climbing and swimming times. This action was reversed completely by methysergide and partially by atropine, whereas cyproheptadine, haloperidol, prazosin and propranolol were ineffective. In the EPMT, NPAF decreased the time spent in the arms (open/open+closed). Our results demonstrate that NPAF induces anti-depressant-like behavior in mice, which is mediated, at least in part, through 5HT2-serotonergic and muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmissions. In addition, the NPAF-induced anxiety is species-independent, since it develops also in mice.

  2. The concept of anxiety in behavior analysis / O conceito de ansiedade na análise do comportamento

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    Nilzabeth Leite Coêlho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of anxiety has been used in Behavior Analysis under the control of different events or relations. In this article, we offer a theoretical and conceptual review of behavior-analytic approaches for anxiety, and of the behavioral relations that are highlighted in the literature. We start with a description of the current usages of the concept of anxiety. We point out that such usages vary from the role assigned to physiological changes, to the definition of respondent and operant relations (verbal and non-verbal and to the implications for verbal therapy. We, then, discuss such variations as complementary explanations for a complex phenomenon, in which events acquire several functions, through processes of direct and indirect conditioning. Finally, we summarize some defining characteristics of anxiety from a behavior-analytic standpoint, and we argue that, as a clinical disorder, anxiety may be related to self-control.

  3. Was that cheating? Perceptions vary by sex, attachment anxiety, and behavior.

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    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanna L; Edelstein, Robin S; Chopik, William J; Fitzgerald, Carey J; Stout, Sarah L

    2013-02-13

    We generated an inventory of 27 interpersonal behaviors and examined the extent to which participants judged each behavior as cheating on a long-term partner. We predicted variation in these judgments based on participant sex and attachment insecurity. Ratings for items ranged considerably; participants rated sexual behaviors as most indicative of cheating, then erotic behaviors, followed by behaviors consistent with a romantic relationship, and then behaviors related to financial support. Women rated ten items higher than did men, and men's ratings were higher on a minor financial support item. Higher attachment anxiety was associated with higher ratings for 18 of 27 behaviors; higher attachment avoidance was associated with lower scores on five items and higher scores on one item. Principle Axis Factoring identified three dimensions; sexual interaction, behaviors indicating close relationships, and casual social interaction. We discuss these results using the framework of attachment theory and sex-specific mating strategies.

  4. Music does not alter anxiety in patients with suspected lung cancer undergoing bronchoscopy: a randomised controlled trial

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    Elisabeth Jeppesen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of music to relieve anxiety has been examined in various studies, but the results are inconclusive. Methods: From April to October 2015, 160 patients undergoing examination of pulmonary nodules were randomly assigned to MusiCure or no music. MusiCure was administered through earplugs to ensure blinding of the staff and was played from admission to the operating theatre to the end of the bronchoscopy. Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI was administered on admission, immediately before bronchoscopy, and on discharge. Secondary outcomes were p-cortisol, physiological variables, dosage of sedatives, movements measured by Actigraph, bronchoscopy duration, number of re-examinations, and overall perception of the sounds in the operating theatre measured by Visual analogue scale. Results: The STAI scores were similar on admission, but after a 10-min wait in the operating theatre, scores varied significantly between patients with and without music, with lower scores in the music group [median (interquartile range, IQR 35 (18 vs. 43 (25; p=0.03]. Post hoc multiple regression revealed treatment group as insignificant when adjusting for sex and baseline anxiety. However, there was a significantly more positive perception of the sounds in the operating theatre in the music group (median (IQR 8.2 (1.8 vs. 5.4 (6.8; p<0.0001 and fewer re-examinations in the music group (19.2% vs. 7.7%, p<0.032. Conclusions: Ten minutes with MusiCure does not alter anxiety when adjusting for baseline anxiety and sex. The current study indicates that this field of research has many confounders.

  5. DEPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR AND METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN MICE ARE MUSICAL STYLE-DEPENDENT

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    V. S. Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world population has been affected by two serious psychological disorders, anxiety and depression, but there are few discoveries for new therapies to combat them. Studies have shown that music therapy has its beneficial behavioral effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study it was to investigate the possible effects of two music styles in some lipids and carbohydrate metabolism parameters resulting from behavioral changes related to anxiety and depression. So, mice were used with 30 days of age, divided into 6 groups: G1: saline, G2: Diazepam (DZP, G3: Fluoxetine (FLX, G4: control (no treatment, G5: Rock, and G6: Mozart Sonata. The animals from groups G1, G2 and G3 received treatments by oral route (gavage for 15 days. The music therapy sessions (2x/day 4 hours/day occurred in the same period of time at a 65dB frequency for G5 and G6 groups. After being evaluated in spontaneous locomotion, elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests, the animals were euthanized. The lactate, total cholesterol and plasma glucose levels were measured from the blood. No change was observed in spontaneous locomotion test and elevated plus maze. In the forced swimming test animals exposed to Rock showed an increase in immobility time. Furthermore, it was observed an increase in glucose and a reduction in cholesterol levels in the groups exposed to Rock and Mozart, while a decrease of lactate was observed only in group Rock. It was concluded that the auditory stimulus caused by music in mice was able to encourage depressive behavior and alter some lipids and carbohydrate metabolism parameters dependently of the musical style.

  6. Prediction of success and failure of behavior modification as treatment for dental anxiety.

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    Eli, I; Baht, R; Blacher, S

    2004-08-01

    Behavior modification techniques are effective in the treatment of extreme dental anxiety, but their success is by no means absolute. In the present article, the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS), the self-report symptom inventory SCL-90R and a questionnaire accessing subjects' daydreaming styles (the Short Imaginal Process Inventory) were used to develop possible predictive measures for success and failure of behavior modification as a treatment for dental fear. The patients' level of distractibility and mind wandering, initial dental anxiety and somatization significantly predicted the success of therapy. The odds ratio indicated that the risk of therapy failure increased about 11 times with an increase of one scale of the Poor Attention Control Scale, about three times with an increase of one level of the mean DAS score, and 0.17 times with an increase of one level of somatization. The predictive value of the chosen scales was 80%. Thus, the use of these scales as part of an initial admittance process for patients who suffer from dental anxiety can enhance our ability to better recognize patients who are prone to fail behavior therapy as treatment for their problem, and enable their referral for other possible modes of treatment.

  7. Alterations in the brain adenosine metabolism cause behavioral and neurological impairment in ADA-deficient mice and patients

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    Sauer, Aisha V.; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Fumagalli, Francesca; Bianchi, Veronica; Poliani, Pietro L.; Dallatomasina, Chiara; Riboni, Elisa; Politi, Letterio S.; Tabucchi, Antonella; Carlucci, Filippo; Casiraghi, Miriam; Carriglio, Nicola; Cominelli, Manuela; Forcellini, Carlo Alberto; Barzaghi, Federica; Ferrua, Francesca; Minicucci, Fabio; Medaglini, Stefania; Leocani, Letizia; la Marca, Giancarlo; Notarangelo, Lucia D.; Azzari, Chiara; Comi, Giancarlo; Baldoli, Cristina; Canale, Sabrina; Sessa, Maria; D’Adamo, Patrizia; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive variant of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by systemic accumulation of ADA substrates. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities observed in ADA-SCID patients surviving after stem cell transplantation or gene therapy represent an unresolved enigma in the field. We found significant neurological and cognitive alterations in untreated ADA-SCID patients as well as in two groups of patients after short- and long-term enzyme replacement therapy with PEG-ADA. These included motor dysfunction, EEG alterations, sensorineural hypoacusia, white matter and ventricular alterations in MRI as well as a low mental development index or IQ. Ada-deficient mice were significantly less active and showed anxiety-like behavior. Molecular and metabolic analyses showed that this phenotype coincides with metabolic alterations and aberrant adenosine receptor signaling. PEG-ADA treatment corrected metabolic adenosine-based alterations, but not cellular and signaling defects, indicating an intrinsic nature of the neurological and behavioral phenotype in ADA deficiency. PMID:28074903

  8. Chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence causes long-term anxiety.

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    Chaby, L E; Cavigelli, S A; Hirrlinger, A M; Caruso, M J; Braithwaite, V A

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to stress during adolescence can cause long-term changes in behavior and cognition. Anxiety diagnoses rise during adolescence and are increased by adverse experiences. Currently, it is unknown how long stress during adolescence alters anxiety in adulthood. We found that rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence expressed altered behavior 6.5 months later; showing increased anxiety in a feeding test in a novel environment. Although behavioral changes indicative of anxiety were detected in late adulthood, the basal levels of fecal corticoid metabolites in prior-stressed rats did not differ from unstressed, control rats.

  9. Physiological and Behavioral Stress and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Routine Oral Care

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    Leah I. Stein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD commonly exhibit uncooperative behaviors which impede oral care. Previous studies have utilized dentist-report measures of uncooperative behaviors in children with ASD but none have utilized an objective measure of children’s behavior or a physiological measure of distress. This study investigated behavioral and physiological distress in children with ASD during routine oral care and examined factors associated with this distress. Methods. Participants were 44 children (n=22 typical, n=22 ASD aged 6–12 receiving routine dental cleanings. Behavioral and physiological measures of stress and anxiety were collected during dental cleanings. Results. Children with ASD exhibited greater distress, compared to the typical group, on dentist-report and researcher-coded measures of overt distress behaviors and on physiological measures. Correlations between physiological and behavioral measures of distress were found in the ASD but not in the typical group. Behavioral distress was correlated with age in the typical group and with expressive communication ability and sensory processing difficulties in the ASD group; physiological distress was correlated with parent-report of anxiety in the typical group and sensory processing difficulties in the ASD group. Conclusions. Novel strategies may be required to decrease behavioral and physiological distress in children with ASD in the dental clinic.

  10. Effects of Chronic D-Serine Elevation on Animal Models of Depression and Anxiety-Related Behavior.

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    David-Marian Otte

    Full Text Available NMDA receptors are activated after binding of the agonist glutamate to the NR2 subunit along with a co-agonist, either L-glycine or D-serine, to the NR1 subunit. There is substantial evidence to suggest that D-serine is the most relevant co-agonist in forebrain regions and that alterations in D-serine levels contribute to psychiatric disorders. D-serine is produced through isomerization of L-serine by serine racemase (Srr, either in neurons or in astrocytes. It is released by astrocytes by an activity-dependent mechanism involving secretory vesicles. In the present study we generated transgenic mice (SrrTg expressing serine racemase under a human GFAP promoter. These mice were biochemically and behaviorally analyzed using paradigms of anxiety, depression and cognition. Furthermore, we investigated the behavioral effects of long-term administration of D-serine added to the drinking water. Elevated brain D-serine levels in SrrTg mice resulted in specific behavioral phenotypes in the forced swim, novelty suppression of feeding and olfactory bulbectomy paradigms that are indicative of a reduced proneness towards depression-related behavior. Chronic dietary D-serine supplement mimics the depression-related behavioral phenotype observed in SrrTg mice. Our results suggest that D-serine supplementation may improve mood disorders.

  11. Alterations of the Host Microbiome Affect Behavioral Responses to Cocaine

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    Kiraly, Drew D.; Walker, Deena M.; Calipari, Erin S.; Labonte, Benoit; Issler, Orna; Pena, Catherine J.; Ribeiro, Efrain A.; Russo, Scott J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria. Animals with reduced gut bacteria showed an enhanced sensitivity to cocaine reward and enhanced sensitivity to the locomotor-sensitizing effects of repeated cocaine administration. These behavioral changes were correlated with adaptations in multiple transcripts encoding important synaptic proteins in the brain’s reward circuitry. This study represents the first evidence that alterations in the gut microbiota affect behavioral response to drugs of abuse. PMID:27752130

  12. Microstructure of rat behavioral response to anxiety in hole-board.

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    Casarrubea, Maurizio; Sorbera, Filippina; Santangelo, Andrea; Crescimanno, Giuseppe

    2010-09-06

    Aim of present research was to assess, by means of descriptive and multivariate approaches, in Wistar rats tested in hole-board apparatus, whether a microstructure of hole-exploratory behavior may be identified in the behavioral response to anxiety. Two groups of 15 subjects were tested: one received 1 ml of saline IP and one was IP injected with diazepam at 0.5 mg/kg dissolved in 1 ml of saline. Following saline, six not yet reported hole-exploratory components were identified: active-dip, static-dip, rapid-dip, circular-sniff, point-sniff and central-sniff. Diazepam provoked significant changes of their per cent distribution. Results of multivariate analyses revealed a complex microstructure of hole-exploratory elements characterized by behavioral flows between sniffing and dipping patterns. Diazepam significantly modified several patternings, mainly those involving point-sniff and static-dip. Hence, the hypothesis of an important role of such behavioral elements and of their patternings, in anxiety-related hole-exploratory behavior, can be proposed. It is suggested that modifications of point-sniff and static-dip patternings could evidence even subtle changes of animal anxiety condition.

  13. Clarifying the Behavioral Economics of Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Interpersonal Problems and Symptom Severity on Generosity

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    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Taylor, Kristin P.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is associated with lower interpersonal warmth, possibly explaining its associated interpersonal impairment. Across two samples, we attempted to replicate previous findings that the disorder’s constraint of interpersonal warmth can be detected via behavioral economic tasks. We also tested the test-retest stability of task indices. Results indicated that factors associated with social anxiety disorder (and not the disorder itself), such as the severity of social anxiety ...

  14. Music does not alter anxiety in patients with suspected lung cancer undergoing bronchoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Carsten M; Larsen, Klaus R;

    2016-01-01

    in the operating theatre, scores varied significantly between patients with and without music, with lower scores in the music group [median (interquartile range, IQR) 35 (18) vs. 43 (25); p=0.03]. Post hoc multiple regression revealed treatment group as insignificant when adjusting for sex and baseline anxiety......BACKGROUND: The use of music to relieve anxiety has been examined in various studies, but the results are inconclusive. METHODS: From April to October 2015, 160 patients undergoing examination of pulmonary nodules were randomly assigned to MusiCure or no music. MusiCure was administered through...... earplugs to ensure blinding of the staff and was played from admission to the operating theatre to the end of the bronchoscopy. Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered on admission, immediately before bronchoscopy, and on discharge. Secondary outcomes were p...

  15. The bidirectional effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats.

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    Yu, Dafu; Zhou, Heng; Yang, Yuan; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Tianchao; Lv, Liang; Zhou, Qixin; Yang, Yuexiong; Dong, Xuexian; He, Jianfeng; Huang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jijun; Wu, Kunhua; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rongrong

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid hormone disorders have long been linked to depression, but the causal relationship between them remains controversial. To address this question, we established rat models of hypothyroidism using (131)iodine ((131)I) and hyperthyroidism using levothyroxine (LT4). Serum free thyroxine (FT4) and triiodothyronine (FT3) significantly decreased in the hypothyroid of rats with single injections of (131)I (5mCi/kg). These rats exhibited decreased depression-like behaviors in forced swimming test and sucrose preference tests, as well as decreased anxiety-like behaviors in an elevated plus maze. Diminished levels of brain serotonin (5-HT) and increased levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found in the hypothyroid rats compared to the control saline-vehicle administered rats. LT4 treatment reversed the decrease in thyroid hormones and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, hyperthyroidism induced by weekly injections of LT4 (15μg/kg) caused a greater than 10-fold increase in serum FT4 and FT3 levels. The hyperthyroid rats exhibited higher anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, higher brain 5-HT level, and lower hippocampal BDNF levels than the controls. Treatment with the antidepressant imipramine (15mg/kg) diminished serum FT4 levels as well as anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in the hyperthyroid rats but led to a further increase in brain 5-HT levels, compared with the controls or the hypothyroid rats. Together, our results suggest that hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism have bidirectional effects on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats, possibly by modulating hippocampal BDNF levels.

  16. Pharmacological effect of gelsemine on anxiety-like behavior in rat.

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    Meyer, Laurence; Boujedaini, Naoual; Patte-Mensah, Christine; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe G

    2013-09-15

    The chemical compound gelsemine is the major active principle of the yellow jasmine (Gelsemium) that is generally claimed as possessing anxiolytic properties based on empirical and indirect knowledge. Surprisingly, gelsemine effect on anxiety has until now received only little attention. Here, we used the well-validated method for anxiety assessment, the elevated plus-maze combined with video-tracking, to measure gelsemine action on rat anxiety-like behavior. Rats were intraperitoneally injected (500μl/daily/7days) with gelsemine (10(-6), 10(-10) or 10(-14)M) or control solution. Diazepam (DZP) was used as positive standard anxiolytic and additional controls were naive rats similarly manipulated except being injected. Gelsemine or diazepam treatment did not affect the number of closed arm entries and rears illustrating the rat general activity. In contrast, gelsemine (10(-6) to 10(-10)M) or DZP increased dose-dependently the number of entries and the percent of time spent in the open arms indicating that gelsemine is an anxiolytic. Consistently, we observed that gelsemine (10(-6) to 10(-10)M) or DZP also decreased dose-dependently the percent of protected stretched attend postures, an ethological index of anxiety-like state. Altogether, our results constitute a solid set of fundamental data directly demonstrating anxiolytic properties of gelsemine. The report also opens new perspectives for the development of safe and effective gelsemine- or Gelsemium-based strategies against pathological anxiety.

  17. Antidepressant medication augmented with cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder in older adults.

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    Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Petkus, Andrew J; White, Kamila S; Nguyen, Hoang; Kornblith, Sander; Andreescu, Carmen; Zisook, Sidney; Lenze, Eric J

    2013-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Generalized anxiety disorder is common among older adults and leads to diminished health and cognitive functioning. Although antidepressant medications are efficacious, many elderly individuals require augmentation treatment. Furthermore, little is known about maintenance strategies for older people. The authors examined whether sequenced treatment combining pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) boosts response and prevents relapse in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder. METHOD Participants were individuals at least 60 years of age with generalized anxiety disorder (N=73) who were recruited from outpatient clinics at three sites. Participants received 12 weeks of open-label escitalopram and were then randomly assigned to one of four conditions: 16 weeks of escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) plus modular CBT, followed by 28 weeks of maintenance escitalopram; escitalopram alone, followed by maintenance escitalopram; escitalopram plus CBT, followed by pill placebo; and escitalopram alone, followed by placebo. RESULTS Escitalopram augmented with CBT increased response rates on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire but not on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale compared with escitalopram alone. Both escitalopram and CBT prevented relapse compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates effective strategies for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in older adults. The sequence of antidepressant medication augmented with CBT leads to worry reduction in the short-term. Continued medication prevents relapse, but for many individuals, CBT would allow sustained remission without requiring long-term pharmacotherapy.

  18. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

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    Somaye Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. Methods and Matherials: The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. Results: The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Conclusions: According to the article, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  19. The Efficacy of the Training of Stress Management by Cognitive-Behavior Method on Addicts’ Anxiety of with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

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    Zahra Lak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive–behavioral stress management on reduction of anxiety among addicts with GAD. Method: The design of the study is experimental with pretest -posttest and control group. The population of the study was all addicts with GAD in Tehran self-referred centers that scored the most points in GAD-7 test. 24 addicts were allocated into experimental group (N=12 and control group (N=12. The cognitive-behavioral stress management was demonstrated in 10 weekly sessions on the experimental group while there was no psychological treatment for the control group. DASS-21 questionnaire and GAD-7 questionnaire were completed by both groups before and after program. The data was analyzed using covariance. Results: There were no significant differences in anxiety between two groups before intervention. Results of this study demonstrated that cognitive –behavioral stress management led to significant decrease in anxiety in experimental group. Conclusion: Regarding to effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral stress management on anxiety, it may also be used as a supplement method decreasing generalized anxiety disorder among addicts.

  20. Psychotic Symptoms, Anger, and Anxiety as Determinants of Agrresive Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Nederlof (Angela F.)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAs an introduction on the topic of this dissertation, it might be interesting to look at some other cases of psychiatric patients that displayed clear-cut aggressive behavior towards other persons: Case 1. Twenty-nine-year-old man, who stabbed his mother’s fiancé in the chest with the in

  1. Prenatal stress alters the behavior and dendritic morphology of the medial orbitofrontal cortex in mouse offspring during lactation.

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    Gutiérrez-Rojas, Cristian; Pascual, Rodrigo; Bustamante, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Several preclinical and clinical studies have shown that prenatal stress alters neuronal dendritic development in the prefrontal cortex, together with behavioral disturbances (anxiety). Nevertheless, neither whether these alterations are present during the lactation period, nor whether such findings may reflect the onset of anxiety disorders observed in childhood and adulthood has been studied. The central aim of the present study was to determine the effects of prenatal stress on the neuronal development and behavior of mice offspring during lactation (postnatal days 14 and 21). We studied 24 CF-1 male mice, grouped as follows: (i) control P14 (n=6), (ii) stressed P14 (n=6), (iii) control P21 (n=6) and (iv) stressed P21 (n=6). On the corresponding days, animals were evaluated with the open field test and sacrificed. Their brains were then stained in Golgi-Cox solution for 30 days. The morphological analysis dealt with the study of 96 pyramidal neurons. The results showed, first, that prenatal stress resulted in a significant (i) decrease in the apical dendritic length of pyramidal neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex at postnatal day 14, (ii) increase in the apical dendritic length of pyramidal neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex at postnatal day 21, and (iii) reduction in exploratory behavior at postnatal day 14 and 21.

  2. Akt2 Deficiency is Associated with Anxiety and Depressive Behavior in Mice

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    Christina Leibrock

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The economic burden associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders render both disorders the most common and debilitating psychiatric illnesses. To date, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology, successful treatment and prevention of these highly associated disorders have not been identified. Akt2 is a key protein in the phosphatidylinositide-3 (PI3K / glycogen synthase 3 kinase (GSK3 signaling pathway, which in turn is involved in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF effects on fear memory, mood stabilisation and action of several antidepressant drugs. The present study thus explored the impact of Akt2 on behaviour of mice. Methods: Behavioural studies (Open-Field, Light-Dark box, O-Maze, Forced Swimming Test, Emergence Test, Object Exploration Test, Morris Water Maze, Radial Maze have been performed with Akt2 knockout mice (akt-/- and corresponding wild type mice (akt+/+. Results: Anxiety and depressive behavior was significantly higher in akt-/- than in akt+/+ mice. The akt-/- mice were cognitively unimpaired but displayed increased anxiety in several behavioral tests (O-Maze test, Light-Dark box, Open Field test. Moreover, akt-/- mice spent more time floating in the Forced Swimming test, which is a classical feature of experimental depression. Conclusion: Akt2 might be a key factor in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety.

  3. Oral health status, dental anxiety, and behavior-management problems in children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Najafpour, Ebrahim; Erfanparast, Leila; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Tamjid-Shabestari, Shabnam; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2016-02-01

    Mental disorders have been shown to affect children's oral health. This study was carried out to investigate the oral health status, dental anxiety (DA), and behavior-management problems (BMPs) during dental treatment in 6- to 9-yr-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study and control groups included 40 children with ODD/ADHD and 80 normal children, respectively. All participants received an amalgam restoration. During the procedure, the children's behavior was assessed using the Frankl Rating Scale and the Verbal Skill Scale. Parents rated their children's DA using the parental version of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental subscale (CFSS-DS). Comorbid anxiety disorders were assessed using the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed using the gingival index and the decayed, missing, and filled teeth score for permanent (DMFT) and primary (dmft) teeth. The findings showed that DA and BMPs were significantly higher in children with ODD/ADHD than in the controls. Furthermore, the frequency of DA and BMPs was higher in children with both ODD/ADHD and a comorbid anxiety disorder than in those without comorbid anxiety disorder. Children with ODD/ADHD had significantly higher DMFT/dmft scores than those in the control group, whereas the difference in gingival index was not statistically significant. In conclusion, children with ODD/ADHD had higher levels of DA, BMP and poorer oral health status.

  4. Predicting Risk-Mitigating Behaviors From Indecisiveness and Trait Anxiety: Two Cognitive Pathways to Task Avoidance.

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    McNeill, Ilona M; Dunlop, Patrick D; Skinner, Timothy C; Morrison, David L

    2016-02-01

    Past research suggests that indecisiveness and trait anxiety may both decrease the likelihood of performing risk-mitigating preparatory behaviors (e.g., preparing for natural hazards) and suggests two cognitive processes (perceived control and worrying) as potential mediators. However, no single study to date has examined the influence of these traits and processes together. Examining them simultaneously is necessary to gain an integrated understanding of their relationship with risk-mitigating behaviors. We therefore examined these traits and mediators in relation to wildfire preparedness in a two-wave field study among residents of wildfire-prone areas in Western Australia (total N = 223). Structural equation modeling results showed that indecisiveness uniquely predicted preparedness, with higher indecisiveness predicting lower preparedness. This relationship was fully mediated by perceived control over wildfire-related outcomes. Trait anxiety did not uniquely predict preparedness or perceived control, but it did uniquely predict worry, with higher trait anxiety predicting more worrying. Also, worry trended toward uniquely predicting preparedness, albeit in an unpredicted positive direction. This shows how the lack of performing risk-mitigating behaviors can result from distinct cognitive processes that are linked to distinct personality traits. It also highlights how simultaneous examination of multiple pathways to behavior creates a fuller understanding of its antecedents.

  5. Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) versus Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Mixed Anxiety Disorders

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    Arch, Joanna J.; Eifert, Georg H.; Davies, Carolyn; Vilardaga, Jennifer C. Plumb; Rose, Raphael D.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Randomized comparisons of acceptance-based treatments with traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders are lacking. To address this gap, we compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to CBT for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Method: One hundred twenty-eight individuals (52% female, mean age = 38, 33%…

  6. Cognitive Reappraisal Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…

  7. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majdandžić, M.; Möller, E.L.; de Vente, W.; Bögels, S.M.; van den Boom, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers’ challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudin

  8. The Relation of Severity and Comorbidity to Treatment Outcome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Juliette Margo; van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; van der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of comorbidity over and above the impact of symptom severity on treatment outcome of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for children with anxiety disorders. Children (aged 8-12, n = 124) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder were treated with a short-term CBT protocol. Severity was assessed with a composite measure…

  9. Parental Factors that Detract from the Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety: Recommendations for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jerry V., III

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the recent empirical literature on the various parental factors that detract from the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for children with anxiety. Interventions such as treating parental anxiety and increasing parental involvement in the therapeutic process may combat these factors. Newer strategies such as…

  10. Efficacy of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Evaluation in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn

    2008-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic anxiety disorder, associated with comorbidity and impairment in quality of life, for which improved psychosocial treatments are needed. GAD is also associated with reactivity to and avoidance of internal experiences. The current study examined the efficacy of an acceptance-based behavioral therapy…

  11. Mediators of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety-disordered children and adolescents : cognition, perceived control, and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Prins, Pier J M; Boer, Frits; Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H; Moorlag, Harma; Nauta, Maaike H; Garst, Harry; Hartman, Catharina A; de Haan, Else

    2014-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate whether a change in putative mediators (negative and positive thoughts, coping strategies, and perceived control over anxious situations) precedes a change in anxiety symptoms in anxiety-disordered children and adolescents receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). P

  12. Maternal Accuracy and Behavior in Anticipating Children's Responses to Novelty: Relations to Fearful Temperament and Implications for Anxiety Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that mothers' behaviors may serve as a mechanism in the development from toddler fearful temperament to childhood anxiety. The current study examined the maternal characteristic of accuracy in predicting toddlers' distress reactions to novelty in relation to temperament, parenting, and anxiety development.…

  13. Yoga-Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Y-CBT) for Anxiety Management: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Manjit K.; Greiner-Ferris, Julie M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but there is still room for improvement. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential benefit of enriching cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with Kundalini Yoga (Y-CBT). Participants consisted of treatment resistant clients at a community mental health clinic. A total of 32 participants enrolled in the study and 22 completed the program. After the Y-CBT intervention, pre-post comparisons showed statistically significant improvements in state and trait anxiety, depression, panic, sleep, and quality of life. Results from this preliminary study suggest that Y-CBT may have potential as a promising treatment for those suffering from GAD. PMID:24804619

  14. Improving pediatric compliance with EEG: decreasing procedural anxiety and behavioral distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benore, Ethan; Enlow, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Behavioral distress in EEG can be a barrier to medical care, and behavioral interventions may be a solution. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a brief intervention to decrease procedural distress during an EEG. We hypothesized that children and parents who received psychoeducation and distraction interventions would exhibit less anxiety and distress during an EEG procedure, as compared to those receiving standard care, and this would not add to EEG duration. One hundred and thirty-nine children (0-6 years) and their parents referred for routine EEGs were enrolled. Data were analyzed separately for both infants and children due to differences in the presentation of psychoeducational materials. Results demonstrated less parental anxiety and less distress vocalizations during the EEG. Interestingly, the intervention did not increase the duration of the EEG. While the data suggest positive effects, study limitations raise more questions as to the feasibility and impact of psychoeducation and distraction interventions with extended medical procedures.

  15. Lactobacillus plantarum attenuates anxiety-related behavior and protects against stress-induced dysbiosis in adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J.; Doerr, Holly M.; Grzelak, Agata K.; Busi, Susheel B.; Jasarevic, Eldin; Ericsson, Aaron C.; Bryda, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of probiotics has become increasingly popular as a means to try to improve health and well-being. Not only are probiotics considered beneficial to digestive health, but increasing evidence suggests direct and indirect interactions between gut microbiota (GM) and the central nervous system (CNS). Here, adult zebrafish were supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum to determine the effects of probiotic treatment on structural and functional changes of the GM, as well as host neurological and behavioral changes. L. plantarum administration altered the β-diversity of the GM while leaving the major core architecture intact. These minor structural changes were accompanied by significant enrichment of several predicted metabolic pathways. In addition to GM modifications, L. plantarum treatment also significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior and altered GABAergic and serotonergic signaling in the brain. Lastly, L. plantarum supplementation provided protection against stress-induced dysbiosis of the GM. These results underscore the influence commensal microbes have on physiological function in the host, and demonstrate bidirectional communication between the GM and the host. PMID:27641717

  16. Alterations in spatial memory and anxiety in the MAM E17 rat model of hippocampal pathology in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastambide, Francois; Taylor, Amy M; Palmer, Clare; Svard, Heta; Karjalainen, Maija; Janhunen, Sanna K; Tricklebank, Mark; Bannerman, David M

    2015-11-01

    Adult rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at embryonic day 17 (E17) display robust pathological alterations in the hippocampus. However, discrepancies exist in the literature regarding the behavioural effects of this pre-natal manipulation. Therefore, a systematic assessment of MAM E17-induced behavioural alterations was conducted using a battery of dorsal and ventral hippocampus-dependent tests. Compared to saline controls, MAM E17-treated rats displayed deficits in spatial reference memory in both the aversive hidden platform watermaze task and an appetitive Y-maze task. Deficits in the spatial reference memory watermaze task were replicated across three different cohorts and two laboratories. In contrast, there was little, or no, effect on the non-spatial, visible platform watermaze task or an appetitive, non-spatial, visual discrimination task, respectively. MAM rats were also impaired in the spatial novelty preference task which assesses short-term memory, and displayed reduced anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze task. Thus, MAM E17 administration resulted in abnormal spatial information processing and reduced anxiety in a number of hippocampus-dependent behavioural tests, paralleling the effects of dorsal and ventral hippocampal lesions, respectively. These findings corroborate recent pathological and physiological studies, further highlighting the usefulness of MAM E17 as a model of hippocampal dysfunction in at least some aspects of schizophrenia.

  17. Personality change following internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for severe health anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Personality traits have traditionally been viewed as stable, but recent studies suggest that they could be affected through psychological treatment. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT for severe health anxiety (DSM-IV hypochondriasis has been shown to be effective in reducing health anxiety, but its effect on measures of personality traits has not been investigated. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of ICBT on personality traits in the three broad dimensions--neuroticism, extraversion and aggression. We hypothesized that participants in ICBT would reduce their level of neuroticism compared to controls that did not receive the active treatment. No specific predictions were made regarding extraversion and aggression. Data from a randomized controlled trial were used in which participants were allocated to 12 weeks of ICBT (n = 40 or to a basic attention control condition (n = 41. Personality traits were assessed with the Swedish Universities Scales of Personality and the primary outcome of health anxiety was the Health Anxiety Inventory. There was a significant interaction effect of group and time on neuroticism-related scales, indicating larger pre- to post-treatment reductions in the Internet-based CBT group compared to the control condition. Analyses at 6-month follow-up showed that changes were stable. Traits relating to extraversion and aggression were largely unchanged. This study is the first to demonstrate that a brief ICBT intervention for severe health anxiety causes long-term changes in measures of personality traits related to neuroticism. The treatment thus has a broader impact than just reducing health anxiety.Clinicaltrials.gov (ID NCT00828152.

  18. Increased Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Rats Experiencing Chronic Inflammatory Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Alexandre J.; Beaudet, Nicolas; Beaudry, Hélène; Bergeron, Jenny; Bérubé, Patrick; Drolet, Guy; Sarret, Philippe; Gendron, Louis

    2012-01-01

    For many patients, chronic pain is often accompanied, and sometimes amplified, by co-morbidities such as anxiety and depression. Although it represents important challenges, the establishment of appropriate preclinical behavioral models contributes to drug development for treating chronic inflammatory pain and associated psychopathologies. In this study, we investigated whether rats experiencing persistent inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)...

  19. GABAergic Control of Critical Developmental Periods for Anxiety- and Depression-Related Behavior in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability for anxiety and depressive disorders is thought to have origins in early life and is increasingly recognized to involve deficits in GABAergic neurotransmission. Mice that were rendered heterozygous for the γ2 subunit gene of GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) show behavioral, cognitive, neuroendocrine and pharmacologic features expected of a mouse model of melancholic anxious depression, including reduced survival of adult-born hippocampal neurons. Here we embarked on elucidating the...

  20. Galantamine reverses scopolamine-induced behavioral alterations in Dugesia tigrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Latha; Amatya, Christina; DeSaer, Cassie J; Dalhoff, Zachary; Eggerichs, Michael R

    2014-09-01

    In planaria (Dugesia tigrina), scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, induced distinct behaviors of attenuated motility and C-like hyperactivity. Planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV) displayed a dose-dependent negative correlation with scopolamine concentrations from 0.001 to 1.0 mM, and a further increase in scopolamine concentration to 2.25 mM did not further decrease pLMV. Planarian hyperactivity counts was dose-dependently increased following pretreatment with scopolamine concentrations from 0.001 to 0.5 mM and then decreased for scopolamine concentrations ≥ 1 mM. Planarian learning and memory investigated using classical Pavlovian conditioning experiments demonstrated that scopolamine (1 mM) negatively influenced associative learning indicated by a significant decrease in % positive behaviors from 86 % (control) to 14 % (1 mM scopolamine) and similarly altered memory retention, which is indicated by a decrease in % positive behaviors from 69 % (control) to 27 % (1 mM scopolamine). Galantamine demonstrated a complex behavior in planarian motility experiments since co-application of low concentrations of galantamine (0.001 and 0.01 mM) protected planaria against 1 mM scopolamine-induced motility impairments; however, pLMV was significantly decreased when planaria were tested in the presence of 0.1 mM galantamine alone. Effects of co-treatment of scopolamine and galantamine on memory retention in planaria via classical Pavlovian conditioning experiments showed that galantamine (0.01 mM) partially reversed scopolamine (1 mM)-induced memory deficits in planaria as the % positive behaviors increased from 27 to 63 %. The results demonstrate, for the first time in planaria, scopolamine's effects in causing learning and memory impairments and galantamine's ability in reversing scopolamine-induced memory impairments.

  1. On the edge: pharmacological evidence for anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richendrfer, H; Pelkowski, S D; Colwill, R M; Creton, R

    2012-03-01

    Zebrafish larvae are ideally suited for high-throughput analyses of vertebrate behavior. The larvae can be examined in multiwell plates and display a range of behaviors during early development. Previous studies have shown that zebrafish larvae display a preference for the edge of the well and several lines of evidence suggest this edge preference (thigmotaxis) may be a measure of anxiety. In the present study, we further examined the relation between edge preference and anxiety by imaging zebrafish larvae exposed to three psychoactive drugs diazepam (Valium), fluoxetine (Prozac), and caffeine. The edge preference was first examined in a five-fish assay, with and without visual stimuli. Diazepam, a benzodiazepine that binds to GABA receptors, reduced the larval edge preference, with or without visual stimuli. In contrast, fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, did not affect the edge preference. Caffeine increased the preference for the edge in response to visual stimuli. Similar effects were observed in a two-fish assay; diazepam-exposed larvae showed a reduced edge preference and caffeine exposed larvae showed an increased edge preference. These results suggest that the edge preference in zebrafish larvae is a measure of anxiety and further illustrate that the pharmaceuticals used in the study have different mechanisms of action. Although there are substantial differences between zebrafish and human brains, our results indicate that the signals that regulate anxiety are similar on a molecular level. We propose that high-throughput assays in zebrafish may be used to uncover genetic or environmental factors that cause anxiety disorders and may contribute to the development of novel strategies to prevent or treat such disorders.

  2. The infralimbic and prelimbic medial prefrontal cortices have differential functions in the expression of anxiety-like behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Ohashi, Masanori; Yamada, Misa; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex is a heterogeneous cortical structure composed of several nuclei, including the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices. We previously demonstrated in mice that PL activation with the sodium channel activator veratrine induces anxiety-like behaviors. However, the role of IL in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the role of the IL in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors using pharmacological activation model with veratrine, and compared it with the role of the PL. Extracellular glutamate levels were measured by in vivo microdialysis-HPLC with an electrochemical detector, and behaviors were assessed using the open field test. In this study, extracellular glutamate levels rose significantly after perfusion of veratrine in the IL and PL. Interestingly, the PL activation produced anxiety-like behaviors, whereas the activation of the IL produced no anxiety-like behavior in mice. Although the IL is adjacent to the PL, these two regions of the brain have differential functions in the expression of anxiety-like behaviors.

  3. Effects of Lactobacillus helveticus on murine behavior are dependent on diet and genotype and correlate with alterations in the gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohland, Christina L; Kish, Lisa; Bell, Haley; Thiesen, Aducio; Hotte, Naomi; Pankiv, Evelina; Madsen, Karen L

    2013-09-01

    Modulation of the gut microbiota with diet and probiotic bacteria can restore intestinal homeostasis in inflammatory conditions and alter behavior via the gut-brain axis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the modulatory effects of probiotics differ depending on diet and mouse genotype. At weaning, wild type (WT) and IL-10 deficient (IL-10(-/-)) 129/SvEv mice were placed on a standard mouse chow or a Western-style diet (fat 33%, refined carbohydrate 49%)±Lactobacillus helveticus ROO52 (10(9)cfu/d) for 21 days. Animal weight and food eaten were monitored weekly. Intestinal immune function was analysed for cytokine expression using the Meso Scale Discovery platform. Spatial memory and anxiety-like behavior was assessed in a Barnes maze. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) was used to analyze the fecal microbiota. Both WT and IL-10(-/-) mice on a Western diet had increased weight gain along with changes in gut microbiota and cytokine expression and altered anxiety-like behavior. The ability of L. helveticus to modulate these factors was genotype- and diet-dependent. Anxiety-like behavior and memory were negatively affected by Western-style diet depending on inflammatory state, but this change was prevented with L. helveticus administration. However, probiotics alone decreased anxiety-like behavior in WT mice on a chow diet. Mice on the Western diet had decreased inflammation and fecal corticosterone, but these markers did not correlate with changes in behavior. Analysis of bacterial phyla from WT and IL-10(-/-)mice showed discrete clustering of the groups to be associated with both diet and probiotic supplementation, with the diet-induced shift normalized to some degree by L. helveticus. These findings suggest that the type of diet consumed by the host and the presence or absence of active inflammation may significantly alter the ability of probiotics to modulate host physiological function.

  4. The effects of safety behaviors during exposure therapy for anxiety: Critical analysis from an inhibitory learning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Shannon M; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2016-11-01

    In the context of clinical anxiety, safety behaviors are actions performed to prevent, escape, or minimize feared catastrophes and/or associated distress. Research consistently implicates safety behaviors in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders; accordingly, safety behaviors are traditionally eliminated during exposure treatments for pathological anxiety. The notion that safety behaviors are ubiquitously deleterious in the context of exposure has recently been challenged, yet findings regarding safety behaviors' effects on exposure outcomes are limited, mixed, and controversial. Furthermore, developments in explanatory models for exposure's effectiveness (e.g., inhibitory learning theory) highlight other possible consequences of safety behaviors performed during exposure. Unfortunately, these theoretical advances are neglected in experimental research. The present review critically examines the literature addressing the role of safety behaviors in exposure therapy from an inhibitory learning perspective. Limitations, future directions, and clinical recommendations are also discussed.

  5. Variations in dietary iron alter behavior in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, D; Jones, B; Beard, J

    2001-02-01

    Iron deficiency in children is associated with retardation in growth and cognitive development, and the effects on cognition may be irreversible, even with treatment. Excessive iron has also been associated with neurological disease, especially in reference to the increased iron content in the brains of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease patients. This study evaluated the effects of dietary iron deficiency and excess iron on physical activity in rats. The animal model used is developmentally sensitive and permits control of the timing as well as the duration of the nutritional insult. Hence, to study the effects of early, late and long-term iron deficiency or excess iron (supplementation), rats were either made iron deficient or supplemented on postnatal day (PND) 10-21, PND 21-35 and PND 10-35. Some iron-deficient rats were iron repleted between PND 21-35. Different measures of motor activity were taken at PND 14, 17, 20, 27 and 34. Iron-deficient and iron-supplemented rats showed decreased activity and stereotypic behavior; this was apparent for any onset and duration of the nutritional insult. Recovery from iron deficiency did not normalize these functional variables, showing that the deleterious effects of early iron deficiency persist despite subsequent adequate treatment. This study demonstrates that iron deficiency in early life leads to irreversible behavioral changes. The biological bases for these behavioral alterations are not readily apparent, because iron therapy rapidly reverses the iron losses in all brain regions.

  6. Clarifying the Behavioral Economics of Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Interpersonal Problems and Symptom Severity on Generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G; Taylor, Kristin P; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is associated with lower interpersonal warmth, possibly explaining its associated interpersonal impairment. Across two samples, we attempted to replicate previous findings that the disorder's constraint of interpersonal warmth can be detected via behavioral economic tasks. We also tested the test-retest stability of task indices. Results indicated that factors associated with social anxiety disorder (and not the disorder itself), such as the severity of social anxiety and more extreme interpersonal problems, lead to less generous behavior on the economic task examined. Results were clearest regarding fine-grained indices derived from latent trajectories. Unexpectedly, the combination of generalized anxiety disorder and higher depression also restricted generosity. Two of three indices showed acceptable test-retest stability. Maladaptive giving behavior may be a treatment target to improve interpersonal functioning in psychiatric disorders; therefore, future work should more precisely characterize behavioral economic tasks, including basic psychometric work (i.e., tests of reliability and validity).

  7. The Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Techniques Training on Procrastination, Stress, Anxiety and Depression of High School Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sA hasar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: training of cognitive-behavioral techniques reduced procrastination, anxiety and stress in experimental group in comparison with control group but it did not have meaningful effect on control group depression

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment versus an Active Control for Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Deveney, Charise; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Bavopoulos, Nataly

    2009-01-01

    Specific delivery of cognitive-behavioral skills is more effective in treating childhood anxiety compared to treatment that contains only nonspecific therapy factors. The findings are based on a randomized trial involving 112 children aged 7-16 years.

  9. Fear of the unknown: uncertain anticipation reveals amygdala alterations in childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa E; Oler, Jonathan A; Fox, Andrew S; McFarlin, Daniel R; Rogers, Gregory M; Jesson, Maria A L; Davidson, Richard J; Pine, Daniel S; Kalin, Ned H

    2015-05-01

    Children with anxiety disorders (ADs) experience persistent fear and worries that are highly debilitating, conferring risk for lifelong psychopathology. Anticipatory anxiety is a core clinical feature of childhood ADs, often leading to avoidance of uncertain and novel situations. Extensive studies in non-human animals implicate amygdala dysfunction as a critical substrate for early life anxiety. To test specific amygdala-focused hypotheses in preadolescent children with ADs, we used fMRI to characterize amygdala activation during uncertain anticipation and in response to unexpected stimuli. Forty preadolescent (age 8-12 years) children, 20 unmedicated AD patients and 20 matched controls completed an anticipation task during an fMRI scan. In the task, symbolic cues preceded fear or neutral faces, such that 'certain' cues always predicted the presentation of fear or neutral faces, whereas 'uncertain' cues were equally likely to be followed by fear or neutral faces. Both AD children and controls showed robust amygdala response to faces. In response to the uncertain cues, AD children had increased amygdala activation relative to controls. Moreover, in the AD children, faces preceded by an 'uncertain' cue elicited increased amygdala activation, as compared with the same faces following a 'certain' cue. Children with ADs experience distress both in anticipation of and during novel and surprising events. Our findings suggest that increased amygdala activation may have an important role in the generation of uncertainty-related anxiety. These findings may guide the development of neuroscientifically informed treatments aimed at relieving the suffering and preventing the lifelong disability associated with pediatric ADs.

  10. Effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum treatment on restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Atish K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A stressful stimulus is a crucial determinant of health and disease. Antidepressants are used to manage stress and their related effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum in restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. Methods Animals were immobilized for a period of 6 hr. St. John's Wort (50 and 100 mg/kg was administered 30 minutes before the animals were subjecting to acute immobilized stress. Various behavioral tests parameters for anxiety, locomotor activity and nociceptive threshold were assessed followed by biochemical assessments (malondialdehyde level, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein subsequently. Results 6-hr acute restraint stress caused severe anxiety like behavior, antinociception and impaired locomotor activity as compared to unstressed animals. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in malondialdehyde, nitrites concentration, depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity as compared to unstressed animal brain. Five days St. John's Wort treatment in a dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral (improved locomotor activity, reduced tail flick latency and antianxiety like effect and oxidative damage as compared to control (restraint stress. Conclusion Present study highlights the modest activity of St. John's Wort against acute restraint stress induced modification.

  11. Neuronal overexpression of Glo1 or amygdalar microinjection of methylglyoxal is sufficient to regulate anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, K M J; Du, X; Brownlee, M; Palmer, A A

    2016-03-15

    GLO1 (Glyoxalase1) is a ubiquitous cellular enzyme that detoxifies methylglyoxal (MG), which is a byproduct of glycolysis. Previously, we showed that ubiquitous overexpression of Glo1 reduced concentrations of MG and increased anxiety-like behavior, whereas systemic injection of MG reduced anxiety-like behavior. We further showed that MG is a competitive partial agonist at GABA-A receptors. Based on those data we hypothesized that modulation of GABAergic signaling by MG underlies Glo1 and MG's effects on anxiety-like behavior. As previous studies used ubiquitous overexpression, we sought to determine whether neuronal Glo1 overexpression was sufficient to increase anxiety-like behavior. We generated ROSA26 knock-in mice with a floxed-stop codon upstream from human Glo1 (FLOXGlo1KI) and bred them with mice expressing CRE recombinase under the direction of the Synapsin 1 promoter (Syn-CRE) to limit overexpression of Glo1 specifically to neurons. Furthermore, since previous administration of MG had been systemic, we sought to determine if direct microinjection of MG into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was sufficient to reduce anxiety-like behavior. Thus, we performed bilateral microinjections of saline, MG (12μM or 24μM), or the positive control midazolam (4mM) directly into the BLA. FLOXGlo1KIxSyn-CRE mice showed significantly increased anxiety-like behavior compared to their FLOXGLO1xWT littermates. In addition, bilateral microinjection of MG and midazolam significantly decreased anxiety-like behavior compared to saline treated mice. These studies suggest that anatomically specific manipulations of Glo1 and MG are sufficient to induce changes in anxiety-like behavior.

  12. Caffeine triggers behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardais, A P; Borges, M F; Rocha, A S; Sallaberry, C; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2014-06-13

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide but concerns arise about the growing intake of caffeine-containing drinks by adolescents since the effects of caffeine on cognitive functions and neurochemical aspects of late brain maturation during adolescence are poorly known. We now studied the behavioral impact in adolescent male rats of regular caffeine intake at low (0.1mg/mL), moderate (0.3mg/mL) and moderate/high (1.0mg/mL) doses only during their active period (from 7:00 P.M. to 7:00 A.M.). All tested doses of caffeine were devoid of effects on locomotor activity, but triggered anxiogenic effects. Caffeine (0.3 and 1mg/mL) improved the performance in the object recognition task, but the higher dose of caffeine (1.0mg/mL) decreased the habituation to an open-field arena, suggesting impaired non-associative memory. All tested doses of caffeine decreased the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein and synaptosomal-associated protein-25, but failed to modify neuron-specific nuclear protein immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Caffeine (0.3-1mg/mL) increased the density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and proBDNF density as well as adenosine A1 receptor density in the hippocampus, whereas the higher dose of caffeine (1mg/mL) increased the density of proBDNF and BDNF and decreased A1 receptor density in the cerebral cortex. These findings document an impact of caffeine consumption in adolescent rats with a dual impact on anxiety and recognition memory, associated with changes in BDNF levels and decreases of astrocytic and nerve terminal markers without overt neuronal damage in hippocampal and cortical regions.

  13. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  14. Current perspectives on Internet delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with anxiety and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Louise Mewton, Jessica Smith, Pieter Rossouw, Gavin Andrews Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The aim of the current review is to provide a summary of research into Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT for anxiety disorders. We include 37 randomized controlled trials that examined the efficacy of iCBT programs in adults (aged over 18 years, as compared with waiting list or active control. The included studies were identified from Medline searches and from reference lists, and only published data were included. Several trials of iCBT for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia were identified. Two trials of iCBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder were identified, whilst one trial each was identified for hypochondriasis, specific phobia (spiders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, there were five trials that focused on transdiagnostic therapy for either a range of comorbid anxiety disorders or comorbid anxiety and depression. Between-group effect sizes were moderate to large for all disorders, and ranged from 0.30 to 2.53. iCBT was found to be commensurate with face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy whether delivered individually or in group format. Guidance may not be necessary for iCBT to be effective for immediate gains, but may be more important in longer-term maintenance of symptom improvement and maximizing patient adherence. The clinical experience of the individual providing guidance does not appear to impact treatment outcomes. Future research needs to focus on the optimal level of guidance required to generate maximum patient benefits, whilst balancing the efficient use of clinician time and resources. Evidence-based contraindications to iCBT should also be developed so that the choice of treatment modality accurately reflects patients’ needs. Further research should be conducted into the effective elements of

  15. Pattern of structural brain changes in social anxiety disorder after cognitive behavioral group therapy: a longitudinal multimodal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, V R; Brühl, A B; Weidt, S; Delsignore, A; Rufer, M; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U; Hänggi, J

    2016-12-06

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM). Surface-based morphometry revealed a significant cortical volume reduction (pre- to post-treatment) in the left inferior parietal cortex, as well as a positive partial correlation between treatment success (indexed by reductions in Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale) and reductions in cortical volume in bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed a significant increase in FA in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Network-based statistics revealed a significant increase of structural connectivity in a frontolimbic network. No partial correlations with treatment success have been found in WM analyses. For, we believe, the first time, we present a distinctive pattern of longitudinal structural brain changes after CBGT measured with three established magnetic resonance imaging analyzing techniques. Our findings are in line with previous cross-sectional, unimodal SAD studies and extent them by highlighting anatomical brain alterations that point toward the level of HCs in parallel with a reduction in SAD symptomatology.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 6 December 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.217.

  16. Transcriptional effects of glucocorticoid receptors in the dentate gyrus increase anxiety-related behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Sarrazin

    Full Text Available The Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR is a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in the brain. Activation of brain GRs by high levels of glucocorticoid (GC hormones modifies a large variety of physiological and pathological-related behaviors. Unfortunately the specific cellular targets of GR-mediated behavioral effects of GC are still largely unknown. To address this issue, we generated a mutated form of the GR called DeltaGR. DeltaGR is a constitutively transcriptionally active form of the GR that is localized in the nuclei and activates transcription without binding to glucocorticoids. Using the tetracycline-regulated system (Tet-OFF, we developed an inducible transgenic approach that allows the expression of the DeltaGR in specific brain areas. We focused our study on a mouse line that expressed DeltaGR almost selectively in the glutamatergic neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus. This restricted expression of the DeltaGR increased anxiety-related behaviors without affecting other behaviors that could indirectly influence performance in anxiety-related tests. This behavioral phenotype was also associated with an up-regulation of the MAPK signaling pathway and Egr-1 protein in the DG. These findings identify glutamatergic neurons in the DG as one of the cellular substrate of stress-related pathologies.

  17. Alterations in choice behavior by manipulations of world model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. S.; Benson, C.; Kersten, D.; Schrater, P.

    2010-01-01

    How to compute initially unknown reward values makes up one of the key problems in reinforcement learning theory, with two basic approaches being used. Model-free algorithms rely on the accumulation of substantial amounts of experience to compute the value of actions, whereas in model-based learning, the agent seeks to learn the generative process for outcomes from which the value of actions can be predicted. Here we show that (i) “probability matching”—a consistent example of suboptimal choice behavior seen in humans—occurs in an optimal Bayesian model-based learner using a max decision rule that is initialized with ecologically plausible, but incorrect beliefs about the generative process for outcomes and (ii) human behavior can be strongly and predictably altered by the presence of cues suggestive of various generative processes, despite statistically identical outcome generation. These results suggest human decision making is rational and model based and not consistent with model-free learning. PMID:20805507

  18. Predictors of treatment outcome in an effectiveness trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for children with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergeland, Gro Janne H; Fjermestad, Krister W; Marin, Carla E; Bjelland, Ingvar; Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt; Silverman, Wendy K; Öst, Lars-Göran; Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Oeding, Kristin; Havik, Odd E; Heiervang, Einar R

    2016-01-01

    A substantial number of children with anxiety disorders do not improve following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recent effectiveness studies have found poorer outcome for CBT programs than what is typically found in efficacy studies. The present study examined predictors of treatment outcome among 181 children (aged 8-15 years), with separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder, who participated in a randomized, controlled effectiveness trial of a 10-session CBT program in community clinics. Potential predictors included baseline demographic, child, and parent factors. Outcomes were as follows: a) remission from all inclusion anxiety disorders; b) remission from the primary anxiety disorder; and c) child- and parent-rated reduction of anxiety symptoms at post-treatment and at 1-year follow-up. The most consistent findings across outcome measures and informants were that child-rated anxiety symptoms, functional impairment, a primary diagnosis of social phobia or separation anxiety disorder, and parent internalizing symptoms predicted poorer outcome at post-treatment. Child-rated anxiety symptoms, lower family social class, lower pretreatment child motivation, and parent internalizing symptoms predicted poorer outcome at 1-year follow-up. These results suggest that anxious children with more severe problems, and children of parents with elevated internalizing symptom levels, may be in need of modified, additional, or alternative interventions to achieve a positive treatment outcome.

  19. Ropren(®) treatment reverses anxiety-like behavior and monoamines levels in gonadectomized rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, Julia; Soultanov, Vagif; Nikitina, Tamara; Roschin, Victor; Ordyan, Natalia; Hritcu, Lucian

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies indicated that reduced androgen levels may contribute to both physical and cognitive disorders in men, including Alzheimer's disease. New drug candidates for Alzheimer's disease in patients with androgen deficiency should ideally be able to act not only on multiple brain targets but also to correct impaired endocrine functions in hypogonadal men with Alzheimer's disease. Ropren(®) is one such candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in men with an imbalance of androgens. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of long-term Ropren(®) administration (8.6mg/kg, orally, once daily, for 28 days) on the anxiety-like behavior and monoamines levels in the rat hippocampus using a β-amyloid (25-35) rat model of Alzheimer's disease following gonadectomy. Ropren(®) was administered to the gonadectomized (GDX) rats and GDX rats treated with testosterone propionate (TP, 0.5mg/kg, subcutaneous, once daily, for 28 days). Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the light-dark test (LDT), locomotor and grooming activities were assessed in the open field test (OFT). Ropren(®) alone or in combination with TP-induced anxiolytic effects as evidenced in the EPM and in the LDT and increased locomotor activity in the OFT. Additionally, it was observed that dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels increased while 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-HT ratio in the hippocampus decreased. Our results indicate that Ropren(®) has a marked anxiolytic-like action due to an increase in the monoamines levels in the experimental rat model of Alzheimer's disease with altered levels of androgens.

  20. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  1. Neonatal tactile stimulation changes anxiety-like behavior and improves responsiveness of rats to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufleur, Nardeli; Antoniazzi, Caren T D; Pase, Camila S; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Dolci, Geisa S; Dias, Verônica T; Roversi, Katiane; Roversi, Karine; Koakoskia, Gessi; Rosa, João G; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Bürger, Marilise E

    2012-09-20

    In this study we evaluated the influence of neonatal tactile stimulation (TS) on behavioral and biochemical effects related to a low dose of diazepam (DZP) in adult rats. Male pups of Wistar rats were handled (TS) daily from PND1 to PND21 for 10 min, while unhandled (UH) rats were not touched. In adulthood, half the animals of each group received a single administration of diazepam (0.25mg/kg body weight i.p.) or vehicle and then were submitted to behavioral and biochemical evaluations. In the TS group, DZP administration reduced anxiety-like symptoms in different behavioral paradigms (elevated plus maze, EPM; staircase and open-field and defensive burying) and increased exploratory behavior. These findings show that neonatal TS increased DZP pharmacological responses in adulthood compared to neonatally UH animals, as observed by reduced anxiety-like symptoms and lower levels of plasma cortisol. TS also changed plasma levels of antioxidant defenses such as vitamin C and glutathione peroxidase, whose increase may be involved in lower oxidative damages to proteins in cortex, subthalamic region and hippocampus of these animals. Here we are showing for the first time that neonatal TS is able to change responsiveness to benzodiazepine drugs in adulthood and provides better pharmacological responses in novel situations of stress.

  2. Stress responsiveness and anxiety-like behavior: The early social environment differentially shapes stability over time in a small rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangenstedt, Susanne; Jaljuli, Iman; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2017-03-13

    The early social environment can profoundly affect behavioral and physiological phenotypes. We investigated how male wild cavy offspring, whose mothers had either lived in a stable (SE) or an unstable social environment (UE) during pregnancy and lactation, differed in their anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. At two different time points in life, we tested the offspring's anxiety-like behavior in a dark-light test and their endocrine reaction to challenge in a cortisol reactivity test. Furthermore, we analyzed whether individual traits remained stable over time. There was no effect of the early social environment on anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. However, at an individual level, anxiety-like behavior was stable over time in UE- but not in SE-sons. Stress responsiveness, in turn, was rather inconsistent in UE-sons and temporally stable in SE-sons. Conclusively, we showed for the first time that the early social environment differentially shapes the stability of behavioral and endocrine traits. At first glance, these results may be surprising, but they can be explained by the different functions anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness have.

  3. Maternal deprivation of rat pups reduces body weight and alters behavior in adulthood in a gender-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal environment is critical for its capacity to influence adult behavior, and is associated with traits of altered physiological and neurobiological function and long-term predisposition to depression. Here we describe the delayed effects of maternal deprivation (MD in male and female Wistar pups on their physical development and behavior in adulthood in tasks designed to explore depressive-like (forced swimming test, FST, and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze, EPM. We observed that MD led to reduced body weight in adulthood, anxiety-like traits in the EPM test and increased activity in the phases of the FST. Particularly, a consistent sexual dimorphism was observed in the responses to MD. A lower increase in body weight during maturation of MD rats was more pronounced in males than in females. MD anxiogenic effects were more pronounced in females, while in FST only MD males showed a marked increase in swimming activity followed by decreased immobility. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029

  4. Time-dependent analysis of nociception and anxiety-like behavior in rats submitted to persistent inflammation of the temporomandibular joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2014-02-10

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is prevalent in dental clinics and can involve problems with the masticatory muscles or the temporomandibular joints (TMJ). The pain of TMD is frequently associated with inflammation in the TMJs, but it's etiology is considered to be multifactorial and includes biologic, behavioral, environmental, social, emotional and cognitive factors. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the anxiety-like behavior in rats exposed to temporomandibular inflammation via injection of Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) with the elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark box (LDB) tests and to evaluate nociceptive behavior with the von Frey test at different periods. Moreover, this study measured TMJ inflammation using plasma extravasation (Evans blue test) and the intraarticular infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (myeloperoxidase quantification). The results showed that rats that were submitted to TMJ inflammation exhibited a decreased number of entries into the open arms of the EPM and a decrease in the time spent in the light compartment and in the number of transitions in the LDB. Additionally, the number of entries in closed arms in the EPM, used as indicator of locomotor activity, did not alter between treatments. Furthermore, increases in mechanical sensitivity and increases in plasma extravasation in the joint tissue occurred throughout the inflammation process, along with an increase in myeloperoxidase in the synovial fluid of TMJ. Our results suggest that the temporomandibular inflammation induced by CFA produced anxiety-like behaviors in rats and induced nociceptive behavior across different periods of inflammation.

  5. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anxiety, anxiety disorders, anxious, behavior therapy, GAD, generalized anxiety disorder, mental health neuroses, mood disorders, psychiatric disorder, psychotherapy Family Health, Men, Seniors, Women January 1996 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  6. Housing environment modulates physiological and behavioral responses to anxiogenic stimuli in trait anxiety male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenelle, R; Santolucito, H B; Byrnes, E M; Byrnes, J J; Donaldson, S T

    2014-06-13

    Environmental enrichment can modulate mild and chronic stress, responses to anxiogenic stimuli as well as drug vulnerability in a number of animal models. The current study was designed to examine the impact of postnatal environmental enrichment on selectively bred 4th generation high- (HAn) and low-anxiety (LAn) male rats. After weaning, animals were placed in isolated (IE), social (SE) and enriched environments (EE) (e.g., toys, wheels, ropes, changed weekly). We measured anxiety-like behavior (ALB) on the elevated plus maze (EPM; trial 1 at postnatal day (PND) 46, trial 2 at PND 63), amphetamine (AMPH) (0.5mg/kg, IP)-induced locomotor behavior, basal and post anxiogenic stimuli changes in (1) plasma corticosterone, (2) blood pressure and (3) core body temperature. Initially, animals showed consistent trait differences on EPM with HAn showing more ALB but after 40 days in select housing, HAn rats reared in an EE showed less ALB and diminished AMPH-induced activity compared to HAn animals housed in IE and SE. In the physiological tests, animals housed in EE showed elevated adrenocortical responses to forced novel object exposure but decreased body temperature and blood pressure changes after an air puff stressor. All animals reared in EE and SE had elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-positive cells in the central amygdala (CeA), CA1 and CA2 hippocampal regions and the caudate putamen, but these differences were most pronounced in HAn rats for CeA, CA1 and CA2. Overall, these findings suggest that environmental enrichment offers benefits for trait anxiety rats including a reduction in behavioral and physiological responses to anxiogenic stimuli and AMPH sensitivity, and these responses correlate with changes in BDNF expression in the central amygdala, hippocampus and the caudate putamen.

  7. Behavioral interactions of simvastatin and fluoxetine in tests of anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tainaê Santos,1 Monaliza Marizete Baungratz,1 Suellen Priscila Haskel,2 Daniela Delwing de Lima,3 Júlia Niehues da Cruz,4 Débora Delwing Dal Magro,5 José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz51Department of Medicine, 2Department of Physiotherapy, Regional University of Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 3Department of Pharmacy, University of Joinville Region, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 4Department of Medicine, University of the Extreme South of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 5Department of Natural Sciences, Regional University of Blumenau, Santa Catarina, BrazilAbstract: Simvastatin inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, and is widely used to control plasma cholesterol levels and prevent cardiovascular disease. However, emerging evidence indicates that the beneficial effects of simvastatin extend to the central nervous system. The effects of simvastatin combined with fluoxetine provide an exciting and potential paradigm to decreased anxiety and depression. Thus, the present paper investigates the possibility of synergistic interactions between simvastatin and fluoxetine in models of anxiety and depression. We investigated the effects of subchronically administered simvastatin (1 or 10 mg/kg/day combined with fluoxetine (2 or 10 mg/kg at 24, 5, and 1 hour on adult rats before conducting behavioral tests. The results indicate that simvastatin and/or fluoxetine treatment reduces anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. Our results showed that simvastatin and/or fluoxetine induced a significant increase in the swimming activity during the forced swimming test (antidepressant effect, with a concomitant increase in climbing time in simvastatin-treated animals only (noradrenergic activation. We hypothesize that anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of simvastatin and/or fluoxetine produce their behavioral effects through similar mechanisms and provide

  8. The Effect of Phencyclidine New Derivatives on Anxiety Behaviors in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Hajkhani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s Anxiety is a common disorder which afflicts many people in any society and is often accompanied by physiological sensations such as tachycardia, chest pain, shortness of breath, insensitivity, etc. The purpose of present study was to evaluate the putative anxiolytic-like effects of phencyclidine (1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl piperidine, CAS 956-90-1, PCP, I and its methyl and methoxy hydroxyl derivatives (II, III using elevated plus maze test of anxiety. Materials and Methods Phencyclidine as well as its methyl and methoxy hydroxyl derivatives (I, II, III (hydrochloride, 1, 2, 5 mg/kg were synthesized and administrated intraperitoneally (IP on adult male Wistar rats.ResultsThe results of this study demonstrated that, intraperitoneal (IP administration of PCP analogues (I, II, III hydrochloride (1, 2, 5 mg/kg increases the percentage of open arm time (OAT% and percentage of open arm entries (OAE%.ConclusionThis study revealed that both derivatives of phencyclidine (II, III were more effective than PCP (I itself in modulation of anxiety behavior in rats.

  9. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescent: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesibe Olgun Kaval

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to review the articles on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In this systematic review, articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (March have been searched in the national and international databases. 20 studies that were met the search criteria were examined in terms of research method, therapy characteristics and results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive behavioral group therapy is effective for symptoms of social anxiety and the problems that accompany social anxiety (depression, anxiety, etc. in children and adolescents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 3-22

  10. Relative effects of cognitive and behavioral therapies on generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and panic disorder: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim; Gentili, Claudio; Banos, Rosa M; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Botella, Cristina; Cristea, Ioana A

    2016-10-01

    Although cognitive and behavioral therapies are effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, it is not clear what the relative effects of these treatments are. We conducted a meta-analysis of trials comparing cognitive and behavioral therapies with a control condition, in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder. We included 42 studies in which generic measures of anxiety were used (BAI, HAMA, STAI-State and Trait). Only the effects of treatment for panic disorder as measured on the BAI (13.33 points; 95% CI: 10.58-16.07) were significantly (p=0.001) larger than the effect sizes on GAD (6.06 points; 95% CI: 3.96-8.16) and SAD (5.92 points; 95% CI: 4.64-7.20). The effects remained significant after adjusting for baseline severity and other major characteristics of the trials. The results should be considered with caution because of the small number of studies in many subgroups and the high risk of bias in most studies.

  11. Parental Involvement in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Breinholst, Sonja;

    2016-01-01

    Parental factors have been linked to childhood anxiety, hence, parental involvement in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxious children has been examined. However, findings do not consistently show added effects of parent-enhanced CBT, longitudinal investigations are scarce and long......-term effects unclear. In the present study, 40 out of 54 families who, 3 years previously, completed one of two types of CBT treatment: with limited or active parental involvement, were assessed using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Diagnostic status at 3-years follow-up was compared between groups...

  12. Anxiety sensitivity and working memory capacity: Risk factors and targets for health behavior promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael W; Eastman, Abraham; Lo, Stephen; Hearon, Bridget A; Bickel, Warren K; Zvolensky, Michael; Smits, Jasper A J; Doan, Stacey N

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nature and influence of specific risk profiles is increasingly important for health behavior promotion. The purpose of this article is to document the value of two factors-anxiety sensitivity (AS) and working memory capacity (WMC)-for enhancing risk for the initiation and/or maintenance of a range of negative health behaviors. AS is a distress-related risk factor that potentiates avoidance/coping motivations for negative health behaviors. Stress provides the conditions for negative somatic and affective states, and AS amplifies the aversiveness of these experiences and correspondingly hinders adaptive functioning. In contrast, low WMC is hypothesized to exert its effect by decreasing the capacity to filter out current temptations, attenuating a focus on longer-term goals and impairing the application of relevant coping skills at times of stress. In this review, we provide conceptual models for the separate roles of high AS and low WMC in negative health behaviors, review the influence of these factors on specific health behavior exemplars (eating behaviors/obesity, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and sleep promotion), provide preliminary evidence for their value as independent treatment targets for health-behavior promotion, and encourage specific research directions in relation to these variables.

  13. Pre- and neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide or the enteric metabolite, propionic acid, alters development and behavior in adolescent rats in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kelly A; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Kavaliers, Martin; Macfabe, Derrick F

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome and/or immune system function may have a role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study examined the effects of prenatal and early life administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial mimetic, and the short chain fatty acid, propionic acid (PPA), a metabolic fermentation product of enteric bacteria, on developmental milestones, locomotor activity, and anxiety-like behavior in adolescent male and female offspring. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were subcutaneously injected once a day with PPA (500 mg/kg) on gestation days G12-16, LPS (50 µg/kg) on G15-16, or vehicle control on G12-16 or G15-16. Male and female offspring were injected with PPA (500 mg/kg) or vehicle twice a day, every second day from postnatal days (P) 10-18. Physical milestones and reflexes were monitored in early life with prenatal PPA and LPS inducing delays in eye opening. Locomotor activity and anxiety were assessed in adolescence (P40-42) in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open-field. Prenatal and postnatal treatments altered behavior in a sex-specific manner. Prenatal PPA decreased time spent in the centre of the open-field in males and females while prenatal and postnatal PPA increased anxiety behavior on the EPM in female rats. Prenatal LPS did not significantly influence those behaviors. Evidence for the double hit hypothesis was seen as females receiving a double hit of PPA (prenatal and postnatal) displayed increased repetitive behavior in the open-field. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that by-products of enteric bacteria metabolism such as PPA may contribute to ASD, altering development and behavior in adolescent rats similar to that observed in ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  14. Pre- and neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide or the enteric metabolite, propionic acid, alters development and behavior in adolescent rats in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Foley

    Full Text Available Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome and/or immune system function may have a role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The current study examined the effects of prenatal and early life administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a bacterial mimetic, and the short chain fatty acid, propionic acid (PPA, a metabolic fermentation product of enteric bacteria, on developmental milestones, locomotor activity, and anxiety-like behavior in adolescent male and female offspring. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were subcutaneously injected once a day with PPA (500 mg/kg on gestation days G12-16, LPS (50 µg/kg on G15-16, or vehicle control on G12-16 or G15-16. Male and female offspring were injected with PPA (500 mg/kg or vehicle twice a day, every second day from postnatal days (P 10-18. Physical milestones and reflexes were monitored in early life with prenatal PPA and LPS inducing delays in eye opening. Locomotor activity and anxiety were assessed in adolescence (P40-42 in the elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field. Prenatal and postnatal treatments altered behavior in a sex-specific manner. Prenatal PPA decreased time spent in the centre of the open-field in males and females while prenatal and postnatal PPA increased anxiety behavior on the EPM in female rats. Prenatal LPS did not significantly influence those behaviors. Evidence for the double hit hypothesis was seen as females receiving a double hit of PPA (prenatal and postnatal displayed increased repetitive behavior in the open-field. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that by-products of enteric bacteria metabolism such as PPA may contribute to ASD, altering development and behavior in adolescent rats similar to that observed in ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  15. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting

    OpenAIRE

    Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and beh...

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Children and Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Medicine Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Scott N.; March, John S.; Brent, David; Albano, Anne Marie; Weersing, V. Robin; Curry, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the cognitive-behavioral treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders within the conceptual framework of evidence-based medicine. Method: The psychiatric and psychological literature was systematically searched for controlled trials applying cognitive-behavioral treatment to…

  17. Relations between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for Test Anxiety: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lily A.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Yuen, Erica K.; Goetter, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university students suffer from test anxiety that is severe enough to impair performance. Given mixed efficacy results of previous cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) trials and a theoretically driven rationale, an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) approach was compared to traditional CBT (i.e., Beckian cognitive therapy; CT) for the…

  19. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS

  20. Altered hippocampal function before emotional trauma in rats susceptible to PTSD-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalloor, Rebecca; Bunting, Kristopher M; Vazdarjanova, Almira

    2014-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs after experiencing a traumatic event. Susceptibility to PTSD exists, as only some trauma-exposed individuals develop this condition. Investigating susceptibilities in animal models can contribute to understanding the etiology of the disorder. We previously reported an animal model which allows reliable pre-classification of rats as susceptible (Sus) or resistant (Res) to developing a PTSD-like phenotype after a later trauma. Here we report that Sus, compared to Res, rats have altered hippocampal function, along the septo-temporal axis, prior to experiencing a traumatic event. In Experiment I, Res and Sus rats explored a novel box twice. Using a cellular imaging method for assessing plasticity-related immediate-early gene expression in large neuronal ensembles, Arc/Homer1a catFISH, we show that Sus rats have smaller vCA3 ensembles during the second exploration. This suppressed vCA3 activation in Sus rats was not due to a difference in exploratory behavior, or to a difference in Arc/Homer1a expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). BLA is a main source of inputs to vCA3, but both the ensemble size and overlap of BLA ensembles activated during the two explorations was similar to that of Res rats. Additionally, Sus rats had significant 'infidelity' in their dorsal hippocampal representations of the second event: a lower overlap, compared to Res rats, of Arc/Homer1a-expressing ensembles activated during the two explorations (the size of the ensembles were similar to those of Res rats). These differences were revealed only in conditions of relatively low stress, because they were not observed when Sus and Res rats experienced fear conditioning (Experiment II). Combined, the findings show that altered hippocampal function exists before experiencing emotional trauma in susceptible rats and suggest that this is a risk factor for PTSD.

  1. Impairments in goal-directed actions predict treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder.

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    Gail A Alvares

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive fear and habitual avoidance of social situations. Decision-making models suggest that patients with anxiety disorders may fail to exhibit goal-directed control over actions. We therefore investigated whether such biases may also be associated with social anxiety and to examine the relationship between such behavior with outcomes from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Patients diagnosed with social anxiety and controls completed an instrumental learning task in which two actions were performed to earn food outcomes. After outcome devaluation, where one outcome was consumed to satiety, participants were re-tested in extinction. Results indicated that, as expected, controls were goal-directed, selectively reducing responding on the action that previously delivered the devalued outcome. Patients with social anxiety, however, exhibited no difference in responding on either action. This loss of a devaluation effect was associated with greater symptom severity and poorer response to therapy. These findings indicate that variations in goal-directed control in social anxiety may represent both a behavioral endophenotype and may be used to predict individuals who will respond to learning-based therapies.

  2. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior.

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    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  3. Cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior

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    Keizo eTakao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal. Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  4. Persistent anxiety-like behavior in marmosets following a recent predatory stress condition: reversal by diazepam.

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    Barros, Marilia; Giorgetti, Marco; Souto, Anna América Vieira; Vilela, Gabriela; Santos, Katarina; Boas, Naiá Vilas; Tomaz, Carlos

    2007-04-01

    Initial investigations indicated the use of the Marmoset Predator Confrontation Test (MPCT) as an experimental procedure to measure fear/anxiety-related behaviors in non-human primates. However, possible long-term habituation effects and re-use of experimental subjects need to be verified. This study, therefore, compared the behavioral response of experienced versus naïve adult black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) in the MPCT, with/without diazepam administrations. Subjects were tested in the figure-8 maze and confronted with a taxidermized wild-cat predator stimulus. After four initial 20-min maze habituation sessions, each subject was submitted to two randomly-assigned 20-min predator confrontation sessions: vehicle and 2 mg/kg of diazepam. Confrontation with the predator induced significant behavioral changes; i.e., proximic avoidance and tsik-tsik alarm call. Diazepam administration, concomitant to predator exposure, reversed the behavioral changes observed. In both the experienced and naïve marmosets a similar behavioral profile and response pattern to diazepam was detected, corroborating the important selective pressure that felines seem to have on marmoset behavioral ecology. Therefore, during a more naturalistic-like regimen--i.e., recurring intermittent predator encounters--the general response pattern remains highly consistent, regardless of prior experience. One may consider the re-use of marmoset subjects in the MPCT, particularly under these specific conditions (i.e. repeated 20-min confrontations, 72-h apart).

  5. Brief Report: Altered Social Behavior in Isolation-Reared "Fmr1" Knockout Mice

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    Heitzer, Andrew M.; Roth, Alexandra K.; Nawrocki, Lauren; Wrenn, Craige C.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Social behavior abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are characterized by social withdrawal, anxiety, and deficits in social cognition. To assess these deficits, a model of FXS, the "Fmr1" knockout mouse ("Fmr1" KO), has been utilized. This mouse model has a null mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene ("Fmr1") and displays…

  6. Cannabinoids & Stress: impact of HU-210 on behavioral tests of anxiety in acutely stressed mice.

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    Kinden, Renee; Zhang, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Anxiety disorders are one of the most prevalent classes of mental disorders affecting the general population, but current treatment strategies are restricted by their limited efficacy and side effect profiles. Although the cannabinoid system is speculated to be a key player in the modulation of stress responses and emotionality, the vast majority of current research initiatives had not incorporated stress exposure into their experimental designs. This study was the first to investigate the impact of exogenous cannabinoid administration in an acutely stressed mouse model, where CD1 mice were pre-treated with HU-210, a potent CB1R agonist, prior to acute stress exposure and subsequent behavioral testing. Exogenous cannabinoid administration induced distinct behavioral phenotypes in stressed and unstressed mice. While low doses of HU-210 were anxiolytic in unstressed subjects, this effect was abolished when mice were exposed to an acute stressor. The administration of higher HU-210 doses in combination with acute stress exposure led to severe locomotor deficits that were not previously observed at the same dose in unstressed subjects. These findings suggest that exogenous cannabinoids and acute stress act synergistically in an anxiogenic manner. This study underlies the importance of including stress exposure into future anxiety-cannabinoid research due to the differential impact of cannabinoid administration on stressed and unstressed subjects.

  7. On the relationships between ultrasonic calling and anxiety-related behavior in rats

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    Schwarting, R.K.W.; Wöhr, M. [Experimental and Physiological Psychology, Philipps-University of Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2012-03-23

    In the present review, the phenomenon of ultrasonic vocalization in rats will be outlined, including the three classes of vocalizations, namely 40-kHz calls of pups, and 22- and 50-kHz calls of juvenile and adult rats, their general relevance to behavioral neuroscience, and their special relevance to research on anxiety, fear, and defense mechanisms. Here, the emphasis will be placed on 40- and 22-kHz calls, since they are typical for various situations with aversive properties. Among other topics, we will discuss whether such behavioral signals can index a certain affective state, and how these signals can be used in social neuroscience, especially with respect to communication. Furthermore, we will address the phenomenon of inter-individual variability in ultrasonic calling and what we currently know about the mechanisms, which may determine such variability. Finally, we will address the current knowledge on the neural and pharmacological mechanisms underlying 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalization, which show a substantial overlap with mechanisms known from other research on fear and anxiety, such as those involving the periaqueductal gray or the amygdala.

  8. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats.

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    Dietze, Silke; Lees, Katarina R; Fink, Heidrun; Brosda, Jan; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2016-01-07

    In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time) feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5-6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation) to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding). Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch.

  9. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats

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    Silke Dietze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5–6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding. Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch.

  10. The Study Of Anxiety In Medical Students And It’s Relation With Practice of Health Behavior

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    Meshkani Z

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical education is inherently stressful and demanding to deal with various stressors, which may cause impaired judgment, reduced concentration, lack of self-steam, increased anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 250 medical students from 6 month period to graduation in medical college of Tehran university of Medical sciences in order to assess their anxiety and practice of health behaviors and also the relation between the two variables and some other related factors.. Results: The results of study show that of 6.6% medical students suffer from severe state and 4.9% from trait anxiety. The finding of this study shows that 83.3% of girls and 84.6% of boys have practicing risky health behaviors. No statistical relationships found between, anxiety and practicing health behaviors. The relation between anxiety and health satisfaction was Statistically significant; mental and physical (P<0.001. Conclusion: The information found in this research, can help medical education institute to capitalize an opportunities to help their students in preventing risky behaviors, and different stress management techniques should be taught at medical schools.

  11. Complete recovery from anxiety disorders following Cognitive Behavior Therapy in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis.

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    Warwick, Helen; Reardon, Tessa; Cooper, Peter; Murayama, Kou; Reynolds, Shirley; Wilson, Charlotte; Creswell, Cathy

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for childhood anxiety disorders. Meta-analyses have concluded that approximately 60% of children recover following treatment, however these include studies using a broad range of diagnostic indices to assess outcomes including whether children are free of the one anxiety disorder that causes most interference (i.e. the primary anxiety disorder) or whether children are free of all anxiety disorders. We conducted a meta-analysis to establish the efficacy of CBT in terms of absence of all anxiety disorders. Where available we compared this rate to outcomes based on absence of primary disorder. Of 56 published randomized controlled trials, 19 provided data on recovery from all anxiety disorders (n=635 CBT, n=450 control participants). There was significant heterogeneity across those studies with available data and full recovery rates varied from 47.6 to 66.4% among children without autistic spectrum conditions (ASC) and 12.2 to 36.7% for children with ASC following treatment, compared to up to 20.6% and 21.3% recovery in waitlist and active treatment comparisons. The lack of consistency in diagnostic outcomes highlights the urgent need for consensus on reporting in future RCTs of childhood anxiety disorders for the meaningful synthesis of data going forwards.

  12. A Pilot Study of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleo, Jessica S; Amspoker, Amber B; Sarwar, Aliya I; Kunik, Mark E; Jankovic, Joseph; Marsh, Laura; York, Michele; Stanley, Melinda A

    2015-09-01

    Anxiety and depression often remain unrecognized or inadequately treated in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective, but limited evidence supports its use for anxiety and depression in patients with PD. Sixteen patients with PD having significant anxiety and/or depressive symptoms were assigned to CBT or enhanced usual care. Assessments occurred at baseline, posttreatment, and 1-month follow-up. The CBT intervention included tools for anxiety, depression, and healthy living with PD symptoms. Individual sessions were delivered by telephone or in person, based on patient preference. Treatment was feasible with participants choosing 67% of sessions by telephone and 80% completed treatment. The between-group effect sizes for change scores from baseline to posttreatment and baseline to 1-month follow-up were large (posttreatment: d = 1.49 for depression and 1.44 for anxiety; 1-month follow-up: d = .73 for depression and 1.24 for anxiety), although only the posttreatment effect size for depression was significant. This pilot CBT program is feasible for treatment of anxiety and depression in patients with PD.

  13. Low dose prenatal ethanol exposure induces anxiety-like behaviour and alters dendritic morphology in the basolateral amygdala of rat offspring.

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    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol is strongly associated with poor cognitive outcomes particularly in relation to learning and memory. It is also becoming more evident that anxiety disorders and anxiety-like behaviour can be associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to a relatively small amount of alcohol would result in anxiety-like behaviour and to determine if this was associated with morphological changes in the basolateral amygdala. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing either no alcohol (Control or 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 months (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Rats were perfusion fixed and brains were collected at the end of behavioural testing for morphological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the basolateral amygdala. EtOH exposed offspring displayed anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus maze, holeboard and emergence tests. Although sexually dimorphic behaviour was apparent, sex did not impact anxiety-like behaviour induced by prenatal alcohol exposure. This increase in anxiety - like behaviour could not be attributed to a change in pyramidal cell number within the BLA but rather was associated with an increase in dendritic spines along the apical dendrite which is indicative of an increase in synaptic connectivity and activity within these neurons. This study is the first to link increases in anxiety like behaviour to structural changes within the basolateral amygdala in a model of prenatal ethanol exposure. In addition, this study has shown that exposure to even a relatively small amount of alcohol during development leads to long term alterations in anxiety-like behaviour.

  14. Reward memory relieves anxiety-related behavior through synaptic strengthening and protein kinase C in dentate gyrus.

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    Lei, Zhuofan; Liu, Bei; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are presumably associated with negative memory. Psychological therapies are widely used to treat this mental deficit in human beings based on the view that positive memory competes with negative memory and relieves anxiety status. Cellular and molecular processes underlying psychological therapies remain elusive. Therefore, we have investigated its mechanisms based on a mouse model in which food reward at one open-arm of the elevated plus-maze was used for training mice to form reward memory and challenge the open arms. Mice with the reward training showed increased entries and stay time in reward open-arm versus neutral open-arm as well as in open-arms versus closed-arms. Accompanying with reward memory formation and anxiety relief, glutamatergic synaptic transmission in dentate gyrus in vivo and dendritic spines in granule cells became upregulated. This synaptic up-regulation was accompanied by the expression of more protein kinase C (PKC) in the dendritic spines. The inhibition of PKC by chelerythrine impaired the formation of reward memory, the relief of anxiety-related behavior and the up-regulation of glutamate synapses. Our results suggest that reward-induced positive memory relieves mouse anxiety-related behavior by strengthening synaptic efficacy and PKC in the hippocampus, which imply the underlying cellular and molecular processes involved in the beneficial effects of psychological therapies treating anxiety disorders.

  15. Increased anxiety-like behavior and selective learning impairments are concomitant to loss of hippocampal interneurons in the presymptomatic SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model.

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    Quarta, Eros; Bravi, Riccardo; Scambi, Ilaria; Mariotti, Raffaella; Minciacchi, Diego

    2015-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by motor neuron death, causes damages beyond motor-related areas. In particular, cognitive impairments and hippocampal damage have been reported in ALS patients. We investigated spatial navigation learning and hippocampal interneurons in a mutant SOD1(G93A) mouse (mSOD1) model of ALS. Behavioral tests were performed by using presymptomatic mSOD1 mice. General motor activity was comparable to that of wild-type mice in the open-field test, in which, however mSOD1 exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior. In the Barnes maze test, mSOD1 mice displayed a delay in learning, outperformed wild-type mice during the first probe trial, and exhibited impaired long-term memory. Stereological counts of parvalbumin-positive interneurons, which are crucial for hippocampal physiology and known to be altered in other central nervous system regions of mSOD1 mice, were also performed. At postnatal day (P) 56, the population of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in mSOD1 mice was already reduced in CA1 and in CA3, and at P90 the reduction extended to the dentate gyrus. Loss of parvalbumin-positive hippocampal interneurons occurred mostly during the presymptomatic stage. Western blot analysis showed that hippocampal parvalbumin expression levels were already reduced in mSOD1 mice at P56. The hippocampal alterations in mSOD1 mice could at least partly account for the increased anxiety-like behavior and deficits in spatial navigation learning. Our study provides evidence for cognitive alterations and damage to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system in the hippocampus of murine ALS, thereby revealing selective deficits antecedent to the onset of motor symptoms.

  16. Acute engagement of Gq-mediated signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis induces anxiety-like behavior.

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    Mazzone, C M; Pati, D; Michaelides, M; DiBerto, J; Fox, J H; Tipton, G; Anderson, C; Duffy, K; McKlveen, J M; Hardaway, J A; Magness, S T; Falls, W A; Hammack, S E; McElligott, Z A; Hurd, Y L; Kash, T L

    2016-12-13

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a brain region important for regulating anxiety-related behavior in both humans and rodents. Here we used a chemogenetic strategy to investigate how engagement of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling cascades in genetically defined GABAergic BNST neurons modulates anxiety-related behavior and downstream circuit function. We saw that stimulation of vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT)-expressing BNST neurons using hM3Dq, but neither hM4Di nor rM3Ds designer receptors exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD), promotes anxiety-like behavior. Further, we identified that activation of hM3Dq receptors in BNST VGAT neurons can induce a long-term depression-like state of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, indicating DREADD-induced changes in synaptic plasticity. Further, we used DREADD-assisted metabolic mapping to profile brain-wide network activity following activation of Gq-mediated signaling in BNST VGAT neurons and saw increased activity within ventral midbrain structures, including the ventral tegmental area and hindbrain structures such as the locus coeruleus and parabrachial nucleus. These results highlight that Gq-mediated signaling in BNST VGAT neurons can drive downstream network activity that correlates with anxiety-like behavior and points to the importance of identifying endogenous GPCRs within genetically defined cell populations. We next used a microfluidics approach to profile the receptorome of single BNST VGAT neurons. This approach yielded multiple Gq-coupled receptors that are associated with anxiety-like behavior and several potential novel candidates for regulation of anxiety-like behavior. From this, we identified that stimulation of the Gq-coupled receptor 5-HT2CR in the BNST is sufficient to elevate anxiety-like behavior in an acoustic startle task. Together, these results provide a novel profile of receptors within genetically defined BNST VGAT neurons that

  17. Effects of neonatal paternal deprivation or early deprivation on anxiety and social behaviors of the adults in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao; An, Shucheng; Zhang, Xia; Broders, Hugh

    2009-11-01

    This study examined whether neonatal paternal deprivation (PD: father was removed and pups were raised just by mother) or early deprivation (ED: pups were raised by both parents except separated from not only the dam but also the peers for three hours a day from PND 0 to 13) has long-term effects on anxiety and social behaviors of adult mandarin voles. Newborn mandarin voles of F2 generation were randomly assigned to one of three groups: bi-parental care (PC: pups were raised by both parents), PD and ED. The parental care behaviors of F1 generation were observed at the age of 0, 13 and 21 days (PND 0, 13, 21) of F2 generation of PC and PD groups. Moreover, each mandarin vole of F2 generation received an open field test and a social interaction test on PND 70 and PND 75, respectively. No significant differences of parental behavior were observed between mothers and fathers from PC families, showing typical parental behavior of socially monogamous rodents. In addition, no significant differences of maternal behaviors were found between mothers from PC and PD families, indicating no maternal compensation towards pups for the absence of the paternal care. In the open field test, mandarin voles from both PD and ED families displayed higher levels of anxiety and lower locomotor activity, relative to offspring of PC family. In the social interaction test, both PD and ED mandarin voles also showed lower levels of social behavior and higher levels of anxiety. Thus, both PD and ED significantly increase anxiety and reduce social behavior of adult mandarin voles, suggesting that variation in parental investment may lead to variation in anxiety and social behaviors in rodents with different mating systems.

  18. Gender-specific behavioral and immunological alterations in an animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tomasz; Roman, Adam; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Schneider, Karolina; Przewłocki, Ryszard

    2008-07-01

    Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotyped behaviors, with a four times higher incidence in boys than in girls. The core symptoms are frequently accompanied by a spectrum of neurobehavioral and immunological derangements, including: aberrant sensitivity to sensory stimulation, anxiety, and decreased cellular immune capacity. Recently, a new potential rodent model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA rats) has been proposed. In order to determine if gender has an influence on alterations observed in VPA rats, male and female rats have been evaluated in a battery of behavioral, immunological, and endocrinological tests. A plethora of aberrations has been found in male VPA rats: lower sensitivity to pain, increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity, higher anxiety, decreased level of social interaction, increased basal level of corticosterone, decreased weight of the thymus, decreased splenocytes proliferative response to concanavaline A, lower IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio, and increased production of NO by peritoneal macrophages. Female VPA rats exhibited only increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and decreased IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio. Sexual dimorphism characteristics for measured parameters have been observed in both groups of animals, except social interaction in VPA rats. Our results confirm existence of similarities between the observed pattern of aberrations in VPA rats and features of disturbed behavior and immune function in autistic patients, and suggest that they are gender-specific, which is intriguing in light of disproportion in boys to girls ratio in autism.

  19. Cerebellar Neural Circuits Involving Executive Control Network Predict Response to Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MinlanYuan; Meng, Yajing; Zhang, Yan; Nie, Xiaojing; Ren, Zhengjia; Zhu, Hongru; Li, Yuchen; Lui, Su; Gong, Qiyong; Qiu, Changjian; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-02

    Some intrinsic connectivity networks including the default mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN) may underlie social anxiety disorder (SAD). Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of SAD and several networks relevant to higher-order cognition, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas involved in DMN and ECN exhibit altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with cortical networks in SAD. Forty-six patients with SAD and 64 healthy controls (HC) were included and submitted to the baseline resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen SAD patients who completed post-treatment clinical assessments were included after group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). RsFC of three cerebellar subregions in both groups was assessed respectively in a voxel-wise way, and these rsFC maps were compared by two-sample t tests between groups. Whole-brain voxel-wise regression was performed to examine whether cerebellar connectivity networks can predict response to CBT. Lower rsFC circuits of cerebellar subregions compared with HC at baseline (p circuits involving DMN and ECN are possible neuropathologic mechanisms of SAD. Stronger pretreatment cerebellar rsFC circuits involving ECN suggest potential neural markers to predict CBT response.

  20. Huntingtin acts non cell-autonomously on hippocampal neurogenesis and controls anxiety-related behaviors in adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pla

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, characterized by motor defects and psychiatric symptoms, including mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. HD is caused by an abnormal polyglutamine (polyQ expansion in the huntingtin (HTT protein. The development and analysis of various mouse models that express pathogenic polyQ-HTT revealed a link between mutant HTT and the development of anxio-depressive behaviors and various hippocampal neurogenesis defects. However, it is unclear whether such phenotype is linked to alteration of HTT wild-type function in adults. Here, we report the analysis of a new mouse model in which HTT is inducibly deleted from adult mature cortical and hippocampal neurons using the CreER(T2/Lox system. These mice present defects in both the survival and the dendritic arborization of hippocampal newborn neurons. Our data suggest that these non-cell autonomous effects are linked to defects in both BDNF transport and release upon HTT silencing in hippocampal neurons, and in BDNF/TrkB signaling. The controlled deletion of HTT also had anxiogenic-like effects. Our results implicate endogenous wild-type HTT in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and in the control of mood disorders.

  1. 17α-Ethinyl estradiol affects anxiety and shoaling behavior in adult male zebra fish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhanian, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Bollner, Tomas; Olsson, Per-Erik; Olsén, Håkan; Hällström, Inger Porsch

    2011-09-01

    Ethinyl estradiol is a potent endocrine disrupting compound in fish and ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. In this study, we exposed adult zebra fish (Danio rerio) males to 0, 5 or 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol/L for 14 days and analyzed the effects on non-reproductive behavior. Effects of treatment of the exposed males was shown by vitellogenin induction, while brain aromatase (CYP 19B) activity was not significantly altered. Both concentrations of Ethinyl estradiol significantly altered the behavior in the Novel tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to stay at the bottom when introduced into an unfamiliar environment. The effects were, however, opposite for the two concentrations. Fish that were exposed to 5 ng/L had longer latency before upswim, fewer transitions to the upper half and shorter total time spent in the upper half compared with control fish, while 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol treatment resulted in shorter latency and more and longer visits to the upper half. The swimming activity of 25, but not 5 ng-exposed fish were slightly but significantly reduced, and these fish tended to spend a lot of time at the surface. We also studied the shoaling behavior as the tendency to leave a shoal of littermates trapped behind a Plexiglas barrier at one end of the test tank. The fish treated with Ethinyl estradiol had significantly longer latency before leaving shoal mates and left the shoal fewer times. Further, the fish exposed to 5 ng/L also spent significantly less time away from shoal than control fish. Fertilization frequency was higher in males exposed to 5 ng/L Ethinyl estradiol when compared with control males, while no spawning was observed after treatment with 25 ng/L. The testes from both treatment groups contained a normal distribution of spermatogenesis stages, and no abnormality in testis morphology could be observed. In conclusion, we have observed effects on two behaviors not related to reproduction in zebra fish males after

  2. New knockout model confirms a role for androgen receptors in regulating anxiety-like behaviors and HPA response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh V; Brummet, Jennifer L; Lonstein, Joseph S; Jordan, Cynthia L; Breedlove, S Marc

    2014-03-01

    Men are less likely than women to suffer from anxiety disorders. Because gonadal hormones play a crucial role in many behavioral sex differences, they may underlie sex differences in human anxiety. In rodents, testosterone (T) exerts anxiolytic effects via the androgen receptor (AR): we found that male mice with a naturally-occurring mutation rendering the AR dysfunctional, referred to as spontaneous testicular feminization mutation (sTfm), showed more anxiety-like behaviors than wildtype (WT) males. Here, we used Cre-lox recombination technology to create another dysfunctional allele for AR. These induced Tfm (iTfm) animals also displayed more anxiety-like behaviors than WTs. We further found that AR-modulation of these behaviors interacts with circadian phase. When tested in the resting phase, iTfms appeared more anxious than WTs in the open field, novel object and elevated plus maze tests, but not the light/dark box. However, when tested during the active phase (lights off), iTfms showed more anxiety-related behavior than WTs in all four tests. Finally, we confirmed a role of T acting via AR in regulating HPA axis activity, as WT males with T showed a lower baseline and overall corticosterone response, and a faster return to baseline following mild stress than did WT males without T or iTfms. These findings demonstrate that this recombined AR allele is a valuable model for studying androgenic modulation of anxiety, that the anxiolytic effects of AR in mice are more prominent in the active phase, and that HPA axis modulation by T is AR dependent.

  3. Associations between parenting behavior and anxiety in a rodent model and a clinical sample: relationship to peripheral BDNF levels.

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    Dalle Molle, R; Portella, A K; Goldani, M Z; Kapczinski, F P; Leistner-Segal, S; Leistner-Segala, S; Salum, G A; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2012-01-01

    Adverse early-life environment is associated with anxiety-like behaviors and disorders. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is sensitive to this environment and could be a marker of underlying brain changes. We aimed at evaluating the development of anxiety-like behaviors in a rat model of early adversity, as well as the possible association with BDNF levels. Similar associations were investigated in a sample of adolescent humans. For the rat study, Wistar rat litters were divided into: early-life stress (ELS, limited access to nesting material) and control groups. Maternal behavior was observed from days 1 to 9 of life and, as adults, rats were subjected to behavioral testing and BDNF measurements in plasma, hippocampus, amygdala and periaqueductal gray. For the human study, 129 adolescents were evaluated for anxiety symptoms and perceived parental care. Serum BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene were investigated. We found that ELS dams showed more pure contact, that is, contact with low care and high control, toward pups, and their adult offspring demonstrated higher anxiety-like behaviors and plasma BDNF. Also the pure contact correlated positively with adult peripheral BDNF. Similarly in humans, there was a positive correlation between maternal overprotection and serum BDNF only in Met carriers. We also found negative correlations between maternal warmth and separation anxiety, social phobia and school phobia. Finally, our translational approach revealed that ELS, mediated through variations in maternal care, is associated with anxiety in both rats and humans and increased peripheral BDNF may be marking these phenomena.

  4. The Effect of Mindfulness-integrated Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Depression and Anxiety among Pregnant Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Yazdanimehr, Reza; Omidi, Abdollah; Sadat, Zohreh; Akbari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnancy can be associated with different psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. These problems are often neglected and left untreated. This study aimed to examine the effect of mindfulness-integrated cognitive behavior therapy on depression and anxiety among pregnant women. Methods: A convenient sample of 80 pregnant women were selected. Participants were randomly allocated to either the experimental or the control groups. Participants in the experimental group received mindfulness-integrated cognitive behavior therapy while women in the control group only received routine prenatal care services. A demographic questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics measures such as frequency, mean, and standard deviation as well as the repeated-measures analysis of variance test were used for data analysis. Results: After the study intervention, the mean scores of anxiety and depression in the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: Mindfulness-integrated cognitive behavior therapy can significantly alleviate pregnant women’s depression and anxiety. So implementation of this method alongside with other prenatal care services is recommended. PMID:27752485

  5. Stress and central Urocortin increase anxiety-like behavior in the social interaction test via the CRF1 receptor.

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    Gehlert, Donald R; Shekhar, Anantha; Morin, S Michelle; Hipskind, Phillip A; Zink, Charity; Gackenheimer, Susan L; Shaw, Janice; Fitz, Stephanie D; Sajdyk, Tammy J

    2005-02-21

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and Urocortin are important neurotransmitters in the regulation of physiological and behavioral responses to stress. Centrally administered CRF or Urocortin produces anxiety-like responses in numerous animal models of anxiety disorders. Previous studies in our lab have shown that Urocortin infused into the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala produces anxiety-like responses in the social interaction test. Subsequently, in the current study we prepared a specific CRF1 receptor antagonist (N-Cyclopropylmethyl-2,5-dimethyl-N-propyl-N'-(2,4,6-trichloro-phenyl)-pyrimidine-4,6-diamine, NBI3b1996) to examine in this paradigm. This CRF1 receptor antagonist inhibited the ex vivo binding of 125I-sauvagine to rat cerebellum with an ED50 of 6 mg/kg, i.p. NBI3b1996 produced a dose-dependent antagonism of Urocortin-induced anxiety-like behavior in Social Interaction test with an ED50 of 6 mg/kg, i.p. The compound had no effect on baseline social interaction. In addition, the CRF1 receptor antagonist prevented the stress-induced decrease in social interaction. These results provide further support for the CRF1 receptor in anxiety-like behavior and suggest this pathway is quiescent in unstressed animals.

  6. The Effect of Mindfulness-integrated Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Depression and Anxiety among Pregnant Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Reza Yazdanimehr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pregnancy can be associated with different psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. These problems are often neglected and left untreated. This study aimed to examine the effect of mindfulness-integrated cognitive behavior therapy on depression and anxiety among pregnant women. Methods: A convenient sample of 80 pregnant women were selected. Participants were randomly allocated to either the experimental or the control groups. Participants in the experimental group received mindfulness-integrated cognitive behavior therapy while women in the control group only received routine prenatal care services. A demographic questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics measures such as frequency, mean, and standard deviation as well as the repeated-measures analysis of variance test were used for data analysis. Results: After the study intervention, the mean scores of anxiety and depression in the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: Mindfulness-integrated cognitive behavior therapy can significantly alleviate pregnant women’s depression and anxiety. So implementation of this method alongside with other prenatal care services is recommended.

  7. Alterations in white matter volume and its correlation with clinical characteristics in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chung-Man [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Gwang-Woo [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Only a few morphological studies have focused on changes in white matter (WM) volume in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We evaluated alterations in WM volume and its correlation with symptom severity and duration of illness in adults with GAD. The 44 subjects were comprised of 22 patients with GAD (13 males and nine females) diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 males and nine females). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were processed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm in SPM8. Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced WM volume, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), and midbrain. In addition, DLPFC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score and illness duration. ALIC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score. Female patients had significantly less orbitofrontal cortex volume compared to that in male patients. The findings demonstrate localized changes in WM volume associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction in patients with GAD. The finding will be helpful for understanding the neuropathology in patients with GAD. (orig.)

  8. A model of premature aging in mice based on altered stress-related behavioral response and immunosenescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, María-Paz; Arranz, Lorena; Hernanz, Angel; Miquel, Jaime; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2007-01-01

    The intensity of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressful stimuli in rodent strains seems to be inversely related to their life span. We have previously shown that interindividual differences in members of outbred Swiss and inbred BALB/c mouse populations, both male and female, may be related to their behavior in a simple T-maze test. The animals that explore the maze slowly show impaired neuromuscular vigor and coordination, decreased locomotor activity, increased level of emotionality/anxiety, decreased levels of brain biogenic amines as well as immunosenescence and decreased life span, when compared to their control counterparts, which quickly explore the maze. These traits are similar to some of the alterations previously observed in aging animals and therefore we proposed that those 'slow mice' are biologically older than the fast animals and may be a model of prematurely aging mice (PAM). Although most of our work on this model has been performed on chronologically adult-mature animals, we have also shown that certain characteristics of PAM, such as increased anxiety and deficient immune response, are already present in chronologically young animals. Thus, it is tempting to hypothesize that chronic hyperreactivity to stress (trait anxiety) leading to immune dysfunction may have a causal relationship with impaired health and premature aging. In view of the link between oxidative stress and the aging process, the redox state of peritoneal leukocytes from PAM has been studied, showing an oxidative stress situation. In the present work we have determined the levels of a key antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH), and the oxidant malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, both in the spleen and brain of male and female PAM and non-PAM (NPAM). We found that GSH and MDA are decreased and increased, respectively, in PAM with respect to NPAM. Moreover, diet supplementation with antioxidants showed to be an effective strategy for protection

  9. Association of help-seeking behavior with depression and anxiety disorders among gastroenterological patients in Saudi Arabia

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    Fahad D Alosaimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: There is a high prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among gastroenterological outpatients. Relatively few studies have been done on the help-seeking behavior among those who suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms with or without psychiatric disorders. We aimed to characterize the help-seeking behavior of gastroenterological outpatients and to evaluate if this behavior is linked to the presence of depression and anxiety. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in gastroenterology clinics in four hospitals in Riyadh between February and September 2013. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and administered to patients. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7 questionnaires were used to diagnose depression and anxiety, respectively. Results: A total of 440 patients completed the study questionnaire. The average age was 36.0 ± 12.8 years and 69% of the patients were males. Complaints included abdominal pain (58%, heartburn (29%, diarrhea or constipation (25%, appetite or weight changes (22%, and nausea or vomiting (16%. Depression was diagnosed in 36%, while anxiety was diagnosed in 28% of the patients. The first intervention was use of medications (68% and undergoing endoscopy (16%, while few patients initially used herbs or Islamic incantation (7.5%. This first intervention was done primarily (59% in private sector hospitals rather than government sector hospitals (36%. The rates of depression and anxiety in our patients were higher among those who suffered from multiple complaints for longer durations and with less satisfaction with the offered services. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are common comorbidities in gastroenterological outpatient population, especially those who have a chronic course of multiple gastrointestinal complaints.

  10. Patterns of Theta Activity in Limbic Anxiety Circuit Preceding Exploratory Behavior in Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Luis R.; Cerqueira, João J.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC) circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM). Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and prelimbic (PrL) mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC), during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms. The same patterns of theta power variations in the HPC-BLA-mPFC(PrL) circuit were also displayed by animals submitted to chronic unpredictable stress protocol known to induce an anxious state. Diverging patterns of vHPC-mPFC(PrL) theta coherence were also significantly correlated with forthcoming approach or avoidance behavior in the conflict situation in both controls and stressed animals; interestingly, vHPC-BLA, and BLA-mPFC(PrL) theta coherence correlated with future behavior only in stressed animals, underlying the pivotal role of the amygdala on the stress response. PMID:27713693

  11. Patterns of Theta Activity in Limbic Anxiety Circuit Preceding Exploratory Behavior in Approach-Avoidance Conflict

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    Luis R Jacinto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC(PrL circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM. Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC, basolateral amygdala (BLA and prelimbic (PrL mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC, during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms. The same patterns of theta power variations in the HPC-BLA-mPFC(PrL circuit were also displayed by animals submitted to chronic unpredictable stress protocol known to induce an anxious state. Diverging patterns of vHPC-mPFC(PrL theta coherence were also significantly correlated with forthcoming approach or avoidance behavior in the conflict situation in both controls and stressed animals; interestingly, vHPC-BLA and BLA-mPFC(PrL theta coherence correlated with future behavior only in stressed animals, underlying the pivotal role of the amygdala on the stress response.

  12. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for children with anxiety disorders in a clinical setting : No additional effect of a cognitive parent training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, MH; Scholing, A; Emmelkamp, PMG; Minderaa, RB

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate a 12-week cognitive-behavioral treatment program for children with anxiety disorders and the additional value of a seven-session cognitive parent training program. Method: Seventy-nine children with an anxiety disorder (aged 7-18 years) were randomly assigned to a cognitive behavioral tr

  13. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder in a frontline service setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehle, Shannon M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to test the generalizability of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a frontline service setting. Twenty-nine patients who presented to treatment clinics with problematic worry were provided CBT for GAD. Among the intent-to-treat sample, there were no significant changes in worry or depression from pre- to posttreatment. Treatment completers showed significant pre- to posttreatment reductions on measures of worry and depression. The magnitude of change was smaller than has been reported in randomized control trials (RCTs). Although the frontline service setting differed from RCT settings in multiple ways, treatment completers nonetheless achieved moderate to large decreases in self-reported worry and depression.

  14. [Evaluation of exploratory activity and anxiety in rats with different levels of impulsive behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovskaia, A A; Zaĭchenko, M I; Merzhanova, G H; Salozhin, S V

    2013-01-01

    Rats were divided into 3 groups according to their preference for reinforcements of different values. Animals that preferred valuable but delayed reinforcement in more than 70% of cases formed as self-controlled group, less than 30% of cases formed an impulsive group, the rest formed an ambivalent group. Behavior of animals of different groups was scored for exploratory activity and anxiety in x-maze, fear-conditioning and novelty suppressed feeding. The least active and the most anxious in all procedures used were self-controlled rats. Ambivalent animals as compared to self-controlled and impulsive rats were the least anxious in x-maze and had more successful trials in novelty suppressed feeding test. Impulsive animals demonstrated greater percent of freezing response during acquisition of conditioned fear and they were quicker in finding food in novel environment.

  15. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

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    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  16. Sex-Specific Regulation of Depression, Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Alcohol Drinking in Mice Lacking ENT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Christina L; Walker, Denise L; An, Joyce; Kim, Jason; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2011-12-25

    OBJECTIVES: Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders including alcoholism, depression, and anxiety. Adenosine levels are controlled in part by transport across the cell membrane by equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). Recent evidence showed that a polymorphism in the gene encoding ENT1 is associated with comorbid depression and alcoholism in women. We have previously shown that deletion of ENT1 reduces ethanol intoxication and elevates alcohol intake in mice. Interestingly, ENT1 null mice display decreased anxiety-like behavior compared to wild-type littermates. However, our behavioral studies were performed only in male mice. Here, we extend our research to include female mice, and test the effect of ENT1 knockout on other behavioral correlates of alcohol drinking, including depressive and compulsive behavior, in mice. METHODS: To assess depression-like behavior, we used a forced swim test modified for mice. We examined anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity in open field chambers, and perseverant behavior using the marble-burying test. Finally, we investigated alcohol consumption and preference in female mice using a two-bottle choice paradigm. RESULTS: ENT1 null mice of both sexes showed reduced immobility time in the forced swim test and increased time in the center of the open field compared to wild-type littermates. ENT1 null mice of both sexes showed similar locomotor activity levels and habituation to the open field chambers. Female ENT1 null mice displayed increased marble-burying compared to female wild-types, but no genotype difference was evident in males. Female ENT1 null mice showed increased ethanol consumption and preference compared to female wild-types. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ENT1 contributes to several important behaviors involved in psychiatric disorders. Inhibition of ENT1 may be beneficial in treating depression and anxiety, while enhancement of ENT1 function

  17. Transdiagnostic group behavioral activation and exposure therapy for youth anxiety and depression: Initial randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Brian C; Crocco, Sofia T; Esseling, Petra; Areizaga, Margaret J; Lindner, Alison M; Skriner, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are debilitating and commonly co-occurring in young adolescents, yet few interventions are designed to treat both disorder classes together. Initial efficacy is presented of a school-based transdiagnostic group behavioral activation therapy (GBAT) that emphasizes anti-avoidance in vivo exposure. Youth (N = 35; ages 12-14; 50.9% male) were randomly assigned to either GBAT (n = 21) or WL (n = 14) after completing a double-gated screening process. Multi-reporter, multi-domain outcomes were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and four-month follow-up (FU). GBAT was associated with greater posttreatment remission rates than WL in principal diagnosis (57.1% vs. 28.6%; X1(2) = 2.76, p = .09) and secondary diagnosis (70.6% vs. 10%; X1(2) = 9.26, p = .003), and greater improvement in Clinical Global Impairment - Severity ratings, B = -1.10 (0.42), p = .01. Symptom outcomes were not significantly different at posttreatment. GBAT produced greater posttreatment behavioral activation (large effect size) and fewer negative thoughts (medium effect), two transdiagnostic processes, both at the trend level. Most outcomes showed linear improvement from pretreatment to FU that did not differ depending on initial condition assignment. Sample size was small, but GBAT is a promising transdiagnostic intervention for youth anxiety and unipolar mood disorders that can feasibly and acceptably be applied in school settings.

  18. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT in Reducing Worry, Anxiety and Panic Attacks Mitral Valve Prolapse Patients

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    AR Jamshidzehi ShahBakhsh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The mitral valve prolapse is a heart syndrome that is characterized by considerable physical and psychological consequences for affected patients. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing worrying, generalized anxiety and panic attacks in patients with mitral valve prolapse. Methods: This study is quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest and control group. 16 patients with mitral valve prolapse divided into to two groups: experimental (n = 8 and control (n = 8 groups. CBT was used during 10 sessions twice a week with a focus on cognitive restructuring, modification of cognitive distortions and training of behavioral techniques for the experimental group. For participants health  concerns spot and doush (HCQ, Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD- 7 and Albania panic scales as pre-test, post-test. Results: Data were analyzed by covariance analysis. The results showed that worrying, anxiety, and panic attacks significantly reduced in the experimental group. Discussion: Cognitive behavioral therapy is remarkably effective for reducing fear, anxiety and panic patients with mitral valve prolapse. Therefore, it is recommended for the patients with mitral valve prolapse that cognitive behavioral therapy can be used as a complementary therapy.

  19. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for hypochondriasis/health anxiety: A meta-analysis of treatment outcome and moderators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olatunji, B.O.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Meltzer, S.; Davis, M.L.; Smits, J.A.J.; Powers, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation employed meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for hypochondriasis/health anxiety as well as potential moderators that may be associated with outcome. A literature search revealed 15 comparisons among 13 randomized-controlled trials (RC

  20. Maternal Postnatal Depression and Anxiety and Their Association with Child Emotional Negativity and Behavior Problems at Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenoveau, Jason M.; Craske, Michelle G.; West, Valerie; Giannakakis, Andreas; Zioga, Maria; Lehtonen, Annukka; Davies, Beverley; Netsi, Elena; Cardy, Jessica; Cooper, Peter; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Postnatal maternal depression is associated with poorer child emotional and behavioral functioning, but it is unclear whether this occurs following brief episodes or only with persistent depression. Little research has examined the relation between postnatal anxiety and child outcomes. The present study examined the role of postnatal major…

  1. Temperament and parenting predicting anxiety change in cognitive behavioral therapy: The role of mothers, fathers, and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Festen; C.A. Hartman; S.M. Hogendoorn; E. de Haan; P.J.M. Prins; C.G. Reichart; H. Moorlag; M.H. Nauta

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Method: Participants w

  2. Differential modulation of lateral septal vasopressin receptor blockade in spatial learning, social recognition, and anxiety-related behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, HGJ; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    The role of lateral septal vasopressin (VP) in the modulation of spatial memory, social memory, and anxiety-related behavior was studied in adult, male Wistar rats. Animals were equipped with osmotic minipumps delivering the VP-antagonist d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (1 ng/0.5 mu l per h) bilaterally into

  3. Temperament and parenting predicting anxiety change in cognitive behavioral therapy : The role of mothers, fathers, and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, H.; Hartman, C.A.; Hogendoorn, S.; de Haan, E.; Prins, P.J.M.; Reichart, C.G.; Moorlag, H.; Nauta, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Method: Participants w

  4. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in the Context of Asperger's Syndrome: A Single-Subject Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Herbert, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Asperger's Syndrome (AS) is a developmental disorder characterized by social impairment, highly circumscribed interests, repetitive behaviors, and motor clumsiness. The social impairment features of AS are similar to characteristics of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, little is known about the comorbidity of these disorders or the treatment…

  5. A Treatment-Refractory Case of Social Anxiety Disorder: Lessons Learned from a Failed Course of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovich, Faith A.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 25 years researchers have made enormous strides in the implementation of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), although considerable work remains to be done. The present paper discusses a treatment refractory case seen in our clinic. The young man presented numerous interrelated obstacles, such as low…

  6. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management on depression and anxiety symptoms of patients with epilepsy and migraine

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    Mohammad Dehghanifiroozabadi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, cognitive behavioral stress management was effective on the depression and anxiety of epileptic and migraine patients, and chronic disease has no effect on this effectiveness. This method can be used in combination with drug therapy.

  7. Examining the Relation between the Therapeutic Alliance, Treatment Adherence, and Outcome of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Juliette M.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Goedhart, Arnold W.; van der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the contribution of technical and relational factors to child outcomes in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children with anxiety disorders. This study investigated the association between treatment adherence, the child-therapist alliance, and child clinical outcomes in manual-guided individual- and group-based CBT for…

  8. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  9. Cognitive Change and Enhanced Coping: Missing Mediational Links in Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Anxiety-Disordered Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.M. Prins; T.H. Ollendick

    2003-01-01

    In this review, we examine the recent cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) outcome literature with anxiety-disordered children and, specifically, explore the status of cognitive change and increased coping ability as (1) specific treatment effects, and (2) possible mediators of the efficacy of CBT. In t

  10. Effects of Aqueous Matricaria Recutita extract on anxiety-like behavior in rat’s model kindled by Pentylenetetrazole

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    Gholamreza Komeili

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kindling can increase anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Oxidative stress has an important role in arousing anxiety. It is known that Matricaria Recutita has an antioxidant effect. Thus, the present study aimed at assessing the effects of this plant’s extract. on anxiety-like behavior induced by kindling in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar Albino rats (wt:200-250 g were randomly divided into 4 equal groups; namely control (intact, kindling, diazepam (2 mg/kg, and aqueous extract of Matricaria Recutita (30 mg/kg intrapertoneally. Kindling was done by a sub-convulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 40 mg/kg, i.p. in the remainder . groups. Kindling parameters in all these animals were evaluated by a plus elevated maze. The percent of time spent in the open arms of maze (OAT % and percent of entries in the open arms (OAE % were accounted for anxiety evaluation. Increase in OAT % and OAE % indicated an anxiolytic effect. Finally,the obtained data was analyzed by means of Any-Maze software and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results: Kindling significantly (P<0.05 increased anxiety response in rats for at least 24h following the last seizure (decrease in OAT % and OAE %. Administeration of diazepam and Matricaria Recutita induced a significant increase in OAT % and OAE %, thereby . displaying a decrease in the anxiety in the kindled rats (P<0.05. Activity rate of the animals increased in the extract-treated group. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that Matricaria Recutita was able to improve elevated levels of anxiety in kindled rats. Therefore, further works are needed to elucidate the extent and mechanism of these effects.

  11. A single amino acid mutation in SNAP-25 induces anxiety-related behavior in mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Kataoka

    Full Text Available Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25 is a presynaptic protein essential for neurotransmitter release. Previously, we demonstrate that protein kinase C (PKC phosphorylates Ser(187 of SNAP-25, and enhances neurotransmitter release by recruiting secretory vesicles near to the plasma membrane. As PKC is abundant in the brain and SNAP-25 is essential for synaptic transmission, SNAP-25 phosphorylation is likely to play a crucial role in the central nervous system. We therefore generated a mutant mouse, substituting Ser(187 of SNAP-25 with Ala using "knock-in" technology. The most striking effect of the mutation was observed in their behavior. The homozygous mutant mice froze readily in response to environmental change, and showed strong anxiety-related behavior in general activity and light and dark preference tests. In addition, the mutant mice sometimes exhibited spontaneously occurring convulsive seizures. Microdialysis measurements revealed that serotonin and dopamine release were markedly reduced in amygdala. These results clearly indicate that PKC-dependent SNAP-25 phosphorylation plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional behavior as well as the suppression of epileptic seizures, and the lack of enhancement of monoamine release is one of the possible mechanisms underlying these defects.

  12. A Cortical Circuit for Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin-Dependent Anxiety Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Nakajima, Miho; Ibañez-Tallon, Ines; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The frequency of human social and emotional disorders varies significantly between males and females. We have recently reported that oxytocin receptor interneurons (OxtrINs) modulate female sociosexual behavior. Here we show that in male mice OxtrINs regulate anxiety-related behaviors. We demonstrate that corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein (CRHBP), an antagonist of the stress hormone CRH, is specifically expressed in OxtrINs. Production of CRHBP blocks the CRH-induced potentiation of postsynaptic layer 2/3 pyramidal cell activity of male but not female mice, thus producing an anxiolytic effect. Our data identify OxtrINs as critical for modulation of social and emotional behaviors in both females and males, and reveal a molecular mechanism that acts on local mPFC circuits to coordinate responses to OXT and CRH. They suggest that additional studies of the impact of the OXT/OXTR and CRHBP/CRH pathways in males and females will be important in development of gender specific therapies. PMID:27641503

  13. Nicotine modulation of fear memories and anxiety: Implications for learning and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-10-15

    Anxiety disorders are a group of crippling mental diseases affecting millions of Americans with a 30% lifetime prevalence and costs associated with healthcare of $42.3 billion. While anxiety disorders show high levels of co-morbidity with smoking (45.3% vs. 22.5% in healthy individuals), they are also more common among the smoking population (22% vs. 11.1% in the non-smoking population). Moreover, there is clear evidence that smoking modulates symptom severity in patients with anxiety disorders. In order to better understand this relationship, several animal paradigms are used to model several key symptoms of anxiety disorders; these include fear conditioning and measures of anxiety. Studies clearly demonstrate that nicotine mediates acquisition and extinction of fear as well as anxiety through the modulation of specific subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brain regions involved in emotion processing such as the hippocampus. However, the direction of nicotine's effects on these behaviors is determined by several factors that include the length of administration, hippocampus-dependency of the fear learning task, and source of anxiety (novelty-driven vs. social anxiety). Overall, the studies reviewed here suggest that nicotine alters behaviors related to fear and anxiety and that nicotine contributes to the development, maintenance, and reoccurrence of anxiety disorders.

  14. Prospective Teachers' Use of Behavior Alteration Techniques on Common Student Misbehaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plax, Timothy G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated use of behavior alteration techniques in managing student misbehaviors. Found that inexperienced teachers are likely to employ the same strategies, regardless of misbehavior type or intensity: (1) appealing to student's self-esteem and (2) feedback. (PD)

  15. Oxytocin in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex reduces anxiety-like behavior in female and male rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has anxiolytic effects in rodents and humans. However, the specific brain regions where OT acts to regulate anxiety requires further investigation. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been shown to play a role in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior. In addition, the mPFC contains OT-sensitive neurons, expresses OT receptors, and receives long range axonal projections from OT-producing neurons in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the mPFC may be a targ...

  16. Subchronic Arsenic Exposure Induces Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Normal Mice and Enhances Depression-Like Behaviors in the Chemically Induced Mouse Model of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence implicates that subchronic arsenic exposure causes cerebral neurodegeneration leading to behavioral disturbances relevant to psychiatric disorders. However, there is still little information regarding the influence of subchronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water on mood disorders and its underlying mechanisms in the cerebral prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of subchronic arsenic exposure (10 mg/LAs2O3 in drinking water on the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in normal mice and in the chemically induced mouse model of depression by reserpine pretreatment. Our findings demonstrated that 4 weeks of arsenic exposure enhance anxiety-like behaviors on elevated plus maze (EPM and open field test (OFT in normal mice, and 8 weeks of arsenic exposure augment depression-like behaviors on tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST in the reserpine pretreated mice. In summary, in this present study, we demonstrated that subchronic arsenic exposure induces only the anxiety-like behaviors in normal mice and enhances the depression-like behaviors in the reserpine induced mouse model of depression, in which the cerebral prefrontal cortex BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway is involved. We also found that eight weeks of subchronic arsenic exposure are needed to enhance the depression-like behaviors in the mouse model of depression. These findings imply that arsenic could be an enhancer of depressive symptoms for those patients who already had the attribute of depression.

  17. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Moylan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05, after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status. Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns, but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette

  18. Diazepam-induced decrease in anxiety-like behaviors of marmoset monkeys exposed to a novel open-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagni, Priscila; Komorowski, Mara; Melo, Gabriela C; Lima, Talita; Barros, Marilia

    2012-01-01

    Unfamiliar environments can be a source of stress, fear and anxiety for marmoset monkeys. In spite of existing data, the influence of putative anxiolytics on the effects of novel environments has yet to be tested in primates. Therefore, the behavior of adult black tufted-ear marmosets to a single brief (15 min) exposure to a novel environment was analyzed in the presence and absence of diazepam (DZP). Marmosets were pre-treated with vehicle (n=5) or diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, ip; n=5) and submitted to a 15 min free exploration trial within a rectangular open-field arena. DZP-treated subjects, compared to vehicle controls, demonstrated significantly lower rates of (phee) contact calls and exploration, while a higher scan duration. Sojourn time in the arena's central zone was also significantly higher in the former group and sedation was not observed. Thus, pre-treatment with the benzodiazepine DZP decreased several anxiety-related behaviors induced by subjecting the marmosets to a new environment. The results also indicate that, as with rodent subjects, the open-field may provide a useful simple paradigm for assessing anxiety-like behaviors in this primate and, as such, constitutes a unique opportunity for direct comparative studies between rodents and marmoset monkeys in terms of anxiety and/or sedation.

  19. Transgenic up-regulation of alpha-CaMKII in forebrain leads to increased anxiety-like behaviors and aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasegawa Shunsuke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated essential roles for alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaMKII in learning, memory and long-term potentiation (LTP. However, previous studies have also shown that alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice display a dramatic decrease in anxiety-like and fearful behaviors, and an increase in defensive aggression. These findings indicated that alpha-CaMKII is important not only for learning and memory but also for emotional behaviors. In this study, to understand the roles of alpha-CaMKII in emotional behavior, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing alpha-CaMKII in the forebrain and analyzed their behavioral phenotypes. Results We generated transgenic mice overexpressing alpha-CaMKII in the forebrain under the control of the alpha-CaMKII promoter. In contrast to alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in anxiety-like behaviors in open field, elevated zero maze, light-dark transition and social interaction tests, and a decrease in locomotor activity in their home cages and novel environments; these phenotypes were the opposite to those observed in alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice. In addition, similarly with alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in aggression. However, in contrast to the increase in defensive aggression observed in alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in offensive aggression. Conclusion Up-regulation of alpha-CaMKII expression in the forebrain leads to an increase in anxiety-like behaviors and offensive aggression. From the comparisons with previous findings, we suggest that the expression levels of alpha-CaMKII are associated with the state of emotion; the expression level of alpha-CaMKII positively correlates with the anxiety state and strongly affects

  20. Genetic polymorphisms in monoamine systems and outcome of cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Andersson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The role of genetics for predicting the response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for social anxiety disorder (SAD has only been studied in one previous investigation. The serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT val158met, and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2 G-703T polymorphisms are implicated in the regulation of amygdala reactivity and fear extinction and therefore might be of relevance for CBT outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate if these three gene variants predicted response to CBT in a large sample of SAD patients. METHOD: Participants were recruited from two separate randomized controlled CBT trials (trial 1: n = 112, trial 2: n = 202. Genotyping were performed on DNA extracted from blood or saliva samples. Effects were analyzed at follow-up (6 or 12 months after treatment for both groups and for each group separately at post-treatment. The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report. RESULTS: At long-term follow-up, there was no effect of any genotype, or gene × gene interactions, on treatment response. In the subsamples, there was time by genotype interaction effects indicating an influence of the TPH2 G-703T-polymorphism on CBT short-term response, however the direction of the effect was not consistent across trials. CONCLUSIONS: None of the three gene variants, 5-HTTLPR, COMTval158met and TPH2 G-703T, was associated with long-term response to CBT for SAD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (ID-NCT0056496.

  1. New Developments in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and chronic disorder that causes considerable psychosocial impairment. This article reviews recent changes in the definition of SAD in DSM-5 and summarizes the current evidence for effective cognitive-behavioral treatments in adults, children, and adolescents. Current data suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is efficacious in the treatment of this condition. Among different CBT approaches, individual cognitive therapy may be associated with the largest effect sizes. In this review, interventions targeting dysfunctional cognitive processes that contribute to the effective treatment of SAD are discussed. Some recent findings from neuroimaging research and studies on the augmentation of CBT using neuroenhancers indicate that changes in emotion regulation as well as fear extinction are important psychological mediators of positive outcome. Furthermore, internet-delivered CBT is a promising field of technological innovation that may improve access to effective treatments. Despite the availability of effective treatments, treatment-resistant SAD remains a common problem in clinical practice that requires more research efforts. Finally, potential areas for further development of CBT as well as its dissemination in health care are summarized.

  2. Informant Discrepancies in Adult Social Anxiety Disorder Assessments: Links With Contextual Variations in Observed Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-informant assessments of adult psychopathology often result in discrepancies among informants’ reports. Among 157 adults meeting criteria for either the generalized (n = 106) or nongeneralized (n = 51) social anxiety disorder (SAD) subtype, we examined whether discrepancies between patients’ and clinicians’ reports of patients’ symptoms related to variations in both SAD subtype and expressions of social skills deficits across multiple social interaction tasks. Latent class analyses revealed two behavioral patterns: (a) context-specific social skills deficits and (b) cross-context social skills deficits. Similarly, patients’ symptom reports could be characterized by concordance or discordance with clinicians’ reports. Patient–clinician concordance on relatively high levels of patients’ symptoms related to an increased likelihood of the patient meeting criteria for the generalized relative to nongeneralized subtype. Further, patient–clinician concordance on relatively high levels of patients’ symptoms related to an increased likelihood of consistently exhibiting social skills deficits across social interaction tasks (relative to context-specific social skills deficits). These relations were robust in accounting for patient age, clinical severity, and Axis I and II comorbidity. Further, clinical severity did not completely explain variability in patients’ behavior on laboratory tasks or discrepancies between patient and clinician reports. Findings provide the first laboratory-based support for the ability of informant discrepancies to indicate cross-contextual variability in clinical adult assessments, and the first of any developmental period to indicate this for SAD assessments. These findings have important implications for clinical assessment and developmental psychopathology research. PMID:23421526

  3. Evaluation of physiological and behavioral measures in relation to dental anxiety during sequential dental visits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayen R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is a special variety of fear, experienced in anticipation of threatening stimuli. While some research workers have said that the response of a child improves with the number of visits, many have felt otherwise. The present study is yet another effort to find the patterns of anxiety in children during sequential dental visits. The main aim was to determine the physiological and behavioral variations during sequential dental visits and its impact on age and sex. The study was conducted at the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and preventive dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai to evaluate the physiological and behavioural measures of stress and anxiety in children. One hundred and fifteen children, between four and eleven years of age who reported for dental treatment were selected for the study.

  4. Outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response in cognitive behavioral therapy for public speaking fears within social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2012-06-01

    Outcome expectancy, the extent that clients anticipate benefiting from therapy, is theorized to be an important predictor of treatment response for cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, there is a relatively small body of empirical research on outcome expectancy and the treatment of social anxiety disorder. This literature, which has examined the association mostly in group-based interventions, has yielded mixed findings. The current study sought to further evaluate the effect of outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response for public-speaking fears across both individual virtual reality and group-based cognitive-behavioral therapies. The findings supported outcome expectancy as a predictor of the rate of change in public-speaking anxiety during both individual virtual reality exposure therapy and group cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that the impact of outcome expectancy differed across virtual reality or group treatments.

  5. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  6. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. PMID:27445726

  7. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

  8. MEK Inhibitors Reverse cAMP-Mediated Anxiety in Zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Pia R.; Anastasaki, Corina; Grant, Nicola J.;

    2015-01-01

    Altered phosphodiesterase (PDE)-cyclic AMP (cAMP) activity is frequently associated with anxiety disorders, but current therapies act by reducing neuronal excitability rather than targeting PDE-cAMP-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we report the novel repositioning of anti-cancer MEK inhibitors...... as anxiolytics in a zebrafish model of anxiety-like behaviors. PDE inhibitors or activators of adenylate cyclase cause behaviors consistent with anxiety in larvae and adult zebrafish. Small-molecule screening identifies MEK inhibitors as potent suppressors of cAMP anxiety behaviors in both larvae and adult...... zebrafish, while causing no anxiolytic behavioral effects on their own. The mechanism underlying cAMP-induced anxiety is via crosstalk to activation of the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. We propose that targeting crosstalk signaling pathways can be an effective strategy for mental health disorders, and advance...

  9. Impact of Prenatal Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Intervention on Maternal Anxiety and Depression and Newborns’ Apgar Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Karamoozian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motherhood is a transformative and pleasing experience in a woman’s life. However, given the physical and psychological changes, it can induce a degree of stress and anxiety in mothers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM on maternal anxiety and depression during pregnancy and newborns’ Apgar scores. Methods: This semi-experimental study was performed by applying a pretest-posttest control-group design. Overall, 30 primiparous mothers were selected among women referring to health clinics of Kerman, Iran, using convenience sampling. Subjects were randomly allocated to experimental and control groups. Data were collected, using Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Questionnaire. After completing the pretest, the experimental group was subjected to 12 sessions of CBSM training; posttest data were collected after the intervention. Multivariate analysis of covariance was performed, using SPSS version 16. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The obtained results revealed a significant decrement in the average posttest scores of anxiety and depression in the experimental group, compared to pretest scores and the control group. Moreover, differences in 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores between the two groups were statistically significant. These findings indicated the effectiveness of CBSM during pregnancy in reducing maternal anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Pregnant women can benefit from psychological interventions such as CBSM in medical and health care centers.

  10. Chronic Inactivation of the Orbitofrontal Cortex Increases Anxiety-Like Behavior and Impulsive Aggression, but Decreases Depression-Like Behavior in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniishi, Hiroshi; Ichisaka, Satoshi; Matsuda, Sae; Futora, Eri; Harada, Riho; Hata, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in emotional processing, and orbitofrontal abnormalities have often been observed in various affective disorders. Thus, chronic dysfunction of the OFC may cause symptoms of affective disorders, such as anxiety, depression and impulsivity. Previous studies have investigated the effect of orbitofrontal dysfunction on anxiety-like behavior and impulsive aggression in rodents, but the results are inconsistent possibly reflecting different methods of OFC inactivation. These studies used either a lesion of the OFC, which may affect other brain regions, or a transient inactivation of the OFC, whose effect may be restored in time and not reflect effects of chronic OFC dysfunction. In addition, there has been no study on the effect of orbitofrontal inactivation on depression-like behavior in rodents. Therefore, the present study examined whether chronic inactivation of the OFC by continuous infusion of a GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol, causes behavioral abnormalities in rats. Muscimol infusion inactivated the ventral and lateral part of the OFC. Following a week of OFC inactivation, the animals showed an increase in anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and light-dark test. Impulsive aggression was also augmented in the chronically OFC-inactivated animals because they showed increased frequency of fighting behavior induced by electric foot shock. On the other hand, chronic OFC inactivation reduced depression-like behavior as evaluated by the forced swim test. Additionally, it did not cause a significant change in corticosterone secretion in response to restraint stress. These data suggest that orbitofrontal neural activity is involved in the regulation of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and impulsive aggression in rodents. PMID:28167902

  11. Loss of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone markedly reduces anxiety behaviors in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Asai, Masato; Mahoney, Carrie E; Joachim, Maria; Shen, Yuan; Gunner, Georgia; Majzoub, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing paradigm posits that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulates neuroendocrine functions such as adrenal glucocorticoid release, while extra-hypothalamic CRH plays a key role in stressor-triggered behaviors. Here we report that hypothalamus-specific Crh knockout mice (Sim1CrhKO mice, created by crossing Crhflox with Sim1Cre mice) have absent Crh mRNA and peptide mainly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) but preserved Crh expression in other brain regions including amygdala and cerebral cortex. As expected, Sim1CrhKO mice exhibit adrenal atrophy as well as decreased basal, diurnal and stressor-stimulated plasma corticosterone secretion and basal plasma ACTH, but surprisingly, have a profound anxiolytic phenotype when evaluated using multiple stressors including open field, elevated plus maze, holeboard, light-dark box, and novel object recognition task. Restoring plasma corticosterone did not reverse the anxiolytic phenotype of Sim1CrhKO mice. Crh-Cre driver mice revealed that PVHCrh fibers project abundantly to cingulate cortex and the nucleus accumbens shell, and moderately to medial amygdala, locus coeruleus, and solitary tract, consistent with the existence of PVHCrh-dependent behavioral pathways. Although previous, nonselective attenuation of CRH production or action, genetically in mice and pharmacologically in humans, respectively, has not produced the anticipated anxiolytic effects, our data show that targeted interference specifically with hypothalamic Crh expression results in anxiolysis. Our data identify neurons that express both Sim1 and Crh as a cellular entry point into the study of CRH-mediated, anxiety-like behaviors and their therapeutic attenuation. PMID:27595593

  12. Behavioral correlates of cerebrospinal fluid amino acid and biogenic amine neurotransmitter alterations in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Van Hemelrijck, An; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a heterogeneous group of behavioral and psychiatric disturbances occurring in dementia patients of any etiology. Research suggests that altered activities of dopaminergic, serotonergic, (nor)adrenergic, as well as ami

  13. Altered behavior in mice with deletion of the alpha2-antiplasmin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Kawashita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The α2-antiplasmin (α2AP protein is known to be a principal physiological inhibitor of plasmin, and is expressed in various part of the brain, including the hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum, thus suggesting a potential role for α2AP in brain functions. However, the involvement of α2AP in brain functions is currently unclear. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of the deletion of the α2AP gene on the behavior of mice. METHODS: The motor function was examined by the wire hang test and rotarod test. To evaluate the cognitive function, a repeated rotarod test, Y-maze test, Morris water maze test, passive or shuttle avoidance test and fear conditioning test were performed. An open field test, dark/light transition test or tail suspension test was performed to determine the involvement of α2AP in anxiety or depression-like behavior. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The α2AP knockout (α2AP-/- mice exhibited impaired motor function compared with α2AP+/+ mice. The α2AP-/- mice also exhibited impairments in motor learning, working memory, spatial memory and fear conditioning memory. Furthermore, the deletion of α2AP induced anxiety-like behavior, and caused an anti-depression-like effect in tail suspension. Therefore, our findings suggest that α2AP is a crucial mediator of motor function, cognitive function, anxiety-like behavior and depression-like behavior, providing new insights into the role of α2AP in the brain functions.

  14. Early intervention in pregnant women with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms: efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Antje; Peukert, Judith; Zimmermann, Cornelia; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Parker, Lisa S; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Weidner, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether a cognitive-behavioral group program among pregnant women with elevated levels of anxiety or depression may reduce anxious and depressive symptoms and has a positive impact on risk factors for anxiety disorders and depression. A total of 753 participants were recruited. After completion of the clinical standardized interview, 160 participants were randomized to an intervention group or a control condition. Psychometric assessments took place at T1 (preintervention), T2 (antenatal follow-up), and T3 (3 months postpartum). Analyses included women who took part in all 3 assessments (intervention group, N = 21; control group, N = 53). The subjective program evaluation by the participants was highly positive, but with the exception of a short-term effect on the quality of an intimate partnership (F1/67 = 4.056; P anxiety or depressive symptoms were not found. However, there was an intervention effect 3 months postpartum for participants with high depressive symptoms at T1 (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ≥10) (F1/69 = 5.410; P women with rather low levels of anxiety and depression. For women with higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy, a cognitive-behavioral group program may have a positive impact on the course of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period.

  15. Manipulating the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation: examination of the influence on challenging behavior during leisure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Chan, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Langthorne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We examined the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation on challenging behavior during leisure activities for three individuals with severe disabilities. Prior functional analyses indicated that challenging behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention or tangible items for all participants. During leisure sessions, each participant played preferred games (cards, jigsaws) with two individuals without disabilities. The discriminative stimuli for challenging behavior were present during leisure sessions but challenging behavior was never reinforced. Immediately prior to leisure sessions, the participants received either access to the reinforcers that maintained challenging behavior or no access. Access versus no access to reinforcers for challenging behavior prior to leisure sessions was alternated in a multi-element design. Results demonstrated higher levels of challenging behavior during leisure sessions when the participants did not have access to the reinforcers prior to the sessions. Little challenging behavior occurred during leisure sessions when the participants had prior access to the reinforcers. Arguments for further examining the behavior-altering effects of the motivating operation in future applied research are presented.

  16. A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…

  17. Development of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Program to Treat Anxiety and Social Deficits in Teens with High-Functioning Autism

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    White, Susan W.; Albano, Anne Marie; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Kasari, Connie; Ollendick, Thomas; Klin, Ami; Oswald, Donald; Scahill, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is a common co-occurring problem among young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication problems, and stereotyped behavior and restricted interests, this group of disorders is more prevalent than previously realized. When present, anxiety may compound the social deficits of…

  18. Role of Comorbid Depression and Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms in Outcomes for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Treated with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

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    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of comorbid depressive disorders (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) and co-occurring depressive symptoms in treatment outcome and maintenance for youth (N = 72, aged 7-14) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy for a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  19. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

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    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, pAdolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, psmoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence.

  20. Does the Vigilance-Avoidance Gazing Behavior of Children with Separation Anxiety Disorder Change after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?

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    In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive biases are of interest in understanding the development of anxiety disorders. They also play a significant role during psychotherapy, where cognitive biases are modified in order to break the vicious cycle responsible for maintaining anxiety disorders. In a previous study, the vigilance-avoidance pattern was shown in children with…

  1. Effects of adult-onset calorie restriction on anxiety-like behavior in rats.

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    Levay, Elizabeth A; Govic, Antonina; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G; Kent, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has consistently been shown to increase lifespan and ameliorate disease outcomes. Its effects on behavior are less clear, although anxiolytic-like effects have been observed. Rats were subjected to 1 of 4 dietary regimens: control, CR25%, CR50% and, an acute episode of CR and tested in 3 tests of anxiety: the open field test, the elevated plus maze, and the modified open field test. In the open field test, the CR25% and CR50% groups made more central zone entries than the control and Acute groups, which was primarily due to differences in the initial 5 min of the test. Moreover, both CR groups engaged in greater exploration of the central zone than the control group in the initial 5 min of the test. The Acute group also exhibited significantly longer latencies to leave the central zone at test onset than the control and CR50% group. In the elevated plus maze, the Acute group also displayed longer latencies to open arm entry as compared to the control and CR50% group and showed a lower ratio of open to total arm entries compared to all other groups. There were no effects of CR on any variable of the modified open field test. Possible neurochemical mechanisms underlying the anxiolytic-like effect of CR are discussed.

  2. Consulting Behaviors and the Role of Computer Consultants in Student Learning and Anxiety

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    Beaulaurier, Richard L.; Taylor, Samuel H.

    2005-01-01

    As computer applications are added to social work, educators are increasingly likely to encounter computer anxiety. This form of anxiety has been well-documented in the literature, including warnings that students attracted to fields that are "people professions" such as social work may be especially prone to problems. This qualitative study used…

  3. Self-Directedness in Nontraditional College Students: A Behavioral Factor in Computer Anxiety?

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    Hemby, K. Virginia

    1998-01-01

    Reports on the results of a study of nontraditional undergraduate students that was conducted to determine whether self-directedness in learner profile was a predictor of computer anxiety. Analysis based on the Oddi Continuing Learning Inventory and Oetting's Computer Anxiety Scale (COMPAS) indicates that self-directedness is a useful predictor.…

  4. SPECIAL SERIES: Intensive Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Child and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders

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    Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    This special series on intensive treatments for anxiety disorders in youth reminds us that these are challenging conditions and there is much more work to be done to address some of the limitations to and challenges of treating anxiety disorders in children using CBT. The treatments described in this series are intensive in their delivery and…

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Innovations for Cardiopulmonary Patients with Depression and Anxiety

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    Cully, Jeffrey A.; Paukert, Amber; Falco, Jessica; Stanley, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Medically ill patients face unique physical and emotional challenges that place them at increased risk for symptoms of depression and anxiety. Despite high prevalence and significant impact, depression and anxiety are infrequently treated in the medically ill because of a variety of patient, provider, and system factors. The current article…

  6. Brief Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Anxiety and Depression: Piloting an Integrated Treatment Approach

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    Weersing, V. Robin; Gonzalez, Araceli; Campo, John V.; Lucas, Amanda N.

    2008-01-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders in youth are disabling, distressing, and prevalent. Furthermore, depression and anxiety frequently co-exist, may share several etiological factors, and respond to similar interventions. In this paper, we report preliminary results from a treatment adaptation project designed to condense existing cognitive behavioral…

  7. Test Anxiety and Academic Performance: The Effects of Study-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, Ralph E.; Holahan, Charles J.

    1980-01-01

    Students scoring high on the Test Anxiety Scale had lower grades and poorer study habits than their low-scoring counterparts. Amount and quality of study by high anxiety students were positively related to grades; missing classes and delaying exams were inversely related. (Author/CP)

  8. Withaferin a alters intermediate filament organization, cell shape and behavior.

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    Boris Grin

    Full Text Available Withaferin A (WFA is a steroidal lactone present in Withania somnifera which has been shown in vitro to bind to the intermediate filament protein, vimentin. Based upon its affinity for vimentin, it has been proposed that WFA can be used as an anti-tumor agent to target metastatic cells which up-regulate vimentin expression. We show that WFA treatment of human fibroblasts rapidly reorganizes vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF into a perinuclear aggregate. This reorganization is dose dependent and is accompanied by a change in cell shape, decreased motility and an increase in vimentin phosphorylation at serine-38. Furthermore, vimentin lacking cysteine-328, the proposed WFA binding site, remains sensitive to WFA demonstrating that this site is not required for its cellular effects. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, viscometry, electron microscopy and sedimentation assays we show that WFA has no effect on VIF assembly in vitro. Furthermore, WFA is not specific for vimentin as it disrupts the cellular organization and induces perinuclear aggregates of several other IF networks comprised of peripherin, neurofilament-triplet protein, and keratin. In cells co-expressing keratin IF and VIF, the former are significantly less sensitive to WFA with respect to inducing perinuclear aggregates. The organization of microtubules and actin/microfilaments is also affected by WFA. Microtubules become wavier and sparser and the number of stress fibers appears to increase. Following 24 hrs of exposure to doses of WFA that alter VIF organization and motility, cells undergo apoptosis. Lower doses of the drug do not kill cells but cause them to senesce. In light of our findings that WFA affects multiple IF systems, which are expressed in many tissues of the body, caution is warranted in its use as an anti-cancer agent, since it may have debilitating organism-wide effects.

  9. Acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior: Attenuating effect of safety signals and associations with anxiety vulnerabilities

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    Jony eSheynin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While avoidance behavior is often an adaptive strategy, exaggerated avoidance can be detrimental and result in the development of psychopathologies, such as anxiety disorders. A large animal literature shows that the acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in rodents depends on individual differences (e.g., sex, strain and might be modulated by the presence of environmental cues. However, there is a dearth of such reports in human literature, mainly due to the lack of adequate experimental paradigms. In the current study, we employed a computer-based task, where participants control a spaceship and attempt to gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship that appears on the screen. Warning signals predict on-screen aversive events; the participants can learn a protective response to escape or avoid these events. This task has been recently used to reveal facilitated acquisition of avoidance behavior in individuals with anxiety vulnerability, due to female sex or inhibited personality. Here, we extended the task to include an extinction phase, and tested the effect of signals that appeared during safe periods. Healthy young adults (n=122 were randomly assigned to a testing condition with or without such signals. Results showed that the addition of safety signals during the acquisition phase impaired acquisition (in females and facilitated extinction of the avoidance behavior. We also replicated our recent finding of an association between female sex and longer avoidance duration and further showed that females continued to demonstrate more avoidance behavior even on extinction trials when the aversive events no longer occurred. This study is the first to show sex differences on the acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior and to demonstrate the role of safety signals in such behavior, highlighting the potential relevance of safety signals for cognitive therapies that focus on extinction learning to treat anxiety symptoms.

  10. Piroxicam attenuates 3-nitropropionic acid-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Jadiswami; H M, Megha; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Potadar, Pandharinath P; B S, Thippeswamy; V P, Veerapur

    2014-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a fungal toxin that produces Huntington's disease like symptoms in both animals and humans. Piroxicam, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, used as anti-inflammatory agent and also known to decrease free oxygen radical production. In this study, the effect of piroxicam was evaluated against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with vehicle/piroxicam (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before 3-NP challenge (15 mg/kg, i.p.) regularly for 14 days. Body weights of the mice were measured on alternative days of the experiment. At the end of the treatment schedule, mice were evaluated for behavioral alterations (movement analysis, locomotor test, beam walking test and hanging wire test) and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and catalase). Administration of 3-NP significantly altered the behavioral activities and brain antioxidant status in mice. Piroxicam, at both the tested doses, caused a significant reversal of 3-NP-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice. These findings suggest piroxicam protects the mice against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration. The antioxidant properties of piroxicam may be responsible for the observed beneficial actions.

  11. Asparagus racemosus attenuates anxiety-like behavior in experimental animal models.

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    Garabadu, Debapriya; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2014-05-01

    Asparagus racemosus Linn. (AR) is used worldwide as a medicinal plant. In the present study, the anxiolytic activity of standardized methanolic extract of root of AR (MAR) was evaluated in open-field test (OFT), hole-board, and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Rats received oral pretreatment of MAR in the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg daily for 7 days and then were evaluated for the anxiolytic activity in different animal models. Both MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the grooming behavior, number of central squares crossed, and time spent in the central area during OFT. Further, MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the head-dip and head-dip/sniffing behavior, and decreased sniffing activity in hole-board test. Furthermore, MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the percentage entries and time spent to open arm in EPM test paradigm. The anxiolytic activity in the experimental models was similar to that of diazepam. MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) enhanced the level of amygdalar serotonin and norepinephrine. It also increased the expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the amygdala. In another set of experiment, flumazenil attenuated the anxiolytic effect of minimum effective dose of MAR (100 mg/kg) in OFT, hole-board, and EPM tests, indicating GABAA-mediated mechanism. Moreover, the anxiolytic dose of MAR did not show sedative-like effect in OFT and EPM tests compared to diazepam (6 mg/kg, p.o.). Thus, the anxiolytic response of MAR may involve GABA and serotonergic mechanisms. These preclinical data show that AR can be a potential agent for treatment of anxiety disorders.

  12. Infralimbic D2 receptor influences on anxiety-like behavior and active memory/attention in CD-1 mice.

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    Wall, Philip M; Blanchard, Robert J; Yang, Mu; Blanchard, D Caroline

    2003-05-01

    Ventromedial prefrontal cortical (vmPFC) dopamine (DA) influences attentional aspects of cognition and anxiety-like behavioral responding in rodents. The present study investigated the role of D2 receptors on spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze and anxiety-like behavior in a two-trial elevated plus-maze (EPM) procedure in CD-1 mice following vmPFC infusions of the D2 antagonist, sulpiride, and the D2 agonist, quinpirole. Pretrial 1 quinpirole infusions did not influence any anxiety measure (with the exception that the lowest dose increased protected stretch attends), but reduced protected exploration activity (closed-arm entry/time ratios and wall rearing). In Trial 2 24 h later (no injection), quinpirole exerted an anxiolytic behavioral profile relative to Trial 2 control mice (enhanced open-arm entry/time ratios, unprotected head dips), with no effects on protected exploration or risk assessment activity. Pretrial 1 sulpiride infusions enhanced unprotected exploration (open-arm entry/time ratios, unprotected stretch attend, and head dips), but did not influence protected exploration or risk assessment in the EPM. In Trial 2, 24 h later (no injection), sulpiride extended this anxiolytic profile to reduced protected exploration and risk assessment activity (closed-time ratio, protected stretch attend, and head dips). In the Y-maze, whereas quinpirole disrupted alternation performance (5- and 10-nmol dose) concomitant with marked repetitive same-arm returns (SAR) at the highest dose, sulpiride disrupted alternation performance concomitant with marked repetitive SAR behavior at the lowest dose only. These data indicate that although infralimbic (IL) quinpirole and sulpiride infusions similarly disrupted alternation performance in the Y-maze and reduced Trial 2 anxiety-like responding in the EPM, these drugs differentially produced these effects.

  13. Sex-dependent changes in metabolism and behavior, as well as reduced anxiety after eliminating ventromedial hypothalamus excitatory output

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    Clement C. Cheung

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: Loss of VMH glutamatergic signaling sharply decreased DIO in females, attenuated aggression and learned fear in males, and was anxiolytic in males and females. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that while glutamatergic output from the VMH appears largely dispensable for counter regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, it drives sex-dependent differences in metabolism and social behaviors and is essential for adaptive responses to anxiety-provoking stimuli in both sexes.

  14. Chronic fluoxetine treatment induces anxiolytic responses and altered social behaviors in medaka, Oryzias latipes.

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    Ansai, Satoshi; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Maegawa, Shingo; Kinoshita, Masato

    2016-04-15

    Medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a small freshwater teleost that is an emerging model system for neurobehavioral research and toxicological testing. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class of antidepressants such as fluoxetine is one of the widely prescribed drugs, but little is known about the effects of these drugs on medaka behaviors. To assess the behavioral effects of fluoxetine, we chronically administrated fluoxetine to medaka adult fish and analyzed the anxiety-related and social behaviors using five behavioral paradigms (diving, open-field, light-dark transition, mirror-biting, and social interaction) with an automated behavioral testing system. Fish chronically treated with fluoxetine exhibited anxiolytic responses such as an overall increased time spent in the top area in the diving test and an increased time spent in center area in the open-field test. Analysis of socially evoked behavior showed that chronic fluoxetine administration decreased the number of mirror biting times in the mirror-biting test and increased latency to first contact in the social interaction test. Additionally, chronic fluoxetine administration reduced the horizontal locomotor activity in the open-field test but not the vertical activity in the diving test. These investigations are mostly consistent with previous reports in the other teleost species and rodent models. These results indicate that behavioral assessment in medaka adult fish will become useful for screening of effects of pharmaceutical and toxicological compounds in animal behaviors.

  15. Maladaptive behavioral consequences of conditioned fear-generalization: a pronounced, yet sparsely studied, feature of anxiety pathology.

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    van Meurs, Brian; Wiggert, Nicole; Wicker, Isaac; Lissek, Shmuel

    2014-06-01

    Fear-conditioning experiments in the anxiety disorders focus almost exclusively on passive-emotional, Pavlovian conditioning, rather than active-behavioral, instrumental conditioning. Paradigms eliciting both types of conditioning are needed to study maladaptive, instrumental behaviors resulting from Pavlovian abnormalities found in clinical anxiety. One such Pavlovian abnormality is generalization of fear from a conditioned danger-cue (CS+) to resembling stimuli. Though lab-based findings repeatedly link overgeneralized Pavlovian-fear to clinical anxiety, no study assesses the degree to which Pavlovian overgeneralization corresponds with maladaptive, overgeneralized instrumental-avoidance. The current effort fills this gap by validating a novel fear-potentiated startle paradigm including Pavlovian and instrumental components. The paradigm is embedded in a computer game during which shapes appear on the screen. One shape paired with electric-shock serves as CS+, and other resembling shapes, presented in the absence of shock, serve as generalization stimuli (GSs). During the game, participants choose whether to behaviorally avoid shock at the cost of poorer performance. Avoidance during CS+ is considered adaptive because shock is a real possibility. By contrast, avoidance during GSs is considered maladaptive because shock is not a realistic prospect and thus unnecessarily compromises performance. Results indicate significant Pavlovian-instrumental relations, with greater generalization of Pavlovian fear associated with overgeneralization of maladaptive instrumental-avoidance.

  16. Dexmedetomidine alleviates anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive impairments in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Jia, Min; Zhang, Ming-Qiang; Liu, Wen-Xue; Xie, Zhong-Cong; Wang, Zhong-Yun; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2014-10-03

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disease that has substantial health implications, including high rates of health morbidity and mortality, as well as increased health-related costs. Although many pharmacological agents have proven the effects on the development of PTSD, current pharmacotherapies typically only produce partial improvement of PTSD symptoms. Dexmedetomidine is a selective, short-acting α2-adrenoceptor agonist, which has anxiolytic, sedative, and analgesic effects. We therefore hypothesized that dexmedetomidine possesses the ability to prevent the development of PTSD and alleviate its symptoms. By using the rat model of PTSD induced by five electric foot shocks followed by three weekly exposures to situational reminders, we showed that the stressed rats displayed pronounced anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive impairments compared to the controls. Notably, repeated administration of 20μg/kg dexmedetomidine showed impaired fear conditioning memory, decreased anxiety-like behaviors, and improved spatial cognitive impairments compared to the vehicle-treated stressed rats. These data suggest that dexmedetomidine may exert preventive and protective effects against anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive impairments in the rats with PTSD after repeated administration.

  17. Neurochemical and electrophysiological deficits in the ventral hippocampus and selective behavioral alterations caused by high-fat diet in female C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, S; Keralapurath, M M; Lin, Z; Wagner, J J; de La Serre, C B; Harn, D A; Filipov, N M

    2015-06-25

    Mounting experimental evidence, predominantly from male rodents, demonstrates that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and ensuing obesity are detrimental to the brain. To shed additional light on the neurological consequences of HFD consumption in female rodents and to determine the relatively early impact of HFD in the likely continuum of neurological dysfunction in the context of chronic HFD intake, this study investigated effects of HFD feeding for up to 12weeks on selected behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological parameters in adult female C57BL/6 mice; particular focus was placed on the ventral hippocampus (vHIP). Selected locomotor, emotional and cognitive functions were evaluated using behavioral tests after 5weeks on HFD or control (low-fat diet) diets. One week later, mice were sacrificed and brain regional neurochemical (monoamine) analysis was performed. Behaviorally naïve mice were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 5-6weeks at which time synaptic plasticity was determined in ex vivo slices from the vHIP. HFD-fed female mice exhibited increased: (i) locomotor activity in the open field testing, (ii) mean turn time on the pole test, (iii) swimming time in the forced swim test, and (iv) number of marbles buried in the marble burying test. In contrast, the novel object recognition memory was unaffected. Mice on HFD also had decreased norepinephrine and dopamine turnover, respectively, in the prefrontal cortex and the vHIP. HFD consumption for a total of 11-12weeks altered vHIP synaptic plasticity, evidenced by significant reductions in the paired-pulse ratio and long-term potentiation (LTP) magnitude. In summary, in female mice, HFD intake for several weeks induced multiple behavioral alterations of mainly anxiety-like nature and impaired monoamine pathways in a brain region-specific manner, suggesting that in the female, certain behavioral domains (anxiety) and associated brain regions, i.e., the vHIP, are preferentially

  18. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1.

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    James Holland Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1, generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced by behavioral changes (e.g., social distancing during the early phase of an epidemic, but data on risk perception and behavioral response to a novel virus is usually collected with a substantial delay or after an epidemic has run its course. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the results from an online survey that gathered data (n = 6,249 about risk perception of the Influenza A(H1N1 outbreak during the first few days of widespread media coverage (April 28-May 5, 2009. We find that after an initially high level of concern, levels of anxiety waned along with the perception of the virus as an immediate threat. Overall, our data provide evidence that emotional status mediates behavioral response. Intriguingly, principal component analysis revealed strong clustering of anxiety about swine flu, bird flu and terrorism. All three of these threats receive a great deal of media attention and their fundamental uncertainty is likely to generate an inordinate amount of fear vis-a-vis their actual threat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that respondents' behavior varies in predictable ways. Of particular interest, we find that affective variables, such as self-reported anxiety over the epidemic, mediate the likelihood that respondents will engage in protective behavior. Understanding how protective behavior such as social distancing varies and the specific factors that mediate it may help with the design of epidemic control strategies.

  19. Cognitive processes as mediators of the relation between mindfulness and change in social anxiety symptoms following cognitive behavioral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica R; Price, Matthew; Schmertz, Stefan K; Johnson, Suzanne B; Masuda, Akihiko; Calamaras, Martha; Anderson, Page L

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined whether pretreatment mindfulness exerts an indirect effect on outcomes following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Cognitive processes of probability and cost bias (i.e., overestimations of the likelihood that negative social events will occur, and that these events will have negative consequences when they do occur) were explored as potential mediators of the relation between mindfulness and social anxiety symptom change. People with higher levels of mindfulness may be better able to benefit from treatments that reduce biases because mindfulness may aid in regulation of attention. Sixty-seven individuals with a primary diagnosis of social phobia identifying public speaking as their greatest fear received eight sessions of one of two types of exposure-based CBT delivered according to treatment manuals. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness, probability bias, cost bias, and social anxiety symptoms. Mediation hypotheses were assessed by a bootstrapped regression using treatment outcome data. Pretreatment mindfulness was not related to change in social anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. However, mindfulness had an indirect effect on treatment outcome via its association with probability bias, but not cost bias, at midtreatment. These findings were consistent across three metrics of social anxiety symptoms. Mindfulness may play a role in response to CBT among individuals with social phobia through its relation with probability bias--even when the treatment does not target mindfulness.

  20. Linguistic analysis of communication in therapist-assisted internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkse, Dale; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Hesser, Hugo; Barak, Azy

    2015-01-01

    Therapist-assisted Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) involves elements of expressive writing through secure messaging with a therapist. Expressive writing has been associated with psychological and physical health benefits in past research; furthermore, certain linguistic dimensions in expressive writing have been identified as particularly beneficial to health, such as less frequent use of negative emotion words and greater use of positive emotion words. No research, to date, has analyzed linguistic dimensions in client communication over the course of therapist-assisted ICBT for individuals with symptoms of generalized anxiety. This naturalistic study examined messages sent to therapists during the course of ICBT using linguistic analysis, and explored covariation of word use with symptom improvement. Data were obtained from patients with symptoms of generalized anxiety (N = 59) who completed 12 modules of therapist-assisted ICBT and rated symptoms of anxiety, depression, and panic at the beginning of each module. Linguistic analysis categorized text submitted to therapists into different word categories. Results found that patients' use of negative emotion, anxiety, causation, and insight words reduced over the course of treatment, while past tense words increased. Furthermore, negative emotion words significantly covaried with symptom ratings over the course of treatment. While causal statements cannot be made, findings improve our understanding of patient communication in ICBT and suggest that the further study of linguistic dimensions as psychological indicators and the potential utility of expressive writing strategies in therapist-assisted ICBT may be worthwhile.

  1. Efficacy of behavioral intervention in reducing anxiety and depression among medical students

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    A Velayudhan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Now a days, college students frequently have more complex problems than they used to have over a decade ago - greater difficulties in relationships; and more severe problems, such as depression, anxiety and thoughts of suicide. Counseling helps students to understand themselves and the world around them, and to adjust themselves more efficiently and appropriately to other fellow beings. Aim: To determine as to what extent the medical students were able to cope up with their anxiety and depression with the help of counseling. Materials and Methods: In the experimental design ′Before-and -after with control design′, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were administered to 120 medical students who were randomly selected from a private medical college, comprising of 30 males and 30 females in each of the two groups, viz., the experimental group and the control group. Statistical analysis: Means, standard deviations, t test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Anxiety and depression among the students were found to be reduced after counseling. Male and female students in the experimental group showed decrease in the levels of anxiety and depression; whereas the control group, which did not get the benefit of counseling, continued to have the same levels of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Counseling is helpful in building self-confidence and the capacity to adjust, by reducing anxiety and depression among medical college students.

  2. Fear but not fright: re-evaluating traumatic experience attenuates anxiety-like behaviors after fear conditioning

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    Marco eCostanzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fear allows organisms to cope with dangerous situations and remembering these situations has an adaptive role preserving individuals from injury and death. However, recalling traumatic memories can induce re-experiencing the trauma, thus resulting in a maladaptive fear. A failure to properly regulate fear responses has been associated with anxiety disorders, like Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Thus, re-establishing the capability to regulate fear has an important role for its adaptive and clinical relevance. Strategies aimed at erasing fear memories have been proposed, although there are limits about their efficiency in treating anxiety disorders. To re-establish fear regulation, here we propose a new approach, based on the re-evaluation of the aversive value of traumatic experience. Mice were submitted to a contextual-fear-conditioning paradigm in which a neutral context was paired with an intense electric footshock. Three weeks after acquisition, conditioned mice were treated with a less intense footshock (pain threshold. The effectiveness of this procedure in reducing fear expression was assessed in terms of behavioral outcomes related to PTSD (e.g. hyper-reactivity to a neutral tone, anxiety levels in a plus maze task, social avoidance, and learning deficits in a spatial water maze and of amygdala activity by evaluating c-fos expression. Furthermore, a possible role of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC in mediating the behavioral effects induced by the re-evaluation procedure was investigated. We observed that this treatment (i significantly mitigates the abnormal behavioral outcomes induced by trauma, (ii persistently attenuates fear expression without erasing contextual memory, (iii prevents fear reinstatement, (iv reduces amygdala activity and (v requires an intact lOFC to be effective.The results suggest that an effective strategy to treat pathological anxiety should address cognitive re-evaluation of traumatic experiences

  3. Alteration of eating behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease: possibly overlooked?

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    Miwa, Hideto; Kondo, Tomoyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) occasionally show food cravings and/or compulsive eating that result in significant, undesired weight gain. Dopamine replacement therapy may be the cause of this type of eating disorder. We evaluated 60 consecutive patients to see if they had any alteration of eating patterns after starting levodopa. Among them, five (8.3%) patients exhibited characteristic alterations of food preference following the start of dopamine replacement therapy. One patient showed an undesirable weight gain. Of the five patients exhibiting food preference alterations, all showed increased preference to consume sweet snacks, although this alteration was not always associated with hyperphagia (eating too much). This type of dietary alteration was not related to a specific antiparkinsonian drug, and could be observed in patients undergoing dopamine agonist monotherapy. Alteration of eating behavior may not be uncommon in PD patients, and is possibly overlooked. Since dopamine is closely involved in acquisition of food preferences, dietary changes with/without compulsive eating may be a manifestation of an alteration of appetitive behaviors due to excessive dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  4. Altered activity and functional connectivity of superior temporal gyri in anxiety disorders: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

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    Zhao, Xiaohu; Xi, Qian; Wang, Peijun; Li, Chunbo [Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai (China); He, Hongjian [Bio-X lab, Dept. of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-08-15

    The prior functional MRI studies have demonstrated significantly abnormal activity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) of anxiety patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether the abnormal activity in these regions was related to a loss of functional connectivity between these regions. Ten healthy controls and 10 anxiety patients underwent noninvasive fMRI while actively listening to emotionally neutral words alternated by silence (Task 1) or threat-related words (Task 2). The participants were instructed to silently make a judgment of each word's valence (i.e., unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral). A coherence analysis was applied to the functional MRI data to examine the functional connectivity between the left and the right STG, which was selected as the primary region of interest on the basis of our prior results. The data demonstrated that the anxiety patients exhibited significantly increased activation in the bilateral STG than the normal controls. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that the patient group showed significantly decreased degree of connectivity between the bilateral STG during processing Task 2 compared to Task 1 (t = 2.588, p = 0.029). In addition, a significantly decreased connectivity was also observed in the patient group compared to the control group during processing Task 2 (t = 2.810, p = 0.012). Anxiety patients may exhibit increased activity of the STG but decreased functional connectivity between the left and right STG, which may reflect the underlying neural abnormality of anxiety disorder, and this will provide new insights into this disease.

  5. Evaluation of potential gender-related differences in behavioral and cognitive alterations following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice.

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    Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos de; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

    2015-05-01

    Together with pharmacoresistant seizures, the quality of life of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients is negatively impacted by behavioral comorbidities including but not limited to depression, anxiety and cognitive deficits. The pilocarpine model of TLE has been widely used to study characteristics of human TLE, including behavioral comorbidities. Since the outcomes of pilocarpine-induced TLE might vary depending on several experimental factors, we sought to investigate potential gender-related differences regarding selected behavioral alterations in C57BL6 mice. We found that epileptic mice, independent of gender, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field test. In the object recognition test, epileptic mice, regardless of gender, showed a decreased recognition index at 24 (but not at 4) hours after training. On the other hand, no significant differences were found regarding mice learning and memory performance in the Barnes maze paradigm. Motor coordination and balance as assessed by the beam walk and rotarod tests were not impaired in epileptic mice of both genders. However, female mice, independent of epilepsy, performed the beam walk and rotarod tasks better than their male counterparts. We also found that only male epileptic mice displayed disturbed behavior in the forced swim test, but the mice of both genders displayed anhedonia-like behavior in the taste preference test. Lastly, we found that the extent of hilar cell loss is similar in both genders. In summary, both genders can be successfully employed to study behavioral comorbidities of TLE; however, taking the potential gender differences into account may help choose the more appropriated gender for a given task, which may be of value for the minimization of the number of animals used during the experiments.

  6. Maternal treatment with picrotoxin in late pregnancy improved female sexual behavior but did not alter male sexual behavior of offspring.

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    Bernardi, Maria M; Scanzerla, Kayne K; Chamlian, Mayra; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Felicio, Luciano F

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory investigated the effects of picrotoxin (PT), a γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist administered during several perinatal periods, on the sexual behavior of male and female rats. We observed that the time of perinatal exposure to PT is critical to determine either facilitation or impairment of sexual behavior. The present study evaluated the effects of prenatal administration of a single dose of PT on gestation day 18 of dams (the first critical period of male brain sexual differentiation) on sexual behavior of male and female offspring. Thus, female Wistar rats were mated with males and, on gestation day 18, received 0.6 mg/kg of PT or 0.9% saline solution subcutaneously. On postnatal day 1, the offspring were weighed and several measures of sexual development were assessed. The sexual behaviors and the general activity in the open field of adult male and ovariectomized, hormone-treated female rats were observed. On comparison with the control group, maternal PT treatment: (i) did not alter the maternal weight, pup weight, anogenital distance, or male and female general activity; (ii) increased female sexual behavior, that is, decreased the latencies to first mount, first lordosis, and tenth lordosis, and the percentage of females presenting lordosis; and (iii) did not alter male sexual behavior. It is suggested that prenatal PT exposure interfered with epigenetic mechanisms related to the development of sex differences in the brain, leading to the observed sexually dimorphic effects on sexual behavior.

  7. The role of anxiety in binge eating behavior: a critical examination of theory and empirical literature

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    Diane L. Rosenbaum

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript is to expand the understanding of binge eating by reviewing the role of aspects of negative affect. Specifically, this paper will present evidence for further investigation of the bearing that anxiety may have in binge eating development and maintenance. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding the relation of binge eating and anxiety was performed. Valuable contributions have been made to the binge eating literature regarding some aspects of negative affect (i.e., depression; however, outside of bulimia nervosa studies, much of the theoretical and empirical binge eating research to date has not directly addressed the role of anxiety. Research supports expansion of investigations of negative emotionality and binge eating to include specific study of anxiety. Greater inclusivity and specificity in the unique contributions of various negative emotions may further the development of temporal models and intervention efforts.

  8. Effects of nano and conventional Zinc Oxide on anxiety-like behavior in male rats

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    Mozhgan Torabi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that the anxiolytic effect of ZnO NPs is much higher than its conventional form, but the introduction of ZnO NPs, as a new drug for treatment of anxiety disorder, needs further investigations.

  9. GABAA receptor γ2 subunit knockdown mice have enhanced anxiety-like behavior but unaltered hypnotic response to benzodiazepines

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    De Blas Angel L

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA-Rs are the major inhibitory receptors in the mammalian brain and are modulated by a number of sedative/hypnotic drugs including benzodiazepines and anesthetics. The significance of specific GABAA-Rs subunits with respect to behavior and in vivo drug responses is incompletely understood. The γ2 subunit is highly expressed throughout the brain. Global γ2 knockout mice are insensitive to the hypnotic effects of diazepam and die perinatally. Heterozygous γ2 global knockout mice are viable and have increased anxiety-like behaviors. To further investigate the role of the γ2 subunit in behavior and whole animal drug action, we used gene targeting to create a novel mouse line with attenuated γ2 expression, i.e., γ2 knockdown mice. Results Knockdown mice were created by inserting a neomycin resistance cassette into intron 8 of the γ2 gene. Knockdown mice, on average, showed a 65% reduction of γ2 subunit mRNA compared to controls; however γ2 gene expression was highly variable in these mice, ranging from 10–95% of normal. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that γ2 protein levels were also variably reduced. Pharmacological studies using autoradiography on frozen brain sections demonstrated that binding of the benzodiazepine site ligand Ro15-4513 was decreased in mutant mice compared to controls. Behaviorally, knockdown mice displayed enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on the elevated plus maze and forced novelty exploration tests. Surprisingly, mutant mice had an unaltered response to hypnotic doses of the benzodiazepine site ligands diazepam, midazolam and zolpidem as well as ethanol and pentobarbital. Lastly, we demonstrated that the γ2 knockdown mouse line can be used to create γ2 global knockout mice by crossing to a general deleter cre-expressing mouse line. Conclusion We conclude that: 1 insertion of a neomycin resistance gene into intron 8 of the γ2 gene variably

  10. Antenatal betamethasone produces protracted changes in anxiety-like behaviors and in the expression of microtubule-associated protein 2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the tyrosine kinase B receptor in the rat cerebellar cortex.

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    Pascual, Rodrigo; Valencia, Martina; Bustamante, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Using classic Golgi staining methods, we previously showed that the administration of synthetic glucocorticoid betamethasone in equivalent doses to those given in cases of human premature birth generates long-term alterations in Purkinje cell dendritic development in the cerebellar cortex. In the present study, we evaluated whether betamethasone alters the immunohistochemical expression of proteins that participate in cerebellar Purkinje cell dendritic development and maintenance, including microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the tyrosine kinase B receptor (TrkB), which are located predominantly in the cerebellar molecular layer where Purkinje cell dendritogenesis occurs. Consistent with our previous Golgi stain studies, we observed that animals prenatally exposed to a single course of betamethasone showed long-term alterations in the expression of MAP2, BDNF and TrkB. Additionally, these protracted molecular changes were accompanied by anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze and marble burying tests.

  11. GABAERGIC ALTERATIONS IN NEOCORTEX OF PATIENTS WITH PHARMACORESISTANT TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY CAN EXPLAIN THE COMORBIDITY OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION: THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CLINICAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Lilia Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Temporal neocortex contributes to either seizure propagation or generation in TLE, a situation that has been associated with alterations of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA system. On the other hand, an impaired neurotransmission mediated by GABA in temporal neocortex has also been involved with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. In spite of these situations, the role of the necortical GABA system in the comorbidity of TLE and mood disorders has not been investigated. The present study was designed to identify alterations in the GABA system such as: binding to GABAA and GABAB receptors and benzodiazepine site, the tissue content of GABA and the expression of the mRNA encoding the α1-6, β1-3 and γ GABAA subunits, in the temporal neocortex of surgically treated patients with TLE with and without anxiety and/or depression. Neocortex of patients with TLE and comorbid anxiety and/or depression showed increased expression of the mRNA encoding the γ2-subunit, reduced GABAB-induced G protein activation in spite of elevated GABAB binding, and lower tissue content of GABA when compared to autopsy controls. Some of these changes significantly correlated with seizure frequency and duration of epilepsy. The results obtained suggest a dysfunction of the GABAergic neurotransmission in temporal neocortex of patients with TLE and comorbid anxiety and/or depression that could be also influenced by clinical factors such as seizure frequency and duration of illness.

  12. GABAergic alterations in neocortex of patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy can explain the comorbidity of anxiety and depression: the potential impact of clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luisa; Alonso-Vanegas, Mario; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; Escalante-Santiago, David; Feria-Romero, Iris Angélica; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Cisneros-Franco, José Miguel; Buentello-García, Ricardo Masao; Cienfuegos, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Temporal neocortex contributes to either seizure propagation or generation in TLE, a situation that has been associated with alterations of the γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) system. On the other hand, an impaired neurotransmission mediated by GABA in temporal neocortex has also been involved with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. In spite of these situations, the role of the necortical GABA system in the comorbidity of TLE and mood disorders has not been investigated. The present study was designed to identify alterations in the GABA system such as binding to GABAA and GABAB receptors and benzodiazepine site, the tissue content of GABA and the expression of the mRNA encoding the α1-6, β1-3, and γ GABAA subunits, in the temporal neocortex of surgically treated patients with TLE with and without anxiety, and/or depression. Neocortex of patients with TLE and comorbid anxiety and/or depression showed increased expression of the mRNA encoding the γ2-subunit, reduced GABAB-induced G-protein activation in spite of elevated GABAB binding, and lower tissue content of GABA when compared to autopsy controls. Some of these changes significantly correlated with seizure frequency and duration of epilepsy. The results obtained suggest a dysfunction of the GABAergic neurotransmission in temporal neocortex of patients with TLE and comorbid anxiety and/or depression that could be also influenced by clinical factors such as seizure frequency and duration of illness.

  13. O conceito de ansiedade na análise do comportamento The concept of anxiety in behavior analysis

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    Nilzabeth Leite Coêlho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de ansiedade tem sido empregado na Análise do Comportamento sob controle de diferentes eventos ou relações. Neste artigo, oferecemos uma revisão dos modos como a análise do comportamento tem concebido teórica e conceitualmente o fenômeno da ansiedade e das relações que são colocadas em destaque nessas elaborações. Iniciamos com uma descrição dos usos correntes do conceito de ansiedade, assinalando que variam quanto ao papel atribuído às alterações fisiológicas, à definição das relações respondentes e operantes, verbais e não verbais, e às implicações para a terapia verbal. Discutimos, em seguida, essas variações, salientando que representam visões complementares de um fenômeno complexo, em que eventos adquirem diferentes funções a partir de processos de condicionamento direto e indireto. Finalmente, caracterizamos alguns aspectos definidores da ansiedade à luz do enfoque analítico-comportamental e argumentamos que as elaborações revisadas sugerem que a ansiedade, como problema clínico, pode guardar relação com repertórios de autocontrole.The concept of anxiety has been used in Behavior Analysis under the control of different events or relations. In this article, we offer a theoretical and conceptual review of behavior-analytic approaches for anxiety, and of the behavioral relations that are highlighted in the literature. We start with a description of the current usages of the concept of anxiety. We point out that such usages vary from the role assigned to physiological changes, to the definition of respondent and operant relations (verbal and non-verbal and to the implications for verbal therapy. We, then, discuss such variations as complementary explanations for a complex phenomenon, in which events acquire several functions, through processes of direct and indirect conditioning. Finally, we summarize some defining characteristics of anxiety from a behavior-analytic standpoint, and we argue

  14. Removal of GABA(A receptor γ2 subunits from parvalbumin neurons causes wide-ranging behavioral alterations.

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    Elli Leppä

    Full Text Available We investigated the behavioral significance of fast synaptic inhibition by αβγ2-type GABA(A receptors on parvalbumin (Pv cells. The GABA(A receptor γ2 subunit gene was selectively inactivated in Pv-positive neurons by Cre/loxP recombination. The resulting Pv-Δγ2 mice were relatively healthy in the first postnatal weeks; but then as Cre started to be expressed, the mice progressively developed wide-ranging phenotypic alterations including low body weight, motor deficits and tremor, decreased anxiety levels, decreased pain sensitivity and deficient prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex and impaired spatial learning. Nevertheless, the deletion was not lethal, and mice did not show increased mortality even after one year. Autoradiography with t-butylbicyclophosphoro[(35S]thionate suggested an increased amount of GABA(A receptors with only α and β subunits in central nervous system regions that contained high levels of parvalbumin neurons. Using BAC-transgenesis, we reduced some of the Pv-Δγ2 phenotype by selectively re-expressing the wild-type γ2 subunit back into some Pv cells (reticular thalamic neurons and cerebellar Pv-positive neurons. This produced less severe impairments of motor skills and spatial learning compared with Pv-Δγ2 mice, but all other deficits remained. Our results reveal the widespread significance of fast GABAergic inhibition onto Pv-positive neurons for diverse behavioral modalities, such as motor coordination, sensorimotor integration, emotional behavior and nociception.

  15. Studies on effect of stress preconditioning in restrain stress-induced behavioral alterations.

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    Kaur, Rajneet; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2010-02-01

    Stress preconditioning has been documented to confer on gastroprotective effects on stress-induced gastric ulcerations. However, the effects of prior exposure of stress preconditioning episodes on stress-induced behavioral changes have not been explored yet. Therefore the present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of stress preconditioning in immobilization stress-induced behavioral alterations in rats. The rats were subjected to restrain stress by placing in restrainer (5.5 cm in diameter and 18 cm in length) for 3.5 h. Stress preconditioning was induced by subjecting the rats to two cycles of restraint and restrain-free periods of 15 min each. Furthermore, a similar type of stress preconditioning was induced using different time cycles of 30 and 45 min. The extent and severity of the stress-induced behavioral alterations were assessed using different behavioral tests such as hole-board test, social interaction test, open field test, and actophotometer. Restrain stress resulted in decrease in locomotor activity, frequency of head dips and rearing in hole board, line crossing and rearing in open field, and decreased following and increased avoidance in social interaction test. Stress preconditioning with two cycles of 15, 30 or 45 min respectively, did not attenuate stress-induced behavioral changes to any extent. It may be concluded that stress preconditioning does not seem to confer any protective effect in modulating restrain stress-induced behavioral alterations.

  16. Understory avifauna exhibits altered mobbing behavior in tropical forest degraded by selective logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2016-11-01

    In understanding the impacts of selective logging on biodiversity, relatively little is known about the critical behavioral link between altered forest conditions and population persistence. Predator-mobbing is a widespread anti-predator behavior in birds that expresses a well-known trade-off influencing prey survival under predation risk. Here, we ask whether the predator-mobbing behavior of understory forest birds is altered by selective logging and associated forest structural changes in the highly endangered lowland rainforest of Sumatra. At four study sites spanning a gradient of logging-induced forest degradation, we used standardized mobbing and owl call playbacks with predator model presentation to elicit the predator-mobbing behavior of understory prey birds, compared birds' mobbing intensity across sites, and related variation in this intensity to forest vegetation structure. We found that selective logging altered birds' predator-mobbing intensity (measured by behavioral conspicuousness and propensity to approach the predator) as well as forest structure, and that vegetative changes to canopy and understory were correlated with contrasting responses by the two major bird foraging guilds, gleaning versus flycatching birds. We additionally discuss the implications of our findings for further hypothesis testing pertaining to the impacts of selective logging on the ecological processes underlying prey mobbing behavior, particularly with regards to predator-prey interactions and prey accruement of energy reserves.

  17. Alterations in the functional neural circuitry supporting flexible choice behavior in autism spectrum disorders

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    D'Cruz, A-M; Mosconi, M W; Ragozzino, M E; Cook, E H; Sweeney, J A

    2016-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors, and a pronounced preference for behavioral and environmental consistency, are distinctive characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Alterations in frontostriatal circuitry that supports flexible behavior might underlie this behavioral impairment. In an functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 17 individuals with ASD, and 23 age-, gender- and IQ-matched typically developing control participants, reversal learning tasks were used to assess behavioral flexibility as participants switched from one learned response choice to a different response choice when task contingencies changed. When choice outcome after reversal was uncertain, the ASD group demonstrated reduced activation in both frontal cortex and ventral striatum, in the absence of task performance differences. When the outcomes of novel responses were certain, there was no difference in brain activation between groups. Reduced activation in frontal cortex and ventral striatum suggest problems in decision-making and response planning, and in processing reinforcement cues, respectively. These processes, and their integration, are essential for flexible behavior. Alterations in these systems may therefore contribute to a rigid adherence to preferred behavioral patterns in individuals with an ASD. These findings provide an additional impetus for the use of reversal learning paradigms as a translational model for treatment development targeting the domain of restricted and repetitive behaviors in ASD. PMID:27727243

  18. Absence of system xc- in mice decreases anxiety and depressive-like behavior without affecting sensorimotor function or spatial vision.

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    Bentea, Eduard; Demuyser, Thomas; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Albertini, Giulia; Deneyer, Lauren; Nys, Julie; Merckx, Ellen; Michotte, Yvette; Sato, Hideyo; Arckens, Lutgarde; Massie, Ann; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable preclinical and clinical evidence indicating that abnormal changes in glutamatergic signaling underlie the development of mood disorders. Astrocytic glutamate dysfunction, in particular, has been recently linked with the pathogenesis and treatment of mood disorders, including anxiety and depression. System xc- is a glial cystine/glutamate antiporter that is responsible for nonvesicular glutamate release in various regions of the brain. Although system xc- is involved in glutamate signal transduction, its possible role in mediating anxiety or depressive-like behaviors is currently unknown. In the present study, we phenotyped adult and aged system xc- deficient mice in a battery of tests for anxiety and depressive-like behavior (open field, light/dark test, elevated plus maze, novelty suppressed feeding, forced swim test, tail suspension test). Concomitantly, we evaluated the sensorimotor function of system xc- deficient mice, using motor and sensorimotor based tests (rotarod, adhesive removal test, nest building test). Finally, due to the presence and potential functional relevance of system xc- in the eye, we investigated the visual acuity of system xc- deficient mice (optomotor test). Our results indicate that loss of system xc- does not affect motor or sensorimotor function, in either adult or aged mice, in any of the paradigms investigated. Similarly, loss of system xc- does not affect basic visual acuity, in either adult or aged mice. On the other hand, in the open field and light/dark tests, and forced swim and tail suspension tests respectively, we could observe significant anxiolytic and antidepressive-like effects in system xc- deficient mice that in certain cases (light/dark, forced swim) were age-dependent. These findings indicate that, under physiological conditions, nonvesicular glutamate release via system xc- mediates aspects of higher brain function related to anxiety and depression, but does not influence sensorimotor function

  19. Tissue plasminogen activator promotes the effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on the amygdala and anxiety-like behavior.

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    Matys, Tomasz; Pawlak, Robert; Matys, Elzbieta; Pavlides, Constantine; McEwen, Bruce S; Strickland, Sidney

    2004-11-16

    Stress-induced plasticity in the brain requires a precisely orchestrated sequence of cellular events involving novel as well as well known mediators. We have previously demonstrated that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the amygdala promotes stress-induced synaptic plasticity and anxiety-like behavior. Here, we show that tPA activity in the amygdala is up-regulated by a major stress neuromodulator, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), acting on CRF type-1 receptors. Compared with WT, tPA-deficient mice responded to CRF treatment with attenuated expression of c-fos (an indicator of neuronal activation) in the central and medial amygdala but had normal c-fos responses in paraventricular nuclei. They exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior to CRF but had a sustained corticosterone response after CRF administration. This effect of tPA deficiency was not mediated by plasminogen, because plasminogen-deficient mice demonstrated normal behavioral and hormonal changes to CRF. These studies establish tPA as an important mediator of cellular, behavioral, and hormonal responses to CRF.

  20. Molecular aspects of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma : genetic alterations underlying clinical behavior

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    Kester, Maria Sophia van (Marloes)

    2012-01-01

    The research described in the thesis is focused at identifying molecular aberrations contributing to the pathogenesis of CTCL. In search for differences in chromosomal alterations underlying the different clinical behavior and prognosis of patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (Sz

  1. Neonatal tactile stimulation decreases depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors and potentiates sertraline action in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Daniele; Antoniazzi, Caren T D; Segat, Hecson J; Metz, Vinícia Garzella; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that events which occur in early life exert a significant influence on brain development, what can be reflected throughout adulthood. This study was carried out in order to assess the influence of neonatal tactile stimulation (TS) on behavioral and morphological responses related to depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors, assessed following the administration of sertraline (SERT), a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI). Male pups were submitted to daily TS, from postnatal day 8 (PND8) to postnatal day 14 (PND14), for 10 min every day. On PND50, adult animals were submitted to forced swimming training (15 min). On PND51, half of each experimental group (UH and TS) received a single sub-therapeutic dose of sertraline (SER, 0.3mg/kg body weight, i.p.) or its vehicle (C, control group). Thirty minutes after injection, depression-like behaviors were quantified in forced swimming test (FST, for 5 min). On the following day, anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in elevated plus maze (EPM), followed by biochemical assessments. TS per se increased swimming time, decreasing immobility time in FST. Besides, TS per se was able to increase frequency of head dipping and time spent in the open arms of EPM, resulting in decreased anxiety index. In addition, groups exposed to TS showed decreased plasma levels of corticosterone per se. Interestingly, while TS exposure significantly potentiated the antidepressant activity of a subtherapeutic dose of SERT, this drug was able to exacerbate TS-induced anxiolytic activity, as observed in FST and EPM, respectively. Decreased plasma levels of both corticosterone and cortisol in animals exposed to TS and treated with SERT are able to confirm the interesting interaction between this neonatal handling and the antidepressant drug. From our results, we conclude that neonatal TS is able to exert beneficial influence on the ability to cope with stressful situations in adulthood, preventing depression and favorably

  2. Gray Matter Alterations in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bochao; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Shiguang; Hu, Xinyu; Luo, Ya; Wang, Xiuli; Yang, Xun; Qiu, Changjian; Yang, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Bi, Feng; Roberts, Neil; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) all bear the core symptom of anxiety and are separately classified in the new DSM-5 system. The aim of the present study is to obtain evidence for neuroanatomical difference for these disorders. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie to compare gray matter volume (GMV) in magnetic resonance images obtained for 30 patients with PTSD, 29 patients with OCD, 20 patients with SAD, and 30 healthy controls. GMV across all four groups differed in left hypothalamus and left inferior parietal lobule and post hoc analyses revealed that this difference is primarily due to reduced GMV in the PTSD group relative to the other groups. Further analysis revealed that the PTSD group also showed reduced GMV in frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and cerebellum compared to the OCD group, and reduced GMV in frontal lobes bilaterally compared to SAD group. A significant negative correlation with anxiety symptoms is observed for GMV in left hypothalamus in three disorder groups. We have thus found evidence for brain structure differences that in future could provide biomarkers to potentially support classification of these disorders using MRI.

  3. Influence of religious aspects and personal beliefs on psychological behavior: focus on anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agorastos A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Agorastos Agorastos,1 Cüneyt Demiralay,1 Christian G Huber2 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: The current paper presents literature relevant to the relationship of religiosity, spirituality, and personal beliefs with mental health and, in particular, anxiety disorders as an empirical narrative review, providing an overview on the most important and clinically relevant research results on the topic. The relationship between religiosity/spirituality, personal beliefs (ie, magical ideation and paranormal beliefs, and mental health has lately been studied extensively, and results have indicated significant associations among these variables. However, scientific approaches to this field are complex and multidimensional, partly leading to poor operationalization, incomparable data, and contradictory results. Literature demonstrates that higher religiosity/spirituality and magical ideation scores have often been associated with increased obsessive–compulsive traits. Similar results could not be confidently replicated for other anxiety disorders. However, it is still unclear if these differences suggest a specific association with obsessive–compulsive traits and reflect deviating etiopathogenetic and cognitive aspects between obsessive–compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders, or if these results are biased through other factors. Religiosity/spirituality and personal beliefs constitute important parameters of human experience and deserve greater consideration in the psychotherapeutic treatment of psychiatric disorders. Keywords: spirituality, religiosity, religion, paranormal beliefs, magical ideation anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, OCD, anxiety, coping

  4. SLC6A15, a novel stress vulnerability candidate, modulates anxiety and depressive-like behavior: involvement of the glutamatergic system.

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    Santarelli, S; Wagner, K V; Labermaier, C; Uribe, A; Dournes, C; Balsevich, G; Hartmann, J; Masana, M; Holsboer, F; Chen, A; Müller, M B; Schmidt, M V

    2016-01-01

    Major depression is a multifactorial disease, involving both environmental and genetic risk factors. Recently, SLC6A15 - a neutral amino acid transporter mainly expressed in neurons - was proposed as a new candidate gene for major depression and stress vulnerability. Risk allele carriers for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a SLC6A15 regulatory region display altered hippocampal volume, glutamate levels, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, all markers associated with major depression. Despite this genetic link between SLC6A15 and depression, its functional role with regard to the development and maintenance of depressive disorder is still unclear. The aim of the current study was therefore to characterize the role of mouse slc6a15 in modulating brain function and behavior, especially in relation to stress as a key risk factor for the development of mood disorders. We investigated the effects of slc6a15 manipulation using two mouse models, a conventional slc6a15 knock-out mouse line (SLC-KO) and a virus-mediated hippocampal slc6a15 overexpression (SLC-OE) model. Mice were tested under basal conditions and following chronic social stress. We found that SLC-KO animals displayed a similar behavioral profile to wild-type littermates (SLC-WT) under basal conditions. Interestingly, following chronic social stress SLC-KO animals showed lower levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior compared to stressed WT littermates. In support of these findings, SLC-OE animals displayed increased anxiety-like behavior already under basal condition. We also provide evidence that GluR1 expression in the dentate gyrus, but not GluR2 or NR1, are regulated by slc6a15 expression, and may contribute to the difference in stress responsiveness observed between SLC-KO and SLC-WT animals. Taken together, our data demonstrate that slc6a15 plays a role in modulating emotional behavior, possibly mediated by its impact on glutamatergic neurotransmission.

  5. Repeated exposure of male mice to low doses of lipopolysaccharide: dose and time dependent development of behavioral sensitization and tolerance in an automated light-dark anxiety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasikowski, Tomek J; Cloutier, Caylen J; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Kavaliers, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used to examine immune behavior relationships there has been little consideration of the effects of low doses and the roles of sensitization and, or tolerance. Here low doses of LPS (1.0, 5.0 and 25.0 μg/kg) were peripherally administered to male mice on Days 1, 4, 28 and 32 after a baseline recording of anxiety-like behaviors in an automated light-dark apparatus (total time in the light chamber, number of light-dark transitions, nose pokes into the light chamber). LPS at 1.0 μg/kg, while having no significant effects on anxiety-like behaviors in the light-dark test on Days 1 and 4, displayed sensitization with the mice exhibiting significantly enhanced anxiety-like responses on Days 28 and 32. LPS at 5.0 μg/kg had no consistent significant effects on anxiety-like behavior on Days 1 and 4, with sensitization and enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on Day 28 followed by tolerance on Day 32. LPS at 25 μg/kg significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on Day 1, followed by tolerance on Day 4, which was not evident by Day 28 and re-emerged on Day 32. There was a similar overall pattern of sensitization and tolerance for LPS-induced decreases in locomotor activity in the safe dark chamber, without, however, any significant effects on activity in the riskier light chamber. This shows that low doses of LPS induce anxiety-like behavior and these effects are subject to sensitization and tolerance in a dose, context, and time related manner.

  6. A Comparative Study of Mindfulness Efficiency Based on Islamic-Spiritual Schemes and Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Reduction of Anxiety and Depression in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslami, Elahe; Alipour, Ahmad; Najib, Fatemeh Sadat; Aghayosefi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Anxiety and depression during the pregnancy period are among the factors affecting the pregnancy undesirable outcomes and delivery. One way of controlling anxiety and depression is mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of mindfulness based on the Islamic-spiritual schemas and group cognitive behavioral therapy on reduction of anxiety and depression in pregnant women. Methods: The research design was semi-experimental in the form of pretest-posttest using a control group. Among the pregnant women in the 16th to 32nd weeks of pregnancy who referred to the health center, 30 pregnant women with high anxiety level and 30 pregnant women with high depression participated in the research. Randomly 15 participants with high depression and 15 participants with high anxiety were considered in the intervention group under the treatment of mindfulness based on Islamic-spiritual schemes. In addition, 15 participants with high scores regarding depression and 15 with high scores in anxiety were considered in the other group. .The control group consisted of 15 pregnant women with high anxiety and depression. Beck anxiety-depression questionnaire was used in two steps of pre-test and post-test. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, and P≤0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results of multivariate analysis of variance test and tracking Tokey test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of anxiety and depression in the two groups of mindfulness based on spiritual- Islamic scheme (Pdepression scores decreased in the intervention group, but it increased in the control group. Conclusion: Both therapy methods were effective in reduction of anxiety and depression of pregnant women, but the effect of mindfulness based on spiritual- Islamic schemes was more.

  7. The effective comparison between emotion-focused cognitive behavioral group therapy and cognitive behavioral group therapy in children with separation anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Afshari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT is a new form of CBT with emotion regulation components. This form of treatment is suggested to be employed to improve dysregulation of anxiety and other kind of emotions in anxious children. This study observed and compared the effectiveness of CBT and ECBT on anxiety symptoms; sadness and anger management; and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 30 children from 9 to 13-years-old (15 girls and 15 boys with diagnosis of SAD, being randomly assigned to CBT, ECBT, and control groups (five girls and five boys in each group. Subject children in CBT group participated in 10-h weekly sessions within Coping Cat manual; whereas, subject children in ECBT group contributed in 12-h weekly sessions within ECBT. The control group received no treatment. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; child and parent forms, Children′s Emotion Management Scale (CEMS; anger and sadness forms, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ tests administered to all subjects in pretest, posttest, and the follow-up measurement (3 months later. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA repeated measure and Kruskal-Wallis were applied to analyze data by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software package (v. 20. Results: CBT and ECBT; demonstrated no significant difference in reducing separation anxiety and total anxiety symptoms from parent and children′s reports. ECBT effectively increased anger coping and decreased negative cognitive strategies and dysregulation of anger in children, both in posttest and follow-up. Also, ECBT reduced sadness dysregulation and increased sadness coping, though these significant advantages were lost in 3 months later follow-up. CBT reduced negative cognitive strategies in follow-up and increased sadness coping

  8. Internet-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Amalie; Gaardsvig, Majken Maria; Stjerneklar, Silke

    anxiety disorders has been evaluated in Denmark. The aim of the current study was to examine the feasibility of a revised and translated version of the Chilled Out Program for adolescents with anxiety disorders, developed at Macquarie University, Australia.MethodParticipants were 6 adolescents aged 13......, cartoons, and videos) to deliver psychoeducation and CBT techniques, activities and exercises for adolescents to manage their anxiety. In addition the adolescents receive a weekly supportive phone call from a psychologist.The study was designed as a single case quasi-experimental feasibility study...... treatment and at 3-months follow-up with a semi-structured qualitative interview examining factors such as adherence to the program, overall satisfaction with the intervention format and program structure.Results and conclusionResults and conclusion will be presented at the conference as the study is still...

  9. Effects of Xiaoyaosan on Stress-Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior in Rats: Involvement of CRF1 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Ming Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Compared with antidepressant activity of Xiaoyaosan, the role of Xiaoyaosan in anxiety has been poorly studied. Objective. To observe the effects of Xiaoyaosan on anxiety-like behavior induced by chronic immobilization stress (CIS and further explore whether these effects were related to CRF1R signaling. Methods. Adult male SD rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n=12: the nonstressed control group, vehicle-treated (saline, p.o. group, Xiaoyaosan-treated (3.854 g/kg, p.o. group, vehicle-treated (surgery group, and antalarmin-treated (surgery group. Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (0.5 μL/side or CRF1R antagonist antalarmin (125 ng/0.5 μL, 0.5 μL/side was bilaterally administered into the basolateral amygdala in the surgery groups. Except for the nonstressed control group, the other four groups were exposed to CIS (14 days, 3 h/day 30 minutes after treatment. On days 15 and 16, all animals were subjected to the elevated plus-maze (EPM and novelty suppressed feeding (NSF test. We then examined the expression of CRF1R, pCREB, and BDNF in the amygdala. Results. Chronic pretreatment with Xiaoyaosan or antalarmin significantly reversed elevated anxiety-like behavior and the upregulated level of CRF1R and BDNF in the amygdala of stressed rats. pCREB did not differ significantly among the groups. Conclusions. These results suggest that Xiaoyaosan exerts anxiolytic-like effects in behavioral tests and the effects may be related to CRF1R signaling in the amygdala.

  10. Exploring the Role of Neuroticism and Insecure Attachment in Health Anxiety, Safety-Seeking Behavior Engagement, and Medical Services Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotios Anagnostopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore an extended interpersonal model of health anxiety, according to which health-anxious individuals are trapped in a vicious circle of health-related reassurance-seeking, alienation from others, and worry about health, while somatic absorption with body sensations, insecure attachment, neuroticism, safety-seeking behaviors, and medical services utilization were also included in the model. Data were collected from 196 Greek university students using standardized instruments. Results indicated that anxious attachment was directly related to absorption (β = .163, p < .05 and alienation (β = .204, p < .05, while avoidant attachment was directly related to absorption (β = −.344, p < .001, reassurance-seeking (β = −.130, p < .05, and alienation (β = .148, p < .05. Neuroticism was positively and significantly associated with all dimensions of health anxiety. Absorption, alienation, and anxious attachment were related to medical services utilization, which, in turn, was related to safety-seeking behaviors (β = .200, p < .01. Neuroticism and anxious attachment were also indirectly and positively associated with worry. Moreover, absorption was positively related to worry and reassurance-seeking, worry was positively related to reassurance-seeking, and alienation was positively related to worry. Study results highlight the key role that interpersonal (e.g., alienation from others and perceptual factors (e.g., the tendency to focus on bodily sensations can play in health anxiety maintenance, and the importance of anxious and avoidant attachment in safety-seeking behavior engagement. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research and practice are outlined.

  11. A cognitive-behavior therapy applied to a social anxiety disorder and a specific phobia, case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Tsitsas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available George, a 23-year-old Greek student, was referred by a psychiatrist for treatment to a University Counseling Centre in Athens. He was diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and specific phobia situational type. He was complaining of panic attacks and severe symptoms of anxiety. These symptoms were triggered when in certain social situations and also when travelling by plane, driving a car and visiting tall buildings or high places. His symptoms lead him to avoid finding himself in such situations, to the point that it had affected his daily life. George was diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and with specific phobia, situational type (in this case acrophobia and was given 20 individual sessions of cognitive-behavior therapy. Following therapy, and follow-up occurring one month post treatment, George no longer met the criteria for social phobia and symptoms leading to acrophobia were reduced. He demonstrated improvements in many areas including driving a car in and out of Athens and visiting tall buildings.

  12. A field investigation of flight anxiety: Evidence of gender differences in consumer behaviors among Las Vegas passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey A Harvell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines how anxious the Las Vegas public is through a case study of one local international airport. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study examines gender differences in consumer behaviors among the flying public inside Las Vegas McCarran International Airport in a field experiment theoretically grounded in Terror Management Theory. Findings and Originality/Value: Because airports are replete with reminders of human mortality, it is not a surprise that death awareness and flight anxiety may be closely related. The flying public that is anxious to fly presents an interesting public relations situation for airports. Therefore, this study examines how anxious the Las Vegas public is through a case study of one local international airport. Results show that flight anxiety does provoke the same kind of existential defenses that traditional death awareness does. This study also suggests that men and women do not react to flight anxiety in a uniform way, they are different in their reactions in seeking to gamble, eating unhealthy food, and an increased desire for electronic entertainment.

  13. Optogenetic examination identifies a context-specific role for orexins/hypocretins in anxiety-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydendael, W; Sengupta, A; Beck, S; Bhatnagar, S

    2014-05-10

    Maladaptation to stress is associated with psychopathology. However, our understanding of the underlying neural circuitry involved in adaptations to stress is limited. Previous work from our lab indicated the paraventricular hypothalamic neuropeptides orexins/hypocretins regulate behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. To further elucidate the role of orexins in adaptation to stress, we employed optogenetic techniques to specifically examine the effects of orexin cell activation on behavior in the social interaction test and in the home cage as well as orexin receptor 1 internalization and ERK phosphorylation in brain regions receiving orexin inputs. In the social interaction test, optogenetic stimulation of orexin neurons decreased time spent in the interaction zone while increasing the frequency of entries into the interaction zone. In addition, optogenetic stimulation of orexin neurons increased the total distance traveled in the social interaction arena but had no effect on their home cage behavior. Together, these results suggest that orexin release increases anxiety in the social interaction test while increasing the salience of novel but not familiar environmental stimuli. Consistent with activation of orexin neurons, optogenetic stimulation increased orexin receptor1 internalization and ERK phosphorylation in the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) and locus coeruleus (LC), two regions heavily innervated by orexin neurons. Together these results show for the first time that elevation of orexin activity, possibly in the PVT and LC, is associated with increased anxiety, activity, and arousal in a context-specific manner.

  14. Differential behavioral outcomes of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA-ecstasy in anxiety-like responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ferraz-de-Paula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiolytic and anxiogenic-like behavioral outcomes have been reported for methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy in rodents. In the present experiment, we attempted to identify behavioral, hormonal and neurochemical outcomes of MDMA treatment to clarify its effects on anxiety-related responses in 2-month-old Balb/c male mice (25-35 g; N = 7-10 mice/group. The behavioral tests used were open field, elevated plus maze, hole board, and defensive behavior against predator odor. Moreover, we also determined striatal dopamine and dopamine turnover, and serum corticosterone levels. MDMA was injected ip at 0.2, 1.0, 5.0, 8.0, 10, or 20 mg/kg. MDMA at 10 mg/kg induced the following significant (P < 0.05 effects: a a dose-dependent increase in the distance traveled and in the time spent moving in the open field; b decreased exploratory activity in the hole board as measured by number of head dips and time spent in head dipping; c increased number of open arm entries and increased time spent in open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze; d increased time spent away from an aversive stimulus and decreased number of risk assessments in an aversive odor chamber; e increased serum corticosterone levels, and f increased striatal dopamine level and turnover. Taken together, these data suggest an anxiogenic-like effect of acute MDMA treatment, despite the fact that behavioral anxiety expression was impaired in some of the behavioral tests used as a consequence of the motor stimulating effects of MDMA.

  15. Infusions of bicuculline to the ventral tegmental area attenuates sexual, exploratory, and anti-anxiety behavior of proestrous rats

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Actions of 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α,5α-THP), in the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) modulate sexual receptivity of female rats. Actions of 3α,5α-THP at GABAergic substrates in the VTA are known to modulate consummatory aspects of sexual behavior among rodents, such as lordosis. However, the extent to which GABAA receptors in the VTA are important for appetitive (exploratory, anti-anxiety, social) aspects of sexual-receptivity is not well-understood. Proestrous rats were bilaterally-i...

  16. Relations among weight control behaviors and eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption in Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baş, Murat; Kiziltan, Gül

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among dieting, eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption among Turkish adolescents. Abnormal eating behavior (EAT-26 > or =20) was found in 32.8% of the total sample; this included 26.4% of the males and 38.7% of the females. Weight-control and weight-related behaviors are associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents. Dieting was significantly associated with types of consumption in female adolescents. In addition, EAT-26 scores were significantly positively correlated with high fruit and vegetable consumption, but this association was not observed in SPAS scores among adolescents. Adolescents who engage in dieting behaviors seem to consume more fruit and vegetables than do other adolescents. Female adolescents may be more likely to display abnormal eating attitudes and dieting behaviors than do males. Although some weight-control behaviors may be risky, adolescents who were practicing dieting behaviors engaged in the positive dietary behavior of consuming more servings of fruit and vegetables than did non-dieters.

  17. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for hypochondriasis/health anxiety: a meta-analysis of treatment outcome and moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Meltzer, Sari; Davis, Michelle L; Smits, Jasper A J; Powers, Mark B

    2014-07-01

    The present investigation employed meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for hypochondriasis/health anxiety as well as potential moderators that may be associated with outcome. A literature search revealed 15 comparisons among 13 randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) with a total sample size of 1081 participants that met inclusion criteria. Results indicated that CBT outperformed control conditions on primary outcome measures at post-treatment (Hedges's g = 0.95) and at follow-up (Hedges's g = 0.34). CBT also outperformed control conditions on measures of depression at post-treatment (Hedges's g = 0.64) and at follow-up (Hedges's g = 0.35). Moderator analyses revealed that higher pre-treatment severity of hypochondriasis/health anxiety was associated with greater effect sizes at follow-up visits and depression symptom severity was significantly associated with a lower in effect sizes at post-treatment. Although effect size did not vary as a function of blind assessment, smaller effect sizes were observed for CBT vs. treatment as usual control conditions than for CBT vs. waitlist control. A dose response relationship was also observed, such that a greater number of CBT sessions was associated with larger effect sizes at post-treatment. This review indicates that CBT is efficacious in the treatment of hypochondriasis/health anxiety and identifies potential moderators that are associated with outcome. The implications of these findings for further delineating prognostic and prescriptive indicators of CBT for hypochondriasis/health anxiety are discussed.

  18. Internet and computer-based cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression in youth : a meta-analysis of randomized controlled outcome trials

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents are undertreated. Computer- and Internet-based cognitive behavioral treatments (cCBT) may be an attractive treatment alternative to regular face-to-face treatment.This meta-analysis aims to evaluate whether cCBT is effective for treating symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted systematic searches in bibliographical databases (Pubmed, Cochrane controlled trial register, PsychInfo) up to Decem...

  19. Internet and Computer-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety and Depression in Youth: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Outcome Trials

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents are undertreated. Computer- and Internet-based cognitive behavioral treatments (cCBT) may be an attractive treatment alternative to regular face-to-face treatment.This meta-analysis aims to evaluate whether cCBT is effective for treating symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth. Methods and Findings We conducted systematic searches in bibliographical databases (Pubmed, Cochrane controlled trial register, PsychInfo) up to Decembe...

  20. Group Training of Stress Management vs. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Reducing Depression, Anxiety and Perceived Stress Among HIV-Positive Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmati Sabet, Akbar; Khalatbari, Javad; Abbas Ghorbani, Maryam; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of group training of stress management with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing depression, anxiety and stress perceived among HIV-positive men. Methods:Inthis semi-experimental study, three groups of HIV-positive men (CBT group, stress management group, and control group) including 15 patients in each group were compared regarding depression, anxiety, and stress using pre-test and post-test tools. Results: Both interventions (CBT and stress ...

  1. AAV-mediated overexpression of the CB1 receptor in the mPFC of adult rats alters cognitive flexibility, social behavior and emotional reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eKlugmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid (ECB system is strongly involved in the regulation of cognitive processing and emotional behavior and evidence indicates that ECB signaling might affect these behavioral abilities by modulations of prefrontal cortical functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the CB1 receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC on cognitive flexibility and emotional behavior. Therefore, the CB1 receptor was overexpressed by adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene transfer specifically in the mPFC of adult Wistar rats. Animals were then tested in different anxiety-related paradigms for emotional reactivity (e.g. elevated plus maze (EPM, light/dark emergence test (EMT, social interaction and the attentional set shift task (ASST - an adaptation of the human Wisconsin card sorting test - for cognitive abilities and behavioral flexibility. A subtle increase in exploratory behavior was found in CB1 receptor overexpressing animals (CB1-R compared to empty vector injected controls (Empty in the EMT and EPM, although general locomotor activity did not differ between the groups. During social interaction testing, social contact behavior towards the unknown conspecific was found to be decreased, whereas social withdrawal was increased in CB1-R animals and they showed an inadequate increase in exploratory behavior compared to control animals. In the ASST, impaired reversal learning abilities were detected in CB1-R animals compared to controls, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. In conclusion, upregulation of the CB1 receptor specifically in the rat mPFC induces alterations in emotional reactivity, leads to inadequate social behavior and impairs cognitive flexibility. These findings might be relevant for neuropsychiatric disorders, since higher cortical CB1 receptor expression levels as well as similar behavioral impairments as observed in the present study have been described in schizophrenic patients.

  2. Stable prediction of mood and anxiety disorders based on behavioral and emotional problems in childhood: a 14-year follow-up during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Roza (Sabine); M.B. Hofstra (Marijke); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to predict the onset of mood and anxiety disorders from parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems in childhood across a 14-year period from childhood into young adulthood. METHOD: In 1983, parent reports of behavioral and em

  3. Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…

  4. Brief Report: Glutamate Transporter Gene ("SLC1A1") Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs301430) and Repetitive Behaviors and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Investigated association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs301430 in glutamate transporter gene ("SLC1A1") with severity of repetitive behaviors (obsessive-compulsive behaviors, tics) and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers and/or teachers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 67 children…

  5. Altered effective connectivity network of the amygdala in social anxiety disorder: a resting-state FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liao

    Full Text Available The amygdala is often found to be abnormally recruited in social anxiety disorder (SAD patients. The question whether amygdala activation is primarily abnormal and affects other brain systems or whether it responds "normally" to an abnormal pattern of information conveyed by other brain structures remained unanswered. To address this question, we investigated a network of effective connectivity associated with the amygdala using Granger causality analysis on resting-state functional MRI data of 22 SAD patients and 21 healthy controls (HC. Implications of abnormal effective connectivity and clinical severity were investigated using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. Decreased influence from inferior temporal gyrus (ITG to amygdala was found in SAD, while bidirectional influences between amygdala and visual cortices were increased compared to HCs. Clinical relevance of decreased effective connectivity from ITG to amygdala was suggested by a negative correlation of LSAS avoidance scores and the value of Granger causality. Our study is the first to reveal a network of abnormal effective connectivity of core structures in SAD. This is in support of a disregulation in predescribed modules involved in affect control. The amygdala is placed in a central position of dysfunction characterized both by decreased regulatory influence of orbitofrontal cortex and increased crosstalk with visual cortex. The model which is proposed based on our results lends neurobiological support towards cognitive models considering disinhibition and an attentional bias towards negative stimuli as a core feature of the disorder.

  6. Developmental sub-chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reduces anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Richendrfer, Holly; Pelkowski, Sean D.; Colwill, Ruth M.; Créton, Robbert

    2012-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders are typically influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Although several genetic risk factors have been identified in recent years, little is known about the environmental factors that either cause neurobehavioral disorders or contribute to their progression in genetically predisposed individuals. One environmental factor that has raised concerns is chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticid...

  7. Behavioral Studies on the Mechanism of Buspirone, an Atypical Anti-Anxiety Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-17

    diazepam ; a benzodiazepine) , currently the most widely prescribed anxiolytic on the market (Goldberg & Finnerty, 1979; 1982); however, buspirone...to those of the benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide . However, unlike the benzodiazepines, effects of buspirone were not reversible by the...efficacy of buspirone and diazepam in the treatment of anxiety. Affierican Journal of Psychiatry, 1979, ~, 1184-1187. Goldberg, H. L. & Finnerty, R

  8. Mediators of synaptic activity in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselycznyk, Carly

    2012-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are leading causes of years lost to disability, despite antidepressants being among the most commonly prescribed medications. Most currently prescribed antidepressants were found serendipitously rather than from an understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying depression. Recent evidence supports instead the antidepressant efficacy of glutamate-targeting drugs, such as ketamine, which promote plastic changes in synaptic structure and function. ...

  9. Conjoint Behavioral Consultation: Application to the School-Based Treatment of Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, Elana R.; Feeney-Kettler, Kelly A.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    In the current paper we discuss the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders using a problem-solving consultation framework. The role of consultation as a service delivery model in a school setting is elaborated on, as well as the contribution that consultation has in the movement towards evidence-based practices in school psychology.…

  10. Social Physique Anxiety in Adolescence: An Exploration of Influences, Coping Strategies, and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, C. M.; Sedgwick, W. A.; Crocker, P. R. E.; Kowalski, K. C.; Mack, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored adolescent females' experiences of social physique anxiety (SPA) and related coping strategies. A final sample of 31 adolescent females ages 13 to 18 years discussed dealing with SPA during individual semistructured interviews. Resultant themes pertaining to the transactional experiences of SPA were coded using content…

  11. The Relationship Between Parent Trait Anxiety and Parent-reported Pain, Solicitous Behaviors, and Quality of Life Impairment in Children With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Christopher J; Fortier, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Pain-related disability in youth has been shown to be associated with parental psychological distress and solicitous behaviors. This study sought to investigate how parental anxiety may impact children's functioning with respect to pain and health-related quality of life in a sample of children with cancer. A total of 353 parents of children treated for cancer completed measures of anxiety, behavioral responses to children's pain, and of their child's quality of life and pain. Children ages 8 to 18 completed measures of their own quality of life and pain. Parent anxiety was significantly associated with parent ratings of children's pain severity (P=0.004) and frequency (P=0.008), as well as parent solicitous responses (P=0.041) and child quality of life. Regression analysis revealed that parent anxiety significantly predicted solicitous behaviors (P=0.006), pain frequency (P=0.043), and child quality of life (P ≤ 0.004). These findings suggest parent anxiety plays a significant role in parent perception of children's pain and quality of life in pediatric cancer patients. Future research is needed to further clarify the nature of these relationships, which will help identify how parent anxiety may be an important target for pain management in children with cancer.

  12. Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) deficiency in brain leads to altered locomotor activity and decreased anxiety-like behaviours in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Sebastian; Auden, Alana; Partridge, Darren D; Daglas, Maria; Medcalf, Robert L; Mantamadiotis, Theo; Georgy, Smitha R; Darido, Charbel; Jane, Stephen M; Ting, Stephen B

    2016-12-01

    The highly conserved Grainyhead-like (Grhl) family of transcription factors, comprising three members in vertebrates (Grhl1-3), play critical regulatory roles during embryonic development, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Although loss of Grhl function leads to multiple neural abnormalities in numerous animal models, a comprehensive analysis of Grhl expression and function in the mammalian brain has not been reported. Here we show that only Grhl3 expression is detectable in the embryonic mouse brain; particularly within the habenula, an organ known to modulate repressive behaviours. Using both Grhl3-knockout mice (Grhl3(-/-) ), and brain-specific conditional deletion of Grhl3 in adult mice (Nestin-Cre/Grhl3(flox/flox) ), we performed histological expression analyses and behavioural tests to assess long-term effects of Grhl3 loss on motor co-ordination, spatial memory, anxiety and stress. We found that complete deletion of Grhl3 did not lead to noticeable structural or cell-intrinsic defects in the embryonic brain, however aged Grhl3 conditional knockout (cKO) mice showed enlarged lateral ventricles and displayed marked changes in motor function and behaviours suggestive of decreased fear and anxiety. We conclude that loss of Grhl3 in the brain leads to significant alterations in locomotor activity and decreased self-inhibition, and as such, these mice may serve as a novel model of human conditions of impulsive behaviour or hyperactivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Disturbance of the gut microbiota in early-life selectively affects visceral pain in adulthood without impacting cognitive or anxiety-related behaviors in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, S M; Felice, V D; Nally, K; Savignac, H M; Claesson, M J; Scully, P; Woznicki, J; Hyland, N P; Shanahan, F; Quigley, E M; Marchesi, J R; O'Toole, P W; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2014-09-26

    Disruption of bacterial colonization during the early postnatal period is increasingly being linked to adverse health outcomes. Indeed, there is a growing appreciation that the gut microbiota plays a role in neurodevelopment. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of early-life manipulations of the gut microbiota on behavior. To this end we administered an antibiotic (vancomycin) from postnatal days 4-13 to male rat pups and assessed behavioral and physiological measures across all aspects of the brain-gut axis. In addition, we sought to confirm and expand the effects of early-life antibiotic treatment using a different antibiotic strategy (a cocktail of pimaricin, bacitracin, neomycin; orally) during the same time period in both female and male rat pups. Vancomycin significantly altered the microbiota, which was restored to control levels by 8 weeks of age. Notably, vancomycin-treated animals displayed visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood without any significant effect on anxiety responses as assessed in the elevated plus maze or open field tests. Moreover, cognitive performance in the Morris water maze was not affected by early-life dysbiosis. Immune and stress-related physiological responses were equally unaffected. The early-life antibiotic-induced visceral hypersensitivity was also observed in male rats given the antibiotic cocktail. Both treatments did not alter visceral pain perception in female rats. Changes in visceral pain perception in males were paralleled by distinct decreases in the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1, the α-2A adrenergic receptor and cholecystokinin B receptor. In conclusion, a temporary disruption of the gut microbiota in early-life results in very specific and long-lasting changes in visceral sensitivity in male rats, a hallmark of stress-related functional disorders of the brain-gut axis such as irritable bowel disorder.

  14. The effect of altering self-descriptive behavior on self-concept and classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J; Muller, D

    1977-09-01

    This research examined the impact of operant reinforcement of positive self-descriptive behavior on the self-concepts and classroom behavior of 60 fifth-grade students. Three groups of 10 male and 10 female low self-concept students wrote a series of eight essays describing their school performance. The first group (P) received written reinforcement for positive self-descriptions of their school performance. The second group (G) received an equal number of reinforcements for general statements. The third group (C) received no reinforcement for written statements. Three areas of self-concept were measured with the Primary Self-Concept Inventory: personal-self, social-self, and intellectual-self. A frequency count was also made of nine classroom behaviors thought to be influenced by self-concept. The P group displayed increases in the frequency of positive self-descriptive statement and in intellectual self-concept but no changes in personal self-concept, social self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors. The G and C groups showed no change in self-description, self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors.

  15. Exogenous ketone supplements reduce anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Ari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM. The groups included standard diet (SD or SD + ketone supplementation. Low-dose ketone ester (LKE (1,3-butanediol-acetoacetate diester, ~10 g/kg/day, LKE, high dose ketone ester (HKE (~25 g/kg/day, HKE, beta-hydroxybutyrate-mineral salt (βHB-S (~25 g/kg/day, KS, and βHB-S + medium chain triglyceride (MCT (~25 g/kg/day, KSMCT were used as ketone supplementation for chronic administration. To extend our results, exogenous ketone supplements were also tested sub-chronically on SPD rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 5 g/kg/day and on WAG/Rij rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 2.5 g/kg/day. At the end of treatments behavioral data collection was conducted manually by a blinded observer and with a video-tracking system, after which blood βHB and glucose levels were measured. Ketone supplementation reduced anxiety on EPM as measured by less entries to closed arms (sub-chronic KE and KS: SPD rats and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats, more time spent in open arms (sub-chronic KE: SPD and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats; chronic KSMCT: SPD rats, more distance travelled in open arms (chronic KS and KSMCT: SPD rats, and by delayed latency to entrance to closed arms (chronic KSMCT: SPD rats, when compared to control. Our data indicates that chronic and sub-chronic ketone supplementation not only elevated blood βHB levels in both animal models, but reduced anxiety-related behavior. We conclude that ketone supplementation may represent a promising anxiolytic strategy

  16. Modulation of anxiety behavior by intranasally administered vaccinia virus complement control protein and curcumin in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A P; Govender, D A; Kotwal, G J; Kellaway, L A

    2011-02-01

    Widespread neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, involving pro-inflammatory mediators such as complement components, might be responsible for AD associated behavioral symptoms such as anxiety. Vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) and curcumin (Cur) are the bioactive compounds of natural origin shown to inhibit the in-vitro complement activation. In order to develop complement regulatory compounds which could be delivered to the CNS by a non-invasive route, VCP, its truncated version (tVCP), and Cur were administered to Wistar rats intranasally. The distribution of these compounds in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was studied using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using VCP and tVCP as antigens and a modified fluorimetric method (Cur). VCP and tVCP were also detected in the olfactory lobes of the rat brain using immunohistochemical analysis. These compounds were then compared for their ability to attenuate the anxiety levels in APPswePS1δE9 mice using an elevated plus maze (EPM) apparatus. VCP treatment significantly improved the exploratory behavior and reduced the anxiety behavior in APPswePS1δE9 mice. tVCP however showed an opposite effect to VCP, whereas Cur showed no effect on the anxiety behavior of these mice. When these mice were subsequently tested for their cognitive performance in the Morris water maze (MWM), they showed tendencies to collide with the periphery of the walls of MWM. This unusual activity was termed "kissperi" behavior. This newly defined index of anxiety was comparable to the anxiety profile of the VCP and tVCP treated groups on EPM. VCP can thus be delivered to the CNS effectively via intranasal route of administration to attenuate anxiety associated with AD.

  17. Microbiota alteration is associated with the development of stress-induced despair behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Ioana A.; Goertz, Jennifer E.; Ren, Tiantian; Rich, Stephen S.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Farber, Emily; Wu, Martin; Overall, Christopher C.; Kipnis, Jonathan; Gaultier, Alban

    2017-01-01

    Depressive disorders often run in families, which, in addition to the genetic component, may point to the microbiome as a causative agent. Here, we employed a combination of behavioral, molecular and computational techniques to test the role of the microbiota in mediating despair behavior. In chronically stressed mice displaying despair behavior, we found that the microbiota composition and the metabolic signature dramatically change. Specifically, we observed reduced Lactobacillus and increased circulating kynurenine levels as the most prominent changes in stressed mice. Restoring intestinal Lactobacillus levels was sufficient to improve the metabolic alterations and behavioral abnormalities. Mechanistically, we identified that Lactobacillus-derived reactive oxygen species may suppress host kynurenine metabolism, by inhibiting the expression of the metabolizing enzyme, IDO1, in the intestine. Moreover, maintaining elevated kynurenine levels during Lactobacillus supplementation diminished the treatment benefits. Collectively, our data provide a mechanistic scenario for how a microbiota player (Lactobacillus) may contribute to regulating metabolism and resilience during stress. PMID:28266612

  18. Competence and Adherence Scale for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CAS-CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth: Psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt; Fjermestad, Krister W; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Havik, Odd E; Heiervang, Einar R; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Competence and Adherence Scale for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CAS-CBT). The CAS-CBT is an 11-item scale developed to measure adherence and competence in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. A total of 181 videotapes from the treatment sessions in a randomized controlled effectiveness trial (Wergeland et al., 2014) comprising youth (N = 182, M age = 11.5 years, SD = 2.1, range 8-15 years, 53% girls, 90.7% Caucasian) with mixed anxiety disorders were assessed with the CAS-CBT to investigate interitem correlations, internal consistency, and factor structure. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha = .87). Factor analysis suggested a 2-factor solution with Factor 1 representing CBT structure and session goals (explaining 46.9% of the variance) and Factor 2 representing process and relational skills (explaining 19.7% of the variance). The sum-score for adherence and competence was strongly intercorrelated, r = .79, p .40, n = 10 videotapes) and also good to excellent interrater reliability when compared to expert raters (ICC = .83 for adherence and .64 for competence, n = 26 videotapes). High rater stability was also found (n = 15 videotapes). The findings suggest that the CAS-CBT is a reliable measure of adherence and competence in manualized CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. Further research is needed to investigate the validity of the scale and psychometric properties when used with other treatment programs, disorders and treatment formats. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Enhancement of behavioral sensitization, anxiety-like behavior, and hippocampal and frontal cortical CREB levels following cocaine abstinence in mice exposed to cocaine during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Valzachi

    Full Text Available Adolescence has been linked to greater risk-taking and novelty-seeking behavior and a higher prevalence of drug abuse and risk of relapse. Decreases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB have been reported after repeated cocaine administration in animal models. We compared the behavioral effects of cocaine and abstinence in adolescent and adult mice and investigated possible age-related differences in CREB and pCREB levels. Adolescent and adult male Swiss mice received one daily injection of saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p. for 8 days. On day 9, the mice received a saline injection to evaluate possible environmental conditioning. After 9 days of withdrawal, the mice were tested in the elevated plus maze to evaluate anxiety-like behavior. Twelve days after the last saline/cocaine injection, the mice received a challenge injection of either cocaine or saline, and locomotor activity was assessed. One hour after the last injection, the brains were extracted, and CREB and pCREB levels were evaluated using Western blot in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus. The cocaine-pretreated mice during adolescence exhibited a greater magnitude of the expression of behavioral sensitization and greater cocaine withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior compared with the control group. Significant increases in CREB levels in the PFC and hippocampus and pCREB in the hippocampus were observed in cocaine-abstinent animals compared with the animals treated with cocaine in adulthood. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between cocaine sensitization and CREB levels in both regions. These results suggest that the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of psychoactive substances in a still-developing nervous system can be more severe than in an already mature nervous system.

  20. Infusions of bicuculline to the ventral tegmental area attenuates sexual, exploratory, and anti-anxiety behavior of proestrous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Paris, Jason J

    2009-10-01

    Actions of 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), in the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) modulate sexual receptivity of female rats. Actions of 3alpha,5alpha-THP at GABAergic substrates in the VTA are known to modulate consummatory aspects of sexual behavior among rodents, such as lordosis. However, the extent to which GABA(A) receptors in the VTA are important for appetitive (exploratory, anti-anxiety, social) aspects of sexual receptivity is not well-understood. Proestrous rats were bilaterally-infused with saline or bicuculline (100 ng), a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, to the VTA or missed control sites. Rats were assessed for exploratory/anti-anxiety (open field/elevated plus maze), social (social interaction), and sexual (paced-mating) behavior. Compared to saline or missed site controls, intra-VTA bicuculline significantly reduced the number of central entries in an open field, time spent on the open arms of an elevated plus maze, frequency and intensity of lordosis, anti-aggression towards a male, pacing of sexual contacts, and 3alpha,5alpha-THP concentrations in midbrain and hippocampus. Bicuculline-infused rats also displayed less affiliation with a novel conspecific, fewer sexual solicitations, and had lower 3alpha,5alpha-THP concentrations in diencephalon and cortex, albeit these were not significant differences. Thus, actions at GABA(A) receptors in the midbrain VTA are essential for appetitive and consummatory aspects of sexual receptivity among rats.

  1. The psychological characteristics and health related behavior of adolescents: the possible of social physique anxiety and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Emine; Bilgili, Naile; Karaca, Ayda; Ayaz, Sultan; Aşçi, F Hülya

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not the social physique anxiety level and gender have an influence on psychological characteristics and health related behavior of adolescents. Five hundred and ninety eight female (M(age) = 14.95, SD = .70 years) and three hundred and eighty four male (M(age) = 15.08, SD = .76 years) adolescents voluntarily participated in this study. The Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), three subscales of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale as indicators of psychological characteristics were administered to all participants. The Eating Attitude Test and Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire were used to determine health related behavior. It was found that adolescents with high levels of SPA (HSPA) had more unfavourable eating attitudes, higher scores in socially-prescribed perfectionism, negative global physical self-worth and negative body related perceptions than those with low levels of SPA (LSPA). Physical activity levels of adolescents did not differ in the two SPA groups (high/low level). In addition, male adolescents in the present study were more physically active and had favorable eating attitudes and more positive self-perceptions of body fat and general physical self-worth than their female counterparts.

  2. GABA-A receptor modulators alter emotionality and hippocampal theta rhythm in an animal model of long-lasting anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Alexandre Ademar; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Duarte, Filipe Silveira; Leme, Leandro Rinaldi; Costa, Ana Paula Ramos; Santos, Evelyn Cristina da Silva; de Pieri, Claudini Honório; dos Santos, Alessandra Antunes; Naime, Aline Aita; Farina, Marcelo; de Lima, Thereza Christina Monteiro

    2013-09-26

    The cholinergic system is implicated in emotional regulation. The injection of non-convulsant doses of the muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine (PILO) induces long-lasting anxiogenic responses in rats evaluated at different time-points (24h to 3 months). To investigate the underlying mechanisms, rats treated with PILO (150mg/kg) were injected 24h or 1 month later with an anxiolytic (diazepam, 1mg/kg, DZP) or anxiogenic (pentylenetetrazole, 15mg/kg, PTZ) drug and evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampal (HIP) electroencephalographic recordings and acetylcolinesterase (AChE) activity were also analyzed after PILO treatment. Anxiogenic responses observed in the EPM 24h or 1 month after PILO treatment (e.g., decreased time spent and number of entries into the open arms of the maze) were blocked by DZP but not affected by PTZ. No epileptiform events were registered in the HIP or PFC at 24h or 1 month after PILO injection, but enhanced theta activity was observed in the HIP. DZP decreased hippocampal theta of PILO-treated rats in contrast with PTZ, which increased this parameter in saline- and PILO-treated rats. The HIP and PFC AChE activity did not change after PILO treatment. Our findings demonstrate that the long-term effects on the emotionality of rats induced by PILO are associated with electrophysiological changes in the HIP and sensitive to pharmacological manipulation of the GABAergic system. The present work may support this new research model of long-lasting anxiety, while also highlighting the muscarinic system as a potential target involved in anxiety disorders.

  3. Client Retrospective Accounts of Corrective Experiences in Motivational Interviewing Integrated With Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Christianne; Angus, Lynne; Khattra, Jasmine; Westra, Henny; Ip, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    A corrective experience (CE) is one "in which a person comes to understand or experience affectively an event or relationship in a different and unexpected way" (Castonguay & Hill, 2012, p. 5). CEs disconfirm clients' expectations based on past problematic experiences, and can be emotional, relational, behavioral, and/or cognitive. This qualitative study explored corrective shifts among recovered participants (N = 8) who had received motivational interviewing (MI) integrated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT alone to MI-CBT for generalized anxiety disorder (Westra, Constantino, & Antony, 2016). We administered a posttherapy interview querying their experience of, and explanations for, any shifts in therapy. Grounded theory analysis yielded three core themes: in command of the worry train, experiencing myself in new ways in therapy, and oriented toward change. Findings are discussed in terms of MI theory, and clinical implications for therapists are provided.

  4. Neuropeptide Y-Y2 receptor knockout mice: influence of genetic background on anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambello, E; Zanetti, L; Hédou, G F; Angelici, O; Arban, R; Tasan, R O; Sperk, G; Caberlotto, L

    2011-03-10

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been extensively studied in relation to anxiety and depression but of the seven NPY receptors known to date, it is not yet clear which one is mainly involved in mediating its effects in emotional behavior. Mice lacking the NPY-Y2 receptors were previously shown to be less anxious due to their improved ability to cope with stressful situations. In the present study, the behavioral phenotype including the response to challenges was analyzed in NPY-Y2 knockout (KO) mice backcrossed in to congenic C57BL/6 background. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the forced swim test (FST), the anxiolytic-like or antidepressant-like phenotype of the NPY-Y2 KO mice could not be confirmed, although this study differs from the previous one only with regard to the genetic background of the mice. In addition, no differences in response to acute stress or to the antidepressant desipramine in the FST were detected between wild type (WT) and NPY-Y2 KO animals. These results suggest that the genetic background of the animals appears to have a strong influence on the behavioral phenotype of NPY-Y2 KO mice. Additionally, to further characterize the animals by their biochemical response to a challenge, the neurochemical changes induced by the anxiogenic compound yohimbine were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of NPY-Y2 KO and compared to WT mice. Dopamine (DA) levels were significantly increased by yohimbine in the WT but unaffected in the KO mice, suggesting that NPY-Y2 receptor exerts a direct control over both the tonic and phasic release of DA and that, although the anxiety-like behavior of these NPY-Y2 KO mice is unaltered, there are clear modifications of DA dynamics. However, yohimbine led to a significant increase in noradrenaline (NA) concentration and a slight reduction in serotonin concentration that were identical for both phenotypes.

  5. Influence of religious aspects and personal beliefs on psychological behavior: focus on anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Agorastos A; Demiralay C; Huber CG

    2014-01-01

    Agorastos Agorastos,1 Cüneyt Demiralay,1 Christian G Huber2 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: The current paper presents literature relevant to the relationship of religiosity, spirituality, and personal beliefs with mental health and, in particular, anxiety disorders as an empirical narrative review, providing an ov...

  6. Effect of diet containing Zataria multiflora leaves on anxiety behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Results: The results indicated that the diet containing 10% thyme had significantly increased the presence of the animal in the open arms of maze compared to the control group (P <0.01 and also a decrease was observed in the assessment of cortisol hormone compared to the control group(p <0.05. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that diet containing thyme was effective in reducing anxiety reactions in rats.

  7. Efficacy of behavioral intervention in reducing anxiety and depression among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Velayudhan, A.; Gayatridevi, S.; Rita Rani Bhattacharjee

    2010-01-01

    Background: Now a days, college students frequently have more complex problems than they used to have over a decade ago - greater difficulties in relationships; and more severe problems, such as depression, anxiety and thoughts of suicide. Counseling helps students to understand themselves and the world around them, and to adjust themselves more efficiently and appropriately to other fellow beings. Aim: To determine as to what extent the medical students were able to cope up with their anxiet...

  8. NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME ACTIVATION CONTRIBUTES TO LONG-TERM BEHAVIORAL ALTERATIONS IN MICE INJECTED WITH LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, WEI; CAO, FENG-SHENG; FENG, JUN; CHEN, HUA-WENG; WAN, JIE-RU; LU, QING; WANG, JIAN

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) might affect the central nervous system by causing neuroinflammation, which subsequently leads to brain damage and dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the role of nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in long-term behavioral alterations of 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally with LPS (5 mg/kg). At different time points after injection, we assessed locomotor function with a 24-point neurologic deficit scoring system and the rotarod test; assessed recognition memory with the novel object recognition test; and assessed emotional abnormality (anhedonia and behavioral despair) with the tail suspension test, forced swim test, and sucrose preference test. We also assessed protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase-1 p10 in hippocampus by Western blotting; measured levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and IL-10 in hippocampus; measured TNFα and IL-1β in serum by ELISA; and evaluated microglial activity in hippocampus by Iba1 immunofluorescence. We found that LPS-injected mice displayed long-term depression-like behaviors and recognition memory deficit; elevated expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 p10; increased levels of IL-1β, IL-18, and TNFα; decreased levels of IL-10; and increased microglial activation. These effects were blocked by the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone. The results demonstrate proof of concept that NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to long-term behavioral alterations in LPS-exposed mice, probably through enhanced inflammation, and that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition might alleviate peripheral and brain inflammation and thereby ameliorate long-term behavioral alterations in LPS-exposed mice. PMID:27923741

  9. Influence of religious aspects and personal beliefs on psychological behavior: focus on anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agorastos, Agorastos; Demiralay, Cüneyt; Huber, Christian G

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents literature relevant to the relationship of religiosity, spirituality, and personal beliefs with mental health and, in particular, anxiety disorders as an empirical narrative review, providing an overview on the most important and clinically relevant research results on the topic. The relationship between religiosity/spirituality, personal beliefs (ie, magical ideation and paranormal beliefs), and mental health has lately been studied extensively, and results have indicated significant associations among these variables. However, scientific approaches to this field are complex and multidimensional, partly leading to poor operationalization, incomparable data, and contradictory results. Literature demonstrates that higher religiosity/spirituality and magical ideation scores have often been associated with increased obsessive-compulsive traits. Similar results could not be confidently replicated for other anxiety disorders. However, it is still unclear if these differences suggest a specific association with obsessive-compulsive traits and reflect deviating etiopathogenetic and cognitive aspects between obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders, or if these results are biased through other factors. Religiosity/spirituality and personal beliefs constitute important parameters of human experience and deserve greater consideration in the psychotherapeutic treatment of psychiatric disorders.

  10. Novel mechanistic insights into treadmill exercise based rescue of social defeat-induced anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Ansari, Amber; Allam, Farida; Jannise, Brittany; Maturi, Jaganmohan; Salim, Samina

    2014-05-10

    Social defeat (SD) induced stress causes physiological and behavioral deficits in rodents, including depression and anxiety-like behaviors, as well as memory impairment. Anxiolytic and mood elevating effects of physical exercise are also known. However, rescue effect of physical exercise in social defeat-induced anxiety, depression or memory impairment has not been addressed. The role of epigenetic mechanisms that potentially contribute to these rescue or protective effects is also not known. The present study investigated the effect of moderate treadmill exercise on anxiety-like behavior and memory function in rats subjected to SD using a modified version of the resident-intruder model for social stress (defeat). Changes in histone acetylation and histone-modifying enzymes were examined in hippocampus, amygdala and frontal cortex which are considered critical for anxiety, depression and cognition. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned in four groups; control, exercised, social defeat, social defeat and exercise. At the end of the SD or control exposure lasting 30 min daily for 7 days, one group of SD rats was subjected to treadmill exercise for 2 weeks, whereas the other SD group was handled without exercise. Anxiety-like behavior tests and radial arm water maze test suggested that moderate treadmill exercise rescued social defeat induced anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment. Moreover, exercise normalized SD-induced increase in oxidative stress, most likely by adjusting antioxidant response. Our data suggests involvement of epigenetic mechanisms including histone acetylation of H3 and modulation of methyl-CpG-binding in the hippocampus that might contribute to the rescue effects of exercise in SD-induced behavioral deficits in rats.

  11. Postpartum behavioral profiles in Wistar rats following maternal separation - altered exploration and risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loudin Daoura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The rodent maternal separation (MS model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15 and prolonged (360 min; MS360 periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e. just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis.

  12. The role of galanin system in modulating depression, anxiety, and addiction-like behaviors after chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Seese, R R; Yun, K; Peng, T; Wang, Z

    2013-08-29

    There is high comorbidity between stress-related psychiatric disorders and addiction, suggesting they may share one or more common neurobiological mechanisms. Because of its role in both depressive and addictive behaviors, the galanin system is a strong candidate for such a mechanism. In this study, we tested if galanin and its receptors are involved in stress-associated behaviors and drug addiction. Mice were exposed to 21 days of chronic restraint stress (CRS); subsequently, mRNA levels of galanin, galanin receptors (GalRs), the rate-limiting enzymes for the synthesis of monoamines, and monoamine autoreceptors were measured in the nucleus accumbens by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, we tested the effects of this stress on morphine-induced addictive behaviors. We found that CRS induced anxiety and depression-like behaviors, impaired the formation and facilitated the extinction process in morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), and also blocked morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. These behavioral results were accompanied by a CRS-dependent increase in the mRNA expression of galanin, GalR1, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tryptophan hydroxylase 2, and 5-HT1B receptor. Interestingly, treatment with a commonly used antidepressant, fluoxetine, normalized the CRS-induced behavioral changes based on reversing the higher expression of galanin and TH while increasing the expression of GalR2 and α2A-adrenceptor. These results indicate that activating the galanin system, with corresponding changes to noradrenergic systems, following chronic stress may modulate stress-associated behaviors and opiate addiction. Our findings suggest that galanin and GalRs are worthy of further exploration as potential therapeutic targets to treat stress-related disorders and drug addiction.

  13. Estrous cycle variation in anxiolytic-like effects of topiramate in Wistar rats in two animal models of anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia; Olivera-López, Jorge I; Jaramillo, M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The anxiolytic-like effects of topiramate were assessed during several estrous cycle phases in Wistar rats tested in two animal models of anxiety-like behavior. In a conflict operant test, during proestrus, diazepam (1.3, 2.0mg/kg; Pdiazepam (2.0mg/kg, Pdiazepam (1.3, 2.0mg/kg; Pdiazepam (2.0mg/kg, Pdiazepam nor topiramate nor estrous cycle phases significantly modified the number of closed arm entries in the elevated plus-maze test. It is concluded that the response to neuromodulatory drugs for anxiety-like behavior varied according to the estrous cycle phases.

  14. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions.

  15. Brain morphological alterations and cellular metabolic changes in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: A combined DARTEL-based VBM and (1)H-MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2016-05-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by emotional dysregulation and cognitive deficit in conjunction with brain morphometric and metabolic alterations. This study assessed the combined neural morphological deficits and metabolic abnormality in patients with GAD. Thirteen patients with GAD and 13 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 3Tesla. In this study, the combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and (1)H-MRS was used to assess the brain morphometric and metabolic alterations in GAD. The patients showed significantly reduced white matter (WM) volumes in the midbrain (MB), precentral gyrus (PrG), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) compared to the controls. In MRS study, the choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) and choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratios in the DLPFC were significantly lower in the patients. Particularly, the WM volume variation of the DLPFC was positively correlated with both of the Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratios in patients with GAD. This study provides an evidence for the association between the morphometric deficit and metabolic changes in GAD. This finding would be helpful to understand the neural dysfunction and pathogenesis in connection with cognitive impairments in GAD.

  16. D-cycloserine augmentation of behavior therapy for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Nadine; Holling, Heinz; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present meta-analysis investigates whether the antibiotic D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, can augment the effect of behavior therapy in humans with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Method A keyword-based computer search was conducted using common electronic databases. Only studies investigating the effect of DCS in humans with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders were included, resulting in 23 studies with a combined sample size of 1314 patients. Effect sizes were coded as Hedges’ g and SMCC, the latter also incorporating differences in pre-treatment values. Bayesian multilevel meta-analysis was applied to take dependencies of effect sizes obtained from the same study into account. Results While previous meta-analyses found small to moderate improvements, the current results including the most recent research indicate that the overall effect of DCS is very small and almost indistinguishable from zero (g = -0.12, CI = [-0.27, 0.02]; SMCC = -0.10, CI = [-0.29, 0.07]). Slightly larger effects were found for social anxious patients. Further, study quality and year of publication were relevant moderators, with higher quality / more recent studies reported smaller effects of DCS. Conclusions These findings raise the question of the usefulness of DCS as an augmentation of exposure therapy for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. At least, it seems to be less promising than initially thought. The fact that study quality was inversely related to the reported effect sizes underlines the importance of high quality primary research in order to avoid over-estimation of treatment effects in clinical psychology. PMID:28282427

  17. How effective are cognitive behavior therapies for major depression and anxiety disorders? A meta‐analytic update of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim; Cristea, Ioana A.; Karyotaki, Eirini; Reijnders, Mirjam; Huibers, Marcus J.H.

    2016-01-01

    We report the current best estimate of the effects of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the treatment of major depression (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD), taking into account publication bias, the quality of trials, and the influence of waiting list control groups on the outcomes. In our meta‐analyses, we included randomized trials comparing CBT with a control condition (waiting list, care‐as‐usual or pill placebo) in the acute treatment of MDD, GAD, PAD or SAD, diagnosed on the basis of a structured interview. We found that the overall effects in the 144 included trials (184 comparisons) for all four disorders were large, ranging from g=0.75 for MDD to g=0.80 for GAD, g=0.81 for PAD, and g=0.88 for SAD. Publication bias mostly affected the outcomes of CBT in GAD (adjusted g=0.59) and MDD (adjusted g=0.65), but not those in PAD and SAD. Only 17.4% of the included trials were considered to be high‐quality, and this mostly affected the outcomes for PAD (g=0.61) and SAD (g=0.76). More than 80% of trials in anxiety disorders used waiting list control groups, and the few studies using other control groups pointed at much smaller effect sizes for CBT. We conclude that CBT is probably effective in the treatment of MDD, GAD, PAD and SAD; that the effects are large when the control condition is waiting list, but small to moderate when it is care‐as‐usual or pill placebo; and that, because of the small number of high‐quality trials, these effects are still uncertain and should be considered with caution. PMID:27717254

  18. Olfactory tubercle stimulation alters odor preference behavior and recruits forebrain reward and motivational centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brynn J FitzGerald

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rodents show robust behavioral responses to odors, including strong preferences or aversions for certain odors. The neural mechanisms underlying the effects of odors on these behaviors in animals are not well understood. Here, we provide an initial proof-of-concept study into the role of the olfactory tubercle (OT, a structure with known anatomical connectivity with both brain reward and olfactory structures, in regulating odor-motivated behaviors. We implanted c57bl/6 male mice with an ipsilateral bipolar electrode into the OT to administer electric current and thereby yield gross activation of the OT. We confirmed that electrical stimulation of the OT was rewarding, with mice frequently self-administering stimulation on a fixed ratio schedule. In a separate experiment, mice were presented with either fox urine or peanut odors in a three-chamber preference test. In absence of OT stimulation, significant preference for the peanut odor chamber was observed which was abolished in the presence of OT stimulation. Perhaps providing a foundation for this modulation in behavior, we found that OT stimulation significantly increased the number of c-Fos positive neurons in not only the OT, but also in forebrain structures essential to motivated behaviors, including the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum. The present results support the notion that the OT is integral to the display of motivated behavior and possesses the capacity to modulate odor hedonics either by directly altering odor processing or perhaps by indirect actions on brain reward and motivation structures.

  19. Rolipram improves cognition, reduces anxiety- and despair-like behaviors and impacts hippocampal neuroplasticity after transient global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Lígia Mendes; De Vry, Jochen; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Milani, Humberto; Prickaerts, Jos; Weffort de Oliveira, Rúbia M

    2016-06-21

    Cognitive impairment, anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms are well recognized outcome of cerebral ischemia in clinical and preclinical settings. Rolipram, a phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitor, improves cognition and produces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Rolipram also exerts anti-inflammatory effects and enhances survival of newborn hippocampal neurons in mice subjected to transient global cerebral ischemia. Here, we evaluated the effects of chronic rolipram treatment in mice subjected to transient global brain ischemia. C56B6/7 mice were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) and were then tested in a multi-tiered behavioral battery including the elevated zero maze (EZM), open field (OF), object location test (OLT), and forced swim test (FST). We also investigated the effects of rolipram on hippocampal neurodegeneration and the expression of the neuronal plasticity markers doublecortin (DCX) and microtubule-associated protein (MAP-2). Ischemic mice exhibited memory deficits OLT, higher levels of anxiety EZM and behavioral despair FST. BCCAO caused neuronal loss in the CA3 hippocampal subfield and basolateral amygdala (BLA). In the hippocampus of BCCAO mice, a disrupted neuronal plasticity was evidenced by decreased DCX expression. Chronic treatment with rolipram attenuated the behavioral effects of BCCAO. Rolipram also decreased neurodegeneration in the CA3 while it increased dendritic arborization of DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-IR) neurons and microtubule associate MAP-2 expression in the hippocampus of BCCAO mice. These data suggest that chronic inhibition of PDE-4 can be a useful therapeutic strategy to improve the emotional and cognitive outcomes of transient global cerebral ischemia.

  20. The utility of zebrafish to study the mechanisms by which ethanol affects social behavior and anxiety during early brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O.; Annan, Leonette V.; Kanellopoulos, Alexandros H.; Brock, Alistair J.; Combe, Fraser J.; Baiamonte, Matteo; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during brain development has a number of effects on social behavior but the molecular mechanisms that mediate this are not well understood. Gaining a better understanding of these factors may help to develop therapeutic interventions in the future. Zebrafish offer a potentially useful model in this regard. Here, we introduce a zebrafish model of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure. Embryos were exposed to 20 mM ethanol for seven days (48hpfs–9dpf) and tested as adults for individual social behavior and shoaling. We also tested their basal anxiety with the novel tank diving test. We found that the ethanol-exposed fish displayed reductions in social approach and shoaling, and an increase in anxiety in the novel tank test. These behavioral differences corresponded to differences in hrt1aa, slc6a4 and oxtr expression. Namely, acute ethanol caused a spike in oxtr and ht1aa mRNA expression, which was followed by down-regulation at 7dpf, and an up-regulation in slc6a4 at 72hpf. This study confirms the utility of zebrafish as a model system for studying the molecular basis of developmental ethanol exposure. Furthermore, it proposes a putative developmental mechanism characterized by ethanol-induced OT inhibition leading to suppression of 5-HT and up-regulation of 5-HT1A, which leads, in turn, to possible homeostatic up-regulation of 5-HTT at 72hpf and subsequent imbalance of the 5-HT system. PMID:24690524