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Sample records for alter three-dimensional collagen

  1. Nonlinear optical microscopy reveals invading endothelial cells anisotropically alter three-dimensional collagen matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.-F.; Yeh, Alvin T.; Bayless, Kayla J.

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are fundamental in mediating various steps of angiogenesis, including cell adhesion, migration and sprout formation. Here, we used a noninvasive and non-destructive nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) technique to optically image endothelial sprouting morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices. We simultaneously captured signals from collagen fibers and endothelial cells using second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), respectively. Dynamic 3D imaging revealed EC interactions with collagen fibers along with quantifiable alterations in collagen matrix density elicited by EC movement through and morphogenesis within the matrix. Specifically, we observed increased collagen density in the area between bifurcation points of sprouting structures and anisotropic increases in collagen density around the perimeter of lumenal structures, but not advancing sprout tips. Proteinase inhibition studies revealed membrane-associated matrix metalloproteinase were utilized for sprout advancement and lumen expansion. Rho-associated kinase (p160ROCK) inhibition demonstrated that the generation of cell tension increased collagen matrix alterations. This study followed sprouting ECs within a 3D matrix and revealed that the advancing structures recognize and significantly alter their extracellular environment at the periphery of lumens as they progress

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Sense Three Dimensional Type I Collagen through Discoidin Domain Receptor 1.

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    Lund, A W; Stegemann, J P; Plopper, G E

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular matrix provides structural and organizational cues for tissue development and defines and maintains cellular phenotype during cell fate determination. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells use this matrix to tightly regulate the balance between their differentiation potential and self-renewal in the native niche. When understood, the mechanisms that govern cell-matrix crosstalk during differentiation will allow for efficient engineering of natural and synthetic matrices to specifically direct and maintain stem cell phenotype. This work identifies the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen activated receptor tyrosine kinase, as a potential link through which stem cells sense and respond to the 3D organization of their extracellular matrix microenvironment. DDR1 is dependent upon both the structure and proteolytic state of its collagen ligand and is specifically expressed and localized in three dimensional type I collagen culture. Inhibition of DDR1 expression results in decreased osteogenic potential, increased cell spreading, stress fiber formation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Additionally, loss of DDR1 activity alters the cell-mediated organization of the naïve type I collagen matrix. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for DDR1 in the stem cell response to and interaction with three dimensional type I collagen. Dynamic changes in cell shape in 3D culture and the tuning of the local ECM microstructure, directs crosstalk between DDR1 and two dimensional mechanisms of osteogenesis that can alter their traditional roles.

  3. [Advances in the research of application of collagen in three-dimensional bioprinting].

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    Li, H H; Luo, P F; Sheng, J J; Liu, G C; Zhu, S H

    2016-10-20

    As a new industrial technology with characteristics of high precision and accuracy, the application of three-dimensional bioprinting technology is increasingly wide in the field of medical research. Collagen is one of the most common ingredients in tissue, and it has good biological material properties. There are many reports of using collagen as main composition of " ink" of three-dimensional bioprinting technology. However, the applied collagen is mainly from heterogeneous sources, which may cause some problems in application. Recombinant human source collagen can be obtained from microorganism fermentation by transgenic technology, but more research should be done to confirm its property. This article reviews the advances in the research of collagen and its biological application in three-dimensional bioprinting.

  4. Quantification of three-dimensional cell-mediated collagen remodeling using graph theory.

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    Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Lund, Amanda W; Can, Ali; Plopper, George E; Yener, Bülent

    2010-09-30

    Cell cooperation is a critical event during tissue development. We present the first precise metrics to quantify the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and extra cellular matrix (ECM). In particular, we describe cooperative collagen alignment process with respect to the spatio-temporal organization and function of mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions. We defined two precise metrics: Collagen Alignment Index and Cell Dissatisfaction Level, for quantitatively tracking type I collagen and fibrillogenesis remodeling by mesenchymal stem cells over time. Computation of these metrics was based on graph theory and vector calculus. The cells and their three dimensional type I collagen microenvironment were modeled by three dimensional cell-graphs and collagen fiber organization was calculated from gradient vectors. With the enhancement of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, acceleration through different phases was quantitatively demonstrated. The phases were clustered in a statistically significant manner based on collagen organization, with late phases of remodeling by untreated cells clustering strongly with early phases of remodeling by differentiating cells. The experiments were repeated three times to conclude that the metrics could successfully identify critical phases of collagen remodeling that were dependent upon cooperativity within the cell population. Definition of early metrics that are able to predict long-term functionality by linking engineered tissue structure to function is an important step toward optimizing biomaterials for the purposes of regenerative medicine.

  5. Quantification of three-dimensional cell-mediated collagen remodeling using graph theory.

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    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell cooperation is a critical event during tissue development. We present the first precise metrics to quantify the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and extra cellular matrix (ECM. In particular, we describe cooperative collagen alignment process with respect to the spatio-temporal organization and function of mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions.We defined two precise metrics: Collagen Alignment Index and Cell Dissatisfaction Level, for quantitatively tracking type I collagen and fibrillogenesis remodeling by mesenchymal stem cells over time. Computation of these metrics was based on graph theory and vector calculus. The cells and their three dimensional type I collagen microenvironment were modeled by three dimensional cell-graphs and collagen fiber organization was calculated from gradient vectors. With the enhancement of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, acceleration through different phases was quantitatively demonstrated. The phases were clustered in a statistically significant manner based on collagen organization, with late phases of remodeling by untreated cells clustering strongly with early phases of remodeling by differentiating cells. The experiments were repeated three times to conclude that the metrics could successfully identify critical phases of collagen remodeling that were dependent upon cooperativity within the cell population.Definition of early metrics that are able to predict long-term functionality by linking engineered tissue structure to function is an important step toward optimizing biomaterials for the purposes of regenerative medicine.

  6. Three-Dimensional Geometry of Collagenous Tissues by Second Harmonic Polarimetry.

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    Reiser, Karen; Stoller, Patrick; Knoesen, André

    2017-06-01

    Collagen is a biological macromolecule capable of second harmonic generation, allowing label-free detection in tissues; in addition, molecular orientation can be determined from the polarization dependence of the second harmonic signal. Previously we reported that in-plane orientation of collagen fibrils could be determined by modulating the polarization angle of the laser during scanning. We have now extended this method so that out-of-plane orientation angles can be determined at the same time, allowing visualization of the 3-dimensional structure of collagenous tissues. This approach offers advantages compared with other methods for determining out-of-plane orientation. First, the orientation angles are directly calculated from the polarimetry data obtained in a single scan, while other reported methods require data from multiple scans, use of iterative optimization methods, application of fitting algorithms, or extensive post-optical processing. Second, our method does not require highly specialized instrumentation, and thus can be adapted for use in almost any nonlinear optical microscopy setup. It is suitable for both basic and clinical applications. We present three-dimensional images of structurally complex collagenous tissues that illustrate the power of such 3-dimensional analyses to reveal the architecture of biological structures.

  7. [Three-dimensional parallel collagen scaffold promotes tendon extracellular matrix formation].

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    Zheng, Zefeng; Shen, Weiliang; Le, Huihui; Dai, Xuesong; Ouyang, Hongwei; Chen, Weishan

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of three-dimensional parallel collagen scaffold on the cell shape, arrangement and extracellular matrix formation of tendon stem cells. Parallel collagen scaffold was fabricated by unidirectional freezing technique, while random collagen scaffold was fabricated by freeze-drying technique. The effects of two scaffolds on cell shape and extracellular matrix formation were investigated in vitro by seeding tendon stem/progenitor cells and in vivo by ectopic implantation. Parallel and random collagen scaffolds were produced successfully. Parallel collagen scaffold was more akin to tendon than random collagen scaffold. Tendon stem/progenitor cells were spindle-shaped and unified orientated in parallel collagen scaffold, while cells on random collagen scaffold had disorder orientation. Two weeks after ectopic implantation, cells had nearly the same orientation with the collagen substance. In parallel collagen scaffold, cells had parallel arrangement, and more spindly cells were observed. By contrast, cells in random collagen scaffold were disorder. Parallel collagen scaffold can induce cells to be in spindly and parallel arrangement, and promote parallel extracellular matrix formation; while random collagen scaffold can induce cells in random arrangement. The results indicate that parallel collagen scaffold is an ideal structure to promote tendon repairing.

  8. Entrapment of cultured pancreas islets in three-dimensional collagen matrices.

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    Chao, S H; Peshwa, M V; Sutherland, D E; Hu, W S

    1992-01-01

    In vitro culture of islets of Langerhans decreases their immunogenicity, presumably by eliminating passenger leukocytes and other Ia+ presenting cells within the islets. Islets cultivated in petri dishes either at 37 degrees C or at 25 degrees C gradually disintegrate during culture in a time-dependent manner which is related to the free-floating condition of the islets. Also, a fraction of the islets disperse as single cells and beta-cell aggregates or adhere to the bottom of the culture dishes. Thus, the retrieval rate of transplantable islets is dampened due to their disintegration and spontaneous dispersion in conventional petri dish cultures. Entrapment of freshly harvested islets of Langerhans in a three-dimensional collagen matrix was studied as an alternative method for islet cultivation. The contraction of collagen fibrils during in vitro culture counteracts the dispersion of islets and helps in maintaining their integrity while in culture. It was observed that the entrapped islets maintain satisfactory morphology, viability, and capability of glucose-dependent insulin secretion for over 2 wk. The oxygen consumption rate and glucose metabolism of these islets was not deranged when entrapped in collagen. Also, the retrieval of islets is easier and more efficient than that observed in conventional culture systems. Our results indicate that culture of islets in three-dimensional collagen gels can potentially develop into an ideal system applicable to clinical transplantation of cultured islets or beta-cell aggregates.

  9. A three-dimensional computational model of collagen network mechanics.

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    Byoungkoo Lee

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM strongly influences cellular behaviors, including cell proliferation, adhesion, and particularly migration. In cancer, the rigidity of the stromal collagen environment is thought to control tumor aggressiveness, and collagen alignment has been linked to tumor cell invasion. While the mechanical properties of collagen at both the single fiber scale and the bulk gel scale are quite well studied, how the fiber network responds to local stress or deformation, both structurally and mechanically, is poorly understood. This intermediate scale knowledge is important to understanding cell-ECM interactions and is the focus of this study. We have developed a three-dimensional elastic collagen fiber network model (bead-and-spring model and studied fiber network behaviors for various biophysical conditions: collagen density, crosslinker strength, crosslinker density, and fiber orientation (random vs. prealigned. We found the best-fit crosslinker parameter values using shear simulation tests in a small strain region. Using this calibrated collagen model, we simulated both shear and tensile tests in a large linear strain region for different network geometry conditions. The results suggest that network geometry is a key determinant of the mechanical properties of the fiber network. We further demonstrated how the fiber network structure and mechanics evolves with a local formation, mimicking the effect of pulling by a pseudopod during cell migration. Our computational fiber network model is a step toward a full biomechanical model of cellular behaviors in various ECM conditions.

  10. Noninvasive Quantitative Imaging of Collagen Microstructure in Three-Dimensional Hydrogels Using High-Frequency Ultrasound.

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    Mercado, Karla P; Helguera, María; Hocking, Denise C; Dalecki, Diane

    2015-07-01

    Collagen I is widely used as a natural component of biomaterials for both tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The physical and biological properties of fibrillar collagens are strongly tied to variations in collagen fiber microstructure. The goal of this study was to develop the use of high-frequency quantitative ultrasound to assess collagen microstructure within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels noninvasively and nondestructively. The integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC) was employed as a quantitative ultrasound parameter to detect, image, and quantify spatial variations in collagen fiber density and diameter. Collagen fiber microstructure was varied by fabricating hydrogels with different collagen concentrations or polymerization temperatures. IBC values were computed from measurements of the backscattered radio-frequency ultrasound signals collected using a single-element transducer (38-MHz center frequency, 13-47 MHz bandwidth). The IBC increased linearly with increasing collagen concentration and decreasing polymerization temperature. Parametric 3D images of the IBC were generated to visualize and quantify regional variations in collagen microstructure throughout the volume of hydrogels fabricated in standard tissue culture plates. IBC parametric images of corresponding cell-embedded collagen gels showed cell accumulation within regions having elevated collagen IBC values. The capability of this ultrasound technique to noninvasively detect and quantify spatial differences in collagen microstructure offers a valuable tool to monitor the structural properties of collagen scaffolds during fabrication, to detect functional differences in collagen microstructure, and to guide fundamental research on the interactions of cells and collagen matrices.

  11. Three-dimensional collagen I promotes gemcitabine resistance in vitro in pancreatic cancer cells through HMGA2-dependent histone acetyltransferase expression.

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    Surabhi Dangi-Garimella

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is associated with a pronounced collagen-rich stromal reaction that has been shown to contribute to chemo-resistance. We have previously shown that PDAC cells are resistant to gemcitabine chemotherapy in the collagen microenvironment because of increased expression of the chromatin remodeling protein high mobility group A2 (HMGA2. We have now found that human PDAC tumors display higher levels of histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation in fibrotic regions. We show that relative to cells grown on tissue culture plastic, PDAC cells grown in three-dimensional collagen gels demonstrate increased histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation, along with increased expression of p300, PCAF and GCN5 histone acetyltransferases (HATs. Knocking down HMGA2 attenuates the effect of collagen on histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and on collagen-induced p300, PCAF and GCN5 expression. We also show that human PDAC tumors with HMGA2 demonstrate increased histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation. Additionally, we show that cells in three-dimensional collagen gels demonstrate increased protection against gemcitabine. Significantly, down-regulation of HMGA2 or p300, PCAF and GCN5 HATs sensitizes the cells to gemcitabine in three-dimensional collagen. Overall, our results increase our understanding of how the collagen microenvironment contributes to chemo-resistance in vitro and identify HATs as potential therapeutic targets against this deadly cancer.

  12. Towards Tuning the Mechanical Properties of Three-Dimensional Collagen Scaffolds Using a Coupled Fiber-Matrix Model

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    Shengmao Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scaffold mechanical properties are essential in regulating the microenvironment of three-dimensional cell culture. A coupled fiber-matrix numerical model was developed in this work for predicting the mechanical response of collagen scaffolds subjected to various levels of non-enzymatic glycation and collagen concentrations. The scaffold was simulated by a Voronoi network embedded in a matrix. The computational model was validated using published experimental data. Results indicate that both non-enzymatic glycation-induced matrix stiffening and fiber network density, as regulated by collagen concentration, influence scaffold behavior. The heterogeneous stress patterns of the scaffold were induced by the interfacial mechanics between the collagen fiber network and the matrix. The knowledge obtained in this work could help to fine-tune the mechanical properties of collagen scaffolds for improved tissue regeneration applications.

  13. Development of a three-dimensional unit cell to model the micromechanical response of a collagen-based extracellular matrix.

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    Susilo, Monica E; Roeder, Blayne A; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Kokini, Klod; Nauman, Eric A

    2010-04-01

    The three-dimensional microstructure and mechanical properties of the collagen fibrils within the extracellular matrix (ECM) is now being recognized as a primary factor in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, an appreciation of the mechanical aspects by which a cell interacts with its ECM is required for the development of engineered tissues. Ultimately, using these interactions to design tissue equivalents requires mathematical models with three-dimensional architecture. In this study, a three-dimensional model of a collagen fibril matrix undergoing uniaxial tensile stress was developed by making use of cellular solids. A structure consisting of thin struts was chosen to represent the arrangement of collagen fibrils within an engineered ECM. To account for the large deformation of tissues, the collagen fibrils were modeled as hyperelastic neo-Hookean or Mooney-Rivlin materials. The use of cellular solids allowed the fibril properties to be related to the ECM properties in closed form, which, in turn, allowed the estimation of fibril properties using ECM experimental data. A set of previously obtained experimental data consisting of simultaneous measures of the fibril microstructure and mechanical tests was used to evaluate the model's capability to estimate collagen fibril mechanical property when given tissue-scale data and to predict the tissue-scale mechanical properties when given estimated fibril stiffness. The fibril tangent modulus was found to be 1.26 + or - 0.70 and 1.62 + or - 0.88 MPa when the fibril was modeled as neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin material, respectively. There was no statistical significance of the estimated fibril tangent modulus among the different groups. Sensitivity analysis showed that the fibril mechanical properties and volume fraction were the two input parameters which required accurate values. While the volume fraction was easily obtained from the initial image of the gel, the fibril mechanical properties

  14. Three dimensional microstructural network of elastin, collagen, and cells in Achilles tendons.

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    Pang, Xin; Wu, Jian-Ping; Allison, Garry T; Xu, Jiake; Rubenson, Jonas; Zheng, Ming-Hao; Lloyd, David G; Gardiner, Bruce; Wang, Allan; Kirk, Thomas Brett

    2017-06-01

    Similar to most biological tissues, the biomechanical, and functional characteristics of the Achilles tendon are closely related to its composition and microstructure. It is commonly reported that type I collagen is the predominant component of tendons and is mainly responsible for the tissue's function. Although elastin has been found in varying proportions in other connective tissues, previous studies report that tendons contain very small quantities of elastin. However, the morphology and the microstructural relationship among the elastic fibres, collagen, and cells in tendon tissue have not been well examined. We hypothesize the elastic fibres, as another fibrillar component in the extracellular matrix, have a unique role in mechanical function and microstructural arrangement in Achilles tendons. It has been shown that elastic fibres present a close connection with the tenocytes. The close relationship of the three components has been revealed as a distinct, integrated and complex microstructural network. Notably, a "spiral" structure within fibril bundles in Achilles tendons was observed in some samples in specialized regions. This study substantiates the hierarchical system of the spatial microstructure of tendon, including the mapping of collagen, elastin and tenocytes, with 3-dimensional confocal images. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1203-1214, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Decorin-transforming growth factor- interaction regulates matrix organization and mechanical characteristics of three-dimensional collagen matrices.

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    Ferdous, Zannatul; Wei, Victoria Mariko; Iozzo, Renato; Höök, Magnus; Grande-Allen, Kathryn Jane

    2007-12-07

    The small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin has been demonstrated to be a key regulator of collagen fibrillogenesis; decorin deficiencies lead to irregularly shaped collagen fibrils and weakened material behavior in postnatal murine connective tissues. In an in vitro investigation of the contributions of decorin to tissue organization and material behavior, model tissues were engineered by seeding embryonic fibroblasts, harvested from 12.5-13.5 days gestational aged decorin null (Dcn(-/-)) or wild-type mice, within type I collagen gels. The resulting three-dimensional collagen matrices were cultured for 4 weeks under static tension. The collagen matrices seeded with Dcn(-/-) cells exhibited greater contraction, cell density, ultimate tensile strength, and elastic modulus than those seeded with wild-type cells. Ultrastructurally, the matrices seeded with Dcn(-/-) cells contained a greater density of collagen. The decorin-null tissues contained more biglycan than control tissues, suggesting that this related proteoglycan compensated for the absence of decorin. The effect of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), which is normally sequestered by decorin, was also investigated in this study. The addition of TGF-beta1 to the matrices seeded with wild-type cells improved their contraction and mechanical strength, whereas blocking TGF-beta1 in the Dcn(-/-) cell-seeded matrices significantly reduced the collagen gel contraction. These results indicate that the inhibitory interaction between decorin and TGF-beta1 significantly influenced the matrix organization and material behavior of these in vitro model tissues.

  16. Osteoinduction and proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells in three-dimensional poly (ε-caprolactone)/ hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffolds.

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    Wang, Ting; Yang, Xiaoyan; Qi, Xin; Jiang, Chaoyin

    2015-05-08

    Osteoinduction and proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds have not been studied throughly and are technically challenging. This study aimed to optimize nanocomposites of 3D PCL scaffolds to provide superior adhesion, proliferation and differentiation environment for BMSCs in this scenario. BMSCs were isolated and cultured in a novel 3D tissue culture poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold coated with poly-lysine, hydroxyapatite (HAp), collagen and HAp/collagen. Cell morphology was observed and BMSC biomarkers for osteogenesis, osteoblast differentiation and activation were analyzed. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that coating materials were uniformly deposited on the surface of PCL scaffolds and BMSCs grew and aggregated to form clusters during 3D culture. Both mRNA and protein levels of the key players of osteogenesis and osteoblast differentiation and activation, including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphates (ALP), osterix, osteocalcin, and RANKL, were significantly higher in BMSCs seeded in PCL scaffolds coated with HAp or HAp/collagen than those seeded in uncoated PCL scaffolds, whereas the expression levels were not significantly different in collagen or poly-lysine coated PCL scaffolds. In addition, poly-lysine, collagen, HAp/collagen, and HAp coated PCL scaffolds had significantly more viable cells than uncoated PCL scaffolds, especially scaffolds with HAp/collagen and collagen-alone coatings. That BMSCs in HAp or HAp/collagen PCL scaffolds had remarkably higher ALP activities than those in collagen-coated alone or uncoated PCL scaffolds indicating higher osteogenic differentiation levels of BMSCs in HAp or HAp/collagen PCL scaffolds. Moreover, morphological changes of BMSCs after four-week of 3D culture confirmed that BMSCs successfully differentiated into osteoblast with spread-out phenotype in HAp/collagen coated PCL scaffolds

  17. Remodeling by fibroblasts alters the rate-dependent mechanical properties of collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Behzad; Davarian, Ali; Lee, Sheng-Lin; Pryse, Kenneth M; McConnaughey, William B; Elson, Elliot L; Genin, Guy M

    2016-06-01

    fibroblasts within a three-dimensional culture environment. Results are of particular interest because of the ways that fibroblasts alter the mechanical response of collagen at loading frequencies associated with cardiac contraction in humans. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tumor cell culture on collagen-chitosan scaffolds as three-dimensional tumor model: A suitable model for tumor studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Aziz; Mohammadpour, Hemn

    2016-07-01

    Tumor cells naturally live in three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments, while common laboratory tests and evaluations are done in two-dimensional (2D) plates. This study examined the impact of cultured 4T1 cancer cells in a 3D collagen-chitosan scaffold compared with 2D plate cultures. Collagen-chitosan scaffolds were provided and passed confirmatory tests. 4T1 tumor cells were cultured on scaffolds and then tumor cells growth rate, resistance to X-ray radiation, and cyclophosphamide as a chemotherapy drug were analyzed. Furthermore, 4T1 cells were extracted from the scaffold model and were injected into the mice. Tumor growth rate, survival rate, and systemic immune responses were evaluated. Our results showed that 4T1 cells infiltrated the scaffolds pores and constructed a 3D microenvironment. Furthermore, 3D cultured tumor cells showed a slower proliferation rate, increased levels of survival to the X-ray irradiation, and enhanced resistance to chemotherapy drugs in comparison with 2D plate cultures. Transfer of extracted cells to the mice caused enhanced tumor volume and decreased life span. This study indicated that collagen-chitosan nanoscaffolds provide a suitable model of tumor that would be appropriate for tumor studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Prediction of equibiaxial loading stress in collagen-based extracellular matrix using a three-dimensional unit cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Monica E; Bell, Brett J; Roeder, Blayne A; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Kokini, Klod; Nauman, Eric A

    2013-03-01

    Mechanical signals are important factors in determining cell fate. Therefore, insights as to how mechanical signals are transferred between the cell and its surrounding three-dimensional collagen fibril network will provide a basis for designing the optimum extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment for tissue regeneration. Previously we described a cellular solid model to predict fibril microstructure-mechanical relationships of reconstituted collagen matrices due to unidirectional loads (Acta Biomater 2010;6:1471-86). The model consisted of representative volume elements made up of an interconnected network of flexible struts. The present study extends this work by adapting the model to account for microstructural anisotropy of the collagen fibrils and a biaxial loading environment. The model was calibrated based on uniaxial tensile data and used to predict the equibiaxial tensile stress-stretch relationship. Modifications to the model significantly improved its predictive capacity for equibiaxial loading data. With a comparable fibril length (model 5.9-8μm, measured 7.5μm) and appropriate fibril anisotropy the anisotropic model provides a better representation of the collagen fibril microstructure. Such models are important tools for tissue engineering because they facilitate prediction of microstructure-mechanical relationships for collagen matrices over a wide range of microstructures and provide a framework for predicting cell-ECM interactions. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design and characterization of microcapsules-integrated collagen matrixes as multifunctional three-dimensional scaffolds for soft tissue engineering.

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    Del Mercato, Loretta L; Passione, Laura Gioia; Izzo, Daniela; Rinaldi, Rosaria; Sannino, Alessandro; Gervaso, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds based on collagen are promising candidates for soft tissue engineering applications. The addition of stimuli-responsive carriers (nano- and microparticles) in the current approaches to tissue reconstruction and repair brings about novel challenges in the design and conception of carrier-integrated polymer scaffolds. In this study, a facile method was developed to functionalize 3D collagen porous scaffolds with biodegradable multilayer microcapsules. The effects of the capsule charge as well as the influence of the functionalization methods on the binding efficiency to the scaffolds were studied. It was found that the binding of cationic microcapsules was higher than that of anionic ones, and application of vacuum during scaffolds functionalization significantly hindered the attachment of the microcapsules to the collagen matrix. The physical properties of microcapsules-integrated scaffolds were compared to pristine scaffolds. The modified scaffolds showed swelling ratios, weight losses and mechanical properties similar to those of unmodified scaffolds. Finally, in vitro diffusional tests proved that the collagen scaffolds could stably retain the microcapsules over long incubation time in Tris-HCl buffer at 37°C without undergoing morphological changes, thus confirming their suitability for tissue engineering applications. The obtained results indicate that by tuning the charge of the microcapsules and by varying the fabrication conditions, collagen scaffolds patterned with high or low number of microcapsules can be obtained, and that the microcapsules-integrated scaffolds fully retain their original physical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heat Shock Protein 47: A Novel Biomarker of Phenotypically Altered Collagen-Producing Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Takashi; Nazneen, Arifa; Al-Shihri, Abdulmonem A.; Turkistani, Khadijah A.; Razzaque, Mohammed S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that helps the molecular maturation of various types of collagens. A close association between increased expression of HSP47 and the excessive accumulation of collagens is found in various human and experimental fibrotic diseases. Increased levels of HSP47 in fibrotic diseases are thought to assist in the increased assembly of procollagen, and thereby contribute to the excessive deposition of collagens in fibrotic areas. Currently, there is not a good universal histological marker to identify collagen-producing cells. Identifying phenotypically altered collagen-producing cells is essential for the development of cell-based therapies to reduce the progression of fibrotic diseases. Since HSP47 has a single substrate, which is collagen, the HSP47 cellular expression provides a novel universal biomarker to identify phenotypically altered collagen-producing cells during wound healing and fibrosis. In this brief article, we explained why HSP47 could be used as a universal marker for identifying phenotypically altered collagen-producing cells

  2. Observations on morphologic changes in the aging and degenerating human disc: Secondary collagen alterations

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    Hanley Edward N

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the annulus, collagen fibers that make up the lamellae have a wavy, planar crimped pattern. This crimping plays a role in disc biomechanical function by allowing collagen fibers to stretch during compression. The relationship between morphologic changes in the aging/degenerating disc and collagen crimping have not been explored. Methods Ultrastructural studies were performed on annulus tissue from 29 control (normal donors (aged newborn to 79 years and surgical specimens from 49 patients (aged 16 to 77 years. Light microscopy and specialized image analysis to visualize crimping was performed on additional control and surgical specimens. Human intervertebral disc tissue from the annulus was obtained in a prospective morphologic study of the annulus. Studies were approved by the authors' Human Subjects Institutional Review Board. Results Three types of morphologic changes were found to alter the crimping morphology of collagen: 1 encircling layers of unusual matrix disrupted the lamellar collagen architecture; 2 collagen fibers were reduced in amount, and 3 collagen was absent in regions with focal matrix loss. Conclusions Although proteoglycan loss is well recognized as playing a role in the decreased shock absorber function of the aging/degenerating disc, collagen changes have received little attention. This study suggests that important stretch responses of collagen made possible by collagen crimping may be markedly altered by morphologic changes during aging/degeneration and may contribute to the early tissue changes involved in annular tears.

  3. Fibronectin- and collagen-mimetic ligands regulate bone marrow stromal cell chondrogenesis in three-dimensional hydrogels

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    JT Connelly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Modification of tissue engineering scaffolds with bioactive molecules is a potential strategy for modulating cell behavior and guiding tissue regeneration. While adhesion to RGD peptides has been shown to inhibit in vitro chondrogenesis, the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM-mimetic ligands with complex secondary and tertiary structures are unknown. This study aimed to determine whether collagen- and fibronectin-mimetic ligands would retain biologic functionality in three-dimensional (3D hydrogels, whether different ECM-mimetic ligands differentially influence in vitro chondrogenesis, and if effects of ligands on differentiation depend on soluble biochemical stimuli. A linear RGD peptide, a recombinant fibronectin fragment containing the seven to ten Type III repeats (FnIII7-10 and a triple helical, collagen mimetic peptide with the GFOGER motif were covalently coupled to agarose gels using the sulfo-SANPAH crosslinker, and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs were cultured within the 3D hydrogels. The ligands retained biologic functionality within the agarose gels and promoted density-dependent BMSC spreading. Interactions with all adhesive ligands inhibited stimulation by chondrogenic factors of collagen Type II and aggrecan mRNA levels and deposition of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. In medium containing fetal bovine serum, interactions with the GFOGER peptide enhanced mRNA expression of the osteogenic gene osteocalcin whereas FnIII7-10 inhibited osteocalcin expression. In conclusion, modification of agarose hydrogels with ECM-mimetic ligands can influence the differentiation of BMSCs in a manner that depends strongly on the presence and nature of soluble biochemical stimuli.

  4. Thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction alters collagen metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Hansen, S S; Jensen, L T

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the study was to monitor collagen metabolism after thrombolytic therapy. Sequential measurements of serum aminoterminal type-III procollagen propeptide (S-PIIINP) and carboxyterminal type-I procollagen propeptide (S-PICP) were made in 62 patients suspected of acute myocardial.......05). A less pronounced S-PIIINP increase was noted with tissue-plasminogen activator than with streptokinase. Thrombolytic therapy induces collagen breakdown regardless of whether acute myocardial infarction is confirmed or not. With confirmed acute myocardial infarction collagen metabolism is altered...... for at least 6 months. Furthermore, fibrin-specific and nonspecific thrombolytic agents appear to affect collagen metabolism differently....

  5. Type V Collagen is Persistently Altered after Inguinal Hernia Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, L; Henriksen, N A; Juhl, P

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hernia formation is associated with alterations of collagen metabolism. Collagen synthesis and degradation cause a systemic release of products, which are measurable in serum. Recently, we reported changes in type V and IV collagen metabolisms in patients with inguinal...... elective cholecystectomy served as controls (n = 10). Whole venous blood was collected 35-55 months after operation. Biomarkers for type V collagen synthesis (Pro-C5) and degradation (C5M) and those for type IV collagen synthesis (P4NP) and degradation (C4M2) were measured by a solid-phase competitive...... assay. RESULTS: The turnover of type V collagen (Pro-C5/C5M) was slightly higher postoperatively when compared to preoperatively in the inguinal hernia group (P = 0.034). In addition, the results revealed a postoperatively lower type V collagen turnover level in the inguinal hernia group compared...

  6. Downregulation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor by Three-Dimensional Matrix Enhances Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Adley, Brian P.; Kelly, David L.; Shepard, Jaclyn; Fought, Angela J.; Scholtens, Denise; Penzes, Peter; Shea, Lonnie D.; Sharon Stack, M

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, due mainly to the prevalence of undetected metastatic disease. The process of cell invasion during intra-peritoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions requires concerted regulation of many processes, including modulation of adhesion to the extracellular matrix and localized invasion. Exploratory cDNA microarray analysis of early response genes (altered after 4 hours of 3-dimensional collagen culture) coupled with confirmatory real-time RT-PCR, multiple three-dimensional cell culture matrices, Western blot, immunostaining, adhesion, migration, and invasion assays were used to identify modulators of adhesion pertinent to EOC progression and metastasis. cDNA microarray analysis indicated a dramatic downregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in EOC cells placed in invasion-mimicking conditions (3-dimensional type I collagen). Examination of human EOC specimens revealed that CTGF expression was absent in 46% of the tested samples (n=41), but was present in 100% of normal ovarian epithelium samples (n=7). Reduced CTGF expression occurs in many types of cells and may be a general phenomenon displayed by cells encountering a 3D environment. CTGF levels were inversely correlated with invasion such that downregulation of CTGF increased, while its upregulation reduced, collagen invasion. Cells adhered preferentially to a surface comprised of both collagen I and CTGF relative to either component alone using α6β1 and α3β1 integrins. Together these data suggest that downregulation of CTGF in EOC cells may be important for cell invasion through modulation of cell-matrix adhesion. PMID:19382180

  7. New Altered Non-Fibrillar Collagens in Human Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Role in the Remodeling Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gil-Cayuela

    Full Text Available In dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, cardiac failure is accompanied by profound alterations of extracellular matrix associated with the progression of cardiac dilation and left ventricular (LV dysfunction. Recently, we reported alterations of non-fibrillar collagen expression in ischemic cardiomyopathy linked to fibrosis and cardiac remodeling. We suspect that expression changes in genes coding for non-fibrillar collagens may have a potential role in DCM development.This study sought to analyze changes in the expression profile of non-fibrillar collagen genes in patients with DCM and to examine relationships between cardiac remodeling parameters and the expression levels of these genes.Twenty-three human left ventricle tissue samples were obtained from DCM patients (n = 13 undergoing heart transplantation and control donors (n = 10 for RNA sequencing analysis. We found increased mRNA levels of six non-fibrillar collagen genes, such as COL4A5, COL9A1, COL21A1, and COL23A1 (P < 0.05 for all, not previously described in DCM. Protein levels of COL8A1 and COL16A1 (P < 0.05 for both, were correspondingly increased. We also identified TGF-β1 significantly upregulated and related to both COL8A1 and COL16A1. Interestingly, we found a significant relationship between LV mass index and the gene expression level of COL8A1 (r = 0.653, P < 0.05.In our research, we identified new non-fibrillar collagens with altered expression in DCM, being COL8A1 overexpression directly related to LV mass index, suggesting that they may be involved in the progression of cardiac dilation and remodeling.

  8. High resolution imaging of collagen organisation and synthesis using a versatile collagen specific probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerboom, R.A.; Krahn - Nash, K.; Megens, R.T.A.; Zandvoort, van M.; Merkx, M.; Bouten, C.V.C.

    2007-01-01

    Collagen is the protein primarily responsible for the load-bearing properties of tissues and collagen architecture is one of the main determinants of the mechanical properties of tissues. Visualisation of changes in collagen three-dimensional structure is essential in order to improve our

  9. Reconstitution of bone-like matrix in osteogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cell–collagen constructs: A three-dimensional in vitro model to study hematopoietic stem cell niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WY Lai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and osteoblasts are important niche cells for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in bone marrow osteoblastic niche. Here, we aim to partially reconstitute the bone marrow HSC niche in vitro using collagen microencapsulation for investigation of the interactions between HSCs and MSCs. Mouse MSCs (mMSCs microencapsulated in collagen were osteogenically differentiated to derive a bone-like matrix consisting of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and calcium deposits and secreted bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2. Decellularized bone-like matrix was seeded with fluorescence-labeled human MSCs and HSCs. Comparing with pure collagen scaffold, significantly more HSCs and HSC–MSC pairs per unit area were found in the decellularized bone-like matrix. Moreover, incubation with excess neutralizing antibody of BMP2 resulted in a significantly higher number of HSC per unit area than that without in the decellularized matrix. This work suggests that the osteogenic differentiated MSC–collagen microsphere is a valuable three-dimensional in vitro model to elucidate cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions in HSC niche.

  10. A three-dimensional collagen-fiber network model of the extracellular matrix for the simulation of the mechanical behaviors and micro structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shoubin; Huang, Zetao; Tang, Liqun; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Yongrou; Jiang, Yi

    2017-07-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural and biochemical support to cells and tissues, which is a critical factor for modulating cell dynamic behavior and intercellular communication. In order to further understand the mechanisms of the interactive relationship between cell and the ECM, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) collagen-fiber network model to simulate the micro structure and mechanical behaviors of the ECM and studied the stress-strain relationship as well as the deformation of the ECM under tension. In the model, the collagen-fiber network consists of abundant random distributed collagen fibers and some crosslinks, in which each fiber is modeled as an elastic beam and a crosslink is modeled as a linear spring with tensile limit, it means crosslinks will fail while the tensile forces exceed the limit of spring. With the given parameters of the beam and the spring, the simulated tensile stress-strain relation of the ECM highly matches the experimental results including damaged and failed behaviors. Moreover, by applying the maximal inscribed sphere method, we measured the size distribution of pores in the fiber network and learned the variation of the distribution with deformation. We also defined the alignment of the collagen-fibers to depict the orientation of fibers in the ECM quantitatively. By the study of changes of the alignment and the damaged crosslinks against the tensile strain, this paper reveals the comprehensive mechanisms of four stages of 'toe', 'linear', 'damage' and 'failure' in the tensile stress-strain relation of the ECM which can provide further insight in the study of cell-ECM interaction.

  11. Collagen reorganization at the tumor-stromal interface facilitates local invasion

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    Inman David R

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal-epithelial interactions are of particular significance in breast tissue as misregulation of these interactions can promote tumorigenesis and invasion. Moreover, collagen-dense breast tissue increases the risk of breast carcinoma, although the relationship between collagen density and tumorigenesis is not well understood. As little is known about epithelial-stromal interactions in vivo, it is necessary to visualize the stroma surrounding normal epithelium and mammary tumors in intact tissues to better understand how matrix organization, density, and composition affect tumor formation and progression. Methods Epithelial-stromal interactions in normal mammary glands, mammary tumors, and tumor explants in three-dimensional culture were studied with histology, electron microscopy, and nonlinear optical imaging methodologies. Imaging of the tumor-stromal interface in live tumor tissue ex vivo was performed with multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy (MPLSM to generate multiphoton excitation (MPE of endogenous fluorophores and second harmonic generation (SHG to image stromal collagen. Results We used both laser-scanning multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy to determine the organization of specific collagen structures around ducts and tumors in intact, unfixed and unsectioned mammary glands. Local alterations in collagen density were clearly seen, allowing us to obtain three-dimensional information regarding the organization of the mammary stroma, such as radiating collagen fibers that could not have been obtained using classical histological techniques. Moreover, we observed and defined three tumor-associated collagen signatures (TACS that provide novel markers to locate and characterize tumors. In particular, local cell invasion was found predominantly to be oriented along certain aligned collagen fibers, suggesting that radial alignment of collagen fibers relative to tumors facilitates invasion. Consistent

  12. A physiologic three-dimensional cell culture system to investigate the role of decorin in matrix organisation and cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidler, Daniela G.; Schaefer, Liliana; Robenek, Horst; Iozzo, Renato V.; Kresse, Hans; Schoenherr, Elke

    2005-01-01

    In vivo cells exist in a three-dimensional environment generated and maintained by multiple cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Proteoglycans, like decorin, affect these complex interactions. Thus, we sought to investigate the role of decorin in a three-dimensional environment where the matrix was generated over time by decorin-deficient fibroblasts in the presence of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. The cells were viable and proliferated in response to FGF2. Decorin was incorporated in the matrix and caused a ∼2 nm shift in the average diameter of the collagen fibrils, and the range and distribution of the fibrils became narrower and more uniform. Although there were no appreciable changes in collagen composition, we found that exogenous decorin induced the de novo synthesis of collagen I and V and cross-linked β (I). In the early phases of the three-dimensional culture, decorin reduced apoptosis. However, following the establishment of a three-dimensional matrix, the cells did not require decorin for their survival

  13. Association of altered collagen content and lysyl oxidase expression in degenerative mitral valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, K-Raman; Purushothaman, Meerarani; Turnbull, Irene C; Adams, David H; Anyanwu, Anelechi; Krishnan, Prakash; Kini, Annapoorna; Sharma, Samin K; O'Connor, William N; Moreno, Pedro R

    Collagen cross-linking is mediated by lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of mitral valve leaflets. Alterations in collagen content and LOX protein expression in the ECM of degenerative mitral valve may enhance leaflet expansion and disease severity. Twenty posterior degenerative mitral valve leaflets from patients with severe mitral regurgitation were obtained at surgery. Five normal posterior mitral valve leaflets procured during autopsy served as controls. Valvular interstitial cells (VICs) density was quantified by immunohistochemistry, collagen Types I and III by picro-sirius red staining and immunohistochemistry, and proteoglycans by alcian blue staining. Protein expression of LOX and its mediator TGFβ1 were quantified by immunofluorescence and gene expression by PCR. VIC density was increased, structural Type I collagen density was reduced, while reparative Type III collagen and proteoglycan densities were increased (PDegenerative Mitral Valve Disease may be secondary to alterations in LOX protein expression, contributing to disorganization of ECM and disease severity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differentiation of human endometrial stem cells into urothelial cells on a three-dimensional nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffold: an autologous cell resource for reconstruction of the urinary bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoae-Hassani, Alireza; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Sharif, Shiva; Seifalian, Alexander Marcus; Azimi, Alireza; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Verdi, Javad

    2015-11-01

    Reconstruction of the bladder wall via in vitro differentiated stem cells on an appropriate scaffold could be used in such conditions as cancer and neurogenic urinary bladder. This study aimed to examine the potential of human endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) to form urinary bladder epithelial cells (urothelium) on nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds, for construction of the urinary bladder wall. After passage 4, EnSCs were induced by keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and seeded on electrospun collagen-V, silk and silk-collagen nanofibres. Later we tested urothelium-specific genes and proteins (uroplakin-Ia, uroplakin-Ib, uroplakin-II, uroplakin-III and cytokeratin 20) by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histology were used to detect cell-matrix interactions. DMEM/F12 supplemented by KGF and EGF induced EnSCs to express urothelial cell-specific genes and proteins. Either collagen, silk or silk-collagen scaffolds promoted cell proliferation. The nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds provided a three-dimensional (3D) structure to maximize cell-matrix penetration and increase differentiation of the EnSCs. Human EnSCs seeded on 3D nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds and differentiated to urothelial cells provide a suitable source for potential use in bladder wall reconstruction in women. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Human platelet lysate improves human cord blood derived ECFC survival and vasculogenesis in three dimensional (3D) collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Prasain, Nutan; Vemula, Sasidhar; Ferkowicz, Michael J; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Yoder, Mervin C

    2015-09-01

    Human cord blood (CB) is enriched in circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) that display high proliferative potential and in vivo vessel forming ability. Since diminished ECFC survival is known to dampen the vasculogenic response in vivo, we tested how long implanted ECFC survive and generate vessels in three-dimensional (3D) type I collagen matrices in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that human platelet lysate (HPL) would promote cell survival and enhance vasculogenesis in the 3D collagen matrices. We report that the percentage of ECFC co-cultured with HPL that were alive was significantly enhanced on days 1 and 3 post-matrix formation, compared to ECFC alone containing matrices. Also, co-culture of ECFC with HPL displayed significantly more vasculogenic activity compared to ECFC alone and expressed significantly more pro-survival molecules (pAkt, p-Bad and Bcl-xL) in the 3D collagen matrices in vitro. Treatment with Akt1 inhibitor (A-674563), Akt2 inhibitor (CCT128930) and Bcl-xL inhibitor (ABT-263/Navitoclax) significantly decreased the cell survival and vasculogenesis of ECFC co-cultured with or without HPL and implicated activation of the Akt1 pathway as the critical mediator of the HPL effect on ECFC in vitro. A significantly greater average vessel number and total vascular area of human CD31(+) vessels were present in implants containing ECFC and HPL, compared to the ECFC alone implants in vivo. We conclude that implantation of ECFC with HPL in vivo promotes vasculogenesis and augments blood vessel formation via diminishing apoptosis of the implanted ECFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Small angle X-ray scattering experiments with three-dimensional imaging gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Monaca, A.; Iannuzzi, M.; Messi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of small angle X-ray scattering of lupolen - R, dry collagen and dry cornea are presented. The experiments have been performed with synchrotron radiation and a new three-dimensional imaging drif-chamber gas detector

  17. Three-dimensional poly (ε-caprolactone)/hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffolds incorporating bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Xin; Huang, Yinjun; Zhang, Jieyuan; Cao, Jiaqing; Jin, Xiangyun; Huang, Jinghuan; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Ting; Han, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that three-dimensional (3D) hydroxyapatite (HAP)-collagen (COL)-coated poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds (HAP-COL-PCL) possess appropriate nano-structures, surface roughness, and nutrients, providing a favorable environment for osteogenesis. However, the effect of using 3D HAP-COL-PCL scaffolds incorporating BMSCs for the repair of bone defects in rats has been not evaluated. 3D PCL scaffolds coated with HAP, collagen or HAP/COL and incorporating BMSCs were implanted into calvarial defects. At 12 weeks after surgery, the rats were sacrificed and crania were harvested to assess the bone defect repair using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), histology, immunohistochemistry and sequential fluorescent labeling analysis. 3D micro-CT reconstructed images and quantitative analysis showed that HAP-COL-PCL groups possessed better bone-forming capacity than HAP-PCL groups or COL-PCL groups. Fluorescent labeling analysis revealed the percentage of tetracycline labeling, alizarin red labeling, and calcein labeling in HAP-COL-PCL groups were all greater than in the other two groups (P  <  0.05), and the result was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining and histological analysis of bone regeneration. This study demonstrates that 3D HAP-COL-PCL scaffolds incorporating BMSCs markedly enhance bone regeneration of bone defects in rats. (paper)

  18. Coating of hydrophobins on three-dimensional electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds for cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Sen; Li Xinxin; Li Xiaoyu; Feng Xizeng, E-mail: xzfeng@nankai.edu.c [College of Life Science, Nankai University, Weijin Road 94, Tianjin, 300071 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Surface modification with hydrophobins is very important for cell adhesion in its applications in biosensor fabrication. In this study, we modified the surface of three-dimensional electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds with hydrophobin HFBI and collagen, and investigated its applications for cell adhesion. We found that HFBI could not only improve the hydrophilicity of the three-dimensional electrospun PLGA scaffolds but also endow the electrospun PLGA scaffolds with water permeability. This permeability should be attributed to both the hydrophilicity of the modified PLGA surface and the large positive capillary effect induced by the microstructures. Further experiment indicated that HFBI modification could improve collagen immobilization on the electrospun PLGA scaffolds and the HFBI/collagen modified electrospun PLGA scaffolds showed higher efficiency in promoting cell adhesion than the native PLGA scaffolds. This finding should be of potential application in biosensor device fabrication.

  19. The efficacy of cetuximab in a tissue-engineered three-dimensional in vitro model of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Magdeldin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The preclinical development process of chemotherapeutic drugs is often carried out in two-dimensional monolayer cultures. However, a considerable amount of evidence demonstrates that two-dimensional cell culture does not accurately reflect the three-dimensional in vivo tumour microenvironment, specifically with regard to gene expression profiles, oxygen and nutrient gradients and pharmacokinetics. With this objective in mind, we have developed and established a physiologically relevant three-dimensional in vitro model of colorectal cancer based on the removal of interstitial fluid from collagen type I hydrogels. We employed the RAFT™ (Real Architecture For 3D Tissue system for producing three-dimensional cultures to create a controlled reproducible, multiwell testing platform. Using the HT29 and HCT116 cell lines to model epidermal growth factor receptor expressing colorectal cancers, we characterized three-dimensional cell growth and morphology in addition to the anti-proliferative effects of the anti–epidermal growth factor receptor chemotherapeutic agent cetuximab in comparison to two-dimensional monolayer cultures. Cells proliferated well for 14 days in three-dimensional culture and formed well-defined cellular aggregates within the concentrated collagen matrix. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels revealed a twofold and threefold increase in three-dimensional cultures for both HT29 and HCT116 cells in comparison to two-dimensional monolayers, respectively (p < 0.05; p < 0.01. Cetuximab efficacy was significantly lower in HT29 three-dimensional cultures in comparison to two-dimensional monolayers, whereas HCT116 cells in both two-dimension and three-dimension were non-responsive to treatment in agreement with their KRAS mutant status. In summary, these results confirm the use of a three-dimensional in vitro cancer model as a suitable drug-screening platform for in vitro pharmacological testing.

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis of normal and collagen IX null mouse cartilage reveals altered extracellular matrix composition and novel components of the collagen IX interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachvogel, Bent; Zaucke, Frank; Dave, Keyur; Norris, Emma L; Stermann, Jacek; Dayakli, Münire; Koch, Manuel; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Bateman, John F; Wilson, Richard

    2013-05-10

    Collagen IX is an integral cartilage extracellular matrix component important in skeletal development and joint function. Proteomic analysis and validation studies revealed novel alterations in collagen IX null cartilage. Matrilin-4, collagen XII, thrombospondin-4, fibronectin, βig-h3, and epiphycan are components of the in vivo collagen IX interactome. We applied a proteomics approach to advance our understanding of collagen IX ablation in cartilage. The cartilage extracellular matrix is essential for endochondral bone development and joint function. In addition to the major aggrecan/collagen II framework, the interacting complex of collagen IX, matrilin-3, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is essential for cartilage matrix stability, as mutations in Col9a1, Col9a2, Col9a3, Comp, and Matn3 genes cause multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, in which patients develop early onset osteoarthritis. In mice, collagen IX ablation results in severely disturbed growth plate organization, hypocellular regions, and abnormal chondrocyte shape. This abnormal differentiation is likely to involve altered cell-matrix interactions but the mechanism is not known. To investigate the molecular basis of the collagen IX null phenotype we analyzed global differences in protein abundance between wild-type and knock-out femoral head cartilage by capillary HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 297 proteins in 3-day cartilage and 397 proteins in 21-day cartilage. Components that were differentially abundant between wild-type and collagen IX-deficient cartilage included 15 extracellular matrix proteins. Collagen IX ablation was associated with dramatically reduced COMP and matrilin-3, consistent with known interactions. Matrilin-1, matrilin-4, epiphycan, and thrombospondin-4 levels were reduced in collagen IX null cartilage, providing the first in vivo evidence for these proteins belonging to the collagen IX interactome. Thrombospondin-4 expression was reduced at the mRNA level

  1. Increased cartilage type II collagen degradation in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta used as a human model of bone type I collagen alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Jean-Charles; Chevrel, Guillaume; Schott, Anne-Marie; Garnero, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    We investigated whether cartilage degradation is altered in adult patients with mild osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) used as a human model of bone type I collagen-related osteoarthritis (OA). Sixty-four adult patients with OI (39% women, mean age+/-SD: 37+/-12 years) and 64 healthy age-matched controls (54% women, 39+/-7 years) were included. We also compared data in 87 patients with knee OA (73% women, 63+/-8 years, mean disease duration: 6 years) and 291 age-matched controls (80% women, 62+/-10 years). Urinary C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), a marker of cartilage degradation, urinary helical peptide of type I collagen (Helix-I), a marker of bone resorption, and the urinary ratio between non-isomerised/isomerised (alpha/beta CTX-I) type I collagen C-telopeptide, a marker of type I collagen maturation, were measured. Patients with OI had CTX-II levels similar to those of subjects with knee OA (p=0.89; mean+/-SEM; 460+/-57 ng/mmol Cr for OI group and 547+/-32 ng/mmol Cr for OA group) and significantly higher than both young (144+/-7.8 ng/mmol Cr, p<0.0001) and old controls (247+/-7 ng/mmol Cr, p<0.0001). In patients with OI, increased Helix-I (p<0.0001) and alpha/beta CTX-I (p=0.0067) were independently associated with increased CTX-II and together explained 26% of its variance (p< 0.0001). In patients with knee OA, increased levels of alpha/beta CTX-I ratio were also associated with higher CTX-II levels. Adult patients with OI or knee OA are characterized by increased cartilage type II collagen degradation, which is associated with increased type I collagen degradation for OI and lower type I collagen maturation for both OI and OA. These data suggest that both quantitative and qualitative alterations of bone type I collagen metabolism are involved in increased cartilage degradation in patients with OI or knee OA. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Keratocyte behavior in three-dimensional photopolymerizable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Richard; Ambrose, Winnette McIntosh; Schein, Oliver D.; Chakravarti, Shukti; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional (3-D) poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels as a culture system for studying corneal keratocytes. Bovine keratocytes were subcultured in DMEM/F-12 containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) through passage 5. Primary keratocytes (P0) and corneal fibroblasts from passages 1 (P1) and 3 (P3) were photoencapsulated at various cell concentrations in PEG hydrogels via brief exposure to light. Additional hydrogels contained adhesive YRGDS and nonadhesive YRDGS peptides. Hydrogel constructs were cultured in DMEM/F-12 with 10% FBS for 2 and 4 weeks. Cell viability was assessed by DNA quantification and vital staining. Biglycan, type I collagen, type III collagen, keratocan and lumican expression were determined by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Deposition of type I collagen, type III collagen and keratan sulfate (KS)-containing matrix components was visualized using confocal microscopy. Keratocytes in a monolayer lost their stellate morphology and keratocan expression, displayed elongated cell bodies, and up-regulated biglycan, type I collagen and type III collagen characteristic of corneal fibroblasts. Encapsulated keratocytes remained viable for 4 weeks with spherical morphologies. Hydrogels supported production of KS, type I collagen and type III collagen matrix components. PEG-based hydrogels can support keratocyte viability and matrix production. 3-D hydrogel culture can stabilize but not restore the keratocyte phenotype. This novel application of PEG hydrogels has potential use in the study of corneal keratocytes in a 3-D environment. PMID:18567550

  3. Effectiveness of hybridized nano- and microstructure biodegradable, biocompatible, collagen-based, three-dimensional bioimplants in repair of a large tendon-defect model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Ali; Oryan, Ahmad; Meimandi-Parizi, Abdulhamid; Silver, Ian A; Tanideh, Nader; Golestani, Navid

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of hybridized, three-dimensional (3D) collagen implants in repair of experimentally-induced tendon defects in rabbits. Seventy-five mature New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into treated (n = 50) and control (n = 20) groups. The left Achilles tendon was completely transected and 2 cm excised. In treated animals defects were filled with hybridized collagen implants and repaired with sutures. In control rabbits tendon defects were sutured similarly but the gap was left untreated. Changes in injured and normal contralateral tendons were assessed weekly by ultrasonography. Among the treated animals, small pilot groups were euthanized at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 (n = 5 at each time interval) and the remainder (n = 20) at 60 days post-injury. All control animals were euthanized at 60 days. Tendon lesions of all animals were examined morphologically and histologically immediately after death. Those of the experimental groups (n = 20 for each) were examined for gross pathological, histopathological and ultrastructural changes together with dry matter content at 60 days post-injury, as were the normal, contralateral tendons of both groups. In comparison with healing lesions of control animals, the treated tendons showed greater numbers of mature tenoblasts and tenocytes, minimal peritendinous adhesions and oedema, together with greater echogenicity, homogeneity and fibril alignment. Fewer chronic inflammatory cells were present in treated than control tendons. Hybridized collagen implants acted as scaffolds for tenoblasts and longitudinally-orientated newly-formed collagen fibrils, which encouraged tendon repair with homogeneous, well-organized highly aligned scar tissue that was histologically and ultrastructurally more mature than in untreated controls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Dielectric spectroscopy for non-invasive monitoring of epithelial cell differentiation within three-dimensional scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, Jamal; Tabrizian, Maryam; Asami, Koji; Rosenberg, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we introduce a cellular differentiation cellular model based on dielectric spectroscopy that characterizes epithelial differentiation processes. Non-invasive cellular monitoring was achieved within a three-dimensional microenvironment consisting of a cell-containing collagen I gel seeded onto microfabricated scaffolds. In this proof-of-concept investigation, Madin–Darby canine kidney cells were cultured within microfabricated, geometrically controlled scaffolds and allowed us to differentiate to hollow cyst-like structures. This transformation within the three-dimensional environment is monitored and characterized through dielectric spectroscopy while maintaining cell culture in vitro. (paper)

  5. Polarized Raman anisotropic response of collagen in tendon: towards 3D orientation mapping of collagen in tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Galvis

    Full Text Available In this study, polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS was used to characterize the anisotropic response of the amide I band of collagen as a basis for evaluating three-dimensional collagen fibril orientation in tissues. Firstly, the response was investigated theoretically by applying classical Raman theory to collagen-like peptide crystal structures. The theoretical methodology was then tested experimentally, by measuring amide I intensity anisotropy in rat tail as a function of the orientation of the incident laser polarization. For the theoretical study, several collagen-like triple-helical peptide crystal structures obtained from the Protein Data Bank were rotated "in plane" and "out of plane" to evaluate the role of molecular orientation on the intensity of the amide I band. Collagen-like peptides exhibit a sinusoidal anisotropic response when rotated "in plane" with respect to the polarized incident laser. Maximal intensity was obtained when the polarization of the incident light is perpendicular to the molecule and minimal when parallel. In the case of "out of plane" rotation of the molecular structure a decreased anisotropic response was observed, becoming completely isotropic when the structure was perpendicular to the plane of observation. The theoretical Raman response of collagen was compared to that of alpha helical protein fragments. In contrast to collagen, alpha helices have a maximal signal when incident light is parallel to the molecule and minimal when perpendicular. For out-of-plane molecular orientations alpha-helix structures display a decreased average intensity. Results obtained from experiments on rat tail tendon are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions, thus demonstrating the high potential of PRS for experimental evaluation of the three-dimensional orientation of collagen fibers in biological tissues.

  6. Collagen-based cell migration models in vitro and in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, K.A.; Alexander, S.; Schacht, V.; Coussens, L.M.; Andrian, U.H. von; Rheenen, J. van; Deryugina, E.; Friedl, P.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibrillar collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) constituent which maintains the structure of most interstitial tissues and organs, including skin, gut, and breast. Density and spatial alignments of the three-dimensional (3D) collagen architecture define mechanical tissue

  7. Enalapril alters the formation of the collagen matrix in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo de Souza Bomfim

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme on the collagen matrix (CM of the heart of newborn spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR during embryonic development. METHODS: The study comprised the 2 following groups of SHR (n=5 each: treated group - rats conceived from SHR females treated with enalapril maleate (15 mg. kg-1.day-1 during gestation; and nontreated group - offspring of nontreated females. The newborns were euthanized within the first 24 hours after birth and their hearts were removed and processed for histological study. Three fields per animal were considered for computer-assisted digital analysis and determination of the volume densities (Vv of the nuclei and CM. The images were segmented with the aid of Image Pro Plus® 4.5.029 software (Media Cybernetics. RESULTS: No difference was observed between the treated and nontreated groups in regard to body mass, cardiac mass, and the relation between cardiac and body mass. A significant reduction in the Vv[matrix] and a concomitant increase in the Vv[nuclei] were observed in the treated group as compared with those in the nontreated group. CONCLUSION: The treatment with enalapril of hypertensive rats during pregnancy alters the collagen content and structure of the myocardium of newborns.

  8. A 48 kDa collagen-binding phosphoprotein isolated from bovine aortic endothelial cells interacts with the collagenous domain, but not the globular domain, of collagen type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannariello-Brown, J; Madri, J A

    1990-01-15

    We have identified collagen-binding proteins in detergent extracts of metabolically labelled bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) by collagen type IV-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The major collagen type IV-binding protein identified by SDS/PAGE had a molecular mass of 48 kDa, which we term the 'collagen-binding 48 kDa protein' (CB48). The pI of CB48 was 8.0-8.3 in a two-dimensional gel system, running non-equilibrium pH gel electrophoresis in the first dimension and SDS/PAGE in the second dimension. Under these conditions CB48 separated into two major (a and b) and one minor isoform (c); a was the most basic of the three isoforms. Two-dimensional chymotryptic peptide maps derived from each individual isoform were virtually identical. The charge differences between the isoforms were due in part to differential H3(32)PO4 incorporation by the protein. CB48 bound to intact collagen type IV and the collagenous region of collagen type IV, but not to the globular NC1 domain. Cell-surface labelling and indirect immunofluorescence experiments localized the bulk of CB48 intracellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum Golgi region, with a minor population of molecules on the cell surface. A specific rabbit polyclonal anti-CB48 serum did not inhibit the attachment or spreading of BAEC to collagen type IV in an 'in vitro' adhesion assay, suggesting that the cell-surface population of CB48 is not involved in BAEC adhesion. We conclude that CB48 is a collagen-binding phosphoprotein that interacts with the collagenous domain of collagen type IV and may be involved in intracellular transport of collagen molecules.

  9. Three-dimensional matrix fiber alignment modulates cell migration and MT1-MMP utility by spatially and temporally directing protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Stephanie I.; Wu, Pei-Hsun; He, Lijuan; Feng, Yunfeng; Krisnamurthy, Ranjini; Longmore, Gregory D.; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-10-01

    Multiple attributes of the three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) have been independently implicated as regulators of cell motility, including pore size, crosslink density, structural organization, and stiffness. However, these parameters cannot be independently varied within a complex 3D ECM protein network. We present an integrated, quantitative study of these parameters across a broad range of complex matrix configurations using self-assembling 3D collagen and show how each parameter relates to the others and to cell motility. Increasing collagen density resulted in a decrease and then an increase in both pore size and fiber alignment, which both correlated significantly with cell motility but not bulk matrix stiffness within the range tested. However, using the crosslinking enzyme Transglutaminase II to alter microstructure independently of density revealed that motility is most significantly predicted by fiber alignment. Cellular protrusion rate, protrusion orientation, speed of migration, and invasion distance showed coupled biphasic responses to increasing collagen density not predicted by 2D models or by stiffness, but instead by fiber alignment. The requirement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was also observed to depend on microstructure, and a threshold of MMP utility was identified. Our results suggest that fiber topography guides protrusions and thereby MMP activity and motility.

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of bone remodeling following ridge augmentation of compromised extraction sockets in periodontitis patients: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimetti, Mario; Manavella, Valeria; Corano, Lisa; Ercoli, Elena; Bignardi, Cristina; Romano, Federica

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze linear and volumetric hard tissue changes in severely resorbed alveolar sockets after ridge augmentation procedure and to compare them with spontaneous healing using three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty patients (mean age 53.2 ± 6.3 years) requiring tooth extraction for advanced periodontitis were randomly allocated to test and control groups. The test sites were grafted using a collagenated bovine-derived bone (DBBM-C) covered with a collagen membrane, while control sites had spontaneous healing. Both groups healed by secondary intention. Linear and volumetric measurements were taken on superimposed CBCT images obtained after tooth extraction and 12 months later. Greater horizontal shrinkage, localized mainly in the crestal zone, was observed in the control group (4.92 ± 2.45 mm) compared to the test group (2.60 ± 1.24 mm). While both groups presented a rebuilding of the buccal wall, it was most pronounced in the grafted sockets (2.50 ± 2.12 mm vs. 0.51 ± 1.02 mm). A significant difference was also registered in the percentage of volume loss between grafted and non-grafted sites (9.14% vs. 35.16%, p-value sockets with extensive buccal bone deficiencies undergo significant three-dimensional volumetric alterations following natural healing. The immediate application of a slow-resorbing xenograft with a covering collagen membrane seems to be effective in improving alveolar ridge shape and dimensions, thus potentially reducing the need for adjunctive regenerative procedures at the time of implant placement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Three-dimensional multifunctional optical coherence tomography for skin imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En; Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Young-Joo; Kasaragod, Deepa; Sasaoka, Tomoko; Yamanari, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) visualizes cross-sectional microstructures of biological tissues. Recent developments of multifunctional OCT (MF-OCT) provides multiple optical contrasts which can reveal currently unknown tissue properties. In this contribution we demonstrate multifunctional OCT specially designed for dermatological investigation. And by utilizing it to measure four different body parts of in vivo human skin, three-dimensional scattering OCT, OCT angiography, polarization uniformity tomography, and local birefringence tomography images were obtained by a single scan. They respectively contrast the structure and morphology, vasculature, melanin content and collagen traits of the tissue.

  12. Three-dimensional lithographically-defined organotypic tissue arrays for quantitative analysis of morphogenesis and neoplastic progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Inman, Jamie L.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-02-13

    Here we describe a simple micromolding method to construct three-dimensional arrays of organotypic epithelial tissue structures that approximate in vivo histology. An elastomeric stamp containing an array of posts of defined geometry and spacing is used to mold microscale cavities into the surface of type I collagen gels. Epithelial cells are seeded into the cavities and covered with a second layer of collagen. The cells reorganize into hollow tissues corresponding to the geometry of the cavities. Patterned tissue arrays can be produced in 3-4 h and will undergo morphogenesis over the following one to three days. The protocol can easily be adapted to study a variety of tissues and aspects of normal and neoplastic development.

  13. Attempt to develop taste bud models in three-dimensional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Miyako; Yuki, Saori; Fukano, Chiharu; Sako, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Takenori; Tomooka, Yasuhiro

    2011-09-01

    Taste buds are the end organs of taste located in the gustatory papillae, which occur on the surface of the oral cavity. The goal of the present study was to establish a culture model mimicking the lingual taste bud of the mouse. To this end, three cell lines were employed: taste bud-derived cell lines (TBD cell lines), a lingual epithelial cell-derived cell line (20A cell line), and a mesenchymal cell-derived cell line (TMD cell line). TBD cells embedded in collagen gel formed three-dimensional clusters, which had an internal cavity equipped with a tight junction-like structure, a microvilluslike structure, and a laminin-positive layer surrounding the cluster. The cells with this epitheliumlike morphology expressed marker proteins of taste cells: gustducin and NCAM. TBD cells formed a monolayer on collagen gel when they were co-cultured with TMD cells. TBD, 20A, and TMD cell lines were maintained in a triple cell co-culture, in which TBD cells were pre-seeded as aggregates or in suspension on the collagen gel containing TMD cells, and 20A cells were laid over the TBD cells. TBD cells in the triple cell co-culture expressed NCAM. This result suggests that co-cultured TBD cells exhibited a characteristic of Type III taste cells. The culture model would be useful to study morphogenesis and functions of the gustatory organ.

  14. Three dimensional illustrating - three-dimensional vision and deception of sensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gánóczy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena of movement parallax, which can be used efficiently in making three-dimensional graphics, the Zöllner- and Corridor-illusion. There are present in this paper the visual elements, which contribute to define a plane two-dimensional image in three-dimension: coherent lines, the covering, the measurement changes, the relative altitude state, the abatement of detail profusion, the shadings and the perspective effects of colors.

  15. Cytokeratin expression of engrafted three-dimensional culture tissues using epithelial cells derived from porcine periodontal ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Rie; Kitajima, Kayoko; Arai, Kyoko; Igarashi, Masaru

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the differentiation and proliferation of epithelial cells derived from periodontal ligaments after three-dimensional culture using collagen gel with fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts were derived from porcine periodontal ligaments. Epithelial cells were labeled using a fluorescent red membrane marker (PKH-26GL) and were seeded onto collagen gel with fibroblasts, followed by incubation in an air-liquid interface for 7 days. Three-dimensional cultures were grafted onto the backs of nude mice and removed at 1, 7, and 14 days after surgery (in vivo model). Unfixed sections (5 μm) were used to detect the presence of red fluorescent cells. Paraffin sections were analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically. Specimens were compared with three-dimensional culture tissues at 8, 14 and 21 days (in vitro model). Grafted three-dimensional cultures formed a stratified epithelial structure similar to skin in vivo. Epithelial cells were sequenced in basal-layer-like structures at 14 days in vivo. Immunohistochemical findings showed that the expression of cytokeratin was detected in the epithelial layer in in vitro and in vivo models. Ck8 + 18 + 19 was expressed in the upper epithelial layer in the in vitro model at 14 and 21 days, but not in vivo. Involucrin was expressed in the certified layers in vitro at 14 days, but not in vivo. Laminin was detected at the dermo-epidermal junction in vivo at 7 and 14 days, but not in vitro. These results suggest that differentiation of three-dimensional culture tissues differs in vivo and in vitro. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Hormonal regulation of epithelial organization in a three-dimensional breast tissue culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroni, Lucia; Whitt, Gregory S; Xylas, Joanna; Quinn, Kyle P; Jondeau-Cabaton, Adeline; Barnes, Clifford; Georgakoudi, Irene; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of hormone target breast cells in the 1970's resulted in suitable models for the study of hormone control of cell proliferation and gene expression using two-dimensional (2D) cultures. However, to study mammogenesis and breast tumor development in vitro, cells must be able to organize in three-dimensional (3D) structures like in the tissue. We now report the development of a hormone-sensitive 3D culture model for the study of mammogenesis and neoplastic development. Hormone-sensitive T47D breast cancer cells respond to estradiol in a dose-dependent manner by forming complex epithelial structures. Treatment with the synthetic progestagen promegestone, in the presence of estradiol, results in flat epithelial structures that display cytoplasmic projections, a phenomenon reported to precede side-branching. Additionally, as in the mammary gland, treatment with prolactin in the presence of estradiol induces budding structures. These changes in epithelial organization are accompanied by collagen remodeling. Collagen is the major acellular component of the breast stroma and an important player in tumor development and progression. Quantitative analysis of second harmonic generation of collagen fibers revealed that collagen density was more variable surrounding budding and irregularly shaped structures when compared to more regular structures; suggesting that fiber organization in the former is more anisotropic than in the latter. In sum, this new 3D model recapitulates morphogenetic events modulated by mammogenic hormones in the breast, and is suitable for the evaluation of therapeutic agents.

  17. Three dimensional model evaluation of physical alterations of the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary: Impact on salt transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Detong; Wan, Yongshan; Qiu, Chelsea

    2016-05-01

    Numerical hydrodynamic modeling provides quantitative understanding of how physical alterations of an estuary may alter the waterbody hydrodynamics and the rate of mixing with the ocean. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model (CH3D) was used to compare simulated salinities between the existing condition and five historical cases representing varying physical alterations of the Caloosahatchee Estuary involving (1) removal of the headwater structure (S-79); (2) removal of the downstream causeway to Sanibel Island; (3) backfilling an oyster bar near the estuary month; (4) refilling the navigation channel; and (5) the pre-development bathymetric condition. The results suggested that some alterations including the Sanibel Causeway, backfilling the oyster bar and the S-79 structure may have some local effects but did not change estuarine salinity structure significantly. Refilling the navigation channel had a more profound effect, resulting in a dry season salinity reduction of about 5 when compared with the existing condition. The reduced salt transport was more pronounced with the pre-development bathymetry because the estuary as a whole was much shallower than today. The significant system-wide increase in salt transport caused by the historic dredging of the navigation channel in the Caloosahatchee Estuary has significant implications in the development of attainable environmental flow targets for protecting the estuarine ecosystem.

  18. Using Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy to Study the Three-Dimensional Structure of Collagen and its Degradation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Yair

    Collagen is one of the most abundant proteins found in the human body. Its crystalline structure possesses no centrosymmetry, allowing it to emit second-harmonic waves. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy utilizes the latter quality to produce high-resolution images of collagen rich tissues and therefore become a key research tool in the biomedical field. We developed a new model, intended to be used together with second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, to thoroughly investigate collagen-based tissues. We use our SHG model to reveal information in real time from enzymatic biochemical processes. We also present a novel method used to measure quantitatively the direction of the fibers within the tissue, from SHG images. Using this method, we were able to reconstruct an angular map of the orientation of collagen fibers from multiple sections across the entire area of a human cornea. The structure we obtained demonstrates the criss-crossing structure of the human cornea, previously suggested in the literature. In addition, we also report work on a unique step-wise three-photon fluorescence excitation discovered in melanin. This unique fluorescence mechanism was exploited to discriminate melanin on a small-size, low-cost and low laser power setup which was used as a prototype for a handheld device. The latter study is a part of a larger on-going effort in our group to explore new diagnosis methods to be used for early skin cancer screening. Finally, this work demonstrates a spectroscopy-based method to correct for blood vessel thickness effect. The method analyzes spectral shift from a molecular imaging agent and correlate the shifts to the length of the optical path in blood. The correction method described in this work is intended to be implemented on a guided catheter near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) intra-vascular imaging system. In this imaging system, this study's results will used to correct for the radial distance between the imaging tip of the

  19. Impermeability effects in three-dimensional vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscari, P; Canevese, S M; Napoli, G

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the effects of the impermeability constraint on the equilibrium shapes of a three-dimensional vesicle hosting a rigid inclusion. A given alteration of the inclusion and/or vesicle parameters leads to shape modifications of different orders of magnitude, when applied to permeable or impermeable vesicles. Moreover, the enclosed-volume constraint wrecks the uniqueness of stationary equilibrium shapes, and gives rise to pear-shaped or stomatocyte-like vesicles

  20. Influence of flow conditions and matrix coatings on growth and differentiation of three-dimensionally cultured rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, Henning C; Havers, Joerg; Kneser, Ulrich; Smith, Molly K; Moeller, Tim; Kluth, Dietrich; Mooney, David J; Rogiers, Xavier; Kaufmann, Peter M

    2004-01-01

    Maintenance of liver-specific function of hepatocytes in culture is still difficult. Improved culture conditions may enhance the cell growth and function of cultured cells. We investigated the effect of three-dimensional culture under flow conditions, and the influence of surface modifications in hepatocyte cultures. Hepatocytes were harvested from Lewis rats. Cells were cultured on three-dimensional polymeric poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) matrices in static culture, or in a pulsatile flow-bioreactor system. Different surface modifications of matrices were investigated: coating with collagen I, collagen IV, laminin, or fibronectin; or uncoated matrix. Hepatocyte numbers, DNA content, and albumin secretion rate were assessed over the observation period. Culture under flow condition significantly enhanced cell numbers. An additional improvement of this effect was observed, when matrix coating was used. Cellular function also showed a significant increase (4- to 5-fold) under flow conditions when compared with static culture. Our data showed that culture under flow conditions improves cell number, and strongly enhances cellular function. Matrix modification by coating with extracellular matrix showed overall an additive stimulatory effect. Our conclusion is that combining three-dimensional culture under flow conditions and using matrix modification significantly improves culture conditions and is therefore attractive for the development of successful culture systems for hepatocytes.

  1. Cultivation of Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts in a Three-Dimensional Bovine Collagen-Elastin Matrix (Matriderm® and Application for Full Thickness Wound Coverage in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Killat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New skin substitutes for burn medicine or reconstructive surgery pose an important issue in plastic surgery. Matriderm® is a clinically approved three-dimensional bovine collagen-elastin matrix which is already used as a dermal substitute of full thickness burn wounds. The drawback of an avital matrix is the limited integration in full thickness skin defects, depending on the defect size. To further optimize this process, Matriderm® has also been studied as a matrix for tissue engineering of skin albeit long-term cultivation of the matrix with cells has been difficult. Cells have generally been seeded onto the matrix with high cell loss and minimal time-consuming migration. Here we developed a cell seeded skin equivalent after microtransfer of cells directly into the matrix. First, cells were cultured, and microinjected into Matriderm®. Then, cell viability in the matrix was determined by histology in vitro. As a next step, the skin substitute was applied in vivo into a full thickness rodent wound model. The wound coverage and healing was observed over a period of two weeks followed by histological examination assessing cell viability, proliferation and integration into the host. Viable and proliferating cells could be found throughout the entire matrix. The presented skin substitute resembles healthy skin in morphology and integrity. Based on this study, future investigations are planned to examine behaviour of epidermal stem cells injected into a collagen-elastin matrix under the aspects of establishment of stem cell niches and differentiation.

  2. Binding of von Willebrand factor to collagen type III: role of specific amino acids in the collagen binding domain of vWF and effects of neighboring domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, R. M.; Gomes, L.; Marquart, J. A.; Vink, T.; Meijers, J. C.; de Groot, P. G.; Sixma, J. J.; Huizinga, E. G.

    2000-01-01

    Binding of von Willebrand Factor (vWF) to sites of vascular injury is the first step of hemostasis. Collagen types I and III are important binding sites for vWF. We have previously determined the three-dimensional structure of the collagen binding A3 domain of vWF (Huizinga et al., Structure 1997;

  3. An evaluation of meniscal collagenous structure using optical projection tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Stephen HJ; Ronsky, Janet L; Rattner, Jerome B; Shrive, Nigel G; Jamniczky, Heather A

    2013-01-01

    The collagenous structure of menisci is a complex network of circumferentially oriented fascicles and interwoven radially oriented tie-fibres. To date, examination of this micro- architecture has been limited to two-dimensional imaging techniques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the three-dimensional imaging technique; optical projection tomography (OPT), to visualize the collagenous structure of the meniscus. If successful, this technique would be the first to visualize the macroscopic orientation of collagen fascicles in 3-D in the meniscus and could further refine load bearing mechanisms in the tissue. OPT is an imaging technique capable of imaging samples on the meso-scale (1-10 mm) at a micro-scale resolution. The technique, similar to computed tomography, takes two-dimensional images of objects from incremental angles around the object and reconstructs them using a back projection algorithm to determine three-dimensional structure. Bovine meniscal samples were imaged from four locations (outer main body, femoral surface, tibial surface and inner main body) to determine the variation in collagen orientation throughout the tissue. Bovine stifles (n = 2) were obtained from a local abattoir and the menisci carefully dissected. Menisci were fixed in methanol and subsequently cut using a custom cutting jig (n = 4 samples per meniscus). Samples were then mounted in agarose, dehydrated in methanol and subsequently cleared using benzyl alcohol benzyl benzoate (BABB) and imaged using OPT. Results indicate circumferential, radial and oblique collagenous orientations at the contact surfaces and in the inner third of the main body of the meniscus. Imaging identified fascicles ranging from 80-420 μm in diameter. Transition zones where fascicles were found to have a woven or braided appearance were also identified. The outer-third of the main body was composed of fascicles oriented predominantly in the circumferential direction. Blood vessels were

  4. In vivo, label-free, three-dimensional quantitative imaging of liver surface using multi-photon microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu, E-mail: shuangmuzhuo@gmail.com, E-mail: hanry-yu@nuhs.edu.sg [Biosystems and Micromechanics IRG, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, #04-13/14 Enterprise Wing, 138602 Singapore (Singapore); Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Yan, Jie [Biosystems and Micromechanics IRG, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, #04-13/14 Enterprise Wing, 138602 Singapore (Singapore); Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, #04-01, 138669 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 14 Medical Drive, MD 11 #04-01A, 117599 Singapore (Singapore); Kang, Yuzhan [Biosystems and Micromechanics IRG, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, #04-13/14 Enterprise Wing, 138602 Singapore (Singapore); Xu, Shuoyu [Biosystems and Micromechanics IRG, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, #04-13/14 Enterprise Wing, 138602 Singapore (Singapore); Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, #04-01, 138669 Singapore (Singapore); Computation and System Biology Program, Singapore-MIT Alliance, 4 Engineering Drive 3, E4-04-10, 117576 Singapore (Singapore); Peng, Qiwen [Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, #04-01, 138669 Singapore (Singapore); Computation and System Biology Program, Singapore-MIT Alliance, 4 Engineering Drive 3, E4-04-10, 117576 Singapore (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, T-Lab #05-01, 117411 Singapore (Singapore); and others

    2014-07-14

    Various structural features on the liver surface reflect functional changes in the liver. The visualization of these surface features with molecular specificity is of particular relevance to understanding the physiology and diseases of the liver. Using multi-photon microscopy (MPM), we have developed a label-free, three-dimensional quantitative and sensitive method to visualize various structural features of liver surface in living rat. MPM could quantitatively image the microstructural features of liver surface with respect to the sinuosity of collagen fiber, the elastic fiber structure, the ratio between elastin and collagen, collagen content, and the metabolic state of the hepatocytes that are correlative with the pathophysiologically induced changes in the regions of interest. This study highlights the potential of this technique as a useful tool for pathophysiological studies and possible diagnosis of the liver diseases with further development.

  5. Collagen organization in the chicken cornea and structural alterations in the retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge) phenotype--an X-ray diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Craig; Hayes, Sally; Jones, Simon; Quantock, Andrew J; Hocking, Paul M; Inglehearn, Chris F; Ali, Manir; Meek, Keith M

    2008-01-01

    An investigation into the collagenous structure of the mature avian cornea is presented. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction is employed to assess collagen organization in 9-month-old chicken corneas. The central 2-4mm corneal region features a preponderance of fibrils directed along the superior-inferior and nasal-temporal orthogonal meridians. More peripherally the orientation of fibrils alters in favor of a predominantly tangential arrangement. The chicken cornea appears to be circumscribed by an annulus of fibrils that extends into the limbus. The natural arrangement of collagen in the chicken cornea is discussed in relation to corneal shape and the mechanical requirements of avian corneal accommodation. Equivalent data are also presented from age-matched blind chickens affected with the retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge) mutation, characterized by an abnormally thick and flat cornea. The data indicate considerable realignment and redistribution of collagen lamellae in the peripheral rge cornea. In contrast to normal chickens, no obvious tangential collagen alignment was evident in the periphery of rge corneas. In mammals, the presence of a limbal fibril annulus is believed to be important in corneal shape preservation. We postulate that corneal flattening in rge chickens may be related to biomechanical changes brought about by an alteration in collagen arrangement at the corneal periphery.

  6. Highly concentrated collagen solutions leading to transparent scaffolds of controlled three-dimensional organizations for corneal epithelial cell colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidu, Aurélien; Ghoubay-Benallaoua, Djida; Teulon, Claire; Asnacios, Sophie; Grieve, Kate; Portier, François; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Borderie, Vincent; Mosser, Gervaise

    2018-05-29

    This study aimed at controlling both the organization and the transparency of dense collagen scaffolds making use of the lyotropic mesogen properties of collagen. Cholesteric or plywood-like liquid crystal phases were achieved using mixtures of acetic and hydrochloric acids as solvents. The critical pH at which the switch between the two phases occurred was around pH = 3. The use of the two acids led to fibrillated collagen I scaffolds, whose visual aspect ranged from opaque to transparent. Rheological investigations showed that viscoelastic properties of the plywood-like solutions were optimized for molding due to faster recovery. They also confirmed the correlation between the elastic modulus and the diameter of collagen fibrils obtained after fibrillogenesis under ammonia vapor. Human corneal epithelial cells, grown from donor limbal explants, were cultured both on transparent plywood-like matrices and on human amniotic membranes for 14 days. The development of corneal epithelium and the preservation of epithelial stem cells were checked by optical microscopy, colony formation assay, immuno-fluorescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A higher level of amplification of limbal stem cells was obtained with collagen matrices compared with amniotic membranes, showing the high biocompatibility of our scaffolds. We therefore suggest that collagen solutions presenting both plywood-like organization and transparency might be of interest for biomedical applications in ophthalmology.

  7. Human elastin polypeptides improve the biomechanical properties of three-dimensional matrices through the regulation of elastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccafoschi, Francesca; Ramella, Martina; Sibillano, Teresa; De Caro, Liberato; Giannini, Cinzia; Comparelli, Roberto; Bandiera, Antonella; Cannas, Mario

    2015-03-01

    The replacement of diseased tissues with biological substitutes with suitable biomechanical properties is one of the most important goal in tissue engineering. Collagen represents a satisfactory choice for scaffolds. Unfortunately, the lack of elasticity represents a restriction to a wide use of collagen for several applications. In this work, we studied the effect of human elastin-like polypeptide (HELP) as hybrid collagen-elastin matrices. In particular, we studied the biomechanical properties of collagen/HELP scaffolds considering several components involved in ECM remodeling (elastin, collagen, fibrillin, lectin-like receptor, metalloproteinases) and cell phenotype (myogenin, myosin heavy chain) with particular awareness for vascular tissue engineering applications. Elastin and collagen content resulted upregulated in collagen-HELP matrices, even showing an improved structural remodeling through the involvement of proteins to a ECM remodeling activity. Moreover, the hybrid matrices enhanced the contractile activity of C2C12 cells concurring to improve the mechanical properties of the scaffold. Finally, small-angle X-ray scattering analyses were performed to enable a very detailed analysis of the matrices at the nanoscale, comparing the scaffolds with native blood vessels. In conclusion, our work shows the use of recombinant HELP, as a very promising complement able to significantly improve the biomechanical properties of three-dimensional collagen matrices in terms of tensile stress and elastic modulus. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Three-dimensional epithelial tissues generated from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kyle J; Shamis, Yulia; Carlson, Mark W; Aberdam, Edith; Aberdam, Daniel; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2009-11-01

    The use of pluripotent human embryonic stem (hES) cells for tissue engineering may provide advantages over traditional sources of progenitor cells because of their ability to give rise to multiple cell types and their unlimited expansion potential. We derived cell populations with properties of ectodermal and mesenchymal cells in two-dimensional culture and incorporated these divergent cell populations into three-dimensional (3D) epithelial tissues. When grown in specific media and substrate conditions, two-dimensional cultures were enriched in cells (EDK1) with mesenchymal morphology and surface markers. Cells with a distinct epithelial morphology (HDE1) that expressed cytokeratin 12 and beta-catenin at cell junctions became the predominant cell type when EDK1 were grown on surfaces enriched in keratinocyte-derived extracellular matrix proteins. When these cells were incorporated into the stromal and epithelial tissue compartments of 3D tissues, they generated multilayer epithelia similar to those generated with foreskin-derived epithelium and fibroblasts. Three-dimensional tissues demonstrated stromal cells with morphologic features of mature fibroblasts, type IV collagen deposition in the basement membrane, and a stratified epithelium that expressed cytokeratin 12. By deriving two distinct cell lineages from a common hES cell source to fabricate complex tissues, it is possible to explore environmental cues that will direct hES-derived cells toward optimal tissue form and function.

  9. Parameters in three-dimensional osteospheroids of telomerized human mesenchymal (stromal) stem cells grown on osteoconductive scaffolds that predict in vivo bone-forming potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, Jorge S; Hansen, Pernille Lund; Larsen, Kenneth H

    2010-01-01

    Osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in monolayer culture is artefactual, lacking an organized bone-like matrix. We present a highly reproducible microwell protocol generating three-dimensional ex vivo multicellular aggregates of telomerized hMSC (hMSC-telomerase re......Osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in monolayer culture is artefactual, lacking an organized bone-like matrix. We present a highly reproducible microwell protocol generating three-dimensional ex vivo multicellular aggregates of telomerized hMSC (h......, was deposited in the scaffold concavities. Here, mature osteoblasts stained positively for differentiated osteoblast markers TAZ, biglycan, osteocalcin, and phospho-AKT. Quantification of collagen birefringence and relatively high expression of genes for matrix proteins, including type I collagen, biglycan...

  10. Collagen and elastin cross-linking is altered during aberrant late lung development associated with hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mižíková, Ivana; Ruiz-Camp, Jordi; Steenbock, Heiko; Madurga, Alicia; Vadász, István; Herold, Susanne; Mayer, Konstantin; Seeger, Werner; Brinckmann, Jürgen; Morty, Rory E

    2015-06-01

    Maturation of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the formation of alveolar gas exchange units. A key step in ECM maturation is cross-linking of collagen and elastin, which imparts stability and functionality to the ECM. During aberrant late lung development in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patients and animal models of BPD, alveolarization is blocked, and the function of ECM cross-linking enzymes is deregulated, suggesting that perturbed ECM cross-linking may impact alveolarization. In a hyperoxia (85% O2)-based mouse model of BPD, blunted alveolarization was accompanied by alterations to lung collagen and elastin levels and cross-linking. Total collagen levels were increased (by 63%). The abundance of dihydroxylysinonorleucine collagen cross-links and the dihydroxylysinonorleucine-to-hydroxylysinonorleucine ratio were increased by 11 and 18%, respectively, suggestive of a profibrotic state. In contrast, insoluble elastin levels and the abundance of the elastin cross-links desmosine and isodesmosine in insoluble elastin were decreased by 35, 30, and 21%, respectively. The lung collagen-to-elastin ratio was threefold increased. Treatment of hyperoxia-exposed newborn mice with the lysyl oxidase inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile partially restored normal collagen levels, normalized the dihydroxylysinonorleucine-to-hydroxylysinonorleucine ratio, partially normalized desmosine and isodesmosine cross-links in insoluble elastin, and partially restored elastin foci structure in the developing septa. However, β-aminopropionitrile administration concomitant with hyperoxia exposure did not improve alveolarization, evident from unchanged alveolar surface area and alveoli number, and worsened septal thickening (increased by 12%). These data demonstrate that collagen and elastin cross-linking are perturbed during the arrested alveolarization of developing mouse lungs exposed to hyperoxia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Extracellular Protease Inhibition Alters the Phenotype of Chondrogenically Differentiating Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) in 3D Collagen Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sejin; Li, Yuk Yin; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2016-01-01

    Matrix remodeling of cells is highly regulated by proteases and their inhibitors. Nevertheless, how would the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) be affected, when the balance of the matrix remodeling is disturbed by inhibiting matrix proteases, is incompletely known. Using a previously developed collagen microencapsulation platform, we investigated whether exposing chondrogenically differentiating MSCs to intracellular and extracellular protease inhibitors will affect the extracellular matrix remodeling and hence the outcomes of chondrogenesis. Results showed that inhibition of matrix proteases particularly the extracellular ones favors the phenotype of fibrocartilage rather than hyaline cartilage in chondrogenically differentiating hMSCs by upregulating type I collagen protein deposition and type II collagen gene expression without significantly altering the hypertrophic markers at gene level. This study suggests the potential of manipulating extracellular proteases to alter the outcomes of hMSC chondrogenesis, contributing to future development of differentiation protocols for fibrocartilage tissues for intervertebral disc and meniscus tissue engineering.

  12. Extracellular Protease Inhibition Alters the Phenotype of Chondrogenically Differentiating Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs in 3D Collagen Microspheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejin Han

    Full Text Available Matrix remodeling of cells is highly regulated by proteases and their inhibitors. Nevertheless, how would the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs be affected, when the balance of the matrix remodeling is disturbed by inhibiting matrix proteases, is incompletely known. Using a previously developed collagen microencapsulation platform, we investigated whether exposing chondrogenically differentiating MSCs to intracellular and extracellular protease inhibitors will affect the extracellular matrix remodeling and hence the outcomes of chondrogenesis. Results showed that inhibition of matrix proteases particularly the extracellular ones favors the phenotype of fibrocartilage rather than hyaline cartilage in chondrogenically differentiating hMSCs by upregulating type I collagen protein deposition and type II collagen gene expression without significantly altering the hypertrophic markers at gene level. This study suggests the potential of manipulating extracellular proteases to alter the outcomes of hMSC chondrogenesis, contributing to future development of differentiation protocols for fibrocartilage tissues for intervertebral disc and meniscus tissue engineering.

  13. Three-dimensional structure of laser-modified Ti6Al4V and bone interface revealed with STEM tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Palmquist, Anders; Engqvist, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    The early interaction between an implant's surface and bone is a leading factor for implant success, where multiple surface properties contribute to improved bone anchorage. An important parameter is surface topography, both on the micron and nanoscale. Laser-modification has been performed in the thread valleys of Ti6Al4V screws to alter their surface chemistry and topography to form a nanostructured surface titanium-dioxide. Implants were placed in the rabbit tibia, removed with surrounding bone after 8 weeks, fixated, dried and resin embedded. Focused ion beam milling (FIB) was used to prepare specimens from the resin blocks for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Z-contrast electron tomography offered the possibility to explore the interfacial structure with high-resolution in three-dimensions. With this technique, collagen fibers of the surrounding bone appear to have been laid down parallel to the implant surface. Accordingly, visualization of the laser-modified interface with nanoscale three-dimensional resolution, as offered by Z-contrast electron tomography, gives new insights into bone bonding mechanisms between roughened titanium-dioxide surfaces and bone

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging-three-dimensional printing technology fabricates customized scaffolds for brain tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Fu; Chong Chen; Sai Zhang; Ming-liang Zhao; Xiao-hong Li; Zhe Qin; Chao Xu; Xu-yi Chen; Rui-xin Li; Li-na Wang; Ding-wei Peng; Hong-tao Sun; Yue Tu

    2017-01-01

    Conventional fabrication methods lack the ability to control both macro- and micro-structures of generated scaffolds. Three-dimensional printing is a solid free-form fabrication method that provides novel ways to create customized scaffolds with high precision and accuracy. In this study, an electrically controlled cortical impactor was used to induce randomized brain tissue defects. The overall shape of scaffolds was designed using rat-specific anatomical data obtained from magnetic resonance imaging, and the internal structure was created by computer- aided design. As the result of limitations arising from insufficient resolution of the manufacturing process, we magnified the size of the cavity model prototype five-fold to successfully fabricate customized collagen-chitosan scaffolds using three-dimensional printing. Results demonstrated that scaffolds have three-dimensional porous structures, high porosity, highly specific surface areas, pore connectivity and good internal characteristics. Neural stem cells co-cultured with scaffolds showed good viability, indicating good biocompatibility and biodegradability. This technique may be a promising new strategy for regenerating complex damaged brain tissues, and helps pave the way toward personalized medicine.

  15. Mechanical enhancement and in vitro biocompatibility of nanofibrous collagen-chitosan scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Fengjuan; Li, Runrun; Jiang, Jianjun; Mo, Xiumei; Gu, Guofeng; Guo, Zhongwu; Chen, Zonggang

    2017-12-01

    The collagen-chitosan complex with a three-dimensional nanofiber structure was fabricated to mimic native ECM for tissue repair and biomedical applications. Though the three-dimensional hierarchical fibrous structures of collagen-chitosan composites could provide more adequate stimulus to facilitate cell adhesion, migrate and proliferation, and thus have the potential as tissue engineering scaffolding, there are still limitations in their applications due to the insufficient mechanical properties of natural materials. Because poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) as biocompatible synthetic polymers can offer excellent mechanical properties, they were introduced into the collagen-chitosan composites to fabricate the mixed collagen/chitosan/PVA fibers and a sandwich structure (collagen/chitosan-TPU-collagen/chitosan) of nanofiber in order to enhance the mechanical properties of the nanofibrous collagen-chitosan scaffold. The results showed that the tensile behavior of materials was enhanced to different degrees with the difference of collagen content in the fibers. Besides the Young's modulus had no obvious changes, both the break strength and the break elongation of materials were heightened after reinforced by PVA. For the collagen-chitosan nanofiber reinforced by TPU, both the break strength and the Young's modulus of materials were heightened in different degrees with the variety of collagen content in the fibers despite the decrease of the break elongation of materials to some extent. In vitro cell test demonstrated that the materials could provide adequate environment for cell adhesion and proliferation. All these indicated that the reinforced collagen-chitosan nanofiber could be as potential scaffold for tissue engineering according to the different mechanical requirements in clinic.

  16. Extracellular matrix collagen alters cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of human uterine leiomyoma smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohestani, Faezeh; Braundmeier, Andrea G; Mahdian, Arash; Seo, Jane; Bi, JiaJia; Nowak, Romana A

    2013-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (ULs) are benign tumors occurring in the majority of reproductive aged women. Despite the high prevalence of these tumors, little is known about their etiology. A hallmark of ULs is the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), primarily collagens. Collagens are known to modulate cell behavior and function singularly or through interactions with integrins and growth factor-mediated mitogenic pathways. To better understand the pathogenesis of ULs and the role of ECM collagens in their growth, we investigated the interaction of leiomyoma smooth muscle cells (LSMCs) with two different forms of collagen, non-polymerized collagen (monomeric) and polymerized collagen (fibrillar), in the absence or presence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), an abundant growth factor in ULs. Primary cultures of human LSMCS from symptomatic patients were grown on these two different collagen matrices and their morphology, cytoskeletal organization, cellular proliferation, and signaling pathways were evaluated. Our results showed that LSMCs had distinct morphologies on the different collagen matrices and their basal as well as PDGF-stimulated proliferation varied on these matrices. These differences in proliferation were accompanied by changes in cell cycle progression and p21, an inhibitory cell cycle protein. In addition we found alterations in the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, cytoskeletal reorganization, and activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a direct effect of ECM on the proliferation of LSMCs through interplay between the collagen matrix and the PDGF-stimulated MAPK pathway. In addition, these findings will pave the way for identifying novel therapeutic approaches for ULs that target ECM proteins and their signaling pathways in ULs.

  17. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks......-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We found...... that the skin collagen architecture was altered, and electron microscopy showed that the DS-epi1-null fibrils have a larger diameter than the wild-type fibrils. The altered chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains carried by decorin in skin are likely to affect collagen fibril formation and reduce the tensile...

  18. Alteration of cartilage surface collagen fibers differs locally after immobilization of knee joints in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Momoko; Aoyama, Tomoki; Ito, Akira; Tajino, Junichi; Iijima, Hirotaka; Yamaguchi, Shoki; Zhang, Xiangkai; Kuroki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ultrastructural changes of surface cartilage collagen fibers, which differ by region and the length of the experimental period in an immobilization model of rat. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into histological or macroscopic and ultrastructural assessment groups. The left knees of all the animals were surgically immobilized by external fixation for 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks (n = 5/time point). Sagittal histological sections of the medial mid-condylar region of the knee were obtained and assessed in four specific regions (contact and peripheral regions of the femur and tibia) and two zones (superficial and deep). To semi-quantify the staining intensity of the collagen fibers in the cartilage, picrosirius red staining was used. The cartilage surface changes of all the assessed regions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From histological and SEM observations, the fibrillation and irregular changes of the cartilage surface were more severe in the peripheral region than in the contact region. Interestingly, at 16 weeks post-immobilization, we observed non-fibrous structures at both the contact and peripheral regions. The collagen fiber staining intensity decreased in the contact region compared with the peripheral region. In conclusion, the alteration of surface collagen fiber ultrastructure and collagen staining intensity differed by the specific cartilage regions after immobilization. These results demonstrate that the progressive degeneration of cartilage is region specific, and depends on the length of the immobilization period. PMID:25939458

  19. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context, qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  20. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by order, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  1. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-08-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.).

  2. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.)

  3. Co-ordinate induction of collagen type I and biglycan expression in keloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunzelmann, N; Anders, S; Sollberg, S; Schönherr, E; Krieg, T

    1996-09-01

    Proteoglycans are macromolecules displaying structural roles as well as regulatory functions in the maintenance of the extracellular matrix. Biglycan/PG-I and decorin/PG-II are two small proteoglycans that are structurally related but differ considerably in their localization in vivo and behaviour in vitro. Decorin and, to a minor extent, biglycan, can be located at the surface of type I collagen fibrils and have been shown to influence collagen fibrillogenesis. However, the physiological role of biglycan in the dermis is not known. Biopsies obtained from keloids were bisected and processed for total RNA extraction and immunohistochemistry. Northern blot analysis of total RNA obtained from keloids with high growth tendency in vivo showed a marked induction of biglycan and collagen alpha 1(I)mRNA expression in comparison with total RNA obtained from normal skin or keloids with little growth tendency. In contrast, decorin mRNA expression remained largely unaltered. Studying these biopsies by immunohistochemistry, decorin expression in the dermis was unaltered comparing normal and keloid tissue, whereas a markedly increased staining for biglycan was observed in the keloid tissue, which was most pronounced in the nodular formations, and was a characteristic feature of keloids. The altered expression of biglycan in keloid tissue might be involved in the abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix deposition either through the binding of growth factors or by influencing the three-dimensional organization of collagen fibres or associated molecules.

  4. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  5. Comparison of three types of chondrocytes in collagen scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lu; Spector, Myron

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the chondrogenesis in type I and II collagen scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes from three types of cartilage, after four weeks of culture: auricular (AU), articular (AR) and meniscal (ME). Related aims were to investigate the expression of a contractile muscle actin isoform, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), in the cells in the scaffold and to determine the presence of a lubricating glycoprotein, lubricin, in the constructs. Adult goat AU, AR and ME chondrocytes were seeded into two types of collagen scaffolds: type II collagen and type I/III collagen. After four weeks of culture, the constructs were prepared for histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), types I and II collagen, elastin, SM and lubricin. AU constructs contained substantially more tissue than the AR and ME samples. The AU constructs exhibited neocartilage, but no elastin. There were no notable differences between the type I and II collagen scaffolds. Novel findings were the expression of SMA by the AU cells in the scaffolds and the presence of lubricin in the AR and AU constructs. AU cells have the capability to produce cartilage in collagen scaffolds under conditions in which there is little histogenesis by AR and ME cells.

  6. Comparison of three types of chondrocytes in collagen scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lu [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Tissue Engineering Center, Shanghai 9th People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Spector, Myron, E-mail: luzhangmd@gmail.co [Tissue Engineering, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the chondrogenesis in type I and II collagen scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes from three types of cartilage, after four weeks of culture: auricular (AU), articular (AR) and meniscal (ME). Related aims were to investigate the expression of a contractile muscle actin isoform, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA), in the cells in the scaffold and to determine the presence of a lubricating glycoprotein, lubricin, in the constructs. Adult goat AU, AR and ME chondrocytes were seeded into two types of collagen scaffolds: type II collagen and type I/III collagen. After four weeks of culture, the constructs were prepared for histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), types I and II collagen, elastin, SM and lubricin. AU constructs contained substantially more tissue than the AR and ME samples. The AU constructs exhibited neocartilage, but no elastin. There were no notable differences between the type I and II collagen scaffolds. Novel findings were the expression of SMA by the AU cells in the scaffolds and the presence of lubricin in the AR and AU constructs. AU cells have the capability to produce cartilage in collagen scaffolds under conditions in which there is little histogenesis by AR and ME cells.

  7. Preparation and characterization of collagen/PLA, chitosan/PLA, and collagen/chitosan/PLA hybrid scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Järvinen, Elina; Cengiz, Ibrahim Fatih; Ellä, Ville; Kokkonen, Harri T; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Kellomäki, Minna

    2014-04-01

    In this study, three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds were developed for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Novel collagen/polylactide (PLA), chitosan/PLA, and collagen/chitosan/PLA hybrid scaffolds were fabricated by combining freeze-dried natural components and synthetic PLA mesh, where the 3D PLA mesh gives mechanical strength, and the natural polymers, collagen and/or chitosan, mimic the natural cartilage tissue environment of chondrocytes. In total, eight scaffold types were studied: four hybrid structures containing collagen and/or chitosan with PLA, and four parallel plain scaffolds with only collagen and/or chitosan. The potential of these types of scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications were determined by the analysis of the microstructure, water uptake, mechanical strength, and the viability and attachment of adult bovine chondrocytes to the scaffolds. The manufacturing method used was found to be applicable for the manufacturing of hybrid scaffolds with highly porous 3D structures. All the hybrid scaffolds showed a highly porous structure with open pores throughout the scaffold. Collagen was found to bind water inside the structure in all collagen-containing scaffolds better than the chitosan-containing scaffolds, and the plain collagen scaffolds had the highest water absorption. The stiffness of the scaffold was improved by the hybrid structure compared to plain scaffolds. The cell viability and attachment was good in all scaffolds, however, the collagen hybrid scaffolds showed the best penetration of cells into the scaffold. Our results show that from the studied scaffolds the collagen/PLA hybrids are the most promising scaffolds from this group for cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Polarized light microscopy for 3-dimensional mapping of collagen fiber architecture in ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Brazile, Bryn; Voorhees, Andrew; Lathrop, Kira L; Sigal, Ian A

    2018-04-06

    Collagen fibers play a central role in normal eye mechanics and pathology. In ocular tissues, collagen fibers exhibit a complex 3-dimensional (3D) fiber orientation, with both in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OP) orientations. Imaging techniques traditionally applied to the study of ocular tissues only quantify IP fiber orientation, providing little information on OP fiber orientation. Accurate description of the complex 3D fiber microstructures of the eye requires quantifying full 3D fiber orientation. Herein, we present 3dPLM, a technique based on polarized light microscopy developed to quantify both IP and OP collagen fiber orientations of ocular tissues. The performance of 3dPLM was examined by simulation and experimental verification and validation. The experiments demonstrated an excellent agreement between extracted and true 3D fiber orientation. Both IP and OP fiber orientations can be extracted from the sclera and the cornea, providing previously unavailable quantitative 3D measures and insight into the tissue microarchitecture. Together, the results demonstrate that 3dPLM is a powerful imaging technique for the analysis of ocular tissues. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Distal radius fractures result in alterations in scapular kinematics: a three-dimensional motion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Cigdem; Turgut, Elif; Baltaci, Gul

    2015-03-01

    Scapular motion is closely integrated with arm motion. Injury to a distal segment requires compensatory changes in the proximal segments leading to alterations in scapular motion. Since the effects of distal injuries on scapular kinematics remain unknown, in the present study we investigated the influences on scapular motion in patients with distal injuries. Sixteen subjects with a history of distal radius fracture and 20 asymptomatic healthy subjects (controls) participated in the study. Three-dimensional scapular and humeral kinematic data were collected on all 3 planes of shoulder elevation: frontal, sagittal, and scapular. All testing was performed in a single session; therefore, the sensors remained attached to the participants for all testing. The position and orientation data of the scapula at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° humerothoracic elevation and 120°, 90°, 60°, and 30° lowering were used for statistical comparisons. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the scapular internal/external rotation, upward/downward rotation, and anterior/posterior tilt between the affected side of subjects with a distal radius fracture and the dominant side of asymptomatic subjects at the same stage of humerothoracic elevation. Scapular internal rotation was significantly increased at 30° elevation (P=0.01), 90° elevation (P=0.03), and 30° lowering (P=0.03), and upward rotation was increased at 30° and 60° elevation (Pplane elevation. Scapular upward rotation and anterior tilt were significantly increased during 30° lowering on both the scapular (P=0.002 and 0.02, respectively) and sagittal planes (P=0.01 and 0.02. respectively). Patients with distal radius fractures exhibit altered scapular kinematics, which may further contribute to the development of secondary musculoskeletal pathologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of lens extirpation with anterior vitrectomy on vitreous three-dimensional mesh structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the changes in vitreous gel structure after lens extirpation combined with anterior vitrectomy in rabbit eyes. METHODS: Twenty-eight chinchilla rabbits were divided into three groups. The control group (Group I included 16 eyes from eight rabbits who did not receive any treatment. Group II included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration only. Group III included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration combined with posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy. Eyes were harvested on the 30th and 60th day postoperatively, respectively. Changes in vitreous gel stretch length due to gravity and the rate of vitreous liquefaction were observed. The collagen content in the vitreous body was examined using the L-hydroxyproline test. Electronic microscopic images were obtained from each eyeball. RESULTS: On both the 30th and 60th day postoperatively, the vitreous gel length of group III was significantly shorter than group I and group II (P<0.05, while the rate of liquefaction of the vitreous body in group III was significantly higher than group I and group II (P<0.05. The collagen content in group III was also higher than that in group I and group II (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Loss of vitreous gel mass is more likely to occur in the eyes of rabbits receiving anterior vitrectomy. Lensectomy combined with anterior vitrectomy may damage the stable three-dimensional mesh structure of collagen, which could aggravate vitreous gel liquefaction.

  11. Quantifying the correlation between spatially defined oxygen gradients and cell fate in an engineered three-dimensional culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardakani, Amir G; Cheema, Umber; Brown, Robert A; Shipley, Rebecca J

    2014-09-06

    A challenge in three-dimensional tissue culture remains the lack of quantitative information linking nutrient delivery and cellular distribution. Both in vivo and in vitro, oxygen is delivered by diffusion from its source (blood vessel or the construct margins). The oxygen level at a defined distance from its source depends critically on the balance of diffusion and cellular metabolism. Cells may respond to this oxygen environment through proliferation, death and chemotaxis, resulting in spatially resolved gradients in cellular density. This study extracts novel spatially resolved and simultaneous data on tissue oxygenation, cellular proliferation, viability and chemotaxis in three-dimensional spiralled, cellular collagen constructs. Oxygen concentration gradients drove preferential cellular proliferation rates and viability in the higher oxygen zones and induced chemotaxis along the spiral of the collagen construct; an oxygen gradient of 1.03 mmHg mm(-1) in the spiral direction induced a mean migratory speed of 1015 μm day(-1). Although this movement was modest, it was effective in balancing the system to a stable cell density distribution, and provided insights into the natural cell mechanism for adapting cell number and activity to a prevailing oxygen regime.

  12. Three-dimensional co-culture facilitates the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into mature cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Dong-Bo; He, Yong; Chen, Rui; Teng, Ji-Wei; Wang, Hong-Tao; Zeng, Di; Liu, Xiong-Tao; Ding, Lu; Huang, Jin-Yan; Zheng, Qiang-Sun

    2011-12-01

    The cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is routinely cultured as two-dimensional (2D) monolayer, which doesn't mimic in vivo physiological environment and may lead to low differentiated level of ESCs. Here, we develop a novel strategy that enhances CM differentiation of ESCs in collagen matrix three-dimensional (3D) culture combined with indirect cardiac fibroblasts co-culture. ESCs were cultured in hanging drops to form embryoid bodies (EBs) and then applied on collagen matrix. The EBs were indirectly co-cultured with cardiac fibroblasts by the hanging cell culture inserts (PET 1 µm). The molecular expressions and ultrastructural characteristics of ESC-derived CMs (ESCMs) were analyzed by real time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). We found that the percentage of beating EBs with cardiac fibroblasts co-culture was significantly higher than that without co-culture after differentiation period of 8 days. Type I collagen used as 3D substrates enhanced the late-stage CM differentiation of ESCs and had effect on ultrastructural mature of ESCMs in late-stage development. The combined effects of 3D and co-culture that mimic in vivo physiological environment further improved the efficiency of CM differentiation from ESCs, resulting in fiber-like structures of cardiac cells with organized sarcomeric structure in ESCMs. This novel 3D co-culture system emphasizes the fact that the ESC differentiation is actively responding to cues from their environment and those cues can drive phenotypic control, which provides a useful in vitro model to investigate CM differentiation of stem cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dense tissue-like collagen matrices formed in cell-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, Gervaise; Anglo, Anny; Helary, Christophe; Bouligand, Yves; Giraud-Guille, Marie-Madeleine

    2006-01-01

    A new protocol was developed to produce dense organized collagen matrices hierarchically ordered on a large scale. It consists of a two stage process: (1) the organization of a collagen solution and (2) the stabilization of the organizations by a sol-gel transition that leads to the formation of collagen fibrils. This new protocol relies on the continuous injection of an acid-soluble collagen solution into glass microchambers. It leads to extended concentration gradients of collagen, ranging from 5 to 1000 mg/ml. The self-organization of collagen solutions into a wide array of spatial organizations was investigated. The final matrices obtained by this procedure varied in concentration, structure and density. Changes in the liquid state of the samples were followed by polarized light microscopy, and the final stabilized gel states obtained after fibrillogenesis were analyzed by both light and electron microscopy. Typical organizations extended homogeneously by up to three centimetres in one direction and several hundreds of micrometers in other directions. Fibrillogenesis of collagen solutions of high and low concentrations led to fibrils spatially arranged as has been described in bone and derm, respectively. Moreover, a relationship was revealed between the collagen concentration and the aggregation of and rotational angles between lateral fibrils. These results constitute a strong base from which to further develop highly enriched collagen matrices that could lead to substitutes that mimic connective tissues. The matrices thus obtained may also be good candidates for the study of the three-dimensional migration of cells.

  14. Effects of orally administered undenatured type II collagen against arthritic inflammatory diseases: a mechanistic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, D; Misner, B; Bagchi, M; Kothari, S C; Downs, B W; Fafard, R D; Preuss, H G

    2002-01-01

    Arthritis afflicts approximately 43 million Americans or approximately 16.6% of the US population. The two most common and best known types of arthritis are osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A significant amount of scientific research has been done in attempts to explain what initiates forms of arthritis, how it is promoted and perpetuated and how to effectively intervene in the disease process and promote cartilage remodeling. Current pharmacological strategies mainly address immune suppression and antiinflammatory mechanisms and have had limited success. Recent research provides evidence that alterations in the three-dimensional configuration of glycoproteins are responsible for the recognition/response signaling that catalyzes T-cell attack. Oral administration of autoantigens has been shown to suppress a variety of experimentally induced autoimmune pathologies, including antigen-induced RA. The interaction between gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the duodenum and epitopes of orally administered undenatured type II collagen facilitates oral tolerance to the antigen and stems systemic T-cell attack on joint cartilage. Previous studies have shown that small doses of orally administered undenatured type II chicken collagen effectively deactivate killer T-cell attack. A novel glycosylated undenatured type II collagen material (UC-II) was developed to preserve biological activity. The presence of active epitopes in the UC-II collagen is confirmed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test and distinguishes this form from hydrolyzed or denatured collagen. Oral intake of small amounts of glycosylated UC-II presents active epitopes, with the correct three-dimensional structures, to Peyer's patches, which influences the signaling required for the development of immune tolerance. UC-II has demonstrated the ability to induce tolerance, effectively reducing joint pain and swelling in RA subjects. A pilot study was conducted for 42 days to evaluate the

  15. Three-dimensional, three-component wall-PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, André; Kondermann, Daniel; Christensen, Carolyn; Goubergrits, Leonid; Garbe, Christoph; Affeld, Klaus; Kertzscher, Ulrich

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a new time-resolved three-dimensional, three-component (3D-3C) measurement technique called wall-PIV. It was developed to assess near wall flow fields and shear rates near non-planar surfaces. The method is based on light absorption according to Beer-Lambert’s law. The fluid containing a molecular dye and seeded with buoyant particles is illuminated by a monochromatic, diffuse light. Due to the dye, the depth of view is limited to the near wall layer. The three-dimensional particle positions can be reconstructed by the intensities of the particle’s projection on an image sensor. The flow estimation is performed by a new algorithm, based on learned particle trajectories. Possible sources of measurement errors related to the wall-PIV technique are analyzed. The accuracy analysis was based on single particle experiments and a three-dimensional artificial data set simulating a rotating sphere.

  16. Systemic and local collagen turnover in hernia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A

    2016-01-01

    composition appears altered in fascial tissue but also in skin biopsies, suggesting that the collagen alterations are systemic. More pronounced collagen alterations are found in patients with hernia recurrences. Hypothetically, primary inguinal hernias are formed due to a systemic predisposition to altered...... connective tissue, whereas impaired healing influences on the development of incisional hernias and hernia recurrences. The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate the collagen turnover systemically and locally in patients with primary inguinal hernia, multiple hernias and incisional hernia...... repair after adjustment for gender, age and surgical approach. In a multivariable subgroup analysis, direct and recurrent inguinal hernia repair were associated with primary ventral hernia surgery, whereas only recurrent inguinal hernia repair was associated with secondary ventral hernia surgery...

  17. Measurement of the quadratic hyperpolarizability of the collagen triple helix and application to second harmonic imaging of natural and biomimetic collagenous tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniset-Besseau, A.; Strupler, M.; Duboisset, J.; De Sa Peixoto, P.; Benichou, E.; Fligny, C.; Tharaux, P.-L.; Mosser, G.; Brevet, P.-F.; Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

    2009-09-01

    Collagen is a major protein of the extracellular matrix that is characterized by triple helical domains. It plays a central role in the formation of fibrillar and microfibrillar networks, basement membranes, as well as other structures of the connective tissue. Remarkably, fibrillar collagen exhibits efficient Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) so that SHG microscopy proved to be a sensitive tool to probe the three-dimensional architecture of fibrillar collagen and to assess the progression of fibrotic pathologies. We obtained sensitive and reproducible measurements of the fibrosis extent, but we needed quantitative data at the molecular level to further process SHG images. We therefore performed Hyper- Rayleigh Scattering (HRS) experiments and measured a second order hyperpolarisability of 1.25 10-27 esu for rat-tail type I collagen. This value is surprisingly large considering that collagen presents no strong harmonophore in its aminoacid sequence. In order to get insight into the physical origin of this nonlinear process, we performed HRS measurements after denaturation of the collagen triple helix and for a collagen-like short model peptide [(Pro-Pro- Gly)10]3. It showed that the collagen large nonlinear response originates in the tight alignment of a large number of weakly efficient harmonophores, presumably the peptide bonds, resulting in a coherent amplification of the nonlinear signal along the triple helix. To illustrate this mechanism, we successfully recorded SHG images in collagenous biomimetic matrices.

  18. Three-dimensional effects in fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    An overall view of the pioneering theories and works, which enlighten the three-dimensional nature of fracture mechanics during the last years is given. the main aim is not an exhaustive reviewing but the displaying of the last developments on this scientific field in a natural way. This work attempts to envisage the limits of disregarding the three-dimensional behaviour in theories, analyses and experiments. Moreover, it tries to draw attention on the scant fervour, although increasing, this three-dimensional nature of fracture has among the scientific community. Finally, a constructive discussion is presented on the use of two-dimensional solutions in the analysis of geometries which bear a three-dimensional configuration. the static two-dimensional solutions and its applications fields are reviewed. also, the static three-dimensional solutions, wherein a comparative analysis with elastoplastic and elastostatic solutions are presented. to end up, the dynamic three-dimensional solutions are compared to the asymptotic two-dimensional ones under the practical applications point of view. (author)

  19. Electron tomography, three-dimensional Fourier analysis and colour prediction of a three-dimensional amorphous biophotonic nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Pálsdóttir, Hildur; Crum, John; Ellisman, Mark H.; Auer, Manfred; Prum, Richard O.

    2009-01-01

    Organismal colour can be created by selective absorption of light by pigments or light scattering by photonic nanostructures. Photonic nanostructures may vary in refractive index over one, two or three dimensions and may be periodic over large spatial scales or amorphous with short-range order. Theoretical optical analysis of three-dimensional amorphous nanostructures has been challenging because these structures are difficult to describe accurately from conventional two-dimensional electron microscopy alone. Intermediate voltage electron microscopy (IVEM) with tomographic reconstruction adds three-dimensional data by using a high-power electron beam to penetrate and image sections of material sufficiently thick to contain a significant portion of the structure. Here, we use IVEM tomography to characterize a non-iridescent, three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructure: the spongy medullary layer from eastern bluebird Sialia sialis feather barbs. Tomography and three-dimensional Fourier analysis reveal that it is an amorphous, interconnected bicontinuous matrix that is appropriately ordered at local spatial scales in all three dimensions to coherently scatter light. The predicted reflectance spectra from the three-dimensional Fourier analysis are more precise than those predicted by previous two-dimensional Fourier analysis of transmission electron microscopy sections. These results highlight the usefulness, and obstacles, of tomography in the description and analysis of three-dimensional photonic structures. PMID:19158016

  20. Biomimetic soluble collagen purified from bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Marina; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Sartori, Susanna; Pagliano, Cristina; Cabrele, Chiara; Chiono, Valeria; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2012-11-01

    Type I collagen has been extensively exploited as a biomaterial for biomedical applications and drug delivery; however, small molecular alterations occurring during the isolation procedure and its interaction with residual bone extracellular matrix molecules or proteins might affect the overall material biocompatibility and performance. The aim of the current work is to study the potential alterations in collagen properties and organization associated with the absence of proteoglycans, which mimic pathological conditions associated with age-related diseases. A new approach for evaluating the effect of proteoglycans on the properties of isolated type I collagen from the bone matrix is described. Additional treatment with guanidine hydrochloride was introduced to remove residual proteoglycans from the collagen matrix. The properties of the isolated collagen with/without guanidine hydrochloride treatment were investigated and compared with a commercial rabbit collagen as control. We demonstrate that the absence of proteoglycans in the isolated type I collagen affects its thermal properties, the extraction into its native structure, and its ability to hydrate and self-assemble into fibers. The fine control and tuning of all these features, linked to the absence of non-collagenous proteins as proteoglycans, offer the possibility of designing new strategies and biomaterials with advanced biomimetic properties aimed at regenerating bone tissue in the case of fragility and/or defects. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Ultrastructural changes following electron irradiation in three-dimensional culture of normal human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chunmao; Ishikura, Naotaka; Tsukada, Sadao

    1994-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of electron irradiation on fibroblasts and extracellular matrices electron-microscopically. The three-dimensional dermal fibroblast culture was exposed to one, 4 or 10 Gy of electron beams. One day after irradiation, fibroblasts were vacuolated in all irradiated groups and intercellular spaces were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Seven days later, intercellular spaces became dense in both one and 4 Gy groups, although they were still extremely increased in the 10 Gy group. The remaining fibroblasts were still activated in all groups. Thirty days after irradiation, myofibroblastic cells were scarcely observed, but extracellular fine fibrils and collagen fibrils were observed in all irradiated groups. The other ultrastructural findings were similar to those in the control group. In conclusion, electron beams damaged not only cells but also extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix may be repaired by activated residual fibroblasts, resulting in the mixture of new and old collagen fibrils having different diamters. (N.K.)

  2. A 48 kDa collagen-binding phosphoprotein isolated from bovine aortic endothelial cells interacts with the collagenous domain, but not the globular domain, of collagen type IV.

    OpenAIRE

    Yannariello-Brown, J; Madri, J A

    1990-01-01

    We have identified collagen-binding proteins in detergent extracts of metabolically labelled bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) by collagen type IV-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The major collagen type IV-binding protein identified by SDS/PAGE had a molecular mass of 48 kDa, which we term the 'collagen-binding 48 kDa protein' (CB48). The pI of CB48 was 8.0-8.3 in a two-dimensional gel system, running non-equilibrium pH gel electrophoresis in the first dimension and SDS/PAGE in the se...

  3. Three-dimensional biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Scientists in biomedical imaging provide researchers, physicians, and academicians with an understanding of the fundamental theories and practical applications of three-dimensional biomedical imaging methodologies. Succinct descriptions of each imaging modality are supported by numerous diagrams and illustrations which clarify important concepts and demonstrate system performance in a variety of applications. Comparison of the different functional attributes, relative advantages and limitations, complementary capabilities, and future directions of three-dimensional biomedical imaging modalities are given. Volume 1: Introductions to Three-Dimensional Biomedical Imaging Photoelectronic-Digital Imaging for Diagnostic Radiology. X-Ray Computed Tomography - Basic Principles. X-Ray Computed Tomography - Implementation and Applications. X-Ray Computed Tomography: Advanced Systems and Applications in Biomedical Research and Diagnosis. Volume II: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. Position Emission Tomography (PET). Computerized Ultrasound Tomography. Fundamentals of NMR Imaging. Display of Multi-Dimensional Biomedical Image Information. Summary and Prognostications

  4. Three-dimensional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toga, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on new neuroimaging technologies that are revolutionizing the study of the brain be enabling investigators to visualize its structure and entire pattern of functional activity in three dimensions. The book provides a theoretical and practical explanation of the new science of creating three-dimensional computer images of the brain. The coverage includes a review of the technology and methodology of neuroimaging, the instrumentation and procedures, issues of quantification, analytic protocols, and descriptions of neuroimaging systems. Examples are given to illustrate the use of three-dimensional enuroimaging to quantitate spatial measurements, perform analysis of autoradiographic and histological studies, and study the relationship between brain structure and function

  5. The development of a three-dimensional scaffold for ex vivo biomimicry of human acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Teresa Mortera; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Bismarck, Alexander; Panoskaltsis, Nicki

    2010-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a cancer of haematopoietic cells that develops in three-dimensional (3-D) bone marrow niches in vivo. The study of AML has been hampered by lack of appropriate ex vivo models that mimic this microenvironment. We hypothesised that fabrication and optimisation of suitable biomimetic scaffolds for culturing leukaemic cells ex vivo might facilitate the study of AML in its native 3-D niche. We evaluated the growth of three leukaemia subtype-specific cell lines, K-562, HL60 and Kasumi-6, on highly porous scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymeric materials, such as poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyurethane (PU), poly (methyl-methacrylate), poly (D, L-lactade), poly (caprolactone), and polystyrene. Our results show that PLGA and PU supported the best seeding efficiency and leukaemic growth. Furthermore, the PLGA and PU scaffolds were coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen type I (62.5 or 125 microg/ml) and fibronectin (25 or 50 microg/ml) to provide biorecognition signals. The 3 leukaemia subtype-specific lines grew best on PU scaffolds coated with 62.5 microg/ml collagen type I over 6 weeks in the absence of exogenous growth factors. In conclusion, PU-collagen scaffolds may provide a practical model to study the biology and treatment of primary AML in an ex vivo mimicry. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Analysis of Collagen Arrangement in Human Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choul Yong; Lee, Jimmy K; Chuck, Roy S

    2015-08-01

    To describe the horizontal arrangement of human corneal collagen bundles by using second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. Human corneas were imaged with an inverted two photon excitation fluorescence microscope. The excitation laser (Ti:Sapphire) was tuned to 850 nm. Backscatter signals of SHG were collected through a 425/30-nm bandpass emission filter. Multiple, consecutive, and overlapping image stacks (z-stacks) were acquired to generate three dimensional data sets. ImageJ software was used to analyze the arrangement pattern (irregularity) of collagen bundles at each image plane. Collagen bundles in the corneal lamellae demonstrated a complex layout merging and splitting within a single lamellar plane. The patterns were significantly different in the superficial and limbal cornea when compared with deep and central regions. Collagen bundles were smaller in the superficial layer and larger in deep lamellae. By using SHG imaging, the horizontal arrangement of corneal collagen bundles was elucidated at different depths and focal regions of the human cornea.

  7. Selective three-dimensional hydrophilization of microstructured polymer surfaces through confined photocatalytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammosova, Lena; Jiang, Yu; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Microstructured polymer surfaces with selective 3-D anisotropy were created. • Selective UV treatment was performed to alter surface wettability. • Removable meshes resembling a photomask were applied during UV treatment. • Micropatterning by viscous polymer on solid surface was performed. - Abstract: While the conventional photomask technique gives only two-dimensional anisotropies, in this study we fabricated microstructured polymer surfaces with a selective three-dimensional anisotropy. With the applied removable mesh, we were able to confine the contacting area between the surface and photoinitiator and provide three-dimensional wettability anisotropies. Different types of meshes were used depending on the desired micropatterns shape, size and substrate material. The results revealed the three-dimensional anisotropic micropits pattern with depth profiles, which would be applicable for the confinement and patterning of cells and biomolecules. In addition, the proposed method is applicable for creating selectively activated polymer surface as a substrate for further atomic layer deposition. Moreover, we demonstrate a low cost and fast mass productive method for patterning a viscous polymer liquid in a micro-sized scale

  8. Collagen Accumulation in Osteosarcoma Cells lacking GLT25D1 Collagen Galactosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Stephan; Hennet, Thierry

    2016-08-26

    Collagen is post-translationally modified by prolyl and lysyl hydroxylation and subsequently by glycosylation of hydroxylysine. Despite the widespread occurrence of the glycan structure Glc(α1-2)Gal linked to hydroxylysine in animals, the functional significance of collagen glycosylation remains elusive. To address the role of glycosylation in collagen expression, folding, and secretion, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to inactivate the collagen galactosyltransferase GLT25D1 and GLT25D2 genes in osteosarcoma cells. Loss of GLT25D1 led to increased expression and intracellular accumulation of collagen type I, whereas loss of GLT25D2 had no effect on collagen secretion. Inactivation of the GLT25D1 gene resulted in a compensatory induction of GLT25D2 expression. Loss of GLT25D1 decreased collagen glycosylation by up to 60% but did not alter collagen folding and thermal stability. Whereas cells harboring individually inactivated GLT25D1 and GLT25D2 genes could be recovered and maintained in culture, cell clones with simultaneously inactive GLT25D1 and GLT25D2 genes could be not grown and studied, suggesting that a complete loss of collagen glycosylation impairs osteosarcoma cell proliferation and viability. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Alteration of cellular behavior and response to PI3K pathway inhibition by culture in 3D collagen gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fallica

    Full Text Available Most investigations into cancer cell drug response are performed with cells cultured on flat (2D tissue culture plastic. Emerging research has shown that the presence of a three-dimensional (3D extracellular matrix (ECM is critical for normal cell behavior including migration, adhesion, signaling, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we investigate differences between cancer cell signaling in 2D culture and a 3D ECM, employing real-time, live cell tracking to directly observe U2OS human osteosarcoma and MCF7 human breast cancer cells embedded in type 1 collagen gels. The activation of the important PI3K signaling pathway under these different growth conditions is studied, and the response to inhibition of both PI3K and mTOR with PI103 investigated. Cells grown in 3D gels show reduced proliferation and migration as well as reduced PI3K pathway activation when compared to cells grown in 2D. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that a collagen ECM can protect U2OS cells from PI103. Overall, our data suggests that 3D gels may provide a better medium for investigation of anti-cancer drugs than 2D monolayers, therefore allowing better understanding of cellular response and behavior in native like environments.

  10. Three dimensional canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.

  11. Mechanisms of lamellar collagen formation in connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Samaneh; Khademhosseini, Ali; Smit, Theodoor H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of tissue engineering is to regenerate functional tissues. Engineering functional tissues requires an understanding of the mechanisms that guide the formation and evolution of structure in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In particular, the three-dimensional (3D) collagen fiber arrangement is important as it is the key structural determinant that provides mechanical integrity and biological function. In this review, we survey the current knowledge on collagen organization mechanisms that can be applied to create well-structured functional lamellar tissues and in particular intervertebral disc and cornea. Thus far, the mechanisms behind the formation of cross-aligned collagen fibers in the lamellar structures is not fully understood. We start with cell-induced collagen alignment and strain-stabilization behavior mechanisms which can explain a single anisotropically aligned collagen fiber layer. These mechanisms may explain why there is anisotropy in a single layer in the first place. However, they cannot explain why a consecutive collagen layer is laid down with an alternating alignment. Therefore, we explored another mechanism, called liquid crystal phasing. While dense concentrations of collagen show such behavior, there is little evidence that the conditions for liquid crystal phasing are actually met in vivo. Instead, lysyl aldehyde-derived collagen cross-links have been found essential for correct lamellar matrix deposition. Furthermore, we suggest that supra-cellular (tissue-level) shear stress may be instrumental in the alignment of collagen fibers. Understanding the potential mechanisms behind the lamellar collagen structure in connective tissues will lead to further improvement of the regeneration strategies of functional complex lamellar tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Three-dimensional microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-11-01

    Streaming due to acoustically excited bubbles has been used successfully for applications such as size-sorting, trapping and focusing of particles, as well as fluid mixing. Many of these applications involve the precise control of particle trajectories, typically achieved using cylindrical bubbles, which establish planar flows. Using astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry (APTV), we show that, while this two-dimensional picture is a useful description of the flow over short times, a systematic three-dimensional flow structure is evident over long time scales. We demonstrate that this long-time three-dimensional fluid motion can be understood through asymptotic theory, superimposing secondary axial flows (induced by boundary conditions at the device walls) onto the two-dimensional description. This leads to a general framework that describes three-dimensional flows in confined microstreaming systems, guiding the design of applications that profit from minimizing or maximizing these effects.

  13. Increased Paracrine Immunomodulatory Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Three-Dimensional Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Follin, Bjarke; Juhl, Morten; Cohen, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated extensively through the past years, proving to have great clinical therapeutic potential. In vitro cultivation of MSCs in three-dimensional (3D) culture systems, such as scaffolds, hydrogels, or spheroids, have recently gained attention...... for tissue engineering applications. Studies on MSC spheroids demonstrated that such cultivation increased the paracrine immunomodulatory potential of the MSCs, accompanied by phenotypic alterations. In this review, we gather results from recent experimental studies on the immunomodulatory abilities of MSCs...... when cultured as spheroids or in biomaterials like scaffolds or hydrogels compared to regular two-dimensional (2D) culture and show that alterations occurring to MSCs in spheroids also occur in MSCs in biomaterials. We provide a brief description of known mechanisms of MSC immunomodulatory capacity...

  14. Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in a leakproof collagen sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guoping; Akahane, Daisuke; Kawazoe, Naoki; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki; Tateishi, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a porous scaffold has been developed as a promising strategy for cartilage tissue engineering. The chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs derived from human bone marrow was studied by culturing the cells in a novel scaffold constructed of leakproof collagen sponge. All the surfaces of the collagen sponge except the top were wrapped with a membrane that has pores smaller than the cells to protect against cell leakage during cell seeding. The cells adhered to the collagen, distributed evenly, and proliferated to fill the spaces in the sponge. Cell seeding efficiency was greater than 95%. The MSCs cultured in the collagen sponge in the presence of TGF-β3 and BMP6 expressed a high level of genes encoding type II and type X collagen, sox9, and aggrecan. Histological examination by HE staining indicated that the differentiated cells showed a round morphology. The extracellular matrices were positively stained by safranin O and toluidine blue. Immunostaining with anti-type II collagen and anti-cartilage proteoglycan showed that type II collagen and cartilage proteoglycan were detected around the cells. These results suggest the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs when cultured in the collagen sponge in the presence of TGF-β3 and BMP6

  15. Embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells in collagen/Matrigel scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Ye; Lin, Qiuxia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Haibin; Duan, Cuimi; Wang, Yanmeng; Hao, Tong; Wu, Kuiwu; Wang, Changyong

    2010-07-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to develop into any type of tissue and are considered as a promising source of seeding cells for tissue engineering and transplantation therapy. The main catalyst for ES cells differentiation is the growth into embryoid bodies (EBs), which are utilized widely as the trigger of in vitro differentiation. In this study, a novel method for generating EBs from mouse ES cells through culture in collagen/Matrigel scaffolds was successfully established. When single ES cells were seeded in three dimensional collagen/Matrigel scaffolds, they grew into aggregates gradually and formed simple EBs with circular structures. After 7 days' culture, they formed into cystic EBs that would eventually differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. Evaluation of the EBs in terms of morphology and potential to differentiate indicated that they were typical in structure and could generate various cell types; they were also able to form into tissue-like structures. Moreover, with introduction of ascorbic acid, ES cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes efficiently and started contracting synchronously at day 19. The results demonstrated that collagen/Matrigel scaffolds supported EBs formation and their subsequent differentiation in a single three dimensional environment. Copyright 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MT1-MMP promotes cell growth and ERK activation through c-Src and paxillin in three-dimensional collagen matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takino, Takahisa; Tsuge, Hisashi; Ozawa, Terumasa; Sato, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is essential for tumor invasion and growth. We show here that MT1-MMP induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in cancer cells cultured in collagen gel, which is indispensable for their proliferation. Inhibition of MT1-MMP by MMP inhibitor or small interfering RNA suppressed activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ERK in MT1-MMP-expressing cancer cells, which resulted in up-regulation of p21 WAF1 and suppression of cell growth in collagen gel. Cell proliferation was also abrogated by the inhibitor against ERK pathway without affecting FAK phosphorylation. MT1-MMP and integrin α v β 3 were shown to be involved in c-Src activation, which induced FAK and ERK activation in collagen gel. These MT1-MMP-mediated signal transductions were paxillin dependent, as knockdown of paxillin reduced cell growth and ERK activation, and co-expression of MT1-MMP with paxillin induced ERK activation. The results suggest that MT1-MMP contributes to proliferation of cancer cells in the extracellular matrix by activating ERK through c-Src and paxillin.

  17. Liarozole inhibits transforming growth factor-β3–mediated extracellular matrix formation in human three-dimensional leiomyoma cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gary; Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Gilden, Melissa; Segars, James; Catherino, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of liarozole on transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) expression, TGF-β3 controlled profibrotic cytokines, and extracellular matrix formation in a three-dimensional (3D) leiomyoma model system. Design Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis in a cell line evaluated in a three-dimensional culture. Setting Laboratory study. Patient(s) None. Intervention(s) Treatment of leiomyoma and myometrial cells with liarozole and TGF-β3 in a three-dimensional culture system. Main Outcome Measure(s) Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to assess fold gene and protein expression of TGF-β3 and TGF-β3 regulated fibrotic cytokines: collagen 1A1 (COL1A1), fibronectin, and versican before and after treatment with liarozole, and confirmatory immunohistochemical stains of treated three-dimensional cultures. Result(s) Both TGF-β3 gene and protein expression were elevated in leiomyoma cells compared with myometrium in two-dimensional and 3D cultures. Treatment with liarozole decreased TGF-β3 gene and protein expression. Extracellular matrix components versican, COL1A1, and fibronectin were also decreased by liarozole treatment in 3D cultures. Treatment of 3D cultures with TGF-β3 increased gene expression and protein production of COL1A1, fibronectin, and versican. Conclusion(s) Liarozole decreased TGF-β3 and TGF-β3–mediated extracellular matrix expression in a 3D uterine leiomyoma culture system. PMID:24825427

  18. Three-Dimensional Volumetric Changes in Severely Resorbed Alveolar Sockets After Ridge Augmentation with Bovine-Derived Xenograft and Resorbable Barrier: A Preliminary Study on CBCT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavella, Valeria; Romano, Federica; Corano, Lisa; Bignardi, Cristina; Aimetti, Mario

    The primary aim of the study was to describe a novel technique to evaluate volumetric hard tissue dimensional changes after ridge augmentation procedures. The secondary aim was to apply this newly developed measuring method to compromised alveolar sockets grafted with a slowly resorbing biomaterial covered with a collagen membrane. Eleven patients (6 men and 5 women, mean age 52.7 ± 8.3 years) requiring extraction of one hopeless tooth for severe periodontitis in the maxillary anterior area were consecutively treated with a ridge augmentation procedure. All experimental sockets showed advanced buccal bone plate deficiency and were grafted with deproteinized bovine bone mineral with 10% collagen covered with a collagen membrane. Sockets healed by secondary intention. Three-dimensional volumetric alveolar bone changes were calculated by superimposing cone beam computed tomography scans obtained before and 12 months after the augmentation procedure. After 12 months, the alveolar mineralized tissue filled 91.20% ± 7.96% of the maximum volume for regeneration. The augmentation procedure appeared not only to compensate for bone remodeling in most alveolar regions but also to repair a significant portion of the buccal wall. The most significant ridge width changes occurred 1 mm apical to the bone crest (2.33 ± 1.46 mm, P socket volume. A ridge preservation technique performed with collagenated bovine bone and a collagen membrane was able to improve ridge shape and dimensions in compromised alveolar sockets.

  19. Characterization of an Actively Controlled Three-Dimensional Turret Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Three-dimensional turrets are commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. As bluff bodies, these geometries generate highly turbulent wakes that decrease the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. The current experimental study looked to use dynamic suction in both open and closed-loop control configurations to actively control the turret wake. The flow field was characterized using dynamic pressure and stereoscopic PIV measurements in the wake of the turret. Results showed that the suction system was able to manipulate the wake region of the turret and could alter not only the spatial structure of the wake, but also the temporal behavior of the wake flow field. Closed-loop, feedback control techniques were used to determine a more optimal control input for the flow control. Similar control effects were seen for both the steady open-loop control case and the closed-loop feedback control configuration with a 45% reduction in the suction levels when comparing the closed-loop to the open-loop case. These results provide unique information regarding the development of the baseline three-dimensional wake and the wake with three different active flow control configurations.

  20. Three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium with isotropic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1995-05-01

    In the absence of the toroidal flux, two coupled quasi two-dimensional elliptic equilibrium equations have been derived to describe self-consistent three-dimensional static magnetospheric equilibria with isotropic pressure in an optimal (Ψ,α,χ) flux coordinate system, where Ψ is the magnetic flux function, χ is a generalized poloidal angle, α is the toroidal angle, α = φ - δ(Ψ,φ,χ) is the toroidal angle, δ(Ψ,φ,χ) is periodic in φ, and the magnetic field is represented as rvec B = ∇Ψ x ∇α. A three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium code, the MAG-3D code, has been developed by employing an iterative metric method. The main difference between the three-dimensional and the two-dimensional axisymmetric solutions is that the field-aligned current and the toroidal magnetic field are finite for the three-dimensional case, but vanish for the two-dimensional axisymmetric case. With the same boundary flux surface shape, the two-dimensional axisymmetric results are similar to the three-dimensional magnetosphere at each local time cross section

  1. Three dimensional visualization of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasuzo

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional visualization is a stereoscopic technique that allows the diagnosis and treatment of complicated anatomy site of the bone and organ. In this article, the current status and technical application of three dimensional visualization are introduced with special reference to X-ray CT and MRI. The surface display technique is the most common for three dimensional visualization, consisting of geometric model, voxel element, and stereographic composition techniques. Recent attention has been paid to display method of the content of the subject called as volume rendering, whereby information on the living body is provided accurately. The application of three dimensional visualization is described in terms of diagnostic imaging and surgical simulation. (N.K.)

  2. An experimental study: quantitatively evaluating the change of the content of collagen fibres in penis with two-dimensional ShearWave™ Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X-H; Zhang, J-J; Gao, F; Li, F; Bai, M; Du, L-F; Xing, J-F

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the value of two-dimensional ShearWave ™ Elastography (2D-SWE) on quantitatively evaluating the change of the content of collagen fibres in penis. Twenty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the pre-sexual maturity group (Group 1) and the sexual decline group (Group 2) according to age. The ultrafast ultrasound device Aixplorer ® (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France) was used for 2D-SWE imaging of penis, and the measurement index was shear wave stiffness (SWS). The immunohistochemistry was used to analyse the content of collagen fibres in penis, and the measurement index was positive area percentage (PAP). The differences of SWS between the two groups and PAP between the two groups were analysed. SWS of Group 1 and Group 2 was 10.18 ± 1.09 and 8.02 ± 1.34 kPa, and SWS of Group 2 was significantly lower than Group 1 (p penis measured with 2D-SWE would change significantly as well. Two-dimensional SWE can be used to quantitatively evaluate the change of the content of collagen fibres in penis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. (Weakly) three-dimensional caseology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    The singular eigenfunction technique of Case for solving one-dimensional planar symmetry linear transport problems is extended to a restricted class of three-dimensional problems. This class involves planar geometry, but with forcing terms (either boundary conditions or internal sources) which are weakly dependent upon the transverse spatial variables. Our analysis involves a singular perturbation about the classic planar analysis, and leads to the usual Case discrete and continuum modes, but modulated by weakly dependent three-dimensional spatial functions. These functions satisfy parabolic differential equations, with a different diffusion coefficient for each mode. Representative one-speed time-independent transport problems are solved in terms of these generalised Case eigenfunctions. Our treatment is very heuristic, but may provide an impetus for more rigorous analysis. (author)

  4. A three-dimensional hierarchical collagen scaffold fabricated by a combined solid freeform fabrication (SFF) and electrospinning process to enhance mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, SeungHyun; Kim, GeunHyung; Koh, Young Ho

    2010-01-01

    Collagen has the advantage of being very similar to macromolecular substances that can be recognized and metabolized in the biological environment. Although the natural material has superior property for this purpose, its use to fabricate reproducible and pore-structure-controlled 3D structures, which are designed to allow the entry of sufficient cells and the easy diffusion of nutrients, has been limited due to its low processability. Here, we propose a hybrid technology that combines a cryogenic plotting system with an electrospinning process. Using this technique, an easily pore-size-controllable hierarchical 3D scaffold consisting of micro-sized highly porous collagen strands and micro/nano-sized collagen fibers was fabricated. The pore structure of the collagen scaffold was controlled by the collagen micro/nanofibers, which were layered in the scaffold. The hierarchical scaffolds were characterized with respect to initial cell attachment and proliferation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells within the scaffolds. The hierarchical scaffold exhibited incredibly enhanced initial cell attachment and cell compactness between pores of the plotted scaffold relative to the normally designed 3D collagen scaffold.

  5. Structure–mechanics relationships of collagen fibrils in the osteogenesis imperfecta mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, O. G.; Chang, S. W.; Vanleene, M.; Howarth, P. H.; Davies, D. E.; Shefelbine, S. J.; Buehler, M. J.; Thurner, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    The collagen molecule, which is the building block of collagen fibrils, is a triple helix of two α1(I) chains and one α2(I) chain. However, in the severe mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta (OIM), deletion of the COL1A2 gene results in the substitution of the α2(I) chain by one α1(I) chain. As this substitution severely impairs the structure and mechanics of collagen-rich tissues at the tissue and organ level, the main aim of this study was to investigate how the structure and mechanics are altered in OIM collagen fibrils. Comparing results from atomic force microscopy imaging and cantilever-based nanoindentation on collagen fibrils from OIM and wild-type (WT) animals, we found a 33% lower indentation modulus in OIM when air-dried (bound water present) and an almost fivefold higher indentation modulus in OIM collagen fibrils when fully hydrated (bound and unbound water present) in phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) compared with WT collagen fibrils. These mechanical changes were accompanied by an impaired swelling upon hydration within PBS. Our experimental and atomistic simulation results show how the structure and mechanics are altered at the individual collagen fibril level as a result of collagen gene mutation in OIM. We envisage that the combination of experimental and modelling approaches could allow mechanical phenotyping at the collagen fibril level of virtually any alteration of collagen structure or chemistry. PMID:26468064

  6. Experimental investigation of an actively controlled three-dimensional turret wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Patrick R.

    Hemispherical turrets are bluff bodies commonly used to house optical systems on airborne platforms. These bluff bodies develop complex, three-dimensional flow fields that introduce high mean and fluctuating loads to the turret as well as the airframe support structure which reduce the performance of both the optical systems and the aircraft. An experimental investigation of the wake of a three-dimensional, non-conformal turret was performed in a low-speed wind tunnel at Syracuse University to develop a better understanding of the fundamental flow physics associated with the turret wake. The flow field was studied at a diameter based Reynolds number of 550,000 using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and dynamic pressure measurements both with and without active flow control. Pressure measurements were simultaneously sampled with the PIV measurements and taken on the surrounding boundary layer plate and at several locations on the turret geometry. Active flow control of the turret wake was performed around the leading edge of the turret aperture using dynamic suction in steady open-loop, unsteady open-loop, and simple closed-loop configurations. Analysis of the uncontrolled wake provided insight into the complex three-dimensional wake when evaluated spatially using PIV measurements and temporally using spectral analysis of the pressure measurements. Steady open-loop suction was found to significantly alter the spatial and temporal nature of the turret wake despite the control being applied locally to the aperture region of the turret. Unsteady open-loop and simple closed-loop control were found to provide similar levels of control to the steady open-loop forcing with a 45% reduction in the control input as calculated using the jet momentum coefficient. The data set collected provides unique information regarding the development of the baseline three-dimensional wake and the wake with three different active flow control configurations. These data can be used to

  7. [Conservative anal fistula treatment with collagenic plug and human fibrin sealant. Preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubitosi, A; Moccia, G; Malinconico, F A; Docimo, G; Ruggiero, R; Iside, G; Avenia, N; Docimo, L; Foroni, F; Gilio, F; Sparavigna, L; Agresti, M

    2009-01-01

    The authors, on the basis of a long clinical experience with human fibrin glue in general surgery, compared two different extracellular matrix (collagen), Surgisis and TissueDura, with human fibrin glue, applied during the operation, and sometimes in postoperative, to obtain the healing of perianal fistulas. The collagenic extracellular matrix provides, according to the rationale suggested, an optimal three-dimensional structure for the fibroblastic implant and neoangiogenesis, hence for the fistula "fibrotizzation" and closure. The encouraging results for transphincteric fistulas and a simple and easy technique push to researchers on samples statistically significant.

  8. Altering the swelling pressures within in vitro engineered cartilage is predicted to modulate the configuration of the collagen network and hence improve tissue mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Thomas; Kelly, Daniel J

    2013-06-01

    Prestress in the collagen network has a significant impact on the material properties of cartilaginous tissues. It is closely related to the recruitment configuration of the collagen network which defines the transition from lax collagen fibres to uncrimped, load-bearing collagen fibres. This recruitment configuration can change in response to alterations in the external environmental conditions. In this study, the influence of changes in external salt concentration or sequential proteoglycan digestion on the configuration of the collagen network of tissue engineered cartilage is investigated using a previously developed computational model. Collagen synthesis and network assembly are assumed to occur in the tissue configuration present during in vitro culture. The model assumes that if this configuration is more compact due to changes in tissue swelling, the collagen network will adapt by lowering its recruitment stretch. When returned to normal physiological conditions, these tissues will then have a higher prestress in the collagen network. Based on these assumptions, the model demonstrates that proteoglycan digestion at discrete time points during culture as well as culture in a hypertonic medium can improve the functionality of tissue engineered cartilage, while culture in hypotonic solution is detrimental to the apparent mechanical properties of the graft. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Collagenous sprue: a clinicopathologic study of 12 cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maguire, Aoife A

    2012-02-01

    Collagenous sprue is a rare form of small bowel enteropathy characterized by chronic diarrhea and progressive malabsorption with little data available on its natural history. The pathologic lesion consists of subepithelial collagen deposition associated with variable alterations in villous architecture. The small bowel biopsies of 12 cases were reviewed. Clinical details, celiac serology, and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement study results, when available, were collated. There were 8 females and 4 males (age ranged from 41 to 84 y) who presented with chronic diarrhea and weight loss. Small intestinal biopsies showed subepithelial collagen deposition with varying degrees of villous atrophy and varying numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes. Four patients had previous biopsies showing enteropathic changes without collagen deposition. Seven cases were associated with collagenous colitis and 1 also had features of lymphocytic colitis. Three patients also had collagen deposition in gastric biopsies. One case was associated with lymphocytic gastritis. Celiac disease (CD, gluten-sensitive enteropathy) was documented in 4 patients. Five patients made a clinical improvement with combinations of a gluten-free diet and immunosuppressive therapy. Two patients died of complications of malnutrition and 1 of another illness. Clonal T-cell populations were identified in 5 of 6 cases tested. Four of these patients improved clinically after treatment but 1 has died. Collagenous sprue evolved on a background of CD in 4 cases. There was no history of CD in others and these cases may be the result of a biologic insult other than gluten sensitivity. None has developed clinical evidence of lymphoma to date.

  10. Collagen crosslinks in chondromalacia of the patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väätäinen, U; Kiviranta, I; Jaroma, H; Arokosi, J; Tammi, M; Kovanen, V

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine collagen concentration and collagen crosslinks in cartilage samples from chondromalacia of the patella. To study the extracellular matrix alterations associated to chondromalacia, we determined the concentration of collagen (hydroxyproline) and its hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline crosslinks from chondromalacia foci of the patellae in 12 patients and 7 controls from apparently normal cadavers. The structure of the collagen network in 8 samples of grades II-IV chondromalacia was examined under polarized light microscopy. The full-thickness cartilage samples taken with a surgical knife from chondromalacia lesions did not show changes in collagen, hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline concentration as compared with the controls. Polarized light microscopy showed decreased birefringence in the superficial cartilage of chondromalacia lesions, indicating disorganization or disappearance of collagen fibers in this zone. It is concluded that the collagen network shows gradual disorganization with the severity of chondromalacia lesion of the patella without changes in the concentration or crosslinks of collagen.

  11. Stromal matrix metalloprotease-13 knockout alters Collagen I structure at the tumor-host interface and increases lung metastasis of C57BL/6 syngeneic E0771 mammary tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Seth W; Schueckler, Jill M; Burke, Kathleen; Arcuri, Giuseppe L; Brown, Edward B

    2013-09-05

    Matrix metalloproteases and collagen are key participants in breast cancer, but their precise roles in cancer etiology and progression remain unclear. MMP13 helps regulate collagen structure and has been ascribed largely harmful roles in cancer, but some studies demonstrate that MMP13 may also protect against tumor pathology. Other studies indicate that collagen's organizational patterns at the breast tumor-host interface influence metastatic potential. Therefore we investigated how MMP13 modulates collagen I, a principal collagen subtype in breast tissue, and affects tumor pathology and metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer. Tumors were implanted into murine mammary tissues, and their growth analyzed in Wildtype and MMP13 KO mice. Following extraction, tumors were analyzed for collagen I levels and collagen I macro- and micro-structural properties at the tumor-host boundary using immunocytochemistry and two-photon and second harmonic generation microscopy. Lungs were analyzed for metastases counts, to correlate collagen I changes with a clinically significant functional parameter. Statistical analyses were performed by t-test, analysis of variance, or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests as appropriate. We found that genetic ablation of host stromal MMP13 led to: 1. Increased mammary tumor collagen I content, 2. Marked changes in collagen I spatial organization, and 3. Altered collagen I microstructure at the tumor-host boundary, as well as 4. Increased metastasis from the primary mammary tumor to lungs. These results implicate host MMP13 as a key regulator of collagen I structure and metastasis in mammary tumors, thus making it an attractive potential therapeutic target by which we might alter metastatic potential, one of the chief determinants of clinical outcome in breast cancer. In addition to identifying stromal MMP13 is an important regulator of the tumor microenvironment and metastasis, these results also suggest that stromal MMP13 may protect against breast

  12. Biomimetic properties of an injectable chitosan/nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhi [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu Bo; Li Songjian [Department of Orthopedics, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282 (China)

    2011-04-08

    To meet the challenges of designing an injectable scaffold and regenerating bone with complex three-dimensional (3D) structures, a biomimetic and injectable hydrogel scaffold based on nano-hydroxyapatite (HA), collagen (Col) and chitosan (Chi) is synthesized. The chitosan/nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (Chi/HA/Col) solution rapidly forms a stable gel at body temperature. It shows some features of natural bone both in main composition and microstructure. The Chi/HA/Col system can be expected as a candidate for workable systemic minimally invasive scaffolds with surface properties similar to physiological bone based on scanning electron microscopic (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results.

  13. Biomimetic properties of an injectable chitosan/nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhi; Feng Qingling; Yu Bo; Li Songjian

    2011-01-01

    To meet the challenges of designing an injectable scaffold and regenerating bone with complex three-dimensional (3D) structures, a biomimetic and injectable hydrogel scaffold based on nano-hydroxyapatite (HA), collagen (Col) and chitosan (Chi) is synthesized. The chitosan/nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (Chi/HA/Col) solution rapidly forms a stable gel at body temperature. It shows some features of natural bone both in main composition and microstructure. The Chi/HA/Col system can be expected as a candidate for workable systemic minimally invasive scaffolds with surface properties similar to physiological bone based on scanning electron microscopic (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results.

  14. A novel hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on hemoglobin-collagen-CNTs composite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Mei, H; Zheng, W; Pan, P; Sun, X J; Li, F; Guo, F; Zhou, H M; Ma, J Y; Xu, X X; Zheng, Y F

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were successfully incorporated in the composite composed of hemoglobin (Hb) and collagen using co-electrospinning technology. The formed Hb-collagen-CNTs composite nanofibers possessed distinct advantage of three-dimensional porous structure, biocompatibility and excellent stability. The Hb immobilized in the electrospun nanofibers retained its natural structure and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) of the direct electron transfer between Hb and electrodes was 5.3s(-1). In addition, the electrospun Hb-collagen-CNTs nanofibers modified electrodes showed good electrocatalytic properties toward H2O2 with a detection limit of 0.91μM (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km(app)) of 32.6μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetics and biochemistry of collagen binding-triggered glandular differentiation in a human colon carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignatelli, M.; Bodmer, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have examined the interaction between collagen binding and epithelial differentiation by using a human colon carcinoma cell line (SW1222) that can differentiate structurally when grown in a three-dimensional collagen gel to form glandular structures. As much as 66% inhibition of glandular differentiation can be achieved by addition to the culture of a synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr (RGDT) sequence, which is a cell recognition site found in collagen. Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr also inhibited the cell attachment to collagen-coated plates. Chromosome 15 was found in all human-mouse hybrid clones that could differentiate in the collagen gel and bind collagen. Both binding to collagen and glandular differentiation of the hybrid cells were also inhibited by Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr as for the parent cell line SW1222. The ability of SW1222 cells to express the differentiated phenotype appears, therefore, to be determined by an Arg-Gly-Asp-directed collagen receptor on the cell surface that is controlled by a gene on chromosome 15

  16. Stromal matrix metalloprotease-13 knockout alters Collagen I structure at the tumor-host interface and increases lung metastasis of C57BL/6 syngeneic E0771 mammary tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, Seth W; Schueckler, Jill M; Burke, Kathleen; Arcuri, Giuseppe L; Brown, Edward B

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases and collagen are key participants in breast cancer, but their precise roles in cancer etiology and progression remain unclear. MMP13 helps regulate collagen structure and has been ascribed largely harmful roles in cancer, but some studies demonstrate that MMP13 may also protect against tumor pathology. Other studies indicate that collagen’s organizational patterns at the breast tumor-host interface influence metastatic potential. Therefore we investigated how MMP13 modulates collagen I, a principal collagen subtype in breast tissue, and affects tumor pathology and metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer. Tumors were implanted into murine mammary tissues, and their growth analyzed in Wildtype and MMP13 KO mice. Following extraction, tumors were analyzed for collagen I levels and collagen I macro- and micro-structural properties at the tumor-host boundary using immunocytochemistry and two-photon and second harmonic generation microscopy. Lungs were analyzed for metastases counts, to correlate collagen I changes with a clinically significant functional parameter. Statistical analyses were performed by t-test, analysis of variance, or Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests as appropriate. We found that genetic ablation of host stromal MMP13 led to: 1. Increased mammary tumor collagen I content, 2. Marked changes in collagen I spatial organization, and 3. Altered collagen I microstructure at the tumor-host boundary, as well as 4. Increased metastasis from the primary mammary tumor to lungs. These results implicate host MMP13 as a key regulator of collagen I structure and metastasis in mammary tumors, thus making it an attractive potential therapeutic target by which we might alter metastatic potential, one of the chief determinants of clinical outcome in breast cancer. In addition to identifying stromal MMP13 is an important regulator of the tumor microenvironment and metastasis, these results also suggest that stromal MMP13 may protect against

  17. Altered distributions of bone tissue mineral and collagen properties in women with fragility fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen Xiang; Lloyd, Ashley A; Burket, Jayme C; Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Donnelly, Eve

    2016-03-01

    Heterogeneity of bone tissue properties is emerging as a potential indicator of altered bone quality in pathologic tissue. The objective of this study was to compare the distributions of tissue properties in women with and without histories of fragility fractures using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging. We extended a prior study that examined the relationship of the mean FTIR properties to fracture risk by analyzing in detail the widths and the tails of the distributions of FTIR properties in biopsies from fracture and non-fracture cohorts. The mineral and matrix properties of cortical and trabecular iliac crest tissue were compared in biopsies from women with a history of fragility fracture (+Fx; n=21, age: mean 54±SD 15y) and with no history of fragility fracture (-Fx; n=12, age: 57±5y). A subset of the patients included in the -Fx group were taking estrogen-plus-progestin hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (-Fx+HRT n=8, age: 58±5y) and were analyzed separately from patients with no history of HRT (-Fx-HRT n=4, age: 56±7y). When the FTIR parameter mean values were examined by treatment group, the trabecular tissue of -Fx-HRT patients had a lower mineral:matrix ratio (M:M) and collagen maturity (XLR) than that of -Fx+HRT patients (-22% M:M, -18% XLR) and +Fx patients (-17% M:M, -18% XLR). Across multiple FTIR parameters, tissue from the -Fx-HRT group had smaller low-tail (5th percentile) values than that from the -Fx+HRT or +Fx groups. In trabecular collagen maturity and crystallinity (XST), the -Fx-HRT group had smaller low-tail values than those in the -Fx+HRT group (-16% XLR, -5% XST) and the +Fx group (-17% XLR, -7% XST). The relatively low values of trabecular mineral:matrix ratio and collagen maturity and smaller low-tail values of collagen maturity and crystallinity observed in the -Fx-HRT group are characteristic of younger tissue. Taken together, our data suggest that the presence of newly formed tissue that includes small/imperfect crystals

  18. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Seeley, C.H.; Henderson, J.A.; Schmidl, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental flow visualization tool, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), is being used to determine the velocity field in two-dimensional fluid flows. In the past few years, the technique has been improved to allow the capture of flow fields in three dimensions. This paper describes changes which were made to two existing two-dimensional tracking algorithms to enable them to track three-dimensional PIV data. Results of the tests performed on these three-dimensional routines with synthetic data are presented. Experimental data was also used to test the tracking algorithms. The test setup which was used to acquire the three-dimensional experimental data is described, along with the results from both of the tracking routines which were used to analyze the experimental data. (author)

  19. Collagen-Based Medical Device as a Stem Cell Carrier for Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Aubert

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs requires a tissue-specific microenvironment (i.e., niche, which is poorly represented by the typical plastic substrate used for two-dimensional growth of MSCs in a tissue culture flask. The objective of this study was to address the potential use of collagen-based medical devices (HEMOCOLLAGENE®, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France as mimetic niche for MSCs with the ability to preserve human MSC stemness in vitro. With a chemical composition similar to type I collagen, HEMOCOLLAGENE® foam presented a porous and interconnected structure (>90% and a relative low elastic modulus of around 60 kPa. Biological studies revealed an apparently inert microenvironment of HEMOCOLLAGENE® foam, where 80% of cultured human MSCs remained viable, adopted a flattened morphology, and maintained their undifferentiated state with basal secretory activity. Thus, three-dimensional HEMOCOLLAGENE® foams present an in vitro model that mimics the MSC niche with the capacity to support viable and quiescent MSCs within a low stiffness collagen I scaffold simulating Wharton’s jelly. These results suggest that haemostatic foam may be a useful and versatile carrier for MSC transplantation for regenerative medicine applications.

  20. Structures of two-dimensional three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, W.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Bao, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Features of the structure of L = 0 states of a two-dimensional three-body model system have been investigated. Three types of permutation symmetry of the spatial part, namely symmetric, antisymmetric, and mixed, have been considered. A comparison has been made between the two-dimensional system and the corresponding three-dimensional one. The effect of symmetry on microscopic structures is emphasized. (author)

  1. Three-dimensional in vitro cancer spheroid models for Photodynamic Therapy: Strengths and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Conor

    2015-03-01

    Three dimensional, in vitro spheroid cultures offer considerable utility for the development and testing of anticancer photodynamic therapy regimens. More complex than monolayer cultures, three-dimensional spheroid systems replicate many of the important cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that modulate treatment response in vivo. Simple enough to be grown by the thousands and small enough to be optically interrogated, spheroid cultures lend themselves to high-content and high-throughput imaging approaches. These advantages have enabled studies investigating photosensitizer uptake, spatiotemporal patterns of therapeutic response, alterations in oxygen diffusion and consumption during therapy, and the exploration of mechanisms that underlie therapeutic synergy. The use of quantitative imaging methods, in particular, has accelerated the pace of three-dimensional in vitro photodynamic therapy studies, enabling the rapid compilation of multiple treatment response parameters in a single experiment. Improvements in model cultures, the creation of new molecular probes of cell state and function, and innovations in imaging toolkits will be important for the advancement of spheroid culture systems for future photodynamic therapy studies.

  2. Elastocapillary fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Ondarcuhu, T.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Sundaram, J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2010-01-01

    We describe the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures by means of capillary forces. Using an origami-like technique, planar silicon nitride structures of various geometries are folded to produce three-dimensional objects of 50–100 m. Capillarity is a particularly effective mechanism since

  3. Three-dimensional spheroid culture targeting versatile tissue bioassays using a PDMS-based hanging drop array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Te; Wang, Jong-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Fen; Wo, Andrew M; Chen, Benjamin P C; Lee, Hsinyu

    2017-06-29

    Biomaterial-based tissue culture platforms have emerged as useful tools to mimic in vivo physiological microenvironments in experimental cell biology and clinical studies. We describe herein a three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture platform using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based hanging drop array (PDMS-HDA) methodology. Multicellular spheroids can be achieved within 24 h and further boosted by incorporating collagen fibrils in PDMS-HDA. In addition, the spheroids generated from different human tumor cells exhibited distinct sensitivities toward drug chemotherapeutic agents and radiation as compared with two-dimensional (2D) cultures that often lack in vivo-like biological insights. We also demonstrated that multicellular spheroids may enable key hallmarks of tissue-based bioassays, including drug screening, tumor dissemination, cell co-culture, and tumor invasion. Taken together, these results offer new opportunities not only to achieve the active control of 3D multicellular spheroids on demand, but also to establish a rapid and cost-effective platform to study anti-cancer therapeutics and tumor microenvironments.

  4. Self-assembly of silk-elastinlike protein polymers into three-dimensional scaffolds for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Like

    Production of brand new protein-based materials with precise control over the amino acid sequences at single residue level has been made possible by genetic engineering, through which artificial genes can be developed that encode protein-based materials with desired features. As an example, silk-elastinlike protein polymers (SELPs), composed of tandem repeats of amino acid sequence motifs from Bombyx mori (silkworm) silk and mammalian elastin, have been produced in this approach. SELPs have been studied extensively in the past two decades, however, the fundamental mechanism governing the self-assembly process to date still remains largely unresolved. Further, regardless of the unprecedented success when exploited in areas including drug delivery, gene therapy, and tissue augmentation, SELPs scaffolds as a three-dimensional cell culture model system are complicated by the inability of SELPs to provide the embedded tissue cells with appropriate biochemical stimuli essential for cell survival and function. In this dissertation, it is reported that the self-assembly of silk-elastinlike protein polymers (SELPs) into nanofibers in aqueous solutions can be modulated by tuning the curing temperature, the size of the silk blocks, and the charge of the elastin blocks. A core-sheath model was proposed for nanofiber formation, with the silk blocks in the cores and the hydrated elastin blocks in the sheaths. The folding of the silk blocks into stable cores -- affected by the size of the silk blocks and the charge of the elastin blocks -- plays a critical role in the assembly of silk-elastin nanofibers. The assembled nanofibers further form nanofiber clusters on the microscale, and the nanofiber clusters then coalesce into nanofiber micro-assemblies, interconnection of which eventually leads to the formation of three-dimensional scaffolds with distinct nanoscale and microscale features. SELP-Collagen hybrid scaffolds were also fabricated to enable independent control over the

  5. Investigation of the influence of UV irradiation on collagen thin films by AFM imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stylianou, Andreas, E-mail: styliand@mail.ntua.gr; Yova, Dido; Alexandratou, Eleni

    2014-12-01

    Collagen is the major fibrous extracellular matrix protein and due to its unique properties, it has been widely used as biomaterial, scaffold and cell-substrate. The aim of the paper was to use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to investigate well-characterized collagen thin films after ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation. The films were also used as in vitro culturing substrates in order to investigate the UV-induced alterations to fibroblasts. A special attention was given in the alteration on collagen D-periodicity. For short irradiation times, spectroscopy (fluorescence/absorption) studies demonstrated that photodegradation took place and AFM imaging showed alterations in surface roughness. Also, it was highlighted that UV-irradiation had different effects when it was applied on collagen solution than on films. Concerning fibroblast culturing, it was shown that fibroblast behavior was affected after UV irradiation of both collagen solution and films. Furthermore, after a long irradiation time, collagen fibrils were deformed revealing that collagen fibrils are consisting of multiple shells and D-periodicity occurred on both outer and inner shells. The clarification of the effects of UV light on collagen and the induced modifications of cell behavior on UV-irradiated collagen-based surfaces will contribute to the better understanding of cell–matrix interactions in the nanoscale and will assist in the appropriate use of UV light for sterilizing and photo-cross-linking applications. - Highlights: • Collagen thin films were formed and exposed in UV irradiation. • Collagen thin films were formed from UV-irradiated collagen solution. • Nanocharacterization of collagen thin films by AFM • Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy studies on collagen films • Investigation of fibroblast response on collagen films.

  6. Investigation of the influence of UV irradiation on collagen thin films by AFM imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stylianou, Andreas; Yova, Dido; Alexandratou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Collagen is the major fibrous extracellular matrix protein and due to its unique properties, it has been widely used as biomaterial, scaffold and cell-substrate. The aim of the paper was to use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to investigate well-characterized collagen thin films after ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation. The films were also used as in vitro culturing substrates in order to investigate the UV-induced alterations to fibroblasts. A special attention was given in the alteration on collagen D-periodicity. For short irradiation times, spectroscopy (fluorescence/absorption) studies demonstrated that photodegradation took place and AFM imaging showed alterations in surface roughness. Also, it was highlighted that UV-irradiation had different effects when it was applied on collagen solution than on films. Concerning fibroblast culturing, it was shown that fibroblast behavior was affected after UV irradiation of both collagen solution and films. Furthermore, after a long irradiation time, collagen fibrils were deformed revealing that collagen fibrils are consisting of multiple shells and D-periodicity occurred on both outer and inner shells. The clarification of the effects of UV light on collagen and the induced modifications of cell behavior on UV-irradiated collagen-based surfaces will contribute to the better understanding of cell–matrix interactions in the nanoscale and will assist in the appropriate use of UV light for sterilizing and photo-cross-linking applications. - Highlights: • Collagen thin films were formed and exposed in UV irradiation. • Collagen thin films were formed from UV-irradiated collagen solution. • Nanocharacterization of collagen thin films by AFM • Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy studies on collagen films • Investigation of fibroblast response on collagen films

  7. Three-dimensional printing and pediatric liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouri, Naim; Zein, Nizar N

    2016-10-01

    Enthusiastic physicians and medical researchers are investigating the role of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The purpose of the current review is to provide a concise summary of the role of three-dimensional printing technology as it relates to the field of pediatric hepatology and liver transplantation. Our group and others have recently demonstrated the feasibility of printing three-dimensional livers with identical anatomical and geometrical landmarks to the native liver to facilitate presurgical planning of complex liver surgeries. Medical educators are exploring the use of three-dimensional printed organs in anatomy classes and surgical residencies. Moreover, mini-livers are being developed by regenerative medicine scientist as a way to test new drugs and, eventually, whole livers will be grown in the laboratory to replace organs with end-stage disease solving the organ shortage problem. From presurgical planning to medical education to ultimately the bioprinting of whole organs for transplantation, three-dimensional printing will change medicine as we know in the next few years.

  8. Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA): Three-Dimensional Image Interpretation Tool for Radiological Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Sharmili; Brown, Michael S.; Shih, George L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a software framework called Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA) that is able to automatically generate three-dimensional (3D) visual summaries based on radiological annotations made during routine exam reporting. VITA summaries are in the form of rotating 3D volumes where radiological annotations are highlighted to place important clinical observations into a 3D context. The rendered volume is produced as a Digital Imaging and Communications i...

  9. The performance of human dental pulp stem cells on different three-dimensional scaffold materials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Daamen, W.F.; Bian, Z.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo behavior of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from impacted third molars, when seeded onto different 3-dimensional (3-D) scaffold materials: i.e. a spongeous collagen, a porous ceramic, and a fibrous titanium mesh.

  10. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao

    1999-01-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  12. Fluorescent Labeling of Collagen Production by Cells for Noninvasive Imaging of Extracellular Matrix Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Katie; Yang, Ying; El Haj, Alicia J

    2017-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of tissues and provides both integrity and biological cues for cells. Collagen is one of the major proteins found within the ECM and therefore is an essential component of all engineered tissues. Therefore, in this article, we present a method for the online real-time monitoring of collagen deposition in three-dimensional engineered constructs. This method revolves around modification of collagen through the addition of azide-L-proline to cell culture media. The incorporation of azide-L-proline into the neocollagen produced by cells can then be detected by reaction with 10 mM of a Click-IT Alexa Fluor 488 DIBO Alkyne. The reaction was shown as being specific to the collagen as little background staining was observed in cultures, which did not contain the modified proline, and the staining was also depleted after treatment with collagenase and colocalization of collagen type I staining by immunochemistry assay. Real-time online staining of collagen deposition was observed under different culture conditions without affecting proliferation. Collagen deposition was observed to be increased under mechanical stimulation; however, the localization varied across stimulation regimes. This is a new technique for real-time monitoring of cell-produced collagen and will be a valuable addition to the tissue engineering field.

  13. Application of Simulated Three Dimensional CT Image in Orthognathic Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Don; Park, Chang Seo [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yensei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Sun Kook; Lee, Kyoung Sang [Dept. of Medical Engineering, College of Medicine, Yensei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-15

    In orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, cephalogram has been routine practice in diagnosis and treatment evaluation of craniofacial deformity. But its inherent distortion of actual length and angles during projecting three dimensional object to two dimensional plane might cause errors in quantitative analysis of shape and size. Therefore, it is desirable that three dimensional object is diagnosed and evaluated three dimensionally and three dimensional CT image is best for three dimensional analysis. Development of clinic necessitates evaluation of result of treatment and comparison before and after surgery. It is desirable that patient that was diagnosed and planned by three dimensional computed tomography before surgery is evaluated by three dimensional computed tomography after surgery, too. But Because there is no standardized normal values in three dimension now and three dimensional Computed Tomography needs expensive equipment and because of its expenses and amount of exposure to radiation, limitations still remain to be solved in its application to routine practice. If postoperative three dimensional image is constructed by pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms and preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram, pre and postoperative image will be compared and evaluated three dimensionally without three dimensional computed tomography after surgery and that will contribute to standardize normal values in three dimension. This study introduced new method that computer-simulated three dimensional image was constructed by preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram and pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms, and for validation of new method, in four cases of dry skull that position of mandible was displaced and four patients of orthognathic surgery, computer-simulated three dimensional image and actual postoperative three dimensional image were compared. The results were as follows. 1. In four cases of

  14. Application of Simulated Three Dimensional CT Image in Orthognathic Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Don; Park, Chang Seo; Yoo, Sun Kook; Lee, Kyoung Sang

    1998-01-01

    In orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, cephalogram has been routine practice in diagnosis and treatment evaluation of craniofacial deformity. But its inherent distortion of actual length and angles during projecting three dimensional object to two dimensional plane might cause errors in quantitative analysis of shape and size. Therefore, it is desirable that three dimensional object is diagnosed and evaluated three dimensionally and three dimensional CT image is best for three dimensional analysis. Development of clinic necessitates evaluation of result of treatment and comparison before and after surgery. It is desirable that patient that was diagnosed and planned by three dimensional computed tomography before surgery is evaluated by three dimensional computed tomography after surgery, too. But Because there is no standardized normal values in three dimension now and three dimensional Computed Tomography needs expensive equipment and because of its expenses and amount of exposure to radiation, limitations still remain to be solved in its application to routine practice. If postoperative three dimensional image is constructed by pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms and preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram, pre and postoperative image will be compared and evaluated three dimensionally without three dimensional computed tomography after surgery and that will contribute to standardize normal values in three dimension. This study introduced new method that computer-simulated three dimensional image was constructed by preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram and pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms, and for validation of new method, in four cases of dry skull that position of mandible was displaced and four patients of orthognathic surgery, computer-simulated three dimensional image and actual postoperative three dimensional image were compared. The results were as follows. 1. In four cases of

  15. Three-dimensional low-energy topological invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalarska, M.; Broda, B.

    2000-01-01

    A description of the one-loop approximation formula for the partition function of a three-dimensional abelian version of the Donaldson-Witten theory is proposed. The one-loop expression is shown to contain such topological invariants of a three-dimensional manifold M like the Reidemeister-Ray-Singer torsion τ R and Betti numbers. (orig.)

  16. Enhancement of tendon–bone healing via the combination of biodegradable collagen-loaded nanofibrous membranes and a three-dimensional printed bone-anchoring bolt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou YC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Chao Chou,1,2 Wen-Lin Yeh,2 Chien-Lin Chao,1 Yung-Heng Hsu,1,2 Yi-Hsun Yu,1,2 Jan-Kan Chen,3 Shih-Jung Liu1,2 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Abstract: A composite biodegradable polymeric model was developed to enhance tendon graft healing. This model included a biodegradable polylactide (PLA bolt as the bone anchor and a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanofibrous membrane embedded with collagen as a biomimic patch to promote tendon–bone interface integration. Degradation rate and compressive strength of the PLA bolt were measured after immersion in a buffer solution for 3 months. In vitro biochemical characteristics and the nanofibrous matrix were assessed using a water contact angle analyzer, pH meter, and tetrazolium reduction assay. In vivo efficacies of PLGA/collagen nanofibers and PLA bolts for tendon–bone healing were investigated on a rabbit bone tunnel model with histological and tendon pullout tests. The PLGA/collagen-blended nanofibrous membrane was a hydrophilic, stable, and biocompatible scaffold. The PLA bolt was durable for tendon–bone anchoring. Histology showed adequate biocompatibility of the PLA bolt on a medial cortex with progressive bone ingrowth and without tissue overreaction. PLGA nanofibers within the bone tunnel also decreased the tunnel enlargement phenomenon and enhanced tendon–bone integration. Composite polymers of the PLA bolt and PLGA/collagen nanofibrous membrane can effectively promote outcomes of tendon reconstruction in a rabbit model. The composite biodegradable polymeric system may be useful in humans for tendon reconstruction. Keywords: polylactide–polyglycolide nanofibers, PLGA, collagen, 3D printing, polylactide, PLA, bone-anchoring bolts, tendon healing

  17. Ridge preservation of extraction sockets with chronic pathology using Bio-Oss® Collagen with or without collagen membrane: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ju; Schwarz, Frank; Song, Hyun Young; Choi, YoonMi; Kang, Kyung-Rim; Koo, Ki-Tae

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of newly bone formation and dimensional change in diseased extraction sockets using Bio-Oss ® Collagen with or without a collagen membrane. In six beagle dogs, right and left 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars were hemisected and the distal roots were removed. Combined endodontic-periodontic lesions were induced in all sites using black silk, collagen sponge, endodontic files, and application of Porphyromonas gingivalis. After 4 months, among 4 premolars, three teeth were randomly selected per dog and allocated to the following experimental groups: Control group (no treatment but debridement), Test 1 group (only Bio-Oss ® Collagen graft), and Test 2 group (Bio-Oss ® Collagen graft with a collagen membrane). After 7 months from the baseline, the beagle dogs were sacrificed for histomorphometric and Micro-CT analysis. The vertical distance between buccal and lingual crests in the Control group (2.22 ± 0.26 mm) and Test 2 group (1.80 ± 0.16 mm) was significantly different. The socket of the Test 2 group (27.04 ± 5.25%) was occupied by a greater quantity of bone graft compared to the Test 1 group (18.49 ± 2.11%). Ridge preservation in diseased extraction sockets could compensate for buccal bone resorption by contact osteogenesis surrounding the bone graft particles at the bucco-coronal area during socket healing, and the application of a collagen membrane at the entrance of the socket is useful for preserving graft material at the coronal part of the socket. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Multiphoton crosslinking for biocompatible 3D printing of type I collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alex; Kofron, Matthew; Nistor, Vasile

    2015-09-03

    Multiphoton fabrication is a powerful technique for three-dimensional (3D) printing of structures at the microscale. Many polymers and proteins have been successfully structured and patterned using this method. Type I collagen comprises a large part of the extracellular matrix for most tissue types and is a widely used cellular scaffold material for tissue engineering. Current methods for creating collagen tissue scaffolds do not allow control of local geometry on a cellular scale. This means the environment experienced by cells may be made up of the native material but unrelated to native cellular-scale structure. In this study, we present a novel method to allow multiphoton crosslinking of type I collagen with flavin mononucleotide photosensitizer. The method detailed allows full 3D printing of crosslinked structures made from unmodified type I collagen and uses only demonstrated biocompatible materials. Resolution of 1 μm for both standing lines and high-aspect ratio gaps between structures is demonstrated and complex 3D structures are fabricated. This study demonstrates a means for 3D printing with one of the most widely used tissue scaffold materials. High-resolution, 3D control of the fabrication of collagen scaffolds will facilitate higher fidelity recreation of the native extracellular environment for engineered tissues.

  19. Two-dimensional collagen-graphene as colloidal templates for biocompatible inorganic nanomaterial synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Divya Kumari,1,* Lubna Sheikh,1,* Soumya Bhattacharya,1,* Thomas J Webster,2 Suprabha Nayar1 1Materials Science and Technology Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Burmamines, Jamshedpur, India; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In this study, natural graphite was first converted to collagen-graphene composites and then used as templates for the synthesis of nanoparticles of silver, iron oxide, and hydroxyapatite. X-ray diffraction did not show any diffraction peaks of graphene in the composites after inorganic nucleation, compared to the naked composite which showed (002 and (004 peaks. Scanning electron micrographs showed lateral gluing/docking of these composites, possibly driven by an electrostatic attraction between the positive layers of one stack and negative layers of another, which became distorted after inorganic nucleation. Docking resulted in single layer-like characteristics in certain places, as seen under transmission electron microscopy, but sp2/sp3 ratios from Raman analysis inferred three-layer composite formation. Strain-induced folding of these layers into uniform clusters at the point of critical nucleation, revealed beautiful microstructures under scanning electron microscopy. Lastly, cell viability studies using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays showed the highest cell viability for the collagen-graphene-hydroxyapatite composites. In this manner, this study provided – to the field of nanomedicine – a new process for the synthesis of several nanoparticles (with low toxicity of high interest for numerous medical applications. Keywords: composites, graphene, collagen, lateral gluing, and inorganic nanoparticles

  20. [Bone drilling simulation by three-dimensional imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Y; Furuhata, K; Kojima, T; Kurokawa, T; Kobayashi, M

    1989-06-01

    The three-dimensional display technique has a wide range of medical applications. Pre-operative planning is one typical application: in orthopedic surgery, three-dimensional image processing has been used very successfully. We have employed this technique in pre-operative planning for orthopedic surgery, and have developed a simulation system for bone-drilling. Positive results were obtained by pre-operative rehearsal; when a region of interest is indicated by means of a mouse on the three-dimensional image displayed on the CRT, the corresponding region appears on the slice image which is displayed simultaneously. Consequently, the status of the bone-drilling is constantly monitored. In developing this system, we have placed emphasis on the quality of the reconstructed three-dimensional images, on fast processing, and on the easy operation of the surgical planning simulation.

  1. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAli, Ahmad B; Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice.

  2. The Three-dimensional Digital Factory for Shipbuilding Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional digital factory technology research is the hotspot in shipbuilding recently. The three-dimensional digital factory technology not only focus on design the components of the product, but also discuss on the simulation and analyses of the production process.Based on the three-dimensional model, the basic data layer, application control layer and the presentation layer of hierarchical structure are established in the three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding in this paper. And the key technologies of three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding are analysed. Finally, a case study is applied and the results show that the three-dimensional digital factory will play an important role in the future.

  3. Effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hu

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding.Bonded dentin specimens were prepared using three different types of adhesive systems. Micro-tensile bond strength and degradation of collagen were tested before, and after 1 month or 4 months of aging in artificial saliva. The relationship between micro-tensile bond strength and collagen degradation was analyzed by calculating their Pearson's correlation coefficient.Aging induced time-dependent reduction in micro-tensile bond strengths for all the tested adhesive systems, although such reduction for the single-step self-etching adhesive G-Bond (GB was not statistically significant. The bond strength of the two-step self-etching primer adhesive system Clearfil SE Bond (SEB was similar to that of the two-step etch-and-rinse self-priming adhesive system Single Bond 2 (SB, and they were both significantly reduced after one or four months of aging. A negative correlation was found between the degree of collagen degradation and magnitude of micro-tensile bond strength (r = -0.65, p = 0.003. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.426, indicating that 42.6% of the aging-induced reduction in bond strength can be explained by the degradation of collagen.In the early phase of dentin bonding, there was a negative correlation between the degree of collagen degradation and the magnitude of micro-tensile bond strength. The reduction of bond strength was accompanied by the degradation of collagen. These results provide evidence for the causative relationship between the degradation of collagen and the deterioration of dentin-adhesive interface.

  4. Towards three-dimensional optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuo; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    Metamaterials have opened up the possibility of unprecedented and fascinating concepts and applications in optics and photonics. Examples include negative refraction, perfect lenses, cloaking, perfect absorbers, and so on. Since these metamaterials are man-made materials composed of sub-wavelength structures, their development strongly depends on the advancement of micro- and nano-fabrication technologies. In particular, the realization of three-dimensional metamaterials is one of the big challenges in this research field. In this review, we describe recent progress in the fabrication technologies for three-dimensional metamaterials, as well as proposed applications.

  5. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  6. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  7. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome

  8. A three-dimensional field solutions of Halbach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jizhong; Xiao Jijun; Zhang Yiming; Xu Chunyan

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional field solutions are presented for Halback cylinder magnet. Based on Ampere equivalent current methods, the permanent magnets are taken as distributing of current density. For getting the three-dimensional field solution of ideal polarized permanent magnets, the solution method entails the use of the vector potential and involves the closed-form integration of the free-space Green's function. The programmed field solution are ideal for performing rapid parametric studies of the dipole Halback cylinder magnets made from rare earth materials. The field solutions are verified by both an analytical two-dimensional algorithm and three-dimensional finite element software. A rapid method is presented for extensive analyzing and optimizing Halbach cylinder magnet. (authors)

  9. Age Increases Monocyte Adhesion on Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, Samira; Zondler, Lisa; Kleinjan, Fenneke; Nolte, Ulla; Mulaw, Medhanie A.; Danzer, Karin M.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Gottschalk, Kay-E.

    2017-05-01

    Adhesion of monocytes to micro-injuries on arterial walls is an important early step in the occurrence and development of degenerative atherosclerotic lesions. At these injuries, collagen is exposed to the blood stream. We are interested whether age influences monocyte adhesion to collagen under flow, and hence influences the susceptibility to arteriosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we studied adhesion and rolling of human peripheral blood monocytes from old and young individuals on collagen type I coated surface under shear flow. We find that firm adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is elevated in old individuals. Pre-stimulation by lipopolysaccharide increases the firm adhesion of monocytes homogeneously in older individuals, but heterogeneously in young individuals. Blocking integrin αx showed that adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is specific to the main collagen binding integrin αxβ2. Surprisingly, we find no significant age-dependent difference in gene expression of integrin αx or integrin β2. However, if all integrins are activated from the outside, no differences exist between the age groups. Altered integrin activation therefore causes the increased adhesion. Our results show that the basal increase in integrin activation in monocytes from old individuals increases monocyte adhesion to collagen and therefore the risk for arteriosclerotic plaques.

  10. Collagen type IV at the fetal-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oefner, C M; Sharkey, A; Gardner, L; Critchley, H; Oyen, M; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins play a crucial role in influencing the invasion of trophoblast cells. However the role of collagens and collagen type IV (col-IV) in particular at the implantation site is not clear. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. Expression of col-IV alpha chains during the reproductive cycle was determined by qPCR and protein localisation by immunohistochemistry. The structure of col-IV in placenta was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the expression of col-IV alpha chain NC1 domains and collagen receptors was localised by immunohistochemistry. Col-IV alpha chains were selectively up-regulated during the menstrual cycle and decidualisation. Primary extravillous trophoblast cells express collagen receptors and secrete col-IV in vitro and in vivo, resulting in the increased levels found in decidua basalis compared to decidua parietalis. A novel expression pattern of col-IV in the mesenchyme of placental villi, as a three-dimensional network, was found. NC1 domains of col-IV alpha chains are known to regulate tumour cell migration and the selective expression of these domains in decidua basalis compared to decidua parietalis was determined. Col-IV is expressed as novel forms in the placenta. These findings suggest that col-IV not only represents a structural protein providing tissue integrity but also influences the invasive behaviour of trophoblast cells at the implantation site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Saad

    2014-03-01

    Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.

  12. The degree of collagen crosslinks in medical collagen membranes determined by water absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braczko, M.; Tederko, A.; Grzybowski, J.

    1994-01-01

    Collagen membranes were crosslinked by using three agents: glutaraldehyde, hexametylenediisocyanate, and UV irradiation. The increasing concentrations of above chemical agents or longer time of UV exposition resulted in the higher cross-links degree and in the decrease of collagen membranes swelling (measured as water absorption), their elasticity and mechanical resistance. According to American standards, the degree of collagen biomaterial cross-links is determined by measuring of the digestion time by pepsin. However, that method is very time-consuming. In our study, we have that a simple, linear regression between logarithm of digestion time by pepsin exists and it was identical for all three cross-linking agents used. We have concluded that determination of water absorption can be an alternative, simple and fast method for examination of collagen membrane cross-links degree. (author). 16 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  13. Three-dimensional instability of standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing surface waves under the influence of gravity. The analysis employs the transition matrix (TM) approach and uses a new high-order spectral element (HOSE) method for computation of the nonlinear wave dynamics. HOSE is an extension of the original high-order spectral method (HOS) wherein nonlinear wave wave and wave body interactions are retained up to high order in wave steepness. Instead of global basis functions in HOS, however, HOSE employs spectral elements to allow for complex free-surface geometries and surface-piercing bodies. Exponential convergence of HOS with respect to the total number of spectral modes (for a fixed number of elements) and interaction order is retained in HOSE. In this study, we use TM-HOSE to obtain the stability of general three-dimensional perturbations (on a two-dimensional surface) on two classes of standing waves: plane standing waves in a rectangular tank; and radial/azimuthal standing waves in a circular basin. For plane standing waves, we confirm the known result of two-dimensional side-bandlike instability. In addition, we find a novel three-dimensional instability for base flow of any amplitude. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique (standing) wave oriented at an arbitrary angle whose frequency is close to the (nonlinear) frequency of the original standing wave. This finding is confirmed by direct long-time simulations using HOSE which show that the nonlinear evolution leads to classical Fermi Pasta Ulam recurrence. For the circular basin, we find that, beyond a threshold wave steepness, a standing wave (of nonlinear frequency Omega) is unstable to three-dimensional perturbations. The unstable perturbation contains two dominant (standing-wave) components, the sum of whose frequencies is close to 2Omega. From the cases we consider, the critical wave steepness is found to generally decrease/increase with increasing radial

  14. Proteomic analysis of the action of the Mycobacterium ulcerans toxin mycolactone: targeting host cells cytoskeleton and collagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B Gama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The tissue damage characteristic of BU lesions is known to be driven by the secretion of the potent lipidic exotoxin mycolactone. However, the molecular action of mycolactone on host cell biology mediating cytopathogenesis is not fully understood. Here we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE to identify the mechanisms of mycolactone's cellular action in the L929 mouse fibroblast proteome. This revealed 20 changed spots corresponding to 18 proteins which were clustered mainly into cytoskeleton-related proteins (Dync1i2, Cfl1, Crmp2, Actg1, Stmn1 and collagen biosynthesis enzymes (Plod1, Plod3, P4ha1. In line with cytoskeleton conformational disarrangements that are observed by immunofluorescence, we found several regulators and constituents of both actin- and tubulin-cytoskeleton affected upon exposure to the toxin, providing a novel molecular basis for the effect of mycolactone. Consistent with these cytoskeleton-related alterations, accumulation of autophagosomes as well as an increased protein ubiquitination were observed in mycolactone-treated cells. In vivo analyses in a BU mouse model revealed mycolactone-dependent structural changes in collagen upon infection with M. ulcerans, associated with the reduction of dermal collagen content, which is in line with our proteomic finding of mycolactone-induced down-regulation of several collagen biosynthesis enzymes. Our results unveil the mechanisms of mycolactone-induced molecular cytopathogenesis on exposed host cells, with the toxin compromising cell structure and homeostasis by inducing cytoskeleton alterations, as well as disrupting tissue structure, by impairing the extracellular matrix biosynthesis.

  15. Proteomic analysis of the action of the Mycobacterium ulcerans toxin mycolactone: targeting host cells cytoskeleton and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, José B; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Martins, Teresa G; Fraga, Alexandra G; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Carvalho, Maria A; Proença, Fernanda; Silva, Manuel T; Pedrosa, Jorge; Ludovico, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The tissue damage characteristic of BU lesions is known to be driven by the secretion of the potent lipidic exotoxin mycolactone. However, the molecular action of mycolactone on host cell biology mediating cytopathogenesis is not fully understood. Here we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to identify the mechanisms of mycolactone's cellular action in the L929 mouse fibroblast proteome. This revealed 20 changed spots corresponding to 18 proteins which were clustered mainly into cytoskeleton-related proteins (Dync1i2, Cfl1, Crmp2, Actg1, Stmn1) and collagen biosynthesis enzymes (Plod1, Plod3, P4ha1). In line with cytoskeleton conformational disarrangements that are observed by immunofluorescence, we found several regulators and constituents of both actin- and tubulin-cytoskeleton affected upon exposure to the toxin, providing a novel molecular basis for the effect of mycolactone. Consistent with these cytoskeleton-related alterations, accumulation of autophagosomes as well as an increased protein ubiquitination were observed in mycolactone-treated cells. In vivo analyses in a BU mouse model revealed mycolactone-dependent structural changes in collagen upon infection with M. ulcerans, associated with the reduction of dermal collagen content, which is in line with our proteomic finding of mycolactone-induced down-regulation of several collagen biosynthesis enzymes. Our results unveil the mechanisms of mycolactone-induced molecular cytopathogenesis on exposed host cells, with the toxin compromising cell structure and homeostasis by inducing cytoskeleton alterations, as well as disrupting tissue structure, by impairing the extracellular matrix biosynthesis.

  16. Embryonic stem cells in scaffold-free three-dimensional cell culture: osteogenic differentiation and bone generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschel, Jörg; Naujoks, Christian; Depprich, Rita; Lammers, Lydia; Kübler, Norbert; Meyer, Ulrich; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter

    2011-07-14

    Extracorporeal formation of mineralized bone-like tissue is still an unsolved challenge in tissue engineering. Embryonic stem cells may open up new therapeutic options for the future and should be an interesting model for the analysis of fetal organogenesis. Here we describe a technique for culturing embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the absence of artificial scaffolds which generated mineralized miromasses. Embryonic stem cells were harvested and osteogenic differentiation was stimulated by the addition of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and ß-glycerolphosphate (DAG). After three days of cultivation microspheres were formed. These spherical three-dimensional cell units showed a peripheral zone consisting of densely packed cell layers surrounded by minerals that were embedded in the extracellular matrix. Alizarine red staining confirmed evidence of mineralization after 10 days of DAG stimulation in the stimulated but not in the control group. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated scorching crystallites and collagenous fibrils as early indication of bone formation. These extracellular structures resembled hydroxyl apatite-like crystals as demonstrated by distinct diffraction patterns using electron diffraction analysis. The micromass culture technique is an appropriate model to form three-dimensional bone-like micro-units without the need for an underlying scaffold. Further studies will have to show whether the technique is applicable also to pluripotent stem cells of different origin. © 2011 Handschel et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  17. Embryonic stem cells in scaffold-free three-dimensional cell culture: osteogenic differentiation and bone generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Ulrich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extracorporeal formation of mineralized bone-like tissue is still an unsolved challenge in tissue engineering. Embryonic stem cells may open up new therapeutic options for the future and should be an interesting model for the analysis of fetal organogenesis. Here we describe a technique for culturing embryonic stem cells (ESCs in the absence of artificial scaffolds which generated mineralized miromasses. Embryonic stem cells were harvested and osteogenic differentiation was stimulated by the addition of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and ß-glycerolphosphate (DAG. After three days of cultivation microspheres were formed. These spherical three-dimensional cell units showed a peripheral zone consisting of densely packed cell layers surrounded by minerals that were embedded in the extracellular matrix. Alizarine red staining confirmed evidence of mineralization after 10 days of DAG stimulation in the stimulated but not in the control group. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated scorching crystallites and collagenous fibrils as early indication of bone formation. These extracellular structures resembled hydroxyl apatite-like crystals as demonstrated by distinct diffraction patterns using electron diffraction analysis. The micromass culture technique is an appropriate model to form three-dimensional bone-like micro-units without the need for an underlying scaffold. Further studies will have to show whether the technique is applicable also to pluripotent stem cells of different origin.

  18. Cylindrical Three-Dimensional Porous Anodic Alumina Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Resende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a conformal three-dimensional nanostructure based on porous anodic alumina with transversal nanopores on wires is herein presented. The resulting three-dimensional network exhibits the same nanostructure as that obtained on planar geometries, but with a macroscopic cylindrical geometry. The morphological analysis of the nanostructure revealed the effects of the initial defects on the aluminum surface and the mechanical strains on the integrity of the three-dimensional network. The results evidence the feasibility of obtaining 3D porous anodic alumina on non-planar aluminum substrates.

  19. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  20. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Derived from Circulating Inflammatory Monocytes Degrade Collagen through Cellular Uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel Hargbøl; Jürgensen, Henrik Jessen; Siersbæk, Majken Storm

    2017-01-01

    -associated macrophage (TAM)-like cells that degrade collagen in a mannose receptor-dependent manner. Accordingly, mannose-receptor-deficient mice display increased intratumoral collagen. Whole-transcriptome profiling uncovers a distinct extracellular matrix-catabolic signature of these collagen-degrading TAMs. Lineage......-ablation studies reveal that collagen-degrading TAMs originate from circulating CCR2+ monocytes. This study identifies a function of TAMs in altering the tumor microenvironment through endocytic collagen turnover and establishes macrophages as centrally engaged in tumor-associated collagen degradation. Madsen et...

  1. Backlund transformations and three-dimensional lattice equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, F.W.; Capel, H.W.; Wiersma, G.L.; Quispel, G.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    A (nonlocal) linear integral equation is studied, which allows for Bäcklund transformations in the measure. The compatibility of three of these transformations leads to an integrable nonlinear three-dimensional lattice equation. In appropriate continuum limits the two-dimensional Toda-lattice

  2. Arching in three-dimensional clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, János; Lévay, Sára; Szabó, Balázs; Somfai, Ellák; Wegner, Sandra; Stannarius, Ralf; Börzsönyi, Tamás

    2017-06-01

    Arching in dry granular material is a long established concept, however it remains still an open question how three-dimensional orifices clog. We investigate by means of numerical simulations and experimental data how the outflow creates a blocked configuration of particles. We define the concave surface of the clogged dome by two independent methods (geometric and density based). The average shape of the cupola for spheres is almost a hemisphere but individual samples have large holes in the structure indicating a blocked state composed of two-dimensional force chains rather than three-dimensional objects. The force chain structure justifies this assumption. For long particles the clogged configurations display large variations, and in certain cases the empty region reaches a height of 5 hole diameters. These structures involve vertical walls consisting of horizontally placed stable stacking of particles.

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the biliary tract using spiral computed tomography. Three-dimensional cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gon, Masanori; Ogura, Norihiro; Uetsuji, Shouji; Ueyama, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    In this study, 310 patients with benign biliary diseases, 20 with gallbladder cancer, and 8 with biliary tract carcinoma underwent spiral CT (SCT) scanning at cholangiography. Depiction rate of the shape of the conjunction site of the gallbladder and biliary tract was 27.5% by conventional intravenous cholangiography (DIC), 92.5% by ERC, and 90.0% by DIC-SCT. Abnormal cystic duct course was admitted in 14.1%. Multiplanar reconstruction by DIC-SCT enabled identification of the common bile duct and intrahepatic bile duct stone. Three-dimensional reconstruction of DIC-SCT was effective in evaluating obstruction of the anastomosis or passing condition of after hepatico-jejunostomy. Two-dimensional SCT images through PTCD tube enabled degree of hepatic invasion in bile duct cancer, and three-dimensional images were useful in grasping the morphology of the bile duct branches near the obstruction site. DIC-SCT is therefore considered a useful procedure as non-invasive examination of bile duct lesions. (S.Y.)

  4. Large Bone Vertical Augmentation Using a Three-Dimensional Printed TCP/HA Bone Graft: A Pilot Study in Dog Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Jean-Pierre; Wiskott, Anselm; Scherrer, Susanne; Durual, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    Osteoflux is a three-dimensional printed calcium phosphate porous structure for oral bone augmentation. It is a mechanically stable scaffold with a well-defined interconnectivity and can be readily shaped to conform to the bone bed's morphology. An animal experiment is reported whose aim was to assess the performance and safety of the scaffold in promoting vertical growth of cortical bone in the mandible. Four three-dimensional blocks (10 mm length, 5 mm width, 5 mm height) were affixed to edentulous segments of the dog's mandible and covered by a collagen membrane. During bone bed preparation, particular attention was paid not to create defects 0.5 mm or more so that the real potential of the three-dimensional block in driving vertical bone growth can be assessed. Histomorphometric analyses were performed after 8 weeks. At 8 weeks, the three-dimensional blocks led to substantial vertical bone growth up to 4.5 mm from the bone bed. Between 0 and 1 mm in height, 44% of the surface was filled with new bone, at 1 to 3 mm it was 20% to 35%, 18% at 3 to 4, and ca. 6% beyond 4 mm. New bone was evenly distributed along in mesio-distal direction and formed a new crest contour in harmony with the natural mandibular shape. After two months of healing, the three-dimensional printed blocks conducted new bone growth above its natural bed, up to 4.5 mm in a canine mandibular model. Furthermore, the new bone was evenly distributed in height and density along the block. These results are very promising and need to be further evaluated by a complete powerful study using the same model. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Collagen V expression is crucial in regional development of the supraspinatus tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connizzo, Brianne K; Adams, Sheila M; Adams, Thomas H; Birk, David E; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2016-12-01

    Manipulations in cell culture and mouse models have demonstrated that reduction of collagen V results in altered fibril structure and matrix assembly. A tissue-dependent role for collagen V in determining mechanical function was recently established, but its role in determining regional properties has not been addressed. The objective of this study was to define the role(s) of collagen V expression in establishing the site-specific properties of the supraspinatus tendon. The insertion and midsubstance of tendons from wild type, heterozygous and tendon/ligament-specific null mice were assessed for crimp morphology, fibril morphology, cell morphology, as well as total collagen and pyridinoline cross-link (PYD) content. Fibril morphology was altered at the midsubstance of both groups with larger, but fewer, fibrils and no change in cell morphology or collagen compared to the wild type controls. In contrast, a significant disruption of fibril assembly was observed at the insertion site of the null group with the presence of structurally aberrant fibrils. Alterations were also present in cell density and PYD content. Altogether, these results demonstrate that collagen V plays a crucial role in determining region-specific differences in mouse supraspinatus tendon structure. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2154-2161, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Toward single cell traction microscopy within 3D collagen matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Matthew S.; Long, Rong; Feng, Xinzeng; Huang, YuLing; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Wu, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three-dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell–ECM and cell–cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cell migration within collagen gels. - Highlights: • Review of the current state of the art in 3D cell traction force microscopy. • Bulk and micro-characterization of remodelable fibrous collagen gels. • Strategies for performing 3D cell traction microscopy within collagen gels

  7. Toward single cell traction microscopy within 3D collagen matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Matthew S. [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Long, Rong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2G8 (Canada); Feng, Xinzeng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Huang, YuLing [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hui, Chung-Yuen [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wu, Mingming, E-mail: mw272@cornell.edu [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three-dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell–ECM and cell–cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cell migration within collagen gels. - Highlights: • Review of the current state of the art in 3D cell traction force microscopy. • Bulk and micro-characterization of remodelable fibrous collagen gels. • Strategies for performing 3D cell traction microscopy within collagen gels.

  8. Electrochemically assisted co-deposition of calcium phosphate/collagen coatings on carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xueni [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Hu Tao [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Li Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Chen Mengdi; Cao Sheng; Zhang Leilei [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Hou Xianghui [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP)/collagen coatings were prepared on the surface of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites by electrochemically assisted co-deposition technique. The effects of collagen concentration in the electrolyte on morphology, structure and composition of the coatings were systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesive strength of the coatings was also evaluated by scratch tests and tensile bond tests. It was demonstrated that the coatings of three-dimensional collagen network structure was formed on the C/C composites from the electrolyte containing collagen. The surface of the collagen network was covered by uniform CaP aggregates. The coatings were actually composites of CaP and collagen. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was a favorable composition in the coatings with the increase of the collagen concentration in the electrolyte. The formed collagen network increased the cohesive and adhesive strength of the coatings. The adhesive strength between the coatings and substrates increased as the collagen concentration in the electrolyte increased. The coatings prepared at the collagen concentration of 500 mg/L in the electrolyte were not scraped off until the applied load reached 32.0 {+-} 2.2 N and the average tensile adhesive strength of the coatings was 4.83 {+-} 0.71 MPa. After C/C coated with composite coatings (500 mg/L) being immersed in a 10{sup -3} M Ca (OH){sub 2} solution at 30-33 deg. C for 96 h, nano-structured HA/collagen coatings similar to the natural human bone were obtained on the C/C.

  9. Three-dimensional appearance of the lips muscles with three-dimensional isotropic MRI: in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Reychler, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Liu, Y.; Xu, T.M. [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Department of Orthodontics, Beijing (China); Duprez, T. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    Our knowledge of facial muscles is based primarily on atlases and cadaveric studies. This study describes a non-invasive in vivo method (3D MRI) for segmenting and reconstructing facial muscles in a three-dimensional fashion. Three-dimensional (3D), T1-weighted, 3 Tesla, isotropic MRI was applied to a subject. One observer performed semi-automatic segmentation using the Editor module from the 3D Slicer software (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA), version 3.2. We were able to successfully outline and three-dimensionally reconstruct the following facial muscles: pars labialis orbicularis oris, m. levatro labii superioris alaeque nasi, m. levator labii superioris, m. zygomaticus major and minor, m. depressor anguli oris, m. depressor labii inferioris, m. mentalis, m. buccinator, and m. orbicularis oculi. 3D reconstruction of the lip muscles should be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy and individualization of existing 3D facial soft tissue models. More studies are needed to further develop efficient methods for segmentation in this field. (orig.)

  10. Three-dimensional appearance of the lips muscles with three-dimensional isotropic MRI: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Liu, Y; Duprez, T; Xu, T M; Reychler, H

    2009-06-01

    Our knowledge of facial muscles is based primarily on atlases and cadaveric studies. This study describes a non-invasive in vivo method (3D MRI) for segmenting and reconstructing facial muscles in a three-dimensional fashion. Three-dimensional (3D), T1-weighted, 3 Tesla, isotropic MRI was applied to a subject. One observer performed semi-automatic segmentation using the Editor module from the 3D Slicer software (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA), version 3.2. We were able to successfully outline and three-dimensionally reconstruct the following facial muscles: pars labialis orbicularis oris, m. levatro labii superioris alaeque nasi, m. levator labii superioris, m. zygomaticus major and minor, m. depressor anguli oris, m. depressor labii inferioris, m. mentalis, m. buccinator, and m. orbicularis oculi. 3D reconstruction of the lip muscles should be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy and individualization of existing 3D facial soft tissue models. More studies are needed to further develop efficient methods for segmentation in this field.

  11. Incorporating pTGF-β1/calcium phosphate nanoparticles with fibronectin into 3-dimensional collagen/chitosan scaffolds: Efficient, sustained gene delivery to stem cells for chondrogenic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare a 3-dimensional nanoparticle gene delivery system (3D-NGDS based on collagen/chitosan scaffolds, in which plasmid transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1/calcium phosphate nanoparticles mixed with fibronectin (FN were used to transfect mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterise the microstructure of 3-dimensional collagen/chitosan scaffolds. An analysis performed to quantify the TGF-b1 concentrations in MSC cultures revealed that the MSCs transfected with the 3D-NGDS showed remarkably high levels of TGF-b1 over long periods, retaining a concentration of TGF-b1 of approximately 10 ng/mL within two weeks, with the highest level (12.6 ng/mL being observed on the 6th day. An immunohistochemistry analysis for collagen type II revealed that much higher production of collagen II from the 9th to 15th day was observed in the 3D-NGDS-transfected MSCs than that in MSCs transfected by the Lipofectamine 2000 method. The glycosaminoglycan content of the 3D-NGDS was comparable to those treated with TGF-β1 as well as TGF-β1 plus dexamethasone, and was significantly higher than those treated with free plasmid and Lipofectamine 2000. A remarkable type I collagen expression inhibition of the 3D-NGDS at day 21 was observed via ELISA. These results suggested that transfection with the 3D-NGDS could successfully induce MSC chondrogenic differentiation in vitro without dexamethasone. In summary, the 3D-NGDS could be developed into a promising alternative method to transfer exogenous nucleic acid to MSCs in clinical trials.

  12. Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.

  13. Collagen VI disorders: Insights on form and function in the extracellular matrix and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamandé, Shireen R; Bateman, John F

    2017-12-22

    Mutations in the three canonical collagen VI genes, COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3, cause a spectrum of muscle disease from Bethlem myopathy at the mild end to the severe Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy. Mutations can be either dominant or recessive and the resulting clinical severity is influenced by the way mutations impact the complex collagen VI assembly process. Most mutations are found towards the N-terminus of the triple helical collagenous domain and compromise extracellular microfibril assembly. Outside the triple helix collagen VI is highly polymorphic and discriminating mutations from rare benign changes remains a major diagnostic challenge. Collagen VI deficiency alters extracellular matrix structure and biomechanical properties and leads to increased apoptosis and oxidative stress, decreased autophagy, and impaired muscle regeneration. Therapies that target these downstream consequences have been tested in a collagen VI null mouse and also in small human trials where they show modest clinical efficacy. An important role for collagen VI in obesity, cancer and diabetes is emerging. A major barrier to developing effective therapies is the paucity of information about how collagen VI deficiency in the extracellular matrix signals the final downstream consequences - the receptors involved and the intracellular messengers await further characterization. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-dimensional topological insulators and bosonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Andrea [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Randellini, Enrico [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Sisti, Jacopo [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA),Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-05-25

    Massless excitations at the surface of three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators possess both fermionic and bosonic descriptions, originating from band theory and hydrodynamic BF theory, respectively. We analyze the corresponding field theories of the Dirac fermion and compactified boson and compute their partition functions on the three-dimensional torus geometry. We then find some non-dynamic exact properties of bosonization in (2+1) dimensions, regarding fermion parity and spin sectors. Using these results, we extend the Fu-Kane-Mele stability argument to fractional topological insulators in three dimensions.

  15. Platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet aggregation induced by binding of VWF to platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laduca, F.M.; Bell, W.R.; Bettigole, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) was evaluated in the presence of platelet-collagen adhesion. RIPA of normal donor platelet-rich plasma (PRP) demonstrated a primary wave of aggregation mediated by the binding of von Willebrand factor (VWF) to platelets and a secondary aggregation wave, due to a platelet-release reaction, initiated by VWF-platelet binding and inhibitable by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). An enhanced RIPA was observed in PRP samples to which collagen had been previously added. These subthreshold concentrations of collagen, which by themselves were insufficient to induce aggregation, caused measurable platelet-collagen adhesion. Subthreshold collagen did not cause microplatelet aggregation, platelet release of [ 3 H]serotonin, or alter the dose-responsive binding of 125 I-labeled VWF to platelets, which occurred with increasing ristocetin concentrations. However, ASA inhibition of the platelet release reaction prevented collagen-enhanced RIPA. These results demonstrate that platelet-collagen adhesion altered the platelet-release reaction induced by the binding of VWF to platelets causing a platelet-release reaction at a level of VWF-platelet binding not normally initiating a secondary aggregation. These findings suggest that platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet function mediated by VWF

  16. High-resolution three-dimensional mapping of semiconductor dopant potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twitchett, AC; Yates, TJV; Newcomb, SB

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor device structures are becoming increasingly three-dimensional at the nanometer scale. A key issue that must be addressed to enable future device development is the three-dimensional mapping of dopant distributions, ideally under "working conditions". Here we demonstrate how a combin......Semiconductor device structures are becoming increasingly three-dimensional at the nanometer scale. A key issue that must be addressed to enable future device development is the three-dimensional mapping of dopant distributions, ideally under "working conditions". Here we demonstrate how...... a combination of electron holography and electron tomography can be used to determine quantitatively the three-dimensional electrostatic potential in an electrically biased semiconductor device with nanometer spatial resolution....

  17. Culture of bovine articular chondrocytes in funnel-like collagen-PLGA hybrid sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongxu; Ko, Young-Gwang; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional porous scaffolds play an important role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Structurally, these porous scaffolds should have an open and interconnected porous architecture to facilitate a homogeneous cell distribution. Moreover, the scaffolds should be mechanically strong to support new tissue formation. We developed a novel type of funnel-like collagen sponge using embossing ice particulates as a template. The funnel-like collagen sponges could promote the homogeneous cell distribution, ECM production and chondrogenesis. However, the funnel-like collagen sponges deformed during cell culture due to their weak mechanical strength. To solve this problem, we reinforced the funnel-like collagen sponges with a knitted poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) mesh by hybridizing these two types of materials. The hybrid scaffolds were used to culture bovine articular chondrocytes. The cell adhesion, distribution, proliferation and chondrogenesis were investigated. The funnel-like structure promoted the even cell distribution and homogeneous ECM production. The PLGA knitted mesh protected the scaffold from deformation during cell culture. Histological and immunohistochemical staining and cartilaginous gene expression analyses revealed the cartilage-like properties of the cell/scaffold constructs after in vivo implantation. The hybrid scaffold, composed of a funnel-like collagen sponge and PLGA mesh, would be a useful tool for cartilage tissue engineering.

  18. Culture of bovine articular chondrocytes in funnel-like collagen-PLGA hybrid sponges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Hongxu; Ko, Young-Gwang; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen Guoping, E-mail: Guoping.Chen@nims.go.jp [Tissue Regeneration Materials Unit, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Three-dimensional porous scaffolds play an important role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Structurally, these porous scaffolds should have an open and interconnected porous architecture to facilitate a homogeneous cell distribution. Moreover, the scaffolds should be mechanically strong to support new tissue formation. We developed a novel type of funnel-like collagen sponge using embossing ice particulates as a template. The funnel-like collagen sponges could promote the homogeneous cell distribution, ECM production and chondrogenesis. However, the funnel-like collagen sponges deformed during cell culture due to their weak mechanical strength. To solve this problem, we reinforced the funnel-like collagen sponges with a knitted poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) mesh by hybridizing these two types of materials. The hybrid scaffolds were used to culture bovine articular chondrocytes. The cell adhesion, distribution, proliferation and chondrogenesis were investigated. The funnel-like structure promoted the even cell distribution and homogeneous ECM production. The PLGA knitted mesh protected the scaffold from deformation during cell culture. Histological and immunohistochemical staining and cartilaginous gene expression analyses revealed the cartilage-like properties of the cell/scaffold constructs after in vivo implantation. The hybrid scaffold, composed of a funnel-like collagen sponge and PLGA mesh, would be a useful tool for cartilage tissue engineering.

  19. Equilibrium: three-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter considers toroidal MHD configurations that are inherently three-dimensional. The motivation for investigation such complicated equilibria is that they possess the potential for providing toroidal confinement without the need of a net toroidal current. This leads to a number of advantages with respect to fusion power generation. First, the attractive feature of steady-state operation becomes more feasible since such configurations no longer require a toroidal current transformer. Second, with zero net current, one potentially dangerous class of MHD instabilities, the current-driven kink modes, is eliminated. Finally, three-dimensional configurations possess nondegenerate flux surfaces even in the absence of plasma pressure and plasma current. Although there is an enormous range of possible three-dimensional equilibria, the configurations of interest are accurately described as axisymmetric tori with superimposed helical fields; furthermore, they possess no net toroidal current. Instead, two different and less obvious restoring forces are developed: the helical sideband force and the toroidal dipole current force. Each is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. A detailed discussion of the parallel current constraint, including its physical significance, is given in section 7.2. A general analysis of helical sideband equilibria, along with a detailed description of the Elmo bumpy torus, is presented in sections 7.3 and 7.4. A general description of toroidal dipole-current equilibria, including a detailed discussion of stellarators, heliotrons, and torsatrons, is given in sections 7.5 and 7.6

  20. Volume scanning three-dimensional display with an inclined two-dimensional display and a mirror scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Kawanishi, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kenji

    2001-11-01

    A new three-dimensional display system based on a volume-scanning method is demonstrated. To form a three-dimensional real image, an inclined two-dimensional image is rapidly moved with a mirror scanner while the cross-section patterns of a three-dimensional object are displayed sequentially. A vector-scan CRT display unit is used to obtain a high-resolution image. An optical scanning system is constructed with concave mirrors and a galvanometer mirror. It is confirmed that three-dimensional images, formed by the experimental system, satisfy all the criteria for human stereoscopic vision.

  1. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.

  2. Acid-base properties of complexes with three-dimensional polyligands. Complexes with three-dimensional polyphosphoric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylova, V.D.; Bojko, Eh.T.; Saldadze, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    By the method of potentiometric titration acid-base properties of uranyl (2) complexes with three-dimensional polyphosphoric acids, KRF-8p, KF-1, KF-7 prepared by phosphorylation of copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene or saponification of the copolymers of di-2,2'-chloroethyl ester of vinylphosphonic acid with divinyl benzene are studied. It is shown that in case of formation in the phase of three-dimensional polyphosphoric acids of UO 2 2+ complexes with the growth of bond covalence of metal ion-phosphonic group the acidjty of the second hydroxyl of the phosphonic group increases

  3. Three dimensional periodic foundations for base seismic isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y; Mo, Y L; Cheng, Z; Shi, Z; Menq, F; Tang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Based on the concept of phononic crystals, periodic foundations made of periodic materials are investigated in this paper. The periodic foundations can provide low frequency band gaps, which cover the main frequency ranges of seismic waves. Therefore, the periodic foundations are able to protect the upper structures during earthquake events. In this paper, the basic theory of three dimensional periodic foundations is studied and the finite element method was used to conduct the sensitivity study. A simplified three-dimensional periodic foundation with a superstructure was tested in the field and the feasibility of three dimensional periodic foundations was proved. The test results showed that the response of the upper structure with the three dimensional periodic foundation was reduced under excitation waves with the main frequency falling in the attenuation zones. The finite element analysis results are consistent with the experimental data, indicating that three dimensional periodic foundations are a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations. (paper)

  4. Simulation on three dimensional bubble formation using MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugi, Tomoaki

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical simulation on three-dimensional bubble formation by means of the MARS (Multi-interfaces Advection and Reconstruction Solver) developed by the author. The comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulation on an agglomeration of two bubbles is discussed. Moreover, some simulation results regarding a phase change phenomena such as a boiling and condensation in a two dimensional enclosure with heated and cooled walls are presented. (author)

  5. Three dimensional printed macroporous polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for promoting bone formation in a critical-size rat calvarial defect model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Mao, Xiyuan; Du, Zijing; Jiang, Wenbo; Han, Xiuguo; Zhao, Danyang; Han, Dong; Li, Qingfeng

    2016-01-01

    We have explored the applicability of printed scaffold by comparing osteogenic ability and biodegradation property of three resorbable biomaterials. A polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite (PLA/HA) composite with a pore size of 500 μm and 60% porosity was fabricated by three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printed PLA/HA, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and partially demineralized bone matrix (DBM) seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were evaluated by cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic gene expression of osteopontin (OPN) and collagen type I (COL-1). Moreover, the biocompatibility, bone repairing capacity and degradation in three different bone substitute materials were estimated using a critical-size rat calvarial defect model in vivo. The defects were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis at four and eight weeks after surgery, respectively. The results showed that each of the studied scaffolds had its own specific merits and drawbacks. Three-dimensional printed PLA/HA scaffolds possessed good biocompatibility and stimulated BMSC cell proliferation and differentiation to osteogenic cells. The outcomes in vivo revealed that 3D printed PLA/HA scaffolds had good osteogenic capability and biodegradation activity with no difference in inflammation reaction. Therefore, 3D printed PLA/HA scaffolds have potential applications in bone tissue engineering and may be used as graft substitutes in reconstructive surgery.

  6. Activation of PPARs α, β/δ, and γ Impairs TGF-β1-Induced Collagens' Production and Modulates the TIMP-1/MMPs Balance in Three-Dimensional Cultured Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Emile Poleni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. We investigated the potency of Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptors (PPARs α, β/δ, and γ agonists to modulate Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1- induced collagen production or changes in Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase- (TIMP- 1/Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP balance in rat chondrocytes embedded in alginate beads. Experimental Approach. Collagen production was evaluated by quantitative Sirius red staining, while TIMP-1 protein levels and global MMP (-1, -2, -3, -7, and -9 or specific MMP-13 activities were measured by ELISA and fluorigenic assays in culture media, respectively. Levels of mRNA for type II collagen, TIMP-1, and MMP-3 & 13 were quantified by real-time PCR. Key Results. TGF-β1 increased collagen deposition and type II collagen mRNA levels, while inducing TIMP-1 mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, it decreased global MMP or specific MMP-13 activities, while decreasing MMP-3 or MMP-13 mRNA levels. PPAR agonists reduced most of the effects of TGF-β1 on changes in collagen metabolism and TIMP-1/MMP balance in rat in a PPAR-dependent manner, excepted for Wy14643 on MMP activities. Conclusions and Implications. PPAR agonists reduce TGF-β1-modulated ECM turnover and inhibit chondrocyte activities crucial for collagen biosynthesis, and display a different inhibitory profile depending on selectivity for PPAR isotypes.

  7. Rationalisation and Validation of an Acrylamide-Free Procedure in Three-Dimensional Histological Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hei Ming; Liu, Alan King Lun; Ng, Wai-Lung; DeFelice, John; Lee, Wing Sang; Li, Heng; Li, Wen; Ng, Ho Man; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Lin, Bin; Wu, Wutian; Gentleman, Steve M.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional visualization of intact tissues is now being achieved by turning tissues transparent. CLARITY is a unique tissue clearing technique, which features the use of detergents to remove lipids from fixed tissues to achieve optical transparency. To preserve tissue integrity, an acrylamide-based hydrogel has been proposed to embed the tissue. In this study, we examined the rationale behind the use of acrylamide in CLARITY, and presented evidence to suggest that the omission of acrylamide-hydrogel embedding in CLARITY does not alter the preservation of tissue morphology and molecular information in fixed tissues. We therefore propose a novel and simplified workflow for formaldehyde-fixed tissue clearing, which will facilitate the laboratory implementation of this technique. Furthermore, we have investigated the basic tissue clearing process in detail and have highlighted some areas for targeted improvement of technologies essential for the emerging subject of three-dimensional histology. PMID:27359336

  8. Preparation of collagen/polyurethane/knitted silk as a composite scaffold for tendon tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Aghdam, Maryam; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Derakhshan, Mohammad Ali; Chegeni, Arash; Azami, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to prepare a hybrid three-dimensional scaffold that mimics natural tendon tissues. It has been found that a knitted silk shows good mechanical strength; however, cell growth on the bare silk is not desirable. Hence, electrospun collagen/polyurethane combination was used to cover knitted silk. A series of collagen and polyurethane solutions (4%-7% w/v) in aqueous acetic acid were prepared and electrospun. According to obtained scanning electron microscopy images from pure collagen and polyurethane nanofibers, concentration was set constant at 5% (w/v) for blend solutions of collagen/polyurethane. Afterward, blend solutions with the weight ratios of 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75 were electrospun. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated the smooth and uniform morphology for the optimized nanofibers. The least fibers diameter among three weight ratios was found for collagen/polyurethane (25/75) which was 100.86 ± 40 nm and therefore was selected to be electrospun on the knitted silk. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the chemical composition of obtained electrospun nanofibers on the knitted silk. Tensile test of the specimens including blend nanofiber, knitted silk and commercial tendon substitute examined and indicated that collagen/polyurethane-coated knitted silk has appropriate mechanical properties as a scaffold for tendon tissue engineering. Then, Alamar Blue assay of the L929 fibroblast cell line seeded on the prepared scaffolds demonstrated appropriate viability of the cells with a significant proliferation on the scaffold containing more collagen content. The results illustrate that the designed structure would be promising for being used as a temporary substitute for tendon repair.

  9. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  10. 3D bioprinting of BMSC-laden methacrylamide gelatin scaffolds with CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingchun; Chen, Bing; Meng, Qingyuan; Liu, Sumei; Zheng, Xiongfei; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Heran; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Nuo; Dai, Jianwu

    2015-12-18

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting combines biomaterials, cells and functional components into complex living tissues. Herein, we assembled function-control modules into cell-laden scaffolds using 3D bioprinting. A customized 3D printer was able to tune the microstructure of printed bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-laden methacrylamide gelatin scaffolds at the micrometer scale. For example, the pore size was adjusted to 282 ± 32 μm and 363 ± 60 μm. To match the requirements of the printing nozzle, collagen microfibers with a length of 22 ± 13 μm were prepared with a high-speed crusher. Collagen microfibers bound bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) with a collagen binding domain (CBD) as differentiation-control module, from which BMP2 was able to be controllably released. The differentiation behaviors of BMSCs in the printed scaffolds were compared in three microenvironments: samples without CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers in the growth medium, samples without microfibers in the osteogenic medium and samples with microfibers in the growth medium. The results indicated that BMSCs showed high cell viability (>90%) during printing; CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers induced BMSC differentiation into osteocytes within 14 days more efficiently than the osteogenic medium. Our studies suggest that these function-control modules are attractive biomaterials and have potential applications in 3D bioprinting.

  11. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshak, R.J.; Crawford, C.R.; Waisman, R.C.; Sty, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. However, the complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. The principal advantage of three-dimensional CT is its ability to display the surface relationships of complicated objects. The complexity of the spinal axis makes it ideal for study with three-dimensional CT. This presentation illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT in spinal abnormalities in children

  12. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  13. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire-bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design.

  14. Three-dimensional plasma equilibrium near a separatrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.H.; Pomphrey, N.; Boozer, A.H.

    1988-08-01

    The limiting behavior of a general three-dimensional MHD equilibrium near a separatrix is calculated explicitly. No expansions in β or assumptions about island widths are made. Implications of the results for the numerical calculation of such equilibria, are discussed, as well as for issues concerning the existence of three-dimensional MHD equilibria. 16 refs., 2 figs

  15. Advances in the design and higher-order assembly of collagen mimetic peptides for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin; Chmielewski, Jean

    2017-08-01

    Regenerative medicine makes use of cell-supporting biomaterials to replace lost or damaged tissue. Collagen holds great potential in this regard caused by its biocompatibility and structural versatility. While natural collagen has shown promise for regenerative medicine, collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) have emerged that allow far higher degrees of customization and ease of preparation. A wide range of two and three-dimensional assemblies have been generated from CMPs, many of which accommodate cellular adhesion and encapsulation, through careful sequence design and the exploitation of electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. But the methodology that has generated the greatest plethora of viable biomaterials is metal-promoted assembly of CMP triple helices-a rapid process that occurs under physiological conditions. Architectures generated in this manner promote cell growth, enable directed attachment of bioactive cargo, and produce living tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Advancing three-dimensional MEMS by complimentary laser micro manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Williams, John D.; Lemp, Tom; Lehecka, Tom M.; Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes improvements that enable engineers to create three-dimensional MEMS in a variety of materials. It also provides a means for selectively adding three-dimensional, high aspect ratio features to pre-existing PMMA micro molds for subsequent LIGA processing. This complimentary method involves in situ construction of three-dimensional micro molds in a stand-alone configuration or directly adjacent to features formed by x-ray lithography. Three-dimensional micro molds are created by micro stereolithography (MSL), an additive rapid prototyping technology. Alternatively, three-dimensional features may be added by direct femtosecond laser micro machining. Parameters for optimal femtosecond laser micro machining of PMMA at 800 nanometers are presented. The technical discussion also includes strategies for enhancements in the context of material selection and post-process surface finish. This approach may lead to practical, cost-effective 3-D MEMS with the surface finish and throughput advantages of x-ray lithography. Accurate three-dimensional metal microstructures are demonstrated. Challenges remain in process planning for micro stereolithography and development of buried features following femtosecond laser micro machining.

  17. Two-dimensional collagen-graphene as colloidal templates for biocompatible inorganic nanomaterial synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Divya; Sheikh, Lubna; Bhattacharya, Soumya; Webster, Thomas J; Nayar, Suprabha

    2017-01-01

    In this study, natural graphite was first converted to collagen-graphene composites and then used as templates for the synthesis of nanoparticles of silver, iron oxide, and hydroxyapatite. X-ray diffraction did not show any diffraction peaks of graphene in the composites after inorganic nucleation, compared to the naked composite which showed (002) and (004) peaks. Scanning electron micrographs showed lateral gluing/docking of these composites, possibly driven by an electrostatic attraction between the positive layers of one stack and negative layers of another, which became distorted after inorganic nucleation. Docking resulted in single layer-like characteristics in certain places, as seen under transmission electron microscopy, but sp2/sp3 ratios from Raman analysis inferred three-layer composite formation. Strain-induced folding of these layers into uniform clusters at the point of critical nucleation, revealed beautiful microstructures under scanning electron microscopy. Lastly, cell viability studies using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays showed the highest cell viability for the collagen-graphene-hydroxyapatite composites. In this manner, this study provided – to the field of nanomedicine – a new process for the synthesis of several nanoparticles (with low toxicity) of high interest for numerous medical applications. PMID:28553102

  18. On two-dimensionalization of three-dimensional turbulence in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Sagar; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Sarkar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Applying a modified version of the Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada (GOY) shell model, the signatures of so-called two-dimensionalization effect of three-dimensional incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic fully developed unforced turbulence have been studied and reproduced. Within the framework of shell m......-similar PDFs for longitudinal velocity differences are also presented for the rotating 3D turbulence case....

  19. A three-dimensional model to assess the effect of ankle joint axis misalignments in ankle-foot orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatone, Stefania; Johnson, William Brett; Tucker, Kerice

    2016-04-01

    Misalignment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis joint axis with the anatomic joint axis may lead to discomfort, alterations in gait, and tissue damage. Theoretical, two-dimensional models describe the consequences of misalignments, but cannot capture the three-dimensional behavior of ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this project was to develop a model to describe the effects of ankle-foot orthosis ankle joint misalignment in three dimensions. Computational simulation. Three-dimensional scans of a leg and ankle-foot orthosis were incorporated into a link segment model where the ankle-foot orthosis joint axis could be misaligned with the anatomic ankle joint axis. The leg/ankle-foot orthosis interface was modeled as a network of nodes connected by springs to estimate interface pressure. Motion between the leg and ankle-foot orthosis was calculated as the ankle joint moved through a gait cycle. While the three-dimensional model corroborated predictions of the previously published two-dimensional model that misalignments in the anterior -posterior direction would result in greater relative motion compared to misalignments in the proximal -distal direction, it provided greater insight showing that misalignments have asymmetrical effects. The three-dimensional model has been incorporated into a freely available computer program to assist others in understanding the consequences of joint misalignments. Models and simulations can be used to gain insight into functioning of systems of interest. We have developed a three-dimensional model to assess the effect of ankle joint axis misalignments in ankle-foot orthoses. The model has been incorporated into a freely available computer program to assist understanding of trainees and others interested in orthotics. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  20. Urinary collagen fragments are significantly altered in diabetes: a link to pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Maahs

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM is variable, comprising different inflammatory and immune responses. Proteome analysis holds the promise of delivering insight into the pathophysiological changes associated with diabetes. Recently, we identified and validated urinary proteomics biomarkers for diabetes. Based on these initial findings, we aimed to further validate urinary proteomics biomarkers specific for diabetes in general, and particularity associated with either type 1 (T1D or type 2 diabetes (T2D.Therefore, the low-molecular-weight urinary proteome of 902 subjects from 10 different centers, 315 controls and 587 patients with T1D (n = 299 or T2D (n = 288, was analyzed using capillary-electrophoresis mass-spectrometry. The 261 urinary biomarkers (100 were sequenced previously discovered in 205 subjects were validated in an additional 697 subjects to distinguish DM subjects (n = 382 from control subjects (n = 315 with 94% (95% CI: 92-95 accuracy in this study. To identify biomarkers that differentiate T1D from T2D, a subset of normoalbuminuric patients with T1D (n = 68 and T2D (n = 42 was employed, enabling identification of 131 biomarker candidates (40 were sequenced differentially regulated between T1D and T2D. These biomarkers distinguished T1D from T2D in an independent validation set of normoalbuminuric patients (n = 108 with 88% (95% CI: 81-94% accuracy, and in patients with impaired renal function (n = 369 with 85% (95% CI: 81-88% accuracy. Specific collagen fragments were associated with diabetes and type of diabetes indicating changes in collagen turnover and extracellular matrix as one hallmark of the molecular pathophysiology of diabetes. Additional biomarkers including inflammatory processes and pro-thrombotic alterations were observed.These findings, based on the largest proteomic study performed to date on subjects with DM, validate the previously described biomarkers for DM, and pinpoint differences in the urinary

  1. Physiological type I collagen organization induces the formation of a novel class of linear invadosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juin, Amélie; Billottet, Clotilde; Moreau, Violaine; Destaing, Olivier; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Rosenbaum, Jean; Génot, Elisabeth; Saltel, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Invadosomes are F-actin structures capable of degrading the matrix through the activation of matrix metalloproteases. As fibrillar type I collagen promotes pro-matrix metalloproteinase 2 activation by membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, we aimed at investigating the functional relationships between collagen I organization and invadosome induction. We found that fibrillar collagen I induced linear F-actin structures, distributed along the fibrils, on endothelial cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and tumor cells. These structures share features with conventional invadosomes, as they express cortactin and N-WASP and accumulate the scaffold protein Tks5, which proved essential for their formation. On the basis of their ability to degrade extracellular matrix elements and their original architecture, we named these structures “linear invadosomes.” Interestingly, podosomes or invadopodia were replaced by linear invadosomes upon contact of the cells with fibrillar collagen I. However, linear invadosomes clearly differ from classical invadosomes, as they do not contain paxillin, vinculin, and β1/β3 integrins. Using knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts and RGD peptide, we demonstrate that linear invadosome formation and activity are independent of β1 and β3 integrins. Finally, linear invadosomes also formed in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. This study demonstrates that fibrillar collagen I is the physiological inducer of a novel class of invadosomes. PMID:22114353

  2. Bottom-up fabrication of artery-mimicking tubular co-cultures in collagen-based microchannel scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A; Fujisawa, K; Yukawa, Y; Matsunaga, Y T

    2016-10-20

    We developed a robust bottom-up approach to construct open-ended, tubular co-culture constructs that simulate the human vascular morphology and microenvironment. By design, these three-dimensional artificial vessels mimic the basic architecture of an artery: a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (as the tunica externa), smooth muscle cells (SMCs) (as the tunica media), and an endothelial cell (EC) lining (as the tunica interna). A versatile needle-based fabrication technique was employed to achieve controllable arterial layouts within a PDMS-hosted collagen microchannel scaffold (330 ± 10 μm in diameter): (direct co-culture) a SMC/EC bilayer to follow the structure of an arteriole-like segment; and (encapsulated co-culture) a lateral SMC multilayer covered by an EC monolayer lining to simulate the architecture of a larger artery. Optical and fluorescence microscopy images clearly evidenced the progressive cell elongation and sprouting behavior of SMCs and ECs along the collagen gel contour and within the gel matrix under static co-culture conditions. The progressive cell growth patterns effectively led to the formation of a tubular co-culture with an internal endothelial lining expressing prominent CD31 (cluster of differentiation 31) intercellular junction markers. During a 4-day static maturation period, the artery constructs showed modest alteration in the luminal diameters (i.e. less than 10% changes from the initial measurements). This argues in favor of stable and predictable arterial architecture achieved via the proposed fabrication protocols. Both co-culture models showed a high glucose metabolic rate during the initial proliferation phase, followed by a temporary quiescent (and thus, mature) stage. These proof-of-concept models with a controllable architecture create an important foundation for advanced vessel manipulations such as the integration of relevant physiological functionality or remodeling into a vascular disease-mimicking tissue.

  3. Computational study of three-dimensional wake structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, R.; Shirayama, S.; Kamo, K.; Kuwahara, K.

    1986-01-01

    Three-dimensional wake structure is studied by numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results are visualized by a three-dimensional color graphic system. It was found that a pair of vortex tubes separated from a body plays the most important role in the wake. Near the body vortex tubes are rather stable, however, they gradually become unsteady as they flow down

  4. Standalone visualization tool for three-dimensional DRAGON geometrical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukomski, A.; McIntee, B.; Moule, D.; Nichita, E.

    2008-01-01

    DRAGON is a neutron transport and depletion code able to solve one-, two- and three-dimensional problems. To date DRAGON provides two visualization modules, able to represent respectively two- and three-dimensional geometries. The two-dimensional visualization module generates a postscript file, while the three dimensional visualization module generates a MATLAB M-file with instructions for drawing the tracks in the DRAGON TRACKING data structure, which implicitly provide a representation of the geometry. The current work introduces a new, standalone, tool based on the open-source Visualization Toolkit (VTK) software package which allows the visualization of three-dimensional geometrical models by reading the DRAGON GEOMETRY data structure and generating an axonometric image which can be manipulated interactively by the user. (author)

  5. SNAP - a three dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes a one- two- three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP, which is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods. The one-dimensional slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries and the two-dimensional case are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. (Author)

  6. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores

  7. Development of three dimensional solid modeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, R.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is aimed at developing a three dimensional solid modeler employing computer graphics techniques using C-Language. Primitives have been generated, by combination of plane surfaces, for various basic geometrical shapes including cylinder, cube and cone. Back face removal technique for hidden surface removal has also been incorporated. Various transformation techniques such as scaling, translation, and rotation have been included for the object animation. Three dimensional solid modeler has been created by the union of two primitives to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed program. (author)

  8. Polycrystalline diamond detectors with three-dimensional electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S., E-mail: lagomarsino@fi.infn.it [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bellini, M. [INO-CNR Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carzino, R. [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Cindro, V. [Joseph Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Corsi, C. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); LENS Firenze, Via N. Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Servoli, L. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The three-dimensional concept in diamond detectors has been applied, so far, to high quality single-crystal material, in order to test this technology in the best available conditions. However, its application to polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond could be desirable for two reasons: first, the short inter-electrode distance of three-dimensional detectors should improve the intrinsically lower collection efficiency of polycrystalline diamond, and second, at high levels of radiation damage the performances of the poly-crystal material are not expected to be much lower than those of the single crystal one. We report on the fabrication and test of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors with several inter-electrode distances, and we demonstrate that their collection efficiency is equal or higher than that obtained with conventional planar detectors fabricated with the same material. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser fabrication of polycristalline diamond detectors with 3D electrodes. • Measurement of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) under beta irradiation. • Comparation between the CCE of 3D and conventional planar diamond sensors. • A rationale for the behavior of three-dimensional and planar sensors is given.

  9. Increasing the strength and bioactivity of collagen scaffolds using customizable arrays of 3D-printed polymer fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzen, Laura C; Rodgers, Ryan; Banks, Jessica M; Bailey, Ryan C; Harley, Brendan A C

    2016-03-01

    Tendon is a highly aligned connective tissue which transmits force from muscle to bone. Each year, people in the US sustain more than 32 million tendon injuries. To mitigate poor functional outcomes due to scar formation, current surgical techniques rely heavily on autografts. Biomaterial platforms and tissue engineering methods offer an alternative approach to address these injuries. Scaffolds incorporating aligned structural features can promote expansion of adult tenocytes and mesenchymal stem cells capable of tenogenic differentiation. However, appropriate balance between scaffold bioactivity and mechanical strength of these constructs remains challenging. The high porosity required to facilitate cell infiltration, nutrient and oxygen biotransport within three-dimensional constructs typically results in insufficient biomechanical strength. Here we describe the use of three-dimensional printing techniques to create customizable arrays of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) fibers that can be incorporated into a collagen scaffold under development for tendon repair. Notably, mechanical performance of scaffold-fiber composites (elastic modulus, peak stress, strain at peak stress, and toughness) can be selectively manipulated by varying fiber-reinforcement geometry without affecting the native bioactivity of the collagen scaffold. Further, we report an approach to functionalize ABS fibers with activity-inducing growth factors via sequential oxygen plasma and carbodiimide crosslinking treatments. Together, we report an adaptable approach to control both mechanical strength and presence of biomolecular cues in a manner orthogonal to the architecture of the collagen scaffold itself. Tendon injuries account for more than 32 million injuries each year in the US alone. Current techniques use allografts to mitigate poor functional outcomes, but are not ideal platforms to induce functional regeneration following injury. Tissue engineering approaches using biomaterial

  10. Three dimensional diffusion calculations of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspo, N.

    1981-07-01

    This work deals with the three dimensional calculation of nuclear reactors using the code TRITON. The purposes of the work were to perform three-dimensional computations of the core of the Soreq nuclear reactor and of the power reactor ZION and to validate the TRITON code. Possible applications of the TRITON code in Soreq reactor calculations and in power reactor research are suggested. (H.K.)

  11. Three-dimensional genome architecture influences partner selection for chromosomal translocations in human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Engreitz

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations are frequent features of cancer genomes that contribute to disease progression. These rearrangements result from formation and illegitimate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, a process that requires spatial colocalization of chromosomal breakpoints. The "contact first" hypothesis suggests that translocation partners colocalize in the nuclei of normal cells, prior to rearrangement. It is unclear, however, the extent to which spatial interactions based on three-dimensional genome architecture contribute to chromosomal rearrangements in human disease. Here we intersect Hi-C maps of three-dimensional chromosome conformation with collections of 1,533 chromosomal translocations from cancer and germline genomes. We show that many translocation-prone pairs of regions genome-wide, including the cancer translocation partners BCR-ABL and MYC-IGH, display elevated Hi-C contact frequencies in normal human cells. Considering tissue specificity, we find that translocation breakpoints reported in human hematologic malignancies have higher Hi-C contact frequencies in lymphoid cells than those reported in sarcomas and epithelial tumors. However, translocations from multiple tissue types show significant correlation with Hi-C contact frequencies, suggesting that both tissue-specific and universal features of chromatin structure contribute to chromosomal alterations. Our results demonstrate that three-dimensional genome architecture shapes the landscape of rearrangements directly observed in human disease and establish Hi-C as a key method for dissecting these effects.

  12. Study of three-dimensional image display by systemic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Tadao; Ebihara, Yoshiyuki; Unei, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masao; Shinohe, Tooru; Wada, Yuji; Sakai, Takatsugu; Kashima, Kenji; Fujita, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    A head phantom for CT was scanned at 2 mm intervals from the cervix to the vertex in an attempt to obtain a three-dimensional image display of bones and facial epidermis from an ordinary axial image. Clinically, three-dimensional images were formed at eye sockets and hip joints. With the three-dimensional image using the head phantom, the entire head could be displayed at any angle. Clinically, images were obtained that could not be attained by ordinary CT scanning, such as broken bones in eye sockets and stereoscopic structure at the bottom of a cranium. The three-dimensional image display is considered to be useful in clinical diagnosis. (author)

  13. Peripheral hepatic arterial embolization with cross-linked collagen fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.R.; Kerlan, R.K. Jr.; Dodds, L.; McLaughlin, P.; La Berge, J.M.; Harrington, D.; Daniels, A.M.; Ring, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatic artery embolization with a nonimmunogenic, cross-linked collagen preparation (Angiostat, collagen for embolization, Target Therapeutics) was studied in mongrel dogs. Flow-directed technique was used to achieve complete distal arterial occlusion. Serial liver function evaluation demonstrated marked alterations at 48 to 72 hours, partial correction at 1 week, and resolution of abnormalities by 1 month. Restoration of large-vessel blood flow was angiographically demonstrable at 1 week. Recanalization, achieved by migration of endothelial cells around the collagen, resulted in complete restoration of normal hepatic vascular and tissue anatomy at 1 month. Repeated embolization at biweekly intervals was well tolerated

  14. Continuum modeling of three-dimensional truss-like space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Hefzy, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical and computational analysis capability has been developed for calculating the effective mechanical properties of three-dimensional periodic truss-like structures. Two models are studied in detail. The first, called the octetruss model, is a three-dimensional extension of a two-dimensional model, and the second is a cubic model. Symmetry considerations are employed as a first step to show that the specific octetruss model has four independent constants and that the cubic model has two. The actual values of these constants are determined by averaging the contributions of each rod element to the overall structure stiffness. The individual rod member contribution to the overall stiffness is obtained by a three-dimensional coordinate transformation. The analysis shows that the effective three-dimensional elastic properties of both models are relatively close to each other.

  15. Lack of collagen XVIII/endostatin exacerbates immune-mediated glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Yuki; Okude, Takashi; Shirai, Ryota; Sato, Ikumi; Kimura, Ryota; Ogawa, Makoto; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Yokosuka, Osamu; Kalluri, Raghu; Ueda, Shiro

    2010-09-01

    Collagen XVIII is a component of the highly specialized extracellular matrix associated with basement membranes of epithelia and endothelia. In the normal kidney, collagen XVIII is distributed throughout glomerular and tubular basement membranes, mesangial matrix, and Bowman's capsule. Proteolytic cleavage within its C-terminal domain releases the fragment endostatin, which has antiangiogenic properties. Because damage to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) accompanies immune-mediated renal injury, we investigated the role of collagen XVIII/endostatin in this disorder. We induced anti-GBM glomerulonephritis in collagen XVIII alpha1-null and wild-type mice and compared the resulting matrix accumulation, inflammation, and capillary rarefaction. Anti-GBM disease upregulated collagen XVIII/endostatin expression within the GBM and Bowman's capsule of wild-type mice. Collagen XVIII/endostatin-deficient mice developed more severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury than wild-type mice. Collagen XVIII/endostatin deficiency altered matrix remodeling, enhanced the inflammatory response, and promoted capillary rarefaction and vascular endothelial cell damage, but did not affect endothelial proliferation. Supplementing collagen XVIII-deficient mice with exogenous endostatin did not affect the progression of anti-GBM disease. Taken together, these results suggest that collagen XVIII/endostatin preserves the integrity of the extracellular matrix and capillaries in the kidney, protecting against progressive glomerulonephritis.

  16. Three-dimensional simulations of resistance spot welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, Wenqi; Perret, William

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws from the fundamentals of electro-thermo-mechanical coupling to the main aspects of finite element implementation and three-dimensional modelling of resistance welding. A new simulation environment is proposed in order to perform three-dimensional simulations and optimization...... of resistance welding together with the simulations of conventional and special-purpose quasi-static mechanical tests. Three-dimensional simulations of resistance welding consider the electrical, thermal, mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of the material as well as the operating conditions...... of the welding machines. Simulations of the mechanical tests take into account material softening due to the accumulation of ductile damage and cover conventional tests, such as tensile–shear tests, cross-tension test and peel tests, as well as the possibility of special-purpose tests designed by the users...

  17. Adherence, proliferation and collagen turnover by human fibroblasts seeded into different types of collagen sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, E.; de Vries, H. J.; Ruuls, L.; Everts, V.; Wildevuur, C. H.; Westerhof, W.

    1995-01-01

    We describe an in vitro model that we have used to evaluate dermal substitutes and to obtain data on cell proliferation, the rate of degradation of the dermal equivalent, contractibility and de novo synthesis of collagen. We tested three classes of collagenous materials: (1) reconstituted

  18. ADHERENCE, PROLIFERATION AND COLLAGEN TURNOVER BY HUMAN FIBROBLASTS SEEDED INTO DIFFERENT TYPES OF COLLAGEN SPONGES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MIDDELKOOP, E; DEVRIES, HJC; RUULS, L; EVERTS, [No Value; WILDEVUUR, CHR; WESTERHOF, W

    We describe an in vitro model that we have used to evaluate dermal substitutes and to obtain data on cell proliferation, the rate of degradation of the dermal equivalent, contractibility and de novo synthesis of collagen. We tested three classes of collagenous materials: (1) reconstituted

  19. Neurotrophins differentially stimulate the growth of cochlear neurites on collagen surfaces and in gels☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Joanna; Pak, Kwang; Evans, Amaretta; Kamgar-Parsi, Andy; Fausti, Stephen; Mullen, Lina; Ryan, Allen Frederic

    2013-01-01

    The electrodes of a cochlear implant are located far from the surviving neurons of the spiral ganglion, which results in decreased precision of neural activation compared to the normal ear. If the neurons could be induced to extend neurites toward the implant, it might be possible to stimulate more discrete subpopulations of neurons, and to increase the resolution of the device. However, a major barrier to neurite growth toward a cochlear implant is the fluid filling the scala tympani, which separates the neurons from the electrodes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the growth of cochlear neurites in three-dimensional extracellular matrix molecule gels, and to increase biocompatibility by using fibroblasts stably transfected to produce neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Spiral ganglion explants from neonatal rats were evaluated in cultures. They were exposed to soluble neurotrophins, cells transfected to secrete neurotrophins, and/or collagen gels. We found that cochlear neurites grew readily on collagen surfaces and in three-dimensional collagen gels. Co-culture with cells producing neurotrophin-3 resulted in increased numbers of neurites, and neurites that were longer than when explants were cultured with control fibroblasts stably transfected with green fluorescent protein. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-producing cells resulted in a more dramatic increase in the number of neurites, but there was no significant effect on neurite length. It is suggested that extracellular matrix molecule gels and cells transfected to produce neurotrophins offer an opportunity to attract spiral ganglion neurites toward a cochlear implant. PMID:24459465

  20. Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kim, Yunhee; Kim, Joohwan; Hong, Jisoo; Lee, Sin-Doo; Lee, Byoungho

    2004-12-01

    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display that uses a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal based on the principle of integral imaging is proposed. In the proposed method, a lens array is located behind a transmission-type display panel to form an array of point-light sources, and a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal is electrically controlled to pass or to scatter light coming from these point-light sources. Therefore, three-dimensional-two-dimensional conversion is accomplished electrically without any mechanical movement. Moreover, the nonimaging structure of the proposed method increases the expressible depth range considerably. We explain the method of operation and present experimental results.

  1. Collagen synthesis in CBA mouse heart after total thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.C.; Parkins, C.S.; Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton

    1988-01-01

    CBA mice were irradiated to the whole thorax with single doses of 240 kVp X-rays in the dose range 8-16 Gy. Collagen and total protein synthesis rates in the heart were measured at 2-monthly intervals using a radio-isotope incorporation techniques. Doses of 10 Gy or greater caused a slight increase in collagen synthesis, followed by significantly reduced collagen synthesis by 16 weeks or longer after treatment. The depression in synthesis appeared correspondingly earlier with increasing dose. Total protein synthesis in heart followed similar patterns although changes were not statistically significant, indicating that the changes reflected alterations to collagen synthesis specifally, and not protein synthesis in geneal. Total hydroxyproline measurements showed no significant changes in heart collagen at any time as a result of X-irradiation. 18 refs.; 7 figs

  2. An algorithm for three-dimensional imaging in the positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kun; Ma Mei; Xu Rongfen; Shen Miaohe

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical algorithm of back-projection filtered for image reconstructions using two-dimensional signals detected from parallel multiwire proportional chambers is described. The approaches of pseudo three-dimensional and full three-dimensional image reconstructions are introduced, and the available point response functions are defined as well. The designing parameters and computation procedure of the full three-dimensional method is presented

  3. Two- and three-dimensional CT analysis of ankle fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Kuhlman, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    CT with coronal and sagittal reformatting (two-dimensional CT) and animated volumetric image rendering (three-dimensional CT) was used to assess ankle fractures. Partial volume limits transaxial CT in assessments of horizontally oriented structures. Two-dimensional CT, being orthogonal to the plafond, superior mortise, talar dome, and tibial epiphysis, often provides the most clinically useful images. Two-dimensional CT is most useful in characterizing potentially confusing fractures, such as Tillaux (anterior tubercle), triplane, osteochondral talar dome, or nondisplaced talar neck fractures, and it is the best study to confirm intraarticular fragments. Two-and three-dimensional CT best indicate the percentage of articular surface involvement and best demonstrate postoperative results or complications (hardware migration, residual step-off, delayed union, DJD, AVN, etc). Animated three-dimensional images are the preferred means of integrating the two-dimensional findings for surgical planning, as these images more closely simulate the clinical problem

  4. Collagen Fibrils: Nature's Highly Tunable Nonlinear Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, Orestis G; Desissaire, Sylvia; Thurner, Philipp J

    2018-03-21

    Tissue hydration is well known to influence tissue mechanics and can be tuned via osmotic pressure. Collagen fibrils are nature's nanoscale building blocks to achieve biomechanical function in a broad range of biological tissues and across many species. Intrafibrillar covalent cross-links have long been thought to play a pivotal role in collagen fibril elasticity, but predominantly at large, far from physiological, strains. Performing nanotensile experiments of collagen fibrils at varying hydration levels by adjusting osmotic pressure in situ during atomic force microscopy experiments, we show the power the intrafibrillar noncovalent interactions have for defining collagen fibril tensile elasticity at low fibril strains. Nanomechanical tensile tests reveal that osmotic pressure increases collagen fibril stiffness up to 24-fold in transverse (nanoindentation) and up to 6-fold in the longitudinal direction (tension), compared to physiological saline in a reversible fashion. We attribute the stiffening to the density and strength of weak intermolecular forces tuned by hydration and hence collagen packing density. This reversible mechanism may be employed by cells to alter their mechanical microenvironment in a reversible manner. The mechanism could also be translated to tissue engineering approaches for customizing scaffold mechanics in spatially resolved fashion, and it may help explain local mechanical changes during development of diseases and inflammation.

  5. Evaluation of three-dimensional virtual perception of garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, G.; Yeşilpinar, S.; Erdem, D.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional design, dressing and simulation programs came into prominence in the textile industry. By these programs, the need to produce clothing samples for every design in design process has been eliminated. Clothing fit, design, pattern, fabric and accessory details and fabric drape features can be evaluated easily. Also, body size of virtual mannequin can be adjusted so more realistic simulations can be created. Moreover, three-dimensional virtual garment images created by these programs can be used while presenting the product to end-user instead of two-dimensional photograph images. In this study, a survey was carried out to investigate the visual perception of consumers. The survey was conducted for three different garment types, separately. Questions about gender, profession etc. was asked to the participants and expected them to compare real samples and artworks or three-dimensional virtual images of garments. When survey results were analyzed statistically, it is seen that demographic situation of participants does not affect visual perception and three-dimensional virtual garment images reflect the real sample characteristics better than artworks for each garment type. Also, it is reported that there is no perception difference depending on garment type between t-shirt, sweatshirt and tracksuit bottom.

  6. Preparation and characterization of malonic acid cross-linked chitosan and collagen 3D scaffolds: an approach on non-covalent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Tapas; Sailakshmi, G; Gnanamani, A; Mandal, A B

    2012-05-01

    The present study emphasizes the influence of non-covalent interactions on the mechanical and thermal properties of the scaffolds of chitosan/collagen origin. Malonic acid (MA), a bifuncitonal diacid was chosen to offer non-covalent cross-linking. Three dimensional scaffolds was prepared using chitosan at 1.0% (w/v) and MA at 0.2% (w/v), similarly collagen 0.5% (w/v) and MA 0.2% (w/v) and characterized. Results on FT-IR, TGA, DSC, SEM and mechanical properties (tensile strength, stiffness, Young's modulus, etc.) assessment demonstrated the existence of non-covalent interaction between MA and chitosan/collagen, which offered flexibility and high strength to the scaffolds suitable for tissue engineering research. Studies using NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells suggested biocompatibility nature of the scaffolds. Docking simulation study further supports the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between MA and chitosan/collagen.

  7. Three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization system for medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.F.; Batnitzky, S.; Kyo Rak Lee; Cook, P.N.; Cook, L.T.; Dwyer, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization system could be of significant advantage in medical application such as neurosurgery and radiation treatment planning. The reconstructed anatomic structures from CT head scans could be used in a head stereotactic system to help plan the surgical procedure and the radiation treatment for a brain lesion. Also, the use of three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm provides for quantitative measures such as volume and surface area estimation of the anatomic features. This aspect of the three-dimensional reconstruction system may be used to monitor the progress or staging of a disease and the effects of patient treatment. Two cases are presented to illustrate the three-dimensional surface reconstruction and visualization system

  8. Three-dimensional labeling program for elucidation of the geometric properties of biological particles in three-dimensional space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, A; Yamazaki, Y; Tsuji, T; Kawasaki, Y; Tanaka, S

    1996-09-15

    For all biological particles such as cells or cellular organelles, there are three-dimensional coordinates representing the centroid or center of gravity. These coordinates and other numerical parameters such as volume, fluorescence intensity, surface area, and shape are referred to in this paper as geometric properties, which may provide critical information for the clarification of in situ mechanisms of molecular and cellular functions in living organisms. We have established a method for the elucidation of these properties, designated the three-dimensional labeling program (3DLP). Algorithms of 3DLP are so simple that this method can be carried out through the use of software combinations in image analysis on a personal computer. To evaluate 3DLP, it was applied to a 32-cell-stage sea urchin embryo, double stained with FITC for cellular protein of blastomeres and propidium iodide for nuclear DNA. A stack of optical serial section images was obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The method was found effective for determining geometric properties and should prove applicable to the study of many different kinds of biological particles in three-dimensional space.

  9. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lütteke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  10. Progress of radiotherapy by three-dimensional treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Hajime; Nomoto, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Nakata, Hajime

    1998-01-01

    The recent progress of three-dimensional radiation treatment planning was reviewed. And clinical cases such as lung cancer and breast cancer are introduced. In the University of Occupational and Development Health, the treatment system FOCUS which is made up of CT simulator and linac was used mainly. Three-dimensional treatment planning was carried for about 90% of 330 patients who underwent radiotherapy for one year. The target becomes to be accurate and dose distribution with all CT slices in radiation field can be confirmed by using three-dimensional radiation treatment planning apparatus. High dose irradiation localized to tumor part is possible. Relations between total dose and volume of normal tissue and/or tumor can be estimated numerically and easily by DVH. A prediction of indication and affection became possible by this procedure. In conclusion, generalization of three-dimensional radiation treatment planning will bring progress of more effective radiotherapy with less adverse reaction. (K.H.). 21 refs

  11. Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography of Magnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, Morten; Strobl, Markus; Shinohara, Takenao

    2018-01-01

    Through the use of Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography (ToF 3DPNT) we have for the first time successfully demonstrated a technique capable of measuring and reconstructing three dimensional magnetic field strengths and directions unobtrusively and non-destructively wi......Through the use of Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography (ToF 3DPNT) we have for the first time successfully demonstrated a technique capable of measuring and reconstructing three dimensional magnetic field strengths and directions unobtrusively and non...... and reconstructed, thereby providing the proof-of-principle of a technique able to reveal hitherto unobtainable information on the magnetic fields in the bulk of materials and devices, due to a high degree of penetration into many materials, including metals, and the sensitivity of neutron polarisation to magnetic...... fields. The technique puts the potential of the ToF time structure of pulsed neutron sources to full use in order to optimise the recorded information quality and reduce measurement time....

  12. Application of three-dimensional CT reconstruction cranioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shuli; Yun Yongxing; Wan Kunming; Qiu Jian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the application of three-dimensional CT reconstruction in cranioplasty. Methods: 46 patients with skull defect were divided into two group. One group underwent CT examination and three-dimensional reconstruction, and then the Titanium nets production company manufactured corresponding titanium meshes were shaped those data before the operation. The other group received traditional operation in which titanium meshes were shaped during operation. The average time of operation were compared. Results: The average time of operation of the first group is 86.6±13.6 mins, and that of the second group is 115±15.0 mins. The difference of average operation time between the two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT reconstruction techniques contribute to shorten the average operation time, reduce the intensity of neurosurgeon's work and the patien's risk. (authors)

  13. Computational methods for three-dimensional microscopy reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to the recovery of three-dimensional information on a biological object, which are often formulated or implemented initially in an intuitive way, are concisely described here based on physical models of the object and the image-formation process. Both three-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray tomography can be captured in the same mathematical framework, leading to closely-related computational approaches, but the methodologies differ in detail and hence pose different challenges. The editors of this volume, Gabor T. Herman and Joachim Frank, are experts in the respective methodologies and present research at the forefront of biological imaging and structural biology.   Computational Methods for Three-Dimensional Microscopy Reconstruction will serve as a useful resource for scholars interested in the development of computational methods for structural biology and cell biology, particularly in the area of 3D imaging and modeling.

  14. Three-dimensional tokamak equilibria and stellarators with two-dimensional magnetic symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabedian, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer codes have been developed to simulate equilibrium, stability and transport in tokamaks and stellarators. Bifurcated solutions of the tokamak problem suggest that three-dimensional effects may be more important than has generally been thought. Extensive calculations have led to the discovery of a stellarator configuration with just two field periods and with aspect ratio 3.2 that has a magnetic field spectrum B mn with toroidal symmetry. Numerical studies of equilibrium, stability and transport for this new device, called the Modular Helias-like Heliac 2 (MHH2), will be presented. (author)

  15. Evaluation of diagnostic quality in musculoskeletal three-dimensional CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannier, M.W.; Hildebolt, C.F.; Gilula, L.A.; Sutherland, C.J.; Offutt, C.J.; Drebin, R.; Mantle, M.; Giordono, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A major application of three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) is in the imaging of the skeleton. Three-dimensional CT has an important role in determining the presence and extent of congenital and acquired orthopedic abnormalities. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional CT, planar CT, and plain radiography in the detection and characterization of orthopedic abnormalities. Three-dimensional CT scan reconstructions were obtained by two methods, surface reconstruction and volumetric techniques. Seventy patients were imaged with CT, three-dimensional CT, and plain radiography. The consensus opinion of experts with access to all images plus clinical history, surgical findings, and follow-up findings were taken as truth. Expert radiologists read these cases in a blinded fashion. The results were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The diagnostic value of each three-dimensional reconstruction method and the parameters used to perform the reconstructions were evaluated

  16. Evaluation of human collagen biomaterials in the healing of colonic anastomoses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, D; Aprahamian, M; Tiollier, J; Sonzini, P; Marescaux, J

    1997-04-01

    To investigate the ability of human collagen biomaterials to secure colonic anastomoses in dogs and to evaluate the biocompatibility of anastomotic protection patches (APP). Experimental open study. Experimental research centre, France. 21 mongrel dogs randomised into three groups of 7 each. Standard transverse colonic end-to-end anastomoses were secured with two-layer oxidised collagen I + III sponge covered with thin crosslinked collagen IV film (APP 1) glued around the suture (n = 7); two-layer oxidised collagen I + III sponge covered with thin non-crosslinked collagen I + III film patch (APP 2) (n = 7); or sealed by fibrin sealant (n = 7), which acted as a controls. Gross examination, radiological control (barium enemas), and microscopic examination on day 35 postoperatively. Gross clinical and radiological examinations on day 35 showed normal wound healing in all but one dog in which the anastomoses had occluded by day 16. There was significantly less stricturing with the APP 2 patch (p < 0.05 compared with the controls). Microscopic examination showed complete absorption of the APP 2 patches as well as quicker mucosal and extracellular matrix repair than controls. The APP 1 patch gave the best healing of the muscular layer but did not reduce anastomosis stricturing, and was not totally absorbed. Collagen supporting devices do not alter healing of the large bowel. Encircling patches do not increase the number of adhesions or the rate of anastomotic stricturing and a thin fibrillar collagen I + III dense layer may even improve it. The speed of absorption of the patch depends on the type of dense collagen film. These results argue for a prospective clinical evaluation in humans.

  17. In-situ Damage Assessment of Collagen within Ancient Manuscripts Written on Parchment: A Polarized Raman Spectroscopy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, R.; Rabin, I.; Hahn, O.; Fratzl, P.; Masic, A.

    2010-08-01

    The collection generally known as Qumran scrolls or Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) comprises some 900 highly fragmented manuscripts (mainly written on parchment) from the Second Temple period. In the years since their manufacture the writing materials have undergone serious deterioration due to a combination of natural ageing and environmental effects. Therefore, understanding quantitatively state of conservation of such manuscripts is a challenging task and a deep knowledge of damage pathways on all hierarchical levels (from molecular up to macroscopic) results of fundamental importance for a correct protection and conservation strategy. However, the degradation of parchments is very complex and not well understood process. Parchment is a final product of processing of animal skin and consist mainly of type I collagen, which is the most abundant constituent of the dermal matrix. Collagen molecule is built by folding of three polypeptide α-chains into a right-handed triple helix. Every α-chain is made by a repetitive sequence of (Gly-X-Y)n, where X and Y are often proline and hydroxyproline. Parallel and staggered collagen triple helices associate into fibrils, which than assemble into fibers. Deterioration of parchment is caused by chemical changes due to gelatinization, oxidation and hydrolysis of the collagen chains, promoted by several factors, summarized as biological and microbiological (bacteria, fungi etc.), heat, light, humidity and pollutants (1, 2). In this work we have focused on studying the collagen within parchments on two different levels of organization (molecular and fibrilar) by applying polarized Raman spectroscopic technique. Beside spectral information related to chemical bonding, polarization anisotropy of some collagen bands (i.e. amide I) has been used to explore organization of collagen on higher levels (three-dimensional arrangement of the triple-helix molecules and their alignment within a fibril of collagen). To this aim we have compared

  18. Three-dimensional echocardiography of normal and pathologic mitral valve: a comparison with two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salustri, A.; Becker, A. E.; van Herwerden, L.; Vletter, W. B.; ten Cate, F. J.; Roelandt, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    This study was done to ascertain whether three-dimensional echocardiography can facilitate the diagnosis of mitral valve abnormalities. The value of the additional information provided by three-dimensional echocardiography compared with two-dimensional multiplane transesophageal echocardiography for

  19. Effect of collagen type IV, MMPs and TIMPs on remodeling of radiation pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Ruiying; Song Liangwen; Wang Shaoxia; Yin Jiye

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of collagen type IV, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs(TIMPs) on early remodeling after radiation pulmonary injury. Methods: Right lungs of rats were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at a dose of 20 Gy to induce radiation pulmonary injury, and the lung specimens were taken at weeks 1, 2, 4 after irradiation. Quantitative analysis was performed on pulmonary collagen type IV, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-2, TIMP-1 at the level of gene expression and protein synthesis using real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry. Results: Gene detection using real-time PCR: gene expression of collagen type IV increased at week 1 and decreased at week 2 after irradiation; MMP-2 reached peak at week 2 in which an opposed alteration trend was displayed; MMP-9 appeared a significant trend of elevation, then decrease and elevation again which was similar to those of collagen type IV; expression of TIMP-1 was lower, and there was no marked difference among all time points; TIMP-2 displayed a trend of slight elevation, then decrease and elevation again, which was opposed to MMP-2. Immunohistochemistry-image analysis: Pulmonary collagen type IV obviously increased at week 1, and began to decrease at week 2; MMP-2 decreased at week 2 and then increased; an opposed alteration trend to that of collagen type IV was displayed; alteration trend of MMP-9 was similar to that of collagen type IV but the extent was higher; gene expression of TIMP-1 slightly increased at 2 week and an opposed trend to of MMP-9 was displayed. Conclusions: Collagen type IV, MMP-2, MMP-9 and their tissue inhibitors were involved in ineffective remodeling in the early radiation pulmonary injury; MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in degradation of collagen type IV; Disturbance of collagen type IV degradation might have relationship with the initiation of pulmonary fibrosis. (authors)

  20. Matrix density alters zyxin phosphorylation, which limits peripheral process formation and extension in endothelial cells invading 3D collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Colette A; Bayless, Kayla J

    2014-09-01

    integrate signals from multiple exogenous factors, including changes in matrix density, to accomplish successful sprouting responses. We show here for the first time that zyxin limited the formation and extension of fine peripheral processes used by ECs for matrix interrogation, providing a molecular explanation for altered EC responses to high and low density collagen matrices. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) Accelerates Collagen Degradation and Clearance from Lungs in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Qiang; Li, Hui-Hua

    2016-01-01

    , intratracheal bleomycin instillation and thoracic irradiation, we find increased mortality and increased lung fibrosis in FAP-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Lung extracellular matrix analysis reveals accumulation of intermediate-sized collagen fragments in FAP-deficient mouse lungs, consistent...... within vitrostudies showing that FAP mediates ordered proteolytic processing of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-derived collagen cleavage products. FAP-mediated collagen processing leads to increased collagen internalization without altering expression of the endocytic collagen receptor, Endo180....... Pharmacologic FAP inhibition decreases collagen internalization as expected. Conversely, restoration of FAP expression in the lungs of FAP-deficient mice decreases lung hydroxyproline content after intratracheal bleomycin to levels comparable with that of wild-type controls. Our findings indicate that FAP...

  2. Minerals and aligned collagen fibrils in tilapia fish scales: structural analysis using dark-field and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Mitsuhiro; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Takeguchi, Masaki; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tagaya, Motohiro; Chen, Song; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ikoma, Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    The mineralized structure of aligned collagen fibrils in a tilapia fish scale was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques after a thin sample was prepared using aqueous techniques. Electron diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy data indicated that a mineralized internal layer consisting of aligned collagen fibrils contains hydroxyapatite crystals. Bright-field imaging, dark-field imaging, and energy-filtered TEM showed that the hydroxyapatite was mainly distributed in the hole zones of the aligned collagen fibrils structure, while needle-like materials composed of calcium compounds including hydroxyapatite existed in the mineralized internal layer. Dark-field imaging and three-dimensional observation using electron tomography revealed that hydroxyapatite and needle-like materials were mainly found in the matrix between the collagen fibrils. It was observed that hydroxyapatite and needle-like materials were preferentially distributed on the surface of the hole zones in the aligned collagen fibrils structure and in the matrix between the collagen fibrils in the mineralized internal layer of the scale.

  3. Apparent height and body mass index influence perceived leadership ability in three-dimensional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; Dzhelyova, Milena; Holzleitner, Iris J; Tigue, Cara C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    Facial appearance has a well-documented effect on perceived leadership ability. Face judgments of leadership ability predict political election outcomes across the world, and similar judgments of business CEOs predict company profits. Body height is also associated with leadership ability, with taller people attaining positions of leadership more than their shorter counterparts in both politics and in the corporate world. Previous studies have found some face characteristics that are associated with leadership judgments, however there have been no studies with three-dimensional faces. We assessed which facial characteristics drive leadership judgments in three-dimensional faces. We found a perceptual relationship between height and leadership ability. We also found that facial maturity correlated with leadership judgments, and that faces of people with an unhealthily high body mass index received lower leadership ratings. We conclude that face attributes associated with body size and maturity alter leadership perception, and may influence real-world democratic leadership selection.

  4. Study of the nonlinear three-dimensional Debye screening in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chang; Zhao Jinbao; Zhang Xiulian

    2000-01-01

    The nonlinear three-dimensional Debye screening in plasmas is investigated. New analytical solutions for the three-dimensional Poisson equation have been obtained for the nonlinear Debye potential for the first time. We derive exact analytical expression for the special case of the nonlinear three-dimensional Debye screening in plasmas. (orig.)

  5. Heat engine in the three-dimensional spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Jie-Xiong [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China); Department of Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China); Liang, Feng [Department of Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China); Li, Gu-Qiang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China); Department of Physics, Lingnan Normal University,Zhanjiang, 524048, Guangdong (China)

    2017-03-02

    We define a kind of heat engine via three-dimensional charged BTZ black holes. This case is quite subtle and needs to be more careful. The heat flow along the isochores does not equal to zero since the specific heat C{sub V}≠0 and this point completely differs from the cases discussed before whose isochores and adiabats are identical. So one cannot simply apply the paradigm in the former literatures. However, if one introduces a new thermodynamic parameter associated with the renormalization length scale, the above problem can be solved. We obtain the analytical efficiency expression of the three-dimensional charged BTZ black hole heat engine for two different schemes. Moreover, we double check with the exact formula. Our result presents the first specific example for the sound correctness of the exact efficiency formula. We argue that the three-dimensional charged BTZ black hole can be viewed as a toy model for further investigation of holographic heat engine. Furthermore, we compare our result with that of the Carnot cycle and extend the former result to three-dimensional spacetime. In this sense, the result in this paper would be complementary to those obtained in four-dimensional spacetime or ever higher. Last but not the least, the heat engine efficiency discussed in this paper may serve as a criterion to discriminate the two thermodynamic approaches introduced in ref. https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.92.124069 and our result seems to support the approach which introduces a new thermodynamic parameter R=r{sub 0}.

  6. Subjective figure reversal in two- and three-dimensional perceptual space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radilová, J; Radil-Weiss, T

    1984-08-01

    A permanently illuminated pattern of Mach's truncated pyramid can be perceived according to the experimental instruction given, either as a three-dimensional reversible figure with spontaneously changing convex and concave interpretation (in one experiment), or as a two-dimensional reversible figure-ground pattern (in another experiment). The reversal rate was about twice as slow, without the subjects being aware of it, if it was perceived as a three-dimensional figure compared to the situation when it was perceived as two-dimensional. It may be hypothetized that in the three-dimensional case, the process of perception requires more sequential steps than in the two-dimensional one.

  7. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Sandpile Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, G. T.

    2001-03-01

    The granular bed, or sandpile, has become one of the condensed matter physicist's favorite systems. In addition to conceptual appeal, the simplest sandpile of monodisperse hard spheres is a valuable model system for understanding powders, liquids, and metallic glasses. Any fundamental approach to the transport and mechanical properties of three-dimensional mesoscale disordered materials must follow from a thorough understanding of their structure. However, in the overwhelming majority of cases, structure measurements have been limited to the mean filling fraction and the structural autocorrelation function. This is particularly unfortunate in the ongoing sandpile renaissance, where some of the most interesting questions concern structure and the relationship between structure and dynamics. I will discuss the combination of synchrotron x-ray microtomography and computer vision algorithms to perform three-dimensional virtual reconstructions of real sandpiles. This technique is rapid and noninvasive, and is applicable to samples large enough to separate bulk and boundary properties. The resulting complete knowledge of structure can be used to calculate otherwise inaccessible correlation functions. I will present results for several measures of the bond-orientational order in three-dimensional sandpiles, including fabric tensors and nematic order parameters.

  8. A plastic surgery application in evolution: three-dimensional printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Theodore L; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Kim, Peter S; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional printing represents an evolving technology still in its infancy. Currently, individuals and small business entities have the ability to manufacture physical objects from digital renderings, computer-aided design, and open source files. Design modifications and improvements in extrusion methods have made this technology much more affordable. This article explores the potential uses of three-dimensional printing in plastic surgery. A review was performed detailing the known uses of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The potential applications of three-dimensional printing in plastic surgery are discussed. Various applications for three-dimensional printing technology have emerged in medicine, including printing organs, printing body parts, bio-printing, and computer-aided tissue engineering. In plastic surgery, these tools offer various prospective applications for surgical planning, resident education, and the development of custom prosthetics. Numerous applications exist in medicine, including the printing of devices, implants, tissue replacements, and even whole organs. Plastic surgeons may likely find this technology indispensable in surgical planning, education, and prosthetic device design and development in the near future.

  9. Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the temporomandibular joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitai, N.; Kreiborg, S.; Murakami, S.

    Symposium Orthodontics 2001: Where are We Now? Where are We Going?, three-dimensional analysis, temporomandibular joint......Symposium Orthodontics 2001: Where are We Now? Where are We Going?, three-dimensional analysis, temporomandibular joint...

  10. Study on three dimensional seismic isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Kitamura, Seiji

    2003-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, and the results of this year's study are summarized in the following five aspects. (1) Study on Earthquake Condition for Developing 3-dimensional Base Isolation System. The case study S2 is one of the maximum ground motions, of which the records were investigated up to this time. But a few observed near the fault exceed the case study S2 in the long period domain, depending on the fault length and conditions. Generally it is appropriate that the response spectra ratio (vertical/horizontal) is 0.6. (2) Performance Requirement for 3-dimensional Base Isolation System and Devices. Although the integrity map of main equipment/piping dominate the design criteria for the 3-dimensional base isolation system, the combined integrity map is the same as those of FY 2000, which are under fv=1Hz and over hv=20%. (3) Developing Targets and Schedule for 3-dimensional Isolation Technology. The target items for 3-dimensional base isolation system were rearranged into a table, and developing items to be examined concerning the device were also adjusted. A development plan until FY 2009 was made from the viewpoint of realization and establishment of a design guideline on 3-dimensional base isolation system. (4) Study on 3-dimensional Entire Building Base Isolation System. Three ideas among six ideas that had been proposed in FY2001, i.e., '3-dimensional base isolation system incorporating hydraulic

  11. Three-dimensional imaging utilizing energy discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, D.L.; Hoffman, K.R.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for three-dimensional image reconstruction in nuclear medicine which uses scattered radiation rather than multiple projected images to determine the source depth within the body. Images taken from numerous energy windows are combined to construct the source distribution in the body. The gamma-ray camera is not moved during the imaging process. Experiments with both Tc-99m and Ga-67 demonstrate that two channels of depth information can be extracted from the low energy images produced by scattered radiation. By combining this technique with standard SPECT reconstruction using multiple projections the authors anticipate much improved spatial resolution in the overall three-dimensional reconstruction

  12. Self-organization in three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1987-07-01

    A three-dimensional self-organization process of a compressible dissipative plasma with a velocity-magnetic field correlation is investigated in detail by means of a variational method and a magnetohydrodynamic simulation. There are two types of relaxation, i.e., fast relaxation in which the cross helicity is not conserved, and slow relaxation in which the cross helicity is approximately conserved. In the slow relaxation case the cross helicity consists of two components with opposite sign which have almost the same amplitude in the large wavenumber region. In both cases the system approaches a high correlation state, dependent on the initial condition. These results are consistent with an observational data of the solar wind. Selective dissipation of magnetic energy, normal cascade of magnetic energy spectrum and inverse cascade of magnetic helicity spectrum are observed for the sub-Alfvenic flow case as was previously observed for the zero flow case. When the flow velocity is super-Alfvenic, the relaxation process is significantly altered from the zero flow case. (author)

  13. A three-dimensional model for analyzing the effects of salmon redds on hyporheic exchange and egg pocket habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele Tonina; John M. Buffington

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional fluid dynamics model is developed to capture the spatial complexity of the effects of salmon redds on channel hydraulics, hyporheic exchange, and egg pocket habitat. We use the model to partition the relative influences of redd topography versus altered hydraulic conductivity (winnowing of fines during spawning) on egg pocket conditions for a...

  14. Three dimensional analysis of laterally loaded piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this study static analysis of laterally loaded pile is studied by the three models. The first model is the beam on discrete elastic springs. This model is analyzed using a flexibility method. The second model is the beam on a two-parameter elastic foundation. This model is analyzed using the linear finite element method. The third model is the finite element model, using the three-dimensional iso-parametric parabolic brick element. Three-dimensional pile group analysis is also performed using elastic constants of single pile obtained by any one of the above analyses. The main objective is to develop computer programs for each model related to single piles and to group analysis. Then, the deflections, rotations, moments, shears, stresses and strains of the single pile are obtained at any arbitrary point. Comparison is made between each model and with other studies such as Poulos 1971, Desai and Appel 1976. In addition, to provide a benchmark of three-dimensional finite element analysis, the Boussinesq problem is analyzed. (orig.)

  15. Three-dimensional attached viscous flow basic principles and theoretical foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich; Kordulla, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Viscous flow is usually treated in the frame of boundary-layer theory and as a two-dimensional flow. At best, books on boundary layers provide the describing equations for three-dimensional boundary layers, and solutions only for certain special cases.   This book presents the basic principles and theoretical foundations of three-dimensional attached viscous flows as they apply to aircraft of all kinds. Though the primary flight speed range is that of civil air transport vehicles, flows past other flying vehicles up to hypersonic speeds are also considered. Emphasis is put on general three-dimensional attached viscous flows and not on three-dimensional boundary layers, as this wider scope is necessary in view of the theoretical and practical problems that have to be overcome in practice.   The specific topics covered include weak, strong, and global interaction; the locality principle; properties of three-dimensional viscous flows; thermal surface effects; characteristic properties; wall compatibility con...

  16. Age-related modifications of type I collagen impair DDR1-induced apoptosis in non-invasive breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Saby; Hassan, Rammal; Kevin, Magnien; Emilie, Buache; Sylvie, Brassart-Pasco; Laurence, Van-Gulick; Pierre, Jeannesson; Erik, Maquoi; Hamid, Morjani

    2018-05-07

    Type I collagen and DDR1 axis has been described to decrease cell proliferation and to initiate apoptosis in non-invasive breast carcinoma in three-dimensional cell culture matrices. Moreover, MT1-MMP down-regulates these effects. Here, we address the effect of type I collagen aging and MT1-MMP expression on cell proliferation suppression and induced-apoptosis in non-invasive MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 breast carcinoma. We provide evidence for a decrease in cell growth and an increase in apoptosis in the presence of adult collagen when compared to old collagen. This effect involves a differential activation of DDR1, as evidenced by a higher DDR1 phosphorylation level in adult collagen. In adult collagen, inhibition of DDR1 expression and kinase function induced an increase in cell growth to a level similar to that observed in old collagen. The impact of aging on the sensitivity of collagen to MT1-MMP has been reported recently. We used the MT1-MMP expression strategy to verify whether, by degrading adult type I collagen, it could lead to the same phenotype observed in old collagen 3D matrix. MT1-MMP overexpression abrogated the proliferation suppression and induced-apoptosis effects only in the presence of adult collagen. This suggests that differential collagen degradation by MT1-MMP induced a structural disorganization of adult collagen and inhibits DDR1 activation. This could in turn impair DDR1-induced cell growth suppression and apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that modifications of collagen structural organization, due to aging, contribute to the loss of the growth suppression and induced apoptosis effect of collagen in luminal breast carcinoma. MT1-MMP-dependent degradation and aging of collagen have no additive effects on these processes.

  17. Complete Histological Resolution of Collagenous Sprue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman developed a watery diarrhea syndrome with collagenous colitis. Later, weight loss and hypoalbuminemia were documented. This prompted small bowel biopsies that showed pathological changes of collagenous sprue. An apparent treatment response to a gluten-free diet and prednisone resulted in reduced diarrhea, weight gain and normalization of serum albumin. Later repeated biopsies from multiple small and large bowel sites over a period of over three years, however, showed reversion to normal small intestinal mucosa but persistent collagenous colitis. These results indicate that collagenous inflammatory disease may be a far more extensive process in the gastrointestinal tract than is currently appreciated. Moreover, collagenous colitis may be a clinical signal that occult small intestinal disease is present. Finally, collagenous sprue may, in some instances, be a completely reversible small intestinal disorder.

  18. Static and dynamic properties of three-dimensional dot-type magnonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksymov, Artur; Spinu, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The static and dynamic magnetization of three-dimensional magnonic metamaterials has been investigated. By numerical means it was analyzed the impact of space dimensionality on the properties of magnonic crystal with unit cell consisting of four dots. It is find out the possibility of multi-vortex core formation which is related to the increasing of the crystal height by three-dimensional periodicity of single crystal layer. Additionally is provided the analysis of ferromagnetic resonance phenomenon for two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures. For the unsaturated magnetization of three-dimensional crystal the several pronounced resonance frequencies were detected.

  19. Static and dynamic properties of three-dimensional dot-type magnonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymov, Artur, E-mail: maxyartur@gmail.com [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Spinu, Leonard [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The static and dynamic magnetization of three-dimensional magnonic metamaterials has been investigated. By numerical means it was analyzed the impact of space dimensionality on the properties of magnonic crystal with unit cell consisting of four dots. It is find out the possibility of multi-vortex core formation which is related to the increasing of the crystal height by three-dimensional periodicity of single crystal layer. Additionally is provided the analysis of ferromagnetic resonance phenomenon for two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures. For the unsaturated magnetization of three-dimensional crystal the several pronounced resonance frequencies were detected.

  20. Three-Dimensional Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Vitor; Viana, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the elements of a general theory for flows on three-dimensional compact boundaryless manifolds, encompassing flows with equilibria accumulated by regular orbits. The book aims to provide a global perspective of this theory and make it easier for the reader to digest the growing literature on this subject. This is not the first book on the subject of dynamical systems, but there are distinct aspects which together make this book unique. Firstly, this book treats mostly continuous time dynamical systems, instead of its discrete counterpart, exhaustively treated

  1. A microscopic evaluation of collagen-bilirubin interactions: in vitro surface phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, N; Jayakumar, G C; Rao, J R; Chandrasekaran, B; Nair, B U

    2014-02-01

    This study is carried out to understand the morphology variations of collagen I matrices influenced by bilirubin. The characteristics of bilirubin interaction with collagen ascertained using various techniques like XRD, CLSM, fluorescence, SEM and AFM. These techniques are used to understand the distribution, expression and colocalization patterns of collagen-bilirubin complexes. The present investigation mimic the in vivo mechanisms created during the disorder condition like jaundice. Fluorescence technique elucidates the crucial role played by bilirubin deposition and interaction during collagen organization. Influence of bilirubin during collagen fibrillogenesis and banding patterns are clearly visualize using SEM. As a result, collagen-bilirubin complex provides different reconstructed patterns because of the influence of bilirubin concentration. Selectivity, specificity and spatial organization of collagen-bilirubin are determined through AFM imaging. Consequently, it is observed that the morphology and quantity of the bilirubin binding to collagen varied by the concentrations and the adsorption rate in protein solutions. Microscopic studies of collagen-bilirubin interaction confirms that bilirubin influence the fibrillogenesis and alter the rate of collagen organization depending on the bilirubin concentration. This knowledge helps to develop a novel drug to inhibit the interface point of interaction between collagen and bilirubin. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Three-diemensional materials science: An intersection of three-dimensional reconstructions and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Katsuyo; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2008-01-01

    The recent development of experimental techniques that rapidly reconstruct the three-dimensional microstructures of solids has given rise to new possibilities for developing a deeper understanding of the evolution of microstructures and the effects of microstructures on materials properties. Comb...... an overview of this emerging field of materials science, as well as brief descriptions of selected methods and their applicability.......The recent development of experimental techniques that rapidly reconstruct the three-dimensional microstructures of solids has given rise to new possibilities for developing a deeper understanding of the evolution of microstructures and the effects of microstructures on materials properties....... Combined with three-dimensional (3D) simulations and analyses that are capable of handling the complexity of these microstructures, 3D reconstruction, or tomography, has become a powerful tool that provides clear insights into materials processing and properties. This introductory article provides...

  3. New method for solving three-dimensional Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    The method derived recently for solving a multidimensional scattering problem is applied to a three-dimensional Schroedinger equation. As compared with direct three-dimensional calculations of finite elements and finite differences, this approach gives sufficiently accurate upper and lower approximations to the helium-atom binding energy, which demonstrates its efficiency. 15 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  4. Nonsurgical Transurethral Radiofrequency Collagen Denaturation: Results at Three Years after Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M. Elser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess treatment efficacy and quality of life in women with stress urinary incontinence 3 years after treatment with nonsurgical transurethral radiofrequency collagen denaturation. Methods. This prospective study included 139 women with stress urinary incontinence due to bladder outlet hypermobility. Radiofrequency collagen denaturation was performed using local anesthesia in an office setting. Assessments included incontinence quality of life (I-QOL and urogenital distress inventory (UDI-6 instruments. Results. In total, 139 women were enrolled and 136 women were treated (mean age, 47 years. At 36 months, intent-to-treat analysis (n=139 revealed significant improvements in quality of life. Mean I-QOL score improved 17 points from baseline (P=.0004, while mean UDI-6 score improved (decreased 19 points (P=.0005. Conclusions. Transurethral collagen denaturation is a low-risk, office-based procedure that results in durable quality-of-life improvements in a significant proportion of women for as long as 3 years.

  5. Resonance fluorescence based two- and three-dimensional atom localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Abdul; Rahmatullah; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-06-01

    Two- and three-dimensional atom localization in a two-level atom-field system via resonance fluorescence is suggested. For the two-dimensional localization, the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields, whereas for the three-dimensional atom localization, the atom interacts with three orthogonal standing-wave fields. The effect of the detuning and phase shifts associated with the corresponding standing-wave fields is investigated. A precision enhancement in position measurement of the single atom can be noticed via the control of the detuning and phase shifts.

  6. Method for coupling two-dimensional to three-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.; Emmett, M.B.; Rhoades, W.A.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for radiation penetration studies. It is not feasible to solve some 3-D penetration problems with TORT, such as a building located a large distance from a point source, because (a) the discretized 3-D problem is simply too big to fit on the computer or (b) the computing time (and corresponding cost) is prohibitive. Fortunately, such problems can be solved with a hybrid approach by coupling a two-dimensional (2-D) description of the point source, which is assumed to be azimuthally symmetric, to a 3-D description of the building, the region of interest. The purpose of this paper is to describe this hybrid methodology along with its implementation and evaluation in the DOTTOR (Discrete Ordinates to Three-dimensional Oak Ridge Transport) code

  7. Identification of a polymorphic collagen-like protein in the crustacean bacteria Pasteuria ramosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Laurence; Traunecker, Emmanuel; McElroy, Kerensa; Du Pasquier, Louis; Ebert, Dieter

    2009-12-01

    Pasteuria ramosa is a spore-forming bacterium that infects Daphnia species. Previous results demonstrated a high specificity of host clone/parasite genotype interactions. Surface proteins of bacteria often play an important role in attachment to host cells prior to infection. We analyzed surface proteins of P. ramosa spores by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. For the first time, we prove that two isolates selected for their differences in infectivity reveal few but clear-cut differences in protein patterns. Using internal sequencing and LC/MS/MS, we identified a collagen-like protein named Pcl1a (Pasteuria collagen-like protein 1a). This protein, reconstructed with the help of Pasteuria genome sequences, contains three domains: a 75-amino-acid amino-terminal domain with a potential transmembrane helix domain, a central collagen-like region (CLR) containing Gly-Xaa-Yaa (GXY) repeats, and a 7-amino-acid carboxy-terminal domain. The CLR region is polymorphic among the two isolates with amino-acid substitutions and a variable number of GXY triplets. Collagen-like proteins are rare in prokaryotes, although they have been described in several pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis, closely related to Pasteuria species, in which they could be involved in the adherence of bacteria to host cells.

  8. Three-dimensional imagery by encoding sources of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, Isabelle

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the theoretical and practical study of X ray coded sources, and thus notably aims at exploring whether it would be possible to transform a standard digital radiography apparatus (as those operated in radiology hospital departments) into a low cost three-dimensional imagery system. The author first recalls the principle of conventional tomography and improvement attempts, and describes imagery techniques based on the use of encoding openings and source encoding. She reports the modelling of an imagery system based on encoded sources of X ray, and addresses the original notion of three-dimensional response for such a system. The author then addresses the reconstruction method by considering the reconstruction of a plane object, of a multi-plane object, and of real three-dimensional object. The frequency properties and the tomographic capacities of various types of source codes are analysed. She describes a prototype tomography apparatus, and presents and discusses three-dimensional actual phantom reconstructions. She finally introduces a new principle of dynamic three-dimensional radiography which implements an acquisition technique by 'gating code'. The acquisition principle should allow the reconstruction of volumes animated by periodic deformations, such as the heart for example [fr

  9. Resistivity characterisation of Hakone volcano, Central Japan, by three-dimensional magnetotelluric inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Ryokei; Ogawa, Yasuo; Yukutake, Yohei; Kanda, Wataru; Komori, Shogo; Hase, Hideaki; Goto, Tada-nori; Honda, Ryou; Harada, Masatake; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Kamo, Masato; Kawasaki, Shingo; Higa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yasuda, Yojiro; Tani, Masanori; Usui, Yoshiya

    2018-04-01

    On 29 June 2015, a small phreatic eruption occurred at Hakone volcano, Central Japan, forming several vents in the Owakudani geothermal area on the northern slope of the central cones. Intense earthquake swarm activity and geodetic signals corresponding to the 2015 eruption were also observed within the Hakone caldera. To complement these observations and to characterise the shallow resistivity structure of Hakone caldera, we carried out a three-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric measurement data acquired at 64 sites across the region. We utilised an unstructured tetrahedral mesh for the inversion code of the edge-based finite element method to account for the steep topography of the region during the inversion process. The main features of the best-fit three-dimensional model are a bell-shaped conductor, the bottom of which shows good agreement with the upper limit of seismicity, beneath the central cones and the Owakudani geothermal area, and several buried bowl-shaped conductive zones beneath the Gora and Kojiri areas. We infer that the main bell-shaped conductor represents a hydrothermally altered zone that acts as a cap or seal to resist the upwelling of volcanic fluids. Enhanced volcanic activity may cause volcanic fluids to pass through the resistive body surrounded by the altered zone and thus promote brittle failure within the resistive body. The overlapping locations of the bowl-shaped conductors, the buried caldera structures and the presence of sodium-chloride-rich hot springs indicate that the conductors represent porous media saturated by high-salinity hot spring waters. The linear clusters of earthquake swarms beneath the Kojiri area may indicate several weak zones that formed due to these structural contrasts.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Microfibrous {beta}-TCP/collagen scaffolds mimic woven bone in structure and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shen; Zhang Xin; Cai Qing; Yang Xiaoping [Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Bo; Deng Xuliang, E-mail: yangxp@mail.buct.edu.c [Department of VIP Dental Service, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Woven bone, as the initial form of bone tissue, is always found in developing and repairing bone. It is thought of as a temporary scaffold for the deposition of osteogenic cells and the laying down of lamellar bone. Thus, we hypothesize that a matrix which resembles the architecture and components of woven bone can provide an osteoblastic microenvironment for bone cell growth and new bone formation. In this study, woven-bone-like beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP)/collagen scaffolds were fabricated by sol-gel electrospinning and impregnating methods. Optimization studies on sol-gel synthesis and electrospinning process were conducted respectively to prepare pure {beta}-TCP fibers with dimensions close to mineralized collagen fibrils in woven bone. The collagen-coating layer prepared by impregnation had an adhesive role that held the {beta}-TCP fibers together, and resulted in rapid degradation and matrix mineralization in in vitro tests. MG63 osteoblast-like cells seeded on the resultant scaffolds showed three-dimensional (3D) morphologies, and merged into multicellular layers after 7 days culture. Cytotoxicity test further revealed that extracts from the resultant scaffolds could promote the proliferation of MG63 cells. Therefore, the woven-bone-like matrix that we constructed favored the attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells in three dimensions. It has great potential ability to shorten the time of formation of new bone.

  11. Microfibrous β-TCP/collagen scaffolds mimic woven bone in structure and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shen; Zhang Xin; Cai Qing; Yang Xiaoping; Wang Bo; Deng Xuliang

    2010-01-01

    Woven bone, as the initial form of bone tissue, is always found in developing and repairing bone. It is thought of as a temporary scaffold for the deposition of osteogenic cells and the laying down of lamellar bone. Thus, we hypothesize that a matrix which resembles the architecture and components of woven bone can provide an osteoblastic microenvironment for bone cell growth and new bone formation. In this study, woven-bone-like beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/collagen scaffolds were fabricated by sol-gel electrospinning and impregnating methods. Optimization studies on sol-gel synthesis and electrospinning process were conducted respectively to prepare pure β-TCP fibers with dimensions close to mineralized collagen fibrils in woven bone. The collagen-coating layer prepared by impregnation had an adhesive role that held the β-TCP fibers together, and resulted in rapid degradation and matrix mineralization in in vitro tests. MG63 osteoblast-like cells seeded on the resultant scaffolds showed three-dimensional (3D) morphologies, and merged into multicellular layers after 7 days culture. Cytotoxicity test further revealed that extracts from the resultant scaffolds could promote the proliferation of MG63 cells. Therefore, the woven-bone-like matrix that we constructed favored the attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells in three dimensions. It has great potential ability to shorten the time of formation of new bone.

  12. Quantitative proteomics reveals altered expression of extracellular matrix related proteins of human primary dermal fibroblasts in response to sulfated hyaluronan and collagen applied as artificial extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stephan A; van der Smissen, Anja; von Feilitzsch, Margarete; Anderegg, Ulf; Kalkhof, Stefan; von Bergen, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Fibroblasts are the main matrix producing cells of the dermis and are also strongly regulated by their matrix environment which can be used to improve and guide skin wound healing processes. Here, we systematically investigated the molecular effects on primary dermal fibroblasts in response to high-sulfated hyaluronan [HA] (hsHA) by quantitative proteomics. The comparison of non- and high-sulfated HA revealed regulation of 84 of more than 1,200 quantified proteins. Based on gene enrichment we found that sulfation of HA alters extracellular matrix remodeling. The collagen degrading enzymes cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -14 were found to be down-regulated on hsHA. Additionally protein expression of thrombospondin-1, decorin, collagen types I and XII were reduced, whereas the expression of trophoblast glycoprotein and collagen type VI were slightly increased. This study demonstrates that global proteomics provides a valuable tool for revealing proteins involved in molecular effects of growth substrates for further material optimization.

  13. Three-dimensional oscillator and Coulomb systems reduced from Kaehler spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nersessian, Armen; Yeranyan, Armen

    2004-01-01

    We define the oscillator and Coulomb systems on four-dimensional spaces with U(2)-invariant Kaehler metric and perform their Hamiltonian reduction to the three-dimensional oscillator and Coulomb systems specified by the presence of Dirac monopoles. We find the Kaehler spaces with conic singularity, where the oscillator and Coulomb systems on three-dimensional sphere and two-sheet hyperboloid originate. Then we construct the superintegrable oscillator system on three-dimensional sphere and hyperboloid, coupled to a monopole, and find their four-dimensional origins. In the latter case the metric of configuration space is a non-Kaehler one. Finally, we extend these results to the family of Kaehler spaces with conic singularities

  14. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics in three-dimensional space, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ui, Haruo

    1984-01-01

    As a direct generalization of the model of supersymmetric quantum mechanics by Witten, which describes the motion of a spin one-half particle in the one-dimensional space, we construct a model of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics in the three-dimensional space, which describes the motion of a spin one-half particle in central and spin-orbit potentials in the context of the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. With the simplest choice of the (super) potential, this model is shown to reduce to the model of the harmonic oscillator plus constant spin-orbit potential of unit strength of both positive and negative signs, which was studied in detail in our recent paper in connection with ''accidental degeneracy'' as well as the ''graded groups''. This simplest model is discussed in some detail as an example of the three-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanical system, where the supersymmetry is an exact symmetry of the system. More general choice of a polynomial superpotential is also discussed. It is shown that the supersymmetry cannot be spontaneously broken for any polynomial superpotential in our three-dimensional model; this result is contrasted to the corresponding one in the one-dimensional model. (author)

  15. Effectiveness of xenogenous-based bovine-derived platelet gel embedded within a three-dimensional collagen implant on the healing and regeneration of the Achilles tendon defect in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Ali; Oryan, Ahmad; Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid

    2014-08-01

    Tissue engineering is an option in reconstructing large tendon defects and managing their healing and regeneration. We designed and produced a novel xenogeneic-based bovine platelet, embedded it within a tissue-engineered collagen implant (CI) and applied it in an experimentally induced large tendon defect model in rabbits to test whether bovine platelets could stimulate tendon healing and regeneration in vivo. One hundred twenty rabbits were randomly divided into two experimental and pilot groups. In all the animals, the left Achilles tendon was surgically excised and the tendon edges were aligned by Kessler suture. Each group was then divided into three groups of control (no implant), treated with CI and treated with collagen-platelet implant. The pilot groups were euthanized at 10, 15, 30 and 40 days post-injury (DPI), and their gross and histologic characteristics were evaluated to study host-graft interaction mechanism. To study the tendon healing and its outcome, the experimental animals were tested during the experiment using hematologic, ultrasonographic and various methods of clinical examinations and then euthanized at 60 DPI and their tendons were evaluated by gross pathologic, histopathologic, scanning electron microscopic, biophysical and biochemical methods. Bovine platelets embedded within a CI increased inflammation at short term while it increased the rate of implant absorption and matrix replacement compared with the controls and CI alone. Treatment also significantly increased diameter, density, amount, alignment and differentiation of the collagen fibrils and fibers and approximated the water uptake and delivery behavior of the healing tendons to normal contralaterals (p tendons and reduced peritendinous adhesion, muscle fibrosis and atrophy, and therefore, it improved the clinical scores and physical activity related to the injured limb when compared with the controls (p Achilles tendon in rabbit. This strategy may be a valuable option in the

  16. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Gregory A.; Gasperikova, Erika [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Earth Sciences Division, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hoversten, G. Michael [Chevron Energy Technology Company, Seismic Analysis and Property Estimation, San Ramon, CA 94583 (United States); Wannamaker, Philip E. [Energy and Geoscience Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    A dense grid of 125 magnetotelluric (MT) stations plus a single line of contiguous bipole array profiling has been acquired over the east flank of the Coso geothermal system, CA, USA. Due to production related electromagnetic (EM) noise the permanent observatory at Parkfield, CA was used as a remote reference to suppress this cultural EM noise interference. These data have been inverted to a fully three-dimensional (3D) resistivity model. This model shows the controlling geological structures possibly influencing well production at Coso and correlations with mapped surface features such as faults and the regional geoelectric strike. The 3D model also illustrates the refinement in positioning of resistivity contacts when compared to isolated 2D inversion transects. The resistivity model has also been correlated with micro-earthquake locations, reservoir fluid production intervals and most importantly with an acoustic and shear velocity model derived by Wu and Lees [Wu, H., Lees, J.M., 1999. Three-dimensional P and S wave velocity structures of the Coso Geothermal Area, California, from microseismic travel time data. J. Geophys. Res. 104 (B6), 13217-13233]. This later correlation shows that the near-vertical low-resistivity structure on the eastern flank of the producing field is also a zone of increased acoustic velocity and increased V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio bounded by mapped fault traces. Over of the Devils' Kitchen is an area of large geothermal well density, where highly conductive near surface material is interpreted as a smectite clay cap alteration zone manifested from the subsurface geothermal fluids and related geochemistry. Enhanced resistivity beneath this cap and within the reservoir is diagnostic of propylitic alteration causing the formation of illite clays, which is typically observed in high-temperature reservoirs (>230 C). In the southwest flank of the field the V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio is enhanced over the production intervals, but the

  17. Bi-allelic Alterations in AEBP1 Lead to Defective Collagen Assembly and Connective Tissue Structure Resulting in a Variant of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    KAUST Repository

    Blackburn, Patrick R.; Xu, Zhi; Tumelty, Kathleen E.; Zhao, Rose W.; Monis, William J.; Harris, Kimberly G.; Gass, Jennifer M.; Cousin, Margot A.; Boczek, Nicole J.; Mitkov, Mario V.; Cappel, Mark A.; Francomano, Clair A.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Klee, Eric W.; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Layne, Matthew D.; McDonnell, Nazli B.; Atwal, Paldeep S.

    2018-01-01

    AEBP1 encodes the aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP) that associates with collagens in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and has several roles in development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. ACLP is expressed in bone, the vasculature, and dermal tissues and is involved in fibroblast proliferation and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into collagen-producing cells. Aebp1 mice have abnormal, delayed wound repair correlating with defects in fibroblast proliferation. In this study, we describe four individuals from three unrelated families that presented with a unique constellation of clinical findings including joint laxity, redundant and hyperextensible skin, poor wound healing with abnormal scarring, osteoporosis, and other features reminiscent of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Analysis of skin biopsies revealed decreased dermal collagen with abnormal collagen fibrils that were ragged in appearance. Exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in AEBP1 (c.1470delC [p.Asn490_Met495delins(40)] and c.1743C>A [p.Cys581]) in the first individual, a homozygous variant (c.1320_1326del [p.Arg440Serfs3]) in the second individual, and a homozygous splice site variant (c.1630+1G>A) in two siblings from the third family. We show that ACLP enhances collagen polymerization and binds to several fibrillar collagens via its discoidin domain. These studies support the conclusion that biallelic pathogenic variants in AEBP1 are the cause of this autosomal-recessive EDS subtype.

  18. Bi-allelic Alterations in AEBP1 Lead to Defective Collagen Assembly and Connective Tissue Structure Resulting in a Variant of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    KAUST Repository

    Blackburn, Patrick R.

    2018-03-29

    AEBP1 encodes the aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP) that associates with collagens in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and has several roles in development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. ACLP is expressed in bone, the vasculature, and dermal tissues and is involved in fibroblast proliferation and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into collagen-producing cells. Aebp1 mice have abnormal, delayed wound repair correlating with defects in fibroblast proliferation. In this study, we describe four individuals from three unrelated families that presented with a unique constellation of clinical findings including joint laxity, redundant and hyperextensible skin, poor wound healing with abnormal scarring, osteoporosis, and other features reminiscent of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Analysis of skin biopsies revealed decreased dermal collagen with abnormal collagen fibrils that were ragged in appearance. Exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in AEBP1 (c.1470delC [p.Asn490_Met495delins(40)] and c.1743C>A [p.Cys581]) in the first individual, a homozygous variant (c.1320_1326del [p.Arg440Serfs3]) in the second individual, and a homozygous splice site variant (c.1630+1G>A) in two siblings from the third family. We show that ACLP enhances collagen polymerization and binds to several fibrillar collagens via its discoidin domain. These studies support the conclusion that biallelic pathogenic variants in AEBP1 are the cause of this autosomal-recessive EDS subtype.

  19. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taru Sharma, G., E-mail: gts553@gmail.com [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India); Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G. [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  20. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taru Sharma, G.; Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: ► Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. ► Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. ► Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it supported buffalo EBs formation, their subsequent differentiation could prove to

  1. Three-dimensional theory for light-matter interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Westring; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2008-01-01

    We present a full quantum mechanical three dimensional theory describing an electromagnetic field interacting with an ensemble of identical atoms. The theory is constructed such that it describes recent experiments on light-matter quantum interfaces, where the quantum fluctuations of light...... to a dressed state picture, where the light modes are solutions to the diffraction problem, and develop a perturbative expansion in the fluctuations. The fluctuations are due to quantum fluctuations as well as the random positions of the atoms. In this perturbative expansion we show how the quantum...... fluctuations are mapped between atoms and light while the random positioning of the atoms give rise to decay due to spontaneous emission. Furthermore we identify limits, where the full three dimensional theory reduce to the one dimensional theory typically used to describe the interaction....

  2. Three dimensional contact/impact methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The simulation of three-dimensional interface mechanics between reactor components and structures during static contact or dynamic impact is necessary to realistically evaluate their structural integrity to off-normal loads. In our studies of postulated core energy release events, we have found that significant structure-structure interactions occur in some reactor vessel head closure designs and that fluid-structure interactions occur within the reactor vessel. Other examples in which three-dimensional interface mechanics play an important role are: (1) impact response of shipping casks containing spent fuel, (2) whipping pipe impact on reinforced concrete panels or pipe-to-pipe impact after a pipe break, (3) aircraft crash on secondary containment structures, (4) missiles generated by turbine failures or tornados, and (5) drops of heavy components due to lifting accidents. The above is a partial list of reactor safety problems that require adequate treatment of interface mechanics and are discussed in this paper

  3. An extracellular-matrix-specific GEF-GAP interaction regulates Rho GTPase crosstalk for 3D collagen migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutys, Matthew L; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2014-09-01

    Rho-family GTPases govern distinct types of cell migration on different extracellular matrix proteins in tissue culture or three-dimensional (3D) matrices. We searched for mechanisms selectively regulating 3D cell migration in different matrix environments and discovered a form of Cdc42-RhoA crosstalk governing cell migration through a specific pair of GTPase activator and inhibitor molecules. We first identified βPix, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), as a specific regulator of migration in 3D collagen using an affinity-precipitation-based GEF screen. Knockdown of βPix specifically blocks cell migration in fibrillar collagen microenvironments, leading to hyperactive cellular protrusion accompanied by increased collagen matrix contraction. Live FRET imaging and RNAi knockdown linked this βPix knockdown phenotype to loss of polarized Cdc42 but not Rac1 activity, accompanied by enhanced, de-localized RhoA activity. Mechanistically, collagen phospho-regulates βPix, leading to its association with srGAP1, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP), needed to suppress RhoA activity. Our results reveal a matrix-specific pathway controlling migration involving a GEF-GAP interaction of βPix with srGAP1 that is critical for maintaining suppressive crosstalk between Cdc42 and RhoA during 3D collagen migration.

  4. Three-dimensional friction measurement during hip simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sonntag

    Full Text Available Wear of total hip replacements has been the focus of many studies. However, frictional effects, such as high loading on intramodular connections or the interface to the bone, as well as friction associated squeaking have recently increased interest about the amount of friction that is generated during daily activities. The aim of this study was thus to establish and validate a three-dimensional friction setup under standardized conditions.A standard hip simulator was modified to allow for high precision measurements of small frictional effects in the hip during three-dimensional hip articulation. The setup was verified by an ideal hydrostatic bearing and validated with a static-load physical pendulum and an extension-flexion rotation with a dynamic load profile. Additionally, a pendulum model was proposed for screening measurement of frictional effects based on the damping behavior of the angular oscillation without the need for any force/moment transducer. Finally, three-dimensional friction measurements have been realized for ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings of three different sizes (28, 36 and 40 mm.A precision of less than 0.2 Nm during three-dimensional friction measurements was reported, while increased frictional torque (resultant as well as taper torque was measured for larger head diameters. These effects have been confirmed by simple pendulum tests and the theoretical model. A comparison with current literature about friction measurements is presented.This investigation of friction is able to provide more information about a field that has been dominated by the reduction of wear. It should be considered in future pre-clinical testing protocols given by international organizations of standardization.

  5. Diffraction limited focusing with controllable arbitrary three-dimensional polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weibin; Zhan, Qiwen

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new approach that enables full control over the three-dimensional state of polarization and the field distribution near the focus of a high numerical aperture objective lens. By combining the electric dipole radiation and a vectorial diffraction method, the input field at the pupil plane for generating arbitrary three-dimensionally oriented linear polarization at the focal point with a diffraction limited spot size is found analytically by solving the inverse problem. Arbitrary three-dimensional elliptical polarization can be obtained by introducing a second electric dipole oriented in the orthogonal plane with appropriate amplitude and phase differences

  6. Three-dimensional CT imaging of soft-tissue anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Magid, D.; Kuhlman, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional display of computed tomographic data has been limited to skeletal structures. This was in part related to the reconstruction algorithm used, which relied on a binary classification scheme. A new algorithm, volumetric rendering with percentage classification, provides the ability to display three-dimensional images of muscle and soft tissue. A review was conducted of images in 35 cases in which muscle and/or soft tissue were part of the clinical problem. In all cases, individual muscle groups could be clearly identified and discriminated. Branching vessels in the range of 2.3 mm could be identified. Similarly, lymph nodes could be clearly defined. High-resolution three-dimensional images were found to be useful both in providing an increased understanding of complex muscle and soft tissue anatomy and in surgical planning

  7. THREE DIMENSIONAL GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V. Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality is an important aspect for every firm in modern era of competition. Every product has tough competition in terms of market reach. The factor, which actually makes any product long run in market, is quality and hence quality is the stepping-stone for success of any firm. For everyone meaning of quality is different. We have seen several economists who have defined quality by considering different factors, but what all of them have common in them is Customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is the ultimate result of quality. In three-dimensional graphical representation of quality, optimum quality is obtained by using three-dimensional graph by considering some important factors governing quality of any product, limiting factor, and customer satisfaction.

  8. High-resolution study of the 3D collagen fibrillary matrix of Achilles tendons without tissue labelling and dehydrating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Ping; Swift, Benjamin John; Becker, Thomas; Squelch, Andrew; Wang, Allan; Zheng, Yong-Chang; Zhao, Xuelin; Xu, Jiake; Xue, Wei; Zheng, Minghao; Lloyd, David; Kirk, Thomas Brett

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of the collagen structure of an Achilles tendon is critical to comprehend the physiology, biomechanics, homeostasis and remodelling of the tissue. Despite intensive studies, there are still uncertainties regarding the microstructure. The majority of studies have examined the longitudinally arranged collagen fibrils as they are primarily attributed to the principal tensile strength of the tendon. Few studies have considered the structural integrity of the entire three-dimensional (3D) collagen meshwork, and how the longitudinal collagen fibrils are integrated as a strong unit in a 3D domain to provide the tendons with the essential tensile properties. Using second harmonic generation imaging, a 3D imaging technique was developed and used to study the 3D collagen matrix in the midportion of Achilles tendons without tissue labelling and dehydration. Therefore, the 3D collagen structure is presented in a condition closely representative of the in vivo status. Atomic force microscopy studies have confirmed that second harmonic generation reveals the internal collagen matrix of tendons in 3D at a fibril level. Achilles tendons primarily contain longitudinal collagen fibrils that braid spatially into a dense rope-like collagen meshwork and are encapsulated or wound tightly by the oblique collagen fibrils emanating from the epitenon region. The arrangement of the collagen fibrils provides the longitudinal fibrils with essential structural integrity and endows the tendon with the unique mechanical function for withstanding tensile stresses. A novel 3D microscopic method has been developed to examine the 3D collagen microstructure of tendons without tissue dehydrating and labelling. The study also provides new knowledge about the collagen microstructure in an Achilles tendon, which enables understanding of the function of the tissue. The knowledge may be important for applying surgical and tissue engineering techniques to tendon reconstruction. © 2017 The Authors

  9. Collagen derived serum markers in carcinoma of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Jensen, L T; Iversen, P

    1995-01-01

    Three new collagen markers deriving from the collagenous matrix, e.g. carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were used for the diagnose...

  10. Application status of three-dimensional CT reconstruction in hepatobiliary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Chao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of imaging technology, three-dimensional CT reconstruction has been widely used in hepatobiliary surgery. Three-dimensional CT reconstruction can divide and reconstruct two-dimensional images into three-dimensional images and clearly show the location of lesion and its relationship with the intrahepatic bile duct system. It has an important value in the preoperative assessment of liver volume, diagnosis and treatment decision-making process, intraoperative precise operation, and postoperative individualized management, and promotes the constant development of hepatobiliary surgery and minimally invasive technology, and therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.

  11. Calcific Aortic Valve Disease Is Associated with Layer-Specific Alterations in Collagen Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Hutson

    Full Text Available Disorganization of the valve extracellular matrix (ECM is a hallmark of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD. However, while microarchitectural features of the ECM can strongly influence the biological and mechanical behavior of tissues, little is known about the ECM microarchitecture in CAVD. In this work, we apply advanced imaging techniques to quantify spatially heterogeneous changes in collagen microarchitecture in CAVD. Human aortic valves were obtained from individuals between 50 and 75 years old with no evidence of valvular disease (healthy and individuals who underwent valve replacement surgery due to severe stenosis (diseased. Second Harmonic Generation microscopy and subsequent image quantification revealed layer-specific changes in fiber characteristics in healthy and diseased valves. Specifically, the majority of collagen fiber changes in CAVD were found to occur in the spongiosa, where collagen fiber number increased by over 2-fold, and fiber width and density also significantly increased. Relatively few fibrillar changes occurred in the fibrosa in CAVD, where fibers became significantly shorter, but did not otherwise change in terms of number, width, density, or alignment. Immunohistochemical staining for lysyl oxidase showed localized increased expression in the diseased fibrosa. These findings reveal a more complex picture of valvular collagen enrichment and arrangement in CAVD than has previously been described using traditional analysis methods. Changes in fiber architecture may play a role in regulating the pathobiological events and mechanical properties of valves during CAVD. Additionally, characterization of the ECM microarchitecture can inform the design of fibrous scaffolds for heart valve tissue engineering.

  12. Utility of three-dimensional method for diagnosing meniscal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Suguru; Nomura, Kazutoshi; Hirano, Mako; Hashimoto, Noburo; Fukumoto, Tetsuya; Katahira, Kazuhiro

    1998-01-01

    MRI of the knee is a useful method for diagnosing meniscal tears. Although the spin echo method is usually used for diagnosing meniscal tears, we examined the utility of thin slice scan with the three-dimensional method. We reviewed 70 menisci in which arthroscopic findings were confirmed. In this series, sensitivity was 90.9% for medial meniscal injuries and 68.8% for lateral meniscal injuries. There were 3 meniscal tears in which we could not detect tears on preoperative MRI. We could find tears in two of these cases when re-evaluated using the same MRI. In conclusion, we can get the same diagnostic rate with the three-dimensional method compared with the spin echo method. Scan time of the three-dimensional method is 3 minutes, on the other hand that of spin echo method in 17 minutes. This slice scan with three-dimensional method is useful for screening meniscal injuries before arthroscopy. (author)

  13. Three-dimensional features on oscillating microbubbles streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Marin, Alvaro G.; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kähler, Christian J.

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound-driven oscillating micro-bubbles have been used as active actuators in microfluidic devices to perform manifold tasks such as mixing, sorting and manipulation of microparticles. A common configuration consists in side-bubbles, created by trapping air pockets in blind channels perpendicular to the main channel direction. This configuration results in bubbles with a semi-cylindrical shape that creates a streaming flow generally considered quasi two-dimensional. However, recent experiments performed with three-dimensional velocimetry methods have shown how microparticles can present significant three-dimensional trajectories, especially in regions close to the bubble interface. Several reasons will be discussed such as boundary effects of the bottom/top wall, deformation of the bubble interface leading to more complex vibrational modes, or bubble-particle interactions. In the present investigation, precise measurements of particle trajectories close to the bubble interface will be performed by means of 3D Astigmatic Particle Tracking Velocimetry. The results will allow us to characterize quantitatively the three-dimensional features of the streaming flow and to estimate its implications in practical applications as particle trapping, sorting or mixing.

  14. Integration of Computed Tomography and Three-Dimensional Echocardiography for Hybrid Three-Dimensional Printing in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, Jordan; Pietila, Todd; Samuel, Bennett P; Kurup, Harikrishnan K N; Haw, Marcus P; Vettukattil, Joseph J

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology aiding diagnostics, education, and interventional, and surgical planning in congenital heart disease (CHD). Three-dimensional printing has been derived from computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and 3D echocardiography. However, individually the imaging modalities may not provide adequate visualization of complex CHD. The integration of the strengths of two or more imaging modalities has the potential to enhance visualization of cardiac pathomorphology. We describe the feasibility of hybrid 3D printing from two imaging modalities in a patient with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (L-TGA). Hybrid 3D printing may be useful as an additional tool for cardiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons in planning interventions in children and adults with CHD.

  15. Three-dimensional image reconstruction from stereo DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Kotoura, Noriko; Umehara, Takayoshi; Yamada, Eiji; Inaba, Tomohiro; Itou, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The technique of interventional radiology has spread rapidly in recent years, and three-dimensional information from blood vessel images is being sought to enhance examinations. Stereo digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and rotational DSA were developed for that purpose. However, it is difficult with stereo DSA to observe the image pair during examination and to obtain positional information on blood vessels. Further, the exposure dose is increased in rotational DSA when many mask images need to be collected, and the patient is required to hold his or her breath for a long duration. We therefore devised a technique to construct three-dimensional blood vessel images by employing geometrical information extracted from stereo DSA images using the right and left images. We used a judgment method based on the correlation coefficient, although we had to extract an equal blood vessel from the right and left images to determine the three-dimensional coordinates of the blood vessel. The reconstructed three-dimensional blood vessels were projected from various angles, again by using a virtual focus, and new images were created. These image groups were displayed as rotational images by the animation display function incorporated in the DSA device. This system can observe blood vessel images of the same phase at a free angle, although the image quality is inferior to that of rotational DSA. In addition, because collection of the mask images is reduced, exposure dose can be decreased. Further, the system offers enhanced safety because no mechanical movement of the imaging system is involved. (author)

  16. The dinosaurian origin of feathers: perspectives from dolphin (Cetacea) collagen fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2003-12-01

    The early origin of birds is a hotly disputed debate and may be broadly framed as a conflict between paleontologists and ornithologists. The paleontological emphasis has shifted from Archaeopteryx and its origins to recent finds of Cretaceous birds and "feathered" dinosaurs from China. The identification of alleged feathers has, however, relied principally on the visual image. Some workers have interpreted these integumentary structures as collagen fibers. To test the latter hypothesis, using light microscopy, collagen from the hypodermis (blubber) and subdermal connective tissue sheath was examined from a dolphin that had been buried for a year as part of an experiment. Within the blubber, toward the central thicker parts of the material, the collagen fibers had compacted and the three-dimensional latticework of normal blubber had more or less collapsed. Chromatographic analysis of the blubber revealed pronounced oxidation of the unsaturated lipids, probably accounting for the collapse of the latticework. Fibers normally bound together in bundles became separated into individual fibers or smaller bundles by degradation of the glue-like substance binding them together. These degraded collagen fibers show, in many instances, feather-like patterns, strikingly reminiscent of many of those identified as either "protofeathers" or "modern" feathers in dromaeosaurid dinosaurs. The findings throw serious doubt on the virtually complete reliance on visual image by supporters of the feathered dinosaur thesis and emphasize the need for more rigorous methods of identification using modern feathers as a frame of reference. Since collagen is the main fiber type found in most supporting tissues, the results have wide implications regarding the degradation and fossilization of vertebrate integument, such as that of the ichthyosaurs, dinosaurs and birds.

  17. A DETERMINISTIC METHOD FOR TRANSIENT, THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUETRON TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. GOLUOGLU, C. BENTLEY, R. DEMEGLIO, M. DUNN, K. NORTON, R. PEVEY I.SUSLOV AND H.L. DODDS

    1998-01-01

    A deterministic method for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional Boltzmam transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons has been developed and evaluated. The methodology used in this study for the time variable of the neutron flux is known as the improved quasi-static (IQS) method. The position, energy, and angle-dependent neutron flux is computed deterministically by using the three-dimensional discrete ordinates code TORT. This paper briefly describes the methodology and selected results. The code developed at the University of Tennessee based on this methodology is called TDTORT. TDTORT can be used to model transients involving voided and/or strongly absorbing regions that require transport theory for accuracy. This code can also be used to model either small high-leakage systems, such as space reactors, or asymmetric control rod movements. TDTORT can model step, ramp, step followed by another step, and step followed by ramp type perturbations. It can also model columnwise rod movement can also be modeled. A special case of columnwise rod movement in a three-dimensional model of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with simple adiabatic feedback is also included. TDTORT is verified through several transient one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional benchmark problems. The results show that the transport methodology and corresponding code developed in this work have sufficient accuracy and speed for computing the dynamic behavior of complex multidimensional neutronic systems

  18. Summary of three-dimensional animation creation based on ethnic culture element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Zhaopo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available three-dimensional animation is a product combined by technology and art. It is an artistic ex-pression form combining painting, film & television, digital technology, music, and literature. As an audio and visual art, three-dimensional animation has its own unique culture-loading function, technical aesthetic charac-teristics, and requirements for national art expression. This paper aims to find the method to combine digital technology and national art in combination of three-dimensional animation short film creation, and hopes to clear the road for the cultivation of domestic three-dimensional animation quality project.

  19. Three-dimensional spiral CT during arterial portography: comparison of three rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D G; Soyer, P A; Kuszyk, B S; Bliss, D F; Calhoun, P S; Bluemke, D A; Choti, M A; Fishman, E K

    1995-07-01

    The three most common techniques for three-dimensional reconstruction are surface rendering, maximum-intensity projection (MIP), and volume rendering. Surface-rendering algorithms model objects as collections of geometric primitives that are displayed with surface shading. The MIP algorithm renders an image by selecting the voxel with the maximum intensity signal along a line extended from the viewer's eye through the data volume. Volume-rendering algorithms sum the weighted contributions of all voxels along the line. Each technique has advantages and shortcomings that must be considered during selection of one for a specific clinical problem and during interpretation of the resulting images. With surface rendering, sharp-edged, clear three-dimensional reconstruction can be completed on modest computer systems; however, overlapping structures cannot be visualized and artifacts are a problem. MIP is computationally a fast technique, but it does not allow depiction of overlapping structures, and its images are three-dimensionally ambiguous unless depth cues are provided. Both surface rendering and MIP use less than 10% of the image data. In contrast, volume rendering uses nearly all of the data, allows demonstration of overlapping structures, and engenders few artifacts, but it requires substantially more computer power than the other techniques.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the pigeon inner ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Segenhout, J. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of the inner ear of the pigeon (Columba livia domestica), from two-dimensional images, obtained with (conventional) light microscopy or orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS), are presented. The results are compared with available information on

  1. Application of collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold facilitates periodontal wound healing in class II furcation defects in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosen, Y; Miyaji, H; Kato, A; Sugaya, T; Kawanami, M

    2012-10-01

    A three-dimensional scaffold may play an important role in periodontal tissue engineering. We prepared bio-safe collagen hydrogel, which exhibits properties similar to those of native extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of implantation of collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold on periodontal wound healing in class II furcation defects in dogs. The collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold was prepared by injecting collagen hydrogel, cross-linked to the ascorbate-copper ion system, into a collagen sponge. Class II furcation defects (of 5 mm depth and 3 mm width) were surgically created in beagle dogs. The exposed root surface was planed and demineralized with EDTA. In the experimental group, the defect was filled with collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold. In the control group, no implantation was performed. Histometric parameters were evaluated 2 and 4 wk after surgery. At 2 wk, the collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold displayed high biocompatibility and biodegradability with numerous cells infiltrating the scaffold. In the experimental group, reconstruction of alveolar bone and cementum was frequently observed 4 wk after surgery. Periodontal ligament tissue was also re-established between alveolar bone and cementum. Volumes of new bone, new cementum and new periodontal ligament were significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group. In addition, epithelial down-growth was suppressed by application of collagen hydrogel. The collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold possessed high tissue compatibility and degradability. Implantation of the scaffold facilitated periodontal wound healing in class II furcation defects in beagle dogs. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Hyaluronan in aged collagen matrix increases prostate epithelial cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodarasamy, Mamatha; Vernon, Robert B.; Chan, Christina K.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Wight, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the prostate, which is comprised primarily of collagen, becomes increasingly disorganized with age, a property that may influence the development of hyperplasia and cancer. Collageous ECM extracted from the tails of aged mice exhibits many characteristics of collagen in aged tissues, including the prostate. When polymerized into a 3-dimensional (3D) gel, these collagen extracts can serve as models for the study of specific cell-ECM interactions. In the present study, we examined the behaviors of human prostatic epithelial cell lines representing normal prostate epithelial cells (PEC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-1), and adenocarcinoma (LNCaP) cultured in contact with 3D gels made from collagen extracts of young and aged mice. We found that proliferation of PEC, BPH-1, and LNCaP cells were all increased by culture on aged collagen gels relative to young collagen gels. In examining age-associated differences in the composition of the collagen extracts, we found that aged and young collagen had a similar amount of several collagen-associated ECM components, but aged collagen had a much greater content of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) than young collagen. The addition of HA (of similar size and concentration to that found in aged collagen extracts) to cells placed in young collagen elicited significantly increased proliferation in BPH-1 cells, but not in PEC or LNCaP cells, relative to controls not exposed to HA. Of note, histochemical analyses of human prostatic tissues showed significantly higher expression of HA in BPH and prostate cancer stroma relative to stroma of normal prostate. Collectively, these results suggest that changes in ECM involving increased levels of HA contribute to the growth of prostatic epithelium with aging. PMID:25124870

  3. Surface representations of two- and three-dimensional fluid flow topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1990-01-01

    We discuss our work using critical point analysis to generate representations of the vector field topology of numerical flow data sets. Critical points are located and characterized in a two-dimensional domain, which may be either a two-dimensional flow field or the tangential velocity field near a three-dimensional body. Tangent curves are then integrated out along the principal directions of certain classes of critical points. The points and curves are linked to form a skeleton representing the two-dimensional vector field topology. When generated from the tangential velocity field near a body in a three-dimensional flow, the skeleton includes the critical points and curves which provide a basis for analyzing the three-dimensional structure of the flow separation. The points along the separation curves in the skeleton are used to start tangent curve integrations to generate surfaces representing the topology of the associated flow separations.

  4. Three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals based on artificial opals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, A. V.; Kodama, T.; Nishimura, K.; Uchida, H.; Inoue, M.

    2004-06-01

    We fabricated and experimentally investigated three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (3D MPCs) based on artificial opals. Opal samples with three-dimensional dielectric lattices were impregnated with different types of magnetic material. Magnetic and structural properties of 3D MPCs were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer. We have shown that magnetic materials synthesized in voids of opal lattices and the composites obtained have typical magnetic properties.

  5. Three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals based on artificial opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, A.V.; Kodama, T.; Nishimura, K.; Uchida, H.; Inoue, M.

    2004-01-01

    We fabricated and experimentally investigated three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (3D MPCs) based on artificial opals. Opal samples with three-dimensional dielectric lattices were impregnated with different types of magnetic material. Magnetic and structural properties of 3D MPCs were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer. We have shown that magnetic materials synthesized in voids of opal lattices and the composites obtained have typical magnetic properties

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic study of three-dimensional instability of the spontaneous fast magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T.; Kondoh, K.; Ugai, M.; Shibata, K.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional instability of the spontaneous fast magnetic reconnection is studied with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, where the two-dimensional model of the spontaneous fast magnetic reconnection is destabilized in three dimension. Generally, in two-dimensional magnetic reconnection models, every plasma condition is assumed to be uniform in the sheet current direction. In such two-dimensional MHD simulations, the current sheet destabilized by the initial resistive disturbance can be developed to fast magnetic reconnection by a current driven anomalous resistivity. In this paper, the initial resistive disturbance includes a small amount of fluctuations in the sheet current direction, i.e., along the magnetic neutral line. The other conditions are the same as that of previous two-dimensional MHD studies for fast magnetic reconnection. Accordingly, we may expect that approximately two-dimensional fast magnetic reconnection occurs in the MHD simulation. In fact, the fast magnetic reconnection activated on the first stage of the simulation is two dimensional. However, on the subsequent stages, it spontaneously becomes three dimensional and is strongly localized in the sheet current direction. The resulting three-dimensional fast magnetic reconnection intermittently ejects three-dimensional magnetic loops. Such intermittent ejections of the three-dimensional loops are similar to the intermittent downflows observed in the solar flares. The ejection of the three-dimensional loops seems to be random but, numerically and theoretically, it is shown that the aspect ratio of the ejected loops is limited under a criterion.

  7. Possibility of estimating three-dimensional mandibular morphology by cephalogram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Motegi, Etsuko; Kikuchi, Yu; Yamaguchi, Hideharu; Takaki, Takashi; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of a surmise of three-dimensional mandibular morphology by two-dimensional cephalogram analysis. The materials were three-dimensional CT and cephalogram of 20 female mandibular prognathism patients (average age: 25.20±7.49) before there orthognathic surgery. Mandibular bone volume and sponge bone width were calculated from three-dimensional images constructed from CT images using imaging software (Real Intage, KGT inc.). There was a positive correlation (r=0.72) between mandibular volume value and mandibular ramus width. There was a positive correlation between sponge bone width at the site of the mandibular cuspid and mandibular ramus width and SNB angle (r=0.80), and between sponge bone width at the site of the mandibular molar and symphysis height and mandibular ramus width (r=0.81). It was thought that these results will be useful for a surmise of three-dimensional mandibular morphology by cephalogram analysis. (author)

  8. Three-dimensional interpretation of TEM soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, P. O.; Fainberg, E. B.

    2013-07-01

    We describe the approach to the interpretation of electromagnetic (EM) sounding data which iteratively adjusts the three-dimensional (3D) model of the environment by local one-dimensional (1D) transformations and inversions and reconstructs the geometrical skeleton of the model. The final 3D inversion is carried out with the minimal number of the sought parameters. At each step of the interpretation, the model of the medium is corrected according to the geological information. The practical examples of the suggested method are presented.

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of biomimetic scaffolds by using collagen-alginate fibrillar gels for potential tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Lin; Luo Dongmei; Xu Songmei; Wang Xiaoliang; Li Xudong

    2011-01-01

    Pore architecture and its stable functionality under cell culturing of three dimensional (3D) scaffolds are of great importance for tissue engineering purposes. In this study, alginate was incorporated with collagen to fabricate collagen-alginate composite scaffolds with different collagen/alginate ratios by lyophilizing the respective composite gels formed via collagen fibrillogenesis in vitro and then chemically crosslinking. The effects of alginate amount and crosslinking treatment on pore architecture, swelling behavior, enzymatic degradation and tensile property of composite scaffolds were systematically investigated. The relevant results indicated that the present strategy was simple but efficient to fabricate highly interconnected strong biomimetic 3D scaffolds with nanofibrous surface. NIH3T3 cells were used as a model cell to evaluate the cytocompatibility, attachment to the nanofibrous surface and porous architectural stability in terms of cell proliferation and infiltration within the crosslinked scaffolds. Compared with the mechanically weakest crosslinked collagen sponges, the cell-cultured composite scaffolds presented a good porous architecture, thus permitting cell proliferation on the top surface as well as infiltration into the inner part of 3D composite scaffolds. These composite scaffolds with pore size ranging from 150 to 300 μm, over 90% porosity, tuned biodegradability and water-uptake capability are promising for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Three-dimensional teletherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panthaleon van Eck, R.B. van.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with physical/mathematical backgrounds of computerized teletherapy treatment planning. The subjects discussed in this thesis can be subdivided into three main categories: a) Three-dimensional treatment planning. A method is evaluated which can be used for the purpose of simulation and optimization of dose distributions in three dimensions. b) The use of Computed Tomography. The use of patient information obtained from Computed Tomography for the purpose of dose computations is evaluated. c) Dose computational models for photon- and electron beams. Models are evaluated which provide information regarding the way in which the radiation dose is distributed in the patient (viz. is absorbed and/or dispersed). (Auth.)

  11. Three-dimensional imaging technology offers promise in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karako, Kenji; Wu, Qiong; Gao, Jianjun

    2014-04-01

    Medical imaging plays an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Currently, medical equipment mainly has two-dimensional (2D) imaging systems. Although this conventional imaging largely satisfies clinical requirements, it cannot depict pathologic changes in 3 dimensions. The development of three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has encouraged advances in medical imaging. Three-dimensional imaging technology offers doctors much more information on a pathology than 2D imaging, thus significantly improving diagnostic capability and the quality of treatment. Moreover, the combination of 3D imaging with augmented reality significantly improves surgical navigation process. The advantages of 3D imaging technology have made it an important component of technological progress in the field of medical imaging.

  12. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.

  13. Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of the repaired mitral valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew; Mahmood, Feroze; Poppas, Athena; Singh, Arun

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the geometric changes of the mitral valve (MV) after repair using conventional and three-dimensional echocardiography. Prospective evaluation of consecutive patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Tertiary care university hospital. Fifty consecutive patients scheduled for elective repair of the mitral valve for regurgitant disease. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Assessments of valve area (MVA) were performed using two-dimensional planimetry (2D-Plan), pressure half-time (PHT), and three-dimensional planimetry (3D-Plan). In addition, the direction of ventricular inflow was assessed from the three-dimensional imaging. Good correlations (r = 0.83) and agreement (-0.08 +/- 0.43 cm(2)) were seen between the MVA measured with 3D-Plan and PHT, and were better than either compared to 2D-Plan. MVAs were smaller after repair of functional disease repaired with an annuloplasty ring. After repair, ventricular inflow was directed toward the lateral ventricular wall. Subgroup analysis showed that the change in inflow angle was not different after repair of functional disease (168 to 171 degrees) as compared to those presenting with degenerative disease (168 to 148 degrees; p<0.0001). Three-dimensional imaging provides caregivers with a unique ability to assess changes in valve function after mitral valve repair. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of isopropanol on collagen fibrils in new parchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Lee G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isopropanol is widely used by conservators to relax the creases and folds of parchment artefacts. At present, little is known of the possible side effects of the chemical on parchments main structural component- collagen. This study uses X-ray Diffraction to investigate the effects of a range of isopropanol concentrations on the dimensions of the nanostructure of the collagen component of new parchment. Results It is found in this study that the packing features of the collagen molecules within the collagen fibril are altered by exposure to isopropanol. The results suggest that this chemical treatment can induce a loss of structural water from the collagen within parchment and thus a rearrangement of intermolecular bonding. This study also finds that the effects of isopropanol treatment are permanent to parchment artefacts and cannot be reversed with rehydration using deionised water. Conclusions This study has shown that isopropanol induces permanent changes to the packing features of collagen within parchment artefacts and has provided scientific evidence that its use to remove creases and folds on parchment artefacts will cause structural change that may contribute to long-term deterioration of parchment artefacts. This work provides valuable information that informs conservation practitioners regarding the use of isopropanol on parchment artefacts.

  15. Tactical Routing Using Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Views of Terrain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St

    2001-01-01

    Consoles for military and civilian occupations such as air warfare, command and control, air traffic control, piloting, and meteorological forecasting will be capable of displaying three-dimensional (3-D) perspective views...

  16. Crystallization of a self-assembled three-dimensional DNA nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendek, Kimberly N.; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Fromme, Petra

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the crystallization of a self-assembling three-dimensional B-DNA nanostructure is described. The powerful and specific molecular-recognition system present in the base-pairing of DNA allows for the design of a plethora of nanostructures. In this work, the crystallization of a self-assembling three-dimensional B-DNA nanostructure is described. The DNA nanostructure consists of six single-stranded oligonucleotides that hybridize to form a three-dimensional tetrahedron of 80 kDa in molecular mass and 20 bp on each edge. Crystals of the tetrahedron have been successfully produced and characterized. These crystals may form the basis for an X-ray structure of the tetrahedron in the future. Nucleotide crystallography poses many challenges, leading to the fact that only 1352 X-ray structures of nucleic acids have been solved compared with more than 80 000 protein structures. In this work, the crystallization optimization for three-dimensional tetrahedra is also described, with the eventual goal of producing nanocrystals to overcome the radiation-damage obstacle by the use of free-electron laser technology in the future

  17. Three Dimensional Energy Transmitting Boundary in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro eNakamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the energy transmitting boundary is accurate and efficient for the FEM earthquake response analysis, it could be applied in the frequency domain only. In the previous papers, the author proposed an earthquake response analysis method using the time domain energy transmitting boundary for two dimensional problems. In this paper, this technique is expanded for three dimensional problems. The inner field is supposed to be a hexahedron shape and the approximate time domain boundary is explained, first. Next, two dimensional anti-plane time domain boundary is studied for a part of the approximate three dimensional boundary method. Then, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are confirmed by example problems.

  18. A method of image improvement in three-dimensional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasuzo; Huang, Tewen; Furuhata, Kentaro; Uchino, Masafumi.

    1988-01-01

    In general, image interpolation is required when the surface configurations of such structures as bones and organs are three-dimensionally constructed from the multi-sliced images obtained by CT. Image interpolation is a processing method whereby an artificial image is inserted between two adjacent slices to make spatial resolution equal to slice resolution in appearance. Such image interpolation makes it possible to increase the image quality of the constructed three-dimensional image. In our newly-developed algorithm, we have converted the presently and subsequently sliced images to distance images, and generated the interpolation images from these two distance images. As a result, compared with the previous method, three-dimensional images with better image quality have been constructed. (author)

  19. Usefulness Of Three-Dimensional Printing Models for Patients with Stoma Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tominaga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of patient-specific organ models in three-dimensional printing systems could be helpful for the education of patients and medical students. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the use of patient-specific stoma models is helpful for patient education. From January 2014 to September 2014, 5 patients who underwent colorectal surgery and for whom a temporary or permanent stoma had been created were involved in this study. Three-dimensional stoma models and three-dimensional face plates were created. The patients’ ages ranged from 59 to 81 years. Four patients underwent stoma construction because of rectal cancer, and 1 underwent stoma construction because of colon stenosis secondary to recurrent cancer. All patients were educated about their stoma and potential stoma-associated problems using three-dimensional stoma models, and all practiced cutting face plates using three-dimensional face plates. The models were also used during medical staff conferences to discuss current issues. All patients understood their problems and finally became self-reliant. The recent availability of three-dimensional printers has enabled the creation of many organ models, and full-scale stoma and face plate models are now available for patient education on cutting an appropriately individualized face plate. Thus, three-dimensional printers could enable fewer skin problems than are currently associated with daily stomal care.

  20. Three-dimensional ultrasound strain imaging of skeletal muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbertse, Kaj; Sprengers, Andre M.; Nillesen, Maartje; Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Verdonschot, Nico; De Korte, Chris L.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contraction is characterized by large deformation and translation, which requires a multi-dimensional imaging modality to reveal its behavior. Previous work on ultrasound strain imaging of the muscle contraction was limited to 2D and bi-plane techniques. In this study, a three-dimensional

  1. Exact solutions in three-dimensional gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Diaz, Alberto A

    2017-01-01

    A self-contained text, systematically presenting the determination and classification of exact solutions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity. This book explores the theoretical framework and general physical and geometrical characteristics of each class of solutions, and includes information on the researchers responsible for their discovery. Beginning with the physical character of the solutions, these are identified and ordered on the basis of their geometrical invariant properties, symmetries, and algebraic classifications, or from the standpoint of their physical nature, for example electrodynamic fields, fluid, scalar field, or dilaton. Consequently, this text serves as a thorough catalogue on 2+1 exact solutions to the Einstein equations coupled to matter and fields, and on vacuum solutions of topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant. The solutions are also examined from different perspectives, enabling a conceptual bridge between exact solutions of three- and four-dimensional gravit...

  2. A comparison of three-dimensional culture systems to evaluate in vitro chondrogenesis of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashlee E; Ackerman-Yost, Jeremy C; Nixon, Alan J

    2013-10-01

    To compare in vitro three-dimensional (3D) culture systems that model chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs from five horses 2-3 years of age were consolidated in fibrin 0.3% alginate, 1.2% alginate, 2.5×10(5) cell pellets, 5×10(5) cell pellets, and 2% agarose, and maintained in chondrogenic medium with supplemental TGF-β1 for 4 weeks. Pellets and media were tested at days 1, 14, and 28 for gene expression of markers of chondrogenic maturation and hypertrophy (ACAN, COL2B, COL10, SOX9, 18S), and evaluated by histology (hematoxylin and eosin, Toluidine Blue) and immunohistochemistry (collagen type II and X). alginate, fibrin alginate (FA), and both pellet culture systems resulted in chondrogenic transformation. Adequate RNA was not obtained from agarose cultures at any time point. There was increased COL2B, ACAN, and SOX9 expression on day 14 from both pellet culture systems. On day 28, increased expression of COL2B was maintained in 5×10(5) cell pellets and there was no difference in ACAN and SOX9 between FA and both pellet cultures. COL10 expression was significantly lower in FA cultures on day 28. Collagen type II was abundantly formed in all culture systems except alginate and collagen type X was least in FA hydrogels. equine MSCs respond to 3D culture in FA blended hydrogel and both pellet culture systems with chondrogenic induction. For prevention of terminal differentiation and hypertrophy, FA culture may be superior to pellet culture systems.

  3. Characterization of Genipin-Modified Dentin Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Nagaoka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of biomodification techniques to dentin can improve its biochemical and biomechanical properties. Several collagen cross-linking agents have been reported to strengthen the mechanical properties of dentin. However, the characteristics of collagen that has undergone agent-induced biomodification are not well understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a natural cross-linking agent, genipin (GE, on dentin discoloration, collagen stability, and changes in amino acid composition and lysyl oxidase mediated natural collagen cross-links. Dentin collagen obtained from extracted bovine teeth was treated with three different concentrations of GE (0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.5% for several treatment times (0–24 h. Changes in biochemical properties of NaB3H4-reduced collagen were characterized by amino acid and cross-link analyses. The treatment of dentin collagen with GE resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent pigmentation and stability against bacterial collagenase. The lysyl oxidase-mediated trivalent mature cross-link, pyridinoline, showed no difference among all groups while the major divalent immature cross-link, dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine/its ketoamine in collagen treated with 0.5% GE for 24 h, significantly decreased compared to control (P< 0.05. The newly formed GE-induced cross-links most likely involve lysine and hydroxylysine residues of collagen in a concentration-dependent manner. Some of these cross-links appear to be reducible and stabilized with NaB3H4.

  4. Bi-allelic Alterations in AEBP1 Lead to Defective Collagen Assembly and Connective Tissue Structure Resulting in a Variant of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Patrick R; Xu, Zhi; Tumelty, Kathleen E; Zhao, Rose W; Monis, William J; Harris, Kimberly G; Gass, Jennifer M; Cousin, Margot A; Boczek, Nicole J; Mitkov, Mario V; Cappel, Mark A; Francomano, Clair A; Parisi, Joseph E; Klee, Eric W; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Layne, Matthew D; McDonnell, Nazli B; Atwal, Paldeep S

    2018-04-05

    AEBP1 encodes the aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP) that associates with collagens in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and has several roles in development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. ACLP is expressed in bone, the vasculature, and dermal tissues and is involved in fibroblast proliferation and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into collagen-producing cells. Aebp1 -/- mice have abnormal, delayed wound repair correlating with defects in fibroblast proliferation. In this study, we describe four individuals from three unrelated families that presented with a unique constellation of clinical findings including joint laxity, redundant and hyperextensible skin, poor wound healing with abnormal scarring, osteoporosis, and other features reminiscent of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Analysis of skin biopsies revealed decreased dermal collagen with abnormal collagen fibrils that were ragged in appearance. Exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in AEBP1 (c.1470delC [p.Asn490_Met495delins(40)] and c.1743C>A [p.Cys581 ∗ ]) in the first individual, a homozygous variant (c.1320_1326del [p.Arg440Serfs ∗ 3]) in the second individual, and a homozygous splice site variant (c.1630+1G>A) in two siblings from the third family. We show that ACLP enhances collagen polymerization and binds to several fibrillar collagens via its discoidin domain. These studies support the conclusion that bi-allelic pathogenic variants in AEBP1 are the cause of this autosomal-recessive EDS subtype. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Marine-derived collagen biomaterials from echinoderm connective tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Ferrario, Cinzia; Leggio, Livio; Leone, Roberta; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Guidetti, Luca; Coccè , Valentina; Ascagni, Miriam; Bonasoro, Francesco; La Porta, Caterina A.M.; Candia Carnevali, M. Daniela; Sugni, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The use of marine collagens is a hot topic in the field of tissue engineering. Echinoderms possess unique connective tissues (Mutable Collagenous Tissues, MCTs) which can represent an innovative source of collagen to develop collagen barrier-membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). In the present work we used MCTs from different echinoderm models (sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber) to produce echinoderm-derived collagen membranes (EDCMs). Commercial membranes for GTR or soluble/reassembled (fibrillar) bovine collagen substrates were used as controls. The three EDCMs were similar among each other in terms of structure and mechanical performances and were much thinner and mechanically more resistant than the commercial membranes. Number of fibroblasts seeded on sea-urchin membranes were comparable to the bovine collagen substrates. Cell morphology on all EDCMs was similar to that of structurally comparable (reassembled) bovine collagen substrates. Overall, echinoderms, and sea urchins particularly, are alternative collagen sources to produce efficient GTR membranes. Sea urchins display a further advantage in terms of eco-sustainability by recycling tissues from food wastes.

  6. Marine-derived collagen biomaterials from echinoderm connective tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Ferrario, Cinzia

    2016-03-31

    The use of marine collagens is a hot topic in the field of tissue engineering. Echinoderms possess unique connective tissues (Mutable Collagenous Tissues, MCTs) which can represent an innovative source of collagen to develop collagen barrier-membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). In the present work we used MCTs from different echinoderm models (sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber) to produce echinoderm-derived collagen membranes (EDCMs). Commercial membranes for GTR or soluble/reassembled (fibrillar) bovine collagen substrates were used as controls. The three EDCMs were similar among each other in terms of structure and mechanical performances and were much thinner and mechanically more resistant than the commercial membranes. Number of fibroblasts seeded on sea-urchin membranes were comparable to the bovine collagen substrates. Cell morphology on all EDCMs was similar to that of structurally comparable (reassembled) bovine collagen substrates. Overall, echinoderms, and sea urchins particularly, are alternative collagen sources to produce efficient GTR membranes. Sea urchins display a further advantage in terms of eco-sustainability by recycling tissues from food wastes.

  7. The anabolic effects of insulin on type II collagen synthesis of Swarm rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bembenek, M.E.; Liberti, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The anabolic effects of insulin on collagen production of freshly isolated Swarm rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes were investigated. The specific radioactivity of newly synthesized collagen was not increased by insulin, indicating that the hormone has no effect on the specific radioactivity of the aminoacyl tRNA pool. Results of further studies obtained from collagen degradation experiments demonstrated that insulin did not alter the rate of [3H]collagen degradation. Together, these results clearly indicate that insulin stimulates collagen biosynthesis. Polyacrylamide gel analysis of the newly synthesized collagen of both control and insulin-stimulated cells revealed a large-molecular-weight component which migrated with authentic alpha 1(II) collagen and was collagenase-sensitive. Additional studies showed that, although insulin increased the processing and secretion of collagen, the hormone did not cause a shift in the distribution of the extracellular and intracellular collagen pools. Finally, results of studies conducted with the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D, indicated that the anabolic effects of insulin on collagen and non-collagen proteins were mediated at a post-transcriptional site

  8. Three-dimensional reacting shock–bubble interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diegelmann, Felix; Hickel, S.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate a reacting shock–bubble interaction through three-dimensional numerical simulations with detailed chemistry. The convex shape of the bubble focuses the shock and generates regions of high pressure and temperature, which are sufficient to ignite the diluted stoichiometric

  9. Assessment of proteolytic degradation of the basement membrane: a fragment of type IV collagen as a biochemical marker for liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S.; Karsdal, Morten A.; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz

    2011-01-01

    Collagen deposition and an altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression profile are hallmarks of fibrosis. Type IV collagen is the most abundant structural basement membrane component of tissue, which increases 14-fold during fibrogenesis in the liver. Proteolytic degradation of collagens...

  10. Collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lushnikov, P.M.; Saffman, M.

    2000-01-01

    We derive sufficient conditions for the occurrence of collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation without dissipation. Numerical studies continue the results to the case of finite dissipation.......We derive sufficient conditions for the occurrence of collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation without dissipation. Numerical studies continue the results to the case of finite dissipation....

  11. Eustachian tube three-dimensional reconstruction of secretory otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yafeng; Zhou Weirong; Bao Xueping; Li Min; Hu Zhenmin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study relationship between Eustachian tube and secretory otitis media and to explore the pathogeny of secretory otitis by three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube. Methods: Thirty cases of secretory otitis media (male 19, female 11) were selected randomly. Everyone was checked by otoscope and audiometry. Their bilateral Eustachian tubes were scanning by helix CT while making Valsalva's action. All images were passed on to work station to make three-dimensional reconstruction. Results: Four patients were found have Eustachian tube diseases, while most of patients' Eustachian tubes ventilated normally. Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube can open out some pathogens of some secretory otitis medias. It will be helpful to diagnosis and therapy of secretory otitis media. (authors)

  12. Investigation of the effect of hydration on dermal collagen in ex vivo human skin tissue using second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatham, Ravikant; Wang, Nicholas K.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2016-02-01

    Effect of hydration on the dermal collagen structure in human skin was investigated using second harmonic generation microscopy. Dog ears from the Mohs micrographic surgery department were procured for the study. Skin samples with subject aged between 58-90 years old were used in the study. Three dimensional Multiphoton (Two-photon and backward SHG) control data was acquired from the skin samples. After the control measurement, the skin tissue was either soaked in deionized water for 2 hours (Hydration) or kept at room temperature for 2 hours (Desiccation), and SHG data was acquired. The data was normalized for changes in laser power and detector gain. The collagen signal per unit volume from the dermis was calculated. The desiccated skin tissue gave higher backward SHG compared to respective control tissue, while hydration sample gave a lower backward SHG. The collagen signal decreased with increase in hydration of the dermal collagen. Hydration affected the packing of the collagen fibrils causing a change in the backward SHG signal. In this study, the use of multiphoton microscopy to study the effect of hydration on dermal structure was demonstrated in ex vivo tissue.

  13. Computerized three-dimensional normal atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Isamu; Suto, Yasuzo; Suzuki, Masataka; Iio, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents our ongoing project in which normal human anatomy and its quantitative data are systematically arranged in a computer. The final product, the Computerized Three-Dimensional Normal Atlas, will be able to supply tomographic images in any direction, 3-D images, and coded information on organs, e.g., anatomical names, CT numbers, and T 1 and T 2 values. (author)

  14. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    medium properties, so horizontal refraction and reflection of sound can occur and produce significant three-dimensional (3-D) sound propagation ...by the environmental factors existing commonly in the continental shelf and shelfbreak areas, such as slopes, submarine canyons, sub-bottom layers ...surface waves, internal waves and shelfbreak fronts. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Continental Shelf; 3-D Acoustics , Surface Waves, Sound Propagation 16

  15. The Influence of IL-10 and TNFα on Chondrogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Three-Dimensional Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jagielski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chondrogenic differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are a promising cell source for articular cartilage repair. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of two three-dimensional (3D culture systems for chondrogenic MSC differentiation in comparison to primary chondrocytes and to assess the effect of Interleukin (IL-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNFα on chondrogenesis by MSCs in 3D high-density (H-D culture. MSCs were isolated from femur spongiosa, characterized using a set of typical markers and introduced in scaffold-free H-D cultures or non-woven polyglycolic acid (PGA scaffolds for chondrogenic differentiation. H-D cultures were stimulated with recombinant IL-10, TNFα, TNFα + IL-10 or remained untreated. Gene and protein expression of type II collagen, aggrecan, sox9 and TNFα were examined. MSCs expressed typical cell surface markers and revealed multipotency. Chondrogenic differentiated cells expressed cartilage-specific markers in both culture systems but to a lower extent when compared with articular chondrocytes. Chondrogenesis was more pronounced in PGA compared with H-D culture. IL-10 and/or TNFα did not impair the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Moreover, in most of the investigated samples, despite not reaching significance level, IL-10 had a stimulatory effect on the type II collagen, aggrecan and TNFα expression when compared with the respective controls.

  16. The influence of IL-10 and TNFα on chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells in three-dimensional cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, Michal; Wolf, Johannes; Marzahn, Ulrike; Völker, Anna; Lemke, Marion; Meier, Carola; Ertel, Wolfgang; Godkin, Owen; Arens, Stephan; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

    2014-09-09

    Chondrogenic differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source for articular cartilage repair. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of two three-dimensional (3D) culture systems for chondrogenic MSC differentiation in comparison to primary chondrocytes and to assess the effect of Interleukin (IL)-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)α on chondrogenesis by MSCs in 3D high-density (H-D) culture. MSCs were isolated from femur spongiosa, characterized using a set of typical markers and introduced in scaffold-free H-D cultures or non-woven polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds for chondrogenic differentiation. H-D cultures were stimulated with recombinant IL-10, TNFα, TNFα + IL-10 or remained untreated. Gene and protein expression of type II collagen, aggrecan, sox9 and TNFα were examined. MSCs expressed typical cell surface markers and revealed multipotency. Chondrogenic differentiated cells expressed cartilage-specific markers in both culture systems but to a lower extent when compared with articular chondrocytes. Chondrogenesis was more pronounced in PGA compared with H-D culture. IL-10 and/or TNFα did not impair the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Moreover, in most of the investigated samples, despite not reaching significance level, IL-10 had a stimulatory effect on the type II collagen, aggrecan and TNFα expression when compared with the respective controls.

  17. Collagen fibrillogenesis: fibronectin, integrins, and minor collagens as organizers and nucleators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadler, Karl E; Hill, Adele; Canty-Laird, Elizabeth G

    2008-10-01

    Collagens are triple helical proteins that occur in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and at the cell-ECM interface. There are more than 30 collagens and collagen-related proteins but the most abundant are collagens I and II that exist as D-periodic (where D = 67 nm) fibrils. The fibrils are of broad biomedical importance and have central roles in embryogenesis, arthritis, tissue repair, fibrosis, tumor invasion, and cardiovascular disease. Collagens I and II spontaneously form fibrils in vitro, which shows that collagen fibrillogenesis is a selfassembly process. However, the situation in vivo is not that simple; collagen I-containing fibrils do not form in the absence of fibronectin, fibronectin-binding and collagen-binding integrins, and collagen V. Likewise, the thin collagen II-containing fibrils in cartilage do not form in the absence of collagen XI. Thus, in vivo, cellular mechanisms are in place to control what is otherwise a protein self-assembly process. This review puts forward a working hypothesis for how fibronectin and integrins (the organizers) determine the site of fibril assembly, and collagens V and XI (the nucleators) initiate collagen fibrillogenesis.

  18. Collagen gene interactions and endurance running performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to complete any of the individual components (3.8 km swim, 180 km bike or 42.2 km run) of the 226 km event. The major ... may affect normal collagen fibrillogenesis and alter the mechanical properties of ... using a XP Thermal Cycler (Block model XP-G, BIOER Technology Co.,. Japan). ..... New insights into the function of.

  19. Significance of soluble growth factors in the chondrogenic response of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells in a porous three dimensional scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Nirmal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell based tissue engineering has emerged as a promising strategy for articular cartilage regeneration. Foetal derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with their ease of availability, pluripotency and high expansion potential have been demonstrated to be an attractive cell source over adult MSCs. However, there is a need for optimisation of chondrogenic signals to direct the differentiation of these multipotent MSCs to chondrogenic lineage. In this study we have demonstrated the in vitro chondrogenesis of human umbilical cord matrix MSCs in three dimensional PVA-PCL (polyvinyl alcohol-polycaprolactone scaffolds in the presence of the individual growth factors TGFβ1, TGFβ3, IGF, BMP2 and their combination with BMP2. Gene expression, histology and immunohistology were evaluated after 28 d culture. The induced cells showed the feature of chondrocytes in their morphology and expression of typical chondrogenic extracellular matrix molecules. Moreover, the real-time PCR assay has shown the expression of gene markers of chondrogenesis, SOX9, collagen type II and aggrecan. The expression of collagen type I and collagen type X was also evaluated. This study has demonstrated the successful chondrogenic induction of human umbilical cord MSCs in 3D scaffolds. Interestingly, the growth factor combination of TGF-β3 and BMP-2 was found to be more effective for chondrogenesis as shown by the real-time PCR studies. The findings of this study suggest the importance of using growth factor combinations for successful chondrogenic differentiation of umbilical cord MSCs.

  20. Three dimensional CT imaging of ossicular chain: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chunhong; Zhong Shenbin; Fu Yindi; Zhu Wei; Wang Xueyuan; Chen Jianhua; Ding Yi

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To analysis the features of normal and abnormal ossicular chain in three dimensional images and asses the best parameters and its usefulness in diagnosis and treatment of chronic otitis media (COM). Methods: All patients, including 43 patients with normal ears and 24 ears with COM, were examined using spiral CT with inner ear software, 1-mm slice width and 1 pitch. SSD method was used in three dimensional reconstruction and the threshold was 100-300 Hu. Results: In normal cases, Malleus, incus, stapes crura, incudomalleal joints and incudostapedial joints were displayed well, but stapes footplate unsatisfactorily. The disruption of the ossicular chain showed in three-dimensional images in cases of chronic otitis media was in accord with that seen in the operation. Conclusion: It is very important for imaging with high quality through selecting proper parameters, and three-dimensional image can provide valuable information for surgery

  1. Abnormal type I collagen post-translational modification and crosslinking in a cyclophilin B KO mouse model of recessive osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Wayne A; Perdivara, Irina; Weis, MaryAnn; Terajima, Masahiko; Blissett, Angela R; Chang, Weizhong; Perosky, Joseph E; Makareeva, Elena N; Mertz, Edward L; Leikin, Sergey; Tomer, Kenneth B; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Eyre, David R; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Marini, Joan C

    2014-06-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB), encoded by PPIB, is an ER-resident peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) that functions independently and as a component of the collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex. CyPB is proposed to be the major PPIase catalyzing the rate-limiting step in collagen folding. Mutations in PPIB cause recessively inherited osteogenesis imperfecta type IX, a moderately severe to lethal bone dysplasia. To investigate the role of CyPB in collagen folding and post-translational modifications, we generated Ppib-/- mice that recapitulate the OI phenotype. Knock-out (KO) mice are small, with reduced femoral areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) and mechanical properties, as well as increased femoral brittleness. Ppib transcripts are absent in skin, fibroblasts, femora and calvarial osteoblasts, and CyPB is absent from KO osteoblasts and fibroblasts on western blots. Only residual (2-11%) collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation is detectable in KO cells and tissues. Collagen folds more slowly in the absence of CyPB, supporting its rate-limiting role in folding. However, treatment of KO cells with cyclosporine A causes further delay in folding, indicating the potential existence of another collagen PPIase. We confirmed and extended the reported role of CyPB in supporting collagen lysyl hydroxylase (LH1) activity. Ppib-/- fibroblast and osteoblast collagen has normal total lysyl hydroxylation, while increased collagen diglycosylation is observed. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of bone and osteoblast type I collagen revealed site-specific alterations of helical lysine hydroxylation, in particular, significantly reduced hydroxylation of helical crosslinking residue K87. Consequently, underhydroxylated forms of di- and trivalent crosslinks are strikingly increased in KO bone, leading to increased total crosslinks and decreased helical hydroxylysine- to lysine-derived crosslink ratios. The altered crosslink

  2. Secondary motion in three-dimensional branching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhijit; Pradhan, Kaustav

    2017-06-01

    A major aim of the present work is to understand and thoroughly document the generation, the three-dimensional distribution, and the evolution of the secondary motion as the fluid progresses downstream through a branched network. Six generations (G0-G5) of branches (involving 63 straight portions and 31 bifurcation modules) are computed in one go; such computational challenges are rarely taken in the literature. More than 30 × 106 computational elements are employed for high precision of computed results and fine quality of the flow visualization diagrams. The study of co-planar vis-à-vis non-planar space-filling configurations establishes a quantitative evaluation of the dependence of the fluid dynamics on the three-dimensional arrangement of the same individual branches. As compared to the secondary motion in a simple curved pipe, three distinctive features, viz., the change of shape and size of the flow-cross-section, the division of non-uniform primary flow in a bifurcation module, and repeated switchover from clockwise to anticlockwise curvature and vice versa in the flow path, make the present situation more complex. It is shown that the straight portions in the network, in general, attenuate the secondary motion, while the three-dimensionally complex bifurcation modules generate secondary motion and may alter the number, arrangement, and structure of vortices. A comprehensive picture of the evolution of quantitative flow visualizations of the secondary motion is achieved by constructing contours of secondary velocity | v → S | , streamwise vorticity ω S , and λ 2 iso-surfaces. It is demonstrated, for example, that for in-plane configuration, the vortices on any plane appear in pair (i.e., for each clockwise rotating vortex, there is an otherwise identical anticlockwise vortex), whereas the vortices on a plane for the out-of-plane configuration may be dissimilar, and there may even be an odd number of vortices. We have formulated three new parameters

  3. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.L.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site

  4. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  5. The in vitro biocompatibility of d-(+) raffinose modified chitosan: Two-dimensional and three-dimensional systems for culturing of horse articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Elena; Ravanetti, Francesca; Martelli, Paolo; Cacchioli, Antonio; Ivanovska, Ana; Corradi, Attilio; Nasi, Sonia; Bianchera, Annalisa; Passeri, Benedetta; Canelli, Elena; Bettini, Ruggero; Borghetti, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the biocompatibility of chitosan films and scaffolds modified with d-(+)raffinose and their capability to support the growth and maintenance of the differentiation of articular chondrocytes in vitro. Primary equine articular chondrocytes were cultured on films and scaffolds of modified d-(+) raffinose chitosan. Their behavior was compared to that of chondrocytes grown in conventional bi- and three-dimensional culture systems, such as micromasses and alginate beads. Chitosan films maintained the phenotype of differentiated chondrocytes (typical round morphology) and sustained the synthesis of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM), even at 4weeks of culture. Indeed, starting from 2weeks of culture, chondrocytes seeded on chitosan scaffolds were able to penetrate the surface pores and to colonize the internal matrix. Moreover they produced ECM expressing the genes of typical chondrocytes differentiation markers such as collagen II and aggrecan. In conclusion, chitosan modified with d-raffinose represents an ideal support for chondrocyte adhesion, proliferation and for the maintenance of cellular phenotypic and genotypic differentiation. This novel biomaterial could potentially be a reliable support for the re-differentiation of dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Three-dimensional radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.

    1989-01-01

    A major aim of radiation therapy is to deliver sufficient dose to the tumour volume to kill the cancer cells while sparing the nearby health organs to prevent complications. With the introduction of devices such as CT and MR scanners, radiation therapy treatment planners have access to full three-dimensional anatomical information to define, simulate, and evaluate treatments. There are a limited number of prototype software systems that allow 3D treatment planning currently in use. In addition, there are more advanced tools under development or still in the planning stages. They require sophisticated graphics and computation equipment, complex physical and mathematical algorithms, and new radiation treatment machines that deliver dose very precisely under computer control. Components of these systems include programs for the identification and delineation of the anatomy and tumour, the definition of radiation beams, the calculation of dose distribution patterns, the display of dose on 2D images and as three dimensional surfaces, and the generation of computer images to verify proper patient positioning in treatment. Some of these functions can be performed more quickly and accurately if artificial intelligence or expert systems techniques are employed. 28 refs., figs

  7. Three-dimensional cooling of muons

    CERN Document Server

    Vsevolozhskaya, T A

    2000-01-01

    The simultaneous ionization cooling of muon beams in all three - the longitudinal and two transverse - directions is considered in a scheme, based on bent lithium lenses with dipole constituent of magnetic field in them, created by a special configuration of current-carrying rod. An analysis of three-dimensional cooling is performed with the use of kinetic equation method. Results of numerical calculation for a specific beam line configuration are presented together with results of computer simulation using the Moliere distribution to describe the Coulomb scattering and the Vavilov distribution used to describe the ionization loss of energy.

  8. Vibrational spectra and thermal rectification in three-dimensional anharmonic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Jinghua; Li Baowen

    2007-01-01

    We study thermal rectification in a three-dimensional model consisting of two segments of anharmonic lattices. One segment consists of layers of harmonic oscillator arrays coupled to a substrate potential, which is a three-dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova model, and the other segment is a three-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model. We study the vibrational bands of the two lattices analytically and numerically, and find that, by choosing the system parameters properly, the rectification can be as high as a few thousands, which is high enough to be observed in experiment. Possible experiments in nanostructures are discussed

  9. Characterizing College Science Assessments: The Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Sonia M.; Matz, Rebecca L.; Posey, Lynmarie A.; Carmel, Justin H.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Fata-Hartley, Cori L.; Ebert-May, Diane; Jardeleza, Sarah E.; Cooper, Melanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Many calls to improve science education in college and university settings have focused on improving instructor pedagogy. Meanwhile, science education at the K-12 level is undergoing significant changes as a result of the emphasis on scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. This framework of “three-dimensional learning” is based on the literature about how people learn science and how we can help students put their knowledge to use. Recently, similar changes are underway in higher education by incorporating three-dimensional learning into college science courses. As these transformations move forward, it will become important to assess three-dimensional learning both to align assessments with the learning environment, and to assess the extent of the transformations. In this paper we introduce the Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol (3D-LAP), which is designed to characterize and support the development of assessment tasks in biology, chemistry, and physics that align with transformation efforts. We describe the development process used by our interdisciplinary team, discuss the validity and reliability of the protocol, and provide evidence that the protocol can distinguish between assessments that have the potential to elicit evidence of three-dimensional learning and those that do not. PMID:27606671

  10. Characterizing College Science Assessments: The Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, James T; Underwood, Sonia M; Matz, Rebecca L; Posey, Lynmarie A; Carmel, Justin H; Caballero, Marcos D; Fata-Hartley, Cori L; Ebert-May, Diane; Jardeleza, Sarah E; Cooper, Melanie M

    2016-01-01

    Many calls to improve science education in college and university settings have focused on improving instructor pedagogy. Meanwhile, science education at the K-12 level is undergoing significant changes as a result of the emphasis on scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. This framework of "three-dimensional learning" is based on the literature about how people learn science and how we can help students put their knowledge to use. Recently, similar changes are underway in higher education by incorporating three-dimensional learning into college science courses. As these transformations move forward, it will become important to assess three-dimensional learning both to align assessments with the learning environment, and to assess the extent of the transformations. In this paper we introduce the Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol (3D-LAP), which is designed to characterize and support the development of assessment tasks in biology, chemistry, and physics that align with transformation efforts. We describe the development process used by our interdisciplinary team, discuss the validity and reliability of the protocol, and provide evidence that the protocol can distinguish between assessments that have the potential to elicit evidence of three-dimensional learning and those that do not.

  11. The effect of acute exercise on collagen turnover in human tendons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Pingel, Jessica; Boesen, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical loading of human tendon stimulates collagen synthesis, but the relationship between acute loading responses and training status of the tendon is not clear. We tested the effect of prolonged load deprivation on the acute loading-induced collagen turnover in human tendons, by applying...... the contra-lateral leg was used habitually. Following the procedure both Achilles tendons and calf muscles were loaded with the same absolute load during a 1-h treadmill run. Tissue collagen turnover was measured by microdialysis performed post-immobilization but pre-exercise around both Achilles tendons...... and compared to values obtained by 72-h post-exercise. Power Doppler was used to monitor alterations in intratendinous blood flow velocity of the Achilles tendon and MRI used to quantitate changes in tendon cross-section area. Acute loading resulted in an increased collagen synthesis 72 h after the run in both...

  12. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shaoen; Zheng Zhijian; Liu Zhongli

    2001-01-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments

  13. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaoen, Jiang; Zhijian, Zheng; Zhongli, Liu [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2001-04-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments.

  14. Three-dimensional Reciprocal Structures: Morphology, Concepts, Generative Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Pugnale, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    , causing every configuration to develop naturally out-of the plane. The structures presented here were developed and built by the students of the Master of Science in “Architectural Design” during a two week long workshop organized at Aalborg University in the fall semester 2011.......This paper present seven different three dimensional structures based on the principle of structural reciprocity with superimposition joint and standardized un-notched elements. Such typology could be regarded as being intrinsically three-dimensional because elements sit one of the top of the other...

  15. Flukacad/Pipsicad: three-dimensional interfaces between Fluka and Autocad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmut Vincke

    2001-01-01

    FLUKA is a widely used 3-D particle transport program. Up to now there was no possibility to display the simulation geometry or the calculated tracks in three dimensions. Even with FLUKA there exists only an option to picture two-dimensional views through the geometry used. This paper covers the description of two interface programs between the particle transport code FLUKA and the CAD program AutoCAD. These programs provide a three-dimensional facility not only for illustrating the simulated FLUKA geometry (FLUKACAD), but also for picturing simulated particle tracks (PIPSICAD) in a three-dimensional set-up. Additionally, the programming strategy for connecting FLUKA with AutoCAD is shown. A number of useful features of the programs themselves, but also of AutoCAD in the context of FLUKACAD and PIPSICAD, are explained. (authors)

  16. Usefulness of three dimensional reconstructive images for thoracic trauma induced fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyung Hun; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Sook; Byun, Joo Nam [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional reconstructive images using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for thoracic traumatic patients visiting emergency room. 76 patients with fractures of the 105 patients who visited our emergency room with complaints of thoracic trauma were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients had thoracic MDCT performed and the three-dimensional reconstructive images were taken. The fractures were confirmed by axial CT, the clinical information, whole body bone scanning and the multiplanar reformation images. Plain x-ray images were analyzed by the fractured sites in a blind comparison of two radiologists' readings, and then that finding was compared with the axial CT scans and the three-dimensional reconstructive images. The fracture sites were rib (n 68), sternum (n = 14), clavicle (n = 6), scapula (n = 3), spine (n = 5) and combined fractures (n = 14). Plain x-ray and axial CT scans had a correspondency of 0.555 for the rib fractures. Axial CT scans and the three-dimensional reconstructive images had a correspondency of .952. For sternal fractures, those values were 0.692 and 0.928, respectively. The axial CT scans and three-dimensional reconstructive images showed sensitivities of 94% and 91% for rib and other fractures, respectively, and 93% and 100% for sternal fracture, respectively. Three-dimensional reconstructive image had an especially high sensitivity for the diagnosis of sternal fracture. While evaluating thoracic trauma at the emergency room, the three-dimensional reconstructive image was useful to easily diagnose the extent of fracture and it was very sensitive for detecting sternal fracture.

  17. Usefulness of three dimensional reconstructive images for thoracic trauma induced fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kyung Hun; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Sook; Byun, Joo Nam

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional reconstructive images using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for thoracic traumatic patients visiting emergency room. 76 patients with fractures of the 105 patients who visited our emergency room with complaints of thoracic trauma were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients had thoracic MDCT performed and the three-dimensional reconstructive images were taken. The fractures were confirmed by axial CT, the clinical information, whole body bone scanning and the multiplanar reformation images. Plain x-ray images were analyzed by the fractured sites in a blind comparison of two radiologists' readings, and then that finding was compared with the axial CT scans and the three-dimensional reconstructive images. The fracture sites were rib (n 68), sternum (n = 14), clavicle (n = 6), scapula (n = 3), spine (n = 5) and combined fractures (n = 14). Plain x-ray and axial CT scans had a correspondency of 0.555 for the rib fractures. Axial CT scans and the three-dimensional reconstructive images had a correspondency of .952. For sternal fractures, those values were 0.692 and 0.928, respectively. The axial CT scans and three-dimensional reconstructive images showed sensitivities of 94% and 91% for rib and other fractures, respectively, and 93% and 100% for sternal fracture, respectively. Three-dimensional reconstructive image had an especially high sensitivity for the diagnosis of sternal fracture. While evaluating thoracic trauma at the emergency room, the three-dimensional reconstructive image was useful to easily diagnose the extent of fracture and it was very sensitive for detecting sternal fracture

  18. Three-dimensional accuracy of plastic transfer impression copings for three implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Juin Wei; Tan, Keson B; Nicholls, Jack I; Wong, Keng Mun; Uy, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the three-dimensional accuracy of indirect plastic impression copings and direct implant-level impression copings from three implant systems (Nobel Biocare [NB], Biomet 3i [3i], and Straumann [STR]) at three interimplant buccolingual angulations (0, 8, and 15 degrees). Two-implant master models were used to simulate a three-unit implant fixed partial denture. Test models were made from Impregum impressions using direct implant-level impression copings (DR). Abutments were then connected to the master models for impressions using the plastic impression copings (INDR) at three different angulations for a total of 18 test groups (n = 5 in each group). A coordinate measuring machine was used to measure linear distortions, three-dimensional (3D) distortions, angular distortions, and absolute angular distortions between the master and test models. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the implant system had a significant effect on 3D distortions and absolute angular distortions in the x- and y-axes. Interimplant angulation had a significant effect on 3D distortions and absolute angular distortions in the y-axis. Impression technique had a significant effect on absolute angular distortions in the y-axis. With DR, the NB and 3i systems were not significantly different. With INDR, 3i appeared to have less distortion than the other systems. Interimplant angulations did not significantly affect the accuracy of NBDR, 3iINDR, and STRINDR. The accuracy of INDR and DR was comparable at all interimplant angulations for 3i and STR. For NB, INDR was comparable to DR at 0 and 8 degrees but was less accurate at 15 degrees. Three-dimensional accuracy of implant impressions varied with implant system, interimplant angulation, and impression technique.

  19. Phase Diagrams of Three-Dimensional Anderson and Quantum Percolation Models Using Deep Three-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Tomohiro; Ohtsuki, Tomi

    2017-11-01

    The three-dimensional Anderson model is a well-studied model of disordered electron systems that shows the delocalization-localization transition. As in our previous papers on two- and three-dimensional (2D, 3D) quantum phase transitions [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 85, 123706 (2016), 86, 044708 (2017)], we used an image recognition algorithm based on a multilayered convolutional neural network. However, in contrast to previous papers in which 2D image recognition was used, we applied 3D image recognition to analyze entire 3D wave functions. We show that a full phase diagram of the disorder-energy plane is obtained once the 3D convolutional neural network has been trained at the band center. We further demonstrate that the full phase diagram for 3D quantum bond and site percolations can be drawn by training the 3D Anderson model at the band center.

  20. Two-Dimensional (2D Slices Encryption-Based Security Solution for Three-Dimensional (3D Printing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao N. Pham

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, three-dimensional (3D printing technology is applied to many areas of life and changes the world based on the creation of complex structures and shapes that were not feasible in the past. But, the data of 3D printing is often attacked in the storage and transmission processes. Therefore, 3D printing must be ensured security in the manufacturing process, especially the data of 3D printing to prevent attacks from hackers. This paper presents a security solution for 3D printing based on two-dimensional (2D slices encryption. The 2D slices of 3D printing data is encrypted in the frequency domain or in the spatial domain by the secret key to generate the encrypted data of 3D printing. We implemented the proposed solution in both the frequency domain based on the Discrete Cosine Transform and the spatial domain based on geometric transform. The entire 2D slices of 3D printing data is altered and secured after the encryption process. The proposed solution is responsive to the security requirements for the secured storage and transmission. Experimental results also verified that the proposed solution is effective to 3D printing data and is independent on the format of 3D printing models. When compared to the conventional works, the security and performance of the proposed solution is also better.

  1. Three dimensional force prediction in a model linear brushless dc motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghani, J.S.; Eastham, J.F.; Akmese, R.; Hill-Cottingham, R.J. (Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom). School of Electronic and Electric Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    Practical results are presented for the three axes forces produced on the primary of a linear brushless dc machine which is supplied from a three-phase delta-modulated inverter. Conditions of both lateral alignment and lateral displacement are considered. Finite element analysis using both two and three dimensional modeling is compared with the practical results. It is shown that a modified two dimensional model is adequate, where it can be used, in the aligned position and that the full three dimensional method gives good results when the machine is axially misaligned.

  2. Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA): three-dimensional image interpretation tool for radiological reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sharmili; Brown, Michael S; Shih, George L

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces a software framework called Visual Interpretation with Three-Dimensional Annotations (VITA) that is able to automatically generate three-dimensional (3D) visual summaries based on radiological annotations made during routine exam reporting. VITA summaries are in the form of rotating 3D volumes where radiological annotations are highlighted to place important clinical observations into a 3D context. The rendered volume is produced as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) object and is automatically added to the study for archival in Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). In addition, a video summary (e.g., MPEG4) can be generated for sharing with patients and for situations where DICOM viewers are not readily available to referring physicians. The current version of VITA is compatible with ClearCanvas; however, VITA can work with any PACS workstation that has a structured annotation implementation (e.g., Extendible Markup Language, Health Level 7, Annotation and Image Markup) and is able to seamlessly integrate into the existing reporting workflow. In a survey with referring physicians, the vast majority strongly agreed that 3D visual summaries improve the communication of the radiologists' reports and aid communication with patients.

  3. Structural properties of pepsin-solubilized collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Conghu; Tian, Zhenhua; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying

    2015-01-01

    The structural properties of pepsin-solubilized calf skin collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride were investigated in this paper. Compared with native collagen, acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation, as determined by amino acid analysis, circular dichroism and X-ray diffraction. Meanwhile, the thermostability of acylated collagen using thermogravimetric measurements was enhanced as the residual weight increased by 5%. With the temperature increased from 25 to 115 °C, the secondary structure of native and acylated collagens using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements was destroyed since the intensity of the major amide bands decreased and the positions of the major amide bands shifted to lower wavenumber, respectively. Meanwhile, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy revealed that the most sensitive bands for acylated and native collagens were amide I and II bands, respectively. Additionally, the corresponding order of the groups between native and acylated collagens was different and the correlation degree for acylated collagen was weaker than that of native collagen, suggesting that temperature played a small influence on the conformation of acylated collagen, which might be concluded that the hydrophobic interaction improved the thermostability of collagen. - Highlights: • Acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation. • Acylated collagen had stronger thermostability than native collagen. • Amide I was the most sensitive band to the temperature for acylated collagen. • Amide II was the most sensitive band to the temperature for native collagen. • Auto-peak at 1680 cm −1 for acylated collagen disappeared at higher temperature

  4. Pulmonary collagen metabolism in irradiated hamsters and those treated with corticosteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, J.A.; Straus, F.C.; Halliwell, W.H.; Jones, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    Syrian hamsters were exposed to 90 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles to produce pulmonary fibrosis. Irradiated hamsters and contols were treated with Depomedrol, arresting the developing fibrosis. All hamsters receiving steroid showed a reduced incorporation of 14 C-proline into noncollagen protein during the 3-19 wk period after exposure. Collagen synthesis relative to noncollagen protein synthesis was decreased five-fold in these animals at early times after exposure and during high steroid dosage, but had returned to control levels after considerable time at lower steroid dosage. Collagen synthesis in irradiated animals not receiving steroids was elevated during the same time period and collagen synthesis in irradiated hamsters treated with steroid was intermediate between that in radiation animals and in control or steroid animals. Collagen breakdown was elevated to the same level as in irradiated animals, and collagen content was normal and well below that of irradiated animals. These and previous data indicate that steroid treatment delays development of pulmonary fibrosis in animals irradiated with fibrogenic doses of 90 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles. Experiments incubating BAPN or Depomedrol with L-929 or WI-38 fibroblasts in vitro were performed to note any effect of these agents upon fibroblast proliferation, cellular collagen processing or collagen synthesis. Steroids frequently reduced fibroblast proliferation and altered cellular collagen processings to reflect an increased proportion of collagen breakdown products. These changes reflect the importance of fibroblast proliferation in developing pulmonary fibrosis

  5. Three-dimensional Simulation of Backward Raman Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, A.A.; Fraiman, G.M.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) simulations for the Backward Raman Amplification (BRA) are presented. The images illustrate the effects of pump depletion, pulse diffraction, non-homogeneous plasma density, and plasma ionization

  6. Three dimensional transport model for toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhauer, C.

    1980-12-01

    A nonlinear MHD model, developed for three-dimensional toroidal geometries (asymmetric) and for high β (β approximately epsilon), is used as a basis for a three-dimensional transport model. Since inertia terms are needed in describing evolving magnetic islands, the model can calculate transport, both in the transient phase before nonlinear saturation of magnetic islands and afterwards on the resistive time scale. In the β approximately epsilon ordering, the plasma does not have sufficient energy to compress the parallel magnetic field, which allows the Alfven wave to be eliminated in the reduced nonlinear equations, and the model then follows the slower time scales. The resulting perpendicular and parallel plasma drift velocities can be identified with those of guiding center theory

  7. Three dimensional imaging in cardiac nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, Kanji; Ishii, Yasushi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Tamaki, Takeyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Methods to obtain three dimensional images of the heart were reviewed. Gated three dimensional display reconstructed from images using bidirectional collimator, was a useful method to detect akinesis of the heart wall. Tomographic observation of the heart can be carried out by a pinhole collimator to image ischemia with high sensitivity. However the focusing plane must be carefully selected to prevent false positives. In the case of emission CT (ECT), utilization of positron emitters gave a quantitative image without correction, whereas single photon ECT needed the correction due to the absorption of γ-ray. Though the reliability of the images by ECT was high, the time required for data acquisition was much longer than that by a 7 pinhole or bidirectional collimator. (Nakanishi, T.)

  8. Collagenous sprue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soendergaard, Christoffer; Riis, Lene Buhl; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2014-01-01

    Collagenous sprue is a rare clinicopathological condition of the small bowel. It is characterised by abnormal subepithelial collagen deposition and is typically associated with malabsorption, diarrhoea and weight loss. The clinical features of collagenous sprue often resemble those of coeliac...... disease and together with frequent histological findings like mucosal thinning and intraepithelial lymphocytosis the diagnosis may be hard to reach without awareness of this condition. While coeliac disease is treated using gluten restriction, collagenous sprue is, however, not improved...... by this intervention. In cases of diet-refractory 'coeliac disease' it is therefore essential to consider collagenous sprue to initiate treatment at an early stage to prevent the fibrotic progression. Here, we report a case of a 78-year-old man with collagenous sprue and present the clinical and histological...

  9. [Three-dimensional computer aided design for individualized post-and-core restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiao-yu; Wang, Ya-ping; Wang, Yong; Lü, Pei-jun

    2009-10-01

    To develop a method of three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) of post-and-core restoration. Two plaster casts with extracted natural teeth were used in this study. The extracted teeth were prepared and scanned using tomography method to obtain three-dimensional digitalized models. According to the basic rules of post-and-core design, posts, cores and cavity surfaces of the teeth were designed using the tools for processing point clouds, curves and surfaces on the forward engineering software of Tanglong prosthodontic system. Then three-dimensional figures of the final restorations were corrected according to the configurations of anterior teeth, premolars and molars respectively. Computer aided design of 14 post-and-core restorations were finished, and good fitness between the restoration and the three-dimensional digital models were obtained. Appropriate retention forms and enough spaces for the full crown restorations can be obtained through this method. The CAD of three-dimensional figures of the post-and-core restorations can fulfill clinical requirements. Therefore they can be used in computer-aided manufacture (CAM) of post-and-core restorations.

  10. Three-dimensional propagation in near-field tomographic X-ray phase retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhlandt, Aike; Salditt, Tim

    2016-01-01

    An extension of phase retrieval algorithms for near-field X-ray (propagation) imaging to three dimensions is presented, enhancing the quality of the reconstruction by exploiting previously unused three-dimensional consistency constraints. This paper presents an extension of phase retrieval algorithms for near-field X-ray (propagation) imaging to three dimensions, enhancing the quality of the reconstruction by exploiting previously unused three-dimensional consistency constraints. The approach is based on a novel three-dimensional propagator and is derived for the case of optically weak objects. It can be easily implemented in current phase retrieval architectures, is computationally efficient and reduces the need for restrictive prior assumptions, resulting in superior reconstruction quality

  11. Three dimensional reconstruction of tomographic images of the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glittenberg, C.; Zeiler, F.; Falkner, C.; Binder, S.; Povazay, B.; Hermann, B.; Drexler, W.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new display system for the three-dimensional visualization of tomographic images in ophthalmology. Specifically, a system that can use stacks of B-mode scans from an ultrahigh resolution optical tomography examination to vividly display retinal specimens as three-dimensional objects. Several subroutines were programmed in the rendering and raytracing program Cinema 4D XL 9.102 Studio Bundle (Maxon Computer Inc., Friedrichsburg, Germany), which could process stacks of tomographic scans into three-dimensional objects. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography examinations were performed on patients with various retinal pathologies and post processed with the subroutines that had been designed. All ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomographies were performed with a titanium: sapphire based ultra broad bandwidth (160 nm) femtosecond laser system (INTEGRAL, Femtolasers Productions GmbH. Vienna Austria) with an axial resolution of 3 μm. A new three dimensional display system for tomographic images in ophthalmology was developed, which allows a highly vivid display of physiological and pathological structures of the retina. The system also distinguishes itself through its high interactivity and adaptability. This new display system allows the visualization of physiological and pathological structures of the retina in a new way, which will give us new insight into their morphology and development. (author) [de

  12. Clinical significance of three-dimensional sonohysterography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Mi Hwa; Lee, Chan; Kim, Jong Wook; Shin, Myung Choel

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of three dimensional sonohysterography (3D SHG) in the evaluation of uterine endometrial and submucosal lesions in comparison with conventional two-dimensional sonohysterography (2D SHG). Our series consisted of 26 patients (mean aged 41 years) who complained of uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, or dysmenorrhea. 2D SHG was performed, and then 3D SHG was done after the volume mode was switched on. Simultaneous display of three perpendicular two-dimensional planes and surface rendering of findings on particular section were obtained. We analyzed whether the endometrium was thickened or not, and the location, size, shape, echogenicity, posterior shadowing, and echogenic rim of the focal lesion. The results were compared with the pathologic findings or MRI. There were submucosal myomas (n=12), intramural myomas (n=2), endometrial polyps (n=7), placental polyp (n=1), and normal endometrial cavities (n=4) on SHG. Nineteen cases were confirmed by pathologic findings or MRI. The results were correlated in 89% (17/19) of the cases. We misdiagnosed 2 cases: focal endometrial hyperplasia and choriocarcinoma were misdiagnosed as endometrial polyp and placental polyp, respectively. Imaging diagnoses were same in the techniques. Comparing with 2D SHG, 3D SHG provided a subjective display of pathologic findings and an additional information about spatial relationship between focal lesion and surroundings.

  13. Clinical significance of three-dimensional sonohysterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Mi Hwa; Lee, Chan; Kim, Jong Wook; Shin, Myung Choel [Pochon Cha University College of Medicine, Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of three dimensional sonohysterography (3D SHG) in the evaluation of uterine endometrial and submucosal lesions in comparison with conventional two-dimensional sonohysterography (2D SHG). Our series consisted of 26 patients (mean aged 41 years) who complained of uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, or dysmenorrhea. 2D SHG was performed, and then 3D SHG was done after the volume mode was switched on. Simultaneous display of three perpendicular two-dimensional planes and surface rendering of findings on particular section were obtained. We analyzed whether the endometrium was thickened or not, and the location, size, shape, echogenicity, posterior shadowing, and echogenic rim of the focal lesion. The results were compared with the pathologic findings or MRI. There were submucosal myomas (n=12), intramural myomas (n=2), endometrial polyps (n=7), placental polyp (n=1), and normal endometrial cavities (n=4) on SHG. Nineteen cases were confirmed by pathologic findings or MRI. The results were correlated in 89% (17/19) of the cases. We misdiagnosed 2 cases: focal endometrial hyperplasia and choriocarcinoma were misdiagnosed as endometrial polyp and placental polyp, respectively. Imaging diagnoses were same in the techniques. Comparing with 2D SHG, 3D SHG provided a subjective display of pathologic findings and an additional information about spatial relationship between focal lesion and surroundings.

  14. Prognostic value of three-dimensional ultrasound for fetal hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, JUNMEI; YING, WEIWEN; TANG, DAXING; YANG, LIMING; LIU, DONGSHENG; LIU, YUANHUI; PAN, JIAOE; XIE, XING

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the prognostic value of three-dimensional ultrasound for fetal hydronephrosis. Pregnant females with fetal hydronephrosis were enrolled and a novel three-dimensional ultrasound indicator, renal parenchymal volume/kidney volume, was introduced to predict the postnatal prognosis of fetal hydronephrosis in comparison with commonly used ultrasound indicators. All ultrasound indicators of fetal hydronephrosis could predict whether postnatal surgery was required for fetal hydronephrosis; however, the predictive performance of renal parenchymal volume/kidney volume measurements as an individual indicator was the highest. In conclusion, ultrasound is important in predicting whether postnatal surgery is required for fetal hydronephrosis, and the three-dimensional ultrasound indicator renal parenchymal volume/kidney volume has a high predictive performance. Furthermore, the majority of cases of fetal hydronephrosis spontaneously regress subsequent to birth, and the regression time is closely associated with ultrasound indicators. PMID:25667626

  15. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... The image data can be jointly analysed with the physical laws governing transport and principles of image formation. Hence, with the experiment suitably carried out, three-dimensional physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of ...

  16. Effect of Uniaxial Tensile Cyclic Loading Regimes on Matrix Organization and Tenogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Encapsulated within 3D Collagen Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have become a popular cell choice for tendon repair strategies due to their relative abundance, ease of isolation, and ability to differentiate into tenocytes. In this study, we investigated the solo effect of different uniaxial tensile strains and loading frequencies on the matrix directionality and tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells encapsulated within three-dimensional collagen scaffolds. Samples loaded at 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% strains and 0.1 Hz and 1 Hz frequencies for 2 hours/day over a 7-day period using a custom-built uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor were characterized in terms of matrix organization, cell viability, and musculoskeletal gene expression profiles. The results displayed that the collagen fibers of the loaded samples exhibited increased matrix directionality with an increase in strain values. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that ASC-encapsulated collagen scaffolds loaded at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency showed significant increases in extracellular matrix genes and tenogenic differentiation markers. Importantly, no cross-differentiation potential to osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic lineages was observed at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency loading condition. Thus, 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency were identified as the appropriate mechanical loading regime to induce tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells cultured in a three-dimensional environment.

  17. Effect of Uniaxial Tensile Cyclic Loading Regimes on Matrix Organization and Tenogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Encapsulated within 3D Collagen Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Gayathri; Stasuk, Alexander; Elsaadany, Mostafa; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have become a popular cell choice for tendon repair strategies due to their relative abundance, ease of isolation, and ability to differentiate into tenocytes. In this study, we investigated the solo effect of different uniaxial tensile strains and loading frequencies on the matrix directionality and tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells encapsulated within three-dimensional collagen scaffolds. Samples loaded at 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% strains and 0.1 Hz and 1 Hz frequencies for 2 hours/day over a 7-day period using a custom-built uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor were characterized in terms of matrix organization, cell viability, and musculoskeletal gene expression profiles. The results displayed that the collagen fibers of the loaded samples exhibited increased matrix directionality with an increase in strain values. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that ASC-encapsulated collagen scaffolds loaded at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency showed significant increases in extracellular matrix genes and tenogenic differentiation markers. Importantly, no cross-differentiation potential to osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic lineages was observed at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency loading condition. Thus, 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency were identified as the appropriate mechanical loading regime to induce tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells cultured in a three-dimensional environment.

  18. Usefulness Of Three-Dimensional Printing Models for Patients with Stoma Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Tominaga, Tetsuro; Takagi, Katsunori; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Tomo; Shimoda, Kozue; Matsuo, Ayano; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Hidaka, Shigekazu; Yamasaki, Naoya; Sawai, Terumitsu; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The use of patient-specific organ models in three-dimensional printing systems could be helpful for the education of patients and medical students. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the use of patient-specific stoma models is helpful for patient education. From January 2014 to September 2014, 5 patients who underwent colorectal surgery and for whom a temporary or permanent stoma had been created were involved in this study. Three-dimensional stoma models and three-dimensional face ...

  19. Loop expansion in massless three-dimensional QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, E.I.; Radulovic, Z.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown how the loop expansion in massless three-dimensional QED can be made finite, up to three loops, by absorbing the infrared divergences in a gauge-fixing term. The same method removes leading and first subleading singularities to all orders of perturbation theory, and all singularities of the fermion self-energy to four loops

  20. [Application Progress of Three-dimensional Laser Scanning Technology in Medical Surface Mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghong; Hou, He; Han, Yuchuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Xianfeng; Wang, Mingshi

    2016-04-01

    The booming three-dimensional laser scanning technology can efficiently and effectively get spatial three-dimensional coordinates of the detected object surface and reconstruct the image at high speed,high precision and large capacity of information.Non-radiation,non-contact and the ability of visualization make it increasingly popular in three-dimensional surface medical mapping.This paper reviews the applications and developments of three-dimensional laser scanning technology in medical field,especially in stomatology,plastic surgery and orthopedics.Furthermore,the paper also discusses the application prospects in the future as well as the biomedical engineering problems it would encounter with.

  1. Comparison of two three-dimensional cephalometric analysis computer software

    OpenAIRE

    Sawchuk, Dena; Alhadlaq, Adel; Alkhadra, Thamer; Carlyle, Terry D; Kusnoto, Budi; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Three-dimensional cephalometric analyses are getting more attraction in orthodontics. The aim of this study was to compare two softwares to evaluate three-dimensional cephalometric analyses of orthodontic treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods: Twenty cone beam computed tomography images were obtained using i-CAT® imaging system from patient's records as part of their regular orthodontic records. The images were analyzed using InVivoDental5.0 (Anatomage Inc.) and 3DCeph™ (Unive...

  2. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography of the atrial septal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Cárdenas Ángel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transesophageal echocardiography has advantages over transthoracic technique in defining morphology of atrial structures. Even though real time three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging is a reality, the off-line reconstruction technique usually allows to obtain higher spatial resolution images. The purpose of this study was to explore the accuracy of off-line three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in a spectrum of atrial septal defects by comparing them with representative anatomic specimens.

  3. Symmetries, integrals, and three-dimensional reductions of Plebanski's second heavenly equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyzi, F.; Sheftel, M. B.; Yazici, D.

    2007-01-01

    We study symmetries and conservation laws for Plebanski's second heavenly equation written as a first-order nonlinear evolutionary system which admits a multi-Hamiltonian structure. We construct an optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras and all inequivalent three-dimensional symmetry reductions of the original four-dimensional system. We consider these two-component evolutionary systems in three dimensions as natural candidates for integrable systems

  4. Three dimensional extrusion printing induces polymer molecule alignment and cell organization within engineered cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Ringel, Julia P; Lim, Casey G; Bracaglia, Laura G; Noshin, Maeesha; Baker, Hannah B; Powell, Douglas A; Fisher, John P

    2018-04-16

    Proper cell-material interactions are critical to remain cell function and thus successful tissue regeneration. Many fabrication processes have been developed to create microenvironments to control cell attachment and organization on a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold. However, these approaches often involve heavy engineering and only the surface layer can be patterned. We found that 3D extrusion based printing at high temperature and pressure will result an aligned effect on the polymer molecules, and this molecular arrangement will further induce the cell alignment and different differentiation capacities. In particular, articular cartilage tissue is known to have zonal collagen fiber and cell orientation to support different functions, where collagen fibers and chondrocytes align parallel, randomly, and perpendicular, respectively, to the surface of the joint. Therefore, cell alignment was evaluated in a cartilage model in this study. We used small angle X-ray scattering analysis to substantiate the polymer molecule alignment phenomenon. The cellular response was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Seeded mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) showed different morphology and orientation on scaffolds, as a combined result of polymer molecule alignment and printed scaffold patterns. Gene expression results showed improved superficial zonal chondrogenic marker expression in parallel-aligned group. The cell alignment was successfully maintained in the animal model after 7 days with distinct MSC morphology between the casted and parallel printed scaffolds. This 3D printing induced polymer and cell alignment will have a significant impact on developing scaffold with controlled cell-material interactions for complex tissue engineering while avoiding complicated surface treatment, and therefore provides new concept for effective tissue repairing in future clinical applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Three-dimensional endothelial cell morphogenesis under controlled ion release from copper-doped phosphate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähli, Christoph; James-Bhasin, Mark; Nazhat, Showan N

    2015-02-28

    Copper ions represent a promising angiogenic agent but are associated with cytotoxicity at elevated concentrations. Phosphate-based glasses (PGs) exhibit adjustable dissolution properties and allow for controlled ion release. This study examined the formation of capillary-like networks by SVEC4-10 endothelial cells (ECs) seeded in a three-dimensional (3D) type I collagen hydrogel matrix mixed with PG particles of the formulation 50P2O5-30CaO-(20-x)Na2O-xCuO (x=0 and 10 mol%). Copper and total phosphorus release decreased over time and was more sustained in the case of 10% CuO PG. Moreover, increasing the concentration of 10% CuO PG in collagen substantially delayed dissolution along with preferential release of copper. A 3D morphometric characterization method based on confocal laser scanning microscopy image stacks was developed in order to quantify EC network length, connectivity and branching. Network length was initially reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion by 10% CuO PG and, to a lesser extent, by 0% CuO PG, but reached values identical to the non-PG control by day 5 in culture. This reduction was attributed to a PG-mediated decrease in cell metabolic activity while cell proliferation as well as network connectivity and branching were independent of PG content. Gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-1 and -2 was up-regulated by PGs, indicating that MMPs did not play a critical role in network growth. The relationship between ion release and EC morphogenesis in 3D provided in this study is expected to contribute to an ultimately successful pro-angiogenic application of CuO-doped PGs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fetal Therapy Model of Myelomeningocele with Three-Dimensional Skin Using Amniotic Fluid Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Kajiwara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Myelomeningocele (MMC is a congenital disease without genetic abnormalities. Neurological symptoms are irreversibly impaired after birth, and no effective treatment has been reported to date. Only surgical repairs have been reported so far. In this study, we performed antenatal treatment of MMC with an artificial skin using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs generated from a patient with Down syndrome (AF-T21-iPSCs and twin-twin transfusion syndrome (AF-TTTS-iPSCs to a rat model. We manufactured three-dimensional skin with epidermis generated from keratinocytes derived from AF-T21-iPSCs and AF-TTTS-iPSCs and dermis of human fibroblasts and collagen type I. For generation of epidermis, we developed a protocol using Y-27632 and epidermal growth factor. The artificial skin was successfully covered over MMC defect sites during pregnancy, implying a possible antenatal surgical treatment with iPSC technology.

  7. Simultaneous characterization of pancreatic stellate cells and other pancreatic components within three-dimensional tissue environment during chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyan; Fu, Ling

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and other pancreatic components that play a critical role in exocrine pancreatic diseases are generally identified separately by conventional studies, which provide indirect links between these components. Here, nonlinear optical microscopy was evaluated for simultaneous characterization of these components within a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue environment, primarily based on multichannel detection of intrinsic optical emissions and cell morphology. Fresh rat pancreatic tissues harvested at 1 day, 7 days, and 28 days after induction of chronic pancreatitis were imaged, respectively. PSCs, inflammatory cells, blood vessels, and collagen fibers were identified simultaneously. The PSCs at day 1 of chronic pancreatitis showed significant enlargement compared with those in normal pancreas (ppancreatic components coincidently within 3-D pancreatic tissues. It is a prospect for intravital observation of dynamic events under natural physiological conditions, and might help uncover the key mechanisms of exocrine pancreatic diseases, leading to more effective treatments.

  8. Upper bound on the capacity of constrained three-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2000-01-01

    An upper bound on the capacity of constrained three-dimensional codes is presented. The bound for two-dimensional codes of Calkin and Wilf (see SIAM Journal of Discrete Mathematics, vol.11, no.1, p.54-60, 1998) was extended to three dimensions by Nagy and Zeger. Both bounds apply to first order s...

  9. Teaching veterinary obstetrics using three-dimensional animation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Jakob; Buchanan, M Flint; Moore, James N; White, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    In this three-year study, test scores for students taught veterinary obstetrics in a classroom setting with either traditional media (photographs, text, and two-dimensional graphical presentations) were compared with those for students taught by incorporating three-dimensional (3D) media (linear animations and interactive QuickTime Virtual Reality models) into the classroom lectures. Incorporation of the 3D animations and interactive models significantly increased students' scores on essay questions designed to assess their comprehension of the subject matter. This approach to education may help to better prepare students for dealing with obstetrical cases during their final clinical year and after graduation.

  10. Three-dimensional wax patterning of paper fluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Christophe; Koehne, Jessica; Ricco, Antonio J; Crooks, Richard M

    2014-06-17

    In this paper we describe a method for three-dimensional wax patterning of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). The method is rooted in the fundamental details of wax transport in paper and provides a simple way to fabricate complex channel architectures such as hemichannels and fully enclosed channels. We show that three-dimensional μPADs can be fabricated with half as much paper by using hemichannels rather than ordinary open channels. We also provide evidence that fully enclosed channels are efficiently isolated from the exterior environment, decreasing contamination risks, simplifying the handling of the device, and slowing evaporation of solvents.

  11. Estimation of three-dimensional radar tracking using modified extended kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Prima; Apriliani, Erna; Khusnul Arif, Didik; Baihaqi, Komar

    2018-03-01

    Kalman filter is an estimation method by combining data and mathematical models then developed be extended Kalman filter to handle nonlinear systems. Three-dimensional radar tracking is one of example of nonlinear system. In this paper developed a modification method of extended Kalman filter from the direct decline of the three-dimensional radar tracking case. The development of this filter algorithm can solve the three-dimensional radar measurements in the case proposed in this case the target measured by radar with distance r, azimuth angle θ, and the elevation angle ϕ. Artificial covariance and mean adjusted directly on the three-dimensional radar system. Simulations result show that the proposed formulation is effective in the calculation of nonlinear measurement compared with extended Kalman filter with the value error at 0.77% until 1.15%.

  12. Collagen expression in fibroblasts with a novel LMNA mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Desiree; Leistritz, Dru F.; Turner, Lesley; MacGregor, David; Ohson, Kamal; Dancey, Paul; Martin, George M.; Oshima, Junko

    2007-01-01

    Laminopathies are a group of genetic disorders caused by LMNA mutations; they include muscular dystrophies, lipodystrophies, and progeroid syndromes. We identified a novel heterozygous LMNA mutation, L59R, in a patient with the general appearance of mandibuloacral dysplasia and progeroid features. Examination of the nuclei of dermal fibroblasts revealed the irregular morphology characteristic of LMNA mutant cells. The nuclear morphological abnormalities of LMNA mutant lymphoblastoid cell lines were less prominent compared to those of primary fibroblasts. Since it has been reported that progeroid features are associated with increased extracellular matrix in dermal tissues, we compared a subset of these components in fibroblast cultures from LMNA mutants with those of control fibroblasts. There was no evidence of intracellular accumulation or altered mobility of collagen chains, or altered conversion of procollagen to collagen, suggesting that skin fibroblast-mediated matrix production may not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this particular laminopathy

  13. Three-dimensional anode engineering for the direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, A.; Oloman, C.W.; Gyenge, E.L. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-09-05

    Catalyzed graphite felt three-dimensional anodes were investigated in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) operated with sulfuric acid supporting electrolyte. With a conventional serpentine channel flow field the preferred anode thickness was 100 {mu}m, while a novel flow-by anode showed the best performance with a thickness of 200-300 {mu}m. The effects of altering the methanol concentration, anolyte flow rate and operating temperature on the fuel cell superficial power density were studied by full (2{sup 3} + 1) factorial experiments on a cell with anode area of 5 cm{sup 2} and excess oxidant O{sub 2} at 200 kPa(abs). For operation in the flow-by mode with 2 M methanol at 2 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and 353 K the peak power density was 2380 W m{sup -2} with a PtRuMo anode catalyst, while a PtRu catalyst yielded 2240 W m{sup -2} under the same conditions. (author)

  14. Three-dimensional anode engineering for the direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Oloman, C. W.; Gyenge, E. L.

    Catalyzed graphite felt three-dimensional anodes were investigated in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) operated with sulfuric acid supporting electrolyte. With a conventional serpentine channel flow field the preferred anode thickness was 100 μm, while a novel flow-by anode showed the best performance with a thickness of 200-300 μm. The effects of altering the methanol concentration, anolyte flow rate and operating temperature on the fuel cell superficial power density were studied by full (2 3 + 1) factorial experiments on a cell with anode area of 5 cm 2 and excess oxidant O 2 at 200 kPa(abs). For operation in the flow-by mode with 2 M methanol at 2 cm 3 min -1 and 353 K the peak power density was 2380 W m -2 with a PtRuMo anode catalyst, while a PtRu catalyst yielded 2240 W m -2 under the same conditions.

  15. Three-Dimensional Structure Determination of Botulinum Toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Ray

    1997-01-01

    ...) Based on the structure of the neurotoxin, understand the toxins mechanism of action. We have accomplished the first goal of determining the three-dimensional structure of the 150 kD botulinum neurotoxin serotype...

  16. Three-Dimensional Structure Determination of Botulinum Toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Ray

    1998-01-01

    ...) Based on the structure of the neurotoxin, understand the toxins mechanism of action. We have accomplished the first goal of determining the three-dimensional structure of the 150 kD botulinum neurotoxin serotype...

  17. Three-dimensional MRI of the glenoid labrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, S.P.; Pope, T.L. Jr.; Martin, D.F.; Link, K.M.; Monu, J.U.V.; Hunter, M.; Reboussin, D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reformation in the evaluation of tears of the glenoid labrum complex (GLC). Fifty-five shoulders were evaluated by MRI using standard spin-echo sequences. Gradient-refocused-echo axial projections were used to assess the GLC on the two-dimensional (2D) studies. Three-dimensional Fourier transform multiplanar gradient-recalled imaging with a resolution of 0.7 mm was also performed in all patients. Independent analyses of the anterior and posterior labra were performed in a blinded manner for both the 2D and 3D studies by three experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Observations of the imaging studies were compared with the videoarthroscopic findings. The appearance of the GLC was rated on a scale of 0 to 4 (0-2=normal, 3, 4=abnormal or torn). The diagnostic confidence was averaged from the three reader's scores. Anterior labral tears were effectively detected with sensitivities of 89% and 96% and specificities of 96% and 100% (P<0.0001) for the 2D and 3D studies, respectively. For posterior labral tears, the sensitivity and specificity of the 2D method were 47% and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the 3D volume sequence were 53% and 98%, respectively. The lower sensitivity of both imaging methods for detecting posterior labral tears may be influenced by the smaller number (n=5) of arthroscopically confirmed cases in our study and reflects the difficulty of visualizing the posteroinferior borders of the GLC with present MRI techniques. (orig.)

  18. Infrared magneto-spectroscopy of two-dimensional and three-dimensional massless fermions: A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlita, M., E-mail: milan.orlita@lncmi.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses, CNRS-UJF-UPS-INSA, 38042 Grenoble (France); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Faugeras, C.; Barra, A.-L.; Martinez, G.; Potemski, M. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses, CNRS-UJF-UPS-INSA, 38042 Grenoble (France); Basko, D. M. [LPMMC UMR 5493, Université Grenoble 1/CNRS, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Zholudev, M. S. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR CNRS 5221, GIS-TERALAB, Université Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France); Institute for Physics of Microstructures, RAS, Nizhny Novgorod GSP-105 603950 (Russian Federation); Teppe, F.; Knap, W. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR CNRS 5221, GIS-TERALAB, Université Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, RAS, Nizhny Novgorod GSP-105 603950 (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Neugebauer, P. [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Berger, C. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Institut Néel/CNRS-UJF BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Heer, W. A. de [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    Here, we report on a magneto-optical study of two distinct systems hosting massless fermions—two-dimensional graphene and three-dimensional HgCdTe tuned to the zero band gap condition at the point of the semiconductor-to-semimetal topological transition. Both materials exhibit, in the quantum regime, a fairly rich magneto-optical response, which is composed from a series of intra- and interband inter-Landau level resonances with for massless fermions typical √(B) dependence. The impact of the system's dimensionality and of the strength of the spin-orbit interaction on the optical response is also discussed.

  19. Three dimensional system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Antonis; Radojcic, Riko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) stacking is the next big step in electronic system integration. It enables packing more functionality, as well as integration of heterogeneous materials, devices, and signals, in the same space (volume). This results in consumer electronics (e.g., mobile, handheld devices) which can run more powerful applications, such as full-length movies and 3D games, with longer battery life. This technology is so promising that it is expected to be a mainstream technology a few years from now, less than 10-15 years from its original conception. To achieve thi

  20. Turbulence in Three Dimensional Simulations of Magnetopause Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J. F.; Price, L.; Swisdak, M.; Burch, J. L.; Cassak, P.; Dahlin, J. T.; Ergun, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the 16 October 2015 MMS magnetopause reconnection event. While the two-dimensional simulation is laminar, turbulence develops at both the x-line and along the magnetic separatrices in the three-dimensional simulation. This turbulence is electromagnetic in nature, is characterized by a wavevector k given by kρ e ˜(m_e/m_i)0.25 with ρ e the electron Larmor radius, and appears to have the ion pressure gradient as its source of free energy. Taken together, these results suggest the instability is a variant of the lower-hybrid drift instability. The turbulence produces electric field fluctuations in the out-of-plane direction (the direction of the reconnection electric field) with an amplitude of around ± 10 mV/m, which is much greater than the reconnection electric field of around 0.1 mV/m. Such large values of the out-of-plane electric field have been identified in the MMS data. The turbulence in the simulation controls the scale lengths of the density profile and current layers in asymmetric reconnection, driving them closer to √ {ρ eρ_i } than the ρ e or de scalings seen in 2D reconnection simulations, where de is the electron inertial length. The turbulence is strong enough to make the magnetic field around the reconnection island chaotic and produces both anomalous resistivity and anomalous viscosity. Each contribute significantly to breaking the frozen-in condition in the electron diffusion region. The crescent-shaped features in velocity space seen both in MMS observations and in two-dimensional simulations survive, even in the turbulent environment of the three-dimensional system. We compare and contrast these results to a three-dimensional simulation of the 8 December 2015 MMS magnetopause reconnection event in which the reconnecting and out-of-plane guide fields are comparable. LHDI is still present in this event, although its appearance is modified by the presence of the guide

  1. Two- and three-dimensional CT evaluation of sacral and pelvic anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Magid, D.

    1988-01-01

    Pelvic anomalies are difficult to evaluate with standard techniques. Detailed knowledge of the existing pelvic structures and musculature is essential for successful repair. The authors evaluated 12 patients with complex malformations of the pelvis using two- and three-dimensional imaging. The anomalies included bladder exstrophy (n = 4), cloacal exstrophy (n = 1), duplicated and absent sacrum (n = 3), myelomeningoceles (n = 2), and diastrophic dwarfism (n = 2). The two-dimensional images consisted of sequential coronal and sagittal reconstructions that could be reviewed dynamically on screen. Three-dimensional images were generated on the Pixar imaging computer with use of volumetric rendering. Two- and three-dimensional CT proved complementary in the evaluation of pelvic anomalies, providing optimal information from transaxial CT data

  2. Three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium as an ohmic steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Strauss, H.; Manickam, J.

    1985-07-01

    A stable three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium can be obtained numerically by a time-dependent relaxation method using small values of dissipation. The final state is an ohmic steady state which approaches an ohmic equilibrium in the limit of small dissipation coefficients. We describe a method to speed up the relaxation process and a method to implement the B vector . del p = 0 condition. These methods are applied to obtain three-dimensional heliac equilibria using the reduced heliac equations

  3. Self-assembled three-dimensional and compressible interdigitated thin-film supercapacitors and batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Gustav; Marais, Andrew; Karabulut, Erdem; Wågberg, Lars; Cui, Yi; Hamedi, Mahiar M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional thin-film energy-storage devices consist of stacked layers of active films on two-dimensional substrates and do not exploit the third dimension. Fully three-dimensional thin-film devices would allow energy storage in bulk materials with arbitrary form factors and with mechanical properties unique to bulk materials such as compressibility. Here we show three-dimensional energy-storage devices based on layer-by-layer self-assembly of interdigitated thin films on the surface of an open-cell aerogel substrate. We demonstrate a reversibly compressible three-dimensional supercapacitor with carbon nanotube electrodes and a three-dimensional hybrid battery with a copper hexacyanoferrate ion intercalating cathode and a carbon nanotube anode. The three-dimensional supercapacitor shows stable operation over 400 cycles with a capacitance of 25 F g−1 and is fully functional even at compressions up to 75%. Our results demonstrate that layer-by-layer self-assembly inside aerogels is a rapid, precise and scalable route for building high-surface-area 3D thin-film devices. PMID:26021485

  4. A retrospective and prospective survey of three-dimensional transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Yasuaki

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective survey is made on the three-dimensional radiation transport calculations. Introduction is given to computer codes based on the distinctive numerical methods such as the Monte Carlo, Direct Integration, Ssub(n) and Finite Element Methods to solve the three-dimensional transport equations. Prospective discussions are made on pros and cons of these methods. (author)

  5. Early orthognathic surgery with three-dimensional image simulation during presurgical orthodontics in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; Park, Sun-Yeon; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Park, Wonse; Lee, Sang-Hwy

    2011-03-01

    To correct dentofacial deformities, three-dimensional skeletal analysis and computerized orthognathic surgery simulation are used to facilitate accurate diagnoses and surgical plans. Computed tomography imaging of dental occlusion can inform three-dimensional facial analyses and orthognathic surgical simulations. Furthermore, three-dimensional laser scans of a cast model of the predetermined postoperative dental occlusion can be used to increase the accuracy of the preoperative surgical simulation. In this study, we prepared cast models of planned postoperative dental occlusions from 12 patients diagnosed with skeletal class III malocclusions with mandibular prognathism and facial asymmetry that had planned to undergo bimaxillary orthognathic surgery during preoperative orthodontic treatment. The data from three-dimensional laser scans of the cast models were used in three-dimensional surgical simulations. Early orthognathic surgeries were performed based on three-dimensional image simulations using the cast images in several presurgical orthodontic states in which teeth alignment, leveling, and space closure were incomplete. After postoperative orthodontic treatments, intraoral examinations revealed that no patient had a posterior open bite or space. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional skeletal analyses showed that no mandibular deviations occurred between the immediate and final postoperative states of orthodontic treatment. These results showed that early orthognathic surgery with three-dimensional computerized simulations based on cast models of predetermined postoperative dental occlusions could provide early correction of facial deformities and improved efficacy of preoperative orthodontic treatment. This approach can reduce the decompensation treatment period of the presurgical orthodontics and contribute to efficient postoperative orthodontic treatments.

  6. Reliability of tunnel angle in ACL reconstruction: two-dimensional versus three-dimensional guide technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Jeff R S; de Korompay, Nevin; Macdonald, Lindsey; McRae, Sheila; Froese, Warren; Macdonald, Peter B

    2011-08-01

    To compare the reliability of tibial tunnel position and angle produced with a standard ACL guide (two-dimensional guide) or Howell 65° Guide (three-dimensional guide) in the coronal and sagittal planes. In the sagittal plane, the dependent variables were the angle of the tibial tunnel relative to the tibial plateau and the position of the tibial tunnel with respect to the most posterior aspect of the tibia. In the coronal plane, the dependent variables were the angle of the tunnel with respect to the medial joint line of the tibia and the medial and lateral placement of the tibial tunnel relative to the most medial aspect of the tibia. The position and angle of the tibial tunnel in the coronal and sagittal planes were determined from anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, respectively, taken 2-6 months postoperatively. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional guide groups included 28 and 24 sets of radiographs, respectively. Tibial tunnel position was identified, and tunnel angle measurements were completed. Multiple investigators measured the position and angle of the tunnel 3 times, at least 7 days apart. The angle of the tibial tunnel in the coronal plane using a two-dimensional guide (61.3 ± 4.8°) was more horizontal (P guide (64.7 ± 6.2°). The position of the tibial tunnel in the sagittal plane was more anterior (P guide group compared to the three-dimensional guide group (43.3 ± 2.9%). The Howell Tibial Guide allows for reliable placement of the tibial tunnel in the coronal plane at an angle of 65°. Tibial tunnels were within the anatomical footprint of the ACL with either technique. Future studies should investigate the effects of tibial tunnel angle on knee function and patient quality of life. Case-control retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  7. Abnormal type I collagen post-translational modification and crosslinking in a cyclophilin B KO mouse model of recessive osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne A Cabral

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophilin B (CyPB, encoded by PPIB, is an ER-resident peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase that functions independently and as a component of the collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex. CyPB is proposed to be the major PPIase catalyzing the rate-limiting step in collagen folding. Mutations in PPIB cause recessively inherited osteogenesis imperfecta type IX, a moderately severe to lethal bone dysplasia. To investigate the role of CyPB in collagen folding and post-translational modifications, we generated Ppib-/- mice that recapitulate the OI phenotype. Knock-out (KO mice are small, with reduced femoral areal bone mineral density (aBMD, bone volume per total volume (BV/TV and mechanical properties, as well as increased femoral brittleness. Ppib transcripts are absent in skin, fibroblasts, femora and calvarial osteoblasts, and CyPB is absent from KO osteoblasts and fibroblasts on western blots. Only residual (2-11% collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation is detectable in KO cells and tissues. Collagen folds more slowly in the absence of CyPB, supporting its rate-limiting role in folding. However, treatment of KO cells with cyclosporine A causes further delay in folding, indicating the potential existence of another collagen PPIase. We confirmed and extended the reported role of CyPB in supporting collagen lysyl hydroxylase (LH1 activity. Ppib-/- fibroblast and osteoblast collagen has normal total lysyl hydroxylation, while increased collagen diglycosylation is observed. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis of bone and osteoblast type I collagen revealed site-specific alterations of helical lysine hydroxylation, in particular, significantly reduced hydroxylation of helical crosslinking residue K87. Consequently, underhydroxylated forms of di- and trivalent crosslinks are strikingly increased in KO bone, leading to increased total crosslinks and decreased helical hydroxylysine- to lysine-derived crosslink ratios. The altered

  8. Abnormal Type I Collagen Post-translational Modification and Crosslinking in a Cyclophilin B KO Mouse Model of Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Wayne A.; Perdivara, Irina; Weis, MaryAnn; Terajima, Masahiko; Blissett, Angela R.; Chang, Weizhong; Perosky, Joseph E.; Makareeva, Elena N.; Mertz, Edward L.; Leikin, Sergey; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Eyre, David R.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Marini, Joan C.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB), encoded by PPIB, is an ER-resident peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) that functions independently and as a component of the collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex. CyPB is proposed to be the major PPIase catalyzing the rate-limiting step in collagen folding. Mutations in PPIB cause recessively inherited osteogenesis imperfecta type IX, a moderately severe to lethal bone dysplasia. To investigate the role of CyPB in collagen folding and post-translational modifications, we generated Ppib−/− mice that recapitulate the OI phenotype. Knock-out (KO) mice are small, with reduced femoral areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) and mechanical properties, as well as increased femoral brittleness. Ppib transcripts are absent in skin, fibroblasts, femora and calvarial osteoblasts, and CyPB is absent from KO osteoblasts and fibroblasts on western blots. Only residual (2–11%) collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation is detectable in KO cells and tissues. Collagen folds more slowly in the absence of CyPB, supporting its rate-limiting role in folding. However, treatment of KO cells with cyclosporine A causes further delay in folding, indicating the potential existence of another collagen PPIase. We confirmed and extended the reported role of CyPB in supporting collagen lysyl hydroxylase (LH1) activity. Ppib−/− fibroblast and osteoblast collagen has normal total lysyl hydroxylation, while increased collagen diglycosylation is observed. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of bone and osteoblast type I collagen revealed site-specific alterations of helical lysine hydroxylation, in particular, significantly reduced hydroxylation of helical crosslinking residue K87. Consequently, underhydroxylated forms of di- and trivalent crosslinks are strikingly increased in KO bone, leading to increased total crosslinks and decreased helical hydroxylysine- to lysine-derived crosslink ratios. The altered

  9. In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-03-01

    In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology.

  10. Three-dimensional characterization of stress corrosion cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Perez, S.; Rodrigo, P.; Gontard, Lionel Cervera

    2011-01-01

    the best spatial resolution. To illustrate the power of these techniques, different parts of dominant stress corrosion cracks in Ni-alloys and stainless steels have been reconstructed in 3D. All relevant microstructural features can now be studied in detail and its relative orientation respect......Understanding crack propagation and initiation is fundamental if stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms are to be understood. However, cracking is a three-dimensional (3D) phenomenon and most characterization techniques are restricted to two-dimensional (2D) observations. In order to overcome...

  11. Cytocompatibility and biologic characteristics of synthetic scaffold materials of rabbit acellular vascular matrix combining with human-like collagen I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuqian; Wang, Jie; Dong, Fusheng; Song, Peng; Tian, Songbo; Li, Hexiang; Hou, Yali

    2017-10-01

    Scaffold material provides a three-dimensional growing environment for seed cells in the research field of tissue engineering. In the present study, rabbit arterial blood vessel cells were chemically removed with trypsin and Triton X-100 to prepare rabbit acellular vascular matrix scaffold material. Observation by He&Masson staining revealed that no cellular components or nuclei existed in the vascular intima and media after decellularization. Human-like collagen I was combined with acellular vascular matrix by freeze-drying to prepare an acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I scaffold to compensate for the extracellular matrix loss during the decellularization process. We next performed a series of experiments to test the water absorbing quality, biomechanics, pressure resistance, cytotoxicity, and ultra-micro structure of the acellular vascular matrix composite material and natural rabbit artery and found that the acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I material behaved similarly to natural rabbit artery. In conclusion, the acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I composite material provides a new approach and lays the foundation for novel scaffold material research into tissue engineering of blood vessels.

  12. Topologically Micropatterned Collagen and Poly(ε-caprolactone) Struts Fabricated Using the Poly(vinyl alcohol) Fibrillation/Leaching Process To Develop Efficiently Engineered Skeletal Muscle Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseong; Kim, WonJin; Kim, GeunHyung

    2017-12-20

    Optimally designed three-dimensional (3D) biomedical scaffolds for skeletal muscle tissue regeneration pose significant research challenges. Currently, most studies on scaffolds focus on the two-dimensional (2D) surface structures that are patterned in the micro-/nanoscales with various repeating sizes and shapes to induce the alignment of myoblasts and myotube formation. The 2D patterned surface clearly provides effective analytical results of pattern size and shape of the myoblast alignment and differentiation. However, it is inconvenient in terms of the direct application for clinical usage due to the limited thickness and 3D shapeability. Hence, the present study suggests an innovative hydrogel or synthetic structure that consists of uniaxially surface-patterned cylindrical struts for skeleton muscle regeneration. The alignment of the pattern on the hydrogel (collagen) and poly(ε-caprolactone) struts was attained with the fibrillation of poly(vinyl alcohol) and the leaching process. Various cell culture results indicate that the C2C12 cells on the micropatterned collagen structure were fully aligned, and that a significantly high level of myotube formation was achieved when compared to the collagen structures that were not treated with the micropatterning process.

  13. Two- and three-dimensional evaluation of the acetabulum in the pediatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Sponseller, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Complex anatomic structures such as the hip and acetabulum are best evaluated with the use of two- and three-dimensional reconstruction techniques and standard transaxial CT data. CT scans of children with various hip pathologies, including congenital hip dislocation, slipped capital femoral epiphyses, hip dysplasias, dwarfism, and acetabular fractures, were reviewed to determine the value of two- and three-dimensional imaging. The advantages of two-dimensional imaging techniques (sequential coronal/sagittal reconstruction) and three-dimensional valumetric imaging techniques (using real-time video display) are illustrated with specific examples

  14. Double thermal transitions of type I collagen in acidic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Lingrong; Chen, Mingmao; Zhang, Qiqing

    2013-01-01

    Contributed equally to this work. To further understand the origin of the double thermal transitions of collagen in acidic solution induced by heating, the denaturation of acidic soluble collagen was investigated by micro-differential scanning calorimeter (micro-DSC), circular dichroism (CD), dynamic laser light scattering (DLLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and two-dimensional (2D) synchronous fluorescence spectrum. Micro-DSC experiments revealed that the collagen exhibited double thermal transitions, which were located within 31-37 °C (minor thermal transition, T(s) ∼ 33 °C) and 37-55 °C (major thermal transition, T(m) ∼ 40 °C), respectively. The CD spectra suggested that the thermal denaturation of collagen resulted in transition from polyproline II type structure to unordered structure. The DLLS results showed that there were mainly two kinds of collagen fibrillar aggregates with different sizes in acidic solution and the larger fibrillar aggregates (T(p2) = 40 °C) had better heat resistance than the smaller one (T(p1) = 33 °C). TEM revealed that the depolymerization of collagen fibrils occurred and the periodic cross-striations of collagen gradually disappeared with increasing temperature. The 2D fluorescence correlation spectra were also applied to investigate the thermal responses of tyrosine and phenylalanine residues at the molecular level. Finally, we could draw the conclusion that (1) the minor thermal transition was mainly due to the defibrillation of the smaller collagen fibrillar aggregates and the unfolding of a little part of triple helices; (2) the major thermal transition primarily arose from the defibrillation of the larger collagen fibrillar aggregates and the complete denaturation of the majority part of triple helices.

  15. Dynamic three-dimensional display of common congenital cardiac defects from reconstruction of two-dimensional echocardiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, K S; Lin, C C; Liu, W S; Chen, F L

    1996-01-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography had long been a standard diagnostic modality for congenital heart disease. Further attempts of three-dimensional reconstruction using two-dimensional echocardiographic images to visualize stereotypic structure of cardiac lesions have been successful only recently. So far only very few studies have been done to display three-dimensional anatomy of the heart through two-dimensional image acquisition because such complex procedures were involved. This study introduced a recently developed image acquisition and processing system for dynamic three-dimensional visualization of various congenital cardiac lesions. From December 1994 to April 1995, 35 cases were selected in the Echo Laboratory here from about 3000 Echo examinations completed. Each image was acquired on-line with specially designed high resolution image grazmber with EKG and respiratory gating technique. Off-line image processing using a window-architectured interactive software package includes construction of 2-D ehcocardiographic pixel to 3-D "voxel" with conversion of orthogonal to rotatory axial system, interpolation, extraction of region of interest, segmentation, shading and, finally, 3D rendering. Three-dimensional anatomy of various congenital cardiac defects was shown, including four cases with ventricular septal defects, two cases with atrial septal defects, and two cases with aortic stenosis. Dynamic reconstruction of a "beating heart" is recorded as vedio tape with video interface. The potential application of 3D display of the reconstruction from 2D echocardiographic images for the diagnosis of various congenital heart defects has been shown. The 3D display was able to improve the diagnostic ability of echocardiography, and clear-cut display of the various congenital cardiac defects and vavular stenosis could be demonstrated. Reinforcement of current techniques will expand future application of 3D display of conventional 2D images.

  16. Extinction maps toward the Milky Way bulge: Two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests with apogee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheis, M. [Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de Côte d' Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Zasowski, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Allende Prieto, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Calle Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Anders, F.; Chiappini, C. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Beaton, R. L.; García Pérez, A. E.; Majewski, S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Beers, T. C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bizyaev, D. [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Frinchaboy, P. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Ge, J. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hearty, F.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holtzman, J. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Muna, D. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nidever, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shetrone, M., E-mail: mathias.schultheis@oca.eu, E-mail: gail.zasowski@gmail.com [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Galactic interstellar extinction maps are powerful and necessary tools for Milky Way structure and stellar population analyses, particularly toward the heavily reddened bulge and in the midplane. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining reliable extinction measures and distances for a large number of stars that are independent of these maps, tests of their accuracy and systematics have been limited. Our goal is to assess a variety of photometric stellar extinction estimates, including both two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps, using independent extinction measures based on a large spectroscopic sample of stars toward the Milky Way bulge. We employ stellar atmospheric parameters derived from high-resolution H-band Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectra, combined with theoretical stellar isochrones, to calculate line-of-sight extinction and distances for a sample of more than 2400 giants toward the Milky Way bulge. We compare these extinction values to those predicted by individual near-IR and near+mid-IR stellar colors, two-dimensional bulge extinction maps, and three-dimensional extinction maps. The long baseline, near+mid-IR stellar colors are, on average, the most accurate predictors of the APOGEE extinction estimates, and the two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps derived from different stellar populations along different sightlines show varying degrees of reliability. We present the results of all of the comparisons and discuss reasons for the observed discrepancies. We also demonstrate how the particular stellar atmospheric models adopted can have a strong impact on this type of analysis, and discuss related caveats.

  17. Extinction maps toward the Milky Way bulge: Two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests with apogee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheis, M.; Zasowski, G.; Allende Prieto, C.; Anders, F.; Chiappini, C.; Beaton, R. L.; García Pérez, A. E.; Majewski, S. R.; Beers, T. C.; Bizyaev, D.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Ge, J.; Hearty, F.; Schneider, D. P.; Holtzman, J.; Muna, D.; Nidever, D.; Shetrone, M.

    2014-01-01

    Galactic interstellar extinction maps are powerful and necessary tools for Milky Way structure and stellar population analyses, particularly toward the heavily reddened bulge and in the midplane. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining reliable extinction measures and distances for a large number of stars that are independent of these maps, tests of their accuracy and systematics have been limited. Our goal is to assess a variety of photometric stellar extinction estimates, including both two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps, using independent extinction measures based on a large spectroscopic sample of stars toward the Milky Way bulge. We employ stellar atmospheric parameters derived from high-resolution H-band Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectra, combined with theoretical stellar isochrones, to calculate line-of-sight extinction and distances for a sample of more than 2400 giants toward the Milky Way bulge. We compare these extinction values to those predicted by individual near-IR and near+mid-IR stellar colors, two-dimensional bulge extinction maps, and three-dimensional extinction maps. The long baseline, near+mid-IR stellar colors are, on average, the most accurate predictors of the APOGEE extinction estimates, and the two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps derived from different stellar populations along different sightlines show varying degrees of reliability. We present the results of all of the comparisons and discuss reasons for the observed discrepancies. We also demonstrate how the particular stellar atmospheric models adopted can have a strong impact on this type of analysis, and discuss related caveats.

  18. Superconductivity and the existence of Nambu's three-dimensional phase space mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo, R.; Gonzalez-Bernardo, C.A.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J.; Kalnay, A.J.; Perez-M, F.; Tello-Llanos, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Nambu proposed a generalization of hamiltonian mechanics such that three-dimensional phase space is allowed. Thanks to a recent paper by Holm and Kupershmidt we are able to show the existence of such three-dimensional phase space systems in superconductivity. (orig.)

  19. Irradiation Alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 System and Collagen Type IV Degradation in Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hee [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Warrington, Junie P.; Sonntag, William E. [Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Lee, Yong Woo, E-mail: ywlee@vt.edu [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials: Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy {gamma}-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy {gamma}-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  20. Irradiation Alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 System and Collagen Type IV Degradation in Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hee; Warrington, Junie P.; Sonntag, William E.; Lee, Yong Woo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials: Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy γ-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy γ-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  1. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  2. Three-dimensional metallic opals fabricated by double templating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Qingfeng; Nukala, Pavan; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Wong, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We report a simple and cost-effective double templating method for fabricating large-area three-dimensional metallic photonic crystals of controlled thickness. A self-assembled polystyrene opal was used as the first template to fabricate a silica inverse opal on a gold-coated glass substrate via sol-gel processing. Gold was subsequently infiltrated to the pores of the silica inverse opal using electrochemical deposition. A high-quality three-dimensional gold photonic crystal was obtained after removal of the secondary template (silica inverse opal). The effects of template sphere size and deposition current density on the gold growth rate, and the resulting morphology and growth mechanism of the gold opal, were investigated.

  3. Three-dimensional quadrupole lenses made with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of accelerator systems with quadrupole magnets can be improved by using permanent magnets in quadrupole lenses. This requires better methods for treating the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic fields and the nonlinear characteristics of the magnets. A numerical method is described for simulating three-dimensional magnetic fields and used to analyze quadrupole lenses and doublets with permanent magnets. The results, which are confirmed experimentally, indicate that both the quadrupole magnetic gradient and the effective field length are changed in permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses when the pole lengths and the gap between the lenses are varied while the other characteristics of the magnets remain unchanged

  4. Enhanced Dupuytren's disease fibroblast populated collagen lattice contraction is independent of endogenous active TGF-β2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Jeffrey

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dupuytren's disease (DD is a debilitating fibro-proliferative disorder of the hand characterized by the appearance of fibrotic lesions (nodules and cords leading to flexion contractures of the fingers and loss of hand function. Although the molecular mechanism of DD is unknown, it has been suggested that transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2 may play an important role in the underlying patho-physiology of the disease. The purpose of this study was to further explore this hypothesis by examining the effects of TGF-β2 on primary cell cultures derived from patient-matched disease and normal palmar fascia tissue using a three-dimensional collagen contraction assay. Methods Fibroblast-populated collagen lattice (FPCL contraction assays using primary cell cultures derived from diseased and control fascia of the same DD patients were studied in response to exogenous TGF-β2 and neutralizing anti-TGF-β2 antibodies. Results Contraction of the FPCLs occurred significantly faster and to a greater extent in disease cells compared to control cells. The addition of TGF-β2 enhanced the rate and degree of collagen contraction in a dose-dependent fashion for both control and diseased cells. Neutralizing anti-TGF-β2 antibodies abolished exogenous TGF-β2 stimulated collagen contraction, but did not inhibit the enhanced basal collagen contraction activity of disease FPCL cultures. Conclusions Although exogenous TGF-β2 stimulated both disease and control FPCL contraction, neutralizing anti-TGF-β2 antibodies did not affect the elevated basal collagen contraction activity of disease FPCLs, suggesting that the differences in the collagen contraction activity of control and disease FPCL cultures are not due to differences in the levels of endogenous TGF-β2 activity.

  5. Three-dimensional, bioactive, biodegradable, polymer-bioactive glass composite scaffolds with improved mechanical properties support collagen synthesis and mineralization of human osteoblast-like cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Helen H; El-Amin, Saadiq F; Scott, Kimberli D; Laurencin, Cato T

    2003-03-01

    In the past decade, tissue engineering-based bone grafting has emerged as a viable alternative to biological and synthetic grafts. The biomaterial component is a critical determinant of the ultimate success of the tissue-engineered graft. Because no single existing material possesses all the necessary properties required in an ideal bone graft, our approach has been to develop a three dimensional (3-D), porous composite of polylactide-co-glycolide (PLAGA) and 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) that is biodegradable, bioactive, and suitable as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering (PLAGA-BG composite). The objectives of this study were to examine the mechanical properties of a PLAGA-BG matrix, to evaluate the response of human osteoblast-like cells to the PLAGA-BG composite, and to evaluate the ability of the composite to form a surface calcium phosphate layer in vitro. Structural and mechanical properties of PLAGA-BG were measured, and the formation of a surface calcium phosphate layer was evaluated by surface analysis methods. The growth and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells on PLAGA-BG were also examined. A hypothesis was that the combination of PLAGA with BG would result in a biocompatible and bioactive composite, capable of supporting osteoblast adhesion, growth and differentiation, with mechanical properties superior to PLAGA alone. The addition of bioactive glass granules to the PLAGA matrix resulted in a structure with higher compressive modulus than PLAGA alone. Moreover, the PLAGA-BA composite was found to be a bioactive material, as it formed surface calcium phosphate deposits in a simulated body fluid (SBF), and in the presence of cells and serum proteins. The composite supported osteoblast-like morphology, stained positively for alkaline phosphatase, and supported higher levels of Type I collagen synthesis than tissue culture polystyrene controls. We have successfully developed a degradable, porous, polymer bioactive glass composite possessing

  6. CFT description of three-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjelstad, Jens; Hwang, Stephen; Maansson, Teresia

    2002-01-01

    We describe three-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter space using similar methods as recently applied to the BTZ black hole. A rigorous form of the classical connection between gravity in three dimensions and two-dimensional conformal field theory is employed, where the fundamental degrees of freedom are described in terms of two dependent SL(2,C) currents. In contrast to the BTZ case, however, quantization does not give the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy connected to the cosmological horizon of Kerr-de Sitter space

  7. CFT description of three-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjelstad, Jens E-mail: jens.fjelstad@kau.se; Hwang, Stephen E-mail: stephen.hwang@kau.se; Maansson, Teresia E-mail: teresia@physto.se

    2002-10-07

    We describe three-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter space using similar methods as recently applied to the BTZ black hole. A rigorous form of the classical connection between gravity in three dimensions and two-dimensional conformal field theory is employed, where the fundamental degrees of freedom are described in terms of two dependent SL(2,C) currents. In contrast to the BTZ case, however, quantization does not give the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy connected to the cosmological horizon of Kerr-de Sitter space.

  8. Radiological evaluation of the fetal face using three-dimensional ultrasound imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bäumler M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marcel Bäumler,1–3 Michèle Bigorre,1,4 Jean-Michel Faure1,51CHU Montpellier, Centre de Compétence des Fentes Faciales, Hôpital Lapeyronie, Montpellier, 2Clinique du Parc, Imagerie de la Femme, Castelnau-le-Lez, 3Cabinet de Radiologie du Trident, Lunel, 4CHU Service de Chirurgie Plastique Pédiatrique, Hôpital Lapeyronie, Montpellier, 5CHU Montpellier, Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique, Hôpital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, FranceAbstract: This paper reviews screening and three-dimensional diagnostic ultrasound imaging of the fetal face. The different techniques available for analyzing biometric and morphological items of the profile, eyes, ears, lips, and hard and soft palate are commented on and briefly compared with the respective bi-dimensional techniques. The available literature supports the use of three-dimensional ultrasound in difficult prenatal diagnostic conditions because of its diagnostic accuracy, enabling improved safety of perinatal care. Globally, a marked increase has been observed in the accuracy of three-dimensional ultrasound in comparison with the bi-dimensional approach. Because there is no consensus about the performance of the different three-dimensional techniques, future studies are needed in order to compare them and to find the best technique for analysis of each of the respective facial elements. Universal prenatal standards may integrate these potential new findings in the future. At this time, the existing guidelines for prenatal facial screening should not be changed.Keywords: prenatal three-dimensional ultrasound, prenatal screening, prenatal diagnosis, cleft lip and palate, fetal profile, retrognathism

  9. Diffusion and Binding of Laponite Clay Nanoparticles into Collagen Fibers for the Formation of Leather Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiabo; Wang, Chunhua; Ngai, To; Lin, Wei

    2018-06-13

    Understanding accessibility and interactions of clay nanoparticles with collagen fibers is an important fundamental issue for the conversion of collagen to leather matrix. In this study, we have investigated the diffusion and binding of Laponite into the collagen fiber network. Our results indicate that the diffusion behaviors of Laponite into the collagen exhibit the Langmuir adsorption, verifying its affinity for collagen. The introduction of Laponite leads to a shift in the isoelectric point of collagen from ∼6.8 to ∼4.5, indicating the ionic bonding between the positively charged amino groups of the collagen and negatively charged Laponite under the tanning conditions. Fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that Laponite nanoparticles can penetrate into collagen microstructure and evenly distributed onto collagen fibrils, not altering native D-periodic banding patterns of collagen fibrils. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy detections further demonstrate the presence of noncovalent interactions, namely, ionic and hydrogen bonding, between Laponite and collagen. These findings provide a theoretical basis for the use of Laponite as an emerging tanning agent in leather manufacture.

  10. Research and Realization of Medical Image Fusion Based on Three-Dimensional Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new medical image fusion technique is presented. The method is based on three-dimensional reconstruction. After reconstruction, the three-dimensional volume data is normalized by three-dimensional coordinate conversion in the same way and intercepted through setting up cutting plane including anatomical structure, as a result two images in entire registration on space and geometry are obtained and the images are fused at last.Compared with traditional two-dimensional fusion technique, three-dimensional fusion technique can not only resolve the different problems existed in the two kinds of images, but also avoid the registration error of the two kinds of images when they have different scan and imaging parameter. The research proves this fusion technique is more exact and has no registration, so it is more adapt to arbitrary medical image fusion with different equipments.

  11. Three-dimensional Modeling of Type Ia Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, Alexei

    2001-06-01

    A deflagration explosion of a Type Ia Supernova (SNIa) is studied using three-dimensional, high-resolution, adaptive mesh refinement fluid dynamic calculations. Deflagration speed in an exploding Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD) grows exponentially, reaches approximately 30the speed of sound, and then declines due to a WD expansion. Outermost layers of the WD remain unburned. The explosion energy is comparable to that of a Type Ia supernova. The freezing of turbulent motions by expansion appears to be a crucial physical mechanism regulating the strength of a supernova explosion. In contrast to one-dimensional models, three-dimensional calculations predict the formation of Si-group elements and pockets of unburned CO in the middle and in central regions of a supernova ejecta. This, and the presence of unburned outer layer of carbon-oxygen may pose problems for SNIa spectra. Explosion sensitivity to initial conditions and its relation to a diversity of SNIa is discussed.

  12. Creating three-dimensional thermal maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Price

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Price_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30895 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Price_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Creating Three...-Dimensional Thermal Maps Mathew Price Cogency cc Cape Town Email: mathew@cogency.co.za Jeremy Green CSIR Centre for Mining Innovation Johannesburg Email: jgreen@csir.co.za John Dickens CSIR Centre for Mining Innovation Johannesburg Email: jdickens...

  13. Three-dimensional dental arch changes of patients submitted to orthodontic-surgical treatment for correction of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Adriano Porto; dos Santos Pinto, Ary; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Gonçalves, João Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the three-dimensional changes in the dental arch of patients submitted to orthodontic-surgical treatment for correction of Class II malocclusions at three different periods. Landmarks previously identified on upper and lower dental casts were digitized on a three-dimensional digitizer MicroScribe-3DX and stored in Excel worksheets in order to assess the width, length and depth of patient's dental arches. During orthodontic preparation, the maxillary and mandibular transverse dimensions measured at the premolar regions were increased and maintained throughout the follow-up period. Intercanine width was increased only in the upper arch during orthodontic preparation. Maxillary arch length was reduced during orthodontic finalization, only. Upper and lower arch depths were stable in the study periods. Differences between changes in centroid and gingival points suggested that upper and lower premolars buccaly proclined during the pre-surgical period. Maxillary and mandibular dental arches presented transverse expansion at premolar regions during preoperative orthodontic preparation, with a tendency towards buccal tipping. The transverse dimensions were not altered after surgery. No sagittal or vertical changes were observed during the follow-up periods.

  14. Mapping of Mechanical Strains and Stresses around Quiescent Engineered Three-Dimensional Epithelial Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how physical signals guide biological processes requires qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the mechanical forces generated and sensed by cells in a physiologically realistic three-dimensional (3D) context. Here, we used computational modeling and engineered epithelial tissues of precise geometry to define the experimental parameters that are required to measure directly the mechanical stress profile of 3D tissues embedded within native type I collagen. We found that to calculate the stresses accurately in these settings, we had to account for mechanical heterogeneities within the matrix, which we visualized and quantified using confocal reflectance and atomic force microscopy. Using this technique, we were able to obtain traction forces at the epithelium-matrix interface, and to resolve and quantify patterns of mechanical stress throughout the surrounding matrix. We discovered that whereas single cells generate tension by contracting and pulling on the matrix, the contraction of multicellular tissues can also push against the matrix, causing emergent compression. Furthermore, tissue geometry defines the spatial distribution of mechanical stress across the epithelium, which communicates mechanically over distances spanning hundreds of micrometers. Spatially resolved mechanical maps can provide insight into the types and magnitudes of physical parameters that are sensed and interpreted by multicellular tissues during normal and pathological processes. PMID:22828342

  15. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  16. Chronic alterations in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I signaling lead to changes in mouse tendon structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R H; Clausen, N M; Schjerling, P

    2014-01-01

    transgenic mice that expressed bovine GH (bGH) and had high circulating levels of GH and IGF-I, 2) dwarf mice with a disrupted GH receptor gene (GHR-/-) leading to GH resistance and low circulating IGF-I, and 3) a wild-type control group (CTRL). We measured the ultra-structure, collagen content and m......The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis is an important stimulator of collagen synthesis in connective tissue, but the effect of chronically altered GH/IGF-I levels on connective tissue of the muscle-tendon unit is not known. We studied three groups of mice; 1) giant......-/- mice had significantly lower collagen fibril volume fraction in Achilles tendon, as well as decreased mRNA expression of IGF-I isoforms and collagen types I and III in muscle compared to CTRL. In contrast, the mRNA expression of IGF-I isoforms and collagens in bGH mice was generally high in both tendon...

  17. Design and fabrication of human skin by three-dimensional bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vivian; Singh, Gurtej; Trasatti, John P; Bjornsson, Chris; Xu, Xiawei; Tran, Thanh Nga; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Dai, Guohao; Karande, Pankaj

    2014-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, a flexible automated on-demand platform for the free-form fabrication of complex living architectures, is a novel approach for the design and engineering of human organs and tissues. Here, we demonstrate the potential of 3D bioprinting for tissue engineering using human skin as a prototypical example. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were used as constituent cells to represent the epidermis and dermis, and collagen was used to represent the dermal matrix of the skin. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize printing parameters for maximum cell viability as well as for the optimization of cell densities in the epidermis and dermis to mimic physiologically relevant attributes of human skin. Printed 3D constructs were cultured in submerged media conditions followed by exposure of the epidermal layer to the air-liquid interface to promote maturation and stratification. Histology and immunofluorescence characterization demonstrated that 3D printed skin tissue was morphologically and biologically representative of in vivo human skin tissue. In comparison with traditional methods for skin engineering, 3D bioprinting offers several advantages in terms of shape- and form retention, flexibility, reproducibility, and high culture throughput. It has a broad range of applications in transdermal and topical formulation discovery, dermal toxicity studies, and in designing autologous grafts for wound healing. The proof-of-concept studies presented here can be further extended for enhancing the complexity of the skin model via the incorporation of secondary and adnexal structures or the inclusion of diseased cells to serve as a model for studying the pathophysiology of skin diseases.

  18. Surgical accuracy of three-dimensional virtual planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kasper; Aagaard, Esben; Torkov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the precision and positional accuracy of different orthognathic procedures following virtual surgical planning in 30 patients. To date, no studies of three-dimensional virtual surgical planning have evaluated the influence of segmentation on positional accuracy...... and transverse expansion. Furthermore, only a few have evaluated the precision and accuracy of genioplasty in placement of the chin segment. The virtual surgical plan was compared with the postsurgical outcome by using three linear and three rotational measurements. The influence of maxillary segmentation...

  19. Type XII and XIV collagens mediate interactions between banded collagen fibers in vitro and may modulate extracellular matrix deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, T; McDonough, A M; Bruns, R R; Burgeson, R E

    1994-11-11

    Type XII and XIV collagens are very large molecules containing three extended globular domains derived from the amino terminus of each alpha chain and an interrupted triple helix. Both collagens are genetically and immunologically unique and have distinct distributions in many tissues. These collagens localize near the surface of banded collagen fibrils. The function of the molecules is unknown. We have prepared a mixture of native type XII and XIV collagens that is free of contaminating proteins by electrophoretic criteria. In addition, we have purified the collagenase-resistant globular domains of type XII or XIV collagens (XII-NC-3 or XIV-NC-3). In this study, we have investigated the effect of intact type XII and XIV and XII-NC-3 or XIV-NC-3 on the interactions between fibroblasts and type I collagen fibrils. We find that both type XII and XIV collagens promote collagen gel contraction mediated by fibroblasts, even in the absence of serum. The activity is present in the NC-3 domains. The effect is dose-dependent and is inhibited by denaturation. The effect of type XII NC-3 is inhibited by the addition of anti-XII antiserum. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we examined the effect of XII-NC-3 or XIV-NC-3 on deformability of collagen gels by centrifugal force. XII-NC-3 or XIV-NC-3 markedly promotes gel compression after centrifugation. The effect is also inhibited by denaturation, and the activity of type XII-NC3 is inhibited by the addition of anti-XII antiserum. The results indicate that the effect of XII-NC-3 or XIV-NC-3 on collagen gel contraction by fibroblasts is not due to activation of cellular events but rather results from the increase in mobility of hydrated collagen fibrils within the gel. These studies suggest that collagen types XII and XIV may modulate the biomechanical properties of tissues.

  20. Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuna; Zhang, Shujuan; Song, Limin; Wu, Xiaoqing; Fang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional Ni 2 P has been prepared using foam nickel as a template. • The microstructures interconnected and formed sponge-like porous networks. • Three-dimensional Ni 2 P shows superior hydrodesulfurization activity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional microstructured nickel phosphide (Ni 2 P) was fabricated by the reaction between foam nickel (Ni) and phosphorus red. The as-prepared Ni 2 P samples, as interconnected networks, maintained the original mesh structure of foamed nickel. The crystal structure and morphology of the as-synthesized Ni 2 P were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, automatic mercury porosimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SEM study showed adjacent hollow branches were mutually interconnected to form sponge-like networks. The investigation on pore structure provided detailed information for the hollow microstructures. The growth mechanism for the three-dimensionally structured Ni 2 P was postulated and discussed in detail. To investigate its catalytic properties, SiO 2 supported three-dimensional Ni 2 P was prepared successfully and evaluated for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). DBT molecules were mostly hydrogenated and then desulfurized by Ni 2 P/SiO 2

  1. Three-dimensional simulation of charge collection and multiple-bit upset in Si devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, P.E.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, three-dimensional numerical simulation is used to explore the basic charge-collection mechanisms in silicon n + /p diodes. For diodes on lightly-doped substrates ( 15 cm -3 ) struck by a 100-MeV Fe ion, the funneling effect is very strong and essentially all collection is by funnel-assisted drift. This drift collection may occur as late as several nanoseconds after the strike, later than is usually associated with drift collection. For moderately-doped substrates (∼1 x 10 16 cm -3 ) and epitaxial structures grown on heavily-doped substrates, the funnel effect is weaker and drift and diffusion are of more equal importance. For 5-MeV He (α-particle) strikes with low-density charge tracks, the charge-collection transient exhibits both drift and diffusion regimes regardless of the substrate doping. Simulations of diodes with passive external loads indicate that while the current response is altered considerably by the load, total collected charge is not greatly affected for the simple resistive loads studied. Three-dimensional mixed-mode simulation is performed to investigate charge-collection behavior and upset mechanisms in complete CMOS SRAM cells. Simulations of double SRAM cell structures indicate that only collection by diffusion from ''between-node'' strikes is capable of producing multiple-bit upsets in the simulated technology. Limitations of the simulations, specifically carrier-carrier scattering models and large concentration gradients, are also discussed

  2. Method and system for manipulating a digital representation of a three-dimensional object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A method of manipulating a three-dimensional virtual building block model by means of two-dimensional cursor movements, the virtual building block model including a plurality of virtual building blocks each including a number of connection elements for connecting the virtual building block...... with another virtual building block according to a set of connection rules, the method comprising positioning by means of cursor movements in a computer display area representing a two-dimensional projection of said model, a two-dimensional projection of a first virtual building block to be connected...... to the structure, resulting in a two-dimensional position; determining, from the two-dimensional position, a number of three-dimensional candidate positions of the first virtual building block in the three-dimensional coordinate system; selecting one of said candidate positions based on the connection rules...

  3. Multi-particle three-dimensional coordinate estimation in real-time optical manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Palima, Darwin

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown how stereoscopic images can be obtained in our three-dimensional optical micromanipulation system [J. S. Dam et al, Opt. Express 16, 7244 (2008)]. Here, we present an extension and application of this principle to automatically gather the three-dimensional coordinates for...

  4. Fracture mechanics of collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Rene B; Mulder, Hindrik; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2013-01-01

    Tendons are important load-bearing structures, which are frequently injured in both sports and work. Type I collagen fibrils are the primary components of tendons and carry most of the mechanical loads experienced by the tissue, however, knowledge of how load is transmitted between and within...... fibrils is limited. The presence of covalent enzymatic cross-links between collagen molecules is an important factor that has been shown to influence mechanical behavior of the tendons. To improve our understanding of how molecular bonds translate into tendon mechanics, we used an atomic force microscopy...... technique to measure the mechanical behavior of individual collagen fibrils loaded to failure. Fibrils from human patellar tendons, rat-tail tendons (RTTs), NaBH₄ reduced RTTs, and tail tendons of Zucker diabetic fat rats were tested. We found a characteristic three-phase stress-strain behavior in the human...

  5. Collagen derived serum markers in carcinoma of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Jensen, L T; Iversen, P

    1995-01-01

    Three new collagen markers deriving from the collagenous matrix, e.g. carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were used for the diagnose......, ICTP, and PICP did not differ between these two groups. In patients with metastatic prostatic cancer all five markers were increased compared to the level measured in patients with localized cancer (p

  6. When size matters: differences in demineralized bone matrix particles affect collagen structure, mesenchymal stem cell behavior, and osteogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozza, B; Lesci, I G; Duchi, S; Della Bella, E; Martini, L; Salamanna, F; Falconi, M; Cinotti, S; Fini, M; Lucarelli, E; Donati, D

    2017-04-01

    Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a natural, collagen-based, osteoinductive biomaterial. Nevertheless, there are conflicting reports on the efficacy of this product. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether DBM collagen structure is affected by particle size and can influence DBM cytocompatibility and osteoinductivity. Sheep cortical bone was ground and particles were divided in three fractions with different sizes, defined as large (L, 1-2 mm), medium (M, 0.5-1 mm), and small (S, structure, with DBM-M being altered but not as much as DBM-S. DBM-M displayed a preferable trend in almost all biological characteristics tested, although all DBM particles revealed an optimal cytocompatibility. Subcutaneous implantation of DBM particles into immunocompromised mice resulted in bone induction only for DBM-M. When sheep MSC were seeded onto particles before implantation, all DBM particles were able to induce new bone formation with the best incidence for DBM-M and DBM-S. In conclusion, the collagen alteration in DBM-M is likely the best condition to promote bone induction in vivo. Furthermore, the choice of 0.5-1 mm particles may enable to obtain more efficient and consistent results among different research groups in bone tissue-engineering applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1019-1033, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Electron crystallography of three dimensional protein crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Dilyana

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation of the potential of electron diffraction for studying three dimensional sub-micro-crystals of proteins and pharmaceuticals. A prerequisite for using electron diffraction for structural studies is the predictable availability of tiny crystals. A method for

  8. On-line analysis of algae in water by discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nanjing; Zhang, Xiaoling; Yin, Gaofang; Yang, Ruifang; Hu, Li; Chen, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing

    2018-03-19

    In view of the problem of the on-line measurement of algae classification, a method of algae classification and concentration determination based on the discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra was studied in this work. The discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of twelve common species of algae belonging to five categories were analyzed, the discrete three-dimensional standard spectra of five categories were built, and the recognition, classification and concentration prediction of algae categories were realized by the discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra coupled with non-negative weighted least squares linear regression analysis. The results show that similarities between discrete three-dimensional standard spectra of different categories were reduced and the accuracies of recognition, classification and concentration prediction of the algae categories were significantly improved. By comparing with that of the chlorophyll a fluorescence excitation spectra method, the recognition accuracy rate in pure samples by discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra is improved 1.38%, and the recovery rate and classification accuracy in pure diatom samples 34.1% and 46.8%, respectively; the recognition accuracy rate of mixed samples by discrete-three dimensional fluorescence spectra is enhanced by 26.1%, the recovery rate of mixed samples with Chlorophyta 37.8%, and the classification accuracy of mixed samples with diatoms 54.6%.

  9. Three-dimensional magnetic probe measurements of EXTRAP T1 equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, E.R.

    1988-12-01

    Internal probes are described for use in measuring the three orthogonal components of the magnetic field in the Extrap T1 device. The data analysis process for numerical processing of the probe signals is also explained. Results include radial and vertical profiles of the field components, three-dimensional field plots, inverse field strength contours, two-dimensional magnetic flux plots and toroidal current profiles. (author)

  10. Three-dimensional dose-response models of risk for radiation injury carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computer graphics in conjunction with three-dimensional models of dose-response relationships for chronic exposure to ionizing radiation dramaticly clarifies the separate and interactive roles of competing risks. The three dimensions are average dose rate, exposure time, and risk. As an example, the functionally injurious and carcinogenic responses after systemic uptake of Ra-226 by beagles, mice and people with consequent alpha particle irradiation of the bone are represented by three-dimensional dose-rate/time/response surfaces that demonstrate the contributions with the passage of time of the competing deleterious responses. These relationships are further evaluated by mathematical stripping with three-dimensional illustrations that graphically show the resultant separate contribution of each effect. Radiation bone injury predominates at high dose rates and bone cancer at intermediate dose rates. Low dose rates result in spontaneous deaths from natural aging, yielding a type of practical threshold for bone cancer induction. Risk assessment is benefited by the insights that become apparent with these three-dimensional models. The improved conceptualization afforded by them contributes to planning and evaluating epidemiological analyses and experimental studies

  11. Induction of carcinoembryonic antigen expression in a three-dimensional culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, J. M.; Brown, D.; Fitzgerald, W.; Ford, R. D.; Nachman, A.; Goodwin, T. J.; Spaulding, G.

    1994-01-01

    MIP-101 is a poorly differentiated human colon carcinoma cell line established from ascites that produces minimal amounts of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a 180 kDa glycoprotein tumor marker, and nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA), a related protein that has 50 and 90 kDa isoforms, in vitro in monolayer culture. MIP-101 produces CEA when implanted into the peritoneum of nude mice but not when implanted into subcutaneous tissue. We tested whether MIP-101 cells may be induced to express CEA when cultured on microcarrier beads in three-dimensional cultures, either in static cultures as non-adherent aggregates or under dynamic conditions in a NASA-designed low shear stress bioreactor. MIP- 101 cells proliferated well under all three conditions and increased CEA and NCA production 3 - 4 fold when grown in three-dimensional cultures compared to MIP-101 cells growing logarithmically in monolayers. These results suggest that three-dimensional growth in vitro simulates tumor function in vivo and that three-dimensional growth by itself may enhance production of molecules that are associated with the metastatic process.

  12. Fetal Therapy Model of Myelomeningocele with Three-Dimensional Skin Using Amniotic Fluid Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Kazuhiro; Tanemoto, Tomohiro; Wada, Seiji; Karibe, Jurii; Ihara, Norimasa; Ikemoto, Yu; Kawasaki, Tomoyuki; Oishi, Yoshie; Samura, Osamu; Okamura, Kohji; Takada, Shuji; Akutsu, Hidenori; Sago, Haruhiko; Okamoto, Aikou; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2017-06-06

    Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a congenital disease without genetic abnormalities. Neurological symptoms are irreversibly impaired after birth, and no effective treatment has been reported to date. Only surgical repairs have been reported so far. In this study, we performed antenatal treatment of MMC with an artificial skin using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from a patient with Down syndrome (AF-T21-iPSCs) and twin-twin transfusion syndrome (AF-TTTS-iPSCs) to a rat model. We manufactured three-dimensional skin with epidermis generated from keratinocytes derived from AF-T21-iPSCs and AF-TTTS-iPSCs and dermis of human fibroblasts and collagen type I. For generation of epidermis, we developed a protocol using Y-27632 and epidermal growth factor. The artificial skin was successfully covered over MMC defect sites during pregnancy, implying a possible antenatal surgical treatment with iPSC technology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-dimensional demonstration of liver and spleen by computer graphics technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Azuma, Masayoshi; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Ishizu, Hiromi; Mitsutani, Natsuki; Koizumi, Takao; Takayama, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional demonstration system of the liver and spleen has been developed using computer graphics technique. Three-dimensional models were constructed from CT images of the organ surface. The three-dimensional images were displayed as wire-frame and/or solid models on the color CRT. The anatomical surface of the liver and spleen was realistically viewed from any direction. In liver cirrhosis, atrophy of the right lobe, hypertrophy of the left lobe and splenomegaly were displayed vividly. The liver and hepatoma were displayed as wire-frame and solid models respectively on the same image. This combined display clarified the intrahepatic location of hepatoma together with configuration of liver and hepatoma. Furthermore, superimposed display of three dimensional models and celiac angiogram enabled us to understand the location and configuration of lesions more easily than the original CT data or angiogram alone. Therefore, it is expected that this system is clinically useful for noninvasive evaluation of patho-morphological changes of the liver and spleen. (author)

  14. Numerical Investigation of Three-dimensional Instability of Standing Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2002-11-01

    We study the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing waves under the influence of gravity using the transition matrix method. For accurate calculation of the transition matrices, we apply an efficient high-order spectral element method for nonlinear wave dynamics in complex domain. We consider two types of standing waves: (a) plane standing waves; and (b) standing waves in a circular tank. For the former, in addition to the confirmation of the side-band-like instability, we find a new three-dimensional instability for arbitrary base standing waves. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique standing wave, with an arbitrary angle relative to the base flow, whose frequency is approximately equal to that of the base standing wave. Based on direct simulations, we confirm such a three-dimensional instability and show the occurrence of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence phenomenon during nonlinear evolution. For the latter, we find that beyond a threshold wave steepness, the standing wave with frequency Ω becomes unstable to a small three-dimensional disturbance, which contains two dominant standing-wave components with frequencies ω1 and ω_2, provided that 2Ω ω1 + ω_2. The threshold wave steepness is found to decrease/increase as the radial/azimuthal wavenumber of the base standing wave increases. We show that the instability of standing waves in rectangular and circular tanks is caused by third-order quartet resonances between base flow and disturbance.

  15. Three-dimensional metamaterials fabricated using Proton Beam Writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A., E-mail: a.bettiol@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Dr. 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Turaga, S.P.; Yan, Y.; Vanga, S.K. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Dr. 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Chiam, S.Y. [NUS High School for Maths and Science, 20 Clementi Avenue 1, Singapore 129957 (Singapore)

    2013-07-01

    Proton Beam Writing (PBW) is a direct write lithographic technique that has recently been applied to the fabrication of three dimensional metamaterials. In this work, we show that the unique capabilities of PBW, namely the ability to fabricate arrays of high resolution, high aspect ratio microstructures in polymer or replicated into metal, is well suited to metamaterials research. We have also developed a novel method for selectively electroless plating silver directly onto polymer structures that were fabricated using PBW. This method opens up new avenues for utilizing PBW for making metamaterials and other sub-wavelength metallic structures. Several potential applications of three dimensional metamaterials fabricated using PBW are discussed, including sensing and negative refractive index materials.

  16. Transformation of amorphous calcium carbonate to rod-like single crystal calcite via "copying" collagen template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhonghui; Hu, Binbin; Dai, Shuxi; Du, Zuliang

    2015-10-01

    Collagen Langmuir films were prepared by spreading the solution of collagen over deionized water, CaCl2 solution and Ca(HCO3)2 solution. Resultant collagen Langmuir monolayers were then compressed to a lateral pressure of 10 mN/m and held there for different duration, allowing the crystallization of CaCO3. The effect of crystallization time on the phase composition and microstructure of CaCO3 was investigated. It was found that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) was obtained at a crystallization time of 6 h. The amorphous CaCO3 was transformed to rod-like single crystal calcite crystals at an extended crystallization time of 12 h and 24 h, via "copying" the symmetry and dimensionalities of collagen fibers. Resultant calcite crystallites were well oriented along the longitudinal axis of collagen fibers. The ordered surface structure of collagen fibers and electrostatic interactions played key roles in tuning the oriented nucleation and growth of the calcite crystallites. The mineralized collagen possessing both desired mechanical properties of collagen fiber and good biocompatibility of calcium carbonate may be assembled into an ideal biomaterial for bone implants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. SNAP-3D: a three-dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.

    1975-10-01

    A preliminary report is presented describing the data requirements of a one- two- or three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP-3D. This code is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but it can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffuse approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. It is assumed the reader is familiar with the older, two-dimensional code SNAP and can refer to the report [TRG-Report-1990], describing it. The present report concentrates on the enhancements to SNAP that have been made to produce the three-dimensional version, SNAP-3D, and is intended to act a a guide on data preparation until a single, comprehensive report can be published. (author)

  18. On boundary conditions in three-dimensional AdS gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskovic, Olivera [Instituto de Fisica, P. Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile) and Departamento de Fisica, P. Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)]. E-mail: olivera.miskovic@ucv.cl; Olea, Rodrigo [Departamento de Fisica, P. Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile) and Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: rolea@fisica.ist.utl.pt

    2006-09-07

    A finite action principle for three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant, based on a boundary condition for the asymptotic extrinsic curvature, is considered. The bulk action appears naturally supplemented by a boundary term that is one half the Gibbons-Hawking term, that makes the Euclidean action and the Noether charges finite without additional Dirichlet counterterms. The consistency of this boundary condition with the Dirichlet problem in AdS gravity and the Chern-Simons formulation in three dimensions, and its suitability for the higher odd-dimensional case, are also discussed.

  19. Three-Dimensional Organization of Chromosome Territories in the Human Interphase Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown. The regulation of genes has been shown to be connected closely to the three-dimensional organization of the genome in the cell nucleus. The nucleus of the cell has for a long

  20. Three-dimensional face shape in Fabry disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox-Brinkman, Josanne; Vedder, Anouk; Hollak, Carla; Richfield, Linda; Mehta, Atul; Orteu, Kate; Wijburg, Frits; Hammond, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Facial dysmorphology is an important feature in several lysosomal storage disorders. Although in Fabry disease facial dysmorphism is not a prominent sign, minor facial abnormalities have been previously reported. By analysing three-dimensional images of faces, we quantified facial dysmorphology in a

  1. Topology of Flow Separation on Three-Dimensional Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gary T.; Yates, Leslie A.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years there has been extensive research on three-dimensional flow separation. There are two different approaches: the phenomenological approach and a mathematical approach using topology. These two approaches are reviewed briefly and the shortcomings of some of the past works are discussed. A comprehensive approach applicable to incompressible and compressible steady-state flows as well as incompressible unsteady flow is then presented. The approach is similar to earlier topological approaches to separation but is more complete and in some cases adds more emphasis to certain points than in the past. To assist in the classification of various types of flow, nomenclature is introduced to describe the skin-friction portraits on the surface. This method of classification is then demonstrated on several categories of flow to illustrate particular points as well as the diversity of flow separation. The categories include attached, two-dimensional separation and three different types of simple, three-dimensional primary separation, secondary separation, and compound separation. Hypothetical experiments are utilized to illustrate the topological terminology and its role in characterizing these flows. These hypothetical experiments use colored oil injected onto the surface at singular points in the skin-friction portrait. Actual flow-visualization information, if available, is used to corroborate the hypothetical examples.

  2. A comparative study of three-dimensional reconstructive images of temporomandibular joint using computed tomogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Suk Young; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the spatial relationship of temporomandibular joint and to an aid in the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorder. For this study, three-dimensional images of normal temporomandibular joint were reconstructed by computer image analysis system and three-dimensional reconstructive program integrated in computed tomography. The obtained results were as follows : 1. Two-dimensional computed tomograms had the better resolution than three dimensional computed tomograms in the evaluation of bone structure and the disk of TMJ. 2. Direct sagittal computed tomograms and coronal computed tomograms had the better resolution in the evaluation of the disk of TMJ. 3. The positional relationship of the disk could be visualized, but the configuration of the disk could not be clearly visualized on three-dimensional reconstructive CT images. 4. Three-dimensional reconstructive CT images had the smoother margin than three-dimensional images reconstructed by computer image analysis system, but the images of the latter had the better perspective. 5. Three-dimensional reconstructive images had the better spatial relationship of the TMJ articulation, and the joint space were more clearly visualized on dissection images.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of hyaluronic acid/human-like collagen hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Fan, Daidi; Zhu, Chenhui; Deng, Jianjun; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Injectable hydrogel plays an important role in soft tissue filling and repair. We report an injectable hydrogel based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and human-like collagen (HLC), both with favorable biocompatibility and biodegradability. These two types of biomacromolecules were crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether to form a three-dimensional network. The redundant crosslinker was removed by dialysis and distillation. An HA-based hydrogel prepared by the same method was used as a control. The cytocompatibility was studied with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) test. Carbazole colorimetry was used to analyze the in vitro degradation rate. The histocompatibility was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining analysis and immunohistochemical analysis. The CCK-8 assay demonstrated that the HA/HLC hydrogel was less cytotoxic than the HA-based hydrogel and could promote baby hamster kidney cell (BHK) proliferation. The cell adhesion indicated that BHK could grow well on the surface of the materials and maintain good cell viability. The in vitro degradation test showed that the HA/HLC hydrogel had a longer degradation time and an excellent antienzyme ability. In vivo injection showed that there was little inflammatory response to HA/HLC after 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Therefore, the HA/HLC hydrogel is a promising biomaterial for soft tissue filling and repair. - Highlights: • Human-like collagen was used with hyaluronic acid to prepare soft tissue filling meterials. • 1,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) was introduced to treat the hydrogels. • The addition of human-like collagen could improve the biological properties of hydrogels

  4. Synthesis and characterization of hyaluronic acid/human-like collagen hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Ma, Xiaoxuan, E-mail: xiaoxuanma@163.com; Fan, Daidi, E-mail: fandaidi@nwu.edu.cn; Zhu, Chenhui; Deng, Jianjun; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Pei

    2014-10-01

    Injectable hydrogel plays an important role in soft tissue filling and repair. We report an injectable hydrogel based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and human-like collagen (HLC), both with favorable biocompatibility and biodegradability. These two types of biomacromolecules were crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether to form a three-dimensional network. The redundant crosslinker was removed by dialysis and distillation. An HA-based hydrogel prepared by the same method was used as a control. The cytocompatibility was studied with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) test. Carbazole colorimetry was used to analyze the in vitro degradation rate. The histocompatibility was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining analysis and immunohistochemical analysis. The CCK-8 assay demonstrated that the HA/HLC hydrogel was less cytotoxic than the HA-based hydrogel and could promote baby hamster kidney cell (BHK) proliferation. The cell adhesion indicated that BHK could grow well on the surface of the materials and maintain good cell viability. The in vitro degradation test showed that the HA/HLC hydrogel had a longer degradation time and an excellent antienzyme ability. In vivo injection showed that there was little inflammatory response to HA/HLC after 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Therefore, the HA/HLC hydrogel is a promising biomaterial for soft tissue filling and repair. - Highlights: • Human-like collagen was used with hyaluronic acid to prepare soft tissue filling meterials. • 1,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) was introduced to treat the hydrogels. • The addition of human-like collagen could improve the biological properties of hydrogels.

  5. Analytical Prediction of Three Dimensional Chatter Stability in Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Yusuf

    The chip regeneration mechanism during chat