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  1. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  2. Altered Peripheral Blood Monocyte Phenotype and Function in Chronic Liver Disease: Implications for Hepatic Recruitment and Systemic Inflammation.

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    Victoria L Gadd

    Full Text Available Liver and systemic inflammatory factors influence monocyte phenotype and function, which has implications for hepatic recruitment and subsequent inflammatory and fibrogenic responses, as well as host defence.Peripheral blood monocyte surface marker (CD14, CD16, CD163, CSF1R, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR3, CXCR4, CX3CR1, HLA-DR, CD62L, SIGLEC-1 expression and capacity for phagocytosis, oxidative burst and LPS-stimulated TNF production were assessed in patients with hepatitis C (HCV (n = 39 or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD (n = 34 (classified as non-advanced disease, compensated cirrhosis and decompensated cirrhosis and healthy controls (n = 11 by flow cytometry.The selected markers exhibited similar monocyte-subset-specific expression patterns between patients and controls. Monocyte phenotypic signatures differed between NAFLD and HCV patients, with an increased proportion of CD16+ non-classical monocytes in NAFLD, but increased expression of CXCR3 and CXCR4 in HCV. In both cohorts, monocyte CCR2 expression was reduced and CCR4 elevated over controls. CD62L expression was specifically elevated in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and positively correlated with the model-for-end-stage-liver-disease score. Functionally, monocytes from patients with decompensated cirrhosis had equal phagocytic capacity, but displayed features of dysfunction, characterised by lower HLA-DR expression and blunted oxidative responses. Lower monocyte TNF production in response to LPS stimulation correlated with time to death in 7 (46% of the decompensated patients who died within 8 months of recruitment.Chronic HCV and NAFLD differentially affect circulating monocyte phenotype, suggesting specific injury-induced signals may contribute to hepatic monocyte recruitment and systemic activation state. Monocyte function, however, was similarly impaired in patients with both HCV and NAFLD, particularly in advanced disease, which likely contributes to the increased

  3. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

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    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  4. Blood groups systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranadhir Mitra; Nitasha Mishra; Girija Prasad Rath

    2014-01-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importa...

  5. Blood Donation Management System

    OpenAIRE

    K M Akkas Ali; Israt Jahan; Md. Ariful Islam; Md. Shafa-at Parvez

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on Blood Donation Management System which is a web application with supporting mobile application aimed to serve as a communication tool between patients (who need blood) and blood donor. To become members of the system, donors need to create their profiles by providing fundamental information like name, blood group, email address, password, and exact location from “Google Map”. In order to find out the exact location of a donor, Google Map is integrated with this app...

  6. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  7. Blood groups systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  8. Blood Donation Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Akkas Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on Blood Donation Management System which is a web application with supporting mobile application aimed to serve as a communication tool between patients (who need blood and blood donor. To become members of the system, donors need to create their profiles by providing fundamental information like name, blood group, email address, password, and exact location from “Google Map”. In order to find out the exact location of a donor, Google Map is integrated with this application. The mobile application always updates the location of a donor. As a result, the system can automatically find a registered donor wherever he/she goes. Visitors can search blood donors from the home page by blood group and the place where blood is needed. The system will show the available donors along with their phone number, email address and mailing address through arranging them by nearest place and blood donation expire date. Visitors can send message to all donors through email but a member can send message using email and mobile phone. An appointment will be created only whenever a donor confirms that he/she will donate blood. Then the system will alert the donor before 12 hours of donation. Blood donors can also be searched from the mobile application, but this is only accessible for registered members. The goal of this paper is to reduce the complexity of the system to find blood donors in an emergency situation.

  9. Altered Cerebral Blood Flow Covariance Network in Schizophrenia.

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    Liu, Feng; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Yu, Chunshui

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) in schizophrenia; however, it remains unclear how topological properties of CBF network are altered in this disorder. Here, arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI was employed to measure resting-state CBF in 96 schizophrenia patients and 91 healthy controls. CBF covariance network of each group was constructed by calculating across-subject CBF covariance between 90 brain regions. Graph theory was used to compare intergroup differences in global and nodal topological measures of the network. Both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls had small-world topology in CBF covariance networks, implying an optimal balance between functional segregation and integration. Compared with healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed reduced small-worldness, normalized clustering coefficient and local efficiency of the network, suggesting a shift toward randomized network topology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, schizophrenia patients exhibited altered nodal centrality in the perceptual-, affective-, language-, and spatial-related regions, indicating functional disturbance of these systems in schizophrenia. This study demonstrated for the first time that schizophrenia patients have disrupted topological properties in CBF covariance network, which provides a new perspective (efficiency of blood flow distribution between brain regions) for understanding neural mechanisms of schizophrenia.

  10. Inflammation and Immune System Alterations in Frailty

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Xu; Li, Huifen; Leng, Sean X.

    2011-01-01

    Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome characterized by multi-system dysregulation. Substantial evidence suggests heightened inflammatory state and significant immune system alterations in frailty. A heightened inflammatory state is marked by increases in levels of inflammatory molecules (IL-6 and CRP) and counts of white blood cell and its subpopulations, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of frailty, directly or through its detrimental influence to other physiologic sy...

  11. Inorganic arsenite alters macrophage generation from human peripheral blood monocytes.

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    Sakurai, Teruaki; Ohta, Takami; Fujiwara, Kitao

    2005-03-01

    Inorganic arsenite has caused severe inflammatory chronic poisoning in humans through the consumption of contaminated well water. In this study, we examined the effects of arsenite at nanomolar concentrations on the in vitro differentiation of human macrophages from peripheral blood monocytes. While arsenite was found to induce cell death in a culture system containing macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), macrophages induced by granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) survived the treatment, but were morphologically, phenotypically, and functionally altered. In particular, arsenite-induced cells expressed higher levels of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen, HLA-DR, and CD14. They were more effective at inducing allogeneic or autologous T cell responses and responded more strongly to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by inflammatory cytokine release as compared to cells induced by GM-CSF alone. On the other hand, arsenite-induced cells expressed lower levels of CD11b and CD54 and phagocytosed latex beads or zymosan particles less efficiently. We also demonstrated that the optimum amount of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by nM arsenite might play an important role in this abnormal monocyte differentiation. This work may have implications in chronic arsenic poisoning because the total peripheral blood arsenic concentrations of these patients are at nM levels.

  12. Alteration of blood-brain barrier integrity by retroviral infection.

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    Philippe V Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.

  13. Blood Pump Bearing System

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    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  14. Catestatin Gly364Ser Variant Alters Systemic Blood Pressure and the Risk for Hypertension in Human Populations via Endothelial Nitric Oxide Pathway.

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    Kiranmayi, Malapaka; Chirasani, Venkat R; Allu, Prasanna K R; Subramanian, Lakshmi; Martelli, Elizabeth E; Sahu, Bhavani S; Vishnuprabu, Durairajpandian; Kumaragurubaran, Rathnakumar; Sharma, Saurabh; Bodhini, Dhanasekaran; Dixit, Madhulika; Munirajan, Arasambattu K; Khullar, Madhu; Radha, Venkatesan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mullasari, Ajit S; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Senapati, Sanjib; Mahapatra, Nitish R

    2016-08-01

    Catestatin (CST), an endogenous antihypertensive/antiadrenergic peptide, is a novel regulator of cardiovascular physiology. Here, we report case-control studies in 2 geographically/ethnically distinct Indian populations (n≈4000) that showed association of the naturally-occurring human CST-Gly364Ser variant with increased risk for hypertension (age-adjusted odds ratios: 1.483; P=0.009 and 2.951; P=0.005). Consistently, 364Ser allele carriers displayed elevated systolic (up to ≈8 mm Hg; P=0.004) and diastolic (up to ≈6 mm Hg; P=0.001) blood pressure. The variant allele was also found to be in linkage disequilibrium with other functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CHGA promoter and nearby coding region. Functional characterization of the Gly364Ser variant was performed using cellular/molecular biological experiments (viz peptide-receptor binding assays, nitric oxide [NO], phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinase, and phosphorylated endothelial NO synthase estimations) and computational approaches (molecular dynamics simulations for structural analysis of wild-type [CST-WT] and variant [CST-364Ser] peptides and docking of peptide/ligand with β-adrenergic receptors [ADRB1/2]). CST-WT and CST-364Ser peptides differed profoundly in their secondary structures and showed differential interactions with ADRB2; although CST-WT displaced the ligand bound to ADRB2, CST-364Ser failed to do the same. Furthermore, CST-WT significantly inhibited ADRB2-stimulated extracellular regulated kinase activation, suggesting an antagonistic role towards ADRB2 unlike CST-364Ser. Consequently, CST-WT was more potent in NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells as compared with CST-364Ser. This NO-producing ability of CST-WT was abrogated by ADRB2 antagonist ICI 118551. In conclusion, CST-364Ser allele enhanced the risk for hypertension in human populations, possibly via diminished endothelial NO production because of altered interactions of CST-364Ser

  15. Alterations in cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells in stored blood

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    Park, HyunJoo; Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusion. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called CPDA-1. With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and their progressive alterations in stored RBCs. Our results show that the stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within 2 weeks which was accompanied with significant ...

  16. Altered cerebral blood flow one month after systemic chemotherapy for breast cancer: a prospective study using pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI perfusion.

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    Kelly N H Nudelman

    Full Text Available Cerebral structural and functional alterations have been reported after chemotherapy for non-CNS cancers, yet the causative mechanism behind these changes remains unclear. This study employed a novel, non-invasive, MRI-based neuroimaging measure to provide the first direct longitudinal measurement of resting cerebral perfusion in breast cancer patients, which was tested for association with changes in cognitive function and gray matter density. Perfusion was measured using pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI in women with breast cancer treated with (N = 27 or without (N = 26 chemotherapy and matched healthy controls (N = 26 after surgery before other treatments (baseline, and one month after chemotherapy completion or yoked intervals. Voxel-based analysis was employed to assess perfusion in gray matter; changes were examined in relation to overall neuropsychological test performance and frontal gray matter density changes measured by structural MRI. Baseline perfusion was not significantly different across groups. Unlike control groups, chemotherapy-treated patients demonstrated significantly increased perfusion post-treatment relative to baseline, which was statistically significant relative to controls in the right precentral gyrus. This perfusion increase was negatively correlated with baseline overall neuropsychological performance, but was not associated with frontal gray matter density reduction. However, decreased frontal gray matter density was associated with decreased perfusion in bilateral frontal and parietal lobes in the chemotherapy-treated group. These findings indicate that chemotherapy is associated with alterations in cerebral perfusion which are both related to and independent of gray matter changes. This pattern of results suggests the involvement of multiple mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction. Additionally, lower baseline cognitive function may be a risk factor for treatment

  17. Altered phase interactions between spontaneous blood pressure and flow fluctuations in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Nonlinear assessment of cerebral autoregulation

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    Hu, Kun; Peng, C. K.; Huang, Norden E.; Wu, Zhaohua; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Cavallerano, Jerry; Novak, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is an important mechanism that involves dilatation and constriction in arterioles to maintain relatively stable cerebral blood flow in response to changes of systemic blood pressure. Traditional assessments of autoregulation focus on the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity in response to large blood pressure fluctuations induced by interventions. This approach is not feasible for patients with impaired autoregulation or cardiovascular regulation. Here we propose a newly developed technique-the multimodal pressure-flow (MMPF) analysis, which assesses autoregulation by quantifying nonlinear phase interactions between spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and flow velocity during resting conditions. We show that cerebral autoregulation in healthy subjects can be characterized by specific phase shifts between spontaneous blood pressure and flow velocity oscillations, and the phase shifts are significantly reduced in diabetic subjects. Smaller phase shifts between oscillations in the two variables indicate more passive dependence of blood flow velocity on blood pressure, thus suggesting impaired cerebral autoregulation. Moreover, the reduction of the phase shifts in diabetes is observed not only in previously-recognized effective region of cerebral autoregulation (type 2 diabetes mellitus alters cerebral blood flow regulation over a wide frequency range and that this alteration can be reliably assessed from spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and blood flow velocity during resting conditions. We also show that the MMPF method has better performance than traditional approaches based on Fourier transform, and is more suitable for the quantification of nonlinear phase interactions between nonstationary biological signals such as blood pressure and blood flow.

  18. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

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    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  19. Altered gene expression in blood and sputum in COPD frequent exacerbators in the ECLIPSE cohort.

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    Dave Singh

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who are defined as frequent exacerbators suffer with 2 or more exacerbations every year. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype are poorly understood. We investigated gene expression profile patterns associated with frequent exacerbations in sputum and blood cells in a well-characterised cohort. Samples from subjects from the ECLIPSE COPD cohort were used; sputum and blood samples from 138 subjects were used for microarray gene expression analysis, while blood samples from 438 subjects were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing. Using microarray, 150 genes were differentially expressed in blood (>±1.5 fold change, p≤0.01 between frequent compared to non-exacerbators. In sputum cells, only 6 genes were differentially expressed. The differentially regulated genes in blood included downregulation of those involved in lymphocyte signalling and upregulation of pro-apoptotic signalling genes. Multivariate analysis of the microarray data followed by confirmatory PCR analysis identified 3 genes that predicted frequent exacerbations; B3GNT, LAF4 and ARHGEF10. The sensitivity and specificity of these 3 genes to predict the frequent exacerbator phenotype was 88% and 33% respectively. There are alterations in systemic immune function associated with frequent exacerbations; down-regulation of lymphocyte function and a shift towards pro-apoptosis mechanisms are apparent in patients with frequent exacerbations.

  20. Retrobulbar blood flow and visual field alterations after acute ethanol ingestion

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    Weber A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anke Weber, Andreas Remky, Marion Bienert, Klaudia Huber-van der Velden, Thomas Kirschkamp, Corinna Rennings, Gernot Roessler, Niklas Plange Department of Ophthalmology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany Background: The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ethyl alcohol on the koniocellular and magnocellular pathway of visual function and to investigate the relationship between such visual field changes and retrobulbar blood flow in healthy subjects. Methods: In 12 healthy subjects (mean age 32 ± 4 years, color Doppler imaging, short-wavelength automated perimetry, and frequency doubling perimetry was performed before and 60 minutes after oral intake of 80 mL of 40 vol% ethanol. Mean and pattern standard deviations for short-wavelength automated and frequency doubling perimetry were assessed. End diastolic velocity (EDV and peak systolic velocity (PSV were measured in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries using color Doppler imaging. Systemic blood pressure, heart rate, intraocular pressure, and blood alcohol concentration were determined. Results: Mean PSV and EDV in the central retinal artery showed a significant increase after alcohol intake (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively. Similarly, we found a significant acceleration of blood flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery (P = 0.02 for PSV; P = 0.04 for EDV. Mean intraocular pressure decreased by 1.0 mmHg after alcohol ingestion (P = 0.01. Retinal sensitivity in short-wavelength automated perimetry did not alter, whereas in frequency doubling perimetry, the mean deviation decreased significantly. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly. Mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.38 ± 0.16 g/L. Conclusion: Although ethanol is known to cause peripheral vasodilation, our subjects had no significant drop in systemic blood pressure. However, a significant increase of blood flow velocity was seen in the retrobulbar vessels. Regarding visual function

  1. Whole-body vibration dosage alters leg blood flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgo, N.; Eser, P.; Groot, P.C.E. de; Galea, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of whole-body vibration dosage on leg blood flow was investigated. Nine healthy young adult males completed a set of 14 random vibration and non-vibration exercise bouts whilst squatting on a Galileo 900 plate. Six vibration frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 Hz (5 Hz increments) were used

  2. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

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    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  3. Alteration of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in acute pancreatitis

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    Miroslawa Pietruczuk; Milena I Dabrowska; Urszula Wereszczynska-Siemiatkowska; Andrzej Dabrowski

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: Twenty patients with mild AP (M-AP) and 15 with severe AP (S-AP) were included in our study. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined at d 1-3, 5,10 and 30 by means of flow cytometry.RESULTS: A significant depletion of circulating lymphocytes was found in AP. In the early AP, the magnitude of depletion was similar for T- and B- lymphocytes. In the late course of S-AP, B-lymphocytes were much more depleted than T-lymphocytes. At d 10, strong shift in the CD7+/CD19+ ratio implicating predominance of Tover B-lymphocytes in S-AP was found. Among T-lymphocytes, the significant depletion of the CD4+ population was observed in M-AP and S-AP, while CD8+ cells were in the normal range. Lymphocytes were found to strongly express activation markers: CD69, CD25, CD28,CD38 and CD122. Serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5,IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) levels were significantly increased in both forms of AP. The magnitude of elevation of cytokines known to be produced by Th2 was much higher than cytokines produced by Th1 cells.CONCLUSION: AP in humans is characterized by significant reduction of peripheral blood T- and B-lymphocytes.

  4. The Indian blood group system.

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    Xu, Q

    2011-01-01

    The Indian blood group system (ISBT: IN/023) consists of two antithetical antigens: In(a) (IN1), which is present in approximately 10 percent of some Arab populations and in 3 percent of Bombay Indians, and its allelic antigen In(b) (IN2), an antigen of high incidence in all populations. In 2007, two new high-incidence antigens were identified as belonging to the IN blood group system, namely IN3 (INFI) and IN4 (INJA). The antigens in this system are located on CD44, a single-pass membrane glycoprotein that is encoded by the CD44 gene on chromosome 11 at position p13. The biologic function of CD44 is as a leukocyte homing receptor and cellular adhesion molecule. The In(a) and In(b) polymorphism represents a 252G>C substitution of CD44, encoding R46P, and lack of IN3 and IN4 results from homozygosity for mutations encoding H85Q and T163R in the CD44 gene. The high-frequency antigen AnWj (901009) has not been assigned to the Indian system, but either is located on an isoform of CD44 or is closely associated with it.

  5. Alterations of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Major Depressive Disorder

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    Lee, Won Hyoung; Chung, Yong An; Seo, Ye Young; Yoo, Ik Dong; Na, Sae Jung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ki Jun [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The authors analyzed how the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings of patients with major depression differ from the normal control, and our results were compared to previous reports. Twelve patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for major depression who were off all psychotropic medications for > 4 weeks (male: 7, female: 5, age range: 19approx52 years, average age: 29.3+-9.9 years) and 14 normal volunteers (male: 8, female: 6, age range: 19approx53 years, average age: 31.4+-9.2 years) were recruited. Images of brain perfusion SPECT were obtained using Tc-99m ECD and patterns of the rCBF were compared between patients with major depression and the healthy control subjects. The patients with major depression showed increase of the r-CBF in right lingual gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left precuneus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and showed decrease of r-CBF in right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus of left limbic lobe, cingulate gyrus of right frontal lobe, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe compared to the normal control. The Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT findings in our study did not differ from the previously reported regional cerebral blood flow pattern of patients with major depression. Especially, decreased rCBF pattern typical to major depression patients in the right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, and cingulate regions was clearly demonstrated

  6. Loss of caveolin-1 causes blood-retinal barrier breakdown, venous enlargement, and mural cell alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaowu; Fliesler, Steven J; Zhao, You-Yang; Stallcup, William B; Cohen, Alex W; Elliott, Michael H

    2014-02-01

    Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and related vascular changes are implicated in several ocular diseases. The molecules and mechanisms regulating BRB integrity and pathophysiology are not fully elucidated. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) ablation results in loss of caveolae and microvascular pathologies, but the role of Cav-1 in the retina is largely unknown. We examined BRB integrity and vasculature in Cav-1 knockout mice and found a significant increase in BRB permeability, compared with wild-type controls, with branch veins being frequent sites of breakdown. Vascular hyperpermeability occurred without apparent alteration in junctional proteins. Such hyperpermeability was not rescued by inhibiting eNOS activity. Veins of Cav-1 knockout retinas exhibited additional pathological features, including i) eNOS-independent enlargement, ii) altered expression of mural cell markers (eg, down-regulation of NG2 and up-regulation of αSMA), and iii) dramatic alterations in mural cell phenotype near the optic nerve head. We observed a significant NO-dependent increase in retinal artery diameter in Cav-1 knockout mice, suggesting that Cav-1 plays a role in autoregulation of resistance vessels in the retina. These findings implicate Cav-1 in maintaining BRB integrity in retinal vasculature and suggest a previously undefined role in the retinal venous system and associated mural cells. Our results are relevant to clinically significant retinal disorders with vascular pathologies, including diabetic retinopathy, uveoretinitis, and primary open-angle glaucoma.

  7. Common DNA methylation alterations of Alzheimer's disease and aging in peripheral whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongdong; Guo, Zheng; Guo, You; Li, Mengyao; Yan, Haidan; Cheng, Jun; Wang, Chenguang; Hong, Guini

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common aging-related neurodegenerative illness. Recently, many studies have tried to identify AD- or aging-related DNA methylation (DNAm) biomarkers from peripheral whole blood (PWB). However, the origin of PWB biomarkers is still controversial. In this study, by analyzing 2565 DNAm profiles for PWB and brain tissue, we showed that aging-related DNAm CpGs (Age-CpGs) and AD-related DNAm CpGs (AD-CpGs) observable in PWB both mainly reflected DNAm alterations intrinsic in leukocyte subtypes rather than methylation differences introduced by the increased ratio of myeloid to lymphoid cells during aging or AD progression. The PWB Age-CpGs and AD-CpGs significantly overlapped 107 sites (P-value = 2.61×10−12) and 97 had significantly concordant methylation alterations in AD and aging (P-value nervous system development, neuron differentiation and neurogenesis. More than 60.8% of these 97 concordant sites were found to be significantly correlated with age in normal peripheral CD4+ T cells and CD14+ monocytes as well as in four brain regions, and 44 sites were also significantly differentially methylated in different regions of AD brain tissue. Taken together, the PWB DNAm alterations related to both aging and AD could be exploited for identification of AD biomarkers. PMID:26943045

  8. Blood Glucose Alterations in Spinal versus General anesthesia in those undergoing Cesarean Section Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Manafi; Habibollah Zakeri; Fatemeh Salahyan; Marzieh Tavassoli; Fahimeh Shekoohi; Roya Kokabi; Sahar Khazforoosh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Major body injury or surgery is associated with reproducible metabolic and hormonal responses. Alteration of blood glucose levels is one of the necessary metabolic changes to surgical stress. Surgical techniques and different methods of anesthesia are factors that can help to control and balance the body’s hormones. One of the most effective ways for decline the endocrine-metabolic response is local anesthesia. We conducted this study to compare the measurement of blood glucose ...

  9. Altered blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension turns to normal when portal pressure is lowered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco Eizayaga; Camila Scorticati; Juan P Prestifilippo; Salvador Romay; Maria A Fernandez; José L Castro; Abraham Lemberg; Juan C Perazzo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats induced by partial portal vein ligation, at 14 and 40 d after ligation when portal pressure is spontaneously normalized.METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group Ⅰ: Sham14d, sham operated; Group Ⅱ: PH14d, portal vein stenosis; (both groups were used 14 days after surgery); Group Ⅲ: Sham40d, Sham operated and Group Ⅳ: PH40d Portal vein stenosis (Groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ used 40 d after surgery). Plasma ammonia,plasma and cerebrospinal fluid protein and liver enzymes concentrations were determined. Trypan and Evans blue dyes, systemically injected, were investigated in hippocampus to study blood-brain barrier integrity. Portal pressure was periodically recorded.RESULTS: Forty days after stricture, portal pressure was normalized, plasma ammonia was moderately high,and both dyes were absent in central nervous system parenchyma. All other parameters were reestablished.When portal pressure was normalized and ammonia level was lowered, but not normal, the altered integrity of blood-brain barrier becomes reestablished.CONCLUSION: The impairment of blood-brain barrier and subsequent normalization could be a mechanism involved in hepatic encephalopathy reversibility. Hemodynamic changes and ammonia could trigger blood-brain barrier alterations and its reestablishment.

  10. Hyperammonemia,brain edema and blood-brain barrier alterations in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats and paravrtamol intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Camila Scorticati; Juan P. Prestifilippo; Francisco X. Eizayaga; José L. Castro; Salvador Romay; Maria A. Fernández; Abraham Lemberg; Juan C. Perazzo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity, brain edema,animal behavior and ammonia plasma levels in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats with and without acute liver intoxication.METHODS: Adults male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group Ⅰ: sham operation; Ⅱ: Prehepatic portal hypertension, produced by partial portal vein ligation; Ⅲ:Acetaminophen intoxication and Ⅳ: Prehepatic portal hypertension plus acetaminophen. Acetaminophen was administered to produce acute hepatic injury. Portal pressure, liver serum enzymes and ammonia plasma levels were determined. Brain cortex water content was registered and trypan blue was utilized to study blood brain barrier integrity. Reflexes and behavioral tests were recorded.RESULTS: Portal hypertension was significantly elevated in groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ. Liver enzymes and ammonia plasma levels were increased in groups Ⅱ, Ⅳ and Ⅳ. Prehepatic portal hypertension (group Ⅱ), acetaminophen intoxication (group Ⅲ) and both (group Ⅳ) had changes in the blood brain-barrier integrity (trypan blue) and hyperammonemia. Cortical edema was present in rats with acute hepatic injury in groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ. Behavioral test (rota rod) was altered in group Ⅳ.CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of another pathway for cortical edema production because blood brain barrier was altered (vasogenic) and hyperammonemia was registered (cytotoxic). Group Ⅳ, with behavioral altered test, can be considered as a model for study at an early stage of portal-systemic encephalopathy.

  11. Age-related alteration in the composition of immunocompetent blood cells in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1328 survivors of Hiroshima were studied for alterations in the number of blood lymphocytes belonging to T-cell subpopulations, CD19 antigen-positive B cells and Leu 7 and CD16 antigen-positive lymphocytes. With increasing age, significant decreasing trends in the numbers of some lymphocytes in T-cell subpopulations and of B-cells were seen. The number of blood lymphocytes positive for CD5 antigen was significantly lower in those exposed to radiation (> 1Gy) in the older age group (more than 30 years at the time of bombing) and a similar tendency for decreases in the numbers of CD4, CD8, and CD19 antigen-positive cells was observed, but differences were not significant. The results suggest aging of the T-cell related immune system is accelerated in the irradiated people of advanced age, explained by the age-related decrease in thymic function in those subjects. The number of Leu 7 or CD19 antigen-positive cells was found to be increased significantly in the older age group compared to the younger, although there was little dose dependence. (U.K.)

  12. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-01-01

    cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other...... give more insight into the disease. Markers from the classical complement pathway are elevated where its initiator C1q appears to derive primarily from motor neurons. Activated microglia and astrocytes are found in close proximity to dying motor neurons. Their activation status and proliferation...... and present a hypothesis to direct the way for further studies....

  13. Possibility of enhanced risk of retinal neovascularization in repeated blood donors: blood donation and retinal alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastmanesh R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reza RastmaneshDepartment of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: Repeated blood donors manifest clinical, subclinical, and biochemical signs of iron deficiency anemia, have significantly higher erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF concentrations, and decreased tissue oxygen saturation, oxygenated tissue hemoglobin, and regional cerebral oxygen saturation. Erythropoietin and VEGF are potent retinal angiogenic factors which may initiate and promote the retinal angiogenesis process independently or simultaneously. Increases in circulating levels of erythropoietin and VEGF are proportionate to the levels of hematocrit, hypoxemia, and tissue hypoxia. It is suggested that higher erythropoietin production following iron deficiency anemia-induced chronic hypoxemia/hypoxia may, hypothetically, enhance the risk of retinal angiogenesis and/or neovascularization, possibly by inducing hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, which consequently upregulates genes stimulating angiogenesis, resulting in formation of a new vasculature, possibly by modulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling in the retina. Implications of this hypothesis cover erythropoietin doping, chronic hypoxia, and hypoxemic situations, such as angiogenesis-related cardiac and pulmonary diseases.Keywords: repeated blood donation, erythropoietin, retinal neovascularization, vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia

  14. Computational Hemodynamic Simulation of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim. Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan

    2003-01-01

    A computational hemodynamics approach is presented to simulate the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Numerical techniques relevant to hemodynamics issues are introduced to non-Newtonian modeling for flow characteristics governed by red blood cells, distensible wall motion due to the heart pulse, and capillary bed modeling for outflow boundary conditions. Gravitational body force terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effects of gravity on internal flows. Six-type gravity benchmark problems are originally presented to provide the fundamental understanding of gravitational effects on the human circulatory system. For code validation, computed results are compared with steady and unsteady experimental data for non-Newtonian flows in a carotid bifurcation model and a curved circular tube, respectively. This computational approach is then applied to the blood circulation in the human brain as a target problem. A three-dimensional, idealized Circle of Willis configuration is developed with minor arteries truncated based on anatomical data. Demonstrated is not only the mechanism of the collateral circulation but also the effects of gravity on the distensible wall motion and resultant flow patterns.

  15. Altered gene expression pattern in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kiliszek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis and therapy, acute myocardial infarction (MI is a major cause of mortality in the general population. A novel insight into the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction obtained by studying gene expression should help to discover novel biomarkers of MI and to suggest novel strategies of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish gene expression patterns in leukocytes from acute myocardial infarction patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI were included. The blood was collected on the 1(st day of myocardial infarction, after 4-6 days, and after 6 months. Control group comprised 14 patients with stable coronary artery disease, without history of myocardial infarction. Gene expression analysis was performed with Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarrays and GCS3000 TG system. Lists of genes showing altered expression levels (fold change >1.5, p<0.05 were submitted to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Gene lists from each group were examined for canonical pathways and molecular and cellular functions. Comparing acute phase of MI with the same patients after 6 months (stable phase and with control group we found 24 genes with changed expression. In canonical analysis three pathways were highlighted: signaling of PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, IL-10 and IL-6 (interleukin 10 and 6. CONCLUSIONS: In the acute phase of STEMI, dozens of genes from several pathways linked with lipid/glucose metabolism, platelet function and atherosclerotic plaque stability show altered expression. Up-regulation of SOCS3 and FAM20 genes in the first days of myocardial infarction is observed in the vast majority of patients.

  16. A Blood Bank Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, James J.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized Blood Bank Management system is described. Features include product oriented data input, inventory control reports, product utilization reports, rapid retrieval of individual patient reports. Relative benefits of the system are discussed.

  17. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban R Fernández

    Full Text Available Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  18. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteban R; Olivera, Gabriela C; Quebrada Palacio, Luz P; González, Mariela N; Hernandez-Vasquez, Yolanda; Sirena, Natalia María; Morán, María L; Ledesma Patiño, Oscar S; Postan, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  19. Altered lymphatics in an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Sanjeev A; Johnson, Eric G; Oishi, Peter E; Johengen, Michael; Tang, Eric; Aramburo, Angela; Barton, Jubilee; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Bennett, Stephen; Xoinis, Konstantine; Reel, Bhupinder; Kalkan, Gokhan; Sajti, Eniko; Osorio, Oscar; Raff, Gary W; Matthay, Michael A; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2012-03-15

    Abnormalities of the lymphatic circulation are well recognized in patients with congenital heart defects. However, it is not known how the associated abnormal blood flow patterns, such as increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF), might affect pulmonary lymphatic function and structure. Using well-established ovine models of acute and chronic increases in PBF, we cannulated the efferent lymphatic duct of the caudal mediastinal node and collected and analyzed lymph effluent from the lungs of lambs with acutely increased PBF (n = 6), chronically increased PBF (n = 6), and age-matched normal lambs (n = 8). When normalized to PBF, we found that lymph flow was unchanged following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. The lymph:plasma protein ratio decreased with both acute and chronic increases in PBF. Lymph bioavailable nitric oxide increased following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. In addition, we found perturbations in the transit kinetics of contrast material through the pleural lymphatics of lambs with chronic increases in PBF. Finally, there were structural changes in the pulmonary lymphatic system in lambs with chronic increases in PBF: lymphatics from these lambs were larger and more dilated, and there were alterations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, and Angiopoietin-2, proteins known to be important for lymphatic growth, development, and remodeling. Taken together these data suggest that chronic increases in PBF lead to both functional and structural aberrations of lung lymphatics. These findings have important therapeutic implications that warrant further study.

  20. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  1. SYSTEMIC BLOOD ACTIVATION DURING AND AFTER AUTOTRANSFUSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHONBERGER, JPAM; VANOEVEREN, W; BREDEE, JJ; EVERTS, PAM; DEHAAN, J; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of shed blood activation in two autotransfusion systems and the effect of circulating blood activation upon autotransfusion, we performed a prospective study in 18 patients undergoing internal mammary artery bypass operation and a control group of 10 patients. The autotransfus

  2. Study on animals‘ femur blood flow alteration under inadequate decompression with 133Xe isotope washout method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuShao-Ning; TiaoWu-Xun; 等

    1998-01-01

    Animals' regional femur blood(F) alteration was studied under an inadequate decompression by using the inhaled isotope 133Xe washout method.Results showed that the average F on left and right side of minipigs' femur decreased from 15.4±1.8 and 16.9±2.0mg/(100g.min)(before exposure)to 10±1.8and 11.1±1.6mg(100mg.min)(after expposure for 1.5h under the pressure of 0.5 MPa and then decompression to normal with the rate of 0.03-0.04MPa/min)respectively;the blood flow of hematopoietic marrow tissues(f1) on both sides also decreased from 19.3±2.0 and 22.1±1.9ml(100mg.min)to 13.9±1.4 and 13.8±1.0ml(100mg.min).The exact same alteration also happened in the experiment on New Zealand rabbits.It indicates that inadequate decompression in hyperbaric exposure can give rise to decrease animals' one blood flow and insufficient bone blood supply serves as one of the reasons for causing decompressive osteonecrosis.

  3. Electrocardiographic and Blood Pressure Alterations During Electroconvulsive Therapy in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Demetrio Ortega

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To study cardiovascular alterations in young patients with no apparent organic disease who underwent electroconvulsive therapy. METHODS - The study comprised 47 healthy patients (22 males and 25 females with a mean age of 30.3 years, who underwent electroconvulsive therapy. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous electrocardiographic monitoring (Holter monitor were performed during 24 hours. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed 4 hours prior to electric shock administration, during electric shock administration, and 3 hours after electric shock administration. Arrhythmias and alterations in the ST segment in 24 hours were recorded. RESULTS - On electroconvulsive therapy, a significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate was observed and the measurements returned to basal values after 25 minutes. Three females had tracings with depression of the ST segment suggesting myocardial ischemia prior to and after electroconvulsive therapy. Coronary angiography was normal. No severe cardiac arrhythmias were diagnosed. CONCLUSION - 1 Electroconvulsive therapy is a safe therapeutic modality in psychiatry; 2 it causes a significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate; 3 it may be associated with myocardial ischemia in the absence of coronary obstructive disease; 4 electroconvulsive therapy was not associated with the occurrence of severe cardiac arrhythmias.

  4. Altered ATP-sensitive potassium channels may underscore obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hong FAN; Hong-yan TIAN; Ai-qun MA; Zhi HU; Jian-hua HUO; Yong-xiao CAO

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To determine whether ATP-sensitive potassium channels are altered in VSMC from arotas and mesenteric arteries of obese rat,and their association with obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure.Methods:Obesity was induced by 24 weeks of high-fat diet feeding in male Sprague-Dawley rats.Control rats were fed with standard laboratory rat chow.Blood pressure and body weight of these rats were measured every 4 weeks.At the end of 24 weeks,KATP channel-mediated relaxation responses in the aortas and mesenteric arteries,KATP channel current,and gene expression were examined,respectively.Results:Blood pres-sure and body weight were increased in rats fed with high-fat diet.KATP channel-mediated relaxation responses,currents,and KATP expression in VSMC of both aortas and mesenteric arteries were inhibited in these rats.Conclusion:Altered ATP-sensitive potassium channels in obese rats may underscore obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure.

  5. Blood monitoring systems and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Jose (Inventor); Zander, Dennis (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A blood monitoring system is capable of monitoring the blood of a subject in vivo. The blood monitoring system comprises: 1) an array of movable microneedle micromachined within associated wells; 2) array of motion actuators able to move each needle in and out of their associated wells; 3) array of microvalves associated with each microneedle able to control the flow of air around the microneedle; 4) an array of chemical sensors inserted into patient by movable microneedles; 5) an array of inductors able to measure chemical concentration in the vicinity of inserted chemical sensors; 6) conducting vias that provide timed actuating signal signals from a control system to each motion actuator; 7) conducting vias that transmit signal produced by array of chemical sensors to the control system for processing, although the blood monitoring system can comprise other numbers and types of elements in other configurations.

  6. Altered free radical metabolism in acute mountain sickness: implications for dynamic cerebral autoregulation and blood-brain barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D M; Evans, K A; James, P E;

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O...... developed clinical AMS (AMS+) and were more hypoxaemic relative to subjects without AMS (AMS-). A more marked increase in the venous concentration of the ascorbate radical (A(*-)), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and increased susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation was observed during...

  7. Disodium cromoglycate, a mast-cell stabilizer, alters postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Pautler, E.L.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure, and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with systemic hypotension and a dramatic release of mast-cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomena and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or BRL 22321 before exposure to 100 Gy whole-body gamma radiation. Hypothalamic and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. The data indicated that DSCG was successful in diminishing postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow. Irradiated animals pretreated with DSCG, showed only a 10% decrease in hypothalamic blood flow 60 min postradiation, while untreated, irradiated animals showed a 57% decrease. The cortical blood flow of DSCG treated, irradiated animals showed a triphasic response, with a decrease of 38% at 10 min postradiation, then a rise to 1% below baseline at 20 min, followed by a fall to 42% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. In contrast, the untreated, irradiated animals showed a steady decrease in cortical blood flow to 79% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. There was no significant difference in blood-pressure response between the treated and untreated, irradiated animals. Systemic blood pressure showed a 60% decrease at 10 min postradiation, falling to a 71% decrease by 60 min.

  8. Chronic whiplash symptoms are related to altered regional cerebral blood flow in the resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Appel, Lieuwe; Söderlund, Anne; Frans, Orjan; Engler, Henry; Furmark, Tomas; Gordh, Torsten; Långström, Bengt; Fredrikson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    The neural pathogenic mechanisms involved in mediating chronic pain and whiplash associated disorders (WAD) after rear impact car collisions are largely unknown. This study's first objective was to compare resting state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by means of positron emission tomography with (15)O labelled water in 21 WAD patients with 18 healthy, pain-free controls. A second objective was to investigate the relations between brain areas with altered rCBF to pain experience, somatic symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms and personality traits in the patient group. Patients had heightened resting rCBF bilaterally in the posterior parahippocampal and the posterior cingulate gyri, in the right thalamus and the right medial prefrontal gyrus as well as lowered tempero-occipital blood flow compared with healthy controls. The altered rCBF in the patient group was correlated to neck disability ratings. We thus suggest an involvement of the posterior cingulate, parahippocampal and medial prefrontal gyri in WAD and speculate that alterations in the resting state are linked to an increased self-relevant evaluation of pain and stress. PMID:18486506

  9. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABREU P.R.C.; ALMEIDA M.C.; BERNARDO R.M.; BERNARDO L.C.; BRITO L.C.; GARCIA E.A.C.; FONSECA A.S.; BERNARDO-FILHO M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract.

  10. Five-year weight changes associate with blood pressure alterations independent of changes in serum insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In overweight-related hypertension, the effect of weight changes on blood pressure (BP) is believed to be mediated by insulin. To test this hypothesis, we studied 5-year changes in weight, BP, and insulin in a general population of Danish adults (n = 3443; mean age 45.7 ± 7.6 years). M...... of the insulin variables was significantly associated with SBP or DBP (P ≥ 0.08). The results for changes in DBP were similar to SBP. CONCLUSION: Five-year weight changes associate with BP alterations independent of the insulin changes....

  11. IBCIS:Intelligent blood cell identification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adnan Khashman

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of blood cells in microscope images can provide useful information concerning the health of patients.There are three major blood cell types,namely,erythrocytes (red),leukocytes (white),and platelets.Manual classification is time consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells.This paper presents an intelligent system that simulates a human visual inspection and classification of the three blood cell types.The proposed system comprises two phases:The image preprocessing phase where blood cell features are extracted via global pattern averaging,and the neural network arbitration phase where training is the first and then classification is carried out.Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well in identifying blood cell types regardless of their irregular shapes,sizes and orientation,thus providing a fast,simple and efficient rotational and scale invariant blood cell identification system which can be used in automating laboratory reporting.

  12. Altered Gene Expression in Schizophrenia: Findings from Transcriptional Signatures in Fibroblasts and Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattane, Nadia; Minelli, Alessandra; Milanesi, Elena; Maj, Carlo; Bignotti, Stefano; Bortolomasi, Marco; Chiavetto, Luisella Bocchio; Gennarelli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole-genome expression studies in the peripheral tissues of patients affected by schizophrenia (SCZ) can provide new insight into the molecular basis of the disorder and innovative biomarkers that may be of great utility in clinical practice. Recent evidence suggests that skin fibroblasts could represent a non-neural peripheral model useful for investigating molecular alterations in psychiatric disorders. Methods A microarray expression study was conducted comparing skin fibroblast transcriptomic profiles from 20 SCZ patients and 20 controls. All genes strongly differentially expressed were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in fibroblasts and analyzed in a sample of peripheral blood cell (PBC) RNA from patients (n = 25) and controls (n = 22). To evaluate the specificity for SCZ, alterations in gene expression were tested in additional samples of fibroblasts and PBCs RNA from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (n = 16; n = 21, respectively) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) patients (n = 15; n = 20, respectively). Results Six genes (JUN, HIST2H2BE, FOSB, FOS, EGR1, TCF4) were significantly upregulated in SCZ compared to control fibroblasts. In blood, an increase in expression levels was confirmed only for EGR1, whereas JUN was downregulated; no significant differences were observed for the other genes. EGR1 upregulation was specific for SCZ compared to MDD and BD. Conclusions Our study reports the upregulation of JUN, HIST2H2BE, FOSB, FOS, EGR1 and TCF4 in the fibroblasts of SCZ patients. A significant alteration in EGR1 expression is also present in SCZ PBCs compared to controls and to MDD and BD patients, suggesting that this gene could be a specific biomarker helpful in the differential diagnosis of major psychoses. PMID:25658856

  13. Altered gene expression in schizophrenia: findings from transcriptional signatures in fibroblasts and blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cattane

    Full Text Available Whole-genome expression studies in the peripheral tissues of patients affected by schizophrenia (SCZ can provide new insight into the molecular basis of the disorder and innovative biomarkers that may be of great utility in clinical practice. Recent evidence suggests that skin fibroblasts could represent a non-neural peripheral model useful for investigating molecular alterations in psychiatric disorders.A microarray expression study was conducted comparing skin fibroblast transcriptomic profiles from 20 SCZ patients and 20 controls. All genes strongly differentially expressed were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR in fibroblasts and analyzed in a sample of peripheral blood cell (PBC RNA from patients (n = 25 and controls (n = 22. To evaluate the specificity for SCZ, alterations in gene expression were tested in additional samples of fibroblasts and PBCs RNA from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD (n = 16; n = 21, respectively and Bipolar Disorder (BD patients (n = 15; n = 20, respectively.Six genes (JUN, HIST2H2BE, FOSB, FOS, EGR1, TCF4 were significantly upregulated in SCZ compared to control fibroblasts. In blood, an increase in expression levels was confirmed only for EGR1, whereas JUN was downregulated; no significant differences were observed for the other genes. EGR1 upregulation was specific for SCZ compared to MDD and BD.Our study reports the upregulation of JUN, HIST2H2BE, FOSB, FOS, EGR1 and TCF4 in the fibroblasts of SCZ patients. A significant alteration in EGR1 expression is also present in SCZ PBCs compared to controls and to MDD and BD patients, suggesting that this gene could be a specific biomarker helpful in the differential diagnosis of major psychoses.

  14. Influence of carbonyl stress on rheological alterations of blood materials and decarbonylation effect of glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭密军; 蔡建光; 贺洪; 龚萍; 李国林; 汤婷; 朱泽瑞; 印大中

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various toxic carbonyls such as malondialdehyde(MDA),a secondary product of lipid peroxidation,and other aldehydes on rheological parameters and their relationship with aging-associated alterations were studied.Both MDA and glutaraldehyde(Glu) in different concentrations significantly increase viscosity,plastic viscosity and yield stress of human plasma and erythrocyte suspensions.MDA(20 mmol/L) reduces sharply the typical fluorescence of proteins(excitation 280 nm/emission 350 nm),and produces age pigment-like fluorescence with a strong emission peak at 460 nm when excites at 395 nm by only being incubated for some hours.In contrast,Glu decreases merely the fluorescence of proteins without producing age pigment-like fluorescence.These data suggest interestingly that the MDA-induced gradual protein cross linking seems to form from different mechanisms compared to the fast rheological changes of blood materials which may take place either in acute and chronic diseases or during aging.On the other hand,MDA induces various deleterious alterations of erythrocytes whereas glutathione(GSH) inhibits the MDA-related carbonyl stress in a concentration-dependent manner.The results indicate that carbonyl-amino reaction exists in the blood widely and GSH has the ability to interrupt or reverse this reaction in a certain way.It implies that carbonyl stress may be one of the important factors in blood stasis and suggests a theoretical and practical approach in anti-stresses and anti-aging.

  15. Air pollution exposure during critical time periods in gestation and alterations in cord blood lymphocyte distribution: a cohort of livebirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herr Caroline EW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic exposures have been shown to influence maturation of the immune system during gestation. This study investigates the association between cord blood lymphocyte proportions and maternal exposure to air pollution during each gestational month. Methods Cord blood was analyzed using a FACSort flow cytometer to determine proportions of T lymphocytes (CD3+ cells and their subsets, CD4+ and CD8+, B lymphocytes (CD19+ and natural killer (NK cells. Ambient air concentrations of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and particulate matter 2.5 were measured using fixed site monitors. Arithmetic means of these pollutants, calculated for each gestational month, were used as exposure metrics. Data on covariates were obtained from medical records and questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate associations between monthly PAH or PM2.5 and cord blood lymphocytes, adjusting for year of birth and district of residence and, in further models, gestational season and number of prior live births. Results The adjusted models show significant associations between PAHs or PM2.5 during early gestation and increases in CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes percentages and decreases in CD19+ and NK cell percentages in cord blood. In contrast, exposures during late gestation were associated with decreases in CD3+ and CD4+ fractions and increases in CD19+ and NK cell fractions. There was no significant association between alterations in lymphocyte distribution and air pollution exposure during the mid gestation. Conclusions PAHs and PM2.5 in ambient air may influence fetal immune development via shifts in cord blood lymphocytes distributions. Associations appear to differ by exposure in early versus late gestation.

  16. Automated microscopy system for peripheral blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boev, Sergei F.; Sazonov, Vladimir V.; Kozinets, Gennady I.; Pogorelov, Valery M.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Korobova, Farida V.; Vinogradov, Alexander G.; Verdenskaya, Natalya V.; Ivanova, Irina A.

    2000-11-01

    The report describes the instrument ASPBS (Automated Screening of Peripheral Blood Cells) designed for an automated analysis of dry blood smears. The instrument is based on computer microscopy and uses dry blood smears prepared according to the standard Romanovskii-Giemza procedure. In comparison with the well-known flow cytometry systems, our instrument provides more detailed information and offers an opporunity of visualizing final results. The basic performances of the instrument are given. Software of this instrument is based on digital image processing and image recognition procedures. It is pointed out that the instrument can be used as a fairly universal tool in scientific research, public demonstrations, in medical treatment, and in medical education. The principle used as the basis of the instrument appeared adequate for creating an instrument version serviceable even during space flights where standard manual procedures and flow cytometry systems fail. The benefit of the use of the instrument in clinical laboratories is described.

  17. Ginkgo biloba extract alters the binding of the sodium [123I] iodide (Na123I) on blood constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the in vitro effect of an aqueous extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) on the distribution in blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) and on the binding of Na123I to the blood constituents using precipitation with trichloroacetic acid. The radioactivity percentages insoluble (SF) and insoluble fraction (IF) of blood constituents were determined. The EGb interfered (p123I in the P (from 69.64 to 86.13) and BC (from 30.36 to 13.87) and altered the fixation of the Na123I in IF-P and in IF-BC. - Highlights: ► Interaction between the Ginkgo biloba and blood constituents radiolabeled. ► Modification of the binding of sodium iodide (Na123I) to the blood constituents. ► This alteration should have influence in a diagnosis of nuclear medicine.

  18. Hyperglycemia Increases Muscle Blood Flow and Alters Endothelial Function in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda S. Dye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of blood flow and endothelial function precede development of complications in type 1 diabetes. The effects of hyperglycemia on vascular function in early type 1 diabetes are poorly understood. To investigate the effect of hyperglycemia on forearm vascular resistance (FVR and endothelial function in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, FVR was measured before and after 5 minutes of upper arm arterial occlusion using venous occlusion plethysmography in (1 fasted state, (2 euglycemic state (~90 mg/dL; using 40 mU/m2/min insulin infusion, and (3 hyperglycemic state (~200 mg/dL in 11 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Endothelial function was assessed by the change in FVR following occlusion. Seven subjects returned for a repeat study with hyperglycemia replaced by euglycemia. Preocclusion FVR decreased from euglycemia to hyperglycemia (P=0.003. Postocclusion fall in FVR during hyperglycemia was less than during euglycemia (P=0.002. These findings were not reproduced when hyperglycemia was replaced with a second euglycemia. These results demonstrate that acute hyperglycemia causes vasodilation and alters endothelial function in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. In addition they have implications for future studies of endothelial function in type 1 diabetes and provide insight into the etiology of macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 1 diabetes.

  19. Peripheral whole blood microRNA alterations in major depression and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Cattaneo, Annamaria; Rosso, Gianluca; Maina, Giuseppe; Maj, Carlo; Gennarelli, Massimo; Tardito, Daniela; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2016-08-01

    Major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are severe and potentially life-threating mood disorders whose etiology is to date not completely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate protein synthesis post-transcriptionally by base-pairing to target gene mRNAs. Growing evidence indicated that miRNAs might play a key role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders and in the action of psychotropic drugs. On these bases, in this study we evaluated the expression levels of 1733 mature miRNAs annotated in miRBase v.17, through a microarray technique, in the blood of 20 MD and 20 BD patients and 20 healthy controls, in order to identify putative miRNA signatures associated with mood disorders. We found that 5 miRNAs (hsa-let-7a-5p, hsa-let-7d-5p, hsa-let-7f-5p, hsa-miR-24-3p and hsa-miR-425-3p) were specifically altered in MD patients and 5 (hsa-miR-140-3p, hsa-miR-30d-5p, hsa-miR-330-5p, hsa-miR-378a-5p and hsa-miR-21-3p) in BD patients, whereas 2 miRNAs (hsa-miR-330-3p and hsa-miR-345-5p) were dysregulated in both the diseases. The bioinformatic prediction of the genes targeted by the altered miRNAs revealed the possible involvement of neural pathways relevant for psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, the observed results indicate a dysregulation of miRNA blood expression in mood disorders and could indicate new avenues for a better understanding of their pathogenetic mechanisms. The identified alterations may represent potential peripheral biomarkers to be complemented with other clinical and biological features for the improvement of diagnostic accuracy.

  20. Prions and the blood and immune systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbott, Neil; Turner, Marc

    2005-04-01

    Prion diseases take a number of forms in animals and humans. They are caused by conformational change in widely expressed prion protein leading to the formation of intracellular aggregates. Although the main focus of disease is the central nervous system, it is known that involvement of the immune system occurs in peripherally transmitted disease in particular. Animal experiments suggest that in some prion diseases follicular dendritic cells in the germinal centers are a major site of initial accumulation, and that abnormal prion protein and infectivity are detectable in peripheral lymphoid tissue from the earliest phase of disease. This raises the possibility that in a human peripherally transmitted prion disease like variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, further transmission could occur through blood or tissue products or contamination of surgical instrumentation. Indeed two recent reports confirm that this disease has been transmitted by blood, raising significant public health concerns. PMID:15820951

  1. Kidd blood group system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Janis R

    2015-01-01

    The Kidd blood group system has been recognized as clinically important in red blood cell (RBC) serology since its identification in 1951. Forty years later, the JK glycoprotein was determined to be a product of SCL14A1 and was identical to the urea transport protein UT-B produced by HUT11A. The functional role of the protein as a urea transporter in RBC and kidney has been well documented. The polymorphism responsible for the antithetical anigens Jk(a) and Jk(b) was identified in 1994 as c.838G>A (p.Asp280Asn). Recent discoveries have expanded the system to include 23 variant alleles recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion that silence the protein expression and 7 variant alleles presumably producting weak or partia JK antigens. Null phenotypes have been identified in individuals of several populations including those of African, Indian, and Chinese decent, in addition to the well-documented findings in the Polynesian and Finnish populations. This review will examine the historical information about the anigens and antibodies of the JK system as well as catalog the variations of the JK gene. PMID:26308468

  2. Altered anterior visual system development following early monocular enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista R. Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The novel finding of an asymmetry in morphology of the anterior visual system following long-term survival from early monocular enucleation indicates altered postnatal visual development. Possible mechanisms behind this altered development include recruitment of deafferented cells by crossing nasal fibres and/or geniculate cell retention via feedback from primary visual cortex. These data highlight the importance of balanced binocular input during postnatal maturation for typical anterior visual system morphology.

  3. Biological effects of the electrostatic field: red blood cell-related alterations of oxidative processes in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Hayk A.; Sahakyan, Gohar V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activities of pro-/antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids in red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma of rats exposed to electrostatic field (200 kV/m) during the short (1 h) and the long periods (6 day, 6 h daily). Short-term exposure was characterized by the increase of oxidatively damaged proteins in blood of rats. This was strongly expressed in RBC membranes. After long-term action, RBC content in peripheral blood was higher than in control ( P < 0.01) and the attenuation of prooxidant processes was shown.

  4. Alterations of miR-132 are novel diagnostic biomarkers in peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-chuan; Wu, Jiao; Zhang, Hong-xing; Zhang, Gao-li; Sui, Juan; Tong, Wen-wen; Zhang, Xin-ya; Nie, Li-li; Duan, Ju-hong; Zhang, Li-rong; Lv, Lu-xian

    2015-12-01

    Alterations in microRNAs (miRNAs) have been considered to have diagnostic implications in most diseases, but few studies have reported dysregulated miRNAs in schizophrenia (SCZ). In order to observe an association between miRNAs and SCZ, this study was designed to investigate expression profiling of miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). miRNA microarray technology was employed to compare the expression of miRNAs in PBMCs from SCZ patients (n=105) and normal controls (n=130), and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) was used to analyze the results. Several important miRNA levels were examined before and after antipsychotic treatment in first-onset SCZ patients. In addition, an SCZ-like rat model was established using dizocilpine (MK-801), and miR-132 expression in PBMCs and whole-brain tissue from SCZ-like rats was studied using QPCR. In humans, dysregulated miRNAs were observed before treatment and QPCR verified that miR-132, miR-134, miR-1271, miR-664(⁎), miR-200c and miR-432 levels were significantly decreased (Panimal assays, miR-132 levels declined in PBMCs and whole-brain tissues (both P<0.05) of the SCZ-like rats compared to controls. For the first time, our results suggest that miR-132 is a potential and superior biomarker in peripheral blood that will allow discrimination of SCZ patients from healthy controls. PMID:25985888

  5. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1130 Blood volume test system. (a) Identification. A blood volume test system is a device intended...

  7. Burn injury differentially alters whole-blood and organ glutathione synthesis rates: An experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Fei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies from our laboratories revealed a reduced rate of whole-blood (WB glutathione (GSH synthesis in severely burned patients. To determine whether WB GSH metabolism is an indicator of the status of GSH metabolism in one or more of the major organs, we used a burn rabbit model to determine GSH concentrations and rates of synthesis in WB, liver, lungs, kidney, and skeletal muscle. L-[1- 13 C]-cysteine was infused intravenously for 6 h in rabbits at 3 days post-burn and in sham burn controls. WB and organ 13 C-enrichment of cysteine and GSH was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Plasma cysteine metabolic flux was increased significantly (P < 0.01 following burn injury. WB, liver, and lung GSH concentrations (P = 0.054, P < 0.05, and P < 0.05, respectively and fractional rates of GSH synthesis (P < 0.05, P< 0.01, and P< 0.05, respectively were reduced at 3 days post-burn. Kidney was unaffected. There also appears to be an increased rate of GSH transport out of the liver after burn injury. Hence, there is a differential impact of burn injury on tissue and organ GSH status, with WB qualitatively reflecting the changes in lung and liver. It will be important to determine whether these changes are due to alterations in the intrinsic capacity for GSH synthesis and/or availability of amino acid precursors of GSH.

  8. Blood-Brain Barrier Alterations Provide Evidence of Subacute Diaschisis in an Ischemic Stroke Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Rodrigues, Maria C. O.; Hernandez-Ontiveros, Diana G.; Tajiri, Naoki; Frisina-Deyo, Aric; Boffeli, Sean M.; Abraham, Jerry V.; Pabon, Mibel; Wagner, Andrew; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Haller, Edward; Sanberg, Paul R.; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesario V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Comprehensive stroke studies reveal diaschisis, a loss of function due to pathological deficits in brain areas remote from initial ischemic lesion. However, blood-brain barrier (BBB) competence in subacute diaschisis is uncertain. The present study investigated subacute diaschisis in a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Specific focuses were BBB integrity and related pathogenic processes in contralateral brain areas. Methodology/Principal Findings In ipsilateral hemisphere 7 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), significant BBB alterations characterized by large Evans Blue (EB) parenchymal extravasation, autophagosome accumulation, increased reactive astrocytes and activated microglia, demyelinization, and neuronal damage were detected in the striatum, motor and somatosensory cortices. Vascular damage identified by ultrastuctural and immunohistochemical analyses also occurred in the contralateral hemisphere. In contralateral striatum and motor cortex, major ultrastructural BBB changes included: swollen and vacuolated endothelial cells containing numerous autophagosomes, pericyte degeneration, and perivascular edema. Additionally, prominent EB extravasation, increased endothelial autophagosome formation, rampant astrogliosis, activated microglia, widespread neuronal pyknosis and decreased myelin were observed in contralateral striatum, and motor and somatosensory cortices. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate focal ischemic stroke-induced pathological disturbances in ipsilateral, as well as in contralateral brain areas, which were shown to be closely associated with BBB breakdown in remote brain microvessels and endothelial autophagosome accumulation. This microvascular damage in subacute phase likely revealed ischemic diaschisis and should be considered in development of treatment strategies for stroke. PMID:23675488

  9. Blood-brain barrier alterations provide evidence of subacute diaschisis in an ischemic stroke rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comprehensive stroke studies reveal diaschisis, a loss of function due to pathological deficits in brain areas remote from initial ischemic lesion. However, blood-brain barrier (BBB competence in subacute diaschisis is uncertain. The present study investigated subacute diaschisis in a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Specific focuses were BBB integrity and related pathogenic processes in contralateral brain areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In ipsilateral hemisphere 7 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO, significant BBB alterations characterized by large Evans Blue (EB parenchymal extravasation, autophagosome accumulation, increased reactive astrocytes and activated microglia, demyelinization, and neuronal damage were detected in the striatum, motor and somatosensory cortices. Vascular damage identified by ultrastuctural and immunohistochemical analyses also occurred in the contralateral hemisphere. In contralateral striatum and motor cortex, major ultrastructural BBB changes included: swollen and vacuolated endothelial cells containing numerous autophagosomes, pericyte degeneration, and perivascular edema. Additionally, prominent EB extravasation, increased endothelial autophagosome formation, rampant astrogliosis, activated microglia, widespread neuronal pyknosis and decreased myelin were observed in contralateral striatum, and motor and somatosensory cortices. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate focal ischemic stroke-induced pathological disturbances in ipsilateral, as well as in contralateral brain areas, which were shown to be closely associated with BBB breakdown in remote brain microvessels and endothelial autophagosome accumulation. This microvascular damage in subacute phase likely revealed ischemic diaschisis and should be considered in development of treatment strategies for stroke.

  10. Ultrasound systems for blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1998-01-01

    Medical ultrasound scanners can be used both for displayinggray-scale images of the anatomy and for visualizing theblood flow dynamically in the body.The systems can interrogate the flow at a single position in the bodyand there find the velocity distribution over time. They can also show adynamic...... color image of velocity at up to 20 to 60 frames a second. Both measurements are performedby repeatedly pulsing in the same direction and then usethe correlation from pulse to pulse to determine the velocity.The paper gives a simple model for the interactionbetween the ultrasound and the moving blood...

  11. Particle swarm optimization algorithm for optimizing assignment of blood in blood banking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Micheal O; Arasomwan, Martins A; Adewumi, Aderemi O

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients' blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP) introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment.

  12. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheal O. Olusanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO for the assignment of blood to meet patients’ blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment.

  13. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H;

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...... were used for measurement of blood flow rates. An automatic portable blood pressure recorder and processor unit was used for measurement of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate every 15 min. The change from upright to supine position at the beginning of the night period...... was associated with a 30-40% increase in blood flow rate and a highly significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (P less than 0.001 for all). Approximately 100 min after the subjects went to sleep an additional blood flow rate increment (mean 56%) and a simultaneous significant decrease...

  14. Controlled meal frequency without caloric restriction alters peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF improves healthy lifespan in animals by a mechanism involving reduced oxidative damage and increased resistance to stress. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of controlled meal frequency on immune responses in human subjects. Objective A study was conducted to establish the effects of controlled diets with different meal frequencies, but similar daily energy intakes, on cytokine production in healthy male and female subjects. Design In a crossover study design with an intervening washout period, healthy normal weight middle-age male and female subjects (n = 15 were maintained for 2 months on controlled on-site one meal per day (OMD or three meals per day (TMD isocaloric diets. Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs culture supernatants from subjects were analyzed for the presence of inflammatory markers using a multiplex assay. Results There were no significant differences in the inflammatory markers in the serum of subjects on the OMD or TMD diets. There was an increase in the capacity of PBMCs to produce cytokines in subjects during the first month on the OMD or TMD diets. Lower levels of TNF-α, IL-17, MCP-1 and MIP-1β were produced by PBMCs from subjects on the OMD versus TMD diet. Conclusions PBMCs of subjects on controlled diets exhibit hypersensitivities to cellular stimulation suggesting that stress associated with altered eating behavior might affect cytokine production by immune cells upon stimulation. Moreover, stimulated PBMCs derived from healthy individuals on a reduced meal frequency diet respond with a reduced capability to produce cytokines.

  15. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145 Section 864.9145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  16. Development of blood extraction system for health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop the compact human blood sampling device applied for a health monitoring system(HMS), which is called "Mobile Hospital". The HMS consists of (1) a micro electrical pumping system for blood extraction, (2) a bio-sensor to detect and evaluate an amount of Glucose, Cholesterol and Urea in extracted blood, by using enzyme such as Glucoseoxidase (GOD), Cholesteroloxidase and Urease. The mechanical design elements of the device are bio-compatible microneedle, indentation unit using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator and pumping unit using a piezoelectric microactuator. The design concept is the biomimetic micromachine of female mosquito"s blood sampling mechanism. The performances of the main mechanical elements such as indentation force of the microneedle, actual stroke of the indentation unit using a SMA actuator and liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit using PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The 3 mm stroke of the indentation load generated by SMA actuator was 0.8mN. The amount of imitation blood extracted by using bimorph PZT actuators was about 0.5 microliters for 10 sec. A 60-micrometer outer diameter and 25-micrometer inner diameter Titanium microneedle, which size is same as female mosquito"s labium, was produced by sputter deposition.

  17. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-25

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pretreatment with D1 -like (SCH-23380) or D2 -like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Medroxyprogesterone acetate alters Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of contraceptive users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léanie Kleynhans

    Full Text Available Most individuals latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb contain the infection by a balance of effector and regulatory immune responses. This balance can be influenced by steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids. The widely used contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA possesses glucocorticoid activity. We investigated the effect of this hormone on immune responses to BCG in household contacts of active TB patients. Multiplex bead array analysis revealed that MPA demonstrated both glucocorticoid and progestogenic properties at saturating and pharmacological concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and suppressed antigen specific cytokine production. Furthermore we showed that PBMCs from women using MPA produced significantly lower levels of IL-1α, IL-12p40, IL-10, IL-13 and G-CSF in response to BCG which corresponded with lower numbers of circulating monocytes observed in these women. Our research study is the first to show that MPA impacts on infections outside the genital tract due to a systemic effect on immune function. Therefore MPA use could alter susceptibility to TB, TB disease severity as well as change the efficacy of new BCG-based vaccines, especially prime-boost vaccine strategies which may be administered to adult or adolescent women in the future.

  19. Blood Pressure is Associated With Cerebral Blood Flow Alterations in Patients With T2DM as Revealed by Perfusion Functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenqing; Rao, Hengyi; Spaeth, Andrea M; Huang, Rong; Tian, Sai; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Jie; Wang, Shaohua

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension are both associated with cognitive impairment and brain function abnormalities. We investigated whether abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) patterns exists in T2DM patients and possible relationships between aberrant CBF and cognitive performance. Furthermore, we examined the influence of hypertension on CBF alterations in T2DM patients. T2DM patients (n = 38) and non-T2DM subjects (n = 40) were recruited from clinics, hospitals, and normal community health screenings. Cerebral blood flow images were collected and analyzed using arterial spin labeling perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Regions with major CBF differences between T2DM patients and non-T2DM controls were detected via 1-way ANOVA. The interaction effects between hypertension and T2DM for CBF alterations were also examined. Correlation analyses illustrated the association between CBF values and cognitive performance and between CBF and blood pressure. Compared with non-T2DM controls, T2DM patients exhibited decreased CBF, primarily in the visual area and the default mode network (DMN); decreased CBF in these regions was correlated with cognitive performance. There was a significant interaction effect between hypertension and diabetes for CBF in the precuneus and the middle occipital gyrus. Additionally, blood pressure correlated negatively with CBF in T2DM patients.T2DM patients exhibited reduced CBF in the visual area and DMN. Hypertension may facilitate a CBF decrease in the setting of diabetes. T2DM patients may benefit from blood pressure control to maintain their brain perfusion through CBF preservation.

  20. Intelligent micro blood typing system using a fuzzy algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABO typing is the first analysis performed on blood when it is tested for transfusion purposes. The automated machines used in hospitals for this purpose are typically very large and the process is complicated. In this paper, we present a new micro blood typing system that is an improved version of our previous system (Kang et al 2004 Trans. ASME, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126 766, Lee et al 2005 Sensors Mater. 17 113). This system, fabricated using microstereolithography, has a passive valve for controlling the flow of blood and antibodies. The intelligent micro blood typing system has two parts: a single-line micro blood typing device and a fuzzy expert system for grading the strength of agglutination. The passive valve in the single-line micro blood typing device makes the blood stop at the entrance of a micro mixer and lets it flow again after the blood encounters antibodies. Blood and antibodies are mixed in the micro mixer and agglutination occurs in the chamber. The fuzzy expert system then determines the degree of agglutination from images of the agglutinated blood. Blood typing experiments using this device were successful, and the fuzzy expert system produces a grading decision comparable to that produced by an expert conducting a manual analysis

  1. Alterations of mtDNA number and 4977 bp deletion induced by ionizing radiation in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) 4977 bp common deletion (CD) and mtDNA copy number induced by ionizing radiation were observed in human different cell lines and total body irradiation patients. However, only few experiments have evaluated the levels of the CD and mtDNA copy number in human peripheral blood exposed to ionizing radiation till now. The aim of this study is to analyze the mtDNA alterations in irradiated human peripheral blood from healthy donors as well as to explore their feasibility as biomarkers for constructing new biodosimeter. Peripheral blood samples were collected from six healthy donors, and exposed to 60Co gamma ray with the doses of 0 Gy, 1 Gy, 2 Gy, 3 Gy, 4 Gy and 5 Gy. Levels of the CD and mtDNA copy number in irradiated samples after 2h or 24 h incubation were detected using TaqMan real-time PCR, and the CD ratio was calculated. The results showed that the mean of the CD ratio and the CD copy number exhibited a dose-dependent increase 2 h in the dose range from 0-5 Gy, and of the mtDNA copy number significantly increased 24 h in irradiated groups compared with 0 Gy group after irradiation. It indicates that the parameters in human peripheral blood may be considered as molecular biomarkers to applying construction of new biodosimeter. (authors)

  2. THE CIRCADIAN ALTERATIONS OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN PATIENTS WITH SECONDARY HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱珠; 王宪衍; 金翠燕; 陈丽莎; 董寿琪

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the pattern of circadian blood pressure changes in patients with secondary hypertension. Methods The 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in 80 patients with secondary hypertension ( SH ) including primary aldosteronisrn in 44, pheochromocytoma in 11, renovascular hypertension in 10, renoparenchymal hypertension in 15 and compared with 80 patients with essential hypertension (EH) matched by age and sex. Results The diurnal rhythm in patients with SH was different from that of patients with EH. The diurnal curves in SH and EH was overlapped in daytime and separated from each other at nighttime. The nocturnal blood pressure fall was less and average blood pressure at nighttime was higher in patients with SH than those in patients with EH (P<0.01). The nighttime blood pressure loading and non-dipper phenomenon were much more frequently seen in patients with SH than those in patients with EH (P<0.01). The nighttime blood pressure/daytime blood pressure ratio was significantly higher in patients with SH than that in patients with EH (P<0.01). Conclusion The non-invasive 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring may be a useful method in screening for SH.

  3. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis......, and arterial pressure were determined before and during a volume expansion induced by infusion of a hyperosmotic galactose solution. RESULTS: During volume expansion, the central and arterial blood volume increased significantly in patients with class A and controls, whereas no significant change was found....... CONCLUSIONS: Only in mild cirrhosis is the effective blood volume able to increase in response to volume expansion. Our results are consistent with the peripheral vasodilatation hypothesis and the circulatory hyporeactivity occurring in advanced cirrhosis....

  4. Adrenergic mechanism responsible for pathological alteration in gastric mucosal blood flow in rats with ulcer bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskiy, I. A.; Gekalyuk, A. S.; Ulanova, M. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    The adrenergic system plays an important role in regulation of central and peripheral circulation in normal state and during hemorrhage. Because the impaired gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) is the major cause of gastroduodenal lesions, including ulcer bleeding (UB), we studied the adrenergic mechanism responsible for regulation of GMBF in rats with a model of stress-induced UB (SUB) using the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). First, we examined the effect of adrenaline on GMBF in rats under normal state and during UB. In all healthy animals the submucosal adrenaline injection caused a decrease in local GMBF. During UB the submucosal injection of adrenaline was accompanied by less pronounced GMBF suppression in 30,3% rats with SUB vs. healthy ones. In 69,7% rats with SUB we observed the increase in local GMBF after submucosal injection of adrenaline. Second, we studied the sensitivity of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors and the activity of two factors which are involved in β2-adrenomediated vasorelaxation-KATP -channels and NO. The effects of submucosal injection of isoproterenol, ICI118551 and glybenclamide on GMBF as well as NO levels in gastric tissue were significantly elevated in rats with SUB vs. healthy rats. Thus, our results indicate that high activation of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors associated with the increased vascular KATP -channels activity and elevated NO production is the important adrenergic mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis of UB.

  5. Altered Blood Biomarker Profiles in Athletes with a History of Repetitive Head Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The long-term health effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport are unknown. Growing evidence suggests both inflammation and neurodegeneration are pivotal to secondary injury processes and the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we characterized circulating brain injury and inflammatory mediators in healthy male and female athletes according to concussion history and collision sport participation. Eighty-seven university level athletes (male, n = 60; female, n = 27) were recruited before the start of the competitive season. Athletes were healthy at the time of the study (no medications, illness, concussion or musculoskeletal injuries). Dependent variables included 29 inflammatory and 10 neurological injury analytes assessed in the peripheral blood by immunoassay. Biomarkers were statistically evaluated using partial least squares multivariate analysis to identify possible relationships to self-reported previous concussion history, number of previous concussions and collision sport participation in male and female athletes. Multiple concussions were associated with increases in peripheral MCP-1 in females, and MCP-4 in males. Collision sport participation was associated with increases in tau levels in males. These results are consistent with previous experimental and clinical findings that suggest ongoing inflammatory and cerebral injury processes after repetitive mild head trauma. However, further validation is needed to correlate systemic biomarkers to repetitive brain impacts, as opposed to the extracranial effects common to an athletic population such as exercise and muscle damage. PMID:27458972

  6. Altered Blood Biomarker Profiles in Athletes with a History of Repetitive Head Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P Di Battista

    Full Text Available The long-term health effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport are unknown. Growing evidence suggests both inflammation and neurodegeneration are pivotal to secondary injury processes and the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we characterized circulating brain injury and inflammatory mediators in healthy male and female athletes according to concussion history and collision sport participation. Eighty-seven university level athletes (male, n = 60; female, n = 27 were recruited before the start of the competitive season. Athletes were healthy at the time of the study (no medications, illness, concussion or musculoskeletal injuries. Dependent variables included 29 inflammatory and 10 neurological injury analytes assessed in the peripheral blood by immunoassay. Biomarkers were statistically evaluated using partial least squares multivariate analysis to identify possible relationships to self-reported previous concussion history, number of previous concussions and collision sport participation in male and female athletes. Multiple concussions were associated with increases in peripheral MCP-1 in females, and MCP-4 in males. Collision sport participation was associated with increases in tau levels in males. These results are consistent with previous experimental and clinical findings that suggest ongoing inflammatory and cerebral injury processes after repetitive mild head trauma. However, further validation is needed to correlate systemic biomarkers to repetitive brain impacts, as opposed to the extracranial effects common to an athletic population such as exercise and muscle damage.

  7. Morphologic alterations on red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m: the effect of Mentha crispa L. (hortela) extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of natural products, as medicinal plants, is very frequent in the world. Mentha crispa L. (M. crispa) is utilized in herbal medicine. Blood elements labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used in nuclear medicine procedures and this labeling process may be altered by drugs. We have investigated the possibility of M. crispa extract being capable to alter the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with M. crispa extract in various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100%). Stannous chloride solution and Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated, centrifuged and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC was calculated. Histological evaluations of the red blood cells (RBC) were performed with blood samples treated with various concentrations of M. Crispa L. and the morphology of the RBC was observed under optical microscope. Important morphological alterations expressed by mean of the perimeter/area of the RBC treated with M. crispa: 6.25% (0.67 ± 0.02), 12.5% (0.77 ± 0.03), 25% (0.73 ± 0.04), 50% (0.76 ± 0.04), 100% (0.69 ± 0.08) and the control cells (0.67 ± 0.05). The %ATI decreased: (i) on BC from 97.3 ± 1.92 to 60.0 ± 2.44; (ii) on IF-P from 74.8 ± 3.78 to 9.99 ± 3.61; (iii) on IF-BC from 88.6 ± 5.41 to 58.4 ± 11.55. The perimeter/area of the RBC showed significant differences (P>0.01) when compared 6.25% and 12.5%, and when compared 6.25% and 50% of M. Crispa L. extract. These findings could also justify the decrease of the labeling of BC with 99mTc in presence of M. Crispa extract

  8. Renal cortical and medullary blood flow responses to altered NO-availability in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, Mads; Vafaee, Manoucher; Møller, Michael Lehd;

    2010-01-01

    of one voxel were eliminated stepwise from the external surface of the VOI ('voxel peeling'), and the blood flow subsequently determined in each new, reduced VOI. Blood flow in the shrinking volumes of interest (VOIs) decreased as the number of cycles of voxel peeling increased. After 4-5 cycles, blood...... flow was not reduced further by additional voxel peeling. This volume-insensitive flow was measured to be 2.30 ±0.17 ml·(g·min)(-1) during the control period; it increased during infusion of glyceryl nitrate to 2.97 ±0.18 ml·(g·min)(-1) (p...

  9. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Varani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus (TOSV is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS.

  10. Dynamic alteration of regional cerebral blood flow during carotid compression and proof of reversibility

    OpenAIRE

    Asahi, Kouichi; Hori, M; Hamasaki, N; Sato, S.; Nakanishi, H; Kuwatsuru, R; Sasai, K; Aoki, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is difficult to non-invasively visualize changes in regional cerebral blood flow caused by manual compression of the carotid artery. Purpose To visualize dynamic changes in regional cerebral blood flow during and after manual compression of the carotid artery. Material and Methods Two healthy volunteers were recruited. Anatomic features and flow directions in the circle of Willis were evaluated with time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and two-dimensional phase-co...

  11. Radiodiagnosis of pulmonary alterations in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray examination was carried out in 170 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Certain parameters of specific immunity were studied in 60 of them, while X-ray data were compared with morphological findings on autopsy in 20 cases. A tendency toward escalation of specific cell and humoral parameters was discovered in pulmonary lesion, predetermined by vasculitis and perivasculitis, as well as inflammatory and fibrotic alterations in the interstitial tissue

  12. Chronic changes of hematocrit value alter blood pressure and glomerular filtration in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies in hypertensive humans and animals have shown that increased blood viscosity is in direct relation with essential hypertension. The aim of our studies was to investigate the effects of chronic hematocrit value changes on arterial blood pressure and kidney function in genetically induced hypertension. To this end, we studied the effects of several interventions, designed to increase/decrease hematocrit, on hemodynamic parameters, vascular reactivity, glomerular filtration and renal function curve in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Results of our study show that chronic hematocrit value elevation increases blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance in SHR. On the other hand, chronic hematocrit lowering elucidates blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance decrease followed by cardiac output rising. Both hematocrit value changes significantly reduce vasodilatory vascular response. Hematocrit lowering induces acute renal failure. Sodium excretion is shifted to higher blood pressure values in high hematocrit value animals and opposite - lower blood pressure values in low hematocrit value animals. Repeated transfusions develop salt sensitive malignant hypertension in SHR. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the degree of kidney damage after chronic hematocrit value changes in SHR.

  13. [Research on Zhejiang blood information network and management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Xing; Xu, Yan; Meng, Zhong-Hua; Kong, Chang-Hong; Wang, Jian-Min; Jin, Zhen-Liang; Wu, Shi-Ding; Chen, Chang-Shui; Luo, Ling-Fei

    2007-02-01

    This research was aimed to develop the first level blood information centralized database and real time communication network at a province area in China. Multiple technology like local area network database separate operation, real time data concentration and distribution mechanism, allopatric backup, and optical fiber virtual private network (VPN) were used. As a result, the blood information centralized database and management system were successfully constructed, which covers all the Zhejiang province, and the real time exchange of blood data was realised. In conclusion, its implementation promote volunteer blood donation and ensure the blood safety in Zhejiang, especially strengthen the quick response to public health emergency. This project lays the first stone of centralized test and allotment among blood banks in Zhejiang, and can serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems in China.

  14. Bisphenol A and its analogs induce morphological and biochemical alterations in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Mokra, Katarzyna; Bąk, Agata

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have addressed the cellular effects of bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on cells, and no study has been conducted to analyze the mechanism of action of bisphenols in blood cells. In this study, the effect of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), BPS and BPAF on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed. It was shown that BPA, BPF and BPAF in particular, decreased cell viability, which was associated with depletion of intracellular ATP level and alterations in PBMCs size and granulation. Bisphenols enhanced ROS (including OH˙) formation, which led to damage to lipids and proteins in PBMCs. The most significant alterations in ROS level were induced by BPF, and particularly BPAF. Moreover, it was shown that BPAF most strongly provoked lipid peroxidation, while BPA and BPS caused the greatest damage to proteins. It may be concluded that BPA and its analogs were capable of inducing oxidative stress and damage in PBMCs in the concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 0.5 μM (0.02-0.1 μg/ml), which may be present in human blood as a result of environmental exposure. Although, most of bisphenols studied decreased cell viability, size and ATP level at higher concentrations, BPAF exhibited its cytotoxic potential at low concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 3 μM (0.1-1.0 μg/ml) that may correspond to concentrations in humans following occupational exposure.

  15. Dietary canola oil alters hematological indices and blood lipids in neonatal piglets fed formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innis, S M; Dyer, R A

    1999-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of canola oil on platelet characteristics, blood lipids and growth in exclusively formula-fed piglets. Piglets were fed from birth to 10 or 18 d with formula containing 51% energy from fat, with 100% fat as canola or soybean oil; 26% soybean, 59% high oleic acid sunflower and 12% flax oil (canola mimic); or 26% canola (canola blend) or soybean (soybean blend) with high oleic acid sunflower, palm and coconut oil. The canola mimic provided similar carbon chain 16 and 18 fatty acids without the sterol or 20:1 and erucic acid (22:1) of canola oil. The oil blends provided formula resembling infant formulas but with higher 16:0 and lower unsaturated fatty acid levels than in canola or soybean oil. Body weight, weight gain and heart and liver weight were not different after 10 or 18 d feeding canola when compared to soybean oil alone or blended oil formulas. Piglets fed formulas with 100% canola oil had lower platelet counts than piglets fed formula soybean oil or the canola oil mimic. Platelet counts were lower, and platelet distribution width and volume were higher, when formulas with 100% canola or soybean rather than the blended oil formulas were fed. The results show that formula fat composition influences the developing hematological system and that canola oil suppresses the normal developmental increase in platelet count in piglets by a mechanism apparently unrelated to the formula 16:0, 18:1, 18:2(n-6) or 18:3(n-3), or plasma phospholipid 20:4(n-6) or 20:5(n-3).

  16. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  17. Peripheral blood leukocytes of cows with subclinical endometritis show an altered cellular composition and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düvel, Anna; Maaß, Janine; Heppelmann, Maike; Hussen, Jamal; Koy, Mirja; Piechotta, Marion; Sandra, Olivier; Smith, David G E; Sheldon, Iain Martin; Dieuzy-Labaye, Isabelle; Zieger, Peter; Schuberth, Hans Joachim

    2014-04-15

    Subclinical endometritis (SCE) is an important postpartum disease in dairy cows, but conventional cytobrush diagnosis often gives imprecise results. The aim of this study was to analyze disease-associated changes in peripheral blood as potential diagnostic parameters. Cellular subpopulations of blood leukocytes from cows with or without SCE (45-55 days postpartum) were flow-cytometrically quantified. Gene expression of whole blood leukocytes was assessed by PAXgene analysis. Subclinical endometritis cows showed significantly higher number of blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils. Among mononuclear cells, numbers of B-cells, NK-cells, and CD172a-positive monocytes were significantly elevated. Compared with non-SCE cows, blood leukocytes of SCE cows significantly expressed higher copy numbers of CXCL8, TNF, and IL12. To test whether circulating plasma factors are responsible for these changes, leukocytes, polymorphonuclear cells, and monocyte subpopulations (classical, intermediate, nonclassical) of healthy cows were stimulated with plasma of SCE and non-SCE cows. Although gene expression of whole leukocytes and polymorphonuclear cells remained unaltered, plasma from SCE animals significantly elevated expressed messenger RNA copy numbers of CXCL8, CXCL1, and IL1B in intermediate monocytes. In conclusion, elevated number of selected mononuclear subpopulations in peripheral blood and enhanced expression of distinct genes encoding for inflammatory mediators in blood leukocytes reflect the subclinical uterine inflammatory process in cows. Whether the observed changes in the periphery of SCE cows are the consequence of the uterine inflammatory process, or whether they affect the pathogenesis of the disease is currently unknown. PMID:24560452

  18. Renal cortical and medullary blood flow responses to altered NO availability in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Vafaee, Manoucher; Møller, Michael L;

    2010-01-01

    , tissue layers with a thickness of one voxel were eliminated stepwise from the external surface of the VOI (voxel peeling), and the blood flow subsequently was determined in each new, reduced VOI. Blood flow in the shrinking VOIs decreased as the number of cycles of voxel peeling increased. After 4......-5 cycles, blood flow was not reduced further by additional voxel peeling. This volume-insensitive flow was measured to be 2.30 ± 0.17 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) during the control period; it increased during infusion of glyceryl nitrate to 2.97 ± 0.18 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) (P

  19. Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile Alterations following Twelve-Month Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Men with Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan S. Sağlam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this retrospective study, we aimed to investigate the effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT on blood glucose and blood cholesterol levels over a 12-month period. Materials and Methods. Between January 2010 and June 2012, the data of 44 patients with prostate cancer who were receiving ADT were collected from a hospital database. Patients with additional malignancy or diabetes and those who had been prescribed and were currently taking cholesterol-lowering medication were excluded from the study. Data (including fasting blood glucose levels and a cholesterol profile were collected and analysed statistically. A value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Twelve months after the initiation of ADT, fasting blood glucose (FBG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels changed. FBG, TC, LDL cholesterol, and TG increased significantly (, 0.000, 0.000, and 0.000, resp., while HDL cholesterol decreased (. Conclusion. ADT may increase FBG, TC, LDL cholesterol, and TG but decrease HDL cholesterol by the end of a year of treatment. Therefore, close followup may be needed as a consequence of one-year ADT regarding metabolic alterations.

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow alterations remote from the site of intracranial tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endo, H; Larsen, B; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated in 12 patients with brain tumors, using a 254-channel dynamic gamma camera. In nine of the 12 cases, hyperemic regions with loss of autoregulation were seen in sites remote from the tumor (the area around the tumor was in most cases also...

  1. Obesity alters the expression profile of clock genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahira, Kazunobu; Fukuda, Noboru; Aoyama, Takahiko; Tsunemi, Akiko; Matsumoto, Siroh; Nagura, Chinami; Matsumoto, Taro; Soma, Masayoshi; Shimba, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the variation in expression profile of clock genes and obesity using peripheral blood mononuclear (PMN) cells. Material and methods The subjects comprised 10 obese patients and 10 healthy volunteers. Blood was collected at different time-points during the day and levels of blood sugar, IRI, adiponectin and leptin were determined. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were sampled, and expression levels of brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1), Period (PER)1, PER2, Cryptochrome (CRY)1, CRY2, and REV-ERBα mRNA were quantified. Results During the day, the expression levels of BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2 and PER2 genes in PMN cells of the obese group were all significantly higher compared to those in the non-obese group. In addition, expression of BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2 and PER2 genes in PMN cells increased between 12:00 and 21:00 in the obese group. In PMN cells of both groups, PER1 gene expression showed a bimodal pattern, with high expression at 9:00 and 18:00. Conclusions Differences were observed in the expression profile variation of clock genes between the obese and non-obese groups. This study reveals the differences in clock gene expression profiles between obese and non-obese subjects, with evidence for two distinct chronotypes, and suggests a contribution of these chronotypes to fat accumulation in humans. PMID:22328874

  2. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of the blood group ABO gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Worm, Jesper; Guldberg, Per;

    2004-01-01

    Loss of histo-blood group A and B antigen expression is a frequent event in oral carcinomas and is associated with decreased activity of glycosyltransferases encoded by the ABO gene. We examined 30 oral squamous cell carcinomas for expression of A and B antigens and glycosyltransferases. We also...

  3. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  4. Detection of bacteremia by Difco ESP blood culture system.

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, J A; Leitch, C; Nitz, S.; Dyke, J W; Andruszewski, M; Maier, G.; Landau, W.; Beard, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    In a multicenter study, the Difco ESP blood culture system (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) was compared with the BACTEC NR660 system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.). The ESP system monitors each blood culture bottle every 12 to 24 min to detect changes in oxygen consumption and gas production by microbes. Equal volumes of blood were inoculated into aerobic ESP-80A and BACTEC 6A, 16A, or PEDS Plus broths and anaerobic ESP-80N and BACTEC 7A or 17A broths and w...

  5. Mathematical Model of Extrinsic Blood Coagulation Cascade Dynamic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The blood coagulation system is very important to life. This paper presents a mathematical blood coagulation model for the extrinsic pathway. This model simulates clotting factor VIII, which plays an important role in the coagulation mechanism. The mathematical model is used to study the equilibrium stability, orbit structure, attractors and global stability behavior, with conclusions in accordance with the physiological phenomena. Moreover, the results provide information about blood related illnesses, which can be used for further study of the coagulation mechanism.

  6. Behavioral alterations following blood-brain barrier disruption stimulated by focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng-Yi; Huang, Sheng-Fang; Cheng, Irene Han-Juo

    2016-05-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral alterations and histological changes of the brain after FUS-induced BBB disruption (BBBD). Rats were behaviorally tested using the open field, hole-board, and grip strength tests from day 1 through day 32 after undergoing BBBD induced by FUS with either a mild or heavy parameter. In the open field test, we found an increase in center entries on day 1 and day 9 following heavy FUS treatment and a decrease in center entries at day 18 following mild FUS treatment. With regard to memory-related alterations, rats subjected to heavy FUS treatment exhibited longer latency to start exploring and to find the first baited hole. However, rats subjected to mild FUS treatment exhibited no significant differences in terms of memory performance or grip force. The obtained data suggest that heavy FUS treatment might induce hyperactivity, spatial memory impairment, and forelimb gripping deficits. Furthermore, while mild FUS treatment may have an impact on anxiety-related behaviors, the data suggested it had no impact on locomotor activity, memory, or grip force. Thus, the behavioral alterations following FUS-induced BBBD require further investigation before clinical application. PMID:27034007

  7. Alterations of blood serum parameters in patients with chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrudin Magomedov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine metabolic disorders of major components of organic basis of bone tissue in patients with chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis and response to surgical treatment. Methods: The cubital vein puncture was conducted to take blood for analysis in patients with chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis. The activity of collagenase and hyaluronidase, elastin, elastase and total content of glycosaminoglycans were measured in blood serum. Results: The study revealed an enhancement of catabolic phase of metabolism of the main components in bone organic matrix during the relapse of inflammation. It was evidenced by indicators reflecting the synthetic and catabolic phases of the main components of the connective tissue collagen and glycosaminoglycans. The effective therapeutic treatments led to the reduction and normalization of studied compounds. Conclusions: The initial development of hematogenous osteomyelitis happens in a background of metabolic disorders of the main components of organic matrix of bone tissue, and normalizes upon effective therapy.

  8. Alterations of blood serum parameters in patients with chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadrudin Magomedov; Larisa Polishchuk

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To examine metabolic disorders of major components of organic basis of bone tissue in patients with chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis and response to surgical treatment. Methods: The cubital vein puncture was conducted to take blood for analysis in patients with chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis. The activity of collagenase and hyaluronidase, elastin, elastase and total content of glycosaminoglycans were measured in blood serum. Results: The study revealed an enhancement of catabolic phase of metabolism of the main components in bone organic matrix during the relapse of inflammation. It was evidenced by indicators reflecting the synthetic and catabolic phases of the main components of the connective tissue collagen and glycosaminoglycans. The effective therapeutic treatments led to the reduction and normalization of studied compounds. Conclusions: The initial development of hematogenous osteomyelitis happens in a background of metabolic disorders of the main components of organic matrix of bone tissue, and normalizes upon effective therapy.

  9. Development of blood extraction system designed by female mosquito's blood sampling mechanism for bio-MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2005-02-01

    A compact and wearable wristwatch type Bio-MEMS such as a health monitoring system (HMS) to detect blood sugar level for diabetic patient, was newly developed. The HMS consists of (1) a indentation unit with a microneedle to generate the skin penetration force using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator, (2) a pumping unit using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator to extract the blood and (3) a gold (Au) electrode as a biosensor immobilized GOx and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET to detect the amount of Glucose in extracted blood. GOx was immobilized on a self assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA as an additional bonding material. The device can extract blood in a few microliter through a painless microneedle with the negative pressure by deflection of the bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator produced in the blood chamber, by the similar way the female mosquito extracts human blood with muscle motion to flex or relax. The performances of the liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit through a microneedle (3.8mm length, 100μm internal diameter) using the bimorph PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The blood extraction micro device could extract human blood at the speed of 2μl/min, and it is enough volume to measure a glucose level, compared to the amount of commercial based glucose level monitor. The electrode embedded in the blood extraction device chamber could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose in a few microliter extracted blood, using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor. The output voltage for the glucose diluted in the chamber was increased lineally with increase of the glucose concentration.

  10. Pulmonary vascular-bronchial interactions: acute reduction in pulmonary blood flow alters lung mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze-Neick, I; Penny, D; Derrick, G; Dhillon, R; Rigby, M.; Kelleher, A.; Bush, A; Redington, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Postoperative pulmonary hypertension in children after congenital heart surgery is a risk factor for death and is associated with severe acute changes in both pulmonary vascular resistance and lung mechanics.
OBJECTIVE—To examine the impact of changes in pulmonary blood flow on lung mechanics in preoperative children with congenital heart disease, in order to assess the cause-effect relation of pulmonary vascular-bronchial interactions.
DESIGN—Prospective, cross sectional study.
SE...

  11. Influence of altered blood rheology on ventricular-vascular response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, James E; Brown, Joseph; Holland, David J; Macdonald, Graeme; Kostner, Karam; Marwick, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Blood (or plasma) rheology is related to cardiovascular risk. Mechanisms of this association are unclear but may be partially related to impaired left ventricular (LV) function and increased central blood pressure (BP) during light activity. This study aimed to test these hypotheses. Twenty patients (14 men; aged 61+/-12 years) with polycythemia rubra vera (n=16) or hemochromatosis (n=4) were studied at rest and during exercise at approximately 50% of maximal heart rate before and after venesection (500 mL; volume replaced with saline) to elicit an acute decrease in plasma viscosity at stable BP. Controls (n=20) underwent the same protocol with 25-mL venesection. Central BP and augmentation index were determined by tonometry. Resting LV systolic (peak longitudinal systolic strain rate and strain) and diastolic functions were determined by tissue-Doppler echocardiography. Venesection with blood volume replacement decreased viscosity (1.46+/-0.10 to 1.41+/-0.11 centipoise), protein, and hemoglobin (P0.10 for all). There was no change in LV diastolic function (P>0.12 for all). Exercise augmentation index in patients was reduced after venesection (24+/-12% to 17+/-9%; P=0.001) despite no significant change in other BP variables. Hemodynamics (resting or exercise) were not significantly changed in controls. Exercise central systolic BP correlated with triglycerides (r=0.59; P0.05). We conclude that an acute change in blood rheology improves ventricular-vascular interaction by enhanced LV systolic function and reduced light-exercise central BP.

  12. Cytogenetic and oxidative alterations after exposure of cultured human whole blood cells to lithium metaborate dehydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikezen, Fatih Çağlar; Toğar, Başak; Özgeriş, Fatma Betül; İzgi, Mehmet Sait; Türkez, Hasan

    2016-08-01

    Boron compounds have an ability of supporting antioxidant properties in human and animal tissues. Lithium metaborate dihydrate (LiBO2·2H2O; LMD) is commonly used in nonlinear optic materials, cellular phones and pagers. But, there are limited data on the genotoxic and antioxidant effects of LMD in cultured human whole blood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the genotoxicity and antioxidant/oxidant activity of LMD on human whole blood lymphocytes (n = 5). LMD was applied at various concentrations (0-1,280 µg/ml) to cultured blood samples. Antioxidant/oxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity levels. Micronuclei and chromosomal aberration tests were used in genotoxicity studies. Our results clearly revealed that all tested concentrations of LMD were found to be non-genotoxic when compared to that of the control group. In addition, LMD exhibited antioxidant activities at low concentrations. In addition the TOS levels were not changed at all concentrations of LMD. Consequently, our results clearly demonstrated that LMD is non-genotoxic and it has an important antioxidant potential in vitro.

  13. Alterations of cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reserve in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury accompanying deteriorated intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alterations of regional cerbral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), and correlation between these alternations and cognitive dysfunctin in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) and normal brain MRI findings. Thirty TBI patients and 19 healthy volunteers underwent rest/acetazolaminde brain SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale test was also performed in the patient group. Statistical analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping software (SPM '97). CBF was diminished in the left hemisphere including Wernicke's area in all patients with lower verbal scale scores. In addition, a reduction in CBF in the right frontal, temporal and parietal cortices was related with depressed scores in information, digital span, arithmetic and similarities. In patients with lower performance scale scores, CBF was mainly diminished in the right hemisphere including superior temporal and supramarginal gyri, premotor, primary somatomotor and a part of prefrontal cortices, left frontal lobe and supramarginal gyrus. CVR was diminished in sixty-four Brodmann's areas compared to control. A reduction in CVR was demonstrated bilaterally in the frontal and temporal lobes in patients with lower scores in both verbal and performance tests, and in addition, both inferior parietal and occipital lobes in information subset. Alterations of CBF and CVR were demonstrated in the symptomatic TBI patients with normal MRI finding. These alterations were correlated with the change of intelligence, of which the complex functions are subserved by multiple interconnected cortical structures.=20

  14. Unsuspected pheochromocytoma: Risk of blood-pressure alterations during percutaneous adrenal biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four unsuspected pheochromocytomas were discovered during percutaneous fine-needle biopsy of the adrenal gland under ultrasound (n = 1) and computed tomographic (n = 3) guidance. One patient suffered an acute episode of alternating hypertension and hypotension during the procedure. A second patient had no alterations in vital signs during the procedure but had a severe hypertensive crisis during induction of anesthesia at surgery. Neither biopsy nor surgery affected the vital signs in the other two patients. During biopsy study of adrenal lesions, the possibility of unsuspected pheo-chromocytoma should be considered, and the interventional radiologist must be familiar with the emergency treatment of hypotensive or hypertensive crises that may occur

  15. Unsuspected pheochromocytoma: Risk of blood-pressure alterations during percutaneous adrenal biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casola, G.; Nicolet, V.; van Sonnenberg, E.; Withers, C.; Bretagnolle, M.; Saba, R.M.; Bret, P.M.

    1986-06-01

    Four unsuspected pheochromocytomas were discovered during percutaneous fine-needle biopsy of the adrenal gland under ultrasound (n = 1) and computed tomographic (n = 3) guidance. One patient suffered an acute episode of alternating hypertension and hypotension during the procedure. A second patient had no alterations in vital signs during the procedure but had a severe hypertensive crisis during induction of anesthesia at surgery. Neither biopsy nor surgery affected the vital signs in the other two patients. During biopsy study of adrenal lesions, the possibility of unsuspected pheo-chromocytoma should be considered, and the interventional radiologist must be familiar with the emergency treatment of hypotensive or hypertensive crises that may occur.

  16. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles. PMID:26590403

  17. Results of Pancreatic Blood Shunting into the Systemic Blood Flow in Insulin-Dependent Diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Galperin, E. I.; Diuzheva, T. G.; Petrovsky, P. F.; A. Yu. Chevokin; Dokuchayev, K. V.; Rabinovich, S. E.; Gitel, E. P.; Kuzovlev, N. F.; Platonov, L. V.

    1996-01-01

    A new surgical method of treating patients with unstable insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) has been developed-that of surgically shunting pancreatic blood into the systemic blood flow with the purpose of creating a more optimal interaction of subcutaneously administered insulin and pancreas-secreted glucagon. The long term results of the operation depend on the patency of a splenorenal anastomosis. This has been studied by following up 137 patients over periods from half a year to three years....

  18. Nickel-induced blood biochemistry alterations in hens after an experimental peroral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesarova, Adriana; Capcarova, Marcela; Arpasova, Henrieta; Kalafova, Anna; Massanyi, Peter; Lukac, Norbert; Kovacik, Jaroslav; Schneidgenova, Monika

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine certain blood biochemical parameters in hens of Isa Brown breed (n = 20) after nickel administration. Animals were divided into four groups (K, P1, P2, P3). Experimental hens (n = 5; in each group) received nickel (NiCl2) as peroral administration in drinking water in various doses (P1 - 0.02 g NiCl2/L; P2 - 0.2 g NiCl2/L; P3 - 2.0 g NiCl2/L of drinking water) for 28 days. The last group - K (n = 5) was the control, receiving no nickel. Biochemical parameters of mineral profile (calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; sodium; potassium) and of energy and enzymatic profile [(glucose; total cholesterol; total proteins; triglycerides; alanine aminotransferase (ALT) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH)] were analyzed in blood serum on Day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experiment. Average levels of mineral metabolism parameters were relatively stable apart from calcium. The evaluation registered a significant decrease in calcium during the experiment mainly in the group with highest nickel concentration in drinking water. No significant differences were detected between groups in energy and enzymatic profile apart from the concentrations of ALT on Day 7. In conclusion, there were significant associations between nickel levels and calcium and ALT in blood serum of the hens. No significant differences were detected in other biochemical parameters of mineral profile (P, Mg, Na, K) and energy and enzymatic profile (glucose, total cholesterol, total proteins, triglycerides, AST, GGT and GLDH) after nickel administration. Our results may contribute to an evaluation of reference levels of analyzed parameters, to monitor the health and nutritional status of hens. In this study also the negative effect of nickel mainly on calcium metabolism was detected.

  19. Alterations of Blood Flow Through Arteries Following Atherectomy and the Impact on Pressure Variation and Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Brian D; Vallez, Lauren J; Sun, Biyuan; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany B; Abraham, John P; Staniloae, Cezar S

    2016-09-01

    Simulations were made of the pressure and velocity fields throughout an artery before and after removal of plaque using orbital atherectomy plus adjunctive balloon angioplasty or stenting. The calculations were carried out with an unsteady computational fluid dynamic solver that allows the fluid to naturally transition to turbulence. The results of the atherectomy procedure leads to an increased flow through the stenotic zone with a coincident decrease in pressure drop across the stenosis. The measured effect of atherectomy and adjunctive treatment showed decrease the systolic pressure drop by a factor of 2.3. Waveforms obtained from a measurements were input into a numerical simulation of blood flow through geometry obtained from medical imaging. From the numerical simulations, a detailed investigation of the sources of pressure loss was obtained. It is found that the major sources of pressure drop are related to the acceleration of blood through heavily occluded cross sections and the imperfect flow recovery downstream. This finding suggests that targeting only the most occluded parts of a stenosis would benefit the hemodynamics. The calculated change in systolic pressure drop through the lesion was a factor of 2.4, in excellent agreement with the measured improvement. The systolic and cardiac-cycle-average pressure results were compared with measurements made in a multi-patient study treated with orbital atherectomy and adjunctive treatment. The agreements between the measured and calculated systolic pressure drop before and after the treatment were within 3%. This excellent agreement adds further confidence to the results. This research demonstrates the use of orbital atherectomy to facilitate balloon expansion to restore blood flow and how pressure measurements can be utilized to optimize revascularization of occluded peripheral vessels. PMID:27333887

  20. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 323 - Criteria for New and Altered Record Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alterations. b. Increases in numbers of individuals due to normal growth are not considered alterations unless... enlisted personnel to include all of DLA enlisted personnel would be considered an alteration). d. A... a new or altered system to DLA Support Services (DSS-CA) before collecting information and for...

  2. Red blood cells in Rett syndrome: oxidative stress, morphological changes and altered membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Signorini, Cinzia; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

    2015-11-01

    In this review, we summarize the current evidence on the erythrocyte as a previously unrecognized target cell in Rett syndrome, a rare (1:10 000 females) and devastating neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in a single gene (i.e. MeCP2, CDKL5, or rarely FOXG1). In particular, we focus on morphological changes, membrane oxidative damage, altered membrane fatty acid profile, and aberrant skeletal organization in erythrocytes from patients with typical Rett syndrome and MeCP2 gene mutations. The beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are also summarized for this condition to be considered as a 'model' condition for autism spectrum disorders.

  3. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption.

  4. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Miyamoto; Taylor, Sandra L.; Barupal, Dinesh K; Ayumu Taguchi; Gert Wohlgemuth; Wikoff, William R.; Yoneda, Ken Y.; Gandara, David R.; Samir M. Hanash; Kyoungmi Kim; Oliver Fiehn

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer ...

  5. Blood monocyte alteration caused by a hematozoan infection in the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Reptilia: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Edilene O; Diniz, José P; Alberio, Sanny; Lainson, Ralph; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato A

    2004-08-01

    Although hematozoa have been described from many different host species, little is known about the infection and its relationship to the physiology of the host. We studied a hematozoan, regarded as a species of Lainsonia Landau, 1973 (Lankestereliidae), which infects the monocytes of the lizard Ameiva ameiva. The infected animals show a huge monocytosis and morphological changes in the monocytes. Ultrastructurally, the parasite has an apical complex, dense bodies, electron lucent structures, plasma membrane projections and folding which may be involved with nutrition. The parasite occupies a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) exhibiting high electron density at its membrane. Mitochondria and the Golgi complex of the monocytes were concentrated around the PV, and the cytoplasm was totally occupied by a vimentin type of intermediate filament radiating from (or to) the cytosolic surface of the PV. Vimentin was identified by diameter measurement, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. These observations indicate that this infection alters the physiological state of the host and suggest that this parasite has the ability to modify monocyte vimentin assembly. PMID:15243797

  6. Alteration of blood clot structures by interleukin-1 beta in association with bone defects healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Friis, Thor E.; Masci, Paul P.; Crawford, Ross W.; Liao, Wenbo; Xiao, Yin

    2016-01-01

    The quality of hematomas are crucial for successful early bone defect healing, as the structure of fibrin clots can significantly influence the infiltration of cells, necessary for bone regeneration, from adjacent tissues into the fibrin network. This study investigated if there were structural differences between hematomas from normal and delayed healing bone defects and whether such differences were linked to changes in the expression of IL-1β. Using a bone defect model in rats, we found that the hematomas in the delayed healing model had thinner fibers and denser clot structures. Moreover, IL-1β protein levels were significantly higher in the delayed healing hematomas. The effects of IL-1β on the structural properties of human whole blood clots were evaluated by thrombelastograph (TEG), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), compressive study, and thrombolytic assays. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was applied to modulate de novo hematoma structure and the impact on bone healing was evaluated in the delayed healing model. We found that GSNO produced more porous hematomas with thicker fibers and resulted in significantly enhanced bone healing. This study demonstrated that IL-1β and GSNO had opposing effects on clot architecture, the structure of which plays a pivotal role in early bone healing. PMID:27767056

  7. Alterations in Arterial Blood Parameters in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Charalabopoulos, Dimitrios Peschos, Leonidas Zoganas, George Bablekos, Christos Golias, Alexander Charalabopoulos, Dimitrios Stagikas, Angi Karakosta, Athanasios Papathanasopoulos, George Karachalios, Anna Batistatou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In cirrhotic patients, in addition to hepatocytes and Kuppfer cells dysfunction circulatory anatomic shunt and ventilation/perfusion (VA/ Q ratio abnormalities can induce decrease in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2, in oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2 as well as various acid-base disturbances. We studied 49 cases of liver cirrhosis (LC with ascites compared to 50 normal controls. Causes were: posthepatic 37 (75.51%, alcoholic 7 (14.24%, cardiac 2 (4.08%, and cryptogenic 3 (6.12%. Complications were: upper gastrointestinal bleeding 24 (48.97, hepatic encephalopathy 20 (40.81%, gastritis 28 (57.14%, hepatoma 5 (10.2%, renal hepatic syndrome 2 (4.01%, HbsAg (+ 24 (48.97%, and hepatic pleural effusions 7 (14.28%. Average PaO2 and SaO2 were 75.2 mmHg and 94.5 mmHg, respectively, compared to 94.2 mmHg and 97.1 mmHg of the control group, respectively (p value in both PaO2 and SaO2 was pA/Q inequality can induce a decrease in PaO2 and SaO2 as well as various acid-base disturbances. As a result, pulmonary resistance is impaired and patients more likely succumb to infections and adult respiratory distress syndrome.

  8. Numerical Models of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity: Brain Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; David, Tim

    2003-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is presented to model the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Models required for CFD simulation relevant to major hemodynamic issues are introduced such as non-Newtonian flow models governed by red blood cells, a model for arterial wall motion due to fluid-wall interactions, a vascular bed model for outflow boundary conditions, and a model for auto-regulation mechanism. The three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with these models are solved iteratively using the pseudocompressibility method and dual time stepping. Moving wall boundary conditions from the first-order fluid-wall interaction model are used to study the influence of arterial wall distensibility on flow patterns and wall shear stresses during the heart pulse. A vascular bed modeling utilizing the analogy with electric circuits is coupled with an auto-regulation algorithm for multiple outflow boundaries. For the treatment of complex geometry, a chimera overset grid technique is adopted to obtain connectivity between arterial branches. For code validation, computed results are compared with experimental data for steady and unsteady non-Newtonian flows. Good agreement is obtained for both cases. In sin-type Gravity Benchmark Problems, gravity source terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effect of gravitational variation on the human circulatory system. This computational approach is then applied to localized blood flows through a realistic carotid bifurcation and two Circle of Willis models, one using an idealized geometry and the other model using an anatomical data set. A three- dimensional anatomical Circle of Willis configuration is reconstructed from human-specific magnetic resonance images using an image segmentation method. The blood flow through these Circle of Willis models is simulated to provide means for studying gravitational effects on the brain

  9. Reconciling paradigms of abnormal pulmonary blood flow and quasi-malignant cellular alterations in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, C M; Szulcek, R; Voelkel, N F; Bogaard, H J

    2016-08-01

    In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) structural and functional abnormalities of the small lung vessels interact and lead to a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart failure. A current pathobiological concept characterizes PAH as a 'quasi-malignant' disease focusing on cancer-like alterations in endothelial cells (EC) and the importance of their acquired apoptosis-resistant, hyper-proliferative phenotype in the process of vascular remodeling. While changes in pulmonary blood flow (PBF) have been long-since recognized and linked to the development of PAH, little is known about a possible relationship between an altered PBF and the quasi-malignant cell phenotype in the pulmonary vascular wall. This review summarizes recognized and hypothetical effects of an abnormal PBF on the pulmonary vascular bed and links these to quasi-malignant changes found in the pulmonary endothelium. Here we describe that abnormal PBF does not only trigger a pulmonary vascular cell growth program, but may also maintain the cancer-like phenotype of the endothelium. Consequently, normalization of PBF and EC response to abnormal PBF may represent a treatment strategy in patients with established PAH. PMID:26804008

  10. 78 FR 18353 - Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System... ``Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility'' dated April... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the...

  11. Sox7-sustained expression alters the balance between proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors at the onset of blood specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandillet, Arnaud; Serrano, Alicia G; Pearson, Stella; Lie-A-Ling, Michael; Lacaud, Georges; Kouskoff, Valerie

    2009-11-26

    The molecular mechanisms that regulate the balance between proliferation and differentiation of precursors at the onset of hematopoiesis specification are poorly understood. By using a global gene expression profiling approach during the course of embryonic stem cell differentiation, we identified Sox7 as a potential candidate gene involved in the regulation of blood lineage formation from the mesoderm germ layer. In the present study, we show that Sox7 is transiently expressed in mesodermal precursors as they undergo specification to the hematopoietic program. Sox7 knockdown in vitro significantly decreases the formation of both primitive erythroid and definitive hematopoietic progenitors as well as endothelial progenitors. In contrast, Sox7-sustained expression in the earliest committed hematopoietic precursors promotes the maintenance of their multipotent and self-renewing status. Removal of this differentiation block driven by Sox7-enforced expression leads to the efficient differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors to all erythroid and myeloid lineages. This study identifies Sox7 as a novel and important player in the molecular regulation of the first committed blood precursors. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the mere sustained expression of Sox7 is sufficient to completely alter the balance between proliferation and differentiation at the onset of hematopoiesis.

  12. Local cooling alters neural mechanisms producing changes in peripheral blood flow by spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Barron, Kirk W; Chandler, Margaret J; Linderoth, Bengt; Foreman, Robert D

    2003-03-28

    This study was performed to investigate the respective role of sensory afferent and sympathetic fibers in peripheral vasodilatation induced by spinal cord stimulation at different hindpaw skin temperatures. Cooling the skin was used as a strategy to enhance sympathetic activity [Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 263 (1992) H1197]. Cutaneous blood flow in the footpad of anesthetized rats was recorded using laser Doppler flowmetry. Local cooling (copper coil. Spinal cord stimulation delivered at clinically relevant parameters and with 30%, 60%, and 90% of motor threshold induced the early phase of vasodilatation in the cooled and the moderately cooled hindpaw. In addition, spinal cord stimulation at 90% of motor threshold produced the late phase of vasodilatation only in the cooled hindpaw, which was possible to block by the autonomic ganglion-blocking agent, hexamethonium. The early responses to spinal cord stimulation in the moderately cooled hindpaw were not affected by hexamethonium. In contrast, both the early and the late phase responses were eliminated by CGRP (8-37), an antagonist of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor. After dorsal rhizotomy, spinal cord stimulation at 90% of motor threshold elicited hexamethonium-sensitive vasodilatation in the cooled hindpaw (late phase). These results suggest that spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilatation in the cooled hindpaw (<25 degrees C) is mediated via both the sensory afferent (early phase of vasodilatation) and via suppression of the sympathetic efferent activity (late phase) although the threshold for vasodilatation via the sympathetic efferent fibers is higher than that via sensory nerves. In contrast, vasodilatation via sensory afferent fibers may predominate with moderate temperatures (25-28 degrees C). Thus, two complementary mechanisms for spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilatation may exist depending on the basal sympathetic tone. PMID:12648613

  13. Thermodynamics of Organic Compound Alteration in Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, E. L.

    2005-12-01

    Organic compounds enter hydrothermal systems through infiltrating surface waters, zones of microbial productivity in the subsurface, extracts of organic matter in surrounding host rocks, and abiotic synthesis. Owing to variations in pH, oxidation state, composition, temperature, and pressure throughout the changing pathways of fluid migration over the duration of the system, organic compounds from all of these sources are introduced to conditions where their relative stabilities and reactivities can be dramatically transformed. If those transformations were predictable, then the extent to which organic alteration reactions have occurred could be used to reveal flowpaths and histories of hydrothermal systems. Speciation and mass transfer calculations permit some insight into the underlying thermodynamic driving forces that result in organic compound alteration. As an example, the speciation of many geochemist's canonical organic matter: CH2O depends strongly on oxidation state, temperature, and total concentration of dissolved organic matter. Calculations show that at oxidation states buffered by iron-bearing mineral assemblages, organic acids dominate the speciation of CH2O throughout hydrothermal systems, with acetic acid (itself equivalent to 2 CH2O by bulk composition) and propanoic acid generally the most abundant compounds. However, at more reduced conditions, which may prevail in organic-rich iron-poor sediments, the drive is to form ketones and especially alcohols at the expense of organic acids. The distribution of organic carbon among the various members of these compound classes is strongly dependent on the total concentration of dissolved organic matter. As an example, at a bulk concentration equivalent to average dissolved organic matter in seawater (45μm), the dominant alcohols at 100°C are small compounds like ethanol and 1-propanol. In contrast, at a higher bulk concentration of 500μm, there is a drive to shift large percentages of dissolved

  14. Effects of carboxymethyl chitosan on the blood system of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Dawei [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Han, Baoqin, E-mail: baoqinh@ouc.edu.cn [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Dong, Wen; Yang, Zhao; Lv, You; Liu, Wanshun [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} We report, for the first time, the safety of carboxymethyl chitosan in blood system. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on coagulation function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on anticoagulation performance of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on fibrinolytic function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on hemorheology of rats. -- Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan), a derivative of chitosan, was extensively studied in the biomedical materials field for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CM-chitosan in the blood system are lacking. In this study CM-chitosan was implanted into the abdominal cavity of rats to determine blood indexes at different times and to evaluate the effects of CM-chitosan on the blood system of rats. Coagulation function was reflected by thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) indexes; anti-coagulation performance was assessed by the index of antithrombinIII (ATIII); fibrinolytic function was reflected by plasminogen (PLG) and fibrin degradation product (FDP) indexes; and blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV) indexes reflected hemorheology. Results showed that CM-chitosan has no significant effects on the blood system of rats, and provides experimental basis for CM-chitosan to be applied in the field of biomedical materials.

  15. Effects of carboxymethyl chitosan on the blood system of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We report, for the first time, the safety of carboxymethyl chitosan in blood system. → CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on coagulation function of rats. → CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on anticoagulation performance of rats. → CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on fibrinolytic function of rats. → CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on hemorheology of rats. -- Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan), a derivative of chitosan, was extensively studied in the biomedical materials field for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CM-chitosan in the blood system are lacking. In this study CM-chitosan was implanted into the abdominal cavity of rats to determine blood indexes at different times and to evaluate the effects of CM-chitosan on the blood system of rats. Coagulation function was reflected by thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) indexes; anti-coagulation performance was assessed by the index of antithrombinIII (ATIII); fibrinolytic function was reflected by plasminogen (PLG) and fibrin degradation product (FDP) indexes; and blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV) indexes reflected hemorheology. Results showed that CM-chitosan has no significant effects on the blood system of rats, and provides experimental basis for CM-chitosan to be applied in the field of biomedical materials.

  16. Broadly altered gene expression in blood leukocytes in essential hypertension is absent during treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chon, H; Gaillard, CAJM; van der Meijden, BB; Dijstelbloem, HM; Kraaijenhagen, RJ; van Leenen, D; Holstege, FCP; Joles, JA; Bluyssen, HAR; Koomans, HA; Braam, B

    2004-01-01

    We assessed whether large-scale expression profiling of leukocytes of patients with essential hypertension reflects characteristics of systemic disease and whether such changes are responsive to antihypertensive therapy. Total RNA from leukocytes were obtained from untreated (n=6) and treated (n=6)

  17. Altered signaling in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaubas, Claudia; Wong, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yujuan; Nguyen, Khoa D; Lee, Justin; Milojevic, Diana; Shenoi, Susan; Stevens, Anne M; Ilowite, Norman; Saper, Vivian; Lee, Tzielan; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2016-02-01

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is characterized by systemic inflammation and arthritis. Monocytes are implicated in sJIA pathogenesis, but their role in disease is unclear. The response of sJIA monocytes to IFN may be dysregulated. We examined intracellular signaling in response to IFN type I (IFNα) and type II (IFNγ) in monocytes during sJIA activity and quiescence, in 2 patient groups. Independent of disease activity, monocytes from Group 1 (collected between 2002 and 2009) showed defective STAT1 phosphorylation downstream of IFNs, and expressed higher transcript levels of SOCS1, an inhibitor of IFN signaling. In the Group 2 (collected between 2011 and 2014), monocytes of patients with recent disease onset were IFNγ hyporesponsive, but in treated, quiescent subjects, monocytes were hyperresponsive to IFNγ. Recent changes in medication in sJIA may alter the IFN hyporesponsiveness. Impaired IFN/pSTAT1 signaling is consistent with skewing of sJIA monocytes away from an M1 phenotype and may contribute to disease pathology.

  18. Altered neurotransmission in the mesolimbic reward system of Girk mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Devinder; Haluk, Desirae M; Kourrich, Saïd; Pravetoni, Marco; Fernández-Alacid, Laura; Nicolau, Joel C; Luján, Rafael; Wickman, Kevin

    2010-09-01

    Mice lacking the Girk2 subunit of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (Girk) channels exhibit dopamine-dependent hyperactivity and elevated responses to drugs that stimulate dopamine neurotransmission. The dopamine-dependent phenotypes seen in Girk2(-/-) mice could reflect increased intrinsic excitability of or diminished inhibitory feedback to midbrain dopamine neurons, or secondary adaptations triggered by Girk2 ablation. We addressed these possibilities by evaluating Girk(-/-) mice in behavioral, electrophysiological, and cell biological assays centered on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Despite differences in the contribution of Girk1 and Girk2 subunits to Girk signaling in midbrain dopamine neurons, Girk1(-/-) and Girk2(-/-) mice exhibited comparable baseline hyperactivities and enhanced responses to cocaine. Girk ablation also correlated with altered afferent input to dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Dopamine neurons from Girk1(-/-) and Girk2(-/-) mice exhibited elevated glutamatergic neurotransmission, paralleled by increased synaptic levels of alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate glutamate receptors. In addition, synapse density, alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor levels, and glutamatergic neurotransmission were elevated in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens from Girk1(-/-) and Girk2(-/-) mice. We conclude that dopamine-dependent phenotypes in Girk2(-/-) mice are not solely attributable to a loss of Girk signaling in dopamine neurons, and likely involve secondary adaptations facilitating glutamatergic signaling in the mesolimbic reward system. PMID:20557431

  19. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system.

  20. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. PMID:27326465

  1. Altered B cell receptor signaling in human systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Scott A.; Sanz, Iñaki

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of B cell receptor signaling is essential for the development of specific immunity while retaining tolerance to self. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by a loss of B cell tolerance and the production of anti-self antibodies. Accompanying this break down in tolerance are alterations in B cell receptor signal transduction including elevated induced calcium responses and increased protein phosphorylation. Specific pathways that negatively regulate B cell signaling have been shown to be impaired in some SLE patients. These patients have reduced levels of the kinase Lyn in lipid raft microdomains and this reduction is inversely correlated with increased CD45 in lipid rafts. Function and expression of the inhibitory immunoglobulin receptor FcγRIIB is also reduced in Lupus IgM- CD27+ memory cells. Because the relative contribution of different memory and transitional B cell subsets can be abnormal in SLE patients, we believe studies targeted to well defined B cell subsets will be necessary to further our understanding of signaling abnormalities in SLE. Intracellular flow cytometric analysis of signaling is a useful approach to accomplish this goal. PMID:18723129

  2. Single-cell evaluation of red blood cell bio-mechanical and nano-structural alterations upon chemically induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ameya; Chu, Trang T T; Dao, Ming; Chandramohanadas, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Erythroid cells, specifically red blood cells (RBCs), are constantly exposed to highly reactive radicals during cellular gaseous exchange. Such exposure often exceeds the cells' innate anti-oxidant defense systems, leading to progressive damage and eventual senescence. One of the contributing factors to this process are alterations to hemoglobin conformation and globin binding to red cell cytoskeleton. However, in addition to the aforementioned changes, it is possible that oxidative damage induces critical changes to the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and corresponding bio-mechanical and nano-structural properties of the red cell membrane. To quantitatively characterize how oxidative damage accounts for such changes, we employed single-cell manipulation techniques such as micropipette aspiration and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on RBCs. These investigations demonstrated visible morphological changes upon chemically induced oxidative damage (using hydrogen peroxide, diamide, primaquine bisphosphate and cumene hydroperoxide). Our results provide previously unavailable observations on remarkable changes in red cell cytoskeletal architecture and membrane stiffness due to oxidative damage. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that a pathogen that infects human blood cells, Plasmodium falciparum was unable to penetrate through the oxidant-exposed RBCs that have damaged cytoskeleton and stiffer membranes. This indicates the importance of bio-physical factors pertinent to aged RBCs and it's relevance to malaria infectivity. PMID:25950144

  3. Blood parameter analysis and morphological alterations as biomarkers on the health of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Romão

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the influence of the environment on fish health. Samples of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis, were collected from three different environments: area I was urban and areas II and III were rural. Analyses of red blood cell count, microhematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count and differential white cell count in blood smear were carried out. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated. To analyze morphological alterations, gills, liver, kidney and gonads were submitted to routine histological processing. Individuals collected from area III had slightly lower blood indices than collected from area I . Severe kidney changes, degeneration of and crystallization within kidney tubules were observed. In area I, crystallization was observed in 92% of the specimens of G. brasiliensis. These results suggested that such alterations were related with poor water circulation in the place.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do ambiente sobre a higidez dos peixes. Animais, das espécies Hoplias malabaricus e Geophagus brasiliensis foram coletados em três ambientes distintos, sendo ambiente I região urbana e ambientes II e III em região rural. Foram realizadas análises do número total de eritrócitos por microlitro de sangue, microhematócrito, taxa de hemoglobina, porcentagem de leucócito e contagem diferencial de leucócitos em extensão sanguínea. Calcularam-se os índices hematimétricos absolutos: volume corpuscular médio e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média. Para análises das alterações morfológicas, brânquias, fígado, gônadas e rim seguiram processamento histológico de rotina. Foram observados índices hematológicos ligeiramente menores em indivíduos coletados no ambiente III em relação aos animais coletados no ambiente I. As análises histológicas de brânquias, fígado e gônadas das espécies G

  4. R7T7 glass alteration mechanism in an aqueous closed system: understanding and modelling the long term alteration kinetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term alteration rate of the French R7T7 nuclear glass has been investigated since many years because it will define the overall resistance of the radionuclide containment matrix. Recent studies have shown that the final rate remains constant or is slightly decreasing with time. It never reaches zero. Though this residual rate is very low, only 5 nm per year at 50 C, it would be the dominant alteration phenomenon in a geological repository. Two mechanisms are suggested for explaining such behaviour: diffusion in solution of elements from glass through an amorphous altered layer and precipitation of neo-formed phases. The diffusion processes are in agreement with a solid state diffusion mechanism and can lead to secondary phase precipitation due to solution concentration increases. Observed phases are mainly phyllosilicates and zeolites, in specific conditions. Phyllosilicates are expected to maintain the residual kinetic rate whereas alteration resumption could be observed in presence of zeolites at very high pH or temperature (10.5 at 90 C or temperature above 150 C). Both diffusion and neo-formed phase precipitation have been investigated in order to better understand their impact on the residual alteration rate and have then been modelled by a calculation code, coupling chemistry and transport, in order to be able to better anticipate the long term behaviour of the glass R7T7 in an aqueous closed system. (author)

  5. Dynamic alteration of telomerase expression and its diagnostic significance in liver or peripheral blood for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng-Fu Yao; Wei Wu; Min Yao; Li-Wei Qiu; Xin-Hua Wu; Xiao-Qin Su; Li Zou; Deng-Bing Yao; Xian-Yong Meng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the dynamic alteration of telomerase expression during development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its diagnostic implications in liver tissues or peripheral blood mononuclear cells for HCC.METHODS: Dynamic expressions of liver telomerase during malignant transformation of hepatocytes were observed in Sprague-Dawly (SD) rats fed with 0.05% of 2-fluoenyacetamide (2-FAA). Total RNA and telomerase were extracted from rat or human liver tissues. The telomerase activities in livers and in circulating blood were detected by a telomeric repeat amplification protocol-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TRAPELISA), and its diagnostic value was investigated in patients with benign or malignant liver diseases.RESULTS: The hepatoma model displayed the dynamic expression of hepatic telomerase during HCC development. The telomerase activities were consistent with liver total RNA levels (r = 0.83, P<0.01) at the stages of degeneration, precancerosis, and cancerization of hepatocytes. In HCC patients, the telomerase levels in HCC tissues were significantly higher than in their adjacent non-cancerous tissues, but liver total RNA levels were lower in the former than in the latter. Although the circulating telomerase of HCC patients was abnormally expressed among patients with chronic liver diseases,the telomerase activity was a non-specific marker for HCC diagnosis, because the incidence was 15.7% in normal control, 25% in chronic hepatitis, 45.9% in liver cirrhosis, and 85.2% in HCC, respectively when absorbance value of telomerase activity was more than 0.2. If the value was over 0.6, the incidence was 60%in HCC group and 0% in any of the others (P<0.01)except in two cases with liver cirrhosis. However, the combination of circulating telomerase with serum alphafetoprotein level could increase the positive rate and the accuracy (92.6%, 125 of 135) of HCC diagnosis.CONCLUSION: The overexpression of telomerase is associated with HCC development, and its

  6. Erythropoietin withdrawal alters interactions between young red blood cells, splenic endothelial cells, and macrophages: an in vitro model of neocytolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trial, J.; Rice, L.; Alfrey, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have described the rapid destruction of young red blood cells (neocytolysis) in astronauts adapting to microgravity, in polycythemic high altitude dwellers who descend to sea level, and in patients with kidney disorders. This destruction results from a decrease in erythropoietin (EPO) production. We hypothesized that such EPO withdrawal could trigger physiological changes in cells other than red cell precursors and possibly lead to the uptake and destruction of young red cells by altering endothelial cell-macrophage interactions, most likely occurring in the spleen. METHODS: We identified EPO receptors on human splenic endothelial cells (HSEC) and investigated the responses of these cells to EPO withdrawal. RESULTS: A monolayer of HSEC, unlike human endothelial cells from aorta, glomerulus, or umbilical vein, demonstrated an increase in permeability upon EPO withdrawal that was accompanied by unique morphological changes. When HSEC were cultured with monocyte-derived macrophages (but not when either cell type was cultured alone), EPO withdrawal induced an increased ingestion of young red cells by macrophages when compared with the constant presence or absence of EPO. CONCLUSIONS: HSEC may represent a unique cell type that is able to respond to EPO withdrawal by increasing permeability and interacting with phagocytic macrophages, which leads to neocytolysis.

  7. How the python heart separates pulmonary and systemic blood pressures and blood flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jan M; Axelsson, Michael; Pedersen, Michael; Löfman, Carl; Wang, Tobias

    2010-05-01

    The multiple convergent evolution of high systemic blood pressure among terrestrial vertebrates has always been accompanied by lowered pulmonary pressure. In mammals, birds and crocodilians, this cardiac separation of pressures relies on the complete division of the right and left ventricles by a complete ventricular septum. However, the anatomy of the ventricle of most reptiles does not allow for complete anatomical division, but the hearts of pythons and varanid lizards can produce high systemic blood pressure while keeping the pulmonary blood pressure low. It is also known that these two groups of reptiles are characterised by low magnitudes of cardiac shunts. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms that allow for this pressure separation. Here we provide a description of cardiac structures and intracardiac events that have been revealed by ultrasonic measurements and angioscopy. Echocardiography revealed that the atrioventricular valves descend deep into the ventricle during ventricular filling and thereby greatly reduce the communication between the systemic (cavum arteriosum) and pulmonary (cavum pulmonale) ventricular chambers during diastole. Angioscopy and echocardiography showed how the two incomplete septa, the muscular ridge and the bulbuslamelle - ventricular structures common to all squamates - contract against each other in systole and provide functional division of the anatomically subdivided ventricle. Washout shunts are inevitable in the subdivided snake ventricle, but we show that the site of shunting, the cavum venosum, is very small throughout the cardiac cycle. It is concluded that the python ventricle is incapable of the pronounced and variable shunts of other snakes, because of its architecture and valvular mechanics.

  8. Implications of the Kidd blood group system in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourk, A; Squires, J E

    2012-01-01

    The association of the Kidd blood group system with hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn is well known. The Kidd antigens, which are localized to the HUT/UT-B urea transport protein, are found on red blood cells and the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the medulla of the kidney. Recently it has been suggested that these antigens might play a role as minor histocompatibility antigens in renal transplantation. In the current case, the appearance of an anti-Jk(b) 10 years after renal transplantation associated with early renal allograft rejection further supports the potential importance of these antigens in renal transplantation and allograft rejection. PMID:23286555

  9. Design of a blood-freezing system for leukemia research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. E.; Cygnarowicz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Leukemia research involves the use of cryogenic freezing and storage equipment. In a program being carried out at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), bone marrow (white blood cells) was frozen using a standard cryogenic biological freezer. With this system, it is difficult to maintain the desired rate of freezing and repeatability from sample to sample. A freezing system was developed that satisfies the requirements for a repeatable, constant freezing rate. The system was delivered to NIC and is now operational. This report describes the design of the major subsystems, the analyses, the operating procedure, and final system test results.

  10. Sodium homeostasis in lymphocytes and blood pressure alterations before and during salt restriction in normotensives and in essential hypertensives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jest, P; Pedersen, K E; Klitgaard, N A;

    1986-01-01

    Blood pressure, lymphocytic sodium content and sodium efflux were studied in hypertensive and normotensive subjects during salt restriction. Diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups. In essential hypertension the initial high lymphocyte sodium content decreased during salt...

  11. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S;

    1993-01-01

    ventricular hypertrophy was maximal within 5 days. In immunohistochemical studies, fibronectin and laminin were increased and the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in both the subendothelial space and smooth muscle cell basement membranes of the aorta above the clip compared...... membrane components in the heart and vasculature peaked before maximal cardiac hypertrophy (5 days). These studies indicate that alterations in basement membrane component deposition in the hypertrophied vasculature occur at both transcriptional and translational levels and suggest that the cell attachment...

  12. Ginkgo biloba extract alters the binding of the sodium [{sup 123}I] iodide (Na{sup 123}I) on blood constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, Luiz Claudio Martins [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Via Cinco s/n, 21945-450 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias, E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com [Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24030-210, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24030-210, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, Rosimeire de Souza [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Thomaz, Helio [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Via Cinco s/n, 21945-450 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    We evaluated the in vitro effect of an aqueous extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) on the distribution in blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) and on the binding of Na{sup 123}I to the blood constituents using precipitation with trichloroacetic acid. The radioactivity percentages insoluble (SF) and insoluble fraction (IF) of blood constituents were determined. The EGb interfered (p<0.05) on the distribution of Na{sup 123}I in the P (from 69.64 to 86.13) and BC (from 30.36 to 13.87) and altered the fixation of the Na{sup 123}I in IF-P and in IF-BC. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction between the Ginkgo biloba and blood constituents radiolabeled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of the binding of sodium iodide (Na{sup 123}I) to the blood constituents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This alteration should have influence in a diagnosis of nuclear medicine.

  13. Exposure to cypermethrin and mancozeb alters the expression profile of THBS1, SPP1, FEZ1 and GPNMB in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarapu, Rajesh; Prakhya, Balakrishna Murthy

    2016-07-01

    The complex immune system displays a coordinated transcriptional response to xenobiotic exposure by altering expression of designated transcription factors that, in turn, trigger immune responses. Despite the identification of several transcription factors that contribute to regulatory response, very little is known about the specific role of factors that are triggered due to exposure to obnoxious pesticides. Here, for the first time, alterations in human peripheral blood lymphocyte expression of transcriptional factors - thrombospondin-1 (THBS-1), secretory phospho-protein-1 (SPP-1), glycoprotein non-metastatic-β (GPNMB) and fasciculation and elongation factor ζ-1 (FEZ-1), due to in vitro exposure to the crop protection chemicals cypermethrin and mancozeb are reported. Results revealed significant changes in expression profiles due to mancozeb exposure, supporting its immune dysfunction potential; in contrast, cypermethrin exposure did not cause significant changes. Based on these effects on gene expression across the doses tested, it was likely key components of immune mechanisms such as proliferation, cell adhesion, apoptosis and cell activation in human PBMC were affected. Although these data are from in vitro experiments, the results point out the potential role for changes in these factors in the etiology of defective T-cell immune function seen in humans occupationally exposed to crop protection chemicals like mancozeb. These studies suggest the involvement of transcription factors in regulation of pesticide-induced immune dysfunction; these studies also represent a novel approach for identifying potential immune-related dysfunctions due to exposure to pesticides. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional significance of these in vitro findings. PMID:26796295

  14. Age and dose related alteration of in vitro mixed lymphocyte culture response of blood lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes to allogenic antigens in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was measured in 139 atomic-bomb survivors. The study revealed a significant decrease in MLC response with increasing dose of previous radiation exposure. This decline was marked in the survivors who were older than 15 at the time of the bomb (ATB). The results suggest a possible relationship between the recovery of T-cell-related function and the thymic function which processes mature T cells for the immune system. Thus it may be that in the advanced age ATB group, the thymus function had started to involute, allowing less recovery of T-cell function compared to young survivors who had adequate processing T-cell activity

  15. Blood Samples of Peripheral Venous Catheter or The Usual Way: Do Infusion Fluid Alters the Biochemical Test Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeganzadeh, Mahboobeh; Yazdankhahfard, Mohammadreza; Farzaneh, Mohammadreza; Mirzaei, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most blood tests require venous blood samples. Puncturing the vein also causes pain, infection, or damage to the blood, and lymph flow, or long-term healing. This study aimed to determine and compare the biochemical laboratory value of the blood samples that were provided through: peripheral vein infusion (PVI) receiving continuous intravenous fluid; and the usual method of blood sampling. Methods: This is an interventional, quasi-experimental, and controlled study. The selected study sample included 60 patients, who were hospitalized during 2014, in the Internal Medicine, part of Martyrs of Persian Gulf, teaching hospital at Bushehr. Three blood samples were taken from each patient that were provided through PVI line (5 ml blood collected at beginning of IVC and then another 5 cc), and another case was prepared by common blood sampling (control). All the samples were analyzed in terms of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine using SPSS Ver.19 software, by paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the amount of sodium and potassium in the first blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. However, no significant differences were found among the biochemical amount in the second blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. Conclusions: We can use blood samples taken from peripheral intravenous infusion lines after 5cc discarding from the first part of the sample for measuring the value of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine.

  16. Systemic Sclerosis Patients Present Alterations in the Expression of Molecules Involved in B-Cell Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Lilian; Ferrier, Ashley; Aravena, Octavio; Fonseca, Elianet; Berendsen, Jorge; Biere, Andrea; Bueno, Daniel; Ramos, Verónica; Aguillón, Juan Carlos; Catalán, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The activation threshold of B cells is tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activator receptors in such a way that disturbances in their expression can lead to the appearance of autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of activating and inhibitory molecules involved in the modulation of B cell functions in transitional, naive, and memory B-cell subpopulations from systemic sclerosis patients. To achieve this, blood samples were drawn from 31 systemic sclerosis patients and 53 healthy individuals. Surface expression of CD86, MHC II, CD19, CD21, CD40, CD22, Siglec 10, CD35, and FcγRIIB was determined by flow cytometry. IL-10 production was evaluated by intracellular flow cytometry from isolated B cells. Soluble IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA from supernatants of stimulated B cells. Systemic sclerosis patients exhibit an increased frequency of transitional and naive B cells related to memory B cells compared with healthy controls. Transitional and naive B cells from patients express higher levels of CD86 and FcγRIIB than healthy donors. Also, B cells from patients show high expression of CD19 and CD40, whereas memory cells from systemic sclerosis patients show reduced expression of CD35. CD19 and CD35 expression levels associate with different autoantibody profiles. IL-10+ B cells and secreted levels of IL-10 were markedly reduced in patients. In conclusion, systemic sclerosis patients show alterations in the expression of molecules involved in B-cell regulation. These abnormalities may be determinant in the B-cell hyperactivation observed in systemic sclerosis. PMID:26483788

  17. The LAN blood group system:a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    LAN (Langereis) was officially recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion in 2012 as being the 33rd human blood group system. It consists of one single high-prevalence antigen,Lan (LANl). The ABCB6 protein is the carrier of the Lan blood group antigen. The ABCB6 gene (chromosome 2q36, 19 exons)encodes the ABCB6 polypeptide (ATP-binding cassette protein,subfamily B, member 6), known as a porphyrin transporter.The exceptional Lan- people do not express ABCB6 (Lan null phenotype), owing to several different molecular mechanisms affecting ABCB6: frameshift leading to a premature stop codon(deletion, insertion, or nonsense mutation of nucleotides);missense mutation; or intronic mutation responsible for RNA splicing defect. Despite the Lan antigen's being reported to play a key role in erythropoiesis and detoxification of cells, Lan people do not appear to demonstrate susceptibility to any disease or seemingly physiologic disorder. Anti-Lan has been described as having variable clinical significance, either for hemolytic transfusion reactions (none to severe) or hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (none to mild). Despite challenging conditions caused by the scarcity of Lan- donors worldwide, Lan- blood should ideally be given to patients with anti-Lan, especially those with a high-titer antibody.

  18. Primitive Liquid Water of the Solar System in an Aqueous Altered Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Kitayama, A.; Matsuno, J.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakano, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive 3D observations of the aqueous altered CM chondrite Sutter's Mill using scanning imaging x-ray microscopy (SIXM) showed that some of calcite and enstatite grains contain two-phase inclusion, which is most probably composed of liquid water and bubbles. This water should be primitive water responsible for aqueous alteration in an asteroid in the early solar system.

  19. 78 FR 64196 - Privacy Act Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ..., Biographical Files (78 FR 171). In that notice, the Department announced its intent to amend that system of..., Biographical Files. The notice of proposed amendment to this system of records was published in the Federal..., Biographical Files and Social Networks. The amendment serves to modify the system of records by...

  20. Quantitative photoacoustic blood oxygenation measurement of whole porcine blood samples using a multi-wavelength semiconductor laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Claus-Stefan; Mienkina, Martin P.; Brenner, Carsten; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Jörger, Manfred; Strauß, Andreas; Beckmann, Martin F.; Schmitz, Georg; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2011-07-01

    We present a photoacoustic measurement system based on semiconductor lasers for blood oxygenation measurements. It permits to use four different optical wavelengths (650nm, 808nm, 850nm, 905nm) to generate photoacoustic signals. As the optical extinction coefficient of oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin is different at specific wavelengths, a blood oxygenation measurement by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic laser system is feasible. Especially at 650nm, the clear difference between the extinction coefficients of the two hemoglobin derivates permits to determine the blood oxygenation in combination with other near infrared wavelengths. A linear model based on tabulated values of extinction coefficients for fully oxygenated and fully deoxygenated hemoglobin is presented. We used heparin stabilized whole porcine blood samples to model the optical behavior of human blood, as the optical absorption behavior of porcine hemoglobin does not differ significantly from human hemoglobin. To determine the real oxygen saturation values of the blood samples, we measured the partial oxygen pressure with an IRMA Trupoint Blood Analysis System. The oxygen saturation values were calculated from a dissociation curve for porcine blood. The results of the photoacoustic measurement are in qualitatively good agreement with the predicted linear model. Further, we analyze the abilities and the limitations of quantitative oxygenation measurements.

  1. Noninvasive biosensor and wireless interrogating system for glucose in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar-is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chirality of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin. It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or a laptop computer.

  2. Altering blood flow does not reveal differences between nitrogen and helium kinetics in brain or in skeletal miracle in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolette, David J; Upton, Richard N; Grant, Cliff

    2015-03-01

    In underwater diving, decompression schedules are based on compartmental models of nitrogen and helium tissue kinetics. However, these models are not based on direct measurements of nitrogen and helium kinetics. In isoflurane-anesthetized sheep, nitrogen and helium kinetics in the hind limb (n = 5) and brain (n = 5) were determined during helium-oxygen breathing and after return to nitrogen-oxygen breathing. Nitrogen and helium concentrations in arterial, femoral vein, and sagittal sinus blood samples were determined using headspace gas chromatography, and venous blood flows were monitored continuously using ultrasonic Doppler. The experiment was repeated at different states of hind limb blood flow and cerebral blood flow. Using arterial blood gas concentrations and blood flows as input, parameters and model selection criteria of various compartmental models of hind limb and brain were estimated by fitting to the observed venous gas concentrations. In both the hind limb and brain, nitrogen and helium kinetics were best fit by models with multiexponential kinetics. In the brain, there were no differences in nitrogen and helium kinetics. Hind limb models fit separately to the two gases indicated that nitrogen kinetics were slightly faster than helium, but models with the same kinetics for both gases fit the data well. In the hind limb and brain, the blood:tissue exchange of nitrogen is similar to that of helium. On the basis of these results, it is inappropriate to assign substantially different time constants for nitrogen and helium in all compartments in decompression algorithms. PMID:25525213

  3. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red blood cells) and to detect antibodies to blood group antigens. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test...

  4. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelao, Gennaro; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Perri, Anna Gina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used for local alarms, data collection and remote monitoring.

  5. Altered time structure of neuro-endocrine-immune system function in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carughi Stefano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset and the development of neoplastic disease may be influenced by many physiological, biological and immunological factors. The nervous, endocrine and immune system might act as an integrated unit to mantain body defense against this pathological process and reciprocal influences have been evidenced among hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pineal gland and immune system. In this study we evaluated differences among healthy subjects and subjects suffering from lung cancer in the 24-hour secretory profile of melatonin, cortisol, TRH, TSH, FT4, GH, IGF-1 and IL-2 and circadian variations of lymphocyte subpopulations. Methods In ten healthy male volunteers (age range 45-66 and ten male patients with untreated non small cell lung cancer (age range 46-65 we measured melatonin, cortisol, TRH, TSH, FT4, GH, IGF-1 and IL-2 serum levels and percentages of lymphocyte subpopulations on blood samples collected every four hours for 24 hours. One-way ANOVA between the timepoints for each variable and each group was performed to look for a time-effect, the presence of circadian rhythmicity was evaluated, MESOR, amplitude and acrophase values, mean diurnal levels and mean nocturnal levels were compared. Results A clear circadian rhythm was validated in the control group for hormone serum level and for lymphocyte subsets variation. Melatonin, TRH, TSH, GH, CD3, CD4, HLA-DR, CD20 and CD25 expressing cells presented circadian rhythmicity with acrophase during the night. Cortisol, CD8, CD8bright, CD8dim, CD16, TcRδ1 and δTcS1 presented circadian rhythmicity with acrophase in the morning/at noon. FT4, IGF-1 and IL-2 variation did not show circadian rhythmicity. In lung cancer patients cortisol, TRH, TSH and GH serum level and all the lymphocyte subsubsets variation (except for CD4 showed loss of circadian rhythmicity. MESOR of cortisol, TRH, GH, IL-2 and CD16 was increased, whereas MESOR of TSH, IGF-1, CD8, CD8bright, TcRδ1 and

  6. Development of inexpensive blood imaging systems: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kaiqin; Smith, Zachary J; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications in the developing world, such as malaria and anemia diagnosis, demand a change in the medical paradigm of expensive care given in central locations by highly trained professionals. There has been a recent explosion in optical technologies entering the consumer market through the widespread adoption of smartphones and LEDs. This technology commoditization has enabled the development of small, portable optical imaging systems at an unprecedentedly low cost. Here, we review the state-of-the-field of the application of these systems for low-cost blood imaging with an emphasis on cellular imaging systems. In addition to some promising results addressing specific clinical issues, an overview of the technology landscape is provided. We also discuss several key issues that need to be addressed before these technologies can be commercialized. PMID:26305840

  7. Development of inexpensive blood imaging systems: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kaiqin; Smith, Zachary J; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications in the developing world, such as malaria and anemia diagnosis, demand a change in the medical paradigm of expensive care given in central locations by highly trained professionals. There has been a recent explosion in optical technologies entering the consumer market through the widespread adoption of smartphones and LEDs. This technology commoditization has enabled the development of small, portable optical imaging systems at an unprecedentedly low cost. Here, we review the state-of-the-field of the application of these systems for low-cost blood imaging with an emphasis on cellular imaging systems. In addition to some promising results addressing specific clinical issues, an overview of the technology landscape is provided. We also discuss several key issues that need to be addressed before these technologies can be commercialized.

  8. Conjunctival microcirculatory blood flow is altered but not abolished in brain dead patients: a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Tamosuitis, Tomas; Pranskunas, Andrius; Balciuniene, Neringa; Pilvinis, Vidas; Boerma, E Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Background The conjunctival microcirculation has potential as a window to cerebral perfusion due to related blood supply, close anatomical proximity and easy accessibility for microcirculatory imaging technique, such as sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging. Our study aims to evaluate conjunctival and sublingual microcirculation in brain dead patients and to compare it with healthy volunteers in two diametrically opposed conditions: full stop versus normal arterial blood supply to the brain. Me...

  9. Rarefaction and blood pressure in systemic and pulmonary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The effects of vascular rarefaction (the loss of small arteries) on the circulation of blood are studied using a multiscale mathematical model that can predict blood flow and pressure in the systemic and pulmonary arteries. We augmented a model originally developed for the systemic arteries (Olufsen et al. 1998, 1999, 2000, 2004) to (a) predict flow and pressure in the pulmonary arteries, and (b) predict pressure propagation along the small arteries in the vascular beds. The systemic and pulmonary arteries are modelled as separate, bifurcating trees of compliant and tapering vessels. Each tree is divided into two parts representing the `large' and `small' arteries. Blood flow and pressure in the large arteries are predicted using a nonlinear cross-sectional area-averaged model for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube with inflow obtained from magnetic resonance measurements. Each terminal vessel within the network of the large arteries is coupled to a vascular bed of small `resistance' arteries, which are modelled as asymmetric structured trees with specified area and asymmetry ratios between the parent and daughter arteries. For the systemic circulation, each structured tree represents a specific vascular bed corresponding to major organs and limbs. For the pulmonary circulation, there are four vascular beds supplied by the interlobar arteries. This manuscript presents the first theoretical calculations of the propagation of the pressure and flow waves along systemic and pulmonary large and small arteries. Results for all networks were in agreement with published observations. Two studies were done with this model. First, we showed how rarefaction can be modelled by pruning the tree of arteries in the microvascular system. This was done by modulating parameters used for designing the structured trees. Results showed that rarefaction leads to increased mean and decreased pulse pressure in the large arteries. Second, we investigated the impact of decreasing vessel

  10. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and blood pressure in mature male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjanin, Sonja; Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2004-07-01

    Pregnant guinea pigs were treated with dexamethasone (1 mg kg(-1)) or vehicle on days 40-41, 50-51 and 60-61 of gestation, after which animals delivered normally. Adult male offspring were catheterized at 145 days of age and subjected to tests of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in basal and activated states. Animals exposed to dexamethasone in utero (mat-dex) exhibited increased hippocampus-to-brain weight ratio, increased adrenal-to-body weight ratio and increased mean arterial pressure. There were no effects on gestation length, birth weight and postnatal growth. There were no overall differences in diurnal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol profiles, though there were subtle differences during the subjective afternoon between control and mat-dex offspring. A significant decrease in initial ACTH suppression was observed following dexamethasone injection in mat-dex offspring compared to control offspring. Molecular analysis revealed significantly increased MR mRNA expression in the limbic system and particularly in the dentate gyrus in mat-dex offspring. In the anterior pituitary, both pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels were significantly elevated in mat-dex offspring. In conclusion, (1) repeated prenatal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) permanently programmes organ growth, blood pressure and HPA regulation in mature male offspring and these changes involve modification of corticosteroid receptor expression in the brain and pituitary; (2) the effects of prenatal sGC exposure on HPA function appear to change as a function of age, indicating the importance of investigating HPA and cardiovascular outcome at multiple time points throughout life.

  11. An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Paul E; Vidal, Julio; Garcia, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. Methods Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007–2008. These evaluations consisted of an update of the national registry of blood banks and visits to each blood bank from MINSA oversight teams. Information was collected on the condition of the blood bank personnel, equipment, supplies, and practices. Further, previously-collected blood at each blood bank was randomly selected and screened for TTI-causing pathogens. Results Uncovered in this investigation was a fragmented, under-equipped, and poorly-staffed blood collection and transfusion network, consisting of 241 independent blood banks and resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. Further, blood with evidence of TTI-causing pathogens (including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis) and set for transfusion was discovered at three separate blood banks as part of the random screening process. Conclusion Using the successful reorganizations of national blood supply systems in other Latin American countries as examples, Peru would be well-served to form large, high-volume, regional blood collection and transfusion centers, responsible for blood collection and screening for the entire country. The small, separate blood banks would then be transformed into a network of blood transfusion centers, not responsible for blood collection. This reorganization would allow Peru to better utilize its resources, standardize the blood collection and transfusion process, and increase voluntary donation, resulting in a safer, more abundant national blood product.

  12. ABO Blood Group System and Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyan Yu; Zhenggang Zhu; Jun Zhang; Min Yan; Bingya Liu; Jianian Zhang; Jun Ji; Zhiwei Wang; Lei Liu

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for m...

  13. Systems biology of stored blood cells: Can it help to extend the expiration date?

    OpenAIRE

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Bernhard Ø Palsson; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E.

    2012-01-01

    With increasingly stringent regulations regarding deferral and elimination of blood donors it will become increasingly important to extend the expiration date of blood components beyond the current allowed storage periods. One reason for the storage time limit for blood components is that platelets and red blood cells develop a condition called storage lesions during their storage in plastic blood containers. Systems biology provides comprehensive bio-chemical descriptions of organisms throug...

  14. Caffeine Alters Blood Potassium and Catecholamine Concentrations but not the Perception of Pain and Fatigue with a 1 km Cycling Sprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Cordingley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine has been used by some athletes to improve short-term high-intensity exercise performance; however, the literature is equivocal. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on plasma potassium and catecholamine concentrations, pain and fatigue perception, to determine whether potassium ion handling and altered perception related to the central nervous system are associated with enhanced performance during a 1 km cycling time trial.  Methods: Thirteen well trained men with a mean age of 27 ± 6 yrs (body mass: 76.4 ± 6.4 kg, height: 180 ± 7 cm, and max: 57.5 ± 4.6 ml·kg-1·min-1 were recruited.  Participants were randomized to a caffeine (5 mg·kg-1 or a placebo condition using a double blind, cross over design.  Results: Caffeine had no significant effects on the 1 km time-trial performance indicators of time (82.1 ± 2.4 vs. 81.9 ± 3.9s, peak (633.0 ± 83.6 vs. 638.7 ± 110.1 watts or average power (466.0 ± 37.3 vs. 467.5 ± 59.9 watts; caffeine and placebo conditions respectively.  In addition, caffeine had no significant effect on oxygen consumption ( (4.11 ± 0.24 vs 4.06 ± 0.29 L,the perception of pain (5.6 ± 2.4 vs. 5.5 ± 2.6 or fatigue (7.1 ± 1.8 vs.7.1 ± 1.8: caffeine and placebo conditions respectively.  There was a significantly greater increase in post-exercise blood lactate (p<0.05 and catecholamines (p<0.05 as well as a lower pre-exercise blood potassium concentration (p<0.05 in the caffeine condition. Conclusions: The results suggest that caffeine can enhance certain metabolic parameters, but these changes were unable to augment short-distance (1km, high-intensity cycling performance.Keywords: ergogenic, anaerobic exercise, performance, oxygen consumption

  15. Alteration of Proteasome System in Aging and Aging-Associated Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunxing Ding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proteasome system is crucial in protein metabolism involving in physiological and pathological developments, especially in aging and agingrelated disorders. Here we discussed the relationship of proteasome with other metabolic systems such as lysosome and ribosome as well as the alteration of proteasome system under oxidative stress, aging and other pathological conditions

  16. 75 FR 5604 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... to alter a system of records for Disability Claims of the Nursing Student Loan Program in the Bureau...). This system includes information on applicants for cancellation of health professions and nursing... this system of records: ``Disability Claims in the Nursing Student Loan Program, HHS/HRSA/BHPr''...

  17. Effect of hepatic blood flow alteration on the therapeutic effect of cryoablation in VX2 hepatic tumor rabbit: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of alteration of blood flow in the hepatic artery on the therapeutic effect of cryoablation in VX2 hepatic tumor rabbit model. Methods: Thirty rabbits with VX2 hepatic tumor were divided into three groups according to hepatic artery blood flow: complete occlusion of the hepatic artery(group A), partial occlusion of the hepatic artery (group B), and no occlusion of the hepatic artery (group C). With conventional CT scan and perfusion scan, the values of blood flow (BF) and blood volume(BV) of VX2 tumor were computed and the differences among the three groups were analyzed. After cryoablation, the animals were euthanized and the livers were removed. The hepatic tissue from the cryoablation area and surrounding area underwent both methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTY) diaphorase staining and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The gross pathology and histopathological changes were observed. Results: (1)The BF and BV in the three groups were: (7.23 + 2. 15 ) ml·100 g-1·min-1 and (1.63±0.52) ml/100 g in group A; (32.65±6.12) ml·100 g-1·min-1 and (9.32±2.63) ml/100 g in group B; (61.34±12.15) ml·100 g-1·min-1 and (17.51± 3.14) ml/100 g in group C, respectively. There were significant differences among the three groups in the BF and BV (F value was 452.16 and 421.33 in the BF and BV, respectively, P <0.01); (2) The maximum diameter of cryoablation-induced necrosis was (2.3±0.3)cm in group A, (1.5±0.2) cm in group B, and (0.8±0.1) cm in group C, respectively. The difference was significant among the groups (F value was 315.32,P <0.01). (3) There were well-defined frozen areas, bordering areas and normal surrounding areas in MTT staining. In group C, positive staining around some blood vessels could be seen. Conclusion: Alteration of the blood flow in the hepatic artery can affect the cryoablation efficacy. With the decrease of hepatic artery blood flow, the efficacy of cryoablation on liver tumor increased

  18. Vascular Alterations and Sexual Function in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Julie Impens

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction is common in systemic sclerosis (SSc. Male erectile dysfunction (MED has been reported in around 80% of subjects and more than half of female patients fulfill criteria for diagnosis as female sexual arousal Disorder (FSAD. While some evidence supports a role for cavernosal fibrosis, abundant data suggest that MED is yet another clinical feature of SSc related to vasculopathy. The contribution of vasculopathy to the more complex issues of female sexual dysfunction is less clear. Inhibitors of Type V phosphodiesterase are effective in men with MED secondary to SSc. Limited study in women suggests inconsistent effects on behavior (frequency but not on measures related to perfusion. Sexual activity is an important component of quality of life and an important domain for the caregiver to address; it is not clear that it warrants primary consideration as a consistent measure of scleroderma-related vasculopathy.

  19. Primary melanoma tumor inhibits metastasis through alterations in systemic hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, Jennifer M; Hague, M Nicole; McGowan, Patricia M; Tuck, Alan B; Chambers, Ann F

    2016-08-01

    Progression from a primary tumor to distant metastases requires extensive interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment. The primary tumor is not only the source of metastatic cells but also can also modulate host responses to these cells, leading to an enhancement or inhibition of metastasis. Tumor-mediated stimulation of bone marrow can result in pre-metastatic niche formation and increased metastasis. However, a primary tumor can also inhibit metastasis through concomitant tumor resistance-inhibition of metastatic growth by existing tumor mass. Here, we report that the presence of a B16F10 primary tumor significantly restricted numbers and sizes of experimental lung metastases through reduction of circulating platelets and reduced formation of metastatic tumor cell-associated thrombi. Tumor-bearing mice displayed splenomegaly, correlated with primary tumor size and platelet count. Reduction in platelet numbers in tumor-bearing animals was responsible for metastatic inhibition, as restoration of platelet numbers using isolated platelets re-established both tumor cell-associated thrombus formation and experimental metastasis. Consumption of platelets due to a B16F10 primary tumor is a form of concomitant tumor resistance and demonstrates the systemic impact of a growing tumor. Understanding the interplay between primary tumors and metastases is essential, as clarification of concomitant tumor resistance mechanisms may allow inhibition of metastatic growth following tumor resection. Key messages Mice with a primary B16F10 tumor had reduced metastasis vs. mice without a primary tumor. Tumor-bearing mice had splenomegaly and fewer platelets and tumor-associated thrombi. Restoring platelets restored tumor-associated thrombi and increased metastasis. This work shows the impact that a primary tumor can have on systemic metastasis. Understanding these interactions may lead to improved ways to inhibit metastasis. PMID:27048169

  20. Aging in blood vessels. Medicinal agents FOR systemic arterial hypertension in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Soto, María Elena; Pastelín, Gustavo; Guarner-Lans, Verónica

    2014-11-01

    Aging impairs blood vessel function and leads to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying the age-related endothelial, smooth muscle and extracellular matrix vascular dysfunction are discussed. Vascular dysfunction is caused by: (1) Oxidative stress enhancement. (2) Reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, by diminished NO synthesis and/or augmented NO scavenging. (3) Production of vasoconstrictor/vasodilator factor imbalances. (4) Low-grade pro-inflammatory environment. (5) Impaired angiogenesis. (6) Endothelial cell senescence. The aging process in vascular smooth muscle is characterized by: (1) Altered replicating potential. (2) Change in cellular phenotype. (3) Changes in responsiveness to contracting and relaxing mediators. (4) Changes in intracellular signaling functions. Systemic arterial hypertension is an age-dependent disorder, and almost half of the elderly human population is hypertensive. The influence of hypertension on the aging cardiovascular system has been studied in models of hypertensive rats. Treatment for hypertension is recommended in the elderly. Lifestyle modifications, natural compounds and hormone therapies are useful for initial stages and as supporting treatment with medication but evidence from clinical trials in this population is needed. Since all antihypertensive agents can lower blood pressure in the elderly, therapy should be based on its potential side effects and drug interactions.

  1. ADAMTS1 alters blood vessel morphology and TSP1 levels in LNCaP and LNCaP-19 prostate tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreased expression of the angiogenesis inhibitor ADAMTS1 (ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 1) has previously been reported during prostate cancer progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of ADAMTS1 in prostate tumors. ADAMTS1 was downregulated by shRNA technology in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent), originally expressing ADAMTS1, and was upregulated by transfection in its subline LNCaP-19 (androgen-independent), expressing low levels of ADAMTS1. Cells were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice and tumor growth, microvessel density (MVD), blood vessel morphology, pericyte coverage and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) were studied in the tumor xenografts. Modified expression of ADAMTS1 resulted in altered blood vessel morphology in the tumors. Low expression levels of ADAMTS1 were associated with small diameter blood vessels both in LNCaP and LNCaP-19 tumors, while high levels of ADAMTS1 were associated with larger vessels. In addition, TSP1 levels in the tumor xenografts were inversely related to ADAMTS1 expression. MVD and pericyte coverage were not affected. Moreover, upregulation of ADAMTS1 inhibited tumor growth of LNCaP-19, as evidenced by delayed tumor establishment. In contrast, downregulation of ADAMTS1 in LNCaP resulted in reduced tumor growth rate. The present study demonstrates that ADAMTS1 is an important regulatory factor of angiogenesis and tumor growth in prostate tumors, where modified ADAMTS1 expression resulted in markedly changed blood vessel morphology, possibly related to altered TSP1 levels

  2. General Anesthesia and Altered States of Arousal: A Systems Neuroscience Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emery N Brown; Purdon, Patrick L.; Van Dort, Christa J.

    2011-01-01

    Placing a patient in a state of general anesthesia is crucial for safely and humanely performing most surgical and many nonsurgical procedures. How anesthetic drugs create the state of general anesthesia is considered a major mystery of modern medicine. Unconsciousness, induced by altered arousal and/or cognition, is perhaps the most fascinating behavioral state of general anesthesia. We perform a systems neuroscience analysis of the altered arousal states induced by five classes of intraveno...

  3. Twenty-four-hour exposure to altered blood flow modifies endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilgers, Rob H P; Janssen, Ger M J; Fazzi, Gregorio E;

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that changes in arterial blood flow modify the function of endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels [calcium-activated K+ channel (K(Ca)), small-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel (SK3), and intermediate calcium-activated K+ channel (IK1)] before arterial structural...

  4. Passive leg movements and passive cycling do not alter arterial leg blood flow in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerds, W. ter; Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subjects with a spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease-related secondary complications, such as pressure ulcers and attenuated wound healing. It has been suggested that passive exercise enhances blood flow via mechanical pump effects or refl

  5. How should Canada fund the blood system? An evaluation of the chargeback proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; MacDougall, Laura; Pinard, Brigitte; Amin, Mohammad A; Fergusson, Dean; Graham, Ian; Blajchman, Morris; Freedman, John; Angus, Doug; Hébert, Paul C

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian blood system is a critical interface between public health and the delivery of patient care. The organization of the blood system plays a vital role in ensuring that its functions are effectively fulfilled. Previous structural problems in the blood system led to serious health consequences by contributing to the blood transmission of hepatitis C and HIV in the 1980s. To address these problems, the Canadian blood system has recently undergone considerable organizational reform. However, policy-makers, particularly in Ontario, are considering further structural reform specifically focusing on how the blood system is financed. This move for reform is partially motivated by the rising cost of blood products and the perception that the current system has failed to provide incentives for the efficient use of these products. The suggested payment mechanism, a "chargeback system," involves the provincial ministries of health funding hospitals so that hospitals can directly purchase blood products from the Canadian Blood Services. This approach would replace the current system in which the provinces directly fund the Canadian Blood Services, which in turn provides blood products free of charge to hospitals. Based on a review of documents and stakeholder interviews, we report the potential advantages and disadvantages of a change to a new system of funding and make recommendations on how provinces should proceed. PMID:12846144

  6. Blood Lead Concentration Is Not Altered by High Dose Vitamin D Supplementation in Children and Young Adults with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Herold, Rachel A; Schall, Joan I; Wagner, Julia L; Dougherty, Kelly A; Zemel, Babette S; Rutstein, Richard M; Stallings, Virginia A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Optimal vitamin D status is known to have beneficial health effects and vitamin D supplements are commonly used. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation may increase blood lead in children and adults with previous lead exposure. The objective was to determine the safety regarding lead toxicity during 12 weeks of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation in children and young adults with HIV. METHODS Subjects with HIV (age 8 to 24 yrs) were randomized to vitamin D3 supplementation of 4000 IU/day or 7000 IU/day and followed at 6 and 12 weeks for changes in 25D and whole blood lead concentration. This was a secondary analysis of a larger study of vitamin D3 supplementation in children and adolescents with HIV. RESULTS In 44 subjects (75% African American), the baseline mean ± SD serum 25D was 48.3 ± 18.6 nmol/L. 50% of subjects had baseline serum 25D 5.0 μg/dL at baseline or during subsequent visits. Whole blood lead and 25D were not correlated at baseline, and were negatively correlated after 12 weeks of supplementation (p= 0.014). Whole blood lead did not differ between those receiving 4000 IU versus 7000 IU of vitamin D3. CONCLUSION High dose vitamin D3 supplementation and the concomitant increased serum 25D did not result in increased whole blood lead concentration in this sample of children and young adults living in a northeastern urban city. PMID:23059649

  7. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit

  8. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiernan, T.; Entine, G.; Stump, D.A.; Prough, D.S.

    1988-02-01

    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit.

  9. Relationships between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and sympathetic nervous system activity: a short review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazzullo, P; Barbato, A; Vuotto, P; Galletti, F

    2001-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies provided evidence in favor of complex relationships between sympathetic nervous system activity and salt-sensitivity of blood pressure. Genetic and acquired metabolic alterations associated with a tendency to retain salt and water may generate salt-sensitivity of blood pressure and shift the pressure-natriuresis curve to the right, promoting an increase in blood pressure. Sympathetic activation is a factor contributing to this result. Chronic high dietary salt intake is followed by a derangement in mechanisms of central sympathetic inhibition and then by an enhanced peripheral sympathetic tone. This, in turn, may generate salt-sensitivity of blood pressure by affecting renal hemodynamics, tubular sodium and water handling. Insulin resistance and sodium and water retention are prompted by high-fat (as well as high carbohydrate) diets, and by an increase in body fat mass. Also, aging is a condition of impaired interactions of the above factors. A gain in weight due to reduced physical activity, not followed by a parallel decrease in calorie intake, brings to a fall in insulin sensitivity. In many cases, the natural age-related decline of renal function is associated with a reduced physical exercise, hyperinsulinemia and sodium retention; sympathetic nervous system activity is enhanced and causes an increase in blood pressure. PMID:11270585

  10. Code development of the national hemovigilance system and expansion strategies for hospital blood banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jeongeun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aims of this study were to develop reportable event codes that are applicable to the national hemovigilance systems for hospital blood banks, and to present expansion strategies for the blood banks. Materials and Methods : The data were obtained from a literature review and expert consultation, followed by adding to and revising the established hemovigilance code system and guidelines to develop reportable event codes for hospital blood banks. The Medical Error Reporting System-Transfusion Medicine developed in the US and other codes of reportable events were added to the Korean version of the Biologic Products Deviation Report (BPDR developed by the Korean Red Cross Blood Safety Administration, then using these codes, mapping work was conducted. We deduced outcomes suitable for practice, referred to the results of the advisory councils, and conducted a survey with experts and blood banks practitioners. Results : We developed reportable event codes that were applicable to hospital blood banks and could cover blood safety - from blood product safety to blood transfusion safety - and also presented expansion strategies for hospital blood banks. Conclusion : It was necessary to add 10 major categories to the blood transfusion safety stage and 97 reportable event codes to the blood safety stage. Contextualized solutions were presented on 9 categories of expansion strategies of hemovigilance system for the hospital blood banks.

  11. AKT1 E17K mutation profiling in breast cancer: prevalence, concurrent oncogenic alterations, and blood-based detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Marion; Anzeneder, Tobias; Schulz, Anke; Beckmann, Georg; Byrne, Annette T.; Jeffers, Michael; Pena, Carol; Politz, Oliver; Köchert, Karl; Vonk, Richardus; Reischl, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The single hotspot mutation AKT1 [G49A:E17K] has been described in several cancers, with the highest incidence observed in breast cancer. However, its precise role in disease etiology remains unknown.Methods: We analyzed more than 600 breast cancer tumor samples and circulating tumor DNA for AKT1 E17K and alterations in other cancer-associated genes using Beads, Emulsions, Amplification, and Magnetics digital polymerase chain reaction technology and targeted exome sequencing.Resul...

  12. AKT1 (E17K) mutation profiling in breast cancer: prevalence, concurrent oncogenic alterations, and blood-based detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Marion; Anzeneder, Tobias; Schulz, Anke; Beckmann, Georg; Byrne, Annette T.; Jeffers, Michael; Pena, Carol; Politz, Oliver; Köchert, Karl; Vonk, Richardus; Reischl, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The single hotspot mutation AKT1 [G49A:E17K] has been described in several cancers, with the highest incidence observed in breast cancer. However, its precise role in disease etiology remains unknown. METHODS: We analyzed more than 600 breast cancer tumor samples and circulating tumor DNA for AKT1 (E17K) and alterations in other cancer-associated genes using Beads, Emulsions, Amplification, and Magnetics digital polymerase chain reaction technology and targeted exome sequencing...

  13. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyautdin, Renad; Khalin, Igor; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail; Haron, Muhammad Huzaimi; Kuznetsov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The protective properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review comprehensively discusses the functional morphology of the BBB and the challenges that must be overcome by drug-delivery systems and elaborates on the potential targets, mechanisms, and formulations to improve drug delivery to the CNS.

  14. Chemokine mediated monocyte trafficking into the retina: role of inflammation in alteration of the blood-retinal barrier in diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Rangasamy

    Full Text Available Inflammation in the diabetic retina is mediated by leukocyte adhesion to the retinal vasculature and alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB. We investigated the role of chemokines in the alteration of the BRB in diabetes. Animals were made diabetic by streptozotocin injection and analyzed for gene expression and monocyte/macrophage infiltration. The expression of CCL2 (chemokine ligand 2 was significantly up-regulated in the retinas of rats with 4 and 8 weeks of diabetes and also in human retinal endothelial cells treated with high glucose and glucose flux. Additionally, diabetes or intraocular injection of recombinant CCL2 resulted in increased expression of the macrophage marker, F4/80. Cell culture impedance sensing studies showed that purified CCL2 was unable to alter the integrity of the human retinal endothelial cell barrier, whereas monocyte conditioned medium resulted in significant reduction in cell resistance, suggesting the relevance of CCL2 in early immune cell recruitment for subsequent barrier alterations. Further, using Cx3cr1-GFP mice, we found that intraocular injection of CCL2 increased retinal GFP+ monocyte/macrophage infiltration. When these mice were made diabetic, increased infiltration of monocytes/macrophages was also present in retinal tissues. Diabetes and CCL2 injection also induced activation of retinal microglia in these animals. Quantification by flow cytometry demonstrated a two-fold increase of CX3CR1+/CD11b+ (monocyte/macrophage and microglia cells in retinas of wildtype diabetic animals in comparison to control non-diabetic ones. Using CCL2 knockout (Ccl2-/- mice, we show a significant reduction in retinal vascular leakage and monocyte infiltration following induction of diabetes indicating the importance of this chemokine in alteration of the BRB. Thus, CCL2 may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

  15. Alterations in the formation of endogeneous spleen-colony and peripheric blood in dose-range of haematologic radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haematologic consequences of gamma-irradiation were studied in CR-pair forming mice (B10LP/Sn and C57B1/10ScSn). Great attention was paid to the determination of standard haematologic values of animals of different ages. The radiosensitivity of blood cells was found to decrease in the following order: large lymphocytes > thrombocytes > small lymphocytes > granulocytes > reticulocytes > erythrocytes. It is concluded that the capacity of extramedullar haematopoiesis is very small. (L.E.)

  16. Plasma PGE-2 levels and altered cytokine profiles in adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschowitz Edward A

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction PGE-2 is constitutively produced by many non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC and its immunosuppressive effects have been linked to altered immune responses in lung cancer. We asked whether elevated levels of plasma PGE-2 correlated with monocyte IL10 production in the NSCLC environment. Looking for correlation in NSCLC patient blood we assayed plasma from NSCLC patients for PGE2 and IL10; we further evaluated production of IL10 by adherent mononuclear cells from a subset of these patients looking for an altered cytokine profile. Results Our initial in vitro experiments show that monocyte IL10 induction correlates with tumor cell PGE-2 production, confirming similar reports in the literature. Data show plasma PGE-2 levels in 38 NSCLC patients are elevated compared to normal controls. Plasma IL10 levels were not significantly elevated; however, adherent monocytes derived from NSCLC patient blood did produce significantly more IL10 in 24 hr primary culture than those from normal controls (p Conclusions Elevated plasma PGE-2 and monocyte IL10 production are associated with NSCLC. The biological significance to elevated PGE-2 levels in NSCLC are unclear. Further investigation of each as a nonspecific marker for NSCLC tumor is warranted.

  17. Alterations of blood flow pattern after triple stent endovascular treatment of saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm: a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAHIR RICHARD DE OLIVEIRA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to determine the blood flow pattern changes after endovascular treatment of saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm with triple stent. Methods: we conducted a hemodynamic study of seven Landrace and Large White pigs with saccular aneurysms of the infrarenal abdominal aorta artificially produced according to the technique described. The animals were subjected to triple stenting for endovascular aneurysm. We evaluated the pattern of blood flow by duplex scan before and after stent implantation. We used the non-paired Mann-Whitney test for statistical analysis. Results: there was a significant decrease in the average systolic velocity, from 127.4cm/s in the pre-stent period to 69.81cm/s in the post-stent phase. There was also change in the flow pattern from turbulent in the aneurysmal sac to laminate intra-stent. Conclusion: there were changes in the blood flow pattern of saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm after endovascular treatment with triple stent.

  18. Alteration of Peripheral Blood T-Reg Cells and Cytokines Production in Angiography Personnel Exposed to Scattered X-Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Torkabadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiocardiography is an X-ray examination of the blood vessels or chambers of the heart. Cardiologists and staff members applying this procedure are exposed to high levels of scattered radiation. In our previous study the incidence of unstable chromosomal aberrations and cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei were found to be significantly higher in exposed individuals than the age and sex matched controls. In the present study we assessed cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the above cases and the percentage of Treg cells. According to film dosimeter analysis, personnels received 0.25-15 mSv during the previous year (average of 3 mSv/y. Isolated PBMCs from the test and control groups were stimulated with Phorbol Myristate Acetate/ Ionomycin (PMA/I. Cytokine production was measured in the supernatants of cultured lymphocytes. The percentage of Treg cells was studied by flow cytometry. The production of IL-10 and IL-5 was significantly down-regulated in the test group compared to the control group. In contrast, IL-12 was up-regulated. Yet, no statistically significant difference was found for IFN- γ between two groups. In addition, we found higher percentage of CD4+CD25+bright Treg cells in the study group compared to the controls. Taken together, it was shown that low doses of scattered X-rays could skew cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in favour of inflammatory response causing the increase of Treg cells.

  19. Evolutionary genetics of the human Rh blood group system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, George H; Xue, Yali; Smith, Richard S; Meyer, Wynn K; Calışkan, Minal; Yanez-Cuna, Omar; Lee, Arthur S; Gutiérrez-Arcelus, María; Ober, Carole; Hollox, Edward J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Lee, Charles

    2012-07-01

    The evolutionary history of variation in the human Rh blood group system, determined by variants in the RHD and RHCE genes, has long been an unresolved puzzle in human genetics. Prior to medical treatments and interventions developed in the last century, the D-positive (RhD positive) children of D-negative (RhD negative) women were at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn, if the mother produced anti-D antibodies following sensitization to the blood of a previous D-positive child. Given the deleterious fitness consequences of this disease, the appreciable frequencies in European populations of the responsible RHD gene deletion variant (for example, 0.43 in our study) seem surprising. In this study, we used new molecular and genomic data generated from four HapMap population samples to test the idea that positive selection for an as-of-yet unknown fitness benefit of the RHD deletion may have offset the otherwise negative fitness effects of hemolytic disease of the newborn. We found no evidence that positive natural selection affected the frequency of the RHD deletion. Thus, the initial rise to intermediate frequency of the RHD deletion in European populations may simply be explained by genetic drift/founder effect, or by an older or more complex sweep that we are insufficiently powered to detect. However, our simulations recapitulate previous findings that selection on the RHD deletion is frequency dependent and weak or absent near 0.5. Therefore, once such a frequency was achieved, it could have been maintained by a relatively small amount of genetic drift. We unexpectedly observed evidence for positive selection on the C allele of RHCE in non-African populations (on chromosomes with intact copies of the RHD gene) in the form of an unusually high F( ST ) value and the high frequency of a single haplotype carrying the C allele. RhCE function is not well understood, but the C/c antigenic variant is clinically relevant and can result in hemolytic disease of the

  20. Hematobiochemical alterations and direct blood polymerase chain reaction detection of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ganguly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine hemato-biochemical changes and rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Blood samples from lactating crossbred cows (n=40 between 3 and 7 years of age and showing clinical signs of tropical theileriosis were collected, with or without anticoagulant, and analyzed for tropical theileriosis by direct smear, direct blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection of merozoite-piroplasm surface antigen (Tams1 gene specific amplicon, estimation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Healthy crossbred cows (n=6, examined free from hemoprotozoan infections were included as control. Results: The infected crossbred cows revealed significantly (p<0.001 lower values of total erythrocytic counts (4.46±0.2× 106/μL, hemoglobin (Hb 6.025±0.39 g%, packed cell volume (17.05±1.1%, mean corpuscular volume (37.94±1.70 fL and mean corpuscular Hb (13.5±0.48 pg; p<0.002 compared with healthy control. The serum samples of infected cows revealed profound (p<0.05 hyponatremia (Na 133.21±2.36 mEq/l and hypocalcemia (Ca 8.39±0.34 mg%. Infected crossbred cows showed a significant increase (p<0.05 of mean serum activity of alanine aminotransferase (61.45±13.36 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (146.1±20.97 U/L, blood urea nitrogen (28.26±3.90 mg%, creatinine (1.55±0.13 mg%, direct bilirubin (0.33±0.04 mg%; p<0.001 and lactate dehydrogenase (3001.32±167.0 U/L; p<001. Blood direct PCR revealed a 721-bp fragment amplified from the target gene encoding 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata using specific primer pairs. This assay was positive for all the infected animals. Conclusion: The assessments of hemato-biochemical parameters in T. annulata infected crossbred cows may be useful in understanding disease pathogenesis, prognosis and corrective measures for supportive therapy. Moreover, blood direct PCR can reliably be used for rapid detection of T. annulata

  1. The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in ABO blood groups and Rh type system

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Singh Nigam; Savitri Singh; Viplesh Kaur; Sumit Giri; Ravi Prakash Kaushal

    2014-01-01

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C viru...

  2. Nailfold capillaroscopy and blood flow laser-doppler analysis of the microvascular damage in systemic sclerosis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pizzorni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is characterized by altered microvascular structure and function. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC is the tool to evaluate capillary morphological structure and laser-Doppler Blood flowmetry (LDF can be used to estimate cutaneous blood flow of microvessels. The aim of this study was to investigate possible relationships between capillary morphology and blood flow in SSc. Methods: 27 SSc patients and 12 healthy subjects were enrolled. SSc microvascular involvement, as evaluated by NVC, was classified in three different patterns (“Early”, “Active”, “Late”. LDF analysis was performed at the II, III, IV, V hand fingers in both hands and both at cutaneous temperature and at 36°C. Statistical evaluation was carried out by non-parametric procedures. Results: Blood flow was found significantly lower in SSc patients when compared with healthy subjects (p<0.05. The heating of the probe to 36°C induced a significant increase in peripheral blood flow in all subjects compared to baseline (p <0.05, however, the amount of variation was significantly lower in patients with SSc, compared with healthy controls (p <0.05. The SSc patients with NVC “Late” pattern, showed lower values of peripheral blood flow than patients with NVC “Active” or “Early” patterns (p<0.05. Moreover, a negative correlation between the tissue perfusion score and the progression of the SSc microangiopathy was observed, as well as between the tissue perfusion and the duration of the Raynaud’s phenomenon (p <0.03. Conclusions: LDF can be employed to evaluate blood perfusion in the microvascular circulation in SSc patients. The blood flow changes observed with the LDF seem to correlate with the severity of microvascular damage in SSc as detected by NVC.

  3. Improved metabolic health alters host metabolism in parallel with changes in systemic xeno-metabolites of gut origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Campbell

    Full Text Available Novel plasma metabolite patterns reflective of improved metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, fitness, reduced body weight were identified before and after a 14-17 wk weight loss and exercise intervention in sedentary, obese insulin-resistant women. To control for potential confounding effects of diet- or microbiome-derived molecules on the systemic metabolome, sampling was during a tightly-controlled feeding test week paradigm. Pairwise and multivariate analysis revealed intervention- and insulin-sensitivity associated: (1 Changes in plasma xeno-metabolites ("non-self" metabolites of dietary or gut microbial origin following an oral glucose tolerance test (e.g. higher post-OGTT propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate [tricarballylic acid] or in the overnight-fasted state (e.g., lower γ-tocopherol; (2 Increased indices of saturated very long chain fatty acid elongation capacity; (3 Increased post-OGTT α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG, fasting α-KG inversely correlated with Matsuda index, and altered patterns of malate, pyruvate and glutamine hypothesized to stem from improved mitochondrial efficiency and more robust oxidation of glucose. The results support a working model in which improved metabolic health modifies host metabolism in parallel with altering systemic exposure to xeno-metabolites. This highlights that interpretations regarding the origins of peripheral blood or urinary "signatures" of insulin resistance and metabolic health must consider the potentially important contribution of gut-derived metabolites toward the host's metabolome.

  4. Improved metabolic health alters host metabolism in parallel with changes in systemic xeno-metabolites of gut origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Caitlin; Grapov, Dmitry; Fiehn, Oliver; Chandler, Carol J; Burnett, Dustin J; Souza, Elaine C; Casazza, Gretchen A; Gustafson, Mary B; Keim, Nancy L; Newman, John W; Hunter, Gary R; Fernandez, Jose R; Garvey, W Timothy; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Hoppel, Charles L; Meissen, John K; Take, Kohei; Adams, Sean H

    2014-01-01

    Novel plasma metabolite patterns reflective of improved metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, fitness, reduced body weight) were identified before and after a 14-17 wk weight loss and exercise intervention in sedentary, obese insulin-resistant women. To control for potential confounding effects of diet- or microbiome-derived molecules on the systemic metabolome, sampling was during a tightly-controlled feeding test week paradigm. Pairwise and multivariate analysis revealed intervention- and insulin-sensitivity associated: (1) Changes in plasma xeno-metabolites ("non-self" metabolites of dietary or gut microbial origin) following an oral glucose tolerance test (e.g. higher post-OGTT propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate [tricarballylic acid]) or in the overnight-fasted state (e.g., lower γ-tocopherol); (2) Increased indices of saturated very long chain fatty acid elongation capacity; (3) Increased post-OGTT α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG), fasting α-KG inversely correlated with Matsuda index, and altered patterns of malate, pyruvate and glutamine hypothesized to stem from improved mitochondrial efficiency and more robust oxidation of glucose. The results support a working model in which improved metabolic health modifies host metabolism in parallel with altering systemic exposure to xeno-metabolites. This highlights that interpretations regarding the origins of peripheral blood or urinary "signatures" of insulin resistance and metabolic health must consider the potentially important contribution of gut-derived metabolites toward the host's metabolome. PMID:24416208

  5. SIBAS: a blood bank information system and its 5-year implementation at Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing Nan; Chao, Sam; Chui Dong, Ming

    2007-05-01

    Automation systems and information technology can greatly help medical facilities to improve their working efficiency and optimize the whole workflow. This article surveys electronic information management in blood donation and transfusion service, and explores the rationale and archetype of blood bank information systems, then exemplifies a successful in-running system-Sistema Integrado de Bancos de Sangue (SIBAS), which is developed by the Institute of Systems and Computer Engineering of Macau (INESC-Macau) in cooperation with the Macau Blood Transfusion Center (CTS-Macau). Its implementation and the related lessons are briefly introduced too. In essence, this article is oriented to serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems.

  6. Modelling of the Blood Coagulation Cascade in an In Vitro Flow System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Efendiev, Messoud A.;

    2010-01-01

    We derive a mathematical model of a part of the blood coagulation cascade set up in a perfusion experiment. Our purpose is to simulate the influence of blood flow and diffusion on the blood coagulation pathway. The resulting model consists of a system of partial differential equations taking into...

  7. A STUDY OF DISTRIBUTION OF ABO AND RH BLOOD GROUPS SYSTEM AMONG BLOOD DONORS AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Up till now about 400red cells antigen have been identified. The majority are inherited by Mendelian fashion. The ABO and Rh blood group system was first to be identified and is most important for blood transfusion purposes. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the frequency of ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups in a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective data based study was conducted at blood bank , Chirayu Medical College and Hospital, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India over a period of four years. RESULTS: Study includes a record of 3188 (28.54% voluntary and 7982 (71.46% replacement donors attending blood bank from February 2011 to January 2015. Out of 11170, 10723(95.998% were male and 447(4.002% female donors. The most common blood group was found to be B in 4013 (35.927% donors followed by O in 3462 (30.994% donors , an in 2516 (22.524% donors and AB in 1179 (10.555% donors. Out of these, 10659(95.425% donors were Rh - positive while 511 ( 4.575 % were Rh - negative.

  8. The Alterations of Serum Cortisol Level and Blood Cell Count in Male Rats after a Short Term Exposure to Burned Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mohsen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most lantern mantles contain low levels of radioactive thorium. Although radioactive lantern mantles present a minimal radiation health hazard, it is generally believed when inhaled or ingested, it can be dangerous. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of short term exposure to radioactive lantern mantle on serum cortisol level and blood count.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2007-2009 in the school of medicine of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. Twenty eight rats were divided randomly into two groups of 14 animals each. The first group was exposed to 600 mg burned radioactive lantern mantle powder (activity of 800Bq for 24 hours and inhaled radon released from mantles. The second group was exposed to non-radioactive lantern mantle powder at the same interval. Paired t-test was used to evaluate the difference in the means of cortisol and blood cell count in both groups. P<0.05 was considered as the significance level.Results: Short term exposure of animals to radioactive lantern mantle powder led to a statistically significant decreased cortisol level, while no statistically significant decrease was found in animals that were exposed to non-radioactive mantle powder. Furthermore, a significant reduction was shown in post-exposure counts of WBC in the case group.Conclusions: Despite alteration of serum cortisol level, this study could not show stimulatory effects in some blood counts

  9. System accuracy of blood glucose monitoring systems: impact of use by patients and ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christina; Haug, Cornelia; Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-10-01

    For self-monitoring of blood glucose by people with diabetes, the reliability of the measured blood glucose values is a prerequisite in order to ensure correct therapeutic decisions. Requirements for system accuracy are defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the standard EN ISO 15197:2003. However, even a system with high analytical quality is not a guarantee for accurate and reliable measurement results. Under routine life conditions, blood glucose measurement results are affected by several factors. First, the act of performing measurements as well as the handling of the system may entail numerous possible error sources, such as traces of glucose-containing products on the fingertips, the use of deteriorated test strips, or the incorrect storage of test strips. Second, ambient and sampling conditions such as high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen, ambient temperature, and the use of alternate test sites can have an influence on measurement results. Therefore, the user-friendliness of a system and the quality of the manufacturer's labeling to reduce the risk of handling errors are also important aspects in ensuring reliable and accurate measurement results. In addition, the analytical performance of systems should be less prone to user errors and ambient conditions. Finally, people with diabetes must be aware of the information and instructions in the manufacturer's labeling and must be able to measure and interpret blood glucose results correctly. PMID:23883407

  10. Clinical laboratory comparison of the 10-ml isolator blood culture system with BACTEC radiometric blood culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, J A; Manzella, J P; McConville, J H

    1984-10-01

    The efficiency of the 10-ml Isolator (E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc.) for recovery of pathogens from blood was compared with that of BACTEC 6B and 7C media (Johnston Laboratories) by using 4,195 cultures from 1,662 patients. During the first phase of the study, BACTEC bottles were inoculated with 3 ml of blood; in the second phase, bottles were inoculated with 5 ml. The objectives were to compare results with similar blood volumes used for the detection of anaerobes as well as similar overall volumes and to determine the relative sensitivity of BACTEC media inoculated with the minimum and maximum volumes suggested by the manufacturer. From 180 patients, 391 significant isolates were recovered, 354 (91%) with the Isolator and 304 (78%) with the bottles. Isolators recovered 31 (15%) and 19 (18%) more pathogens overall than did the two-bottle system inoculated with 3 and 5 ml of blood, respectively, including 30 (36%) and 10 (34%) more Enterobacteriaceae. Recovery of anaerobes was greater in the BACTEC anaerobic medium, but only when its inoculum was increased to 5 ml. No significant differences existed between the two systems in pathogen detection times or detection of polymicrobic bacteremia. The Isolator contamination rate (8.3%) was approximately 4 times that of the bottles. The number of CFU of pathogen per milliliter of blood, blood volume sampled, and number of Isolators collected were more important than antimicrobial agent pretreatment in contributing to patient bacteremia of fungemia undetected by the Isolator. The Isolator appeared to be a practical alternative for recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic pathogens from the blood. PMID:6386871

  11. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2016-07-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  12. Effect of X-irradiation on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate in rats: alteration of the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was designed to evaluate the effects of brain irradiation on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier for methotrexate (MTX). Female WAG/Rij rats were cranially irradiated with a single dose of 20 gy of 300 kV X-rays. At different times (1-15 days) after the exposure the rats were injected intravenously with MTX (25 mg/kg body wt). Irradiation had hardly any effect on the MTX concentrations in the plasma, heart and kidneys as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. However, irradiation resulted in a significant increase of MTX (determined by 125I-radioimmunoassay) in brain tissue per gram wet weight (187.6 +- 17.9 pmol/g vs 46.4 +- 29.3 pmol/g in unirradiated brain). This change in permeability of the blood-brain barrier lasted for about 9 days. The MTX elimination from the irradiated brain was the same as that from the non-irradiated brain. This indicates that only the MTX uptake and not the elimination by the brain was affected by the irradiation treatment. (author)

  13. Development of a blood extraction device for a miniature SMBG system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yoshimitsu; Uenoya, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2007-12-01

    In this study, a vacuum driven blood extraction device for the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was newly developed. The health monitoring system (HMS) for SMBG consists of a blood extracting system and a drug delivery system (DDS). Our HMS extracts the blood through a micro-needle and measures the blood sugar level accurately. The main purpose of this work in HMS development are, 1) minimally invasive blood extraction, 2) a handy type automatic blood extraction, and 3) a continuous measurement of the blood sugar level. We adopted a vacuum driven type blood extraction mechanism. The vacuum driven blood extraction unit consists of a) a puncture part to open the vacuum part, b) an extraction part, and c) a measurement part. The puncture and extraction parts consist of a minimally invasive micro-needle, whose inner diameter is less than 100μm and made of titanium alloy, and a vacuum chamber, which is covered by a very thin membrane. A SMA spring and two bias springs are employed to penetrate the blood vessel through the skin with the micro-needle, and to execute the punctuation to slash the membrane in order to open the vacuum chamber. The blood is extracted into the vacuum chamber, seeps into the unwoven cloth according to the capillary principle, and is finally deposited on the blood sugar level sensor. Results show, our vacuum driven blood extraction device succeeded in extracting 12.7μl of human blood within 2 seconds. The blood sugar level was measured successfully by using a glucose enzyme sensor. Finally, the availability of our HMS device was confirmed.

  14. Mobile Personal Health System for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Mena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ARVmobile v1.0 is a multiplatform mobile personal health monitor (PHM application for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP monitoring that has the potential to aid in the acquisition and analysis of detailed profile of ABP and heart rate (HR, improve the early detection and intervention of hypertension, and detect potential abnormal BP and HR levels for timely medical feedback. The PHM system consisted of ABP sensor to detect BP and HR signals and smartphone as receiver to collect the transmitted digital data and process them to provide immediate personalized information to the user. Android and Blackberry platforms were developed to detect and alert of potential abnormal values, offer friendly graphical user interface for elderly people, and provide feedback to professional healthcare providers via e-mail. ABP data were obtained from twenty-one healthy individuals (>51 years to test the utility of the PHM application. The ARVmobile v1.0 was able to reliably receive and process the ABP readings from the volunteers. The preliminary results demonstrate that the ARVmobile 1.0 application could be used to perform a detailed profile of ABP and HR in an ordinary daily life environment, bedsides of estimating potential diagnostic thresholds of abnormal BP variability measured as average real variability.

  15. Natural Functional SNPs in miR-155 Alter Its Expression Level, Blood Cell Counts, and Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; He, Huabin; Liu, An; Liu, Huazhen; Huang, Haibo; Zhao, Changzhi; Jing, Lu; Ni, Juan; Yin, Lilin; Hu, Suqin; Wu, Hui; Li, Xinyun; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    miR-155 has been confirmed to be a key factor in immune responses in humans and other mammals. Therefore, investigation of variations in miR-155 could be useful for understanding the differences in immunity between individuals. In this study, four SNPs in miR-155 were identified in mice (Mus musculus) and humans (Homo sapiens). In mice, the four SNPs were closely linked and formed two miR-155 haplotypes (A and B). Ten distinct types of blood parameters were associated with miR-155 expression under normal conditions. Additionally, 4 and 14 blood parameters were significantly different between these two genotypes under normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation conditions, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-155, the inflammatory response to LPS stimulation, and the lethal ratio following Salmonella typhimurium infection were significantly increased in mice harboring the AA genotype. Further, two SNPs, one in the loop region and the other near the 3′ terminal of pre-miR-155, were confirmed to be responsible for the differential expression of miR-155 in mice. Interestingly, two additional SNPs, one in the loop region and the other in the middle of miR-155*, modulated the function of miR-155 in humans. Predictions of secondary RNA structure using RNAfold showed that these SNPs affected the structure of miR-155 in both mice and humans. Our results provide novel evidence of the natural functional SNPs of miR-155 in both mice and humans, which may affect the expression levels of mature miR-155 by modulating its secondary structure. The SNPs of human miR-155 may be considered as causal mutations for some immune-related diseases in the clinic. The two genotypes of mice could be used as natural models for studying the mechanisms of immune diseases caused by abnormal expression of miR-155 in humans. PMID:27532002

  16. Follicular Viability and Histological Alterations after nAuto-transplantation of Dog Ovaries by Experimentally Inducing Blood Sinus on Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazhir Khoram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Currently, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are considered most effective methods forcancer treatment, however these strategies often result in fertility problems. A favorable alternativeto prevent fertility loss in cancer patients is the cryopreservation and transplantation of sexualtissues (ovaries and/or testes. There is a low rate of fertilization following cryopreservation ofovaries prior to implantation. Therefore, in our opinion, this low rate is caused by instable bloodflow during organ transplantation. Thus, this study researches a canine ovarian model that focuses ondirect exposure of ovaries with blood in an experimentally induced sinus-like cavity. We implantedthis tissue on the muscular layer of the stomach, which is its most vascularized region.Materials and Methods: Ovarian transplantation was conducted on T1 animals (n=5, bilateralovariectomy was performed on T2 animals (n=5, unilateral ovariectomy was conducted on T3 casesand animals in the control-sham group (n=5 did not undergo ovariectomy or transplantation.Results: All isotransplanted ovaries survived. Ovaries resumed follicular growth andrevascularization. Transplanted ovaries contained 75%-76% of survived small follicles (pre antralafter 60 days. The ovarian granulosa cells showed considerable resistance against ischemia. Afterday 30 no statistically significant differences in the level of estradiol and progesterone were observedbetween T1 animals and the T3 group. T1 animals showed considerably high levels of progesteroneand estradiol in comparison to T2 cases.Conclusion: This study showed that using blood sinus method for ovarian isotransplantation helpsovarian tissue to survive from post implantation ischemia which confirms with normal folliclespresentation and intact endocrine function of the implanted ovaries.

  17. 75 FR 34755 - Privacy Act; Proposed Alteration to Existing Systems of Records, Single Family Mortgage Asset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Mortgage Asset Recovery Technology (SMART/A80H) AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... amended, notice is given of an alteration to the Department's Office of Housing records system, SMART, HUD... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  18. 75 FR 60763 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a notice to alter the system of records for the National Practitioner Data Bank for Adverse... Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) to collect and release certain information relating to the professional... as amended by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA), expands reporting to the NPDB...

  19. Microbial community changes in biological phosphate-removal systems on altering sludge phosphorus content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, WT; Linning, KD; Nakamura, K; Mino, T; Matsuo, T; Forney, LJ

    2000-01-01

    Biomarkers (respiratory quinones and cellular fatty acids) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes were used to characterize the microbial community structure of lab-scale enhanced biological phosphate-removal (EBPR) systems in response to altering sludge p

  20. 76 FR 4454 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ..., ``Medical and Test Record Results of Individuals Involved in NIOSH Laboratory Studies, HHS/CDC/NIOSH.'' HHS...: NIOSH proposes to alter System of Records, No. 09-20-0117, ``Medical and Test Record Results of... composite data summaries to support the development of criteria for occupational safety and health...

  1. Development of an accurate 3D blood vessel searching system using NIR light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yoshifumi; Katayama, Tsutao; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2010-02-01

    Health monitoring system (HMS) and drug delivery system (DDS) require accurate puncture by needle for automatic blood sampling. In this study, we develop a miniature and high accurate automatic 3D blood vessel searching system. The size of detecting system is 40x25x10 mm. Our searching system use Near-Infrared (NIR) LEDs, CMOS camera modules and image processing units. We employ the stereo method for searching system to determine 3D blood vessel location. Blood vessel visualization system adopts hemoglobin's absorption characterization of NIR light. NIR LED is set behind the finger and it irradiates Near Infrared light for the finger. CMOS camera modules are set in front of the finger and it captures clear blood vessel images. Two dimensional location of the blood vessel is detected by luminance distribution of the image and its depth is calculated by the stereo method. 3D blood vessel location is automatically detected by our image processing system. To examine the accuracy of our detecting system, we carried out experiments using finger phantoms with blood vessel diameters, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0mm, at the depths, 0.5 ~ 2.0 mm, under the artificial tissue surface. Experimental results of depth obtained by our detecting system showed good agreements with given depths, and the availability of this system is confirmed.

  2. Postpartal immunometabolic gene network expression and function in blood neutrophils are altered in response to prepartal energy intake and postpartal intramammary inflammatory challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, K M; Graugnard, D E; Khan, M J; Mukesh, M; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of over-feeding energy prepartum on blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) response remains unclear. Cows fed controlled (CON; 1.34Mcal/kg of dry matter) or excess energy (OVE; 1.62Mcal/kg dry matter) during the dry period (~45d before expected calving date) received an intramammary (IM) challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during the postpartal period to determine the effects of IM LPS and prepartal diet on the expression of key genes associated with immunometabolic response in blood PMN. Feed intake and daily milk yield were recorded throughout the study period. At 7d in milk (DIM), all cows received LPS (200µg) into 1 rear mammary quarter. Blood PMN were isolated at 7, 14, and 30 DIM, as well as before (0h) and after (12h) IM LPS challenge for gene expression analysis using quantitative real time PCR. Phagocytosis capabilities in vitro were assessed at 7, 14, and 30 DIM. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with repeated measures. No differences in feed intake and milk yield were observed between OVE- and CON-fed cows. As expected, IM LPS challenge altered the expression of genes associated with the immune response (e.g., 1.9- and 1.8-fold for SELL and TLR2, respectively), metabolism (e.g., 1.8- and -1.8-fold for LDHA and SLC2A1, respectively), and transcription (e.g., 1.1- and 1.7-fold for NCOR1 and PPARD, respectively). At 12h postchallenge, an upregulation of TLR2 (1.8-fold), HIF1A (1.9-fold), and NFKB1 (1.5-fold) was observed for OVE rather than CON. At 7 DIM, S100A9 tended (2.2-fold) to be upregulated for OVE rather than CON. At 14 DIM, OVE resulted in lower PMN phagocytosis and an upregulation of NCOR2 (1.6-fold) and RXRA (1.9-fold) compared with CON-fed cows. At 30 DIM, an upregulation of MPO (3.5-fold) and PLA2G4A (1.5-fold) and a tendency for RXRA (1.7-fold) was observed for OVE- rather than CON-fed cows. Our results suggest that IM LPS challenge altered gene expression associated with metabolism in PMN

  3. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Shinoda, Masaki; Sakamoto, Setsu; Senda, Michio [Inst. of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan); Yamamoto, Seiichi [Kobe City Coll. of Technology (Japan); Tarutani, Kazumasa; Minato, Kotaro [Nara Inst. of Science and Technology, Ikoma (Japan). Graduate School of Information Science

    2002-11-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with {sup 15}O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for {sup 68}Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was increased. The count rate characteristic of the PD and COINC was linear up to 8 kcps. The reproducibility of sensitivity for nylon tube geometry of COINC was the smallest (coefficient of variation (C.V.)=1.00%) among the three. PD was the weights the least (3.5 kg) among the three, which is convenient for clinical use. Each detector has unique characteristics derived from its own structure. Although the performance of all three detectors meets clinical requirement, PD had the highest physical performance. (author)

  4. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  5. A novel automated discontinuous venous blood monitoring system for ex vivo glucose determination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, R; Feichtner, F; Köhler, H; Bodenlenz, M; Plank, J; Wutte, A; Mader, J K; Ellmerer, M; Hellmich, R; Wedig, H; Hainisch, R; Pieber, T R; Schaupp, L

    2009-03-15

    Intensive insulin therapy reduces mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients but imposes great demands on medical staff who must take frequent blood samples for the determination of glucose levels. A solution to this resourcing problem would be provided by an automated blood monitoring system. The aim of the present clinical study was to evaluate such a system comprising an automatic blood sampling unit linked to a glucose biosensor. Our approach was to determine the correlation and system error of the sampling unit alone and of the combined system with respect to reference levels over 12h in humans. Two venous cannulae were inserted to connect the automatic and reference systems to the subjects. Blood samples were taken at 15 and 30 min intervals. The median Pearson coefficient of correlation between manually and automatically withdrawn blood samples was 0.982 for the sampling unit alone and 0.950 for the complete system. The biosensor had a linear range up to 20 mmoll(-1) and a 95% response time of Titration Error Grid analysis suggested an acceptable treatment in 99.56% of cases. Implementation of a "Keep Vein Open" saline infusion into the automated blood sampling system reduced blood withdrawal failures through occluded catheters fourfold. In summary, automated blood sampling from a peripheral vein coupled with automatic glucose determination is a promising alternative to frequent manual blood sampling. PMID:19135351

  6. Eucommia bark (Du-Zhong improves diabetic nephropathy without altering blood glucose in type 1-like diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu HS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ho-Shan Niu,1 I-Min Liu,2 Chiang-Shan Niu,1 Po-Ming Ku,3,4 Chao-Tien Hsu,5 Juei-Tang Cheng4,6 1Department of Nursing, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Hualien City, 2Department of Pharmacy & Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung County, 3Department of Cardiology, 4Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Yong Kang, Tainan City, 5Department of Pathology, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, 6Institute of Medical Science, College of Health Science, Chang Jung Christian University, Guei-Ren, Tainan City, Taiwan Background: Eucommia bark, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver barks (Du-Zhong in Mandarin, is an herb used for renal dysfunction in Chinese traditional medicine. In an attempt to develop this herb as a treatment for diabetic nephropathy (DN, we investigated the effects of Du-Zhong on renal dysfunction in type 1-like diabetic rats. Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ was used to induce type 1-like diabetes in rats (STZ-diabetic rats. In addition to hyperglycemia, STZ-diabetic rats showed significant nephropathy, including higher plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and renal fibrosis. Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue was applied to characterize the changes in potential signals related to nephropathy. Results: Oral administration of Du-Zhong (1 g/kg/day to STZ-diabetic rats for 20 days not only decreased the plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine but also improved renal fibrosis, whereas the plasma glucose level was not changed. The higher expressions of protein levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β and connective tissue growth factor in diabetic rats were markedly attenuated by Du-Zhong. The increased phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in STZ-diabetic rats was also reduced by Du-Zhong. However, Du-Zhong cannot reverse the hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 in the diabetic kidney

  7. Dietary bovine lactoferrin alters mucosal and systemic immune cell responses in neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Sarah S; Reznikov, Elizabeth A; Contractor, Nikhat; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-04-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional immune protein found at high concentrations in human milk. Herein, the effect of dietary bovine LF (bLF) on mucosal and systemic immune development was investigated. Colostrum-deprived piglets were fed formula containing 130 [control (Ctrl)], 367 (LF1), or 1300 (LF3) mg of bLF/(kg body weight · d). To provide passive immunity, sow serum was provided orally during the first 36 h of life. Blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and ascending colon (Asc) contents were collected on day 7 (n = 10-14/group) and day 14 (n = 10-12/group). Immune cell populations were quantified by flow cytometry and immunoglobulins (Igs) were measured by ELISA. Additionally, immune cells were isolated from spleen and MLNs (n = 7/group) on day 7 and stimulated ex vivo with phytohemagglutinin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ± LF for 72 h. Secreted cytokine concentrations were quantified by multiplex assay. Lymphocyte populations [cluster determinant (CD)4, CD8, and natural killer cells] developed normally and were unaffected by dietary bLF. LF3 piglets tended to have 1.4 to 2 times more serum IgG than Ctrl piglets (P = 0.07) or LF1 piglets (P = 0.03), but IgA in Asc contents was unaffected by bLF. Asc IgA was 4 times higher on day 14 than day 7. Spleen cells from LF3 piglets produced 2 times more interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α ex vivo than those from Ctrl or LF1 piglets. MLN cells from LF1 and LF3 piglets produced 40% more IL-10 and tended to produce 40% more IL-6 (P = 0.05) than those from Ctrl piglets. However, ex vivo bLF did not affect the cytokine response of spleen or MLN cells to LPS. In summary, dietary bLF alters the capacity of MLN and spleen immune cells to respond to stimulation, supporting a role for LF in the initiation of protective immune responses in these immunologically challenged neonates. PMID:24553692

  8. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle;

    2016-01-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland’s only operating metalliferous mine until its...... closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multistage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in...... the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783–1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite...

  9. Alterations in blood glucose and plasma glucagon concentrations during deep brain stimulation in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene eDiepenbroek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAc is an effective therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and is currently under investigation as a treatment for eating disorders. DBS of this area is associated with altered food intake and pharmacological treatment of OCD is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore we examined if DBS of the NAc-shell (sNAc influences glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to DBS, or sham stimulation, for a period of one hour. To assess the effects of stimulation on blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, blood samples were drawn before, during and after stimulation. Subsequently, all animals were used for quantitative assessment of Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA using computerized image analysis. DBS of the sNAc rapidly increased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucose while sham stimulation and DBS outside the sNAc were ineffective. In addition, the increase in glucose was dependent on DBS intensity. In contrast, the DBS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations was independent of intensity and region, indicating that the observed DBS-induced metabolic changes were not due to corticosterone release. Stimulation of the sNAc with 200 μA increased Fos immunoreactivity in the LHA compared to sham or 100 μA stimulated animals. These data show that DBS of the sNAc alters glucose metabolism in a region- and intensity dependent manner in association with neuronal activation in the LHA. Moreover, these data illustrate the need to monitor changes in glucose metabolism during DBS-treatment of OCD patients.

  10. Alterations in blood glucose and plasma glucagon concentrations during deep brain stimulation in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepenbroek, Charlene; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Eggels, Leslie; Rijnsburger, Merel; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Kalsbeek, Andries; Denys, Damiaan; Fliers, Eric; Serlie, Mireille J; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an effective therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and is currently under investigation as a treatment for eating disorders. DBS of this area is associated with altered food intake and pharmacological treatment of OCD is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore we examined if DBS of the NAc-shell (sNAc) influences glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to DBS, or sham stimulation, for a period of 1 h. To assess the effects of stimulation on blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, blood samples were drawn before, during and after stimulation. Subsequently, all animals were used for quantitative assessment of Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) using computerized image analysis. DBS of the sNAc rapidly increased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucose while sham stimulation and DBS outside the sNAc were ineffective. In addition, the increase in glucose was dependent on DBS intensity. In contrast, the DBS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations was independent of intensity and region, indicating that the observed DBS-induced metabolic changes were not due to corticosterone release. Stimulation of the sNAc with 200 μA increased Fos immunoreactivity in the LHA compared to sham or 100 μA stimulated animals. These data show that DBS of the sNAc alters glucose metabolism in a region- and intensity- dependent manner in association with neuronal activation in the LHA. Moreover, these data illustrate the need to monitor changes in glucose metabolism during DBS-treatment of OCD patients. PMID:24339800

  11. Duffy Blood Group System and the malaria adaptation process in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gledson Barbosa de Carvalho; Glauber Barbosa de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is an acute infectious disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. The antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System, in addition to incompatibilities in transfusions and hemolytic disease of the newborn, are of great interest in medicine due to their association with the invasion of red blood cells by the parasite Plasmodium vivax. For invasions to occur an interaction between the parasites and antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System is necessary. In Caucasians six antigens a...

  12. An upgraded camera-based imaging system for mapping venous blood oxygenation in human skin tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Xiao; Qiu, Lina; Leotta, Daniel F.

    2016-07-01

    A camera-based imaging system was previously developed for mapping venous blood oxygenation in human skin. However, several limitations were realized in later applications, which could lead to either significant bias in the estimated oxygen saturation value or poor spatial resolution in the map of the oxygen saturation. To overcome these issues, an upgraded system was developed using improved modeling and image processing algorithms. In the modeling, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was used to verify the effectiveness of the ratio-to-ratio method for semi-infinite and two-layer skin models, and then the relationship between the venous oxygen saturation and the ratio-to-ratio was determined. The improved image processing algorithms included surface curvature correction and motion compensation. The curvature correction is necessary when the imaged skin surface is uneven. The motion compensation is critical for the imaging system because surface motion is inevitable when the venous volume alteration is induced by cuff inflation. In addition to the modeling and image processing algorithms in the upgraded system, a ring light guide was used to achieve perpendicular and uniform incidence of light. Cross-polarization detection was also adopted to suppress surface specular reflection. The upgraded system was applied to mapping of venous oxygen saturation in the palm, opisthenar and forearm of human subjects. The spatial resolution of the oxygenation map achieved is much better than that of the original system. In addition, the mean values of the venous oxygen saturation for the three locations were verified with a commercial near-infrared spectroscopy system and were consistent with previously published data.

  13. Effects of chemical alteration on fracture mechanical properties in hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, O. A.; Eichhubl, P.; Olson, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Fault and fracture networks often control the distribution of fluids and heat in hydrothermal and epithermal systems, and in related geothermal and mineral resources. Additional chemical influences on conduit evolution are well documented, with dissolution and precipitation of mineral species potentially changing the permeability of fault-facture networks. Less well understood are the impacts of chemical alteration on the mechanical properties governing fracture growth and fracture network geometry. We use double-torsion (DT) load relaxation tests under ambient air conditions to measure the mode-I fracture toughness (KIC) and subcritical fracture growth index (SCI) of variably altered rock samples obtained from outcrop in Dixie Valley, NV. Samples from southern Dixie Valley include 1) weakly altered granite, characterized by minor sericite in plagioclase, albitization and vacuolization of feldspars, and incomplete replacement of biotite with chlorite, and 2) granite from an area of locally intense propylitic alteration with chlorite-calcite-hematite-epidote assemblages. We also evaluated samples of completely silicified gabbro obtained from the Dixie Comstock epithermal gold deposit. In the weakly altered granite KIC and SCI are 1.3 ±0.2 MPam1/2 (n=8) and 59 ±25 (n=29), respectively. In the propylitic assemblage KIC is reduced to 0.6 ±0.1 MPam1/2 (n=11), and the SCI increased to 75 ±36 (n = 33). In both cases, the altered materials have lower fracture toughness and higher SCI than is reported for common geomechanical standards such as Westerly Granite (KIC ~1.7 MPam1/2; SCI ~48). Preliminary analysis of the silicified gabbro shows a significant increase in fracture toughness, 3.6 ±0.4 MPam1/2 (n=2), and SCI, 102 ±45 (n=19), compared to published values for gabbro (2.9 MPam1/2 and SCI = 32). These results suggest that mineralogical and textural changes associated with different alteration assemblages may result in spatially variable rates of fracture

  14. 75 FR 25904 - Privacy Act of 1974; as Amended; Proposed Alteration to an Existing Privacy Act System of Records...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... THE SYSTEM: This system covers persons who allegedly fail to meet our qualifications to serve as a... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; as Amended; Proposed Alteration to an Existing Privacy Act System of Records, Housekeeping Changes, and New Routine Uses AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Altered...

  15. Non-ABO blood group systems phenotyping in non-human primates for blood banking laboratory and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, G; Martínez-Alarcon, L; Quereda, J J; Mrowiec, A; Funes, C; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A; Majado, M J

    2013-04-01

    Some biomedical research procedures, such as organ xenotransplantation, usually require intensive hemotherapy. Knowledge of the whole phenotype of blood donor and graft could be useful in the field of xenotransplantation. Human and simian-type categories of blood groups have been established and they can be tested by standard methods used for human blood grouping. The aim of this work was to study the incidence of non-ABO blood group systems in different species of non-human primates, which are employed in biomedical research. The phenotype of Rh, Lewis, Kidd, Kell, MNSs, Lutheran, P and Duffy antigens was investigated in olive baboon (n = 48), chacma baboon (n = 9), Guinea baboon (n = 14), Rhesus macaque (n = 38) and squirrel monkey (n = 30) by using commercial microtyping cards. Kell, Lutheran, Kidd and Duffy antigens have been detected in all species, Rh in squirrel monkey, MNSs in rhesus macaque and squirrel monkey, and Lewis in baboon and rhesus macaque. There were differences in frequency and haemagglutination scores between species regardless of their gender and age. The main differences were found in squirrel monkey when compared with baboons and macaques. This typing system provides a tool to assess the presence of antigens in animals used for experimental procedures, such as xenotransplantation and xenotransfusion. PMID:23563364

  16. The adrenergic α2 antagonist atipamezole alters the behavioural effects of pramipexole and increases pramipexole concentration in blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, P N; Fletcher, P J; Wilson, V S; Remington, G J

    2016-04-15

    Pramipexole is a dopaminergic agonist used in Parkinson's disease treatment. It is thought to exert its therapeutic and side effects through actions on dopamine D3 receptors. In a recent study, we found that at doses occupying D3 but not D2 receptors pramipexole reduced locomotion and operant responding for primary and conditioned reinforcement. These effects, however, were not blocked by a D3 receptor antagonist and were present in D3 knockout mice, suggesting non-D3 receptor mechanisms. Among the next highest affinity binding sites of pramipexole are adrenergic α2 receptors. Here we explored α2 receptor involvement in the behavioural effects of pramipexole. We found that the α2 antagonist atipamezole, which was itself behaviourally silent, counteracted pramipexole's reduction of locomotion, but not operant responding for water or a conditioned reinforcer. The resulting behavioural profile was similar to that of a higher dose of pramipexole, leading to the hypothesize that atipamezole mediates its behavioural effects by increasing pramipexole effective dose. In support of this hypothesis, we found that atipamezole increased pramipexole concentration in blood plasma. This is not likely due to an effect on drug metabolism since pramipexole is not known to undergo metabolic transformation. Future work should examine two alternative hypotheses; that pramipexole plasma concentration is elevated as the result of 1) competition with atipamezole for renal excretion, or 2) atipamezole blockade of peripheral α2 binding sites, thereby preventing pramipexole distribution to α2-rich tissues. The suggestion of adrenergic effects of pramipexole is important in light of recent interest in adrenergic pathophysiology in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26976325

  17. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for [Na+]i. Five rat RBC specimens had [Na+]i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [6,6-2H2]glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in [Na+]i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in [Na+]i in the two groups of patients. The [Na+]i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the [Na+]i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism

  18. Altered cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood monocytes across the menstrual cycle in primary dysmenorrhea: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyue Ma

    Full Text Available Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined. In this paper, we compared 84 common cytokine gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from six primary dysmenorrheic young women and three unaffected controls on the seventh day before (secretory phase, and the first (menstrual phase and the fifth (regenerative phase days of menstruation, using a real-time PCR array assay combined with pattern recognition and gene function annotation methods. Comparisons between dysmenorrhea and normal control groups identified 11 (nine increased and two decreased, 14 (five increased and nine decreased, and 15 (seven increased and eight decreased genes with ≥ 2-fold difference in expression (P<0.05 in the three phases of menstruation, respectively. In the menstrual phase, genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL6, and IL8 were up-regulated, and genes encoding TGF-β superfamily members (BMP4, BMP6, GDF5, GDF11, LEFTY2, NODAL, and MSTN were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed an excessive inflammatory response and insufficient TGF-β superfamily member signals with anti-inflammatory consequences, which may directly contribute to menstrual pain. In the secretory and regenerative phases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of growth factors were also observed. These factors may be involved in the regulation of decidualization, endometrium breakdown and repair, and indirectly exacerbate primary dysmenorrhea. This first study of cytokine gene expression profiles in PBMCs from young primary dysmenorrheic women demonstrates a shift in the balance between expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β superfamily members across the whole menstrual cycle, underlying the peripheral immunologic features of primary dysmenorrhea.

  19. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, R.S.; Song, S.K.; Ling, C.S.; Ackerman, J.J.; Karl, I.E. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ((Na+)i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for (Na+)i. Five rat RBC specimens had (Na+)i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing (6,6-2H2)glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in (Na+)i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in (Na+)i in the two groups of patients. The (Na+)i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the (Na+)i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism.

  20. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  1. Experimental alteration of molybdenite: evaluation of the Re-Os system, infrared spectroscopic profile and polytype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Nara, Masayuki; Takano, Bokuichiro; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to clarify the effect of alteration on Re-Os system, near infrared (NIR)-infrared (IR) spectroscopic characteristics and polytype of a natural molybdenite mineral (MoS 2). The molybdenite sample was placed in H 2O and various media of 0.1 mol/L NaCl, NaHCO 3, CaCl 2, and AlCl 3 solutions, and heated in a sealed quartz tube at a temperature of 180°C for 20 d. The unaltered and altered samples were subsequently used for analysis of Re and Os, NIR microscopic observation, and NIR-IR spectroscopy, and microfocus X-ray diffraction (XRD). Molybdenites subjected to NaCl and NaHCO 3 solutions give younger Re-Os ages than that of the original unaltered molybdenite. No significant changes in d spacing and width of micro-XRD patterns can be found in these altered molybdenite, indicating the possibility of Re-Os fractionation without significant structural conversion of molybdenite mineral. These results strongly suggest that the Re-Os system in molybdenite would be frequently disturbed if it has experienced alteration, because alteration by the low salinity (<1%), low temperature (˜180°C) hydrothermal solution containing NaCl and/or CO 2 is commonly found in the natural environment. We maintain, therefore, that one set of analyses of Re and Os in a sample is not enough to determine whether the obtained Re-Os age has been affected by postdepositional alteration, but systematic replicate analyses are indispensable. Additionally, pulverizing all the collected molybdenite in a sample might give misleading results because portions, which have been altered and experienced Re-Os fractionation, may possibly mix into the undisturbed sample and be homogenized. The molybdenite used for the experiment was originally opaque under NIR light. Infrared microscopic and spectroscopic profiles show that some parts of the molybdenite subjected to CaCl 2 and AlCl 3 solutions become transparent to NIR. Increased NIR transmittance is possibly attributed to the

  2. Acute whole-body irradiation, even at moderate dose, induces alterations in blood-brain-barrier permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A radiation-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown has been evoked, but clearly demonstrated only at high doses of ionizing radiations. By using two protocols, we have searched an impairment in BBB integrity induced by moderate doses. First, the effects of irradiation on the permeability of striatal BBB to [3H]AIBA and [14C]sucrose were investigated in rats by using brain microdialysis. 32 rats, irradiated at 4.5Gy were serially experimented from 0 to 24 hours, from 24 to 48 hours and at later delays after exposure. 32 sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Second, the entry of pyridostigmine (PYR would not be expected to cross the BBB) into the brain was investigated in mice subjected to (neutron-g) exposure at 0.7Gy or 4Gy. For each dose 120 animals were irradiated and 120 sham-irradiated mice were included. At different delays after exposure, 10 mice were injected with 0.9% NaCl (control) or PYR bromide (0.1 mg/kg). Mice were killed 10min after injection and striatum, cortex and hippocampus were quickly dissected. Penetration of the drug into the brain was examined by measurement of AChE activity. Concerning microdialysis protocol, no late modification of the permeability of BBB was observed. But, in the course of the initial syndrome, we observed a transient increase of the permeability to the two markers, between the third and the 17th hour after exposure. A secondary transient 'opening' of the BBB to [14C] sucrose was noticed about 28 hours following irradiation with no modification of the permeability to [3H]AIBA. Concerning the BBB permeability to PYR, by comparing irradiated-PYR mice to sham-PYR mice, a decrease of AChE activity in the three cerebral areas was noted 48 hours after exposure at 4 Gy ; at 0.7 Gy this decrease is noted in the striatum only. In conclusion, our experiments by using two animal models, two types of radiations, and different tracers show modifications of the BBB permeability after moderate doses whole

  3. [ABO system blood group ratios in patients with neuroinfections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudometov, Iu P; Umanskiĭ, K G; Ashmarina, E E; Andreeva, L S

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of the ABO blood groups in 2009 patients including 1441 ones suffering from etiologically diverse neuroinfections was studied. Certain correlations between the nosological forms and groups of the diseases on the one hand, and the blood factors on the other are demonstrated. The data obtained point to a certain role of hereditary predisposition in the genesis of the neuroinfections. This predisposition predetermines the risk of the illnesses and the gravity of their course, the fact, which is of a practical importance for the clinician.

  4. An altered intestinal mucosal microbiome in HIV-1 infection is associated with mucosal and systemic immune activation and endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, S M; Lee, E J; Kotter, C V; Austin, G L; Dong, Z; Hecht, D K; Gianella, S; Siewe, B; Smith, D M; Landay, A L; Robertson, C E; Frank, D N; Wilson, C C

    2014-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection disrupts the intestinal immune system, leading to microbial translocation and systemic immune activation. We investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the intestinal microbiome and its association with mucosal T-cell and dendritic cell (DC) frequency and activation, as well as with levels of systemic T-cell activation, inflammation, and microbial translocation. Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing was performed on colon biopsies and fecal samples from subjects with chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection and uninfected control subjects. Colon biopsies of HIV-1-infected subjects had increased abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased abundances of Firmicutes compared with uninfected donors. Furthermore at the genus level, a significant increase in Prevotella and decrease in Bacteroides was observed in HIV-1-infected subjects, indicating a disruption in the Bacteroidetes bacterial community structure. This HIV-1-associated increase in Prevotella abundance was associated with increased numbers of activated colonic T cells and myeloid DCs. Principal coordinates analysis demonstrated an HIV-1-related change in the microbiome that was associated with increased mucosal cellular immune activation, microbial translocation, and blood T-cell activation. These observations suggest that an important relationship exists between altered mucosal bacterial communities and intestinal inflammation during chronic HIV-1 infection. PMID:24399150

  5. A Novel Ex Ovo Banding Technique to Alter Intracardiac Hemodynamics in an Embryonic Chicken System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vinal; Junor, Lorain; Balhaj, Marwa; Eberth, John F; Potts, Jay D

    2016-01-01

    The new model presented here can be used to understand the influence of hemodynamics on specific cardiac developmental processes, at the cellular and molecular level. To alter intracardiac hemodynamics, fertilized chicken eggs are incubated in a humidified chamber to obtain embryos of the desired stage (HH17). Once this developmental stage is achieved, the embryo is maintained ex ovo and hemodynamics in the embryonic heart are altered by partially constricting the outflow tract (OFT) with a surgical suture at the junction of the OFT and ventricle (OVJ). Control embryos are also cultured ex ovo but are not subjected to the surgical intervention. Banded and control embryos are then incubated in a humidified incubator for the desired period of time, after which 2D ultrasound is employed to analyze the change in blood flow velocity at the OVJ as a result of OFT banding. Once embryos are maintained ex ovo, it is important to ensure adequate hydration in the incubation chamber so as to prevent drying and eventually embryo death. Using this new banded model, it is now possible to perform analyses of changes in the expression of key players involved in valve development and to understand the role of hemodynamics on cellular responses in vivo, which could not be achieved previously. PMID:27213265

  6. Mechanisms underlying phase lag between systemic arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Terry B J; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, Cheryl C H; Hsu, Hung-Yi; Wong, Wen-Jang; Sheng, Wen-Yung; Hu, Han-Hwa

    2003-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms underlying the phase lag between oscillations in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), ABP and CBFV signals were recorded noninvasively from normal volunteers who lay quietly in a supine position. Mean ABP (MAP) and CBFV (MFV) were calculated beat-to-beat by means of integration. Cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing MAP with MFV. Frequency domain analysis of MAP, MFV and CVR signals revealed very-low frequency (VLF, 0.016-0.04 Hz), low-frequency (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz), and high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz) components. The transfer phase of MAP-CVR coupling in the LF and HF range was frequency-dependent, which is equivalent to a time delay of 2 s. However, the transfer phase differed in the CVR-MFV coupling in that the phase was distributed around 180 degrees across the LF and HF ranges. Cross-correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between MAP-CVR coupling, with MAP leading by 2 s, and a negative relationship between CVR-MFV coupling, with CVR leading by 0.3 s. We concluded that the phase lag between oscillations in ABP and CBFV was chiefly contributed to by the starting latency of cerebral autoregulation (i.e. cerebral vasomotion, revealed by MAP-CVR coupling). Moreover, the negative correlation of the CVR-MFV coupling could offer a different explanation for the physiologic significance of the phase lead of CBFV-ABP oscillations.

  7. [Sequence of venous blood flow alterations in patients after recently endured acute thrombosis of lower-limb deep veins based on the findings of ultrasonographic duplex scanning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkovskiĭ, A A; Zudin, A M; Aleksandrova, E S

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the sequence of alterations in the venous blood flow to have occurred within the time frame of one year after sustained acute thrombosis of the lower-limb deep veins, which was carried out using the standard technique of ultrasonographic duplex scanning. A total of thirty-two 24-to-62-year-old patients presenting with newly onset acute phlebothrombosis were followed up. All the patients were sequentially examined at 2 days, 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months after the manifestation of the initial clinical signs of the disease. Amongst the parameters to determine were the patency of the deep veins and the condition of the valvular apparatus of the deep, superficial and communicant veins. According to the obtained findings, it was as early as at the first stage of the phlebohaemodynamic alterations after the endured thrombosis, i. e., during the acute period of the disease, that seven (21.9%) patients were found to have developed valvular insufficiency of the communicant veins of the cms, manifesting itself in the formation of a horizontal veno-venous reflux, and 6 months later, these events were observed to have occurred in all the patients examined (100%). Afterwards, the second stage of the phlebohaemodynamic alterations was, simultaneously with the process of recanalization of the thrombotic masses in the deep veins, specifically characterized by the formation of valvular insufficiency of the latter, manifesting itself in the form of the development of a deep vertical veno-venous reflux, which was revealed at month six after the onset of the disease in 56.3% of the examined subjects, to be then observed after 12 months in 93.8% of the patients involved. Recanalization of thrombotic masses was noted to commence 3 months after the onset of thrombosis in twelve (37.5%) patients, and after 12 months it was seen to ensue in all the patients (100%), eventually ending in complete restoration of the patency of the affected

  8. Alteration of the systemic and microcirculation by a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodai Ingawa

    Full Text Available Several systematic reviews have reported that flow mediated dilatation (FMD was significantly increased in subjects after ingestion of chocolate that contains flavan-3-ols; however, the mechanisms responsible for this effect are not clear. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols on the systemic circulation and microcirculation in the cremaster muscle using intravital video microscopy in vivo. The cremaster muscle in rats was spread over a plastic chamber and a gastric tube was placed into the stomach. Blood flow in the cremasteric artery was determined using a laser Doppler flowmeter, while blood pressure and heart rate were measured by the tail-cuff method. Red blood cell velocity in arterioles and blood flow in the artery were significantly increased 5 min after the administration of 10 mg/kg flavan-3-ols compared with distilled water treatment. The number of capillaries recruited in the cremaster muscle was also significantly increased 15 min after treatment. Microscopic observation confirmed that increased shear stress on endothelial cells was maintained during the measurement period. The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were also significantly elevated soon after administration and returned to baseline before the end of the observation period. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels, and NO phosphorylation of aortic tissue were significantly increased at 60 min after administration of flavan-3-ols. According to these results, a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols elevates blood pressure and flow transiently, and these effects induce NO production through increased shear stress on endothelial cells.

  9. Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1-/- immunodeficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza eRattazzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1-/- knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1-/- mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1-/- mice.

  10. Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1(-∕-) immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattazzi, Lorenza; Cariboni, Anna; Poojara, Ridhika; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; D'Acquisto, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1)(-∕-) knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

  11. Local and systemic biochemical alterations induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Carlos At; Kayano, Anderson M; Setúbal, Sulamita S; Pontes, Adriana S; Furtado, Juliana L; Kwasniewski, Fábio H; Zaqueo, Kayena D; Soares, Andreimar M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2012-01-01

    The local and systemic alterations induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom (BaV) injection in mice were studied. BaV induced superoxide production by migrated neutrophils, mast cell degranulation and phagocytosis by macrophages. Moreover, BaV caused hemorrhage in dorsum of mice after 2hr post- injection. Three hours post-injection in gastrocnemius muscle, we also observed myonecrosis, which was assessed by the determination of serum and tissue CK besides the release of urea, but not creatinine and uric acid, indicating kidney alterations. BaV also induced the release of LDH and transaminases (ALT and AST) indicating tissue and liver abnormalities. In conclusion, the data indicate that BaV induces events of local and systemic importance. PMID:23487552

  12. Modified mouse peripheral blood lymphocyte culture system for cytogenetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed methodology is presented for culturing mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated on density gradients and stimulated to divide using either phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, or lipopolysaccharide. The techniques described yield more than sufficient numbers of mitotic cells for analyzing sister chromatid exchange, chromosome, aberrations, and micronuclei following in vitro or in vivo exposure to chemicals or radiation

  13. ACTIVE TARGETING WITH PARTICULATE CARRIER SYSTEMS IN THE BLOOD COMPARTMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CROMMELIN, DJA; SCHERPHOF, G; STORM, G

    1995-01-01

    This review deals with active targeting of particulate drug carriers through (1) physico-chemical (e.g., complex formation between a homing device and a surface exposed molecule at the target site) and (2) physical means, Target sites discussed are restricted to those in the blood circulation. Targe

  14. Hydrothermal alteration geochemistry of Nugget gold vein system, Shotover valley, northwest Otago, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankeritic alteration zones are associated with gold mineralisation in the Nugget vein system, Shotover valley, northwest Otago. These zones consist of sheared and brecciated schist in Miocene normal faults. The zones are also extensively silicified. Mineralisation resulted from passage of low-salinity, low-CO2 water at 200-250 degrees C within a few kilometres of the surface. Alteration has involved replacement and veining of host pelitic schist in the mineralised zone. Most elements have been diluted by quartz and carbonate, with insignificant gains or losses. Ba has been leached as it became more soluble with decreasing fluid temperature. Considerable addition of Sr has occurred, as the fluid had higher Sr/Ca than most Otago mineralising fluids. Enrichment in Sr may be a distinctive feature of the Shotover style of mineralisation. Metallic mineralisation is due to addition of S, As, and Au during alteration. In contrast to many Otago gold vein systems, there has been no scheelite mineralisation. Carbonates have δ18O = +15.4 to +18.6, and δ13C = -8.2 to +0.5 per thousand. The oxygen isotopic signature is similar to other Otago gold veins. Carbon isotopes in aqueous CO2 which deposited Nugget ankerites are generally heavier (by 2-4 per thousand) than those in other Otago gold vein systems. This is caused by changes in dissolved carbonate species at the lower temperature, and fluid/rock interaction during ankerite mineralisation. (author). 29 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Miyamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC adenocarcinoma and other lung cancer cases. Metabolomic analysis of blood samples from the two studies yielded a total of 437 metabolites, of which 148 were identified as known compounds and 289 identified as unknown compounds. Differential analysis identified 15 known metabolites in one study and 18 in a second study that were statistically different (p-values <0.05. Levels of maltose, palmitic acid, glycerol, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, and lactic acid were increased in cancer samples while amino acids tryptophan, lysine and histidine decreased. Many of the metabolites were found to be significantly different in both studies, suggesting that metabolomics appears to be robust enough to find systemic changes from lung cancer, thus showing the potential of this type of analysis for lung cancer detection.

  16. A Digital Method for the Detection of Blood Flow Direction in Ultrasonic Doppler Systems

    OpenAIRE

    P. Acevedo–Contla.; M. Barragán–Ocampo.; E. Moreno–Hernández.; F. García–Nocetti.; M. Fuentes–Cruz.; A. Sotomayor–Ortega

    2010-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound systems are widely used to study blood flow and diagnosis of vascular diseases. An important characteristic of these systems is the ability to detect the direction of the blood flow. Most Doppler ultrasound systems apply a quadrature demodulation technique on the ultrasonic transducer output signal. Therefore additional treatment is necessary to separate forward and reverse flow signals. This work presents a digital method to convert signals in quadrature into directional s...

  17. The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in ABO blood groups and Rh type system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh Nigam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs. The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV, anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL and malaria parasite (MP antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50, O negative (1/66, B negative (1/91, AB positive (2/377 blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rh-negative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect.

  18. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1997-01-01

    blood pressure and related to the results of an invasive haemodynamic investigation, including measurements of intra-arterial blood pressure (9.00-11.00 h) in 37 patients with cirrhosis. RESULTS: The 24-h blood pressures were significantly lower and the heart rate was significantly higher in patients......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations...... with other clinical and haemodynamic characteristics have not been investigated and the aim of the present study was to identify splanchnic and systemic determinants of the 24-h blood pressure and heart rate in cirrhosis. METHODS: The variables were measured by an automatic ambulant device for monitoring...

  19. Non-classical processes in surface hemostasis: mechanisms for the poly-N-acetyl glucosamine-induced alteration of red blood cell morphology and surface prothrombogenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Thomas H; Smith, Carr J; Scull, Christopher M; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Nichols, Timothy C [Francis Owen Blood Research Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 125 University Lake Dr., CB 3114, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Valeri, C Robert [Naval Blood Research Laboratory, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Demcheva, Marina; Vournakis, John N [Marine Polymer Technologies, Inc., Danvers, MA (United States)

    2008-03-01

    It is well established that platelets and the intrinsic plasma coagulation pathway can be activated when blood contacts artificial surfaces. Experiments were performed to assess the effect of hemostatic poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (pGlcNAc) nanofibers on red blood cells. The pGlcNAc nanofibers, isolated from a marine diatom, interact with red blood cells (RBCs) to produce stomatocytes. The stomatocytes could be converted to echinocytes by treatment with echinocytic reagents, as measured by electron microscopy. Electrophoretic and Western blot analysis of RBC surface proteins demonstrated that pGlcNAc fibers were bound to band 3 of the RBC. An important and unique result of the interaction of RBCs with pGlcNAc fibers was the activation of the intrinsic coagulation cascade. This prothrombotic effect was associated with the presentation of phosphatidylserine on the outer layer of the surface membrane of nanofiber bound RBCs. The results demonstrate that RBCs can play a direct and important role in achieving surface hemostasis by accelerating the generation of thrombin, and add to the growing body of evidence that RBCs can strongly interact with hemostatic systems.

  20. Non-classical processes in surface hemostasis: mechanisms for the poly-N-acetyl glucosamine-induced alteration of red blood cell morphology and surface prothrombogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that platelets and the intrinsic plasma coagulation pathway can be activated when blood contacts artificial surfaces. Experiments were performed to assess the effect of hemostatic poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (pGlcNAc) nanofibers on red blood cells. The pGlcNAc nanofibers, isolated from a marine diatom, interact with red blood cells (RBCs) to produce stomatocytes. The stomatocytes could be converted to echinocytes by treatment with echinocytic reagents, as measured by electron microscopy. Electrophoretic and Western blot analysis of RBC surface proteins demonstrated that pGlcNAc fibers were bound to band 3 of the RBC. An important and unique result of the interaction of RBCs with pGlcNAc fibers was the activation of the intrinsic coagulation cascade. This prothrombotic effect was associated with the presentation of phosphatidylserine on the outer layer of the surface membrane of nanofiber bound RBCs. The results demonstrate that RBCs can play a direct and important role in achieving surface hemostasis by accelerating the generation of thrombin, and add to the growing body of evidence that RBCs can strongly interact with hemostatic systems

  1. Effects of Replenishing Qi, Promoting Blood Circulation and Resolving Phlegm on Vascular Endothelial Function and Blood Coagulation System in Senile Patients with Hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huimin; Han Libei; Sheng Tong; He Qiong; Liang Jinpu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the curative effect of the method of replenishing qi, promoting blood circulation and resolving phlegm on senile hyperlipemia and its effects on vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system. Method: 96 patients with senile hyperlipemia were randomly divided into a treatment group and a of blood lipid, vascular endothelial function, blood coagulation system and safety. Results: After treatment,the treatment group was obviously superior to the control group (P<0.05) in reducing plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as in the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB). Conclusion: Danshen Jueming Granules have the effect of regulating metabolism of blood lipid, and improving vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system in senile patients with hyperlipemia.

  2. Alzheimer's disease susceptibility variants in the MS4A6A gene are associated with altered levels of MS4A6A expression in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proitsi, Petroula; Lee, Sang Hyuck; Lunnon, Katie; Keohane, Aoife; Powell, John; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Furney, Simon; Soininen, Hilkka; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Lovestone, Simon; Hodges, Angela

    2014-02-01

    An increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) has previously been found to be associated with variants at the MS4A6A locus. We sought to identify which genes and transcripts in this region have altered expression in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and are influenced by the AD risk variant(s), as a first step to understanding the molecular basis of AD susceptibility at this locus. Common variants located within highly expressed MS4A6A transcripts were significantly associated with AD and MS4A6A expression levels in blood from MCI and AD subjects (p < 0.05, rs610932, rs7232, rs583791). More copies of the protective (minor) allele were associated with lower MS4A6A expression of each transcript (e.g., p = 0.019; rs610932-total MS4A6A). Furthermore, in heterozygous AD subjects, relative expression of the protective allele of V4-MS4A6A transcripts was lower (p < 0.008). Irrespective of genotype, MS4A6A transcripts were increased in blood from people with AD (p < 0.003), whereas lower expression of full length V1-MS4A6A (p = 0.002) and higher expression of V4-MS4A6A (p = 1.8 × 10(-4)) were observed in MCI, relative to elderly controls. The association between genotype and expression was less consistent in brain, although BA9 did have a similar genotype association with V4-MS4A6A transcripts as in blood. MS4A6A transcripts were widely expressed in tissues and cells, with the exception of V4-MS4A6A, which was not expressed in neuronal cells. Together these results suggest that high levels of MS4A6A in emerging AD pathology are detrimental. Persons with MCI may lower MS4A6A expression to minimize detrimental disease associated MS4A6A activity. However, those with the susceptibility allele appear unable to decrease expression sufficiently, which may explain their increased risk for developing AD. Inhibiting MS4A6A may therefore promote a more neuroprotective phenotype, although further work is needed to establish whether this is the case.

  3. System Accuracy Evaluation of the GlucoRx Nexus Voice TD-4280 Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of blood glucose (BG meters in the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG significantly lowers the risk of diabetic complications. With several BG meters now commercially available, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO ensures that each BG meter conforms to a set degree of accuracy. Although adherence to ISO guidelines is a prerequisite for commercialization in Europe, several BG meters claim to meet the ISO guidelines yet fail to do so on internal validation. We conducted a study to determine whether the accuracy of the GlucoRx Nexus TD-4280 meter, utilized by our department for its cost-effectiveness, complied with ISO guidelines. 105 patients requiring laboratory blood glucose analysis were randomly selected and reference measurements were determined by the UniCel DxC 800 clinical system. Overall the BG meter failed to adhere to the ≥95% accuracy criterion required by both the 15197:2003 (overall accuracy 92.4% and 15197:2013 protocol (overall accuracy 86.7%. Inaccurate meters have an inherent risk of over- and/or underestimating the true BG concentration, thereby risking patients to incorrect therapeutic interventions. Our study demonstrates the importance of internally validating the accuracy of BG meters to ensure that its accuracy is accepted by standardized guidelines.

  4. Alcohol abuse and smoking alter inflammatory mediator production by pulmonary and systemic immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Jeanette; McNally, Alicia; Guo, Ruixin; Vandivier, R William; Simonian, Philip L; Burnham, Ellen L

    2016-03-15

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and tobacco smoking are associated with an increased predisposition for community-acquired pneumonia and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanisms are incompletely established but may include alterations in response to pathogens by immune cells, including alveolar macrophages (AMs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We sought to determine the relationship of AUDs and smoking to expression of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα by AMs and PBMCs from human subjects after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA). AMs and PBMCs from healthy subjects with AUDs and controls, matched on smoking, were cultured with LPS (1 μg/ml) or LTA (5 μg/ml) in the presence and absence of the antioxidant precursor N-acetylcysteine (10 mM). Cytokines were measured in cell culture supernatants. Expression of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα in AMs and PBMCs was significantly increased in response to stimulation with LPS and LTA. AUDs were associated with augmented production of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IFNγ and IL-1β, by AMs and PBMCs in response to LPS. Smoking diminished the impact of AUDs on AM cytokine expression. Expression of basal AM and PBMC Toll-like receptors-2 and -4 was not clearly related to differences in cytokine expression; however, addition of N-acetylcysteine with LPS or LTA led to diminished AM and PBMC cytokine secretion, especially among current smokers. Our findings suggest that AM and PBMC immune cell responses to LPS and LTA are influenced by AUDs and smoking through mechanisms that may include alterations in cellular oxidative stress.

  5. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  6. Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-09-01

    Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes.

  7. Development of portable health monitoring system for automatic self-blood glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huijun; Mizuno, Yoshihumi; Nakamachi, Eiji; Morita, Yusuke

    2010-02-01

    In this study, a new HMS (Health Monitoring System) device is developed for diabetic patient. This device mainly consists of I) 3D blood vessel searching unit and II) automatic blood glucose measurement (ABGM) unit. This device has features such as 1)3D blood vessel location search 2) laptop type, 3) puncturing a blood vessel by using a minimally invasive micro-needle, 4) very little blood sampling (10μl), and 5) automatic blood extraction and blood glucose measurement. In this study, ABGM unit is described in detail. It employs a syringe type's blood extraction mechanism because of its high accuracy. And it consists of the syringe component and the driving component. The syringe component consists of a syringe itself, a piston, a magnet, a ratchet and a micro-needle whose inner diameter is about 80μm. And the syringe component is disposable. The driving component consists of body parts, a linear stepping motor, a glucose enzyme sensor and a slider for accurate positioning control. The driving component has the all-in-one mechanism with a glucose enzyme sensor for compact size and stable blood transfer. On designing, required thrust force to drive the slider is designed to be greater than the value of the blood extraction force. Further, only one linear stepping motor is employed for blood extraction and transportation processes. The experimental result showed more than 80% of volume ratio under the piston speed 2.4mm/s. Further, the blood glucose was measured successfully by using the prototype unit. Finally, the availability of our ABGM unit was confirmed.

  8. Automation and data processing with the immucor Galileo (R) system in a university blood bank

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann, Georg; Frank, Josef; Schramm, Wolfgang; Spannagl, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background: The implementation of automated techniques improves the workflow and quality of immuno-hematological results. The workflows of our university blood bank were reviewed during the implementation of an automated immunohematological testing system. Methods: Work impact of blood grouping and subgrouping, cross- matching and antibody search using the Immucor Galileo system was compared to the previous used standard manual and semi- automated methods. Results: The redesign of our workflo...

  9. Intrarenal alterations of the angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2/angiotensin 1-7 complex of the renin-angiotensin system do not alter the course of malignant hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husková, Zuzana; Kopkan, Libor; Červenková, Lenka; Doleželová, Šárka; Vaňourková, Zdeňka; Škaroupková, Petra; Nishiyama, Akira; Kompanowska-Jezierska, Elzbieta; Sadowski, Janusz; Kramer, Herbert J; Červenka, Luděk

    2016-04-01

    The role of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathophysiology of malignant hypertension is not fully understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that the recently discovered vasodilator axis of the RAS, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) type 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin 1-7 (ANG 1-7), constitutes an endogenous system counterbalancing the hypertensiogenic axis, ACE/angiotensin II (ANG II)/AT1 receptor. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the intrarenal vasodilator RAS axis in the pathophysiology of ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension was induced by 13 days' dietary administration of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural xenobiotic that activates the mouse renin gene in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. It was hypothesized that pharmacologically-induced inhibition of the ACE2/ANG 1-7 complex should aggravate, and activation of this axis should attenuate, the course of ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) was monitored by radiotelemetry. ACE2 inhibitor (DX 600, 0.2 μg/day) and ACE2 activator (DIZE, 1 mg/day) were administrated via osmotic minipumps. Even though ACE2 inhibitor significantly decreased and ACE2 activator increased intrarenal ANG 1-7 concentrations, the course of BP, as well as of albuminuria, cardiac hypertrophy and renal glomerular damage, were not altered. It was shown that intrarenal alterations in the ACE2/ANG 1-7 complex did not significantly modify the course of malignant hypertension in I3C-induced Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. Thus, in our experimental setting alterations of this intrarenal vasodilator complex of the RAS do not significantly modify the form of malignant hypertension that clearly depends on the inappropriately increased activity of the ACE/ANG II/AT1 receptor axis.

  10. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility

  11. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  12. Investigations of the Effects of Altered Vestibular System Function on Hindlimb Anti-Gravity Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Mary Sue

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to different gravitational environments, both the microgravity of spaceflight and the hypergravity of centrifugation, result in altered vestibulo-spinal function which can be reversed by reacclimation to earth gravity (2). Control of orientation, posture, and locomotion are functions of the vestibular system which are altered by changes in gravitational environment. Not only is the vestibular system involved with coordination and proprioception, but the gravity sensing portion of the vestibular system also plays a major role in maintaining muscle tone through projections to spinal cord motoneurons that control anti-gravity muscles. I have been involved with investigations of several aspects of the link between vestibular inputs and muscle morphology and function during my work with Dr. Nancy Daunton this summer and the previous summer. We have prepared a manuscript for submission (4) to Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine based on work that I performed last summer in Dr. Daunton's lab. Techniques developed for that project will be utilized in subsequent experiments begun in the summer of 1998. I have been involved with the development of a pilot project to test the effects of vestibular galvanic stimulation (VGS) on anti-gravity muscles and in another project testing the effects of the ototoxic drug streptomycin on the otolith-spinal reflex and anti-gravity muscle morphology.

  13. Noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring: clinical test of multiwavelength optoacoustic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Y. Y.; Prough, D. S.; Petrova, I.; Patrikeev, I. A.; Cicenaite, I.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2007-02-01

    Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions like severe brain injury or during cardiac surgery. We designed and built a novel multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation. We use an Optical Parametric Oscillator as a light source. We successfully tested the system in vitro as well as in vivo in large animals (sheep) through thick tissues overlying blood vessels which drain venous blood out of the brain (e.g., superior sagittal sinus or jugular vein). Here we present the results of clinical tests of the system for continuous noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring in the internal jugular vein of healthy volunteers. We applied our custom-built optoacoustic probe (which incorporated a wide-band acoustic transducer and an optical fiber) to the neck area overlying the internal jugular vein. We performed measurements with volunteers at 18 wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range. Despite a thick layer of overlying connective tissue and low energy used in the experiments, we recorded signals with high signal-to-noise ratios for all volunteers. We found that the temporal (independent of signal amplitude) parameters of recorded profiles for different levels of blood oxygenation correlated well with the spectrum of effective attenuation coefficients of blood.

  14. Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Oxidative Stress in Guinea Pig after Systemic Exposure to Modified Cell-Free Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Omer I.; Buehler, Paul W.; D'Agnillo, Felice

    2011-01-01

    Systemic exposure to cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) or its breakdown products after hemolysis or with the use of Hb-based oxygen therapeutics may alter the function and integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Using a guinea pig exchange transfusion model, we investigated the effect of a polymerized cell-free Hb (HbG) on the expression of endothelial tight junction proteins (zonula occludens 1, claudin-5, and occludin), astrocyte activation, IgG extravasation, heme oxygenase (HO), iron deposition, oxidative end products (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3). Reduced zonula occludens 1 expression was observed after HbG transfusion as evidenced by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Claudin-5 distribution was altered in small- to medium-sized vessels. However, total expression of claudin-5 and occludin remained unchanged except for a notable increase in occludin 72 hours after HbG transfusion. HbG-transfused animals also showed increased astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and IgG extravasation after 72 hours. Increased HO activity and HO-1 expression with prominent enhancement of HO-1 immunoreactivity in CD163-expressing perivascular cells and infiltrating monocytes/macrophages were also observed. Consistent with oxidative stress, HbG increased iron deposition, 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine immunoreactivity, and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Systemic exposure to an extracellular Hb triggers blood-brain barrier disruption and oxidative stress, which may have important implications for the use of Hb-based therapeutics and may provide indirect insight on the central nervous system vasculopathies associated with excessive hemolysis. PMID:21356382

  15. Oral drug delivery systems comprising altered geometric configurations for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Kovanya; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Kumar, Pradeep; Cooppan, Shivaan; Bawa, Priya

    2012-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix(®) multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise(®), which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix(®) as well as "release modules assemblage", which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments. PMID:22312236

  16. IRON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA OF BEEF CATTLE REARED IN SUCKLING COWS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Pavlík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  17. Alterations in Central Nervous System Serotonergic and Dopaminergic Synaptic Activity in Adulthood after Prenatal or Neonatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Aldridge, Justin E; Meyer, Armando; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) alters neuronal development of serotonin (5HT) and dopamine systems, and we recently found long-term alterations in behaviors related to 5HT function. To characterize the synaptic mechanisms underlying these effects, we exposed developing rats to CPF regimens below the threshold for systemic toxicity, in three treatment windows: gestational days (GD) 17–20, postnatal days (PN) 1–4, or PN11–14. In early adulthood (PN60), we assessed basal neurotransmitter content...

  18. Phenotype frequencies of blood group systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran) in blood donors of south Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A Kahar; Patel, Rajnikant. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This is the first study on phenotype frequencies of various blood group systems in blood donors of south Gujarat, India using conventional tube technique. Material and Methods: A total of 115 "O" blood group donors from three different blood banks of south Gujarat were typed for D, C, c, E, e, K, Jk a , Le a , Le b , P 1 , M, and N antigens using monoclonal antisera and k, Kp a , Kp b , Fy a ,Fy b , Jk b , S,s, Lu a , and Lu b antigens were typed using polyclonal antisera employin...

  19. Cerebral Blood Flow Alterations as Assessed by 3D ASL in Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment: A Marker for Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yawen; Cao, Wenwei; Ding, Weina; Wang, Yao; Han, Xu; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Qun; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal reductions in cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been identified in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI). However, little is known about the pattern of CBF reduction in relation with the degree of cognitive impairment. CBF measured with three-dimensional (3D) Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helps detect functional changes in subjects with SVCI. We aimed to compare CBF maps in subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) subjects with and without cognitive impairment and to detect the relationship of the regions of CBF reduction in the brain with the degree of cognitive impairment according to the z-score. A total of 53 subjects with SVCI and 23 matched SIVD subjects without cognitive impairment (controls), underwent a whole-brain 3D ASL MRI in the resting state. Regional CBF (rCBF) was compared voxel wise by using an analysis of variance design in a statistical parametric mapping program, with patient age and sex as covariates. Correlations were calculated between the rCBF value in the whole brain and the z-score in the 53 subjects with SVCI. Compared with the control subjects, SVCI group demonstrated diffuse decreased CBF in the brain. Significant positive correlations were determined in the rCBF values in the left hippocampus, left superior temporal pole gyrus, right superior frontal orbital lobe, right medial frontal orbital lobe, right middle temporal lobe, left thalamus and right insula with the z-scores in SVCI group. The noninvasively quantified resting CBF demonstrated altered CBF distributions in the SVCI brain. The deficit brain perfusions in the temporal and frontal lobe, hippocampus, thalamus and insula was related to the degree of cognitive impairment. Its relationship to cognition indicates the clinical relevance of this functional marker. Thus, our results provide further evidence for the mechanisms underlying the cognitive deficit in patients with SVCI. PMID:27630562

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi disrupts thymic homeostasis by altering intrathymic and systemic stress-related endocrine circuitries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailin Lepletier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that experimental infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is associated with changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Increased glucocorticoid (GC levels are believed to be protective against the effects of acute stress during infection but result in depletion of CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes by apoptosis, driving to thymic atrophy. However, very few data are available concerning prolactin (PRL, another stress-related hormone, which seems to be decreased during T. cruzi infection. Considering the immunomodulatory role of PRL upon the effects caused by GC, we investigated if intrathymic cross-talk between GC and PRL receptors (GR and PRLR, respectively might influence T. cruzi-induced thymic atrophy. Using an acute experimental model, we observed changes in GR/PRLR cross-activation related with the survival of CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes during infection. These alterations were closely related with systemic changes, characterized by a stress hormone imbalance, with progressive GC augmentation simultaneously to PRL reduction. The intrathymic hormone circuitry exhibited an inverse modulation that seemed to counteract the GC-related systemic deleterious effects. During infection, adrenalectomy protected the thymus from the increase in apoptosis ratio without changing PRL levels, whereas an additional inhibition of circulating PRL accelerated the thymic atrophy and led to an increase in corticosterone systemic levels. These results demonstrate that the PRL impairment during infection is not caused by the increase of corticosterone levels, but the opposite seems to occur. Accordingly, metoclopramide (MET-induced enhancement of PRL secretion protected thymic atrophy in acutely infected animals as well as the abnormal export of immature and potentially autoreactive CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes to the periphery. In conclusion, our findings clearly show that Trypanosoma cruzi subverts mouse thymus homeostasis by altering intrathymic and

  1. Blood compounds irradiation process: assessment of absorbed dose using Fricke and Thermoluminescent dosimetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gabriela de Amorim; Squair, Peterson Lima; Pinto, Fausto Carvalho; Belo, Luiz Claudio Meira; Grossi, Pablo Andrade [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: gas@cdtn.br, e-mail: pls@cdtn.br, e-mail: fcp@cdtn.br, e-mail: lcmb@cdtn.br, e-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    The assessment of gamma absorbed doses in irradiation facilities allows the quality assurance and control of the irradiation process. The liability of dose measurements is assign to the metrological procedures adopted including the uncertainty evaluation. Fricke and TLD 800 dosimetric systems were used to measure absorbed dose in the blood compounds using the methodology presented in this paper. The measured absorbed doses were used for evaluating the effectiveness of the irradiation procedure and the gamma dose absorption inside the irradiation room of a gamma irradiation facility. The radiation eliminates the functional and proliferative capacities of donor T-lymphocytes, preventing Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), a possible complication of blood transfusions. The results show the applicability of such dosimetric systems in quality assurance programs, assessment of absorbed doses in blood compounds and dose uniformity assign to the blood compounds irradiation process by dose measurements in a range between 25 Gy and 100 Gy. (author)

  2. HEMOS: an expert support system prototype for forecasting blood requirements for Marine Corps medical support/

    OpenAIRE

    Greenauer, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    Research was conducted to demonstrate the applicability of artificial intelligence techniques to the problem of estimating blood resupply requirements in Navy medical units supporting Marine Corps commands engaged in combat operations. Prototyping methodology was used to develop a combination expert system and decision support system, termed an expert support system, which was named HEMOS (Hemologic Expert Support System for Marine Corps Operational Support). The prototype system was tested a...

  3. The Rheology of Blood Flow in a Branched Arterial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibeshi, Shewaferaw S; Collins, William E

    2005-01-01

    Blood flow rheology is a complex phenomenon. Presently there is no universally agreed upon model to represent the viscous property of blood. However, under the general classification of non-Newtonian models that simulate blood behavior to different degrees of accuracy, there are many variants. The power law, Casson and Carreau models are popular non-Newtonian models and affect hemodynamics quantities under many conditions. In this study, the finite volume method is used to investigate hemodynamics predictions of each of the models. To implement the finite volume method, the computational fluid dynamics software Fluent 6.1 is used. In this numerical study the different hemorheological models are found to predict different results of hemodynamics variables which are known to impact the genesis of atherosclerosis and formation of thrombosis. The axial velocity magnitude percentage difference of up to 2 % and radial velocity difference up to 90 % is found at different sections of the T-junction geometry. The size of flow recirculation zones and their associated separation and reattachment point's locations differ for each model. The wall shear stress also experiences up to 12 % shift in the main tube. A velocity magnitude distribution of the grid cells shows that the Newtonian model is close dynamically to the Casson model while the power law model resembles the Carreau model. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Die Rheologie von Blutströmungen ist ein komplexes Phänomen. Gegenwärtig existiert kein allgemein akzeptiertes Modell, um die viskosen Eigenschaften von Blut wiederzugeben. Jedoch gibt es mehrere Varianten unter der allgemeinen Klassifikation von nicht-Newtonschen Modellen, die das Verhalten von Blut mit unterschiedlicher Genauigkeit simulieren. Die Potenzgesetz-, Casson und Carreau-Modelle sind beliebte nicht-New-tonsche Modelle und beeinflussen die hämodynamischen Eigenschaften in vielen Situationen. In dieser Studie wurde die finite Volumenmethode angewandt, um die h

  4. Simultaneous Pulmonary and Systemic Blood Pressure and ECG Interval Measurement in Conscious, Freely Moving Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Markus; Weber, Edgar W; Hess, Patrick D

    2012-01-01

    Here we evaluated the ability of a new, dual blood-pressure telemetry transmitter to simultaneously measure pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and the electrocardiogram in rats. The transmitter was implanted in normotensive and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive Wistar rats, with sensing catheters placed in the pulmonary artery (channel 1) and descending aorta (channel 2). Biopotential electrodes were positioned to record an apex-based lead II electrocardiogram. Pulmonary and sys...

  5. True color blood flow imaging using a high-speed laser photography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Sun, Yung-Nien; Ho, Chung-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Chi

    2012-10-01

    Physiological changes in the retinal vasculature are commonly indicative of such disorders as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Thus, various methods have been developed for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics. However, to the best of our knowledge, current ophthalmic instruments do not provide a true color blood flow imaging capability. Accordingly, we propose a new method for the true color imaging of blood flow using a high-speed pulsed laser photography system. In the proposed approach, monochromatic images of the blood flow are acquired using a system of three cameras and three color lasers (red, green, and blue). A high-quality true color image of the blood flow is obtained by assembling the monochromatic images by means of image realignment and color calibration processes. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by imaging the flow of mouse blood within a microfluidic channel device. The experimental results confirm the proposed system provides a high-quality true color blood flow imaging capability, and therefore has potential for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics.

  6. A Digital Method for the Detection of Blood Flow Direction in Ultrasonic Doppler Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Acevedo–Contla.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Doppler ultrasound systems are widely used to study blood flow and diagnosis of vascular diseases. An important characteristic of these systems is the ability to detect the direction of the blood flow. Most Doppler ultrasound systems apply a quadrature demodulation technique on the ultrasonic transducer output signal. Therefore additional treatment is necessary to separate forward and reverse flow signals. This work presents a digital method to convert signals in quadrature into directional signals using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT approach. Validation of the method has been achieved using simulated Doppler ultrasound signals.

  7. An intelligent system for continuous blood pressure monitoring on remote multi-patients in real time

    OpenAIRE

    Marani, Roberto; Perri, Anna Gina

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an electronic system to perform a non-invasive measurement of the blood pressure based on the oscillometric method, which does not suffer from the limitations of the well-known auscultatory one. Moreover the proposed system is able to evaluate both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and makes use of a microcontroller and a Sallen-Key active filter. With reference to other similar devices, a great improvement of our measurement system is achieved since it...

  8. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations insi...

  9. Automatic system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Menéndez Barrios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of infectious diseases transmission through blood transfusion is one of the biggest challenges in the transfusion field of medicine. Objective: to design a computerized system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests. Methods: A system designed by the Provincial Blood Bank using Microsoft Access as a data base system and DELFHI 7 as associated language. It runs under Windows 2000 or any other superior system with 64 RAM and do not need special requirements of software or hardware. It includes the following data: Full name, age, sex, race, Id number, home address, number of the clinical record in the blood bank, date when the trial took place in each patient, kind of disease diagnosed, technical data of the trial such as: fluorescence, sectional level of the 1st trial as well as the repetition, name of the technician who performed it. Results: It permits to consult general data of donors as well as the disease diagnosed. It also permits to elaborate reports of these patients from any PC of the blood bank acceding with the security password of the program. Conclusions: It constitutes a beneficial tool which permits to improve the notification system established in the program of the web about sexually transmitted diseases from the Minister of Public Health in Cuba.

  10. A hemolysis study of an intravascular blood cooling system for localized organ tissue cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, T L; Mingin, T; Merrill, D R; Botbyl, J; Akers, J E

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia can reduce both ischemic and reperfusion injury arising after strokes and heart attacks. New localized organ cooling systems offer a way to reduce tissue damage more effectively with fewer side effects. To assess initial blood safety of our new organ cooling system, the CoolGuide Cooling System (CCS), we investigated safe operating conditions and configurations from a hemolysis perspective. The CCS consists of a peristaltic pump, a custom-built external heat exchanger, a chiller, biocompatible polyvinyl cellulose (PVC) tubing, and a control console. The CCS cools and circulates autologous blood externally and re-delivers cooled blood to the patient through a conventional catheter inserted directly into the organ at risk. Catheter configurations used included: a 7F guide catheter only, a 7F guide with a 0.038" wire inserted through the center and advanced 2 cm distal to the catheter distal tip, a 6F guide catheter only and a 6F guide with a 0.014" guidewire similarly inserted through the center. Using porcine blood, an in vitro test rig was used to measure the degree of hemolysis generation, defined as the percentage change in free hemoglobin, adjusted for total hemoglobin and hematocrit, between exiting and entering blood. The highest degree of hemolysis generation was 0.11±0.04%, based on the average behavior with a 6F catheter and a 0.014" guidewire configuration at a blood flow rate of approximately 130 mL/min. In terms of average percentage free hemoglobin exiting the system, based on total hemoglobin, the highest value measured was 0.17%±0.03%, using this 6F and 0.014" guidewire configuration. This result is significantly below the most stringent European guideline of 0.8% used for blood storage and transfusion. This study provides initial evidence showing hemolysis generation arising from the CoolGuide Cooling System is likely to be clinically insignificant. PMID:23047283

  11. From Blood Freud to Jury System: The Metamorphosis of Cherokee Law from 1750 to 1840.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michelle

    1987-01-01

    Examines the Cherokees' deliberate adoption of the laws of the white man, focusing on the blood feud--a retaliation system designed to deal with homicide. Discusses cultural bases of Cherokee law and factors influencing the change to a jury system and noted key events of the adoption period (1797 to 1840). (JHZ)

  12. Tunable laser diode system for noninvasive blood glucose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesberg, Jonathon T; Arnold, Mark A; Mermelstein, Carmen; Schmitz, Johannes; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Optical sensing of glucose would allow more frequent monitoring and tighter glucose control for people with diabetes. The key to a successful optical noninvasive measurement of glucose is the collection of an optical spectrum with a very high signal-to-noise ratio in a spectral region with significant glucose absorption. Unfortunately, the optical throughput of skin is low due to absorption and scattering. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed a high-brightness tunable laser system for measurements in the 2.0-2.5 microm wavelength range. The system is based on a 2.3 microm wavelength, strained quantum-well laser diode incorporating GaInAsSb wells and AlGaAsSb barrier and cladding layers. Wavelength control is provided by coupling the laser diode to an external cavity that includes an acousto-optic tunable filter. Tuning ranges of greater than 110 nm have been obtained. Because the tunable filter has no moving parts, scans can be completed very quickly, typically in less than 10 ms. We describe the performance of the present laser system and avenues for extending the tuning range beyond 400 nm. PMID:16390586

  13. Alterations of the Brain Reward System in Antipsychotic Naïve Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various schizophrenic symptoms are suggested to be linked to a dysfunction of the brain reward system. Several studies have found alterations in the reward processing in patients with schizophrenia; however, most previous findings might be confounded by medication effects. METHODS...... arousing events) into behavioral salience (events where a predicted reward requires performance) and valence anticipation (the anticipation of a monetarily significant outcome). Furthermore, the evaluation of monetary gain and loss was assessed. RESULTS: During reward anticipation, patients had a...... and nonsignificant for value anticipation. Furthermore, patients showed a changed activation pattern during outcome evaluation in right prefrontal cortex. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that changes during reward anticipation in schizophrenia are present from the beginning of the disease. This...

  14. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1997-01-01

    a high post-sinusoidal resistance, a low plasma volume, a short central circulation time, and the presence of ascites. In contrast, a low intra-arterial blood pressure was determined by a low serum sodium, a low haemoglobin, and a high cardiac output. Diuretic treatment did not influence this model......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations with...... other clinical and haemodynamic characteristics have not been investigated and the aim of the present study was to identify splanchnic and systemic determinants of the 24-h blood pressure and heart rate in cirrhosis. METHODS: The variables were measured by an automatic ambulant device for monitoring...

  15. The development of a recruiting-drawing-inventory model for a community blood bank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smackey, B M

    1975-01-01

    A community blood bank system is a multiorganizational program that is designed to supply the blood needs of a community. Participating in such a program are hospitals, a central blood bank, industrial donor groups, the American Red Cross, advisory committees, and the community at large. The underlying determinant of the community's success or failure with its blood program is the degree of cooperation among the various organizations. Intertwined with organizational considerations are the management problems associated with the operation of a responsive and efficient inventory control system. This paper reports on the development of a system for a community blood bank that is in its third year of operation. The system that has been developed can be operated manually by a part-time clerk. Details of the model include an integration of the donor scheduling function and the inventory control function. Simulated testing of the model has been conducted and full-scale implementation is awaiting the expansion of the known donor base.

  16. BioWatch - a wrist watch based signal acquisition system for physiological signals including blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simi Susan; Nathan, Viswam; Chengzhi Zong; Akinbola, Ebunoluwa; Aroul, Antoine Lourdes Praveen; Philipose, Lijoy; Soundarapandian, Karthikeyan; Xiangrong Shi; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    A wrist watch based system, which can measure electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG), is presented in this work. By using both ECG and PPG we also measure pulse transit time (PTT), which studies show to correlate well with blood pressure (BP). The system is also capable of monitoring heart rate using either ECG or PPG and can monitor blood oxygenation by easily replacing the PPG sensors with a different set. In this work, we investigate methods to train a fitting function to convert a PTT measurement to its corresponding systolic BP. We also validate measurements on different postures and show the value of calibrating the device for each posture. This system, called BioWatch, can potentially facilitate continuous and ubiquitous monitoring of ECG, PPG, heart rate, blood oxygenation and BP. PMID:25570444

  17. Altered reactivity and nitric oxide signaling in the isolated thoracic duct from an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Sanjeev A; Oishi, Peter E; Gong, Wenhui; Bennett, Stephen H; Sun, Christine E; Johengen, Michael; Maki, Jun; Johnson, Rebecca C; Raff, Gary W; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    We have previously shown decreased pulmonary lymph flow in our lamb model of chronically increased pulmonary blood flow, created by the in utero placement of an 8-mm aortopulmonary shunt. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abnormal lymphatic function in shunt lambs is due to impaired lymphatic endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP signaling resulting in increased lymphatic vascular constriction and/or impaired relaxation. Thoracic duct rings were isolated from 4-wk-old shunt (n = 7) and normal (n = 7) lambs to determine length-tension properties, vascular reactivity, and endothelial NO synthase protein. At baseline, shunt thoracic duct rings had 2.6-fold higher peak to peak tension and a 2-fold increase in the strength of contractions compared with normal rings (P < 0.05). In response to norepinephrine, shunt thoracic duct rings had a 2.4-fold increase in vascular tone compared with normal rings (P < 0.05) and impaired relaxation in response to the endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine (63% vs. 13%, P < 0.05). In vivo, inhaled NO (40 ppm) increased pulmonary lymph flow (normalized for resistance) ∼1.5-fold in both normal and shunt lambs (P < 0.05). Inhaled NO exposure increased bioavailable NO [nitrite/nitrate (NOx); ∼2.5-fold in normal lambs and ∼3.4-fold in shunt lambs] and cGMP (∼2.5-fold in both) in the pulmonary lymph effluent (P < 0.05). Chronic exposure to increased pulmonary blood flow is associated with pulmonary lymphatic endothelial injury that disrupts NO-cGMP signaling, leading to increased resting vasoconstriction, increased maximal strength of contraction, and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation. Inhaled NO increases pulmonary lymph NOx and cGMP levels and pulmonary lymph flow in normal and shunt lambs. Therapies that augment NO-cGMP signaling within the lymphatic system may provide benefits, warranting further study.

  18. Mechanisms of alteration of the immune system by ionizing radiations: a basis for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Alterations of the immune system appear in relationship with exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) in different situations, e.g., accidents, radiation therapy of cancer, prenatal irradiation, some human diseases with hypersensitivity to IR and aging. Thus, the comprehension of the mechanisms of the alterations of the immune system by IR is necessary to elaborate strategies of protection and to pave the way for future possible therapies. At least 9 mechanisms of alterations can be identified: 1- Apoptosis. Apoptosis is a key mechanism of the natural regulation of the immune system and plays also a key role in the response to IR: lymphocytes die rapidly by apoptosis after exposure. Different pathways of induction of apoptosis have been identified, and include p53 dependent and mitochondria mediated pathways, as well as CD95 and ROS initiation; 2- TCR mutations. The T cell antigen receptor is responsible to discriminate between self and non self. Mutations of the TCR may result from exposure to IR; 3- Modification of the Th1-Th2 balance. T helper cells may express 2 distinct secretion patterns: Th1 cytokines promote cell-mediated immunity while Th2 cytokines favor humoral immunity. Although the effects of IR on the Th1/Th2 balance remains controversial, an imbalance towards a Th2 profile is likely and patients with cancer and systemic auto-immune disease often present a switch from Th1 to Th2; 4- Bystander effects and genetic instability. Stimulatory effect or genomic instability have been observed in haematopoietic cells exposed to IR and related to a bystander mechanism. 5- Shift toward an inflammatory profile. Ionizing radiation may induce a persistent inflammatory profile as a result of dis-regulation of cytokine production; such a status of persistent inflammation has been observed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. 6- Modification of antigen presentation. Antigen presentation by dendritic cells is an essential function preceding

  19. Adrenalectomy alters the sensitivity of the central nervous system melanocortin system

    OpenAIRE

    Drazen, DL; Wortman, MD; Schwartz, MW; Clegg, DJ; Van Dijk, G.; Woods, SC; Seeley, RJ; Drazen, Deborah L.; Wortman, Matthew D.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2003-01-01

    Removal of adrenal steroids by adrenalectomy (ADX) reduces food intake and body weight in rodents and prevents excessive weight gain in many genetic and dietary models of obesity. Thus, glucocorticoids appear to play a key role to promote positive energy balance in normal and pathological conditions. By comparison, central nervous system melanocortin signaling provides critical inhibitory tone to regulate energy balance. The present experiments sought to test whether glucocorticoids influence...

  20. Alteration in male reproductive system in experimental cholestasis: roles for opioids and nitric oxide overproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Samira; Valizadeh, Behzad; Hormazdi, Bahram; Samadi, Hoda; Najafi, Tahereh; Samini, Morteza; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2009-08-01

    Cirrhosis is associated with impairment of the male reproductive system, hypogonadism and feminization. It is important to rule out whether the impairment in the reproductive system exists earlier in the course of cholestatic liver disease to target effective therapies at the best time point. In this study we investigated the role of endogenous opioid and nitric oxide system in alterations of the reproductive system in male rats. We performed sham or bile duct ligation surgery on male Sprague-Dawley rats and treated the animals for seven days with saline, naltrexone, an opioid receptor blocker (20 mg/kg) and N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (10 mg/kg). We then evaluated the plasma level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), sperm count and motility as well as biomarkers of cholestasis and nitric oxide productions. The results showed that following cholestasis, total testosterone level decrease and LH level increase in plasma of cholestatic rats and treatment with L-NAME and naltrexone could improve the plasma level of testosterone. Naltrexone could decrease the elevated level of LH in cholestatic animals. In addition, the weight of seminal vesicles and prostate significantly decreased in cholestasis as compared to the control group and treatment with L-NAME and naltrexone could improve the weights of the two organs in cholestasis. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the male reproductive system is impaired early in cholestasis and that endogenous opioid and nitric oxide system contribute to these impairments in the early course of the disease. PMID:19445924

  1. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:27555221

  2. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

  3. Dysfunctional vestibular system causes a blood pressure drop in astronauts returning from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Emma; Migeotte, Pierre-François; Kornilova, Ludmila; Delière, Quentin; Fransen, Erik; Glukhikh, Dmitrii; Moore, Steven T.; Clément, Gilles; Diedrich, André; MacDougall, Hamish; Wuyts, Floris L.

    2015-01-01

    It is a challenge for the human body to maintain stable blood pressure while standing. The body’s failure to do so can lead to dizziness or even fainting. For decades it has been postulated that the vestibular organ can prevent a drop in pressure during a position change – supposedly mediated by reflexes to the cardiovascular system. We show – for the first time – a significant correlation between decreased functionality of the vestibular otolith system and a decrease in the mean arterial pressure when a person stands up. Until now, no experiments on Earth could selectively suppress both otolith systems; astronauts returning from space are a unique group of subjects in this regard. Their otolith systems are being temporarily disturbed and at the same time they often suffer from blood pressure instability. In our study, we observed the functioning of both the otolith and the cardiovascular system of the astronauts before and after spaceflight. Our finding indicates that an intact otolith system plays an important role in preventing blood pressure instability during orthostatic challenges. Our finding not only has important implications for human space exploration; they may also improve the treatment of unstable blood pressure here on Earth. PMID:26671177

  4. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

  5. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  6. A systems-based approach to managing blood pressure in children following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, David K; Mitsnefes, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common and well-known complications following kidney transplantation in children. Yet, despite numerous available therapies many pediatric kidney transplant recipients continue to have poorly controlled blood pressure, suggesting that traditional approaches to blood pressure management in this population might be inadequate. Over the last two decades, the Chronic Care Model has been developed to improve chronic illness outcomes through delivery system design and clinical information systems that support patient self-management and provider decision-making. In this educational review we discuss key elements of managing blood pressure following pediatric kidney transplantation and suggest ways that they may be reliably implemented into clinical practice using principles from the Chronic Care Model. PMID:26482251

  7. Stochastic and Optimization Programming for Blood Glucose & Insulin Regulatory Systems of Type-2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tirupathi Rao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a stochastic modeling and optimization problem is developed for blood glucose and insulin regulatory system suitable for management of type-2 diabetes patients. The rates of arrival and consumption of glucose and insulin in the blood are assumed as Poisson parameters and developed a model through stochastic processes. A stochastic programming problem for maintaining the optimized glucose and insulin levels of the blood is developed. An objective function for maximizing the energy release subject to the constraints on the consumption of glucose is formulated. Sensitivity analysis was carried out and observed the model behaviour through influencing parameters. Enhancing the developed programming problem as desk top automation system will make this work more accessible to the decision makers of Health care industry.

  8. Different Bleeding Patterns with the Use of Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System: Are They Associated with Changes in Uterine Artery Blood Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bastianelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate if different bleeding patterns associated with the use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS are associated with different uterine and endometrial vascularization patterns, as evidenced by ultrasound power Doppler analysis. Methodology. A longitudinal study, with each subject acting as its own control was conducted between January 2010 and December 2012. Healthy volunteers with a history of heavy but cyclic and regular menstrual cycles were enrolled in the study. Ultrasonographic examination was performed before and after six months of LNG-IUS placement: uterine volume, endometrial thickness, and subendometrial and myometrial Doppler blood flow patterns have been evaluated. Results. A total of 32 women were enrolled out of 186 initially screened. At six months of follow-up, all subjects showed a reduction in menstrual blood loss; for analysis, they were retrospectively divided into 3 groups: normal cycling women (Group I, amenorrheic women (Group II, and women with prolonged bleedings (Group III. Intergroup analysis documented a statistically significant difference in endometrial thickness among the three groups; in addition, mean pulsatility index (PI and resistance index (RI in the spiral arteries were significantly lower in Group I and Group III compared to Group II. This difference persisted also when comparing—within subjects of Group III—mean PI and RI mean values before and after insertion. Conclusions. The LNG-IUS not only altered endometrial thickness, but—in women with prolonged bleedings—also significantly changed uterine artery blood flow. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and enable gynecologists to properly counsel women, improving initial continuation rates.

  9. Microgravity-induced alterations in signal transduction in cells of the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Katrin; Thiel, Cora; Timm, Johanna; Schmidt, Peter M.; Huber, Kathrin; Tauber, Svantje; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Seibt, Dieter; Kroll, Hartmut; Grote, Karl-Heinrich; Zipp, Frauke; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Cogoli, Augusto; Hilliger, Andre; Engelmann, Frank; Ullrich, Oliver

    2010-11-01

    Since decades it is known that the activity of cells of the immune system is severely dysregulated in microgravity, however, the underlying molecular aspects have not been elucidated yet. The identification of gravity-sensitive molecular mechanisms in cells of the immune system is an important and indispensable prerequisite for the development of counteractive measures to prevent or treat disturbed immune cell function of astronauts during long-term space missions. Moreover, their sensitivity to altered gravity renders immune cells an ideal model system to understand if and how gravity on Earth is required for normal mammalian cell function and signal transduction. We investigated the effect of simulated weightlessness (2D clinostat) and of real microgravity (parabolic flights) on key signal pathways in a human monocytic and a T lymphocyte cell line. We found that cellular responses to microgravity strongly depend on the cell-type and the conditions in which the cells are subjected to microgravity. In Jurkat T cells, enhanced phosphorylation of the MAP kinases ERK-1/2, MEK and p38 and inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kB were the predominant responses to simulated weightlessness, in either stimulated or non-stimulated cells. In contrast, non-stimulated monocytic U937 cells responded to simulated weightlessness with enhanced overall tyrosine-phosphorylation and activation of c-jun, whereas PMA-stimulated U937 cells responded the opposite way with reduced tyrosine-phosphorylation and reduced activation of c-jun, compared with PMA-stimulated 1 g controls. P53 protein was phosphorylated rapidly in microgravity. The identification of gravi-sensitive mechanisms in cells of the immune system will not only enable us to understand and prevent the negative effects of long time exposure to microgravity on Astronauts, but could also lead to novel therapeutic targets in general.

  10. An intelligent system for continuous blood pressure monitoring on remote multi-patients in real time

    CERN Document Server

    Marani, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an electronic system to perform a non-invasive measurement of the blood pressure based on the oscillometric method, which does not suffer from the limitations of the well-known auscultatory one. Moreover the proposed system is able to evaluate both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and makes use of a microcontroller and a Sallen-Key active filter. With reference to other similar devices, a great improvement of our measurement system is achieved since it performs the transmission of the systolic and diastolic pressure values to a remote computer. This aspect is very important when the simultaneous monitoring of multi-patients is required. The proposed system, prototyped and tested at the Electron Devices Laboratory (Electrical and Information Engineering Department) of Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy, is characterized by originality, by plainness of use and by a very high level of automation (so called intelligent system).

  11. Non-association between anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and ABO blood group system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACF Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infects humans through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, which elicits humoral immune response with specific antibodies. The expression of the ABO blood group glycoconjugates also occurs in this same system and may influence the human susceptibility of infection by T. gondii. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ABO blood group phenotypes and the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies. Data - including age, results of serology tests for T. gondii infection and ABO blood group phenotypes - were assembled from the medical records of 1,006 pregnant women attended in the Base Hospital of the Medical School of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, between 2001 and 2004. The chi-square test was used to compare the results with the level of significance set at 5%. Of the studied cases, 64.1% (645/1006 and 35.9% (391/1006 presented respectively positive and negative serology tests for anti-T. gondii antibodies. The mean age of those who tested positive was higher than those with negative serology tests (p = 0.0004. The frequencies of ABO blood group phenotypes were similar in those with and without anti-T. gondii antibodies (p = 0.35. In conclusion, the ABO blood group system is not associated with the presence or absence of anti-T. gondii antibodies.

  12. The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Sami

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

  13. Advances of blood oxygen-level dependent MRI in muscular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOLD-fMRI has been applied to muscular system to observe muscular pathophysiological change after performing a task and show the characteristics of muscle perfusion. This paper mainly introduces the scanning sequence, common tasking methods, such as cuff compression, excise, oxygen and drug, etc. It also introduces clinical study of perfusion reserve of muscular tissue with abnormal blood vessels. (authors)

  14. The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; Possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderWerf, YD; DeJongste, MJL; terHorst, GJ

    1995-01-01

    The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses. In this investigation the effects of immune activation on the brain are characterized In order to study this, we used a model for chronic immune activation, the myocardial

  15. A comprehensive evaluation of strip performance in multiple blood glucose monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laurence B; Macleod, Kirsty; Grady, Mike; Cameron, Hilary; Pfützner, Andreas; Setford, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose results are required for optimal insulin dosing and detection of hypoglycemia. However, blood glucose monitoring systems may be susceptible to error from test strip, user, environmental and pharmacological factors. This report evaluated 5 blood glucose monitoring systems that each use Verio glucose test strips for precision, effect of hematocrit and interferences in laboratory testing, and lay user and system accuracy in clinical testing according to the guidelines in ISO15197:2013(E). Performance of OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ met or exceeded standards described in ISO15197:2013 for precision, hematocrit performance and interference testing in a laboratory setting. Performance of OneTouch(®) Verio IQ™, OneTouch(®) Verio Pro™, OneTouch(®) Verio™, OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ and Omni Pod each met or exceeded accuracy standards for user performance and system accuracy in a clinical setting set forth in ISO15197:2013(E). PMID:25702769

  16. Expression and alteration of insulin-like growth factor Ⅱ-messenger RNA in hepatoma tissues and peripheral blood of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Zhen Dong; Deng-Fu Yao; Deng-Bing Yao; Xin-Hua Wu; Wei Wu; Li-Wei Qiu; Dao-Rong Jiang; Jian-Hua Zhu; Xian-Yong Meng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical values of serum free insulin-like growth factor Ⅱ (IGF-Ⅱ) levels and IGF-Ⅱ mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and peripheral blood for diagnosis of HCC and monitoring of extrahepatic metastasis.METHODS: Total RNAs were extracted from HCC tissues or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with HCC, liver diseases devoid of cancer, non-hepatic tumors,and healthy controls, respectively. IGF-Ⅱ cDNAs were synthesized through random primers and reversetranscriptase, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and confirmed by DNA sequencing analysis. Serum free IGF-Ⅱ levels in patients with different liver diseases were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: The amplified fragments of IGF-Ⅱ mRNA by RT-PCR were identical to originally designed ones with a size of 170 bp and confirmed by sequencing analysis.The dilution experiments revealed that the lowest sensitivity of our system was 2 ng/L of total RNA. The positive frequencies of IGF-Ⅱ mRNA were 100% in HCC tissues,53.3% in para-cancerous tissues, and 0% in non-cancerous tissues, respectively. The serum free IGF-Ⅱ levels were significantly higher in HCC than those in chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. The positive frequency of circulating IGF-Ⅱ mRNA was 34.2% in HCC, no amplified fragment was found in other liver diseases, extrahepatic tumors,and normal controls, respectively. The circulating IGF-Ⅱ mRNA correlated with the stage of HCC, and its positive rate was 100% in HCC with extrahepatic metastasis and 35.5% in HCC with AFP-negative. No significant correlation was found between tumor sizes and circulating IGF-Ⅱ mRNA fragment.CONCLUSION: The abnormal expressions of free IGF-Ⅱ and IGF-Ⅱ mRNA are useful tumor markers for HCC diagnosis, differentiation of extrahepatic metastasis and monitoring postoperative recurrence.

  17. Opiates Upregulate Adhesion Molecule Expression in Brain MicroVascular Endothelial Cells (BMVEC: Implications for Altered Blood Brain Barrier (BBB Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan P.N. Nair

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB is an intricate cellular system composed of vascular endothelial cells and perivascular astrocytes that restrict the passage of immunocompetent cells into the central nervous system (CNS. Expression of the adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC and their interaction with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 viral proteins may help enhance viral adhesion and virus-cell fusion resulting in increased infectivity. Additionally, transmigration through the BBB is facilitated by both endothelial and monocyte/macrophage-derived nitric oxide (NO. Dysregulated production of NO by BMVEC due to opiates and HIV-1 viral protein interactions play a pivotal role in brain endothelial injury, resulting in the irreversible loss of BBB integrity, which may lead to enhanced infiltration of virus-carrying cells across the BBB. Opioids act as co-factors in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 by facilitating BBB dysfunction however, no studies have been done to investigate the role of opiates alone or in combination with HIV-1 viral proteins on adhesion molecule expression in BMVEC. We hypothesize that opiates such as heroin and morphine in conjunction with the HIV-1 viral protein gp120 increase the expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and these effects are mediated via the modulation of NO. Results show that opiates alone and in synergy with gp120 increase both the genotypic and phenotypic expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by BMVEC, additionally, these opiate induced effects may be the result of increased NO production. These studies will provide a better understanding of how opiate abuse in conjunction with HIV-1 infection facilitates the breakdown of the BBB and exacerbates the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1. Elucidation of the mechanisms of BBB modulation will provide new therapeutic approaches to maintain BBB integrity

  18. Maternal exposure to metals and persistent pollutants and cord blood immune system biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Adrian R. Levy; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Platt, Robert W; Marshall, Jean S.; Dodds, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background The fetal time period is a critical window of immune system development and resulting heightened susceptibility to the adverse effects of environmental exposures. Epidemiologists and toxicologists have hypothesized that persistent organic pollutants, pesticides and metals have immunotoxic properties. Immunotoxic effects may manifest as an altered immune system profile at birth. Immunoglobulin E, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and interleukin-33 (IL-33) may be implicated in th...

  19. Role of histaminergic system in blood-brain barrier dysfunction associated with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos-Cabrera, Ivette; Valle-Dorado, María Guadalupe; Aldana, Blanca Irene; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra Adela; Rocha, Luisa

    2014-11-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has been associated with several acute and chronic brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. This represents a critical situation because damaged integrity of the BBB is related to the influx of immune mediators, plasma proteins and other outside elements from blood to the central nervous system (CNS) that may trigger a cascade of events that leads to neuroinflammation. In this review, evidence that mast cells and the release of factors such as histamine play an important role in the neuroinflammatory process associated with brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy is presented.

  20. Modeling of human colonic blood flow for a novel artificial anal sphincter system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZAN; Guo-zheng YAN; Hua LIU

    2008-01-01

    A novel artificial anal sphincter system has been developed to simulate the normal physiology of the human anorectum. With the goal of engineering a safe and reliable device, the model of human colonic blood flow has been built and the relationship between the colonic blood flow rate and the operating occlusion pressure of the anorectum is achieved. The tissue ischemia is analyzed based on constitutive relations for human anorectum. The results suggest that at the planned operating occlusion pressure of less than 4 kPa the artificial anal sphincter should not risk the vaseularity of the human colon.

  1. A real time, wearable ECG and continous blood pressure monitoring system for first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, David M D; Colunas, Marcio F M; Marques, Fabio A Ferreira; Fernandes, Jose M; Cunha, Joao P Silva

    2011-01-01

    The study of stress and fatigue among First Responders is a major step in mitigating this public health problem. Blood pressure, heart rate variability and fatigue related arrhythmia are three of the main "windows" to study stress and fatigue. In this paper we present a wearable medical device, capable of acquiring an electrocardiogram and estimating blood pressure in real time, through a pulse wave transit time approach. The system is based on an existent certified wearable medical device called "Vital Jacket" and is aimed to become a tool to allow cardiologists in studying stress and fatigue among first response professionals. PMID:22255923

  2. Application of Blood Appointment System in Hospital%血液预约系统在医院的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 李刚荣; 蒋天伦

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过血液预约,缓解血液供需关系.方法:应用现代信息技术手段,通过血液信息管理系统与医院信息管理系统的无缝连接及互联网优势,制订血液采集计划,招募献血者,控制血液库存.结果:规范了临床用血,缩短了血液在血库的流动周期,降低了血液管理成本.结论:血液预约是缓解血液供需关系的有效途径.%Objective: according to blood appointment, to relieve the supply and demand of blood.Method: apply the modern information technology, through seamless connection of the blood information system and hospital information system, the advantage of internet, to develop the program of blood connection, and recruit blood donors to control blood inventory.Result: standard the clinic blood, shorten the flow cycle of blood in blood bank, reduce the blood management costs.Conclusion: blood appointment is effective way to relieve the supply and demand of blood.

  3. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions Print A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  4. A 133-xenon inhalation system for cerebral blood-flow measurements in ventilated premature babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We constructed a Xenon-133 inhalation and trapping system in order to measure cerebral blood flow of ventilated premature babies by means of the noninvasive 133Xe clearance method. The completely lead-shielded inhalation device is a closed system driven by the baby's own respirator and can thus be safely used at the patients bedside in the intensive care unit. Reproducible proximal airway concentrations of 133Xe (with or without leaks around the endotracheal tube) were obtained by in vitro simulation. (orig.)

  5. Sustained Exposure to the Widely Used Herbicide Atrazine: Altered Function and Loss of Neurons in Brain Monoamine Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Veronica M.; Thiruchelvam, Mona; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    The widespread use of atrazine (ATR) and its persistence in the environment have resulted in documented human exposure. Alterations in hypothalamic catecholamines have been suggested as the mechanistic basis of the toxicity of ATR to hormonal systems in females and the reproductive tract in males. Because multiple catecholamine systems are present in the brain, however, ATR could have far broader effects than are currently understood. Catecholaminergic systems such as the two major long-lengt...

  6. Carotid arterial blood pressure waveform monitoring using a portable ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joohyun Seo; Pietrangelo, Sabino J; Hae-Seung Lee; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a non-invasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform monitoring technique using ultrasound. A portable ultrasound system to excite ultrasound transducers and acquire data is designed with off-the-shelf components. The insonation angles are identified using a vector Doppler technique based on the cosine dependency of the Doppler signals. The pulse pressure of an estimated waveform at the left common carotid artery is compared to the standard sphygmomanometer measurement in a clinical test. The estimated carotid ABP waveform shows excellent agreement to the finger ABP waveform with expected discrepancy of the systolic peak shape due to different measurement sites. The proposed method also tracks slow blood pressure fluctuations. This validation on human subjects shows potential for a noninvasive blood pressure waveform monitoring device at central arterial sites. PMID:26737584

  7. Immunophenotyping of Lymphocyte T and B in the Peripheral Blood of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The immunophenotyping expression levels of lymphocyte in the peripheral blood from 21 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were analyzed by using the immunofluorescence labeling-flow cytometry technique to investigate the immunophenotyping expression of lymphocytes T and B in the peripheral blood of active SLE patients and its clinical value. It was showed that, compared with normal controls, the expression of CD+3, CD+4 and the ratio of CD+4/CD+8 in the peripheral blood of these patients were decreased (P<0.01), while the expression of CD+8, CD+20 was significantly increased (P<0.01). It was suggested that both T and B cells in patients with active SLE involved in immunoregulation, were activated. The abnormal expression of lymphocyte immunophenotyping could influence the immune reaction in SLE patients, which might be one of the important pathogenesis factors in SLE.

  8. Water Velocity and Bioturbation Alter Sediment Resuspension and Biogeochemistry in an Experimental Freshwater Mesocosm System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, A.; Vanni, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Processes such as bioturbation and resuspension can affect organic matter decomposition by altering sediment redox conditions. Increased oxygen availability may, in turn, affect remineralization rates and larger scale processes such as benthic-pelagic coupling. However, relatively few studies have explicitly tested the simultaneous effects of bioturbation and water velocity on benthic biogeochemistry and sediment resuspension. Using a mesocosm system we conducted two experiments testing the effects of bioturbator identity on particulate and dissolved nutrient dynamics before and after a resuspension event (i.e. water velocity held constant at 0.12 m s-1 for 2 hr; Expt. 1) and rates of sediment resuspension with increasing water velocity (0.00 - 0.20 m s-1; Expt. 2). We manipulated bioturbator identity across four levels as sediments were undisturbed (control), manually punctured (2% of surface area), or disturbed by one of two fish species, either bluegill or catfish. For Expt. 1, the bioturbation treatments were applied for several days and measurements were made before and after the resuspension event. Initially, water column chlorophyll and total suspended sediment (TSS) concentrations were highest in the catfish treatments. Bioturbator identity did not affect the stoichiometry of TSS as strongly; C:N was unaffected by our treatments while N:P was lowest in the disturbed treatments. After the resuspension event, there was no difference in TSS concentrations or stoichiometric ratios across the bioturbation treatments. Dissolved nutrient flux rates were insensitive to the bioturbation treatments and were more strongly influenced by the resuspension event. For instance, sediment NO3- fluxes were negative (i.e. net flux into sediments) until after the resuspension event when they became positive. In Expt. 2, we gradually increased water velocity from 0.00 - 0.20 m s-1 and measured TSS concentrations only. TSS was initially highest in catfish treatments and lowest in

  9. System Accuracy Evaluation of the GlucoRx Nexus Voice TD-4280 Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Khan; Keith Broadbent; Mike Morris; David Ewins; Franklin Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Use of blood glucose (BG) meters in the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) significantly lowers the risk of diabetic complications. With several BG meters now commercially available, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ensures that each BG meter conforms to a set degree of accuracy. Although adherence to ISO guidelines is a prerequisite for commercialization in Europe, several BG meters claim to meet the ISO guidelines yet fail to do so on internal validation. We con...

  10. Novel optoacoustic system for noninvasive continuous monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2012-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury are a major cause of death for individuals under 50 years of age. In the USA alone, 150,000 patients per year suffer moderate or severe TBI. Moreover, TBI is a major cause of combatrelated death. Monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation is critically important for management of TBI patients because cerebral venous blood oxygenation below 50% results in death or severe neurologic complications. At present, there is no technique for noninvasive, accurate monitoring of this clinically important variable. We proposed to use optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation by probing cerebral veins such as the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and validated it in animal studies. In this work, we developed a novel, medical grade optoacoustic system for continuous, real-time cerebral venous blood oxygenation monitoring and tested it in human subjects at normal conditions and during hyperventilation to simulate changes that may occur in patients with TBI. We designed and built a highly-sensitive optoacoustic probe for SSS signal detection. Continuous measurements were performed in the near infrared spectral range and the SSS oxygenation absolute values were automatically calculated in real time using a special algorithm developed by our group. Continuous measurements performed at normal conditions and during hyperventilation demonstrated that hyperventilation resulted in approximately 12% decrease of cerebral venous blood oxygenation.

  11. Altered Striatocerebellar Metabolism and Systemic Inflammation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiun-Chieh Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is the most second common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Neuroinflammation due to systemic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress is considered a major factor promoting the pathogenesis of PD, but the relationship of structural brain imaging parameters to clinical inflammatory markers has not been well studied. Our aim was to evaluate the association of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS measures with inflammatory markers. Blood samples were collected from 33 patients with newly diagnosed PD and 30 healthy volunteers. MRS data including levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA, creatine (Cre, and choline (Cho were measured in the bilateral basal ganglia and cerebellum. Inflammatory markers included plasma nuclear DNA, plasma mitochondrial DNA, and apoptotic leukocyte levels. The Cho/Cre ratio in the dominant basal ganglion, the dominant basal ganglia to cerebellum ratios of two MRS parameters NAA/Cre and Cho/Cre, and levels of nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA, and apoptotic leukocytes were significantly different between PD patients and normal healthy volunteers. Significant positive correlations were noted between MRS measures and inflammatory marker levels. In conclusion, patients with PD seem to have abnormal levels of inflammatory markers in the peripheral circulation and deficits in MRS measures in the dominant basal ganglion and cerebellum.

  12. Wfs1-deficient mice display altered function of serotonergic system and increased behavioural response to antidepressants

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    Tanel eVisnapuu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that mutations in the WFS1 gene make humans more susceptible to mood disorders. Besides that, mood disorders are associated with alterations in the activity of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Therefore, in this study, the effects of imipramine, an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA reuptake, and paroxetine, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, were studied in tests of behavioural despair. The tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were performed in Wfs1-deficient mice. Simultaneously, gene expression and monoamine metabolism studies were conducted to evaluate changes in 5-HT- and NA-ergic systems of Wfs1-deficient mice. The basal immobility time of Wfs1-deficient mice in TST and FST did not differ from that of their wild-type littermates. However, a significant reduction of immobility time in response to lower doses of imipramine and paroxetine was observed in homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice, but not in their wild-type littermates. In gene expression studies, the levels of 5-HT transporter (SERT were significantly reduced in the pons of homozygous animals. Monoamine metabolism was assayed separately in the dorsal and ventral striatum of naive mice and mice exposed for 30 minutes tobrightly lit motility boxes. We found that this aversive challenge caused a significant increase in the levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, a metabolite of 5-HT, in the ventral and dorsal striatum of wild-type mice, but not in their homozygous littermates. Taken together, the blunted 5-HT metabolism and reduced levels of SERT are a likely reason for the elevated sensitivity of these mice to the action of imipramine and paroxetine. These changes in the pharmacological and neurochemical phenotype of Wfs1-deficient mice may help to explain the increased susceptibility of Wolfram syndrome patients to depressive states.

  13. Alpha-amylase activity in blood increases after pharmacological, but not psychological, activation of the adrenergic system

    OpenAIRE

    Nater, Urs M.; Roberto La Marca; Katja Erni; Ulrike Ehlert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIM: Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separat...

  14. Persistence of blood changes associated with alteration of the dietary electrolyte balance in commercial pigs after feed withdrawal, transportation, and lairage, and the effects on performance and carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L N; Engle, T E; Paradis, M A; Correa, J A; Anderson, D B

    2010-12-01

    Increasing dietary electrolyte balance (dEB) has previously been shown to reduce the incidence of nonambulatory and noninjured swine, improve meat quality, and reduce the incidence of gastric ulcers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dEB under commercial conditions. Due to the variability in feed withdrawal, transport, and lairage conditions in the swine industry, it was necessary to determine first the persistence of blood changes during the marketing process after alteration of dEB. Sixteen pens of 8 crossbred barrows were assigned to a low (121 mEq/kg) or high (375 mEq/kg) dEB diet, calculated as Na(+) + K(+) - Cl(-), to determine the persistence of blood changes associated with the alteration of dEB. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) requirements for energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Dietary treatments were provided for ad libitum intake for 3 d before slaughter. Before transport, animals were fasted in the barn for approximately 10 h. After fasting, animals were shipped to the packing plant, rested for 8 h, and subsequently slaughtered. Initial and final BW of the animals were obtained. Blood was sampled at baseline (2 d before administration of diets), before feed withdrawal (0 h), after feed withdrawal (10 h), and at exsanguination (20 h). Consumption of the high dEB diet for 3 d resulted in an increase in blood TCO(2) (P = 0.001), HCO(3)(-) (P = 0.001), and base excess (P = 0.0003) and a decrease in Cl(-) (P = 0.0002) and anion gap (P = 0.01). These differences, however, were not maintained for any of the blood components after the 10-h feed withdrawal (P > 0.22). Increasing dEB had no adverse effects (P > 0.18) on growth performance, meat quality, or carcass yield and did not decrease pars esophageal ulcer scores. This study demonstrated that the effect of dEB on blood components was not maintained after a 10-h feed withdrawal. Therefore, it is likely that the ability of the animal to withstand any increased

  15. Abundance of ruminal bacteria, epithelial gene expression, and systemic biomarkers of metabolism and inflammation are altered during the peripartal period in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuti, A; Palladino, A; Khan, M J; Alqarni, S; Agrawal, A; Piccioli-Capelli, F; Hidalgo, F; Cardoso, F C; Trevisi, E; Loor, J J

    2015-12-01

    Seven multiparous Holstein cows with a ruminal fistula were used to investigate the changes in rumen microbiota, gene expression of the ruminal epithelium, and blood biomarkers of metabolism and inflammation during the transition period. Samples of ruminal digesta, biopsies of ruminal epithelium, and blood were obtained during -14 through 28d in milk (DIM). A total of 35 genes associated with metabolism, transport, inflammation, and signaling were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Among metabolic-related genes, expression of HMGCS2 increased gradually from -14 to a peak at 28 DIM, underscoring its central role in epithelial ketogenesis. The decrease of glucose and the increase of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in the blood after calving confirmed the state of negative energy balance. Similarly, increases in bilirubin and decreases in albumin concentrations after calving were indicative of alterations in liver function and inflammation. Despite those systemic signs, lower postpartal expression of TLR2, TLR4, CD45, and NFKB1 indicated the absence of inflammation within the epithelium. Alternatively, these could reflect an adaptation to react against inducers of the immune system arising in the rumen (e.g., bacterial endotoxins). The downregulation of RXRA, INSR, and RPS6KB1 between -14 and 10 DIM indicated a possible increase in insulin resistance. However, the upregulation of IRS1 during the same time frame could serve to restore sensitivity to insulin of the epithelium as a way to preserve its proliferative capacity. The upregulation of TGFB1 from -14 and 10 DIM coupled with upregulation of both EGFR and EREG from 10 to 28 DIM indicated the existence of 2 waves of epithelial proliferation. However, the downregulation of TGFBR1 from -14 through 28 DIM indicated some degree of cell proliferation arrest. The downregulation of OCLN and TJP1 from -14 to 10 DIM indicated a loss of tight-junction integrity. The gradual upregulation of

  16. Phenotype frequencies of blood group systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran in blood donors of south Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj A Kahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This is the first study on phenotype frequencies of various blood group systems in blood donors of south Gujarat, India using conventional tube technique. Material and Methods: A total of 115 "O" blood group donors from three different blood banks of south Gujarat were typed for D, C, c, E, e, K, Jk a , Le a , Le b , P 1 , M, and N antigens using monoclonal antisera and k, Kp a , Kp b , Fy a ,Fy b , Jk b , S,s, Lu a , and Lu b antigens were typed using polyclonal antisera employing Indirect Antiglobulin Test. Antigens and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages. Results: From the 115 blood donor samples used for extended antigen typing in the Rh system, e antigen was found in 100% donors, followed by D [84.35%], C [81.74%], c [56.32%], and E [21.74%] with DCe/DCe (R 1 R 1 , 40.87% as the most common phenotype. k was found to be positive in 100% of donors and no K+k- phenotype was found in Kell system. For Kidd and Duffy blood group system, Jk(a+b+ and Fy(a-b- were the most common phenotypes with frequency of 52.17% and 48.69%, respectively. In the MNS system, 39.13% donors were typed as M+N+, 37.39% as M+N-, and 23.48% as M-N+. S+s+ was found in 24.35% of donors, S+s- in 8.69%, and S-s+ as the commonest amongst donors with 66.96%. No Lu(a+b+ or Lu(a+b- phenotypes were detected in 115 donors typed for Lutheran antigens. A rare Lu(a-b- phenotype was found in 2.61% donors. Conclusion: Data base for antigen frequency of various blood group systems in local donors help provide antigen negative compatible blood units to patients with multiple antibodies in order to formulate in-house red cells for antibody detection and identification and for preparing donor registry for rare blood groups.

  17. Study on the system development for evaluating long-term alteration of hydraulic field in near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the high performance evaluation of reliability of TRU waste repository, the system development for evaluating long-term alteration in consideration of the changes action of barrier materials of hydraulic field in Near Field is required. In this research, system development for evaluating long-term alteration of hydraulic field in Near Field was examined. Examination of the basic specification of chemical/dynamic alteration action analysis system used as the composition element of this system and a whole system were performed. The research result of this year is shown below. 1) The system by which the chemical changes happened by Near Field as influence of the exudation liquid from cement material are evaluated was examined. In this year, document investigation about the various processes about chemical alteration and extraction of a choice, presentation of the uncertainty about a model or data, preliminary modeling, a simple analysis tool creation and sensitivity analysis, extraction of the process which should be taken into consideration in a system valuation modeling and a phenomenon analysis model, and a corresponding mathematics model, optimization of the software composition for development of a system valuation modeling, the exercise by the preliminary system analysis model, the experiment plan for the corroboration of a model were shown. 2) In consideration of change of the physical characteristic accompanying chemical alteration of bentonite material and cement material, the system by which dynamic changes action of repository is evaluated was examined. In this year, arrangement of the dynamics action of repository for long-term were shown. Extraction of a phenomenon made applicable to evaluation was shown. And the dynamic models were investigated and the prototype of the dynamics model that can take into consideration the characteristic of bentonite material was shown. And the basic composition of a dynamic changes action analysis system was shown. 3

  18. Upper airway oedema following autologous blood transfusion from a wound drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, R; Tetzlaff, J E

    1992-03-01

    We report a case of a 70-yr-old white woman who underwent a revision of a total hip arthroplasty under general anaesthesia. The intraoperative course was stable without any complications and the estimated blood loss was 2500 ml. The patient received an autologous transfusion of blood from a wound drainage system in the recovery room. The transfusion was followed immediately by marked respiratory distress and upper airway oedema. She required emergency tracheal intubation and mechanical pulmonary ventilation. A coagulopathy also developed which was treated and resolved within 12 hr of the capillary leak phenomenon. The trachea was extubated on the first postoperative day and she had an uneventful course until discharge from the hospital two days later. We discuss the possible, aetiology of such a reaction to autologous blood including complement and platelet activation. It is suggested that reinfusion of nonwashed shed blood from a wound drainage system may present a hazard even though the fluid was autologous in origin. PMID:1551163

  19. ROLE OF MACROPHAGES IN REGULATION OF HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL MIGRATION IN BONE MARROW PERIPHERAL BLOOD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Yushkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms by which HSCs mobilize into damaged organs are currently under scrutiny.Macrophage role in these processes is investigated. In this study, we performed a flow cytometry analysis ofCD117+CD38+ and CD117+CD90low HSCs quantity in murine peripheral blood and bone marrow after liverand kidney injury under stimulation of phagocyte mononuclear system by injection of tamerit. This study havedemonstrated increased levels of CD117+CD38+ HSCs in bone marrow after partial hepatectomy, along withtheir migration to peripheral blood in response to tamerit injection. We also demonstrated that peripheralblood CD117+CD38+ HSCs levels were elevated after kidney injury. After partial hepatectomy, nochangesof CD117+CD90low HSCs quantity in investigated tissues were detected. We observed increased number ofCD117+CD90low HSCs in murine blood following kidney injury. Thus, we observed different influence ofmacrophage stimulation on the quantity of CD117+CD38+ and CD117+CD90low cells. These data suggestthat HSCs mobilization from the bone marrow to peripheral blood depends, at least in part, on phagocytemononuclear system, and that macrophage stimulation is important for proliferation and migration of variousHSCs populations following liver and kidney injury.

  20. Effect of magnetic bracelets on the coagulation and anticoagulation systems of the blood of patients with hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublis, V. V.; Zabrodina, L. V.; Platonova, A. T.; Meyerova, Y. A.

    1974-01-01

    The data which have been obtained on the influence of magnetic bracelets on the coagulation and anticoagulation systems of the blood indicate that the wearing of magnetic bracelets results in a decrease in the coagulation activity of the blood and an increase in the activity of the anticoagulation system. These changes must be viewed as favorable for patients with cardiovascular pathology.

  1. The blood-brain barrier in psychoneuroimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William A

    2009-05-01

    The term ''psychoneuroimmunology'' connotes separate compartments that interact. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is both the dividing line, physical and physiologic, between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) and the locale for interaction. The BBB restricts unregulated mixing of immune substances in the blood with those in the CNS, directly transports neuroimmune-active substances between the blood and CNS, and itself secretes neuroimmune substances. These normal functions of the BBB can be altered by neuroimmune events. As such, the BBB is an important conduit in the communication between the immune system and the CNS.

  2. Sexual differentiation of the brain: a model for drug-induced alterations of the reproductive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of the sexual differentiation of the brain represents a valuable model system for the study of the chemical modification of the mammalian brain. Although there are numerous functional and structural sex differences in the adult brain, these are imposed on an essentially feminine or bipotential brain by testicular hormones during a critical phase of perinatal development in the rat. It is suggested that a relatively marked structural sex difference in the rat brain, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA), is a morphological signature of the permanent or organizational action of estradiol derived from the aromatization of testicular testosterone. The SDN-POA of the male rat is severalfold larger in volume and is composed of more neurons than that of the female. The observation that the mitotic formation of the neurons of the SDN-POA is specifically prolonged has enabled us to identify the time course and pathway of neuronal migration into the nucleus. Study of the development of the SDN-POA suggests that estradiol in the male increases the number of neurons which survive a phase of neuronal death by exerting a neurite growth promoting action and/or a direct neuronotrophic action. Finally, although it is clear that gonadal hormones have dramatic permanent effects on the brain during perinatal development, even after puberty and in adulthood gonadal steroids can alter neuronal structure and, perhaps as a corollary to this, have permanent effects on reproductive function. Although the brain may be most sensitive to gonadal hormones or exogenous chemical factors during perinatal development, such as sensitivity does not appear limited to this period

  3. Alteration of insulin content in thermal and combined radiation-thermal burns and the insulin modulating activity of blood medium-weight molecular peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of thermal and combined radiation thermal burns on insulin content in blood plasma was studied in mice irradiated with 137Cs in 3.4 Gy. Insulin content in blood plasma of experimental animals and patients with thermal burns was determined with the help of radioimmune method. The insulin modulating activity of bolld medium-weight molecular peptides wqas considered. The investigations conducted showed that with the severity of burn in the period of toxemia the level of immunoreactive insulin and medium-weight molecular peptides increased

  4. Determination of lead in whole blood: Comparison of the LeadCare blood lead testing system with zeeman longitudinal electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares the efficiency of blood lead level analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and the portable LeadCare Blood lead testing system (LCS). Recoveries of two added lead concentrations of 22 and 42 μg/dL ranged from 102.4 to 105.5% for LCS and from 96.3 to 97.2% for GFAAS. Measurement of a certified sample (Certified Danish Whole Blood) at a blood lead concentration of 26.2 μg/dL gave within- and between-run coefficients of variation which were both approximately 8% by LCS and 2% by GFAAS. Comparison of the tested method (LCS) versus GFAAS from analysis of 76 samples of blood lead collected from workers in different industrial sectors showed imperfect overall correlation (r = 0.95). The LCS is quite suitable for screening purposes, but requires the use of non-frozen blood collected less than 24 h before. Conservative threshold values should be applied when using the LCS for initial screening in the field. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of a content-based retrieval system for blood cell images with automated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Woo Chaw; Mirisaee, Seyed Hadi

    2011-08-01

    Content-based image retrieval techniques have been extensively studied for the past few years. With the growth of digital medical image databases, the demand for content-based analysis and retrieval tools has been increasing remarkably. Blood cell image is a key diagnostic tool for hematologists. An automated system that can retrieved relevant blood cell images correctly and efficiently would save the effort and time of hematologists. The purpose of this work is to develop such a content-based image retrieval system. Global color histogram and wavelet-based methods are used in the prototype. The system allows users to search by providing a query image and select one of four implemented methods. The obtained results demonstrate the proposed extended query refinement has the potential to capture a user's high level query and perception subjectivity by dynamically giving better query combinations. Color-based methods performed better than wavelet-based methods with regard to precision, recall rate and retrieval time. Shape and density of blood cells are suggested as measurements for future improvement. The system developed is useful for undergraduate education. PMID:20703533

  6. A SYSTEM AND A DEVICE FOR ISOLATING CIRCULATING TUMOR CELLS FROM THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mego

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTC play a crucial role in disseminating tumors and in the metastatic cascade. CTCs are found only in small numbers, and the limited amount of isolated CTCs makes it impossible to characterize them closely. This paper presents a proposal for a new system for isolating CTCs from the peripheral blood in vivo. The system enables CTCs to be isolated from the whole blood volume for further research and applications. The proposed system consists of magnetic nanoparticles covered by monoclonal antibodies against a common epithelial antigen, large supermagnets, which are used to control the position of the nanoparticles within the human body, and a special wire made of a magnetic core wrapped in a non-magnetic shell. The system could be used not only for isolating CTCs, but also for in vivo isolation of other rare cells from the peripheral blood, including hematopoietic and/or mesenchymal stem cells, with applications in regenerative medicine and/or in stem cell transplantation.

  7. Leukocyte Mitochondrial DNA Alteration in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Its Relevance to the Susceptibility to Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau-Huei Wei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA alterations in the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE remains unclear. We investigated sequence variations in the D310 region and copy number change of mtDNA in 85 SLE patients and 45 normal subjects. Leukocyte DNA and RNA were extracted from leukocytes of the peripheral venous blood. The D310 sequence variations and copy number of mtDNA, and mRNA expression levels of mtDNA-encoded genes in leukocytes were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR and PCR-based direct sequencing, respectively. We found that leukocyte mtDNA in SLE patients exhibited higher frequency of D310 heteroplasmy (69.4% vs. 48.9%, p = 0.022 and more D310 variants (2.2 vs. 1.7, p = 0.014 than those found in controls. Among normal controls and patients with low, medium or high SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI, an ever-increasing frequency of D310 heteroplasmy was observed (p = 0.021. Leukocyte mtDNA copy number tended to be low in patients of high SLEDAI group (p = 0.068, especially in those harboring mtDNA with D310 heteroplasmy (p = 0.020. Moreover, the mtDNA copy number was positively correlated with the mRNA level of mtDNA-encoded ND1 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (p = 0.041 and ATPase 6 (ATP synthase subunit 6 (p = 0.030 genes. Patients with more D310 variants were more susceptible to lupus nephritis (p = 0.035. Taken together, our findings suggest that decrease in the mtDNA copy number and increase in D310 heteroplasmy of mtDNA are related to the development and progression of SLE, and that the patients harboring more D310 variants of mtDNA are more susceptible to lupus nephritis.

  8. Short communication: amino acid supplementation and stage of lactation alter apparent utilization of nutrients by blood neutrophils from lactating dairy cows in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutamine is the preferred AA used by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) during the inflammatory response. However, the effect of other AA on bovine PMN response during inflammation and how this is altered by stage of lactation has not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to dete...

  9. Metabolic system alterations in pancreatic cancer patient serum: potential for early detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the poorest among all cancers, due largely to the lack of methods for screening and early detection. New biomarkers for identifying high-risk or early-stage subjects could significantly impact PC mortality. The goal of this study was to find metabolic biomarkers associated with PC by using a comprehensive metabolomics technology to compare serum profiles of PC patients to healthy control subjects. A non-targeted metabolomics approach based on high-resolution, flow-injection Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FI-FTICR-MS) was used to generate comprehensive metabolomic profiles containing 2478 accurate mass measurements from the serum of Japanese PC patients (n=40) and disease-free subjects (n=50). Targeted flow-injection tandem mass spectrometry (FI-MS/MS) assays for specific metabolic systems were developed and used to validate the FI-FTICR-MS results. A FI-MS/MS assay for the most discriminating metabolite discovered by FI-FTICR-MS (PC-594) was further validated in two USA Caucasian populations; one comprised 14 PCs, six intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasims (IPMN) and 40 controls, and a second comprised 1000 reference subjects aged 30 to 80, which was used to create a distribution of PC-594 levels among the general population. FI-FTICR-MS metabolomic analysis showed significant reductions in the serum levels of metabolites belonging to five systems in PC patients compared to controls (all p<0.000025). The metabolic systems included 36-carbon ultra long-chain fatty acids, multiple choline-related systems including phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins, as well as vinyl ether-containing plasmalogen ethanolamines. ROC-AUCs based on FI-MS/MS of selected markers from each system ranged between 0.93 ±0.03 and 0.97 ±0.02. No significant correlations between any of the systems and disease-stage, gender, or treatment were observed. Biomarker PC-594 (an ultra long

  10. Irradiation Alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 System and Collagen Type IV Degradation in Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials: Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy γ-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy γ-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  11. Irradiation Alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 System and Collagen Type IV Degradation in Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hee [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Warrington, Junie P.; Sonntag, William E. [Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Lee, Yong Woo, E-mail: ywlee@vt.edu [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials: Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy {gamma}-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy {gamma}-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  12. Systemic pathological alterations caused by Philodryas patagoniensis colubrid snake venom in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, María Elisa; Teibler, Pamela; Ruíz, Raquel; Leiva, Laura; Acosta, Ofelia

    2006-10-01

    Very little is known about the systemic effects caused by Philodryas patagoniensis colubrid snake venom. In this work, this venom was tested for its ability to induce histopathological changes in rats after its intramuscular, subcutaneous or intravenous administration, by light microscopic examination of some organs (cerebellum, cerebrum, lung, liver, kidney and heart). Four rats were used for each dose of 0.23, 0.45 and 0.90 mg of venom in 0.3 ml of phosphate-buffered saline solution (pH 7.4). Aliquots of blood were withdrawn at different time intervals for enzymatic determination of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase levels. After 2h the animals were killed by an overdose of anesthetic, and samples of kidney, heart, liver, lung, cerebrum and cerebellum were taken to microscopic examination (hematoxylin and eosin stain). Histologically, no abnormality was observed in heart tissue, in none of the administration routes of the venom used. However, histological observations showed multifocal hemorrhage in cerebellum, cerebrum and lung sections, severe peritubular capillary congestion in kidney sections and hydropic degeneration in liver sections, when venom was administrated intravenously. The subcutaneous route showed similar results to the previous one, with the exception of cerebellar hemorrhage. Intramuscularly, neither cerebral nor cerebellar hemorrhage was observed. Plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increased levels were demonstrated, mainly when venom was administered intravenously or subcutaneously. Our results suggest that P. patagoniensis venom induces moderate histopathological changes in vital organs of rats. These changes are initiated at early stages of the envenomation and may be associated with a behavioral or functional abnormality of those organs during envenoming. PMID:16911815

  13. Progress in Alteration of Blood-brain Barrier Function by HIV-1Tat Protein%HIV-1 Tat蛋白改变血脑屏障结构和功能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡霄; 王震; 李桢; 曾柏瑞; 曾晓锋

    2013-01-01

    HIV-Tat蛋白是人类免疫缺陷病毒-1型(HIV-1)基因编码的一种被称为反式转录激活因子,是HIV转录和复制所必须的一个很重要的调控蛋白.艾滋病痴呆以及艾滋病相关性脑炎的患者其血脑屏障(blood-brain barrier,BBB)都受到不同程度的损伤,其中HIV-1 Tat蛋白起到了非常重要的作用.然而HIV-Tat蛋白改变血脑屏障结构和功能并不清楚,本综述主要讨论HIV-1 Tat蛋白对血脑屏障结构和功能的影响.%HIV-Tat protein is the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) , a gene encoding is called trans-activator of transcription, is a necessary regulatory protein for transcription and replication of HIV. The blood brain barrier (BBB) is damaged in the AIDS correlated dementia (ADC) and HIV-associated encephalitis (HIVE) , HIV-Tat protein is believed to play an important role in the process. The mechanism HIV-1 Tat protein in alteration of blood-brain barrier function is not entirely clear. The paper reviews the alteration of blood-brain barrier function by HIV-1 Tat protein to provide reference materials for related research and AIDS prevention and treatment.

  14. Linkage disequilibrium between the ELA and the A blood group systems in Standardbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, E

    1983-01-01

    The linkage group formed by the ELA and A blood group system in horses was studied in American Standardbred horses. The distance between the ELA locus and the A blood group locus was measured as 1.61 centimorgans, observing only the haplotypes contributed by the sires. Strong linkage disequilibrium was found in pacing Standardbred horses for ELA-W1 with Aa, ELA-W5 with Ab and ELA-W10 with Ab. Linkage disequilibrium was apparent at both the population and family level. Among trotting Standardbred horses, linkage disequilibrium was found for ELA-W1 with Aa and for ELA-W10 with Ab. It was not possible to investigate linkage relationships in Thoroughbred horses because of the high frequency of Aa and low frequency of other A system markers.

  15. Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd and Diego blood group system polymorphism in Brazilian Japanese descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Marli Aparecida Luvisuto Rossett; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Guelsin, Gláucia Andréia Soares; Fracasso, Adriana de Souza; de Melo, Fabiano Cavalcante; Hashimoto, Margareth Naomi; Sell, Ana Maria

    2014-02-01

    Polymorphisms of Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd and Diego blood group systems were studied in 209 unrelated Brazilian Japanese descendants from South of Brazil. The methods used were multiplex-PCR, AS-PCR and RFLP-PCR. The differences in frequencies among the populations were evaluated using chi-square test. The frequencies for Rh, Kell, Kidd and Diego system were similar to those of the Japanese. RHCE(*)CC, RHCE(*)EE genotypes and FY(*)01 allele were lower and FY(*)01N.01 was higher than Japanese. These differences in the frequencies between Brazilian Japanese descendants and Japanese could indicate a gene flow in Brazilian population and reinforce the importance of this knowledge to achieve safe red blood cells. PMID:24231689

  16. Distinct alterations in sublingual microcirculatory blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation in on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Atasever; C. Boer; P. Goedhart; J. Biervliet; J. Seyffert; R. Speekenbrink; L. Schwarte; B. de Mol; C. Ince

    2011-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (on-pump) is associated with more severe changes in the microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation as compared with off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. An observational study. A university hospital and teaching hospital. Patient

  17. Optimization of sugar and blood feeding regimen in Anopheles gambiae mass production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is being developed for the control of malaria transmitting mosquitoes. Critical to the success of applying the SIT is the establishment of standardized mass production systems for the target species. As part of efforts to develop standardised mass production systems for malaria vectors, this project sought to optimize adult blood and sugar feeding in a mass production system. Different sugar types (glucose, sucrose and honey) were evaluated at 6% and 10% concentrations in water to determine the best sugar diet and concentration for feeding adult An. gambiae. Different blood feeding methods, restrained Guinea pig, anaesthetised Guinea pig and human arm feeding were evaluated. Adult survival, female insemination and egg production were used as criteria to determine optimum sugar and blood feeding. The effect of anaesthetics on blood feeding response and egg production of female An. gambiae was determined by comparing feeding response and egg production of females fed with anaesthetised Guinea pigs as against physically restrained Guinea pigs (Control). The specific effect of different anaesthetic agents on blood feeding response and egg production of female mosquitoes were was also determined by comparing the feeding response and egg production of females fed with either Ketamine/Xylazine anaesthetised Guinea pigs or Ketamine/Diazepam anaesthetised Guinea pigs. Effects due to sugar types and concentrations on percentage survival of male and female mosquitoes were observed to be significant at (p 0.05). However, human ann feeding (HAP) method and Ketamine/Xylazine (KX) anaesthetics fed for 25 minutes recorded higher percentage feeding (76.0% and 68.0% respectively) and egg production of 19.0% and 20.8% respectively. Anaesthetised Guinea pig feeding (AGF) of adults for 15 minutes followed closely with 60.0% and 15.1% blood feeding and egg production respectively whilst restrained Guinea pig feeding (RGF) method and Ketamine

  18. Artificial heart system thermal converter and blood pump component research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bench model version of a nuclear-powered artificial heart system to be used as a replacement for the natural heart was constructed and tested as a part of a broader U. S. ERDA program. The objective of the broader program has been to develop a prototype of a fully implantable nuclear-powered total artificial heart system powered by the thermal energy of plutonium-238 and having minimum weight and volume and a minimum life of ten years. As a forward step in this broader program, component research and development has been carried out directed towards a fully implantable and advanced version of the bench model (IVBM). Some of the results of the component research and development effort on a Stirling engine, blood pump drive mechanisms, and coupling mechanisms are presented. The Stirling-mechanical system under development is shown. There are three major subassemblies: the thermal converter, the coupling mechanism, and the blood pump drive mechanism. The thermal converter uses a Stirling cycle to convert the heat of the plutonium-238 fueled heat source to a rotary shaft power output. The coupling mechanism changes the orientation of the output shaft by 90 degrees and transmits the pumping power by wire-wound core flexible shafting to the pumping mechanism. The coupling mechanism also provides routing of the coolant lines which carry the cycle waste heat from the thermal converter to the blood pump. The change in orientation of the thermal converter output shaft is for convenience in implanting in a calf. This orientation of thermal converter to blood pump seemed to give the best overall system fit in a calf based on fit trials with wooden models in a calf cadaver

  19. Systemic chemotherapy induces microsatellite instability in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic chemotherapy is an important part of treatment for breast cancer. We conducted the present study to evaluate whether systemic chemotherapy could produce microsatellite instability (MSI) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell fraction of breast cancer patients. We studied 119 sequential blood samples from 30 previously untreated breast cancer patients before, during and after chemotherapy. For comparison, we also evaluated 20 women who had no relevant medical history (control group). In 27 out of 30 patients we observed MSI in at least one sample, and six patients had loss of heterozygosity. We found a significant correlation between the number of MSI events per sample and chemotherapy with alkylating agents (P < 0.0001). We also observed an inverse correlation between the percentage of cells positive for hMSH2 and the number of MSI events per sample (P = 0.00019) and use of alkylating agents (P = 0.019). We conclude that systemic chemotherapy may induce MSI and loss of heterozygosity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from breast cancer patients receiving alkylating agents, possibly mediated by a chemotherapy-induced decrease in the expression of hMSH2. These effects may be related to the generation of secondary leukaemia in some patients, and may also intensify the genetic instability of tumours and increase resistance to treatment

  20. Nanoparticles and blood-brain barrier: the key to central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Alazne; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Major central nervous system disorders represent a significant and worldwide public health problem. In fact, the therapeutic success of many pharmaceuticals developed to treat central nervous system diseases is still moderate, since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the access of systemically administered compounds to the brain. Therefore, they require the application of a large total dose of a drug, and cause numerous toxic effects. The development of nanotechnological systems are useful tools to deliver therapeutics and/or diagnostic probes to the brain due to nanocarriers having the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs and to reduce their side effects. This review provides a brief overview of the variety of carriers employed for central nervous system drug and diagnostic probes delivery. Further, this paper focuses on the novel nanocarriers developed to enhance brain delivery across the blood-brain barrier. Special attention is paid to liposomes, micelles, polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes. The recent developments in nanocarrier implementation through size/charge optimization and surface modifications (PEGylation, targeting delivery, and coating with surfactants) have been discussed. And a detailed description of the nanoscaled pharmaceutical delivery devices employed for the treatment of central nervous system disorders have also been defined. The aim of the review is to evaluate the nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategies to treat different central nervous system disorders.

  1. A Framework for a Smart Social Blood Donation System Based on Mobile Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Almetwally M.; Youssef, Ahmed E.; Alshorbagy, Gamal

    2014-01-01

    Blood Donation and Blood Transfusion Services (BTS) are crucial for saving people lives. Recently, worldwide efforts have been undertaken to utilize social media and smartphone applications to make the blood donation process more convenient, offer additional services, and create communities around blood donation centers. Blood banks suffer frequent shortage of blood; hence, advertisements are frequently seen on social networks urging healthy individuals to donate blood for patients who urgent...

  2. [Kallikrein-kinin system of blood in patients in the post-infarction period, and its reaction to physical exertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimova, F I; Nekrasova, A A; Chernova, N A; Nikolaeva, L F

    1983-09-01

    Blood kallikrein-kinin function was assessed in myocardial infarction survivors. Increased blood kinin-forming activity was demonstrated, accompanied with a simultaneous rise in the system's inhibitor level and excessive response to exercise, with slower regaining of the baseline after exercise was discontinued. It is concluded that functional testing of blood kallikrein-kinin status by means of rationed exercise yields more informative data on this system in various groups of postinfarction patients and that the extent of the system's activation depends on systemic circulatory function.

  3. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented o...

  4. Altered systemic bioavailability and organ distribution of azathioprine in methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf A Karbelkar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Study outcome has thrown light on altered fate of AZA when administered to individuals with mucositis which suggests modified drug therapy. These findings can further be investigated in different drug classes which might be administered concomitantly in mucositis and study outcome can be further confirmed in mucositis patients in clinical practice also.

  5. 78 FR 47322 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... support the NPDB must attend security training, sign a Non-Disclosure Agreement, and sign the Rules of... deleted. The NPDB SORN was last published March 30, 2012 (77 FR 19295). The proposed alterations to the...), Monday through Friday. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Director, Division of Practitioner Data...

  6. Response of the photosynthetic system to altered protein composition and changes in environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, T.

    2014-01-01

    The photosynthetic thylakoid membrane has a hierarchically ordered structure containing pigment-protein complexes that capture solar radiation and convert it into chemical energy. Its highly dynamic structure is capable to continuously respond to the altered environmental conditions, e.g., light qua

  7. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojka Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  8. Blood hibernation: a novel strategy to inhibit systemic inflammation and coagulation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; WU Xiao-dong; LIN Ke; Raphael C. Lui; AN Qi; TAO Kai-yu; DU Lei; LIU Jin

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation and coagulation are two intimately cross-linked defense mechanisms of most, if not all organisms to injuries. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), these two process-is are activated and interact with each other through several common pathways, which may result in subsequent organ dysfunction. In the present study, we hypothesized that the addition of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and aprotinin to the systemic circulation, hereby referred to as blood hibernation, would attenuate the inflammation and coagulation induced by CPB. Methods Thirty adult mongrel dogs were equally divided into five groups, anesthetized and placed on hypothermic CPB (32 C). Each group received respectively the following treatments: (1) inhalation of 40 ppm nitric oxide; (2) intravenous infusion of 20 ng·kg-1·min-1 of PGE1; (3) 80 000 kallikrein inhibitor units (KIU)/kg of aprotinin; (4) the combination of all three agents (blood hibernation group); and (5) no treatment (control group) during CPB. Activation of leukocyte, platelet, endothelial cell, and formation of thrombin were assessed after CPB.Results As compared with the other four groups, leukocyte counts were higher, while plasma elastase, interleukin-8, CD11b mRNA expression, myeloperoxidase activities and lung tissue leukocyte counts were lower in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups after CPB). Plasma prothrombin fragment (PTF)1+2, and platelet activation factors were lower, while platelet counts were higher in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups at 6 and 12 hours after CPB). Electron microscopy showed endothelial pseudopods protrusion, with cell adherence in all four groups except the blood hibernation group where endothelial cells remained intact.Conclusion Blood hibernation, effected by the addition of nitric oxide, PGE1 and aprotinin to the circulating blood during extra-corporeal circulation, was observed to attenuate the inflammation and

  9. Study of a centrifugal blood pump in a mock loop system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Beatriz; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Fonseca, Jeison; Bock, Eduardo; Leme, Juliana; da Silva, Cibele; Leão, Tarcísio; Andrade, Aron

    2013-11-01

    An implantable centrifugal blood pump (ICBP) is being developed to be used as a ventricular assist device (VAD) in patients with severe cardiovascular diseases. The ICBP system is composed of a centrifugal pump, a motor, a controller, and a power supply. The electricity source provides power to the controller and to a motor that moves the pump's rotor through magnetic coupling. The centrifugal pump is composed of four parts: external conical house, external base, impeller, and impeller base. The rotor is supported by a pivot bearing system, and its impeller base is responsible for sheltering four permanent magnets. A hybrid cardiovascular simulator (HCS) was used to evaluate the ICBP's performance. A heart failure (HF) (when the heart increases beat frequency to compensate for decrease in blood flow) was simulated in the HCS. The main objective of this work is to analyze changes in physiological parameters such as cardiac output, blood pressure, and heart rate in three situations: healthy heart, HF, and HF with left circulatory assistance by ICBP. The results showed that parameters such as aortic pressure and cardiac output affected by the HF situation returned to normal values when the ICBP was connected to the HCS. In conclusion, the test results showed satisfactory performance for the ICBP as a VAD.

  10. Duffy blood group system and the malaria adaptation process in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledson Barbosa de Carvalho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an acute infectious disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. The antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System, in addition to incompatibilities in transfusions and hemolytic disease of the newborn, are of great interest in medicine due to their association with the invasion of red blood cells by the parasite Plasmodium vivax. For invasions to occur an interaction between the parasites and antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System is necessary. In Caucasians six antigens are produced by the Duffy locus (Fya, Fyb, F3, F4, F5 and F6. It has been observed that Fy(a-b- individuals are resistant to Plasmodium knowlesi and P. vivax infection, because the invasion requires at least one of these antigens. The P. vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP is functionally important in the invasion process of these parasites in Duffy / DARC positive humans. The proteins or fractions may be considered, therefore, an important and potential inoculum to be used in immunization against malaria.

  11. A Mathematical Model of Renal Blood Distribution Coupling TGF, MR and Tubular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ci-xiu; YANG Lin; WANG Ke-qiang; XU Shi-xiong; DAI Pei-dong

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between renal blood distribution and the physiological activities of the kidney. Methods:A mathematical model is developed based on Hagan-Poiseuille law and mass transport, coupling mechanics of myogenic response (MR), tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and the tubular system in the renal medulla. The model parameters, including the permeability coefficients, the vascular lumen radius and the solute concentration at the inlet of the tubes, are derived from the experimental results. Simulations of the blood and water flow in the loop of Henel, the collecting duct and vas rectum, are carried out by the model of the tubular system in the renal medulla, based on conservations of water and solutes for transmural transport. Then the tubular model is coupled with MR and TGF mechanics. Results:The results predict the dynamics of renal autoregulation on its blood pressure and flow,and the distributions are 88.5% in the cortex, 10.3% in the medulla, and 1.2% at papilla,respectively. The fluid flow and solute concentrations along the tubules and vasa recta are obtained. Conclusion:The present model could assess renal functions qualitatively and quantitatively and provide a methodological approach for clinical research.

  12. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menasria, Rafik; Canivet, Coraline; Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2x106 plaque forming units). Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P<0.05) and «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes (P<0.001) significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P<0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls) to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of «Ly6Clow» patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P<0.01) at a later time point (day 8), which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus, our findings suggest

  13. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Menasria

    Full Text Available The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE. To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2 x 10(6 plaque forming units. Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P < 0.05 and "Ly6C hi" inflammatory monocytes (P < 0.001 significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P < 0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of "Ly6C low" patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P < 0.01 at a later time point (day 8, which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus

  14. Long term alteration of glass/iron systems in anoxic conditions: contribution of archaeological analogues to the study of mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of glass alteration mechanisms arouses a great interest over the last decades, particularly in the nuclear field, since vitrification is used to stabilize high-level radioactive wastes in many countries. In the French concept, these nuclear glasses would be stored in geological repositories. This multi-barrier system (glass matrix, stainless steel container, low carbon steel over-container, geological barrier) must ensure the durable confinement of radionuclides. But laboratory experiments do not permit to predict directly the behaviour of these materials over typically a million-year timescale and the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data to long time periods remains problematic. Part of the validation of the predictive models relies on natural and archaeological analogues. Here, the analogues considered are vitreous slags produced as wastes by a blast furnace working during the 16. century in the iron making site of Glinet (Normandy, France). The choice of these specific artefacts is due to the presence of particular interface between corrosion products and glass matrix inside the blocks. Thus, they can help us to understand the influence of iron corrosion products from the steel containers on the glass alteration mechanisms and kinetics. A first part of this work concerns the characterization of the archaeological artefacts especially the interfacial area between glass and corrosion products inside cracks using micro and nano-beam techniques ( Raman spectroscopy, FEG-SEM, TEM, STXM...). This study has enabled to suggest an alteration process with different geochemical steps that leads to alteration profile observed. One of these steps is the precipitation of an iron silicate phase. In a second time, leaching experiments were set up on a synthetic glass of similar composition than the archaeological one to understand the first stages of alteration with and without iron. Two phenomena can be observed: silicon sorption and precipitation of iron

  15. Long-lasting alterations in the immune system of Chernobyl accident victims: manifestations, nature and possible consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis is formulated, which explains genesis of long-lasting disturbances in the immune system of the persons affected by factors of Chernobyl disaster. Immunological alterations which are displayed at the late time after action of radiation in doses 0.5 Gy or lower are not a result of direct damage of the cells of immune system by irradiation. Their development is more probably a result of appearance of some systemic conditions and factors in affected organism - such as hormonal disbalance and especially autoantibodies of different specificities, including those reactive with thymic epithelial cells. Refs. 60, refs. 5

  16. Cell Cycle Control and Adhesion Molecule Expression in Cells of the Immune System are Sensitive to Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, O.; Paulsen, K.; Thiel, C.; Herrmann, K.; Sang, C.; Han, G.; Hemmersbach, R.; von der Wiesche, M.; Kroll, H.; Zhuang, F.; Grote, K. H.; Cogoli, A.; Zipp, F.; Engelmann, F.

    2008-06-01

    Life on earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Thus, it is a fundamental biological question, whether gravity is required for cellular functions and signal transduction in mammalian cells. Since the first Spacelab-Mission 20 years ago, it is known that activation and function of T lymphocytes is severely suppressed in microgravity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not elucidated. Experiments have been performed using ground-based facilities such as fast-rotating clinostat and hyper-g-centrifuges, and real microgravity provided by parabolic flights. We found that 1.) cells of the immune system responded cell type specifically to altered gravity, 2.) microgravity induced a multitude of initial alterations in signal transduction, whereas 3.) hypergravity of 1.8g did not induce any changes of the pathways tested, and that 4.) most of the initially altered pathways in microgravity adapted to "normal" levels within 15min. However, some pathways remained altered and could explain cell cycle arrest of T lymphocytes as observed in several long-term space experiments.

  17. Environmental and molecular characterization of systems which affect genome alteration in pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is used as a model organism to study genome alteration in freshwater microbial populations and horizontal gene transmission by both transduction and conjugation has been demonstrated. The studies have also provided data which suggest that intracellular genome instability may be increased in the aquatic environment as a result of stresses encountered by the cell in this habitat. The role of the P. aeruginosa recA analog in regulating genome instability is also addressed

  18. Pathogenesis of Bone Alterations in Gaucher Disease: The Role of Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Marcos Mucci; Paula Rozenfeld

    2015-01-01

    Gaucher, the most prevalent lysosomal disorder, is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder due to a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. Glucocerebrosidase deficiency leads to the accumulation of glucosylceramide primarily in cells of mononuclear-macrophage lineage. Clinical alterations are visceral, hematological, and skeletal. Bone disorder in Gaucher disease produces defects on bone metabolism and structure and patients suffer from bone pain and crisis. Skeletal problems include osteopenia,...

  19. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  20. Hollow-Fiber Cartridges: Model Systems for Virus Removal from Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Menon, Jeevan

    2005-11-01

    Aethlon Medical is developing a hollow-fiber hemodialysis device designed to remove viruses and toxins from blood. Possible target viruses include HIV and pox-viruses. The filter could reduce virus and viral toxin concentration in the patient's blood, delaying illness so the patient's immune system can fight off the virus. In order to optimize the design of such a filter, the fluid mechanics of the device is both modeled analytically and investigated experimentally. The flow configuration of the proposed device is that of Starling flow. Polysulfone hollow-fiber dialysis cartridges were used. The cartridges are charged with water as a model fluid for blood and fluorescent latex beads are used in the experiments as a model for viruses. In the experiments, properties of the flow through the cartridge are determined through pressure and volume flow rate measurements of water. The removal of latex beads, which are captured in the porous walls of the fibers, was measured spectrophotometrically. Experimentally derived coefficients derived from these experiments are used in the analytical model of the flow and removal predictions from the model are compared to those obtained from the experiments.

  1. Blood metabolites and some fertility parameters in dairy cows under intensive management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairy farms (1, 2, 3 and 4) of the intensive management system were selected. They are located 50 kilometers south of Khartoum state in a semi-arid zone. The effect of management on some fertility parameters, blood metabolites and minerals were investigated. Changes in blood metabolites with stage of lactation were also monitored. Other parameters studied were body weight, body condition score at calving. The results revealed that days to first P4 rise after calving and number of services per conception (NSPC) were lower in the farm s contained the cross-bred (Fresian X Zebu) compared to the farm contained the pure Fresian breed. The pure Fresian cows showed heavier weights and less body score at calving compared to the cross breed. Blood metabolites reflected the nutritional status of the dairy cows under study, plasma total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and Glucose did not show significant changes either either either between farms or in response to lactation stages. However, high levels of Globulins might indicate inflammation due to some diseases such as mastitis, metritis and lameness. Plasma level of Calcium and Phosphorous did not change significantly either between farms or due to stages of lactation.(Author)

  2. Examining the Uptake of Central Nervous System Drugs and Candidates across the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Scott G; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Houfu

    2016-08-01

    Assessing the equilibration of the unbound drug concentrations across the blood-brain barrier (Kp,uu) has progressively replaced the partition coefficient based on the ratio of the total concentration in brain tissue to blood (Kp). Here, in vivo brain distribution studies were performed on a set of central nervous system (CNS)-targeted compounds in both rats and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) genetic knockout mice. Several CNS drugs are characterized by Kp,uu values greater than unity, inferring facilitated uptake across the rodent blood-brain barrier (BBB). Examples are shown in which Kp,uu also increases above unity on knockout of P-gp, highlighting the composite nature of this parameter with respect to facilitated BBB uptake, efflux, and passive diffusion. Several molecules with high Kp,uu values share common structural elements, whereas uptake across the BBB appears more prevalent in the CNS-targeted drug set than the chemical templates being generated within the current lead optimization paradigm. Challenges for identifying high Kp,uu compounds are discussed in the context of acute versus steady-state data and cross-species differences. Evidently, there is a need for better predictive models of human brain Kp,uu. PMID:27194478

  3. [The response of cerebral blood flow and systemic arterial blood pressure to hypercapnia and hypocapnia in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, V P; Kuznetsova, D V

    2013-01-01

    In 11 healthy volunteers 21 +/- 3.7 years old was monitored cerebral blood flow (CBF) by transcranial Doppler (TCD) of middle cerebral artery and mean hemodynamic arterial blood pressure (MAP) by continuous non-invasive measurement "beat-to-beat" at normocapnia, hypercapnia and hypocapnia. Hypercapnia was creating by rebreathing, hypocapnia was creating by spontaneous hyperventilation. The partial pressure of CO2 in alveolar air (PetCO2) was monitored by capnograph, embedded in the TCD-analyzer. During hypercapnia the velocity of CBF and PetCO2 were significantly increased already at 10 s, which was considerably earlier than the increase in the MAP (30 s). During hypocapnia velocity CBF and PetCO2 were significantly decreased at 10 s, and MAP was not changed. We have installed the threshold PetCO2 42 (41; 44) mm Hg, below which amplification CBF occurs at a constant MAP and reflects the true cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2. PMID:23805713

  4. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether imbalances in this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure ... can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems ...

  5. Arterial dysfunction but maintained systemic blood pressure in cavin-1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Swärd

    Full Text Available Caveolae are omega-shaped plasma membrane micro-domains that are abundant in cells of the vascular system. Formation of caveolae depends on caveolin-1 and cavin-1 and lack of either protein leads to loss of caveolae. Mice with caveolin-1 deficiency have dysfunctional blood vessels, but whether absence of cavin-1 similarly leads to vascular dysfunction is not known. Here we addressed this hypothesis using small mesenteric arteries from cavin-1-deficient mice. Cavin-1-reporter staining was intense in mesenteric arteries, brain arterioles and elsewhere in the vascular system, with positive staining of both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Arterial expression of cavin-1, -2 and -3 was reduced in knockout (KO arteries as was expression of caveolin-1, -2 and -3. Caveolae were absent in the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of small mesenteric arteries as determined by electron microscopy. Arginase, a negative regulator of nitric oxide production, was elevated in cavin-1 deficient arteries as was contraction in response to the α1-adrenergic agonist cirazoline. Detailed assessment of vascular dimensions revealed increased media thickness and reduced distensibility, arguing that enhanced contraction was due to increased muscle mass. Contrasting with increased α1-adrenergic contraction, myogenic tone was essentially absent and this appeared to be due in part to increased nitric oxide production. Vasomotion was less frequent in the knock-out vessels. In keeping with the opposing influences on arterial resistance of increased agonist-induced contractility and reduced myogenic tone, arterial blood pressure was unchanged in vivo. We conclude that deficiency of cavin-1 affects the function of small arteries, but that opposing influences on arterial resistance balance each other such that systemic blood pressure in unstressed mice is well maintained.

  6. Pathogenic LRRK2 mutations do not alter gene expression in cell model systems or human brain tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Devine

    Full Text Available Point mutations in LRRK2 cause autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. Despite extensive efforts to determine the mechanism of cell death in patients with LRRK2 mutations, the aetiology of LRRK2 PD is not well understood. To examine possible alterations in gene expression linked to the presence of LRRK2 mutations, we carried out a case versus control analysis of global gene expression in three systems: fibroblasts isolated from LRRK2 mutation carriers and healthy, non-mutation carrying controls; brain tissue from G2019S mutation carriers and controls; and HEK293 inducible LRRK2 wild type and mutant cell lines. No significant alteration in gene expression was found in these systems following correction for multiple testing. These data suggest that any alterations in basal gene expression in fibroblasts or cell lines containing mutations in LRRK2 are likely to be quantitatively small. This work suggests that LRRK2 is unlikely to play a direct role in modulation of gene expression, although it remains possible that this protein can influence mRNA expression under pathogenic cicumstances.

  7. Age, gender, insulin and blood glucose control status alter the risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke among elderly diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattori Yoshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyzed the effects of insulin therapy, age and gender on the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD and cerebrovascular accident (CVA according to glycemic control. Methods and Results We performed a prospective cohort study (Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study of type 2 diabetes patients (n = 4014 for 2 years. The primary endpoint was the onset of fatal/non-fatal IHD and/or CVA, which occurred at rates of 7.9 and 7.2 per 1000 person-years, respectively. We divided diabetic patients into four groups based on age (≤ 70 and > 70 and hemoglobin A1C levels (≤ 7.0 and > 7.0%. Multiple regression analysis revealed that IHD was associated with high systolic blood pressure and low HDL-C in patients under 70 years of age with fair glycemic control and was associated with low diastolic blood pressure in the older/fair group. Interestingly, insulin use was associated with IHD in the older/poor group (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.11-5.89; p = 0.026 and was associated with CVA in the older/fair group (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.06-4.25; p = 0.028. CVA was associated with lower HDL-C and longer duration of diabetes in younger/poor glycemic control group. Results by stepwise analysis were similar. Next, patients were divided into four groups based on gender and diabetic control(hemoglobinA1C 7.0%. Multiple regression analysis revealed that IHD was associated with high systolic blood pressure in male/fair glycemic control group, age in male/poor control group, and short duration of diabetic history in females in both glycemic control groups. Interestingly, insulin use was associated with IHD in the male/poor group(OR = 4.11, 95% CI = 1.22-8.12; p = 0.018 and with CVA in the female/poor group(OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.12-6.24; p = 0.02. CVA was associated with short duration of diabetes in both female groups. Conclusions IHD and CVA risks are affected by specific factors in diabetics, such as treatment, gender and age. Specifically, insulin

  8. Assessment of a continuous blood gas monitoring system in animals during circulatory stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzulli Attilio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was aimed to determine the measurement accuracy of The CDI™ blood parameter monitoring system 500 (Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Corporation, Ann Arbor MI in the real-time continuous measurement of arterial blood gases under different cardiocirculatory stress conditions Methods Inotropic stimulation (Dobutamine 2.5 and 5 μg/kg/min, vasoconstriction (Arginine-vasopressin 4, 8 and 16 IU/h, hemorrhage (-10%, -20%, -35%, and -50% of the theoretical volemia, and volume resuscitation were induced in ten swine (57.4 ± 10.7 Kg.Intermittent blood gas assessments were carried out using a routine gas analyzer at any experimental phase and compared with values obtained at the same time settings during continuous monitoring with CDI™ 500 system. The Bland-Altman analysis was employed. Results Bias and precision for pO2 were - 0.06 kPa and 0.22 kPa, respectively (r2 = 0.96; pCO2 - 0.02 kPa and 0.15 kPa, respectively; pH -0.001 and 0.01 units, respectively ( r2 = 0.96. The analysis showed very good agreement for SO2 (bias 0.04,precision 0.33, r2 = 0.95, Base excess (bias 0.04,precision 0.28, r2 = 0.98, HCO3 (bias 0.05,precision 0.62, r2 = 0.92,hemoglobin (bias 0.02,precision 0.23, r2 = 0.96 and K+ (bias 0.02, precision 0.27, r2 = 0.93. The sensor was reliable throughout the experiment during hemodynamic variations. Conclusions Continuous blood gas analysis with the CDI™ 500 system was reliable and it might represent a new useful tool to accurately and timely monitor gas exchange in critically ill patients. Nonetheless, our findings need to be confirmed by larger studies to prove its reliability in the clinical setting.

  9. Defective mitochondrial respiration, altered dNTP pools and reduced AP endonuclease 1 activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Alzheimer's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Dinh, Tran Thuan Son;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are badly needed. Recent reports suggest that dysfunctional mitochondria and DNA damage are associated with AD development. In this report, we measured various cellular parameters, related to mitochondrial bioenergetics...... as possible. We measured glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration fluxes using the Seahorse Bioscience flux analyzer, mitochondrial ROS production using flow cytometry, dNTP levels by way of a DNA polymerization assay, DNA strand breaks using the Fluorometric detection of Alkaline DNA Unwinding (FADU) assay...... on adjustments for gender and/or age. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals impaired mitochondrial respiration, altered dNTP pools and reduced DNA repair activity in PBMCs of AD patients, thus suggesting that these biochemical activities may be useful as biomarkers for AD....

  10. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  11. An Analysis of Pulsed Wave Ultrasound Systems for Blood Velocity Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    of the received signal. The time evolution and distribution of velocity can then be found by using samples from a number of pulse-echo lines. Making a short-time Fourier transform of the data reveals the velocity distribution in the range gate over time. Such systems are called Doppler ultrasound systems implying......Pulsed wave ultrasound systems can be used for determining blood's velocity non-invasively in the body. A region of interest is selected, and the received signal is range gated to measure data from the region. One complex sample value is acquired for each pulse emission after complex demodulation...... and the number of pulse emissions aect the result. The nal equation for the received signal is quite complicated, and a simplied interpretation is therefore also given. This readily reveals the infuence from transducer bandwidth, attenuation, non-linear eects, classical Doppler eect, and scattering....

  12. Association between altered lipid profile, body mass index, low plasma adiponectin and varied blood pressure in trinidadian type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivananda B Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity and hypertension have become the causes for the development type 2 diabetes. There is a limited study done on the contribution of body mass index (BMI to blood pressure (BP in the Caribbean population. Aim of our study was to determine the associations between lipid profile, BMI, adiponectin, and BP in Trinidadian type 2 diabetic patients with regards to age and ethnicity. Materials and Methods: This was a cohort study comprised of 266 subjects (85 males and 181 females attending primary and tertiary healthcare settings in central Trinidad. Of which, 126 diabetic subjects were matched with 140 non-diabetic subjects. Along with clinical history and anthropometry, adiponectin and lipid profile were measured in fasting blood samples. Results: The diabetic group had higher triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, and BP values which were statistically significant (P < 0.05 when compared to non-diabetic subjects. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and adiponectin were lower in diabetic subjects. HDL-c showed significant changes for ethnicity (P = 0.013 and gender (P = 0.043. The mean adiponectin concentrations were found to be significantly different among the ethnic groups (P = 0.001. Systolic pressure varied significantly with age (P = 0.018. As age increased, BP also increased. Ethnic groups had a significant difference in diastolic pressure (P = 0.027. East Indians had the highest mean diastolic pressure (80.74 ± 10.29 when compared to all other ethnic groups. Conclusion: HDL-cholesterol, low levels of adiponectin, and varied BP are associated in Trinidadian type 2 diabetic subjects with regards to age, gender, and ethnicity.

  13. Fast Blood Vector Velocity Imaging using ultrasound: In-vivo examples of complex blood flow in the vascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik;

    2008-01-01

    in the superficial branch of the femoral artery during diastole, 3) that retrograde flow was present in the subclavian artery and antegrade in the common carotid artery during diastole, 4) that vortices were formed in the buckets behind the venous valves in both antegrade and retrograde flow, and 5) that secondary......Conventional ultrasound methods for acquiring color flow images of the blood motion are restricted by a relatively low frame rate and angle dependent velocity estimates. The Plane Wave Excitation (PWE) method has been proposed to solve these limitations. The frame rate can be increased, and the 2-D...... speckle tracking between segments in consecutive speckle images. The flow patterns of six bifurcations and two veins were investigated in-vivo. It was shown: 1) that a stable vortex in the carotid bulb was present opposed to other examined bifurcations, 2) that retrograde flow was present...

  14. Stability of cirrhotic systemic hemodynamics ensures sufficient splanchnic blood flow after living-donor liver transplantation in adult recipients with liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between systemic hemodynamics and splanchnic circulation in recipients with cirrhosis undergoing living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), and to clarify how systemic hemodynamics impact on local graft circulation after LDLT.METHODS: Systemic hemodynamics, indocyanine green (ICG) elimination rate (KICG) and splanchnic circulation were simultaneously and non-invasively investigated by pulse dye densitometry (PDD) and ultrasound. Accurate estimators of optimal systemic hyperdynamics after LDLT [i.e., balance of cardiac output (CO) to blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT), defined as the time required for half the administered ICG to pass through an attached PDD sensor in the first circulation] were also measured. Thirty recipients with cirrhosis were divided into two groups based on clinical outcomes corresponding to postoperative qraft function.RESULTS: Cirrhotic systemic hyperdynamics characterized by high CO, expanded BV and low total peripheral resistance (TPR) were observed before LDLT. TPR reflecting cirrhotic vascular alterations was slowly restored after LDLT in both groups. Although no significant temporal differences in TPR were detected between the two groups, CO/BV and MTT differed significantly. Recipients with good outcomes showed persistent cirrhotic systemic hyperdynamics after LDLT, whereas recipients with poor outcomes presented with unstable cirrhotic systemic hyperdynamics and severely decreased KICG. Systemic hyperdynamic disorders after LDLT impacted on portal venous flow but not hepatic arterial flow.CONCLUSION: We conclude that subtle systemic hyperdynamics disorders impact on splanchnic circulation, and that an imbalance between CO and BV decreases portal venous flow, which results in critical outcomes.

  15. Primo Vascular System Accompanying a Blood Vessel from Tumor Tissue and a Method to Distinguish It from the Blood or the Lymph System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekwan Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A primo vessel was observed in the abdominal cavity in the lung cancer mouse model, and its function as an extra metastatic path was observed. In this work, we found a primo vessel accompanying a blood vessel emanating from a tumor in the skin. We also presented simple and efficient criteria to distinguish a primo vessel from a blood or a lymph vessel and from a nerve. The criteria for using DAPI and Phalloidin will be useful in clinical situations to find and identify the primo vessels among the blood vessels, lymph vessels, or nerves in the tissue surrounding a tumor such as a melanoma or breast cancer.

  16. Evaluation of low level laser therapy irradiation parameters on rat muscle inflammation through systemic blood cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, Matias; Pinheiro, João. P.; Morgado, António M.

    2014-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for inflammation treatment. Here, we evaluate the effect of different doses, using continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. Animals were randomly divided into five groups per wavelength (5 animals per group: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mW) plus a control group. LLLT was applied during five days, with constant exposure time and irradiated area (3 minutes; 0.5026 cm2). Blood was collected on days 0, 3 and 6. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Rats were killed on day 6. Muscle inflammatory cells were counted using optical microscopy. Treatment effects occurred for all applied doses (largest effect at 40 mW: 7.2 J, 14 J/cm2 per irradiation), with reduction of proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines and lower number of inflammatory cells. Results were better for 830 nm. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Hz). Treatment effects were observed at higher frequencies, with no significant differences between them. However, the treatment effect was lower than for continuous illumination. LLLT effect on inflammation treatment can be monitored by measuring systemic blood cytokines. A larger treatment effect was observed with continuous illumination, where results seem to be compatible with a biphasic dose response.

  17. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  18. Altered miR-143 and miR-150 expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells for diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xiao-li; ZHANG Shao-yan; ZHENG Jun-fang; YUAN Hui; WANG Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitive and specific biomarkers for identifying early stage of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are urgently needed to improve the therapeutic outcome and reduce the mortality.Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are key components of cancer development and are considered as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and for monitoring treatment.The aim of this study was to determine whether aberrant miRNA expression can be used as a marker in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for the diagnosis of NSCLC.Methods The levels of two mature miRNAs (miR-143 and miR-150) were detected by probe-based stem-loop quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) in PBMC of 64 patients with NSCLC and 26 healthy individuals,and the relationship between miR-143 and miR-150 levels and clinical and pathological factors was explored.Results All endogenous miRNAs were present in peripheral blood in a remarkably stable form and detected by RT-qPCR.MiR-143 expression in the PBMC specimens was significantly lower in NSCLC patients than in healthy individuals (P <0.0001).MiR-150 expression in the PBMC specimens was not significantly different between NSCLC patients and healthy individuals (P=0.260).MiR-150 expression was significantly higher in lung adenocarcinoma patients than in healthy individuals (P=0.001).There was a very strong difference in the expression level of miR-150 between lung adenocarcinoma patients and lung squamous cell caminoma patients (P <0.0001).In receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis,low expression of miR-143 showed the area under the ROC (AUC) of 0.885 for distinguishing cancer patients from healthy subjects.High expression of miR-150 had an AUC of 0.834 for distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma patients from healthy subjects.High expression of miR-150 had an AUC of 0.951 for distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma from lung squamous cell carcinoma.The miR-150 level was significantly associated with distant metastasis (P=0

  19. Inhibition of fried meat-induced colorectal DNA damage and altered systemic genotoxicity in humans by crucifera, chlorophyllin, and yogurt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Shaughnessy

    Full Text Available Dietary exposures implicated as reducing or causing risk for colorectal cancer may reduce or cause DNA damage in colon tissue; however, no one has assessed this hypothesis directly in humans. Thus, we enrolled 16 healthy volunteers in a 4-week controlled feeding study where 8 subjects were randomly assigned to dietary regimens containing meat cooked at either low (100°C or high temperature (250°C, each for 2 weeks in a crossover design. The other 8 subjects were randomly assigned to dietary regimens containing the high-temperature meat diet alone or in combination with 3 putative mutagen inhibitors: cruciferous vegetables, yogurt, and chlorophyllin tablets, also in a crossover design. Subjects were nonsmokers, at least 18 years old, and not currently taking prescription drugs or antibiotics. We used the Salmonella assay to analyze the meat, urine, and feces for mutagenicity, and the comet assay to analyze rectal biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes for DNA damage. Low-temperature meat had undetectable levels of heterocyclic amines (HCAs and was not mutagenic, whereas high-temperature meat had high HCA levels and was highly mutagenic. The high-temperature meat diet increased the mutagenicity of hydrolyzed urine and feces compared to the low-temperature meat diet. The mutagenicity of hydrolyzed urine was increased nearly twofold by the inhibitor diet, indicating that the inhibitors enhanced conjugation. Inhibitors decreased significantly the mutagenicity of un-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed feces. The diets did not alter the levels of DNA damage in non-target white blood cells, but the inhibitor diet decreased nearly twofold the DNA damage in target colorectal cells. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that dietary factors can reduce DNA damage in the target tissue of fried-meat associated carcinogenesis.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00340743.

  20. Chronic Sleep Disruption Alters Gut Microbiota, Induces Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poroyko, Valeriy A.; Carreras, Alba; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Khalyfa, Ahamed A.; Leone, Vanessa; Peris, Eduard; Almendros, Isaac; Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Hubert, Nathaniel; Farré, Ramon; Chang, Eugene B.; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and inflammation, as well as circulating measures of inflammation, were assayed. Effect of fecal water on colonic epithelial permeability was also examined. Chronic SF-induced increased food intake and reversible gut microbiota changes characterized by the preferential growth of highly fermentative members of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and a decrease of Lactobacillaceae families. These lead to systemic and visceral white adipose tissue inflammation in addition to altered insulin sensitivity in mice, most likely via enhanced colonic epithelium barrier disruption. Conventionalization of germ-free mice with SF-derived microbiota confirmed these findings. Thus, SF-induced metabolic alterations may be mediated, in part, by concurrent changes in gut microbiota, thereby opening the way for gut microbiome-targeted therapeutics aimed at reducing the major end-organ morbidities of chronic SF. PMID:27739530

  1. Factors associated with failure of clinical screening among blood donors who have altered serological results in the Centro Regional de Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranice Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of positive results for hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis in blood donations at the Centro Regional de Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto, to describe donors with positive results according to some demographic and socioeconomic variables, to identify risk factors associated to these donors and the reasons that they were not detected during clinical screening. METHODS: A descriptive study was performed between July 1st 2005 and July 31st 2006 by interviewing 106 donors after medical consultations where they were informed of positive results for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV or syphilis. RESULTS: There was a predominance of first-time donors, males, under 50-year olds, married individuals, from Ribeirão Preto, with elementary education, low economic status and of people who donated at the request of friends or relatives. Hepatitis C was the most frequently detected infection (56.6%, followed by hepatitis B (20.7%, HIV (12.3% and syphilis(10.4%. About 40% of donors had omitted risk factors for different reasons: because they trusted the results of serological tests, did not feel comfortable about talking of risk factors or did not consider them relevant. Other justifications were the duration of the interview, the interviewer was unskilled, embarrassment and doubts about confidentiality. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the need for changes in the approach to clinical screening and a review of methods to attract and guide potential donors.

  2. Acetyl eugenol, a component of oil of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) inhibits aggregation and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, K C; Malhotra, N

    1991-01-01

    In continuation of our studies with the oil of cloves--a common kitchen spice and a crude drug for home medicine--we have isolated yet another active component identified as acetyl eugenol (AE); the earlier reported active component being eugenol. The isolated material (IM) was found to be a potent platelet inhibitor; IM abolished arachidonate (AA)-induced aggregation at ca. 12 microM, a concentration needed to abolish the second phase of adrenaline-induced aggregation. Chemically synthesized acetyl eugenol showed similar effects on AA- and adrenaline-induced aggregation. A dose-dependent inhibition of collagen-induced aggregation was also observed. AE did not inhibit either calcium ionophore A23187- or thrombin-induced aggregation. Studies on aggregation and ATP release were done using whole blood (WB). AA-induced aggregation in WB was abolished at 3 micrograms/ml (14.6 microM) which persisted even after doubling the concentration of AA. ATP release was inhibited. Inhibition of aggregation appeared to be mediated by a combination of two effects: reduced formation of thromboxane and increased generation of 12-lipoxygenase product (12-HPETE). These effects were observed by exposing washed platelets to (14C)AA or by stimulating AA-labelled platelets with ionophore A23187. Acetyl eugenol inhibited (14C)TxB2 formation in AA-labelled platelets on stimulation with thrombin. AE showed no effect on the incorporation of AA into platelet phospholipids. PMID:2011614

  3. Ellagic acid and polyphenolics present in walnut kernels inhibit in vitro human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and alter cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Koren C; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2010-03-01

    Tree nuts, including walnuts, are important elicitors of food allergy. We examined the ability of walnut kernel polyphenolics and purified ellagic acid (EA) to modulate cytokine production and cellular proliferation from stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). IL-13 and TNF-alpha production decreased while no change was observed in IL-4 production. Paradoxically, EA and the walnut polyphenolics all significantly and dose-dependently inhibited stimulated [phytohemagglutin (PHA), alpha-CD3, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin] PBMC proliferation while simultaneously increasing IL-2 production. When added at time 0 min and 2 h, EA dose-dependently inhibited PHA-induced proliferation. However, at 30 min and 1 h, low doses of EA (10 and 1 muM) significantly increased proliferation above that of PHA alone, although higher doses led to inhibition. Our data do not support the hypothesis that walnut polyphenolics skew a cytokine response toward Th2 in an in vitro environment. However, immunomodulatory effects are present, including an inhibition of cellular proliferation despite no decrease in IL-4 or IL-2. PMID:20388139

  4. 6-Hydroxydopamine-induced glutathione alteration occurs via glutathione enzyme system in primary cultured astrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji ZHANG; Jun HU; Jian-hua DING; Hong-hong YAO; Gang HU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To define the role of enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced glutathione alteration in primary cultured astrocytes.Methods: Total glutathione (GSx) levels were determined using the modified enzymatic microtiter plate assay.The mRNA levels ofγ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γGCS), γ-glutamyltransferase (γGT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), GR (glutathione reductase), and glutathione transferases (GST) were determined using RT-PCR.γGT activity was determined using γGT assay kits.Results: In primary cultured astrocytes, 6-OHDA induced a significant elevation of cellular GSx levels after treatment for 24 h.However, the GSx levels decreased after 24 h and the values were even lower than the value in the control group without 6-OHDA at 48 h.RT-PCR data showed that the mRNA levels of γGCS, the ratelimiting enzyme of γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (GSH) synthesis, were increased by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; the mRNA levels of GPx, GR, and GST did not alter in 6-OHDA-treated astrocytes after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; and 6-OHDA increased the mRNA levels and the activity of γGT after treatment for 48 h,which induced a decrease in GSx levels, despite the up-regulation of γGCS after exposure to 6-OHDA for 48 h.Conclusion: The change in γGCS correlated with the increase in GSH levels induced by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h.GSx levels decreased because of increased γGT mRNA levels and γGT activity induced by 6-OHDA after treatment for 48 h.

  5. Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko eMaekawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli.Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant and white circle (target stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard, 10% (deviant, and 10% (target probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus.Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls.Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in bipolar disorder, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli.Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD.

  6. Blood-derived DNA methylation markers of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsit, Carmen; Christensen, Brock

    2013-01-01

    The importance of somatic epigenetic alterations in tissues targeted for carcinogenesis is now well recognized and considered a key molecular step in the development of a tumor. Particularly, alteration of gene-specific and genomic DNA methylation has been extensively characterized in tumors, and has become an attractive biomarker of risk due to its specificity and stability in human samples. It also is clear that tumors do not develop as isolated phenomenon in their target tissue, but instead result from altered processes affecting not only the surrounding cells and tissues, but other organ systems, including the immune system. Thus, alterations to DNA methylation profiles detectable in peripheral blood may be useful not only in understanding the carcinogenic process and response to environmental insults, but can also provide critical insights in a systems biological view of tumorigenesis. Research to date has generally focused on how environmental exposures alter genomic DNA methylation content in peripheral blood. More recent work has begun to translate these findings to clinically useful endpoints, by defining the relationship between DNA methylation alterations and cancer risk. This chapter highlights the existing research linking the environment, blood-derived DNA methylation alterations, and cancer risk, and points out how these epigenetic alterations may be contributing fundamentally to carcinogenesis.

  7. Functional state of rat cardiomyocytes and blood antioxidant system under psycho-emotional stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zurab Kuchukashvili; Ketevan Menabde; Matrona Chachua; George Burjanadze; Manana Chipashvili; Nana Koshoridze

    2011-01-01

    We studied the functionality of the antioxidant system in laboratory rat cardiomyocytes and blood under psychoemotional stress.It was found that 40-day isolation and violation of diurnal cycle among the animals were accompanied by the intensification of lipid peroxidation process and marked with a reduced activity of antioxidant system enzymes, such as catalase and superoxide dismutase activity.The results suggested that psycho-emotional stress was accompanied by oxidative stress, causing a reduction in the intensity of energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes, which was further strengthened by the fact that the activity of the enzymes involved in ATP synthesis in mitochondria was reduced.Based on the results, we proposed that psychological stress is one of the factors contributing to the development of various cardiac diseases.

  8. Hydrothermal alteration in an exhumed crustal fault zone: geochemical mobility in the Caleta Coloso Fault, Atacama Fault System, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, G.; Fujita, K.; Hoshino, K.; Mitchell, T. M.; Cembrano, J. M.; Gomila, R.; Morata, D.; Faulkner, D. R.; Rempe, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fault zones must be considered as complex and heterogeneous systems, with areas of high permeability that alternate with very low permeability bands. Strike-slip fault zones play an important role in fluid migration in the crust, and exhumed faults can provide insights into the interrelationships of deformation mechanisms, fluid-rock interactions and bulk chemical redistributions. We determined the mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry of the damage zone and fault core of the Caleta Coloso Fault, a complex major crustal scale strike-slip fault in Northern Chile, in order to constrain the physical and chemical conditions of fluids that lead to strong hydrothermal alteration. Caleta Coloso Fault consists of variably altered protocataclasites, cataclasites and discrete bands of ultracataclasite derived from a protolith of Jurassic tonalite. Hydrothermal alteration associated with fault-related fluid flow is characterized by a very low-grade association composed by chlorite, epidote, albite, quartz and calcite. Chlorite thermometry indicates T-values in the range of 284 to 352 °C (average temperature of 323 °C) and no differences in mineral composition or T-values were observed among different cataclastic rock types. Mass balance and volume change calculations document that the major chemical mobility was observed in protocataclasite, whereas cataclasite and ultracataclasite show smaller changes. This suggests that fluid flow and chemical alteration post-dated the faulting, when the protocataclasite was relatively permeable and the cataclasite and ultracataclasite acted as a barrier for fluid flow having a very low permeability due to extreme grain size reduction during cataclasis.

  9. Portable point-of-care blood analysis system for global health (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, James J.; Aitchison, James Stewart; Chen, Lu; Nayyar, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a portable blood analysis system based on a disposable cartridge and hand-held reader. The platform can perform all the sample preparation, detection and waste collection required to complete a clinical test. In order to demonstrate the utility of this approach a CD4 T cell enumeration was carried out. A handheld, point-of-care CD4 T cell system was developed based on this system. In particular we will describe a pneumatic, active pumping method to control the on-chip fluidic actuation. Reagents for the CD4 T cell counting assay were dried on a reagent plug to eliminate the need for cold chain storage when used in the field. A micromixer based on the active fluidic actuation was designed to complete sample staining with fluorescent dyes that was dried on the reagent plugs. A novel image detection and analysis algorithm was developed to detect and track the flight of target particles and cells during each analysis. The handheld, point-of-care CD4 testing system was benchmarked against clinical cytometer. The experimental results demonstrated experimental results were closely matched with the flow cytometry. The same platform can be further expanded into a bead-array detection system where other types of biomolecules such as proteins can be detected using the same detection system.

  10. Temporal and spatial distribution of alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusions in the transitional high-sulfidation epithermal-porphyry copper system at Red Mountain, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Newton, M. Claiborne; Westman, Erik C.; Kamilli, Robert J.; Canby, Vertrees M.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Red Mountain, Arizona, is a Laramide porphyry Cu system (PCD) that has experienced only a modest level of erosion compared to most other similar deposits in the southwestern United States. As a result, the upper portion of the magmatic–hydrothermal system, which represents the transition from shallower high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization to deeper porphyry Cu mineralization, is well preserved. Within the Red Mountain system, alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusion assemblages show a systematic distribution in both time and space. Early-potassic alteration (characterized by the minerals biotite and magnetite) is paragenetically earlier than late-potassic alteration (K-feldspar–anhydrite) and both are followed by later phyllic (sericite–pyrite) alteration. Advanced argillic alteration (pyrophyllite–alunite–other clay minerals) is thought to be coeval with or postdate phyllic alteration. Minerals characteristic of advanced argillic alteration are present in the near surface. Phyllic alteration extends to greater depths compared to advanced argillic alteration. Early-potassic and late-potassic alteration are only observed in the deepest part of the system. Considerable overlap of phyllic alteration with both early-potassic and late-potassic alteration zones is observed. The hypogene mineralization contains 0.4–1.2% Cu and is spatially and temporally related to the late-potassic alteration event. Molybdenum concentration is typically In the deepest part of the system, an early generation of low-to-moderate density and salinity liquid + vapor inclusions with opaque daughter minerals is followed in time by halite-bearing inclusions that also contain opaque daughter minerals indicating that an early intermediate-density magmatic fluid evolved to a high-density, high-salinity mineralizing fluid. The increase in density and salinity of fluids with time observed in the deeper parts of the system may be the result of immiscibility (“boiling”) of

  11. 76 FR 4435 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... firms for data entry, computer systems analysis and computer programming services. The contractors... in File folders, microcomputer files, computer tapes/disks and printouts, and microfilm. The records... computer room with fire extinguishers and overhead sprinkler system, computer terminals and...

  12. Systemic and Vascular Alterations in Rat models Exposed to Libby Amphibole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute pulmonary injury and chronic diseases can impact systemic vasculature and extra pulmonary organ systems due to the hemodynamic properties of the pulmonary capillary network that allows mediators to release into the circulation. Exposure to Libby amphibole (LA) is associated...

  13. Short-term exposure of arsenite disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic (As) pollution in aquatic environment may adversely impact fish health by disrupting their thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, we explored the effect of short-term exposure of arsenite (AsIII) on thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish. We measured As concentrations, As speciation, and thyroid hormone thyroxine levels in whole zebrafish, oxidative stress (H2O2) and damage (MDA) in the liver, and gene transcription in hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis in the brain and liver tissues of zebrafish after exposing to different AsIII concentrations for 48 h. Result indicated that exposure to AsIII increased inorganic As in zebrafish to 0.46–0.72 mg kg−1, induced oxidative stress with H2O2 being increased by 1.4–2.5 times and caused oxidative damage with MDA being augmented by 1.6 times. AsIII exposure increased thyroxine levels by 1.3–1.4 times and modulated gene transcription in HPT axis. Our study showed AsIII caused oxidative damage, affected thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in HPT axis in zebrafish. - Highlights: • 48 h-LC50 value of arsenite (AsIII) was 42 mg L−1 for zebrafish. • AsIII exposure elevated oxidative stress and caused oxidative damage in zebrafish. • AsIII exposure increased the content of thyroid hormone thyroxine. • AsIII exposure altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish. - Short-term exposure of arsenite caused oxidative stress, disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in Zebrafish

  14. Depression has a Strong Relationship to Alterations in the Immune, Endocrine and Neural System

    OpenAIRE

    Hestad, Knut A.; Aukrust, Pål; Tønseth, Sverre; Reitan, Solveig Klæbo

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate a connection between depressive symptoms and changes in status of the immune system in depressed patients. This raises the possibility of causative connections. Theories on mechanisms for interactions between immune and affective systems – directly and via endocrine system – are evolving. Such hypothesized causative connections are supported by several findings. First, in depressed patients changes in the status of the immune system in vivo and ex vivo are se...

  15. 76 FR 4474 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... firms for data entry, computer systems analysis and computer programming services. The contractors.... V. Safeguards The records in this System are stored in manual files, computer cards, tapes/disks and...: None. C. Exemption Requested: None. D. Computer Matching Report: The new system does not require...

  16. 76 FR 4466 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... private firms for data entry, computer systems analysis and computer programming services. The contractors... this System are stored in computer cards, tapes/ disks and printouts, microfiche, and manual files. The.... Access to the LAN computer room is controlled by a punch lock system. The local fire department is...

  17. Alterations in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine release by polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in the diet under high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Albenzio, Marzia; Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Sevi, Agostino; Muscio, Antonio; Caroprese, Mariangela

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation from different sources in the diet of dairy sheep under high ambient temperatures on ex vivo lymphocyte proliferation and inflammatory responses. The experiment was carried out during summer: 32 Comisana ewes were divided into 4 groups of 8. The FS group was supplemented with whole flaxseed, the AG group was supplemented with Ascophyllum nodosum, the FS+AG group was supplemented with a combination of flaxseed and A. nodosum. The fourth group (CON group) was a control and received a diet containing no supplement. The average maximum temperature was around 33°C during wk 2 and 3, whereas the mean temperature never decreased below 26°C. Following 15 d of treatment with respective diets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from sheep who received a diet supplemented with A. nodosum had impaired cell proliferation responses and IL-6 production after mitogen stimulation compared with PBMC from FS+AG sheep. In addition, PBMC from AG sheep displayed impaired cell proliferation compared with cells from the CON group. The FS+AG cells produced lower levels of IL-10 than CON cells, and higher IL-6 than AG and CON cells. Results demonstrated that the supplementation with PUFA from different sources in a sheep's diet can influence their immunological responses under high ambient temperatures depending on the composition of fatty acid supplementation. In particular, synergistic effects of different PUFA from flaxseed and A. nodosum, simultaneously administrated in the sheep diet, were observed on activation of inflammation response. PMID:25497814

  18. Ablation of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells exacerbates Japanese encephalitis by regulating blood-brain barrier permeability and altering tight junction/adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Hossain, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John-Hwa; Kim, Bumseok; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2016-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE), characterized by extensive neuroinflammation following infection with neurotropic JE virus (JEV), is becoming a leading cause of viral encephalitis due to rapid changes in climate and demography. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in restricting neuroinvasion of peripheral leukocytes and virus, thereby regulating the progression of viral encephalitis. In this study, we explored the role of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating BBB integrity and JE progression using a conditional depletion model of CD11c(hi) DCs. Transient ablation of CD11c(hi) DCs resulted in markedly increased susceptibility to JE progression along with highly increased neuro-invasion of JEV. In addition, exacerbated JE progression in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated hosts was closely associated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and CC chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2) in the brain. Moreover, our results revealed that the exacerbation of JE progression in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated hosts was correlated with enhanced BBB permeability and reduced expression of tight junction and adhesion molecules (claudin-5, ZO-1, occluding, JAMs). Ultimately, our data conclude that the ablation of CD11c(hi) DCs provided a subsidiary impact on BBB integrity and the expression of tight junction/adhesion molecules, thereby leading to exacerbated JE progression. These findings provide insight into the secondary role of CD11c(hi) DCs in JE progression through regulation of BBB integrity and the expression of tight junction/adhesion molecules.

  19. Nitric oxide synthetic pathway and cGMP levels are altered in red blood cells from end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Natalia; Giardinelli, Annalisa; Sirolli, Vittorio; Riganti, Chiara; Di Tomo, Pamela; Gazzano, Elena; Di Silvestre, Sara; Panknin, Christina; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Csonka, Csaba; Kelm, Malte; Ferdinandy, Péter; Bonomini, Mario; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2016-06-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) enzymatically produce nitric oxide (NO) by a functional RBC-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS). NO is a vascular key regulatory molecule. In RBCs its generation is complex and influenced by several factors, including insulin, acetylcholine, and calcium. NO availability is reduced in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and associated with endothelial dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that, through increased phosphatidylserine membrane exposure, ESRD-RBCs augmented their adhesion to human cultured endothelium, in which NO bioavailability decreased. Since RBC-NOS-dependent NO production in ESRD is unknown, this study aimed to investigate RBC-NOS levels/activation, NO production/bioavailability in RBCs from healthy control subjects (C, N = 18) and ESRD patients (N = 27). Although RBC-NOS expression was lower in ESRD-RBCs, NO, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), RBC-NOS Serine1177 phosphorylation level and eNOS/Calmodulin (CaM)/Heat Shock Protein-90 (HSP90) interaction levels were higher in ESRD-RBCs, indicating increased enzyme activation. Conversely, following RBCs stimulation with insulin or ionomycin, NO and cGMP levels were significantly lower in ESRD- than in C-RBCs, suggesting that uremia might reduce the RBC-NOS response to further stimuli. Additionally, the activity of multidrug-resistance-associated protein-4 (MRP4; cGMP-membrane transporter) was significantly lower in ESRD-RBCs, suggesting a possible compromised efflux of cGMP across the ESRD-RBCs membrane. This study for the first time showed highest basal RBC-NOS activation in ESRD-RBCs, possibly to reduce the negative impact of decreased NOS expression. It is further conceivable that high NO production only partially affects cell function of ESRD-RBCs maybe because in vivo they are unable to respond to physiologic stimuli, such as calcium and/or insulin. PMID:27206740

  20. Next generation of non-mammalian blood-brain barrier models to study parasitic infections of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Flynn, Robin; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Transmigration of neuropathogens across the blood-brain barrier is a key step in the development of central nervous system infections, making it a prime target for drug development. The ability of neuropathogens to traverse the blood-brain barrier continues to inspire researchers to understand the specific strategies and molecular mechanisms that allow them to enter the brain. The availability of models of the blood-brain barrier that closely mimic the situation in vivo offers unprecedented opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21921682

  1. Favourable results of a new intraoperative and postoperative filtered autologous blood re-transfusion system in total hip arthroplasty : A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstmann, Wieger G.; Swierstra, Martzen J.; Ohanis, David; Rolink, Rob; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.

    2014-01-01

    A new intraoperative filtered salvaged blood re-transfusion system has been developed for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) that filters and re-transfuses the blood that is lost during THA. This system is intended to increase postoperative haemoglobin (Hb) levels, reduce perioperative net blood l

  2. Crosstalk between Red Blood Cells and the Immune System and Its Impact on Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Buttari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic multifactorial disease of the arterial wall characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune system activation. Evidence exists on a pathogenic role of oxidized red blood cells (RBCs accumulated in the lesion after intraplaque hemorrhage. This review reports current knowledge on the impact of oxidative stress in RBC modifications with the surface appearance of senescent signals characterized by reduced expression of CD47 and glycophorin A and higher externalization of phosphatidylserine. The review summarizes findings indicating that oxidized, senescent, or stored RBCs, due to surface antigen modification and release of prooxidant and proinflammatory molecules, exert an impaired modulatory activity on innate and adaptive immune cells and how this activity contributes to atherosclerotic disease. In particular RBCs from patients with atherosclerosis, unlike those from healthy subjects, fail to control lipopolysaccharide-induced DC maturation and T lymphocyte apoptosis. Stored RBCs, accompanied by shedding of extracellular vesicles, stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells to release proinflammatory cytokines, augment mitogen-driven T cell proliferation, and polarize macrophages toward the proinflammatory M1 activation pathway. Collectively, literature data suggest that the crosstalk between RBCs with immune cells represents a novel mechanism by which oxidative stress can contribute to atherosclerotic disease progression and may be exploited for therapeutic interventions.

  3. Decreasing vitamin premix on chicken carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor and battery cage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shivazad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted the to compare the effect of a decreasing amount of vitamin premix in diets inbroilers from 29 to 42 days of age on carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor (Experiment 1 and battery cage (Experiment 2 systems. At 35 and 42 days of ages, one bird of each replicate was slaughtered and carcass composition was measured. Blood concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Ca were used to diagnose vitamin D3 deficiency and enzymes aspartate amino transferase (AST to identify vitamin E deficiency. Floor raised birds showed that vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal at 29 days of age did not impair body weight (BW, carcass composition, ALP and Ca during the final rearing period. However, diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a higher AST at 42 days of age than the other diets. Birds reared in cages were slightly more sensitive to vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal, probably due to the impracticality of performing coprophagy. Diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a lower BW, carcass breast and thigh yield at 42 days of age; also serum ALP, AST and Ca were impaired. In conclusion, the withdrawal of vitamins is not a reasonable option but it is possible to reduce vitamin premix in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on performance and on some metabolic traits during the finisher period with both methods of rearing.

  4. Effects of diving and oxygen on autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklewski, Pawel J; Kot, Jacek; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Nuckowska, Magdalena K; Tkachenko, Yurii

    2013-09-01

    Recreational scuba diving is a popular leisure activity with the number of divers reaching several millions worldwide. Scuba diving represents a huge challenge for integrative physiology. In mammalian evolution, physiological reflexes developed to deal with lack of oxygen, rather than with an excess, which makes adaptations to scuba diving more difficult to describe and understand than those associated with breath-hold diving. The underwater environment significantly limits the use of equipment to register the organism's functions, so, in most instances, scientific theories are built on experiments that model real diving to some extent, like hyperbaric exposures, dive reflexes or water immersion. The aim of this review is to summarise the current knowledge related to the influence exerted by physiological conditions specific to diving on the autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow. The main factors regulating cerebral blood flow during scuba diving are discussed as follows: 1) increased oxygen partial pressure; 2) immersion-related trigemino-cardiac reflexes and 3) exposure to cold, exercise and stress. Also discussed are the potential mechanisms associated with immersion pulmonary oedema. PMID:24122190

  5. Advanced Image Analysis based system for Automatic Detection of Malarial Parasite in Blood Images Using SUSAN Approach

    OpenAIRE

    JIGYASHA SONI

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a serious global health problem, and rapid, accurate diagnosis is required to control the disease. An image processing algorithm to automate the diagnosis of malaria in blood images is developed in this project. The image classification system is designed to positively identify malaria parasites present in thin blood smears, and differentiate the species of malaria. I have implemented a new approach to low-level image processing - SUSAN (Smallest Univalue Segment assimilating Nucle...

  6. An Automated Graphical User Interface based System for the Extraction of Retinal Blood Vessels using Kirsch’s Template

    OpenAIRE

    Joshita Majumdar; Souvik Tewary; Shreyosi Chakraborty; Debasish Kundu; Sudipta Ghosh; Sauvik Das Gupta

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of Blood Vessel networks plays an important role in a variety of medical disorders. The diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and its repercussions including micro aneurysms, haemorrhages, hard exudates and cotton wool spots is one such field. This study aims to develop an automated system for the extraction of blood vessels from retinal images by employing Kirsch’s Templates in a MATLAB based Graphical User Interface (GUI). Here, a RGB or Grey image of the retina (Fundus Phot...

  7. Relations between blood supply of brain of students and condition of autonomic nervous system and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    L. D. Korovina; T. M. Zaporozhets

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to estimate the brain blood supply level by rheoencephalography method in junior students of the Medical academy and to determine the blood supply links with the autonomic regulation state, behavioural and alimentary factors. Rheo-encephalographic study, research of the autonomic nervous system state, heart rate regulation and questioning of 17–29 year-old students have been conducted. Basic hemodynamic indices were normal in all surveyed students. Increase in ...

  8. Normal and system lupus erythematosus red blood cell interactions studied by double trap optical tweezers: direct measurements of aggregation forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Eugeny V.; Zhdanov, Alexander G.; Rykova, Sophia Yu.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2012-02-01

    Direct measurements of aggregation forces in piconewton range between two red blood cells in pair rouleau are performed under physiological conditions using double trap optical tweezers. Aggregation and disaggregation properties of healthy and pathologic (system lupus erythematosis) blood samples are analyzed. Strong difference in aggregation speed and behavior is revealed using the offered method which is proposed to be a promising tool for SLE monitoring at single cell level.

  9. Activation-induced spatiotemporal cerebral blood flow changes and behavioral deficit after developmental mTBI in rats can be favorably altered by facilitating mitochondrial calcium uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuvika eMurugan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI leads to secondary neuronal loss via excitotoxic mechanisms, including mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. However in the surviving cellular population, mitochondrial Ca2+ influx and oxidative metabolism are diminished leading to suboptimal neuronal circuit activity and poor prognosis. Hence we tested the impact of boosting neuronal electrical activity and oxidative metabolism by facilitating mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in a rat model of mTBI. In developing rats (P25-P26 sustaining an mTBI, we demonstrate post-traumatic changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF in the sensorimotor cortex in response to whisker stimulation compared to sham using functional Laser Doppler Imaging (fLDI at adulthood (P67-P73. Compared to sham, whisker stimulation-evoked positive CBF responses decreased while negative CBF responses increased in the mTBI animals. The spatiotemporal CBF changes representing underlying neuronal activity suggested profound changes to neurovascular activity after mTBI. Behavioral assessment of the same cohort of animals prior to fLDI showed that mTBI resulted in persistent contralateral sensorimotor behavioral deficit along with ipsilateral neuronal loss compared to sham. Treating mTBI rats with Kaempferol, a dietary flavonol compound that enhanced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, eliminated the inter-hemispheric asymmetry in the whisker stimulation-induced positive CBF responses and the ipsilateral negative CBF responses otherwise observed in the untreated and vehicle-treated mTBI animals in adulthood. Kaempferol also improved somatosensory behavioral measures compared to untreated and vehicle treated mTBI animals without augmenting post-injury neuronal loss. The results indicate that reduced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in the surviving populations affect post-traumatic neural activation leading to persistent behavioral deficits. Improvement in sensorimotor behavior and spatiotemporal neurovascular activity

  10. 75 FR 5094 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ..., AND DISPOSING OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: Storage: Records are maintained in database servers, file... sensitive data is encrypted using Oracle Transparent Data Encryption functionality. Access to records...

  11. Alterations in the histaminergic system in Alzheimer's disease: a postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ling; Bossers, Koen; Unmehopa, Unga; Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2012-11-01

    Histamine is produced by the hypothalamic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN). We studied its involvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by in situ hybridization of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the key enzyme of histamine production, in 9 AD patients and 9 controls. Additionally, messenger (m) RNA levels of the 4 histamine receptors (H(1-4)R) and of the enzyme involved in histamine metabolism, histamine methyltransferase (HMT), were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the course of AD (n = 49). Moreover, alterations in glia markers were studied. HDC-mRNA levels in the TMN were unchanged in AD, despite of the reduced number of Nissl-stained neurons (p = 0.001). However, a decrease in HDC-mRNA was observed in its medial part (mTMN; p = 0.047). In the course of AD only females had increased prefrontal cortex expression of histamine receptor-3 (H(3)R) (p = 0.007) and histamine methyltransferase-mRNA (p = 0.011) and of the glia markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein-mRNA, vimentin-mRNA and proteolipid protein-mRNA. These findings indicate the presence of regional changes in the TMN that are at least partly gender-dependent.

  12. Neuroplastic alterations in the limbic system following cocaine or alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Garret D; Hopf, F Woodward; Tye, Kay M; Chen, Billy T; Bonci, Antonello

    2010-01-01

    Neuroplastic changes in the CNS are thought to be a fundamental component of learning and memory. While pioneering studies in the hippocampus and cerebellum have detailed many of the basic mechanisms that can lead to alterations in synaptic transmission based on previous activity, only more recently has synaptic plasticity been monitored after behavioral manipulation or drug exposure. In this chapter, we review evidence that drugs of abuse are powerful modulators of synaptic plasticity. Both the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area as well medium spiny neurons in nucleus accumbens show enhanced excitatory synaptic strength following passive or active exposure to drugs such as cocaine and alcohol. In the VTA, both the enhancement of excitatory synaptic strength and the acquisition of drug-related behaviors depend on signaling through the N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptors (NMDARs) which are mechanistically thought to lead to increased synaptic insertion of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs). Synaptic insertion of AMPARs by drugs of abuse can be long lasting, depending on the route of administration, number of drug exposures, or whether the drugs are received passively or self-administered. PMID:21161748

  13. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-05-01

    The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concentrates in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amount present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects. PMID:22273184

  14. Possible Correlation of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases with Rh type and ABO Blood Group System

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Surabhi; Tyagi, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Background: Screening of blood is mandatory for transfusion transmitted diseases and is routinely done in the blood banks. As blood is the major source transmission of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus & many other diseases the hazards can be minimised by effective donor selection and screening.

  15. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels

    OpenAIRE

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concentrates in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amount present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects.

  16. Application of mobile blood purification system in the treatment of acute renal failure dog model in the field environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-min ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the stability, safety and efficacy of mobile blood purification system in the treatment of acute renal failure dog model in the field environment. Methods The acute renal failure model was established in 4 dogs by bilateral nephrectomy, which was thereafter treated with the mobile blood purification system. The evaluation of functional index of the mobile blood purification system was performed after a short-time (2 hours and conventional (4 hours dialysis treatment. Results The mobile blood purification system ran stably in the field environment at a blood flow of 150-180ml/min, a dialysate velocity of 2000ml/h, a replacement fluid velocity of 2000ml/h, and ultrafiltration rate of 100-200ml/h. All the functions of alarming system worked well, including static upper limit alarm of ultrafiltration pressure (>100 mmHg, upper limit alarm of ambulatory arterial pressure (>400mmHg, upper limit alarm of ambulatory venous pressure (>400mmHg, bubble alarm of vascular access, bubble alarm during the infusion of solutions, pressure alarm at the substitution pump segment and blood leaking alarm. The vital signs of the 4 dogs with acute renal failure kept stable during the treatment. After the treatment, a remarkable decrease was seen in the levels of serum urea nitrogen, creatinine and serum potassium (P0.05. Conclusions The mobile blood purification system runs normally even in a field environment. It is a flexible and portable device with a great performance in safety and stability in the treatment of acute renal failure. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.15

  17. Adapting MRI systems to propel and guide microdevices in the human blood circulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S; Mathieu, J B; Felfoul, O; Macicior, H; Beaudoin, G; Soulez, G; Yahia, L H

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems are widely used to gather noninvasively images of the interior of the human body. This paper suggests that an MRI system can be seen beyond being just a tool for imaging purpose but one that can propel and guide special microdevices in the human body to perform specific medical tasks. More specifically, an MRI system can potentially be used to image the region of interest, propel a microdevice through the generation of magnetic gradients, determine the location of the device, compute the corrective actions through feedback control algorithms and adjust the generation of the magnetic gradients accordingly to navigate such a microdevice in a preplanned path. This paper presents an introductory description of the proposed techniques, the main issues to consider, and some preliminary data indicating the validity of this approach.

  18. 76 FR 4485 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... security code (numeric keypad) system. Access to the data entry area is also controlled by a cardkey system... computerized records, both on the mainframe and the National Center Local Area Network (LAN), includes... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified...

  19. 75 FR 30411 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of a Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... system was established and published in the Federal Register (FR) at 63 FR 40297 (July 28, 1998). The... Health Care Financing Administration systems of records. The new assigned identifying number for this... providers for Debt Collection Information Act of 1996 and the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 and include...

  20. 76 FR 4436 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... to private firms for data entry, computer systems analysis and computer programming services. The.... Exemption Requested: None. D. Computer Matching Report: The new system does not require a matching report in accordance with the computer matching provisions of the Privacy Act. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  1. 76 FR 4456 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... firms for data entry, computer systems analysis and computer programming services. The contractors... in the Federal Register. B. Agency Rules: None. C. Exemption Requested: None. D. Computer Matching Report: The new system does not require a matching report in accordance with the computer...

  2. Altered TNF-Alpha, Glucose, Insulin and Amino Acids in Islets Langerhans Cultured in a Microgravity Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.; Hashemi, Brian B.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    The present studies were designed to determine effects of a microgravity model system upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) activity and indices of insulin and fuel homeostasis of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Islets (1726+/-1 17,150 u IEU) from Wistar Furth rats were treated as: 1) HARV (High Aspect Ratio Vessel cell culture) , 2) HARV plus LPS, 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS. TNF-alpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (parginine in islets cultured in HARVs. While nitrogenous compound analysis indicated a ubiquitous reliance upon glutamine in all experimental groups, arginine was converted to ornithine at a two-fold greater rate in the islets cultured in the HARV microgravity model system (p<0.05). These studies demonstrate alterations in LPS induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF activity in the HARV. These alterations in fuel homeostasis may be promulgated by gravity averaged cell culture methods or by three dimensional cell assembly.

  3. Drosophila as a model for the two myeloid blood cell systems in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Katrina S.; Brückner, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Fish, mice and men rely on two coexisting myeloid blood cell systems. One is sustained by hematopoietic progenitor cells, which reside in specialized microenvironments in hematopoietic organs and give rise to cells of the monocyte lineage. The other system corresponds to the independent lineage of self-renewing tissue macrophages, which colonize organs during embryonic development and are maintained during later life by proliferation in local tissue microenvironments. However, little is known about the nature of these microenvironments and their regulation. Moreover, many vertebrate tissues contain a mix of both tissue-resident and monocyte-derived macrophages, posing a challenge to the study of lineage-specific regulatory mechanisms and function. This review highlights how research in the simple model organism Drosophila melanogaster can address many of these outstanding questions in the field. Drawing parallels between hematopoiesis in Drosophila and vertebrates, we illustrate the evolutionary conservation of the two myeloid systems across animal phyla. Much like vertebrates, Drosophila possesses a lineage of self-renewing tissue-resident macrophages, as well as a ‘definitive’ lineage of macrophages that derive from hematopoiesis in the progenitor-based lymph gland. We summarize key findings from Drosophila hematopoiesis that illustrate how local microenvironments, systemic signals, immune challenges and nervous inputs regulate adaptive responses of tissue-resident macrophages and progenitor-based hematopoiesis to achieve optimal fitness of the animal. PMID:24946019

  4. Cerebral venous blood oxygenation monitoring during hyperventilation in healthy volunteers with a novel optoacoustic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Andrey; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Deyo, Donald J.; Henkel, Sheryl N.; Seeton, Roger; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation is useful to facilitate management of patients with severe or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prompt recognition of low cerebral venous oxygenation is a key to avoiding secondary brain injury associated with brain hypoxia. In specialized clinical research centers, jugular venous bulb catheters have been used for cerebral venous oxygenation monitoring and have demonstrated that oxygen saturation capnography. Good temporal correlation between decreases in optoacoustically measured SSS oxygenation and decreases in EtCO2 was obtained. Decreases in EtCO2 from normal values (35-45 mmHg) to 20-25 mmHg resulted in SSS oxygenation decreases by 3-10%. Intersubject variability of the responses may relate to nonspecific brain activation associated with voluntary hyperventilation. The obtained data demonstrate the capability of the optoacoustic system to detect in real time minor changes in the SSS blood oxygenation.

  5. Alterations of hydraulic soil properties influenced by land-use changes and agricultural management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weninger, Thomas; Kreiselmeier, Janis; Chandrasekhar, Parvathy; Jülich, Stefan; Schwärzel, Kai; Schwen, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Estimation and modeling of soil water movement and the hydrologic balance of soils requires sound knowledge about hydraulic soil properties (HSP). The soil water characteristics, the hydraulic conductivity function and the pore size distribution (PSD) are commonly used instruments for the mathematical representation of HSP. Recent research highlighted the temporal variability of these functions caused by meteorological or land-use influences. State of the art modeling software for the continuous simulation of soil water movement uses a stationary approach for the HSP which means that their time dependent alterations and the subsequent effects on soil water balance is not considered. Mathematical approaches to describe the evolution of PSD are nevertheless known, but there is a lack of sound data basis for parameter estimation. Based on extensive field and laboratory measurements at 5 locations along a climatic gradient across Austria and Germany, this study will quantify short-term changes in HSP, detect driving forces and introduce a method to predict the effects of soil and land management actions on the soil water balance. Amongst several soil properties, field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities will be determined using a hood infiltration experiments in the field as well as by evaporation and dewpoint potentiometer method in the lab. All measurements will be carried out multiple times over a span of 2 years which will allow a detailed monitoring of changes in HSP. Experimental sites where we expect significant inter-seasonal changes will be equipped with sensors for soil moisture and matric potential. The choice of experimental field sites follows the intention to involve especially the effects of tillage operations, different cultivation strategies, microclimatically effective structures and land-use changes. The international project enables the coverage of a broad range of soil types as well as climate conditions and hence will have broad

  6. Stress response and humoral immune system alterations related to chronic hypergravity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguinou, Nathan; Bojados, Mickaël; Jamon, Marc; Derradji, Hanane; Baatout, Sarah; Tschirhart, Eric; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Legrand-Frossi, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Spaceflights are known to induce stress and immune dysregulation. Centrifugation, as hindlimb unloading, is a good ground based-model to simulate altered gravity which occurs during space missions. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of a long-term exposure to different levels of hypergravity on the stress response and the humoral immunity in a mouse model. For this purpose, adult C57Bl/6J male mice were subjected for 21 days either to control conditions or to 2G or 3G acceleration gravity forces. Corticosterone level and anxiety behavior revealed a stress response which was associated with a decrease of body weight, after 21-day of centrifugation at 3G but not at 2G. Spleen lymphocyte lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness was diminished by 40% in the 2G group only, whereas a decrease was noted when cells were stimulated with concanavalin A for both 2G and 3G groups (about 25% and 20%, respectively) compared to controls. Pro-inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1 and IP-10) and Th1 cytokines (IFNγ and IL2) were slightly decreased in the 2G group and strongly decreased in the 3G mouse group. Regarding Th2 cytokines (IL4, IL5) no further significant modification was observed, whereas the immunosuppressive cytokine IL10 was slightly increased in the 3G mice. Finally, serum IgG concentration was twice higher whereas IgA concentration was slightly increased (about 30%) and IgM were unchanged in 2G mice compared to controls. No difference was observed in the 3G group with these isotypes. Consequently, functional immune dysregulations and stress responses were dependent of the gravity level. PMID:21724335

  7. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  8. Effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms on blood pressure response to antihypertensive treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao; SHENG Hai-hui; LIN Gang; LI Jian; LU Xin-zheng; CHENG Yun-lin; HUANG Jun; XIAO Hua-sheng; ZHAN Yi-yang

    2007-01-01

    Background The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is important for the development of essential hypertension, and many antihypertensive drugs target it. This study was undertaken to determine whether polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are related to the blood pressure (BP) response to diuretic treatment in a Chinese Han ethnic population.Methods Fifty-four patients with essential hypertension received hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg, once daily) as monotherapy for four weeks. Seven polymorphisms in RAAS genes were genotyped by gene chip technology. The relationship between these polymorphisms and the change in blood pressure was observed after the 4-week treatment.Results The patients with angiotensinogen (AGT) -6G allele showed a greater reduction in diastolic BP (P= 0.025) and mean BP (P=0.039) than those carrying AA genotype. Patients carrying aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) CC genotype exhibited a greater BP reduction than those carrying CT and TT genotypes (systolic BP: P= 0.030; diastolic BP: P= 0.026; mean BP: P=0.003). In addition, patients with a combination of CYP11B2 CC genotype and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) D allele might have a more pronounced reduction of systolic BP than those with any other genotypic combinations of the two genes (P= 0.007).Conclusions AGT-6G allele, CYP11B2 -344CC genotype and its combination with ACE D allele are associated with BP response to hydrochlorothiazide treatment. Larger studies are warranted to validate this finding.

  9. Role of blood cholesterol transport system disturbances in atherosclerosis development in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Popkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study role of inflammation and disturbances of blood cholesterol transport system in atherosclerotic damage development in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. 84 RA pts with mean age 48 years and mean disease duration 87 months were included. Control group consisted of 15 humans of comparable age and sex without rheumatic diseases. Carotid sonographic scanning was performed to reveal vascular atherosclerotic damage. Cholesterol (CL, triglycerides (TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC serum levels were evaluated with colorimetric and photometric methods, CRP, apoAl and LP(a levels were assessed by immunonephelometric method. Results. Dyslipidemia (DLP frequency analysis showed differences only for LP(a. Increase of LP(a and TG concentrations in RA was more frequent than in control. CL and HDLC levels did not differ. Intima-media complex (IMC thickness in RA and control was the same. Atherosclerotic plaques (AP in RA were more frequent. RA pts showed negative correlation between IMC thickness and HDLC, as well as between HDLC values, apoAl and CRP. LP(a level correlated with DAS4. There was no association between concentrations of CL, TG, HDLC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, apo В and Al, LP(a and extra-articular RA features and glucocorticoid administration. In pts with high LP(a level AP were more frequent, activity of RA, apo B, LDLC levels were higher than in pts with normal level of this LP. LP(a values in pts with AP were higher than in pts without AP (p<0,05. Conclusion. Chronic inflammation in RA plays an important role in disturbances in blood cholesterol transport system. LP(a level increase is a risk factor of atherosclerotic vascular damage.

  10. Functional and anatomic alterations in the gentamicin-damaged vestibular system in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, MLYM; Segenhout, HM; Dijk, T; Stokroos, [No Value; van der Want, TJL; Albers, FWJ

    2004-01-01

    Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expected functional and morphologic effect of gentamicin on the vestibular system simultaneously by measurement of vestibular evoked potentials and electron microscopic evaluation. Background: Vestibular short-latency evoked potentials to

  11. Environmental pollutants and alterations in the reproductive system in wild male mink (Neovison vison) from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sara; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The wild American mink, a semi-aquatic top predator, is exposed to high levels of environmental pollutants that may affect its reproductive system. In this study, the reproductive organs from 101 wild male mink collected in Sweden were examined during necropsy. Potential associations between various variables of the reproductive system and fat concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and other organochlorine pesticides and liver concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated using multiple regression models. The anogenital distance was negatively associated (penvironmental pollution affects male reproduction in both wildlife and humans. Overall, the study suggests endocrine disrupting effects in wild mink and identifies potentially important pollutants in the complex mixture of contaminants in the environment. In addition, the results suggest that the variables of the reproductive system of male mink used in this study are good candidates for use as indicators of environmental pollution affecting the mammalian reproductive system.

  12. 76 FR 4469 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ..., Aging, Indian Affairs, Worker's Compensation, Disability Insurance Veterans Administration files...) Social Security Administration Internal Revenue Service Department of Health and Human Services (HHS..., and manual files. The records in this System are retrieved by Name and/or assigned...

  13. Altered Dynamics Between Neural Systems Sub-serving Decisions for Unhealthy Food

    OpenAIRE

    Qinghua eHe; Lin eXiao; Gui eXue; savio ewong; Ames, Susan L.; Antoine eBechara

    2014-01-01

    Using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques, we examined the relationships between activities in the neural systems elicited by the decision stage of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and food choices of either vegetables or snacks high in fat and sugar. Twenty-three healthy normal weight adolescents and young adults, ranging in age from 14-21, were studied. Neural systems implicated in decision-making and inhibitory control were engaged by having participants perform the ...

  14. Altered dynamics between neural systems sub-serving decisions for unhealthy food

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qinghua; Xiao, Lin; Xue, Gui; Wong, Savio; Ames, Susan L.; Xie, Bin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques, we examined the relationships between activities in the neural systems elicited by the decision stage of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and food choices of either vegetables or snacks high in fat and sugar. Twenty-three healthy normal weight adolescents and young adults, ranging in age from 14 to 21, were studied. Neural systems implicated in decision-making and inhibitory control were engaged by having participants perform th...

  15. Possible involvement of cationic-drug sensitive transport systems in the blood-to-brain influx and brain-to-blood efflux of amantadine across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toyofumi; Fukami, Toshiro; Tomono, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the brain-to-blood efflux transport of amantadine across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The apparent in vivo efflux rate constant for [(3) H]amantadine from the rat brain (keff ) was found to be 1.53 × 10(-2) min(-1) after intracerebral microinjection using the brain efflux index method. The efflux of [(3) H]amantadine was inhibited by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+) ), a cationic neurotoxin, suggesting that amantadine transport from the brain to the blood across the BBB potentially involves the rat plasma membrane monoamine transporter (rPMAT). On the other hand, other selected substrates for organic cation transporters (OCTs) and organic anion transporters (OATs), as well as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), did not affect the efflux transport of [(3) H]amantadine. In addition, in vitro studies using an immortalized rat brain endothelial cell line (GPNT) showed that the uptake and retention of [(3) H]amantadine by the cells was not changed by the addition of cyclosporin, which is an inhibitor of P-gp. However, cyclosporin affected the uptake and retention of rhodamine123. Finally, the initial brain uptake of [(3) H]amantadine was determined using an in situ mouse brain perfusion technique. Notably, the brain uptake clearance for [(3) H]amantadine was significantly decreased with the co-perfusion of quinidine or verapamil, which are cationic P-gp inhibitors, while MPP(+) did not have a significant effect. It is thus concluded that while P-gp is not involved, it is possible that rPMAT and the cationic drug-sensitive transport system participate in the brain-to-blood efflux and the blood-to-brain influx of amantadine across the BBB, respectively.

  16. Medullary Endocannabinoids Contribute to the Differential Resting Baroreflex Sensitivity in Rats with Altered Brain Renin-Angiotensin System Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich, Chris L; Grabenauer, Megan; Thomas, Brian F; Shaltout, Hossam A; Gallagher, Patricia E; Howlett, Allyn C; Diz, Debra I

    2016-01-01

    CB1 cannabinoid receptors are expressed on vagal afferent fibers and neurons within the solitary tract nucleus (NTS), providing anatomical evidence for their role in arterial baroreflex modulation. To better understand the relationship between the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and endocannabinoid expression within the NTS, we measured dorsal medullary endocannabinoid tissue content and the effects of CB1 receptor blockade at this brain site on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in ASrAOGEN rats with low glial angiotensinogen, normal Sprague-Dawley rats and (mRen2)27 rats with upregulated brain RAS expression. Mass spectrometry revealed higher levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in (mRen2)27 compared to ASrAOGEN rats (2.70 ± 0.28 vs. 1.17 ± 0.09 ng/mg tissue; P system that influence cardiovagal BRS in animals with genetic alterations in the brain RAS.

  17. The Blood Quality Monitoring Network System's Role in the Safety of Blood Transfusion%血液质量监测网络体系在输血安全中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秀兰; 田志彬; 李忠杰; 玄红霞; 陈书芳

    2013-01-01

    目的探寻建立血站血液质量监测网络体系,确保血液质量与安全。方法对献血者献血前的血液标本进行初筛,对采血场所、关键原辅材料、关键设备进行质量控制,同时加强采后血液的质量监测以及各供血库的监测。结果比较质量监测网络体系建立前后血液质量情况,发现血液质量监测网络体系建立后血液质量有明显提高。结论建立完整有效、安全的血液质量监测网络体系,对血液的采集、检验、保存、运送和使用等多个环节进行血液质量监测,监控血液"从血管到血管"的全过程,确保献血者、用血者身体健康和生命安全。%Objective To explore the establishment of a blood bank blood quality monitoring network system to ensure the quality and safety of blood. Methods for screening blood donors before blood samples, blood col ection establishments, the key raw materials, key equipment for quality control quality, while strengthening the postharvest quality monitoring of blood as wel as monitoring for blood banks. Results the comparative quality monitoring network system to establish the quality of blood before and after situation, significantly improved blood quality monitoring network system to establish the quality of blood. Conclusions to establish a complete and ef ective, safe blood quality monitoring network system for blood col ection, testing, preservation, transportation and use of other aspects of the blood quality monitoring, monitoring of blood"from the blood vessels to the blood vessels,"the whole process to ensure donors with blood by the health and safety of life.

  18. [Coronary artery blood flow velocity non-invasively measured using a vessel-tracking pulsed Doppler system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, O; Aizawa, O; Okamura, T; Yoshida, T; Furuhata, H; Seo, Y; Iinuma, K; Shiki, E

    1988-09-01

    A newly-developed noninvasive method was used to measure left coronary blood flow during phantom experiments. Two techniques were used in which: (1) the sample position can always be set in a fluctuating vessel using a wall echo-tracking method with a phase-locked-loop, and (2) the Doppler reference signal was generated separately synchronous with the wall echo signal. These techniques were combined, using a commercially available pulsed Doppler apparatus (SSH-40B: Toshiba). Basic experiments were performed using a blood vessel phantom to verify the validity of these systems. Blood flow velocity in the fluctuating tube could be measured clearly using a vessel-tracking method. The blood flow velocity of the left anterior descending artery was measured in three normal subjects and in seven patients from the third intercostal space along the left sternal border. The velocity pattern was characterized by a crescendo-decrescendo shape in diastole. The peak velocity which appeared in diastole ranged from 19 to 69 cm/sec, with no difference by disease entity. However, in all cases, the blood flow velocity signals were marred by extraneous signals, making it impossible to measure blood flow velocity during systole. Further improvement of the system is mandatory in order to use this flowmeter clinically.

  19. Abnormalities in the cellular phase of blood fibrinolytic activity in systemic lupus erythematosus and in venous thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibrinolytic activities of whole blood and plasma were determined by 125I-fibrin radiometric assay in 16 normal subjects, and in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 14 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 23 with venous thromboembolic disease, and 20 patients awaiting elective surgery. Mean whole blood and plasma activities for patients with PSS, and for those awaiting elective surgery, were similar to normal values, as was the mean plasma activity in patients with SLE. However, mean whole blood activity in SLE was significantly decreased compared with normals (p less than 0.05), with mean plasma activity accounting for 44% of mean whole blood activity (compared with 17% in normal subjects), representing a 67% decrease in mean calculated cellular phase activity in SLE, when compared with normals. Since the numbers of cells (neutrophils, monocytes) possibly involved in cellular activity were not decreased, the findings suggest a functional defect in fibrinolytic activity of one or more blood cell types in SLE. An additional finding was the participation of the cellular phase as well as the well-known plasma phase of blood in the fibrinolytic response to thromboembolism

  20. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor - using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory...... (ABL), (2) the correlation between lactate and pH measured in scalp blood and (3) the correlation between fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord SBE. The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values of lactate in predicting low pH were analyzed and expressed as Receiver Operating...... Curves (ROC). RESULTS: Lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the ABL correlated well (r(2 )= 0.85). Both lactate and pH were measured in 1009 scalp blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of lactate ≥4.8 mmol/l in predicting a pH

  1. 76 FR 4446 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... room is controlled by a cardkey and security code (numeric keypad) system. Access to the data entry... Records Center. Procedural Safeguards: Protection for computerized records both on the mainframe and the... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified...

  2. 76 FR 4438 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... room is controlled by a cardkey and security code (numeric keypad) system. Access to the data entry... personnel screening of visitors. Procedural Safeguards: Protection for computerized records both on the... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified...

  3. 76 FR 4443 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... room is controlled by a cardkey and security code (numeric keypad) system. Access to the data entry... personnel screening of visitors. Procedural Safeguards: Protection for computerized records both on the... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified...

  4. 76 FR 4476 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... by a cardkey and security code (numeric keypad) system. The hard copy records are kept in locked...--Protection for computerized records both on the mainframe and the National Center Local Area Network (LAN... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified...

  5. 76 FR 4431 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... controlled by a cardkey and security code (numeric keypad) system. The local fire department is located...: Protection for computerized records both on the mainframe and the ATSDR Local Area Network (LAN) includes... January 25, 2011 Part II Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control...

  6. 76 FR 4480 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... room is controlled by a cardkey and security code (numeric keypad) system. The local fire department is... of visitors. Procedural Safeguards: Protection for computerized records on the mainframe includes... questionnaire will be correlated with the mortality data, the computerized records to which questionnaire...

  7. 76 FR 4440 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... room is controlled by a cardkey and security code (numeric keypad) system. Access to the data entry... personnel screening of visitors. Procedural Safeguards: Protection for computerized records both on the... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified...

  8. 78 FR 32256 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered CMS System of Records Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ..., Privacy Policy and Compliance Group, Office of E-Health Standards & Services, Offices of Enterprise... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... System of Records Notice AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health...

  9. 76 FR 4449 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    .... Electronic anti-intrusion devices are in effect at the Federal Records Center. Procedural Safeguards... needed for evaluation and analysis. Records destroyed by paper recycling ] process when 10 years old... Road buildings. The computer room is protected by an automatic sprinkler system, automatic sensors...

  10. 77 FR 19295 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... and conduct of individual health care practitioners (doctors, dentists, nurses, allied health care... System of Records Notice (SORN) 09-15-0054 was last published on October 1, 2010 (75 FR 60763). The... and release certain information relating to the professional competence and conduct of...

  11. 76 FR 47190 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Prescription Drug (MARx) System, No. 09-70-4001,'' last modified at 70 FR 60530 (October 18, 2005). CMS... ``Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information'' (45 CFR parts 160 and 164, 65 FR... payment control; expedite the exchange of data with MA and MA-PD; control the posting of pro-rata...

  12. 78 FR 23811 - Privacy Act of 1974; Proposed New Routine Uses and System of Records Alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... in this system of records that will identify them, as well as provide an identity document... third party, where necessary, information pertaining to the identity of a payee or payee applicant, the fact of the person's application for or service as a payee, and, as necessary, the identity of...

  13. Cocaine Self-Administration Alters the Relative Effectiveness of Multiple Memory Systems during Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Amanda; Setlow, Barry; Packard, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were trained to run a straight-alley maze for an oral cocaine or sucrose vehicle solution reward, followed by either response or latent extinction training procedures that engage neuroanatomically dissociable "habit" and "cognitive" memory systems, respectively. In the response extinction condition, rats performed a runway approach response…

  14. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanely, R Andrew; Nieman, David C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Henson, Dru A; Meaney, Mary P; Knab, Amy M; Cialdell-Kam, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p 0.05), however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05). WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05), but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine), antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function. PMID:27556488

  15. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  16. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  17. Mesoscale simulations of two model systems in biophysics: from red blood cells to DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Chen, Yeng-Long; Lu, Huijie; Pan, Zehao; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2015-12-01

    Computational modeling has become increasingly important in biophysics, but the great challenge in numerical simulations due to the multiscale feature of biological systems limits the capability of modeling in making discoveries in biology. Innovative multiscale modeling approaches are desired to bridge different scales from nucleic acids and proteins to cells and tissues. Although all-atom molecular dynamics has been successfully applied in many microscale biological processes such as protein folding, it is still prohibitively expensive for studying macroscale problems such as biophysics of cells and tissues. On the other hand, continuum-based modeling has become a mature procedure for analysis and design in many engineering fields, but new insights for biological systems in the microscale are limited when molecular details are missing in continuum-based modeling. In this context, mesoscale modeling approaches such as Langevin dynamics, lattice Boltzmann method, and dissipative particle dynamics have become popular by simultaneously incorporating molecular interactions and long-range hydrodynamic interactions, providing insights to properties on longer time and length scales than molecular dynamics. In this review, we summarized several mesoscale simulation approaches for studying two model systems in biophysics: red blood cells (RBCs) and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs). The RBC is a model system for cell mechanics and biological membranes, while the DNA represents a model system for biopolymers. We introduced the motivations of studying these problems and presented the key features of different mesoscale methods. Furthermore, we described the latest progresses in these methods and highlighted the major findings for modeling RBCs and DNAs. Finally, we also discussed the challenges and potential issues of different approaches.

  18. It Is All about (U)biquitin: Role of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and UCHL1 in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramutola, Antonella; Di Domenico, Fabio; Barone, Eugenio; Perluigi, Marzia; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2016-01-01

    Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of “aberrant” proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased efficiency of degradative systems. One of the most important cellular proteolytic systems responsible for the removal of oxidized proteins in the cytosol and in the nucleus is the proteasomal system. Several studies have demonstrated the impairment of the proteasome in AD thus suggesting a direct link between accumulation of oxidized/misfolded proteins and reduction of this clearance system. In this review we discuss the impairment of the proteasome system as a consequence of oxidative stress and how this contributes to AD neuropathology. Further, we focus the attention on the oxidative modifications of a key component of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, UCHL1, which lead to the impairment of its activity. PMID:26881020

  19. Selective alterations in cerebral metabolism within the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system produced by acute cocaine administration in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrino, L.J.; Domer, F.R.; Crane, A.M.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-05-01

    The 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method was used to examine the effects of acute intravenous administration of cocaine on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats. These effects were correlated with the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity assessed simultaneously in the same animals. At the lowest dose of cocaine, 0.5 mg/kg (1.47 mumol/kg), alterations in glucose utilization were restricted to the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Metabolic activity at 1.0 mg/kg (2.9 mumol/kg) was altered in these structures, but in the substantia nigra reticulata and lateral habenula as well. The selectivity of cocaine's effects at low doses demonstrates the particular sensitivity of these structures to cocaine's actions in the brain. In contrast, 5.0 mg/kg (14.7 mumol/kg) produced widespread changes in glucose utilization, particularly in the extrapyramidal system. Only this dose significantly increased locomotor activity above levels in vehicle-treated controls. Rates of glucose utilization were positively correlated with locomotor activity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra reticulata, and subthalamic nucleus, and negatively correlated in the lateral habenula.

  20. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex. PMID:9259831

  1. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex.

  2. Direct Central Nervous System Effect of Alcohol Alters Synthesis and Degradation of Skeletal Muscle Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Pruznak, Anne M; Nystrom, Jay; Lang, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol can directly impair protein synthesis in cultured myocytes as well as in in situ perfused skeletal muscle. However, alcohol in the general circulation diffuses rapidly into the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, this study determined whether localized elevation of alcohol within the CNS is capable of decreasing muscle protein synthesis. Methods: Conscious unstrained male rats received a continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of ethanol and skeletal muscle protei...

  3. Functional alterations to the nigrostriatal system in mice lacking all three members of the synuclein family

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Sabina; Peters, Owen; Millership, Steven; Ninkina, Natalia; Doig, Natalie; Connor-Robson, Natalie; Threlfell, Sarah; Kooner, Gurdeep; Deacon, Robert M.; Bannerman, David M.; Bolam, J. Paul; Chandra, Sreeganga S.; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Wade-Martins, Richard; Buchman, Vladimir L.

    2011-01-01

    The synucleins (α, β and γ) are highly homologous proteins thought to play a role in regulating neurotransmission and are found abundantly in presynaptic terminals. To overcome functional overlap between synuclein proteins and to understand their role in presynaptic signalling from mesostriatal dopaminergic neurons, we produced mice lacking all three members of the synuclein family. The effect on the mesostriatal system was assessed in adult (4-14 month old) animals using a combination of beh...

  4. Design and testing of alterable preload running-in system of solid lubricated bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianwei; Zhao, Hefan; Cui, Jiwen

    2013-01-01

    The lubricating mechanism and improved performances of MoS2 film in bearings is analyzed in this paper. In order to improve the performance of solid lubricated bearings, the running-in is necssary. The design of the running-in system which can change the bearing preload during the process of running-in is introduced in detail. The results of the running-in experiments are analyzed.

  5. Phosphate availability alters architecture and causes changes in hormone sensitivity in the Arabidopsis root system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bucio, José; Hernández-Abreu, Esmeralda; Sánchez-Calderón, Lenin; Nieto-Jacobo, María Fernanda; Simpson, June; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2002-05-01

    The postembryonic developmental program of the plant root system is plastic and allows changes in root architecture to adapt to environmental conditions such as water and nutrient availability. Among essential nutrients, phosphorus (P) often limits plant productivity because of its low mobility in soil. Therefore, the architecture of the root system may determine the capacity of the plant to acquire this nutrient. We studied the effect of P availability on the development of the root system in Arabidopsis. We found that at P-limiting conditions (increase in auxin sensitivity in the roots of P-deprived Arabidopsis seedlings. It was also found that the axr1-3, axr2-1, and axr4-1 Arabidopsis mutants have normal responses to low P availability conditions, whereas the iaa28-1 mutant shows resistance to the stimulatory effects of low P on root hair and lateral root formation. Analysis of ethylene signaling mutants and treatments with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid showed that ethylene does not promote lateral root formation under P deprivation. These results suggest that in Arabidopsis, auxin sensitivity may play a fundamental role in the modifications of root architecture by P availability. PMID:12011355

  6. Systems Biology of cancer: Moving toward the Integrative Study of the metabolic alterations in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Erika Hernández Patiño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives in systems biology is to understand the biological mechanisms that give rise to the phenotype of a microorganism by using high-throughput technologies and genome-scale mathematical modeling. The computational modeling of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions is one systemic and quantitative strategy for characterizing the metabolic phenotype associated with human diseases and potentially for designing drugs with optimal clinical effects. The purpose of this short review is to describe how computational modeling, including the specific case of constraint-based modeling, can be used to explore, characterize and predict the metabolic capacities that distinguish the metabolic phenotype of cancer cell lines. As we show herein, this computational framework is far from a pure theoretical description, and to ensure proper biological interpretation, it is necessary to integrate high-throughput data and generate predictions for later experimental assessment. Hence, genome-scale modeling serves as a platform for the following: 1 the integration of data from high-throughput technologies, 2 the assessment of how metabolic activity is related to phenotype in cancer cell lines and 3 the design of new experiments to evaluate the outcomes of the in silico analysis. By combining the functions described above, we show that computational modeling is a useful methodology to construct an integrative, systemic and quantitative scheme for understanding the metabolic profiles of cancer cell lines, a first step to determine the metabolic mechanism by which cancer cells maintain and support their malignant phenotype in human tissues.

  7. Systems biology of cancer: moving toward the integrative study of the metabolic alterations in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Patiño, Claudia E; Jaime-Muñoz, Gustavo; Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo

    2012-01-01

    One of the main objectives in systems biology is to understand the biological mechanisms that give rise to the phenotype of a microorganism by using high-throughput technologies (HTs) and genome-scale mathematical modeling. The computational modeling of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions is one systemic and quantitative strategy for characterizing the metabolic phenotype associated with human diseases and potentially for designing drugs with optimal clinical effects. The purpose of this short review is to describe how computational modeling, including the specific case of constraint-based modeling, can be used to explore, characterize, and predict the metabolic capacities that distinguish the metabolic phenotype of cancer cell lines. As we show herein, this computational framework is far from a pure theoretical description, and to ensure proper biological interpretation, it is necessary to integrate high-throughput data and generate predictions for later experimental assessment. Hence, genome-scale modeling serves as a platform for the following: (1) the integration of data from HTs, (2) the assessment of how metabolic activity is related to phenotype in cancer cell lines, and (3) the design of new experiments to evaluate the outcomes of the in silico analysis. By combining the functions described above, we show that computational modeling is a useful methodology to construct an integrative, systemic, and quantitative scheme for understanding the metabolic profiles of cancer cell lines, a first step to determine the metabolic mechanism by which cancer cells maintain and support their malignant phenotype in human tissues.

  8. Activity of kallikrein-kinin system of blood and state of placental circulation at full-term pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kairov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of kallikrein-kinin system of blood and the state of placental circulation at full-term physiological pregnancy have been studied.In 30 pregnant women aged 18—27 at 38th—40th weeks of pregnancy, the activity of  kallikrein-kinin system (KKS of blood before and after the action double local hypoxia of arm and the state of placental hemodynamics were analyzed. Three types of reaction of kininogenase and inhibitory chains of KSS were revealed: adaptive, kininogenase, and inhibitory. Disturbed placental hemodynamics  was observed in pregnant women with kininogenase and inhibitory types of KSS reaction.

  9. Quantitative data on blood flow during tumor PDT obtained by laser Doppler spectroscopy in the hen's egg test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoorts, Anja; Rood, H. A.; Klotz, Marcus; Moser, Joerg G.; Rosenbruch, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Oxygen supply is the most important requirement of type II photodynamic reactions. Prerequisite in photodynamic tumor therapy is an intact tumor blood flow during irradiation. Most photosensitizers destroy tumor vessels due to accumulation in endothelial cells. As a prerequisite to develop novel photosensitizing drugs an in-vivo test system is required to quantitatively assess for inertness of those sensitizers to the blood supply. We adapted and further developed a system capable of measuring the relative oxygen supply to heterotransplanted tumors on the yolk sac membrane (YSM) of fertilized chicken eggs.

  10. [Effect of cinnarizine on the brain mitochondrial oxidative system, antioxidant blood activity, and the rat behavior in hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belostotskaia, L I; Chaĭka, L A; Gomon, O N

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cinnarizine on the functional state of brain mitochondria, the activity of blood antioxidant system, and the behavior of rats was studied under model hypoxic hypoxia conditions. A four-day treatments with cinnarizine (50 mg/kg, twice per day via a gastric tube) prevents the hypoxic brain edema development, restores NAD+ dependent oxidation of a succinate substrate, normalizes emotional-exploratory activity, and causes hyperlocomotion of the experimental animals, while not influencing a high level of activity of the blood antioxidant system. PMID:14743704

  11. An Intelligent Decision Support System for Leukaemia Diagnosis using Microscopic Blood Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin Neoh, Siew; Srisukkham, Worawut; Zhang, Li; Todryk, Stephen; Greystoke, Brigit; Peng Lim, Chee; Alamgir Hossain, Mohammed; Aslam, Nauman

    2015-10-01

    This research proposes an intelligent decision support system for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia diagnosis from microscopic blood images. A novel clustering algorithm with stimulating discriminant measures (SDM) of both within- and between-cluster scatter variances is proposed to produce robust segmentation of nucleus and cytoplasm of lymphocytes/lymphoblasts. Specifically, the proposed between-cluster evaluation is formulated based on the trade-off of several between-cluster measures of well-known feature extraction methods. The SDM measures are used in conjuction with Genetic Algorithm for clustering nucleus, cytoplasm, and background regions. Subsequently, a total of eighty features consisting of shape, texture, and colour information of the nucleus and cytoplasm sub-images are extracted. A number of classifiers (multi-layer perceptron, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Dempster-Shafer ensemble) are employed for lymphocyte/lymphoblast classification. Evaluated with the ALL-IDB2 database, the proposed SDM-based clustering overcomes the shortcomings of Fuzzy C-means which focuses purely on within-cluster scatter variance. It also outperforms Linear Discriminant Analysis and Fuzzy Compactness and Separation for nucleus-cytoplasm separation. The overall system achieves superior recognition rates of 96.72% and 96.67% accuracies using bootstrapping and 10-fold cross validation with Dempster-Shafer and SVM, respectively. The results also compare favourably with those reported in the literature, indicating the usefulness of the proposed SDM-based clustering method.

  12. Influence of Resting Venous Blood Volume Fraction on Dynamic Causal Modeling and System Identifiability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenghui; Ni, Pengyu; Wan, Qun; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Pengcheng; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Changes in BOLD signals are sensitive to the regional blood content associated with the vasculature, which is known as V0 in hemodynamic models. In previous studies involving dynamic causal modeling (DCM) which embodies the hemodynamic model to invert the functional magnetic resonance imaging signals into neuronal activity, V0 was arbitrarily set to a physiolog-ically plausible value to overcome the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. It is interesting to investigate how the V0 value influences DCM. In this study we addressed this issue by using both synthetic and real experiments. The results show that the ability of DCM analysis to reveal information about brain causality depends critically on the assumed V0 value used in the analysis procedure. The choice of V0 value not only directly affects the strength of system connections, but more importantly also affects the inferences about the network architecture. Our analyses speak to a possible refinement of how the hemody-namic process is parameterized (i.e., by making V0 a free parameter); however, the conditional dependencies induced by a more complex model may create more problems than they solve. Obtaining more realistic V0 information in DCM can improve the identifiability of the system and would provide more reliable inferences about the properties of brain connectivity. PMID:27389074

  13. Radiation from wireless technology affects the blood, the heart, and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Magda

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to electrosmog generated by electric, electronic, and wireless technology is accelerating to the point that a portion of the population is experiencing adverse reactions when they are exposed. The symptoms of electrohypersensitivity (EHS), best described as rapid aging syndrome, experienced by adults and children resemble symptoms experienced by radar operators in the 1940s to the 1960s and are well described in the literature. An increasingly common response includes clumping (rouleau formation) of the red blood cells, heart palpitations, pain or pressure in the chest accompanied by anxiety, and an upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system coincident with a downregulation of the parasympathetic nervous system typical of the "fight-or-flight" response. Provocation studies presented in this article demonstrate that the response to electrosmog is physiologic and not psychosomatic. Those who experience prolonged and severe EHS may develop psychologic problems as a consequence of their inability to work, their limited ability to travel in our highly technologic environment, and the social stigma that their symptoms are imagined rather than real.

  14. Full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system for blood-flow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexandre; Lasser, Theo

    2006-02-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system developed for mapping and monitoring of blood flow in biological tissue. The total imaging time for 256x256 pixels region of interest is 1.2 seconds. An integrating CMOS image sensor is utilized to detect Doppler signal in a plurality of points simultaneously on the sample illuminated by a divergent laser beam of a uniform intensity profile. The integrating property of the detector improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement, which results in high-quality flow-images provided by the system. The new technique is real-time, non-invasive and the instrument is easy to use. The wide range of applications is one of the major challenges for a future application of the imager. High-resolution high-speed laser Doppler perfusion imaging is a promising optical technique for diagnostic and assessing the treatment effect of the diseases such as e.g. atherosclerosis, psoriasis, diabetes, skin cancer, allergies, peripheral vascular diseases, skin irritancy and wound healing. We present some biological applications of the new imager and discuss the perspectives for the future implementations of the imager for clinical and physiological applications.

  15. Alterations in the cholinergic system of brain stem neurons in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Johnson, Christopher M; Jiang, Chun

    2014-09-15

    Rett syndrome is an autism-spectrum disorder resulting from mutations to the X-linked gene, methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), which causes abnormalities in many systems. It is possible that the body may develop certain compensatory mechanisms to alleviate the abnormalities. The norepinephrine system originating mainly in the locus coeruleus (LC) is defective in Rett syndrome and Mecp2-null mice. LC neurons are subject to modulation by GABA, glutamate, and acetylcholine (ACh), providing an ideal system to test the compensatory hypothesis. Here we show evidence for potential compensatory modulation of LC neurons by post- and presynaptic ACh inputs. We found that the postsynaptic currents of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChR) were smaller in amplitude and longer in decay time in the Mecp2-null mice than in the wild type. Single-cell PCR analysis showed a decrease in the expression of α3-, α4-, α7-, and β3-subunits and an increase in the α5- and α6-subunits in the mutant mice. The α5-subunit was present in many of the LC neurons with slow-decay nAChR currents. The nicotinic modulation of spontaneous GABAA-ergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents in LC neurons was enhanced in Mecp2-null mice. In contrast, the nAChR manipulation of glutamatergic input to LC neurons was unaffected in both groups of mice. Our current-clamp studies showed that the modulation of LC neurons by ACh input was reduced moderately in Mecp2-null mice, despite the major decrease in nAChR currents, suggesting possible compensatory processes may take place, thus reducing the defects to a lesser extent in LC neurons.

  16. Alterations in the hippocampal glycinergic system in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shigeto; Morinobu, Shigeru; Iwamoto, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yuto; Takei, Shiro; Fujita, Yosuke; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rats subjected to single prolonged stress (SPS) exhibit posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms, such as enhanced contextual fear in response to trauma-related and trauma-unrelated events. Furthermore, we previously reported that upregulation of hippocampal glycine transporter 1 (GlyT-1) mRNA after context exposure could be the initial mechanism underlying impaired fear extinction in SPS rats. To clarify the involvement of the hippocampal glycinergic system in impaired fear extinction in SPS rats, we measured the time course of changes in the duration of freezing and the hippocampal levels of Gly-T1 mRNA using contextual fear conditioning (FC) and extinction training. We also used in vivo microdialysis to measure the concentration of extracellular glycine in the hippocampus during the time interval between FC and the first context exposure. SPS rats exhibited increased and sustained contextual fear responses. The enhanced contextual fear response in SPS rats was associated with a sustained increase in hippocampal levels of Gly-T1 mRNA after FC relative to sham rats, and by a decrease in the extracellular glycine concentration. GlyT-1 mRNA levels in rats that underwent repeated extinction training were significantly lower than in rats that did not undergo extinction training. These findings indicate that reduced activity of the hippocampal glycinergic system could be closely involved in impaired fear extinction in SPS rats, suggesting that activation of the glycinergic system by d-cycloserine or GlyT-1 inhibitors may ameliorate the impairment of fear extinction. PMID:20427053

  17. [Alterations of prooxidant-antioxidant system of rat liver at ethanol and tetracycline action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoshytko, Kh Iu

    2013-01-01

    The state of antioxidant system and fatty acid composition of lipids in the liver tissues of rats of different sex at the ethanol and tetracycline action and at the influence of biologically active additives (BAA) "Alpha + Omega" at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per os was investigated. It was found that the contet of lipid peroxidation products in the liver was increased at the action of 40% ethanol at a dose of 7 ml/kg b.w. per os and tetracycline--500 mg/kg and more profound at their joint using. However, the content of diene conjugates was stronger increased in the liver of females at the action of ethanol, while in the liver of males at the action of tetracycline (P tetracycline and more profound at their joint usage (P tetracycline unidirectionally changed fatty acid composition of total lipids of rat liver, but at the ethanol action the changes were more expressed in females while at the tetracycline action in males. The application during 14 days of BAA "Alpha + Omega" to male and female rats with an acute tetracycline damage at subacute ethanol action led to partial normalization of prooxidant-antioxidant system and the relative content of total lipids fatty acids of the liver of both sexes animals. PMID:24479333

  18. LDA merging and splitting with applications to multiagent cooperative learning and system alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shaoning; Ban, Tao; Kadobayashi, Youki; Kasabov, Nikola K

    2012-04-01

    To adapt linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to real-world applications, there is a pressing need to equip it with an incremental learning ability to integrate knowledge presented by one-pass data streams, a functionality to join multiple LDA models to make the knowledge sharing between independent learning agents more efficient, and a forgetting functionality to avoid reconstruction of the overall discriminant eigenspace caused by some irregular changes. To this end, we introduce two adaptive LDA learning methods: LDA merging and LDA splitting. These provide the benefits of ability of online learning with one-pass data streams, retained class separability identical to the batch learning method, high efficiency for knowledge sharing due to condensed knowledge representation by the eigenspace model, and more preferable time and storage costs than traditional approaches under common application conditions. These properties are validated by experiments on a benchmark face image data set. By a case study on the application of the proposed method to multiagent cooperative learning and system alternation of a face recognition system, we further clarified the adaptability of the proposed methods to complex dynamic learning tasks.

  19. Progressive alterations of central nervous system structure and function are caused by charged particle radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G. A.; Cns Nscor Team

    A new NASA-sponsored program project (NSCOR) has been organized to conduct the first comprehensive investigation of the response of a mammalian brain structure (mouse hippocampus) to charged-particle radiation. The NSCOR collaboration has three main goals. The first goal is to quantify the time- and dose-dependent changes in cellular composition and architecture. By using stereology on preserved brains, subsets of cells (neurons, glia, endothelia and stem cells) will be quantified out to 2 years after irradiation with accelerated protons and iron ions. To further characterize changes in vasculature architecture a polymer infusion technique will be used to produce a three-dimensional vasculature cast that then will be mapped by x-ray tomography to determine topological changes, and microscopic infarcts associated with amyloid protein deposits. The 2nd goal is to quantify hippocampal function(s). The primary measurement of function will be extracellular electrical recordings from hippocampal ``brain slices'' that reflect underlying functions such as connectivity, action potential generation & conduction, and neurotransmitter formation, secretion, and uptake. Individual nerve membrane properties will be assessed by ``patch clamp'' recordings. Two non-invasive methods will evaluate brain function and the evolution of changes with time. Electroencephalograms will map macroscopic spontaneous electrical activity while two state-of-the-art MRI magnetization sequences will visualize and quantify local oxygen utilization and white matter fiber tracts structural integrity. To quantify the brains' overall performance under stress, animals will receive a systemic shock mediated by the immune system in the form of a reaction to lipopolysaccharide. A second strategy will employ the APP23 transgenic mouse that develops the pathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Measurements of irradiated mice will determine whether radiation exposure affects the latency and

  20. Effect of perioperative autologous versus allogeneic blood transfusion on the immune system in gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background: Allogeneic blood transfusion-induced immunomodulation (TRIM) and its adverse effect on the prognosis of patients treated surgically for cancer remain complex and controversial. However, the potential risk associated with allogeneic blood transfusion has heightened interest in the use of autologous blood transfusion. In the present study, the serum concentrations of neopterin, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), T lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+) and a possible association between these variables were investigated. The purpose was to further evaluate the effect of autologous versus allogeneic blood transfusion on immunological status in patients undergoing surgery for gastric cancer. Methods: Sixty ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ(American Society of Anesthesiologists) patients undergoing elective radical resection for stomach cancer were randomly allocated to receive either allogeneic blood transfusion (n=30) or autologous blood transfusion (n=30). Serum concentrations of the neopterin, IFN-γ and T lymphocyte subsets in the recipients were measured before induction of anesthesia, after operation, and on the 5th postoperative day. Results: Both two groups, serum neopterin, IFN-γ, percentages of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD4+), and CD4+/CD8+ ratio had significantly decreased after operation, but decreased more significantly in group H (receiving allogeneic blood transfusion) than those in group A (receiving autologous whole blood transfusion) (P<0.05). On the 5th postoperative day,serum neopterin, IFN-γ, CD3+, CD4+ T-cells, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio returned to the baseline values in group A. In contrast, the above remain decreasing in group H, where there were no significant relations between serum neopterin and IFN-γ. Conclusion:Perioperative surgical trauma and stress have an immunosuppressive impact on gastric cancer patients. Allogeneic blood transfusion exacerbates the impaired immune response. Autologous blood transfusion might be significantly beneficial for