Sample records for alter systemic blood

  1. C5a alters blood-brain barrier integrity in a human in vitro model of systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Mahajan, Supriya D; Parikh, Neil U; Woodruff, Trent M; Jarvis, James N; Lopez, Molly; Hennon, Teresa; Cunningham, Patrick; Quigg, Richard J; Schwartz, Stanley A; Alexander, Jessy J


    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a crucial role in brain homeostasis, thereby maintaining the brain environment precise for optimal neuronal function. Its dysfunction is an intriguing complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a systemic autoimmune disorder where neurological complications occur in 5-50% of cases and is associated with impaired BBB integrity. Complement activation occurs in SLE and is an important part of the clinical profile. Our earlier studies demonstrated that C5a generated by complement activation caused the loss of brain endothelial layer integrity in rodents. The goal of the current study was to determine the translational potential of these studies to a human system. To assess this, we used a two dimensional in vitro BBB model constructed using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells and astroglial cells, which closely emulates the in vivo BBB allowing the assessment of BBB integrity. Increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance and cytoskeletal remodelling caused by actin fiber rearrangement were observed when the cells were exposed to lupus serum and C5a, similar to the observations in mice. In addition, our data show that C5a/C5aR1 signalling alters nuclear factor-κB translocation into nucleus and regulates the expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin-5 and zonula occludens 1 in this setting. Our results demonstrate for the first time that C5a regulates BBB integrity in a neuroinflammatory setting where it affects both endothelial and astroglial cells. In addition, we also demonstrate that our previous findings in a mouse model, were emulated in human cells in vitro, bringing the studies one step closer to understanding the translational potential of C5a/C5aR1 blockade as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift (United States)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.


    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  3. Flow cytometry of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytes: alterations of blood/CSF ratios of lymphocyte subsets in inflammation disorders of human central nervous system (CNS). (United States)

    Kleine, T O; Albrecht, J; Zöfel, P


    Flow cytometry was adapted to measure lymphocytes in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The method was sufficiently precise, reproducible and accurate despite low cell counts. In lumbar CSF of controls with 500 to 3500 (10(3)/l) leukocytes, lymphocyte counts correlated with those in corresponding venous blood: blood/CSF ratios of approximately 2000 : 1 were found for total T cells (CD3+) and CD3+ HLA-DR-, CD3+4+, CD3+8+ subsets, ratios were increased for the lymphocyte subsets CD3+ HLA-DR+ blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers) to blood lymphocyte subsets which favor the transfer of T subsets. Correlation of the subset ratios to the CD3+ ratio indicates distinct barrier properties which changed differently with acute and subacute inflammations and neuroimmunological diseases of central nervous system (CNS) in lumbar or ventricular CSF, but not with simple protein barrier disturbance. HLA DR+ T ratios were higher than HLA DR- T ratios only with controls and some neuroimmunological diseases. Lymphocyte barrier characteristics were related to protein leakage situated at the same barriers, indicating for the lymphocyte subsets selective transfer routes in control subjects and non-selective routes in patients with CNS inflammation where altered ratios revealed a mixture of both routes.

  4. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra


    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  5. Inflammation and immune system alterations in frailty. (United States)

    Yao, Xu; Li, Huifen; Leng, Sean X


    Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome characterized by multisystem dysregulation. Substantial evidence suggests heightened inflammatory state and significant immune system alterations in frailty. A heightened inflammatory state is marked by increases in levels of inflammatory molecules (interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein) and counts of white blood cell and its subpopulations, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of frailty, directly or through its detrimental influence on other physiologic systems. Alterations in the innate immune system include decreased proliferation of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and upregulated monocytic expression of specific stress-responsive inflammatory pathway genes. In the adaptive immune system, although little information is available about potential B-cell changes, significant alterations have been identified in the T-cell compartment, including increased counts of CD8+, CD8+CD28-, CCR5+T cells, above and beyond age-related senescent immune remodeling.

  6. Alteration of blood-brain barrier integrity by retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe V Afonso


    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.

  7. Alterations of blood brain barrier function in hyperammonemia: an overview. (United States)

    Skowrońska, Marta; Albrecht, Jan


    Ammonia is a neurotoxin involved in the pathogenesis of neurological conditions associated with hyperammonemia, including hepatic encephalopathy, a condition associated with acute--(ALF) or chronic liver failure. This article reviews evidence that apart from directly affecting the metabolism and function of the central nervous system cells, ammonia influences the passage of different molecules across the blood brain barrier (BBB). A brief description is provided of the tight junctions, which couple adjacent cerebral capillary endothelial cells to each other to form the barrier. Ammonia modulates the transcellular passage of low-to medium-size molecules, by affecting their carriers located at the BBB. Ammonia induces interrelated aberrations of the transport of the large neutral amino acids and aromatic amino acids (AAA), whose influx is augmented by exchange with glutamine produced in the course of ammonia detoxification, and maybe also modulated by the extracellularly acting gamma-glutamyl moiety transferring enzyme, gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase. Impaired AAA transport affects neurotransmission by altering intracerebral synthesis of catecholamines (serotonin and dopamine), and producing "false neurotransmitters" (octopamine and phenylethylamine). Ammonia also modulates BBB transport of the cationic amino acids: the nitric oxide precursor, arginine, and ornithine, which is an ammonia trap, and affects the transport of energy metabolites glucose and creatine. Moreover, ammonia acting either directly or in synergy with liver injury-derived inflammatory cytokines also evokes subtle increases of the transcellular passage of molecules of different size (BBB "leakage"), which appears to be responsible for the vasogenic component of cerebral edema associated with ALF.

  8. Low birth weight in response to salt restriction during pregnancy is not due to alterations in uterine-placental blood flow or the placental and peripheral renin-angiotensin system. (United States)

    Leandro, Sandra Márcia; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara; Shimizu, Maria Heloisa Massola; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Seguro, Antonio Carlos; Patriarca, Giuliana; Coelho, Michella Soares; Dolnikoff, Miriam Sterman; Heimann, Joel Claudio


    A number of studies conducted in humans and in animals have observed that events occurring early in life are associated with the development of diseases in adulthood. Salt overload and restriction during pregnancy and lactation are responsible for functional (hemodynamic and hormonal) and structural alterations in adult offspring. Our group observed that lower birth weight and insulin resistance in adulthood is associated with salt restriction during pregnancy. On the other hand, perinatal salt overload is associated with higher blood pressure and higher renal angiotensin II content in adult offspring. Therefore, we hypothesised that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) function is altered by changes in sodium intake during pregnancy. Such changes may influence fetoplacental blood flow and thereby fetal nutrient supply, with effects on growth in utero and, consequently, on birth weight. Female Wistar rats were fed low-salt (LS), normal-salt (NS), or high-salt (HS) diet, starting before conception and continuing until day 19 of pregnancy. Blood pressure, heart rate, fetuses and dams' body weight, placentae weight and litter size were measured on day 19 of pregnancy. Cardiac output, uterine and placental blood flow were also determined on day 19. Expressions of renin-angiotensin system components and of the TNF-alpha gene were evaluated in the placentae. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, as well as plasma and placental levels of angiotensins I, II, and 1-7 were measured. Body weight and kidney mass were greater in HS than in NS and LS dams. Food intake did not differ among the maternal groups. Placental weight was lower in LS dams than in NS and HS dams. Fetal weight was lower in the LS group than in the NS and HS groups. The PRA was greater in LS dams than in NS and HS dams, although ACE activity (serum, cardiac, renal, and placental) was unaffected by the level of sodium intake. Placental levels of

  9. Alterations in cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells in stored blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun


    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusion. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called CPDA-1. With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and their progressive alterations in stored RBCs. Our results show that the stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within 2 weeks which was accompanied with significant ...

  10. Alterations of Blood Brain Barrier Function in Hyperammonemia: An Overview



    Ammonia is a neurotoxin involved in the pathogenesis of neurological conditions associated with hyperammonemia, including hepatic encephalopathy, a condition associated with acute—(ALF) or chronic liver failure. This article reviews evidence that apart from directly affecting the metabolism and function of the central nervous system cells, ammonia influences the passage of different molecules across the blood brain barrier (BBB). A brief description is provided of the tight junctions, which c...

  11. Altered phase interactions between spontaneous blood pressure and flow fluctuations in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Nonlinear assessment of cerebral autoregulation (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Peng, C. K.; Huang, Norden E.; Wu, Zhaohua; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Cavallerano, Jerry; Novak, Vera


    Cerebral autoregulation is an important mechanism that involves dilatation and constriction in arterioles to maintain relatively stable cerebral blood flow in response to changes of systemic blood pressure. Traditional assessments of autoregulation focus on the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity in response to large blood pressure fluctuations induced by interventions. This approach is not feasible for patients with impaired autoregulation or cardiovascular regulation. Here we propose a newly developed technique-the multimodal pressure-flow (MMPF) analysis, which assesses autoregulation by quantifying nonlinear phase interactions between spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and flow velocity during resting conditions. We show that cerebral autoregulation in healthy subjects can be characterized by specific phase shifts between spontaneous blood pressure and flow velocity oscillations, and the phase shifts are significantly reduced in diabetic subjects. Smaller phase shifts between oscillations in the two variables indicate more passive dependence of blood flow velocity on blood pressure, thus suggesting impaired cerebral autoregulation. Moreover, the reduction of the phase shifts in diabetes is observed not only in previously-recognized effective region of cerebral autoregulation (type 2 diabetes mellitus alters cerebral blood flow regulation over a wide frequency range and that this alteration can be reliably assessed from spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and blood flow velocity during resting conditions. We also show that the MMPF method has better performance than traditional approaches based on Fourier transform, and is more suitable for the quantification of nonlinear phase interactions between nonstationary biological signals such as blood pressure and blood flow.

  12. [Tissular alterations and defence reactions in cymothoids parasited teleosteans (Crustacea - Isopoda - blood sucking) (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Romestand, B; Janicot, M; Trilles, J P


    Some tissual alterations of the parasitic microbiotope are shown in fishes harbouring Cymothoidae (blood-sucking Isopods). These alterations consist mainly in a hypertrophied epidermis and a deeply disturbed conjunctive tissue; moreover, it can be observed an important production of mucus on the tegument surface and a rush of blood cells (lymphocytes, eosenophilic granulated cells) and of cells of histiocytary origin (giant multinucleated cells).

  13. Endovascular blood flow measurement system (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu


    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  14. Simulation of Local Blood Flow in Human Brain under Altered Gravity (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan


    In addition to the altered gravitational forces, specific shapes and connections of arteries in the brain vary in the human population (Cebral et al., 2000; Ferrandez et al., 2002). Considering the geometric variations, pulsatile unsteadiness, and moving walls, computational approach in analyzing altered blood circulation will offer an economical alternative to experiments. This paper presents a computational approach for modeling the local blood flow through the human brain under altered gravity. This computational approach has been verified through steady and unsteady experimental measurements and then applied to the unsteady blood flows through a carotid bifurcation model and an idealized Circle of Willis (COW) configuration under altered gravity conditions.

  15. Altered gene expression in blood and sputum in COPD frequent exacerbators in the ECLIPSE cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Singh

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who are defined as frequent exacerbators suffer with 2 or more exacerbations every year. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype are poorly understood. We investigated gene expression profile patterns associated with frequent exacerbations in sputum and blood cells in a well-characterised cohort. Samples from subjects from the ECLIPSE COPD cohort were used; sputum and blood samples from 138 subjects were used for microarray gene expression analysis, while blood samples from 438 subjects were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing. Using microarray, 150 genes were differentially expressed in blood (>±1.5 fold change, p≤0.01 between frequent compared to non-exacerbators. In sputum cells, only 6 genes were differentially expressed. The differentially regulated genes in blood included downregulation of those involved in lymphocyte signalling and upregulation of pro-apoptotic signalling genes. Multivariate analysis of the microarray data followed by confirmatory PCR analysis identified 3 genes that predicted frequent exacerbations; B3GNT, LAF4 and ARHGEF10. The sensitivity and specificity of these 3 genes to predict the frequent exacerbator phenotype was 88% and 33% respectively. There are alterations in systemic immune function associated with frequent exacerbations; down-regulation of lymphocyte function and a shift towards pro-apoptosis mechanisms are apparent in patients with frequent exacerbations.

  16. Altered gene expression in blood and sputum in COPD frequent exacerbators in the ECLIPSE cohort. (United States)

    Singh, Dave; Fox, Steven M; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Bates, Stewart; Riley, John H; Celli, Bartolome


    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are defined as frequent exacerbators suffer with 2 or more exacerbations every year. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype are poorly understood. We investigated gene expression profile patterns associated with frequent exacerbations in sputum and blood cells in a well-characterised cohort. Samples from subjects from the ECLIPSE COPD cohort were used; sputum and blood samples from 138 subjects were used for microarray gene expression analysis, while blood samples from 438 subjects were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Using microarray, 150 genes were differentially expressed in blood (>±1.5 fold change, p≤0.01) between frequent compared to non-exacerbators. In sputum cells, only 6 genes were differentially expressed. The differentially regulated genes in blood included downregulation of those involved in lymphocyte signalling and upregulation of pro-apoptotic signalling genes. Multivariate analysis of the microarray data followed by confirmatory PCR analysis identified 3 genes that predicted frequent exacerbations; B3GNT, LAF4 and ARHGEF10. The sensitivity and specificity of these 3 genes to predict the frequent exacerbator phenotype was 88% and 33% respectively. There are alterations in systemic immune function associated with frequent exacerbations; down-regulation of lymphocyte function and a shift towards pro-apoptosis mechanisms are apparent in patients with frequent exacerbations.

  17. Spatial distributions of red blood cells significantly alter local haemodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Sherwood

    Full Text Available Although bulk changes in red blood cell concentration between vessels have been well characterised, local distributions are generally overlooked. Red blood cells aggregate, deform and migrate within vessels, forming heterogeneous distributions which have considerable effect on local haemodynamics. The present study reports data on the local distribution of human red blood cells in a sequentially bifurcating microchannel, representing the branching geometry of the microvasculature. Imaging methodologies with simple extrapolations are used to infer three dimensional, time-averaged velocity and haematocrit distributions under a range of flow conditions. Strong correlation between the bluntness of the velocity and haematocrit profiles in the parent branch of the geometry is observed and red blood cell aggregation has a notable effect on the observed trends. The two branches of the first bifurcation show similar characteristics in terms of the shapes of the profiles and the extent of plasma skimming, despite the difference in geometric configuration. In the second bifurcation, considerable asymmetry between the branches in the plasma skimming relationship is observed, and elucidated by considering individual haematocrit profiles. The results of the study highlight the importance of considering local haematocrit distributions in the analysis of blood flow and could lead to more accurate computational models of blood flow in microvascular networks. The experimental approaches developed in this work provide a foundation for further examining the characteristics of microhaemodynamics.

  18. Retrobulbar blood flow and visual field alterations after acute ethanol ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber A


    Full Text Available Anke Weber, Andreas Remky, Marion Bienert, Klaudia Huber-van der Velden, Thomas Kirschkamp, Corinna Rennings, Gernot Roessler, Niklas Plange Department of Ophthalmology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany Background: The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ethyl alcohol on the koniocellular and magnocellular pathway of visual function and to investigate the relationship between such visual field changes and retrobulbar blood flow in healthy subjects. Methods: In 12 healthy subjects (mean age 32 ± 4 years, color Doppler imaging, short-wavelength automated perimetry, and frequency doubling perimetry was performed before and 60 minutes after oral intake of 80 mL of 40 vol% ethanol. Mean and pattern standard deviations for short-wavelength automated and frequency doubling perimetry were assessed. End diastolic velocity (EDV and peak systolic velocity (PSV were measured in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries using color Doppler imaging. Systemic blood pressure, heart rate, intraocular pressure, and blood alcohol concentration were determined. Results: Mean PSV and EDV in the central retinal artery showed a significant increase after alcohol intake (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively. Similarly, we found a significant acceleration of blood flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery (P = 0.02 for PSV; P = 0.04 for EDV. Mean intraocular pressure decreased by 1.0 mmHg after alcohol ingestion (P = 0.01. Retinal sensitivity in short-wavelength automated perimetry did not alter, whereas in frequency doubling perimetry, the mean deviation decreased significantly. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly. Mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.38 ± 0.16 g/L. Conclusion: Although ethanol is known to cause peripheral vasodilation, our subjects had no significant drop in systemic blood pressure. However, a significant increase of blood flow velocity was seen in the retrobulbar vessels. Regarding visual function

  19. Cardiorespiratory and blood gas alterations during laparoscopic surgery for intra-uterine artificial insemination in dogs. (United States)

    Fukushima, Fabíola B; Malm, Christina; Andrade, Maria Elisa J; Oliveira, Humberto P; Melo, Eliane G; Caldeira, Fátima Maria C; Gheller, Valentim A; Palhares, Maristela S; Macedo, Sabrina P; Figueiredo, Mariana S; Silva, Marcos X


    Cardiorespiratory and blood gas alterations were evaluated in 6 healthy dogs that underwent a laparoscopic procedure using isoflurane anesthesia and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) pneumoperitoneum for 30 min. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, venous blood pH, partial pressure of CO(2) and oxygen, oxygen saturation, total carbon dioxide (TCO(2)) and bicarbonate were monitored. Significant alterations were hypercapnia, hypoventilation, and respiratory acidosis.

  20. Alterations of red blood cell metabolome in overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darghouth, D.; Koehl, B.; Heilier, J.F.; Madalinski, G.; Bovee, P.H.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Delaunay, J.; Junot, C.; Romeo, P.H.


    Overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, clinically characterized by hemolytic anemia, is a rare disorder of the erythrocyte membrane permeability to monovalent cations, associated with mutations in the Rh-associated glycoprotein gene. We assessed the red blood cell metabolome of 4 patients with this

  1. Altered free radical metabolism in acute mountain sickness: implications for dynamic cerebral autoregulation and blood-brain barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D M; Evans, K A; James, P E


    (2)) and following 6 h passive exposure to hypoxia (12% O(2)). Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured for determination of CA following calculation of transfer function analysis and rate of regulation (RoR). Nine subjects......We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O...

  2. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.


    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  3. Alteration of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslawa Pietruczuk; Milena I Dabrowska; Urszula Wereszczynska-Siemiatkowska; Andrzej Dabrowski


    AIM: To evaluate peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: Twenty patients with mild AP (M-AP) and 15 with severe AP (S-AP) were included in our study. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined at d 1-3, 5,10 and 30 by means of flow cytometry.RESULTS: A significant depletion of circulating lymphocytes was found in AP. In the early AP, the magnitude of depletion was similar for T- and B- lymphocytes. In the late course of S-AP, B-lymphocytes were much more depleted than T-lymphocytes. At d 10, strong shift in the CD7+/CD19+ ratio implicating predominance of Tover B-lymphocytes in S-AP was found. Among T-lymphocytes, the significant depletion of the CD4+ population was observed in M-AP and S-AP, while CD8+ cells were in the normal range. Lymphocytes were found to strongly express activation markers: CD69, CD25, CD28,CD38 and CD122. Serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5,IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) levels were significantly increased in both forms of AP. The magnitude of elevation of cytokines known to be produced by Th2 was much higher than cytokines produced by Th1 cells.CONCLUSION: AP in humans is characterized by significant reduction of peripheral blood T- and B-lymphocytes.

  4. White blood cell counting system (United States)


    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  5. Loss of caveolin-1 causes blood-retinal barrier breakdown, venous enlargement, and mural cell alteration. (United States)

    Gu, Xiaowu; Fliesler, Steven J; Zhao, You-Yang; Stallcup, William B; Cohen, Alex W; Elliott, Michael H


    Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and related vascular changes are implicated in several ocular diseases. The molecules and mechanisms regulating BRB integrity and pathophysiology are not fully elucidated. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) ablation results in loss of caveolae and microvascular pathologies, but the role of Cav-1 in the retina is largely unknown. We examined BRB integrity and vasculature in Cav-1 knockout mice and found a significant increase in BRB permeability, compared with wild-type controls, with branch veins being frequent sites of breakdown. Vascular hyperpermeability occurred without apparent alteration in junctional proteins. Such hyperpermeability was not rescued by inhibiting eNOS activity. Veins of Cav-1 knockout retinas exhibited additional pathological features, including i) eNOS-independent enlargement, ii) altered expression of mural cell markers (eg, down-regulation of NG2 and up-regulation of αSMA), and iii) dramatic alterations in mural cell phenotype near the optic nerve head. We observed a significant NO-dependent increase in retinal artery diameter in Cav-1 knockout mice, suggesting that Cav-1 plays a role in autoregulation of resistance vessels in the retina. These findings implicate Cav-1 in maintaining BRB integrity in retinal vasculature and suggest a previously undefined role in the retinal venous system and associated mural cells. Our results are relevant to clinically significant retinal disorders with vascular pathologies, including diabetic retinopathy, uveoretinitis, and primary open-angle glaucoma.

  6. Alterations of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Major Depressive Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Chung, Yong An; Seo, Ye Young; Yoo, Ik Dong; Na, Sae Jung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ki Jun [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The authors analyzed how the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings of patients with major depression differ from the normal control, and our results were compared to previous reports. Twelve patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for major depression who were off all psychotropic medications for > 4 weeks (male: 7, female: 5, age range: 19approx52 years, average age: 29.3+-9.9 years) and 14 normal volunteers (male: 8, female: 6, age range: 19approx53 years, average age: 31.4+-9.2 years) were recruited. Images of brain perfusion SPECT were obtained using Tc-99m ECD and patterns of the rCBF were compared between patients with major depression and the healthy control subjects. The patients with major depression showed increase of the r-CBF in right lingual gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left precuneus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and showed decrease of r-CBF in right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus of left limbic lobe, cingulate gyrus of right frontal lobe, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe compared to the normal control. The Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT findings in our study did not differ from the previously reported regional cerebral blood flow pattern of patients with major depression. Especially, decreased rCBF pattern typical to major depression patients in the right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, and cingulate regions was clearly demonstrated

  7. Mitochondrial genes are altered in blood early in Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Lunnon, Katie; Keohane, Aoife; Pidsley, Ruth; Newhouse, Stephen; Riddoch-Contreras, Joanna; Thubron, Elisabeth B; Devall, Matthew; Soininen, Hikka; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Schalkwyk, Leonard; Dobson, Richard; Malik, Afshan N; Powell, John; Lovestone, Simon; Hodges, Angela


    Although mitochondrial dysfunction is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease in the brain and blood, the molecular mechanisms behind these phenomena are unknown. Here we have replicated our previous findings demonstrating reduced expression of nuclear-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits and subunits required for the translation of mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS genes in blood from people with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Interestingly this was accompanied by increased expression of some mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS genes, namely those residing closest to the transcription start site of the polycistronic heavy chain mitochondrial transcript (MT-ND1, MT-ND2, MT-ATP6, MT-CO1, MT-CO2, MT-C03) and MT-ND6 transcribed from the light chain. Further we show that mitochondrial DNA copy number was unchanged suggesting no change in steady-state numbers of mitochondria. We suggest that an imbalance in nuclear and mitochondrial genome-encoded OXPHOS transcripts may drive a negative feedback loop reducing mitochondrial translation and compromising OXPHOS efficiency, which is likely to generate damaging reactive oxygen species.

  8. The Indian blood group system. (United States)

    Xu, Q


    The Indian blood group system (ISBT: IN/023) consists of two antithetical antigens: In(a) (IN1), which is present in approximately 10 percent of some Arab populations and in 3 percent of Bombay Indians, and its allelic antigen In(b) (IN2), an antigen of high incidence in all populations. In 2007, two new high-incidence antigens were identified as belonging to the IN blood group system, namely IN3 (INFI) and IN4 (INJA). The antigens in this system are located on CD44, a single-pass membrane glycoprotein that is encoded by the CD44 gene on chromosome 11 at position p13. The biologic function of CD44 is as a leukocyte homing receptor and cellular adhesion molecule. The In(a) and In(b) polymorphism represents a 252G>C substitution of CD44, encoding R46P, and lack of IN3 and IN4 results from homozygosity for mutations encoding H85Q and T163R in the CD44 gene. The high-frequency antigen AnWj (901009) has not been assigned to the Indian system, but either is located on an isoform of CD44 or is closely associated with it.

  9. Long term alterations of blood plasma albumin in Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inta Kalnina


    Full Text Available Albumin is the most generously represented protein in human blood plasma. Therefore it is important to follow and assess the transport function of albumin in clinic researches. Disturbances in structural/functional properties of albumin play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases and immune state in patients. Changes in albumin transformation can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic criterion in pathologies. ABM (3-aminobenzanthrone derivative developed at the Daugavpils University, Latvia has been previously shown as a potential biomarker for determination of the immune state of patients with different pathologies. The aim of this study was to determine the several aspects of plasma albumin alterations in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers in long term period in relation with humans having no professional contact with radioactivity. The following parameters were examined: (1 spectral characteristics of ABM in blood plasma; (2 and #8216;effective and #8217; and total albumin (EA and TA concentration in blood plasma; (3 quantitative parameters of albumin auto-fluorescence; (4 albumin binding site characteristics. Screening of the individuals with a period of 25-26 years after the work in Chernobyl revealed two groups of patients differing in structural and functional albumin properties; first on conformations of plasma albumin, and second characteristics of tryptophanyl region of the molecule. The revealed structural modifications of albumin are dependent on radiation-induced factors. Concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus or cardio-vascular diseases reinforce radiation-induced effects. In conclusion, ABM is a sensitive probe for albumin alterations and can be used to elucidate the changes in protein systems. Significant differences in albumin dynamics exist between control (donors and groups of Chernobyl clean-up workers. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(3.000: 165-170

  10. Altered blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension turns to normal when portal pressure is lowered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco Eizayaga; Camila Scorticati; Juan P Prestifilippo; Salvador Romay; Maria A Fernandez; José L Castro; Abraham Lemberg; Juan C Perazzo


    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats induced by partial portal vein ligation, at 14 and 40 d after ligation when portal pressure is spontaneously normalized.METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group Ⅰ: Sham14d, sham operated; Group Ⅱ: PH14d, portal vein stenosis; (both groups were used 14 days after surgery); Group Ⅲ: Sham40d, Sham operated and Group Ⅳ: PH40d Portal vein stenosis (Groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ used 40 d after surgery). Plasma ammonia,plasma and cerebrospinal fluid protein and liver enzymes concentrations were determined. Trypan and Evans blue dyes, systemically injected, were investigated in hippocampus to study blood-brain barrier integrity. Portal pressure was periodically recorded.RESULTS: Forty days after stricture, portal pressure was normalized, plasma ammonia was moderately high,and both dyes were absent in central nervous system parenchyma. All other parameters were reestablished.When portal pressure was normalized and ammonia level was lowered, but not normal, the altered integrity of blood-brain barrier becomes reestablished.CONCLUSION: The impairment of blood-brain barrier and subsequent normalization could be a mechanism involved in hepatic encephalopathy reversibility. Hemodynamic changes and ammonia could trigger blood-brain barrier alterations and its reestablishment.

  11. Electrocardiographic and Blood Pressure Alterations During Electroconvulsive Therapy in Young Adults


    Rumi Demetrio Ortega; Solimene Maria Cecília; Takada Júlio Yoshio; Grupi César José; Giorgi Dante Marcelo; Rigonatti Sérgio Paulo; Luz Protásio Lemos da; Ramires José Antonio Franchini


    OBJECTIVE - To study cardiovascular alterations in young patients with no apparent organic disease who underwent electroconvulsive therapy. METHODS - The study comprised 47 healthy patients (22 males and 25 females) with a mean age of 30.3 years, who underwent electroconvulsive therapy. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous electrocardiographic monitoring (Holter monitor) were performed during 24 hours. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed 4 hours prior to electric shock ...

  12. Hyperammonemia,brain edema and blood-brain barrier alterations in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats and paravrtamol intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Camila Scorticati; Juan P. Prestifilippo; Francisco X. Eizayaga; José L. Castro; Salvador Romay; Maria A. Fernández; Abraham Lemberg; Juan C. Perazzo


    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity, brain edema,animal behavior and ammonia plasma levels in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats with and without acute liver intoxication.METHODS: Adults male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group Ⅰ: sham operation; Ⅱ: Prehepatic portal hypertension, produced by partial portal vein ligation; Ⅲ:Acetaminophen intoxication and Ⅳ: Prehepatic portal hypertension plus acetaminophen. Acetaminophen was administered to produce acute hepatic injury. Portal pressure, liver serum enzymes and ammonia plasma levels were determined. Brain cortex water content was registered and trypan blue was utilized to study blood brain barrier integrity. Reflexes and behavioral tests were recorded.RESULTS: Portal hypertension was significantly elevated in groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ. Liver enzymes and ammonia plasma levels were increased in groups Ⅱ, Ⅳ and Ⅳ. Prehepatic portal hypertension (group Ⅱ), acetaminophen intoxication (group Ⅲ) and both (group Ⅳ) had changes in the blood brain-barrier integrity (trypan blue) and hyperammonemia. Cortical edema was present in rats with acute hepatic injury in groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ. Behavioral test (rota rod) was altered in group Ⅳ.CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of another pathway for cortical edema production because blood brain barrier was altered (vasogenic) and hyperammonemia was registered (cytotoxic). Group Ⅳ, with behavioral altered test, can be considered as a model for study at an early stage of portal-systemic encephalopathy.

  13. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W


    cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other...... give more insight into the disease. Markers from the classical complement pathway are elevated where its initiator C1q appears to derive primarily from motor neurons. Activated microglia and astrocytes are found in close proximity to dying motor neurons. Their activation status and proliferation......Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...

  14. Glaucoma alters the circadian timing system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Drouyer

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a widespread ocular disease and major cause of blindness characterized by progressive, irreversible damage of the optic nerve. Although the degenerative loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC and visual deficits associated with glaucoma have been extensively studied, we hypothesize that glaucoma will also lead to alteration of the circadian timing system. Circadian and non-visual responses to light are mediated by a specialized subset of melanopsin expressing RGCs that provide photic input to mammalian endogenous clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. In order to explore the molecular, anatomical and functional consequences of glaucoma we used a rodent model of chronic ocular hypertension, a primary causal factor of the pathology. Quantitative analysis of retinal projections using sensitive anterograde tracing demonstrates a significant reduction (approximately 50-70% of RGC axon terminals in all visual and non-visual structures and notably in the SCN. The capacity of glaucomatous rats to entrain to light was challenged by exposure to successive shifts of the light dark (LD cycle associated with step-wise decreases in light intensity. Although glaucomatous rats are able to entrain their locomotor activity to the LD cycle at all light levels, they require more time to re-adjust to a shifted LD cycle and show significantly greater variability in activity onsets in comparison with normal rats. Quantitative PCR reveals the novel finding that melanopsin as well as rod and cone opsin mRNAs are significantly reduced in glaucomatous retinas. Our findings demonstrate that glaucoma impacts on all these aspects of the circadian timing system. In light of these results, the classical view of glaucoma as pathology unique to the visual system should be extended to include anatomical and functional alterations of the circadian timing system.

  15. Computational Hemodynamic Simulation of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity (United States)

    Kim. Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan


    A computational hemodynamics approach is presented to simulate the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Numerical techniques relevant to hemodynamics issues are introduced to non-Newtonian modeling for flow characteristics governed by red blood cells, distensible wall motion due to the heart pulse, and capillary bed modeling for outflow boundary conditions. Gravitational body force terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effects of gravity on internal flows. Six-type gravity benchmark problems are originally presented to provide the fundamental understanding of gravitational effects on the human circulatory system. For code validation, computed results are compared with steady and unsteady experimental data for non-Newtonian flows in a carotid bifurcation model and a curved circular tube, respectively. This computational approach is then applied to the blood circulation in the human brain as a target problem. A three-dimensional, idealized Circle of Willis configuration is developed with minor arteries truncated based on anatomical data. Demonstrated is not only the mechanism of the collateral circulation but also the effects of gravity on the distensible wall motion and resultant flow patterns.

  16. Possibility of enhanced risk of retinal neovascularization in repeated blood donors: blood donation and retinal alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastmanesh R


    Full Text Available Reza RastmaneshDepartment of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: Repeated blood donors manifest clinical, subclinical, and biochemical signs of iron deficiency anemia, have significantly higher erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF concentrations, and decreased tissue oxygen saturation, oxygenated tissue hemoglobin, and regional cerebral oxygen saturation. Erythropoietin and VEGF are potent retinal angiogenic factors which may initiate and promote the retinal angiogenesis process independently or simultaneously. Increases in circulating levels of erythropoietin and VEGF are proportionate to the levels of hematocrit, hypoxemia, and tissue hypoxia. It is suggested that higher erythropoietin production following iron deficiency anemia-induced chronic hypoxemia/hypoxia may, hypothetically, enhance the risk of retinal angiogenesis and/or neovascularization, possibly by inducing hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, which consequently upregulates genes stimulating angiogenesis, resulting in formation of a new vasculature, possibly by modulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling in the retina. Implications of this hypothesis cover erythropoietin doping, chronic hypoxia, and hypoxemic situations, such as angiogenesis-related cardiac and pulmonary diseases.Keywords: repeated blood donation, erythropoietin, retinal neovascularization, vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia

  17. Structural alterations of the retinal microcirculation in the "prehypertensive" high- normal blood pressure state. (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Buzzi, Silvia; Dell'Oro, Raffaella; Mineo, Claudia; Dimitriadis, Kyriakos; Seravalle, Gino; Lonati, Laura; Cuspidi, Cesare


    The high-normal blood pressure (also known as prehypertension) is a clinical condition characterized by an increased cardiovascular risk as well as by the presence of target organ damage. This include an increased left ventricular mass, an endothelial dysfunction and an early renal functional and structural damage. Whether this is the case also for alterations of retinal vessels network, which are frequently detectable in established hypertension, is still largey undefined. The present paper, after discussing the main characteristics of the high-normal blood pressure state, will review the different approaches used throughout the years for assessing retinal microcirculatory network. Data collected by our group in subjects with high normal blood pressure will be also discussed, showing that arterial venular ratio values are reduced in this individuals with high-normal blood pressure and more so in established hypertension. These data indicate that retinal microvascular alterations 1) are of early appearance in the clinical course of hypertension and 2) are of frequent detection in the high-normal blood pressure state. The possible hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic mechanisms resposible for these structural alteations of the retinal microcirculation will be also discussed.

  18. Altered heart rate and blood pressure variability in mice lacking the Mas protooncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Walther


    Full Text Available Heart rate variability is a relevant predictor of cardiovascular risk in humans. A significant genetic influence on heart rate variability is suggested, although the genes involved are ill-defined. The Mas-protooncogene encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane domains highly expressed in testis and brain. Since this receptor is supposed to interact with the signaling of angiotensin II, which is an important regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis, heart rate and blood pressure were analyzed in Mas-deficient mice. Using a femoral catheter the blood pressure of mice was measured for a period of 30 min and 250 data values per second were recorded. The mean values and range of heart rate and blood pressure were then calculated. Neither heart rate nor blood pressure were significantly different between knockout mice and controls. However, high resolution recording of these parameters and analysis of the data by non-linear dynamics revealed significant alterations in cardiovascular variability in Mas-deficient animals. In particular, females showed a strong reduction of heart rate variability. Furthermore, the data showed an increased sympathetic tone in knockout animals of both genders. The marked alterations detected in Mas-deficient mice of both genders suggest that the Mas-protooncogene is an important determinant of heart rate and blood pressure variability.

  19. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban R Fernández

    Full Text Available Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  20. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. (United States)

    Fernández, Esteban R; Olivera, Gabriela C; Quebrada Palacio, Luz P; González, Mariela N; Hernandez-Vasquez, Yolanda; Sirena, Natalia María; Morán, María L; Ledesma Patiño, Oscar S; Postan, Miriam


    Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  1. Altered lymphatics in an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow. (United States)

    Datar, Sanjeev A; Johnson, Eric G; Oishi, Peter E; Johengen, Michael; Tang, Eric; Aramburo, Angela; Barton, Jubilee; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Bennett, Stephen; Xoinis, Konstantine; Reel, Bhupinder; Kalkan, Gokhan; Sajti, Eniko; Osorio, Oscar; Raff, Gary W; Matthay, Michael A; Fineman, Jeffrey R


    Abnormalities of the lymphatic circulation are well recognized in patients with congenital heart defects. However, it is not known how the associated abnormal blood flow patterns, such as increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF), might affect pulmonary lymphatic function and structure. Using well-established ovine models of acute and chronic increases in PBF, we cannulated the efferent lymphatic duct of the caudal mediastinal node and collected and analyzed lymph effluent from the lungs of lambs with acutely increased PBF (n = 6), chronically increased PBF (n = 6), and age-matched normal lambs (n = 8). When normalized to PBF, we found that lymph flow was unchanged following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. The lymph:plasma protein ratio decreased with both acute and chronic increases in PBF. Lymph bioavailable nitric oxide increased following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. In addition, we found perturbations in the transit kinetics of contrast material through the pleural lymphatics of lambs with chronic increases in PBF. Finally, there were structural changes in the pulmonary lymphatic system in lambs with chronic increases in PBF: lymphatics from these lambs were larger and more dilated, and there were alterations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, and Angiopoietin-2, proteins known to be important for lymphatic growth, development, and remodeling. Taken together these data suggest that chronic increases in PBF lead to both functional and structural aberrations of lung lymphatics. These findings have important therapeutic implications that warrant further study.

  2. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  3. Blood as integral system of an organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Майя Розметовна Верголяс


    Full Text Available Relevance of use of hematological blood parameters for monitoring as markers of various physiological and pathological processes is substantiated. It is shown that the blood is an important system of the body, has all the reactive characteristics of tissues, its sensitivity to pathological stimuli is very high. The reaction of the organism to the irritation of toxic or infectious nature manifests itself in the change of quantitative composition of peripheral blood cells

  4. Beryllium alters lipopolysaccharide-mediated intracellular phosphorylation and cytokine release in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Silva, Shannon; Ganguly, Kumkum; Fresquez, Theresa M; Gupta, Goutam; McCleskey, T Mark; Chaudhary, Anu


    Beryllium exposure in susceptible individuals leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease, a lung disorder marked by release of inflammatory cytokine and granuloma formation. We have previously reported that beryllium induces an immune response even in blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. In this study, we investigate the effects of beryllium on lipopolysaccharide-mediated cytokine release in blood mononuclear and dendritic cells from healthy individuals. We found that in vitro treatment of beryllium sulfate inhibits the secretion of lipopolysaccharide-mediated interleukin 10, while the release of interleukin 1beta is enhanced. In addition, not all lipopolysaccharide-mediated responses are altered, as interleukin 6 release in unaffected upon beryllium treatment. Beryllium sulfate-treated cells show altered phosphotyrosine levels upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Significantly, beryllium inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transducer 3, induced by lipopolysaccharide. Finally, inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase mimic the effects of beryllium in inhibition of interleukin 10 release, while they have no effect on interleukin 1beta secretion. This study strongly suggests that prior exposures to beryllium could alter host immune responses to bacterial infections in healthy individuals, by altering intracellular signaling.

  5. Embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmud-Ul; Islam, Md. Kafiul; Shawon, Mehedi Azad; Nowrin, Tasnuva Faruk


    A more efficient newer algorithm of detecting systolic and diastolic pressure of human body along with a complete package of an effective user-friendly embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system has been proposed in this paper to reduce the overall workload of medical personals as well as to monitor patient's condition more conveniently and accurately. Available devices for measuring blood pressure have some problems and limitations in case of both analog and digital devices. The sphygmomanometer, being analog device, is still being used widely because of its reliability and accuracy over digital ones. But it requires a skilled person to measure the blood pressure and obviously not being automated as well as time consuming. Our proposed system being a microcontroller based embedded system has the advantages of the available digital blood pressure machines along with a much improved form and has higher accuracy at the same time. This system can also be interfaced with computer through serial port/USB to publish the measured blood pressure data on the LAN or internet. The device can be programmed to determine the patient's blood pressure after each certain interval of time in a graphical form. To sense the pressure of human body, a pressure to voltage transducer is used along with a cuff in our system. During the blood pressure measurement cycle, the output voltage of the transducer is taken by the built-in ADC of microcontroller after an amplifier stage. The recorded data are then processed and analyzed using the effective software routine to determine the blood pressure of the person under test. Our proposed system is thus expected to certainly enhance the existing blood pressure monitoring system by providing accuracy, time efficiency, user-friendliness and at last but not the least the 'better way of monitoring patient's blood pressure under critical care' all together at the same time.

  6. Altered ATP-sensitive potassium channels may underscore obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hong FAN; Hong-yan TIAN; Ai-qun MA; Zhi HU; Jian-hua HUO; Yong-xiao CAO


    Aim:To determine whether ATP-sensitive potassium channels are altered in VSMC from arotas and mesenteric arteries of obese rat,and their association with obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure.Methods:Obesity was induced by 24 weeks of high-fat diet feeding in male Sprague-Dawley rats.Control rats were fed with standard laboratory rat chow.Blood pressure and body weight of these rats were measured every 4 weeks.At the end of 24 weeks,KATP channel-mediated relaxation responses in the aortas and mesenteric arteries,KATP channel current,and gene expression were examined,respectively.Results:Blood pres-sure and body weight were increased in rats fed with high-fat diet.KATP channel-mediated relaxation responses,currents,and KATP expression in VSMC of both aortas and mesenteric arteries were inhibited in these rats.Conclusion:Altered ATP-sensitive potassium channels in obese rats may underscore obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure.

  7. Study on animals‘ femur blood flow alteration under inadequate decompression with 133Xe isotope washout method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuShao-Ning; TiaoWu-Xun; 等


    Animals' regional femur blood(F) alteration was studied under an inadequate decompression by using the inhaled isotope 133Xe washout method.Results showed that the average F on left and right side of minipigs' femur decreased from 15.4±1.8 and 16.9±2.0mg/(100g.min)(before exposure)to 10±1.8and 11.1±1.6mg(100mg.min)(after expposure for 1.5h under the pressure of 0.5 MPa and then decompression to normal with the rate of 0.03-0.04MPa/min)respectively;the blood flow of hematopoietic marrow tissues(f1) on both sides also decreased from 19.3±2.0 and 22.1±1.9ml(100mg.min)to 13.9±1.4 and 13.8±1.0ml(100mg.min).The exact same alteration also happened in the experiment on New Zealand rabbits.It indicates that inadequate decompression in hyperbaric exposure can give rise to decrease animals' one blood flow and insufficient bone blood supply serves as one of the reasons for causing decompressive osteonecrosis.

  8. Electrocardiographic and Blood Pressure Alterations During Electroconvulsive Therapy in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Demetrio Ortega


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To study cardiovascular alterations in young patients with no apparent organic disease who underwent electroconvulsive therapy. METHODS - The study comprised 47 healthy patients (22 males and 25 females with a mean age of 30.3 years, who underwent electroconvulsive therapy. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous electrocardiographic monitoring (Holter monitor were performed during 24 hours. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed 4 hours prior to electric shock administration, during electric shock administration, and 3 hours after electric shock administration. Arrhythmias and alterations in the ST segment in 24 hours were recorded. RESULTS - On electroconvulsive therapy, a significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate was observed and the measurements returned to basal values after 25 minutes. Three females had tracings with depression of the ST segment suggesting myocardial ischemia prior to and after electroconvulsive therapy. Coronary angiography was normal. No severe cardiac arrhythmias were diagnosed. CONCLUSION - 1 Electroconvulsive therapy is a safe therapeutic modality in psychiatry; 2 it causes a significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate; 3 it may be associated with myocardial ischemia in the absence of coronary obstructive disease; 4 electroconvulsive therapy was not associated with the occurrence of severe cardiac arrhythmias.

  9. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System


    Olusanya, Micheal O.; Arasomwan, Martins A.; Aderemi O. Adewumi


    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients’ blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessi...

  10. Blood monitoring systems and methods thereof (United States)

    Mir, Jose (Inventor); Zander, Dennis (Inventor)


    A blood monitoring system is capable of monitoring the blood of a subject in vivo. The blood monitoring system comprises: 1) an array of movable microneedle micromachined within associated wells; 2) array of motion actuators able to move each needle in and out of their associated wells; 3) array of microvalves associated with each microneedle able to control the flow of air around the microneedle; 4) an array of chemical sensors inserted into patient by movable microneedles; 5) an array of inductors able to measure chemical concentration in the vicinity of inserted chemical sensors; 6) conducting vias that provide timed actuating signal signals from a control system to each motion actuator; 7) conducting vias that transmit signal produced by array of chemical sensors to the control system for processing, although the blood monitoring system can comprise other numbers and types of elements in other configurations.

  11. Altered expression of adhesion molecules on peripheral blood leukocytes in feline infectious peritonitis. (United States)

    Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J


    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, coronavirus-induced systemic disease in domestic and wild felids. The pathology associated with FIP (multifocal granulomatous vasculitis) is considered to be elicited by exaggerated activation and subsequent extravasation of leukocytes. As changes in the expression of adhesion molecules on circulating leukocytes precede their margination and emigration, we reasoned that the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules may be altered in FIP. In present study, the expression of principal adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte transmigration (CD15s, CD11a, CD11b, CD18, CD49d, and CD54) on peripheral blood leukocytes from cats with naturally occurring FIP (n=15) and controls (n=12) was quantified by flow cytometry using a formaldehyde-based rapid leukocyte preparation technique. T- and B-lymphocytes from FIP patients exhibit higher expression of both subunits (CD11a and CD18) composing the β2 integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1. In addition, the expression of the α4 subunit (CD49d) of the β1 integrin very late antigen (VLA)-4 was elevated on B-lymphocytes from FIP patients. The expression of CD11b and CD18, that combine to form the β2 integrin macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1), was elevated on monocytes, whereas the density of CD49d was reduced on this population in FIP. Granulocytes of FIP cats displayed an increased expression of the α chain of Mac-1 (CD11b). These observations suggest that leukocytes from FIP patients show signs of systemic activation causing them to extravasate into surrounding tissues and ultimately contribute to pyogranuloma formation seen in FIP.

  12. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  13. Pro-inflammatory alterations and status of blood plasma iron in a model of blast-induced lung trauma. (United States)

    Gorbunov, N V; McFaul, S J; Januszkiewicz, A; Atkins, J L


    . These effects were accompanied by an increase in expression of CD11b on the surface membrane of PMNs. Extensive release of cytokines IL-1, IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-2 was observed in BAL fluid and blood plasma during 24 h postexposure. We conclude that EPR monitoring of blood (Fe3+)TRF can be a useful approach for assessment of systemic pro-inflammatory alterations due to SW-induced lung injury.

  14. Disodium cromoglycate, a mast-cell stabilizer, alters postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Pautler, E.L.; Hampton, J.D.


    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure, and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with systemic hypotension and a dramatic release of mast-cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomena and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or BRL 22321 before exposure to 100 Gy whole-body gamma radiation. Hypothalamic and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. The data indicated that DSCG was successful in diminishing postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow. Irradiated animals pretreated with DSCG, showed only a 10% decrease in hypothalamic blood flow 60 min postradiation, while untreated, irradiated animals showed a 57% decrease. The cortical blood flow of DSCG treated, irradiated animals showed a triphasic response, with a decrease of 38% at 10 min postradiation, then a rise to 1% below baseline at 20 min, followed by a fall to 42% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. In contrast, the untreated, irradiated animals showed a steady decrease in cortical blood flow to 79% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. There was no significant difference in blood-pressure response between the treated and untreated, irradiated animals. Systemic blood pressure showed a 60% decrease at 10 min postradiation, falling to a 71% decrease by 60 min.

  15. Alterations of the Thioredoxin System by Hyperoxia (United States)

    Tipple, Trent E.; Welty, Stephen E.; Nelin, Leif D.; Hansen, Jason M.; Rogers, Lynette K.


    Alterations in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contribute to alveolar simplification seen in animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and VEGF expression is redox regulated by thioredoxin (Trx)-1 in other diseases. The present studies tested the hypothesis that exposure to 85% O2 negatively impacts the Trx1 system and VEGF expression in the lungs of newborn mice. There was no effect of fraction of inspired oxygen on lung Trx1 or Trx reductase-1 protein levels; however, lung Trx1 protein was predominantly oxidized in the lungs of newborn mice exposed to 85% O2 by 24 hours of exposure. In room air (RA), lung Trx interacting protein (Txnip) levels decreased developmentally through Day 7 (1.0 ± 0.06 [Day 1] vs. 0.49 ± 0.10 [Day 3] vs. 0.29 ± 0.03 [Day 7]; P < 0.01), whereas VEGF expression increased (1.25 ± 0.16 [Day 1] vs. 4.35 ± 1.51 [Day 3] vs. 13.23 ± 0.37 [Day 7]; P < 0.01). Newborn mice exposed to 85% O2 had no developmental decrease in Txnip protein levels and a delayed increase in VEGF protein levels. Lung Txnip and VEGF protein levels were different than in corresponding RA controls at Day 3, before the detection of lung morphologic abnormalities in our model. Txnip and VEGF protein levels were inversely correlated in both the RA and hyperoxia-exposed groups (n = 18; R = −0.66; P = 0.003). In conclusion, oxidation of Trx1 and sustained Txnip expression in the lungs of newborn mice exposed to 85% oxygen is likely to severely attenuate normal Trx1 function. The inverse correlation of Txnip with VEGF expression suggests that decreased Trx1 function contributes to the observed lung developmental abnormalities. PMID:19244202

  16. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract.

  17. One System for Blood Program Information Management


    Gero, Michael G.; Klickstein, Judith S.; Hurst, Timm M.


    A system which integrates the diverse functions of a Blood Program within one structure is being assembled at the American National Red Cross Blood Services, Northeast Region. When finished, it will provide technical support for collection scheduling, donor recruitment, recordkeeping, laboratory processing, inventory management, HLA typing and matching, distribution, and administration within the Program. By linking these applications, a reporting structure useful to top management will be pr...

  18. Altered Cytokine Production By Specific Human Peripheral Blood Cell Subsets Immediately Following Spaceflight (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Cubbage, Michael L.; Sams, Clarence F.


    In this study, we have attempted to combine standard immunological assays with the cellular resolving power of the flow cytometer to positively identify the specific cell types involved in spaceflight-induced immune alterations. We have obtained whole blood samples from 27 astronauts collected at three timepoints (L-10, R+0 and R+3) surrounding four recent space shuttle missions. The duration of these missions ranged from 10 to 18 days. Assays performed included serum/urine cortisol, comprehensive subset phenotyping, assessment of cellular activation markers and intracellular cytokine production following mitogenic stimulation. Absolute levels of peripheral granulocytes were significantly elevated following spaceflight, but the levels of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes were unchanged. Lymphocyte subset analysis demonstrated trends towards a decreased percentage of T cells and an increased percentage of B cells. Nearly all of the astronauts exhibited an increased CD4:CD8 ratio, which was dramatic in some individuals. Assessment of memory (CD45RA+) vs. naive (CD45RO+) CD4+ T cell subsets was more ambiguous, with subjects tending to group more as a flight crew. All subjects from one mission demonstrated an increased CD45RA:CD45RO ratio, while all subjects from another Mission demonstrated a decreased ratio. While no significant trend was seen in the monocyte population as defined by scatter, a decreased percentage of the CD14+ CD16+ monocyte subset was seen following spaceflight in all subjects tested. In general, most of the cellular changes described above which were assessed at R+O and compared to L-10 trended to pre-flight levels by R+3. Although no significant differences were seen in the expression of the cellular activation markers CD69 and CD25 following exposure to microgravity, significant alterations were seen in cytokine production in response to mitogenic activation for specific subsets. T cell (CD3+) production of IL-2 was significantly decreased

  19. IBCIS:Intelligent blood cell identification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adnan Khashman


    The analysis of blood cells in microscope images can provide useful information concerning the health of patients.There are three major blood cell types,namely,erythrocytes (red),leukocytes (white),and platelets.Manual classification is time consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells.This paper presents an intelligent system that simulates a human visual inspection and classification of the three blood cell types.The proposed system comprises two phases:The image preprocessing phase where blood cell features are extracted via global pattern averaging,and the neural network arbitration phase where training is the first and then classification is carried out.Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well in identifying blood cell types regardless of their irregular shapes,sizes and orientation,thus providing a fast,simple and efficient rotational and scale invariant blood cell identification system which can be used in automating laboratory reporting.

  20. Altered gene expression in schizophrenia: findings from transcriptional signatures in fibroblasts and blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cattane

    Full Text Available Whole-genome expression studies in the peripheral tissues of patients affected by schizophrenia (SCZ can provide new insight into the molecular basis of the disorder and innovative biomarkers that may be of great utility in clinical practice. Recent evidence suggests that skin fibroblasts could represent a non-neural peripheral model useful for investigating molecular alterations in psychiatric disorders.A microarray expression study was conducted comparing skin fibroblast transcriptomic profiles from 20 SCZ patients and 20 controls. All genes strongly differentially expressed were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR in fibroblasts and analyzed in a sample of peripheral blood cell (PBC RNA from patients (n = 25 and controls (n = 22. To evaluate the specificity for SCZ, alterations in gene expression were tested in additional samples of fibroblasts and PBCs RNA from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD (n = 16; n = 21, respectively and Bipolar Disorder (BD patients (n = 15; n = 20, respectively.Six genes (JUN, HIST2H2BE, FOSB, FOS, EGR1, TCF4 were significantly upregulated in SCZ compared to control fibroblasts. In blood, an increase in expression levels was confirmed only for EGR1, whereas JUN was downregulated; no significant differences were observed for the other genes. EGR1 upregulation was specific for SCZ compared to MDD and BD.Our study reports the upregulation of JUN, HIST2H2BE, FOSB, FOS, EGR1 and TCF4 in the fibroblasts of SCZ patients. A significant alteration in EGR1 expression is also present in SCZ PBCs compared to controls and to MDD and BD patients, suggesting that this gene could be a specific biomarker helpful in the differential diagnosis of major psychoses.

  1. Altered Gene Expression in Schizophrenia: Findings from Transcriptional Signatures in Fibroblasts and Blood (United States)

    Cattane, Nadia; Minelli, Alessandra; Milanesi, Elena; Maj, Carlo; Bignotti, Stefano; Bortolomasi, Marco; Chiavetto, Luisella Bocchio; Gennarelli, Massimo


    Background Whole-genome expression studies in the peripheral tissues of patients affected by schizophrenia (SCZ) can provide new insight into the molecular basis of the disorder and innovative biomarkers that may be of great utility in clinical practice. Recent evidence suggests that skin fibroblasts could represent a non-neural peripheral model useful for investigating molecular alterations in psychiatric disorders. Methods A microarray expression study was conducted comparing skin fibroblast transcriptomic profiles from 20 SCZ patients and 20 controls. All genes strongly differentially expressed were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in fibroblasts and analyzed in a sample of peripheral blood cell (PBC) RNA from patients (n = 25) and controls (n = 22). To evaluate the specificity for SCZ, alterations in gene expression were tested in additional samples of fibroblasts and PBCs RNA from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (n = 16; n = 21, respectively) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) patients (n = 15; n = 20, respectively). Results Six genes (JUN, HIST2H2BE, FOSB, FOS, EGR1, TCF4) were significantly upregulated in SCZ compared to control fibroblasts. In blood, an increase in expression levels was confirmed only for EGR1, whereas JUN was downregulated; no significant differences were observed for the other genes. EGR1 upregulation was specific for SCZ compared to MDD and BD. Conclusions Our study reports the upregulation of JUN, HIST2H2BE, FOSB, FOS, EGR1 and TCF4 in the fibroblasts of SCZ patients. A significant alteration in EGR1 expression is also present in SCZ PBCs compared to controls and to MDD and BD patients, suggesting that this gene could be a specific biomarker helpful in the differential diagnosis of major psychoses. PMID:25658856

  2. Influence of carbonyl stress on rheological alterations of blood materials and decarbonylation effect of glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭密军; 蔡建光; 贺洪; 龚萍; 李国林; 汤婷; 朱泽瑞; 印大中


    The effects of various toxic carbonyls such as malondialdehyde(MDA),a secondary product of lipid peroxidation,and other aldehydes on rheological parameters and their relationship with aging-associated alterations were studied.Both MDA and glutaraldehyde(Glu) in different concentrations significantly increase viscosity,plastic viscosity and yield stress of human plasma and erythrocyte suspensions.MDA(20 mmol/L) reduces sharply the typical fluorescence of proteins(excitation 280 nm/emission 350 nm),and produces age pigment-like fluorescence with a strong emission peak at 460 nm when excites at 395 nm by only being incubated for some hours.In contrast,Glu decreases merely the fluorescence of proteins without producing age pigment-like fluorescence.These data suggest interestingly that the MDA-induced gradual protein cross linking seems to form from different mechanisms compared to the fast rheological changes of blood materials which may take place either in acute and chronic diseases or during aging.On the other hand,MDA induces various deleterious alterations of erythrocytes whereas glutathione(GSH) inhibits the MDA-related carbonyl stress in a concentration-dependent manner.The results indicate that carbonyl-amino reaction exists in the blood widely and GSH has the ability to interrupt or reverse this reaction in a certain way.It implies that carbonyl stress may be one of the important factors in blood stasis and suggests a theoretical and practical approach in anti-stresses and anti-aging.

  3. [Blood system peculiarities in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) under chronic environmental pollution]. (United States)

    Tarakhtiĭ, É A; Mukhacheva, S V


    The parameters of peripheral blood and hemopoietic organs in mature and immature bank voles inhabiting a chemically polluted area were studied. Variability of the blood system parameters depending on the level of toxic load and the animals' reproductive status was determined. Alteration of the cell composition of erythrocytes and leucocytes, the structure of erythrocytes, and the hemoglobin fractions and leucocyte functions describe the adaptive response to the factors of a changed environment more than the concentration of leucocytes, erythrocytes, and blood hemoglobin.

  4. Air pollution exposure during critical time periods in gestation and alterations in cord blood lymphocyte distribution: a cohort of livebirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herr Caroline EW


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic exposures have been shown to influence maturation of the immune system during gestation. This study investigates the association between cord blood lymphocyte proportions and maternal exposure to air pollution during each gestational month. Methods Cord blood was analyzed using a FACSort flow cytometer to determine proportions of T lymphocytes (CD3+ cells and their subsets, CD4+ and CD8+, B lymphocytes (CD19+ and natural killer (NK cells. Ambient air concentrations of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and particulate matter 2.5 were measured using fixed site monitors. Arithmetic means of these pollutants, calculated for each gestational month, were used as exposure metrics. Data on covariates were obtained from medical records and questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate associations between monthly PAH or PM2.5 and cord blood lymphocytes, adjusting for year of birth and district of residence and, in further models, gestational season and number of prior live births. Results The adjusted models show significant associations between PAHs or PM2.5 during early gestation and increases in CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes percentages and decreases in CD19+ and NK cell percentages in cord blood. In contrast, exposures during late gestation were associated with decreases in CD3+ and CD4+ fractions and increases in CD19+ and NK cell fractions. There was no significant association between alterations in lymphocyte distribution and air pollution exposure during the mid gestation. Conclusions PAHs and PM2.5 in ambient air may influence fetal immune development via shifts in cord blood lymphocytes distributions. Associations appear to differ by exposure in early versus late gestation.

  5. Automated microscopy system for peripheral blood cells (United States)

    Boev, Sergei F.; Sazonov, Vladimir V.; Kozinets, Gennady I.; Pogorelov, Valery M.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Korobova, Farida V.; Vinogradov, Alexander G.; Verdenskaya, Natalya V.; Ivanova, Irina A.


    The report describes the instrument ASPBS (Automated Screening of Peripheral Blood Cells) designed for an automated analysis of dry blood smears. The instrument is based on computer microscopy and uses dry blood smears prepared according to the standard Romanovskii-Giemza procedure. In comparison with the well-known flow cytometry systems, our instrument provides more detailed information and offers an opporunity of visualizing final results. The basic performances of the instrument are given. Software of this instrument is based on digital image processing and image recognition procedures. It is pointed out that the instrument can be used as a fairly universal tool in scientific research, public demonstrations, in medical treatment, and in medical education. The principle used as the basis of the instrument appeared adequate for creating an instrument version serviceable even during space flights where standard manual procedures and flow cytometry systems fail. The benefit of the use of the instrument in clinical laboratories is described.

  6. An extract of a formula used in the traditional chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan) alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giani, Tania Santos; Paoli, Severo de; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail:; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Maiworm, Adalgisa Ieda; Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica


    Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong) is a medicinal herb widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat the digestive and circulatory systems. Red blood cell and plasma proteins labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an aqueous Buzhong extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc. Heparinized blood (Wistar rats) was incubated in vitro with different Buzhong extract concentrations and {sup 99m}Tc-labeling was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) fractions were isolated. The radioactivity on blood constituents was determined and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Buzhong extract at the highest concentrations used altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI in blood constituents. Substances present in the Buzhong extract could alter the cellular membrane and/or generation of free radicals that have oxidant properties modifying the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc. (author)

  7. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik


    and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...... in patients with either class B or class C. Conversely, the noncentral blood volume increased in patients with class B and C. In both patients and controls, the cardiac output increased and the systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis...

  8. Blood DNA methylation pattern is altered in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (United States)

    Long, Hong-Yu; Feng, Li; Kang, Jin; Luo, Zhao-Hui; Xiao, Wen-Biao; Long, Li-Li; Yan, Xiao-Xin; Zhou, Luo; Xiao, Bo


    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a common epileptic disorder; little is known whether it is associated with peripheral epigenetic changes. Here we compared blood whole genomic DNA methylation pattern in MTLE patients (n = 30) relative to controls (n = 30) with the Human Methylation 450 K BeadChip assay, and explored genes and pathways that were differentially methylated using bioinformatics profiling. The MTLE and control groups showed significantly different (P drug metabolism, with the most distinct ones included SLC34A2, CLCN6, CLCA4, CYP3A43, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9. Among the MTLE patients, panels of genes also appeared to be differentially methylated relative to disease duration, resistance to anti-epileptics and MRI alterations of hippocampal sclerosis. The peripheral epigenetic changes observed in MTLE could be involved in certain disease-related modulations and warrant further translational investigations. PMID:28276448

  9. Apoptosis and morphological alterations after UVA irradiation in red blood cells of p53 deficient Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). (United States)

    Sayed, Alla El-Din Hamid; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi


    Morphological alterations in red blood cells were described as hematological bioindicators of UVA exposure to investigate the sensitivity to UVA in wild type Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and a p53 deficient mutant. The fewer abnormal red blood cells were observed in the p53 mutant fish under the control conditions. After exposure to different doses of UVA radiation (15min, 30min and 60min/day for 3days), cellular and nuclear alterations in red blood cells were analyzed in the UVA exposed fish compared with non-exposed controls and those alterations included acanthocytes, cell membrane lysis, swollen cells, teardrop-like cell, hemolyzed cells and sickle cells. Those alterations were increased after the UVA exposure both in wild type and the p53 deficient fish. Moreover, apoptosis analyzed by acridine orange assay showed increased number of apoptosis in red blood cells at the higher UVA exposure dose. No micronuclei but nuclear abnormalities as eccentric nucleus, nuclear budding, deformed nucleus, and bilobed nucleus were observed in each group. These results suggested that UVA exposure induced both p53 dependent and independent apoptosis and morphological alterations in red blood cells but less sensitive to UVA than Wild type in medaka fish.

  10. Altered anterior visual system development following early monocular enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista R. Kelly


    Conclusions: The novel finding of an asymmetry in morphology of the anterior visual system following long-term survival from early monocular enucleation indicates altered postnatal visual development. Possible mechanisms behind this altered development include recruitment of deafferented cells by crossing nasal fibres and/or geniculate cell retention via feedback from primary visual cortex. These data highlight the importance of balanced binocular input during postnatal maturation for typical anterior visual system morphology.

  11. Peripheral whole blood microRNA alterations in major depression and bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Cattaneo, Annamaria; Rosso, Gianluca; Maina, Giuseppe; Maj, Carlo; Gennarelli, Massimo; Tardito, Daniela; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella


    Major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are severe and potentially life-threating mood disorders whose etiology is to date not completely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate protein synthesis post-transcriptionally by base-pairing to target gene mRNAs. Growing evidence indicated that miRNAs might play a key role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders and in the action of psychotropic drugs. On these bases, in this study we evaluated the expression levels of 1733 mature miRNAs annotated in miRBase v.17, through a microarray technique, in the blood of 20 MD and 20 BD patients and 20 healthy controls, in order to identify putative miRNA signatures associated with mood disorders. We found that 5 miRNAs (hsa-let-7a-5p, hsa-let-7d-5p, hsa-let-7f-5p, hsa-miR-24-3p and hsa-miR-425-3p) were specifically altered in MD patients and 5 (hsa-miR-140-3p, hsa-miR-30d-5p, hsa-miR-330-5p, hsa-miR-378a-5p and hsa-miR-21-3p) in BD patients, whereas 2 miRNAs (hsa-miR-330-3p and hsa-miR-345-5p) were dysregulated in both the diseases. The bioinformatic prediction of the genes targeted by the altered miRNAs revealed the possible involvement of neural pathways relevant for psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, the observed results indicate a dysregulation of miRNA blood expression in mood disorders and could indicate new avenues for a better understanding of their pathogenetic mechanisms. The identified alterations may represent potential peripheral biomarkers to be complemented with other clinical and biological features for the improvement of diagnostic accuracy.

  12. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)


    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  13. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Bitencourt


    Full Text Available Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3, propylthiouracil (PTU or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4 levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg. Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01. In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32% were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  14. Blood gene expression profiles suggest altered immune function associated with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. (United States)

    Wingo, Aliza P; Gibson, Greg


    Prospective epidemiological studies found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can impair immune function and increase risk for cardiovascular disease or events. Mechanisms underlying the physiological reverberations of anxiety, however, are still elusive. Hence, we aimed to investigate molecular processes mediating effects of anxiety on physical health using blood gene expression profiles of 336 community participants (157 anxious and 179 control). We examined genome-wide differential gene expression in anxiety, as well as associations between nine major modules of co-regulated transcripts in blood gene expression and anxiety. No significant differential expression was observed in women, but 631 genes were differentially expressed between anxious and control men at the false discovery rate of 0.1 after controlling for age, body mass index, race, and batch effect. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that genes with altered expression levels in anxious men were involved in response of various immune cells to vaccination and to acute viral and bacterial infection, and in a metabolic network affecting traits of metabolic syndrome. Further, we found one set of 260 co-regulated genes to be significantly associated with anxiety in men after controlling for the relevant covariates, and demonstrate its equivalence to a component of the stress-related conserved transcriptional response to adversity profile. Taken together, our results suggest potential molecular pathways that can explain negative effects of GAD observed in epidemiological studies. Remarkably, even mild anxiety, which most of our participants had, was associated with observable changes in immune-related gene expression levels. Our findings generate hypotheses and provide incremental insights into molecular mechanisms mediating negative physiological effects of GAD.

  15. Biological effects of the electrostatic field: red blood cell-related alterations of oxidative processes in blood (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Hayk A.; Sahakyan, Gohar V.


    The aim of this study was to determine activities of pro-/antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids in red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma of rats exposed to electrostatic field (200 kV/m) during the short (1 h) and the long periods (6 day, 6 h daily). Short-term exposure was characterized by the increase of oxidatively damaged proteins in blood of rats. This was strongly expressed in RBC membranes. After long-term action, RBC content in peripheral blood was higher than in control ( P < 0.01) and the attenuation of prooxidant processes was shown.


    Pruidze, N; Khetsuriani, R; Sujashvili, R; Ioramashvili, I; Arabuli, M; Sanikidze, T


    disorders of protein-protein interaction mechanisms, their ubiquitinylation or oligomerisation and formation of high molecular weight complexes of inactivated proteins in aged RBCs. These processes play important role in regulation of the RBCs shape and stability. Identified sex- and age-related alterations in RBCs membranes proteins affect the rheological properties of blood and can be considered as the etiologic and pathogenic markers of various diseases.

  17. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz-Rua, Ruben


    Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases.

  18. Blood-Brain Barrier Alterations Provide Evidence of Subacute Diaschisis in an Ischemic Stroke Rat Model (United States)

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Rodrigues, Maria C. O.; Hernandez-Ontiveros, Diana G.; Tajiri, Naoki; Frisina-Deyo, Aric; Boffeli, Sean M.; Abraham, Jerry V.; Pabon, Mibel; Wagner, Andrew; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Haller, Edward; Sanberg, Paul R.; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesario V.


    Background Comprehensive stroke studies reveal diaschisis, a loss of function due to pathological deficits in brain areas remote from initial ischemic lesion. However, blood-brain barrier (BBB) competence in subacute diaschisis is uncertain. The present study investigated subacute diaschisis in a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Specific focuses were BBB integrity and related pathogenic processes in contralateral brain areas. Methodology/Principal Findings In ipsilateral hemisphere 7 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), significant BBB alterations characterized by large Evans Blue (EB) parenchymal extravasation, autophagosome accumulation, increased reactive astrocytes and activated microglia, demyelinization, and neuronal damage were detected in the striatum, motor and somatosensory cortices. Vascular damage identified by ultrastuctural and immunohistochemical analyses also occurred in the contralateral hemisphere. In contralateral striatum and motor cortex, major ultrastructural BBB changes included: swollen and vacuolated endothelial cells containing numerous autophagosomes, pericyte degeneration, and perivascular edema. Additionally, prominent EB extravasation, increased endothelial autophagosome formation, rampant astrogliosis, activated microglia, widespread neuronal pyknosis and decreased myelin were observed in contralateral striatum, and motor and somatosensory cortices. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate focal ischemic stroke-induced pathological disturbances in ipsilateral, as well as in contralateral brain areas, which were shown to be closely associated with BBB breakdown in remote brain microvessels and endothelial autophagosome accumulation. This microvascular damage in subacute phase likely revealed ischemic diaschisis and should be considered in development of treatment strategies for stroke. PMID:23675488

  19. Blood-brain barrier alterations provide evidence of subacute diaschisis in an ischemic stroke rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comprehensive stroke studies reveal diaschisis, a loss of function due to pathological deficits in brain areas remote from initial ischemic lesion. However, blood-brain barrier (BBB competence in subacute diaschisis is uncertain. The present study investigated subacute diaschisis in a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Specific focuses were BBB integrity and related pathogenic processes in contralateral brain areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In ipsilateral hemisphere 7 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO, significant BBB alterations characterized by large Evans Blue (EB parenchymal extravasation, autophagosome accumulation, increased reactive astrocytes and activated microglia, demyelinization, and neuronal damage were detected in the striatum, motor and somatosensory cortices. Vascular damage identified by ultrastuctural and immunohistochemical analyses also occurred in the contralateral hemisphere. In contralateral striatum and motor cortex, major ultrastructural BBB changes included: swollen and vacuolated endothelial cells containing numerous autophagosomes, pericyte degeneration, and perivascular edema. Additionally, prominent EB extravasation, increased endothelial autophagosome formation, rampant astrogliosis, activated microglia, widespread neuronal pyknosis and decreased myelin were observed in contralateral striatum, and motor and somatosensory cortices. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate focal ischemic stroke-induced pathological disturbances in ipsilateral, as well as in contralateral brain areas, which were shown to be closely associated with BBB breakdown in remote brain microvessels and endothelial autophagosome accumulation. This microvascular damage in subacute phase likely revealed ischemic diaschisis and should be considered in development of treatment strategies for stroke.

  20. Alteration of Blood Parameters and Histoarchitecture of Liver and Kidney of Silver Barb after Chronic Exposure to Quinalphos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Mohammod Mostakim


    Full Text Available Quinalphos (QP is commonly used for pest control in the agricultural fields surrounding freshwater reservoirs. This study was conducted to evaluate the chronic toxicity of this pesticide on blood parameters and some organs of silver barb, Barbonymus gonionotus. Fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations, 0.47 ppm and 0.94 ppm, of QP for a period of 28 days. All the blood parameters (red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin and blood glucose except for white blood cells decreased with increasing concentration of toxicant and become significantly lower (p<0.05 at higher concentration when compared with control. The derived hematological indices of mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were equally altered compared to control. Histoarchitectural changes of liver and kidney were observed after exposure to the QP. Hypertrophy of hepatocytes, mild to severe necrosis, ruptured central vein, and vacuolation were observed in the liver of treated groups. Highly degenerated kidney tubules and hematopoietic tissue, degeneration of renal corpuscle, vacuolization, and necrosis were evident in the kidney of treated groups. In conclusion, chronic exposure to QP at sublethal concentrations induced hematological and histological alterations in silver barb and offers a simple tool to evaluate toxicity derived alterations.

  1. [An integrated system of blood pressure measurement with bluetooth communication]. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hongyang; Xu, Zuyang; Chai, Xinyu


    The development of the integrated blood pressure system with bluetooth communication function is introduced. Experimental results show that the system can complete blood pressure measurement and data transmission wireless effectively, which can be used in m-Health in future.

  2. Ultrasound systems for blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Medical ultrasound scanners can be used both for displayinggray-scale images of the anatomy and for visualizing theblood flow dynamically in the body.The systems can interrogate the flow at a single position in the bodyand there find the velocity distribution over time. They can also show adynamic...... color image of velocity at up to 20 to 60 frames a second. Both measurements are performedby repeatedly pulsing in the same direction and then usethe correlation from pulse to pulse to determine the velocity.The paper gives a simple model for the interactionbetween the ultrasound and the moving blood...

  3. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems. (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R


    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pretreatment with D1 -like (SCH-23380) or D2 -like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A decision support system for quantitative measurement of operational efficiency in a blood collection facility. (United States)

    Kros, John F; Yim Pang, Robyn


    A decision support system (DSS) is presented that allows users to input, analyze, and output data derived from blood banking operations. The DSS developed is a hybrid system that is both data and model driven. The system provides information, models, and data manipulation tools to assist users in the quantitative measurement of the operational efficiency in a blood collection facility. A relational database was developed to address the four major variables, which impact the cost per unit of blood being collected. Using visual basic, a user interface and mathematical model were developed establishing the relationships to analyze cost per unit of collected blood. Using inputs from users and historical financial data, the DSS calculates the cost per unit as each of the major variables is altered. Real life situations by the mobile operations team at a blood collection facility were used to test the DSS.

  5. Particle swarm optimization algorithm for optimizing assignment of blood in blood banking system. (United States)

    Olusanya, Micheal O; Arasomwan, Martins A; Adewumi, Aderemi O


    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients' blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP) introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment.

  6. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheal O. Olusanya


    Full Text Available This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO for the assignment of blood to meet patients’ blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment.

  7. Controlled meal frequency without caloric restriction alters peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF improves healthy lifespan in animals by a mechanism involving reduced oxidative damage and increased resistance to stress. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of controlled meal frequency on immune responses in human subjects. Objective A study was conducted to establish the effects of controlled diets with different meal frequencies, but similar daily energy intakes, on cytokine production in healthy male and female subjects. Design In a crossover study design with an intervening washout period, healthy normal weight middle-age male and female subjects (n = 15 were maintained for 2 months on controlled on-site one meal per day (OMD or three meals per day (TMD isocaloric diets. Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs culture supernatants from subjects were analyzed for the presence of inflammatory markers using a multiplex assay. Results There were no significant differences in the inflammatory markers in the serum of subjects on the OMD or TMD diets. There was an increase in the capacity of PBMCs to produce cytokines in subjects during the first month on the OMD or TMD diets. Lower levels of TNF-α, IL-17, MCP-1 and MIP-1β were produced by PBMCs from subjects on the OMD versus TMD diet. Conclusions PBMCs of subjects on controlled diets exhibit hypersensitivities to cellular stimulation suggesting that stress associated with altered eating behavior might affect cytokine production by immune cells upon stimulation. Moreover, stimulated PBMCs derived from healthy individuals on a reduced meal frequency diet respond with a reduced capability to produce cytokines.

  8. Alterations in Blood Coagulation and Viscosity Among Young Male Cigarette Smokers of Al-Jouf Region in Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Almarshad, Hassan A; Hassan, Fathelrahman M


    Hemorheology, a measure of rheological properties of blood, is often correlated with cerebral blood flow and cardiac output; an increased blood viscosity may increase the risk of thrombosis or thromboembolic events. Previous studies have reported a large variation in hemorheological properties of blood among smokers. This prompted us to conduct coagulation experiments to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on hematological parameters, like cell counts, and coagulation parameters among young males in Al-Jouf region, Saudi Arabia. The hematological and coagulation parameters were used to relate the changes in viscosity and coagulation to smoking. A total of 321 male participants (126 nonsmokers and 195 smokers) were enrolled into the study as randomized sample. Complete blood count was measured by hematology analyzer, and coagulation tests were performed by coagulation analyzer. Thettest analysis was performed to compare the relationships of variables between the 2 groups. The results confirmed that smoking alters some hematology parameters leading to significant deterioration in blood flow properties. Smoking also increased the hematocrit (HCT), whole blood viscosity (WBV), and plasma viscosity (PV) but decreased the international normalized ratio (INR). The decrease in INR was found to be associated with the increase in WBV, PV, and HCT. Further investigations are necessary to assess the reversibility of such changes in cessation of smoking or other elements of influence.

  9. Dynamical Systems, Cytokine Storms, and Blood Filtration (United States)

    Foster, Glenn; Hubler, Alfred


    Various infections and non-infectious diseases can trigger immune cells and the proteins (cytokines) the cells use to communicate with each other to be caught in a positive feedback loop; this ``cytokine storm'' is frequently fatal. By examining the network of cytokine-immune cell interactions we will illustrate why anti-mediator drugs have been generally ineffective in stopping this feedback. A more effective approach may be to try and reduce interactions by dampening many signals at once by filtering the cytokines out of the blood directly (think dialysis). We will argue that feedback on an out of control nonlinear dynamical system is easier to understand than its normal healthy state and apply filtration to a toy model of immune response.

  10. Benefits of agomelatine in behavioral, neurochemical and blood brain barrier alterations in prenatal valproic acid induced autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, B M; Sharma, Bhupesh


    Valproic acid administration during gestational period causes behavior and biochemical deficits similar to those observed in humans with autism spectrum disorder. Although worldwide prevalence of autism spectrum disorder has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the social impairment are very limited. The present study has been structured to investigate the therapeutic potential of melatonin receptor agonist, agomelatine in prenatal valproic acid (Pre-VPA) induced autism spectrum disorder in animals. Pre-VPA has produced reduction in social interaction (three chamber social behavior apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complex I, II, IV). Furthermore, Pre-VPA has increased locomotor activity (actophotometer), anxiety, brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, and catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium levels and blood brain barrier leakage in animals. Treatment with agomelatine has significantly attenuated Pre-VPA induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, agomelatine also attenuated Pre-VPA induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium levels and blood brain barrier leakage. It is concluded that, Pre-VPA has induced autism spectrum disorder, which was attenuated by agomelatine. Agomelatine has shown ameliorative effect on behavioral, neurochemical and blood brain barrier alteration in Pre-VPA exposed animals. Thus melatonin receptor agonists may provide beneficial therapeutic strategy for managing autism spectrum disorder.

  11. Blood Pressure is Associated With Cerebral Blood Flow Alterations in Patients With T2DM as Revealed by Perfusion Functional MRI. (United States)

    Xia, Wenqing; Rao, Hengyi; Spaeth, Andrea M; Huang, Rong; Tian, Sai; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Jie; Wang, Shaohua


    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension are both associated with cognitive impairment and brain function abnormalities. We investigated whether abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) patterns exists in T2DM patients and possible relationships between aberrant CBF and cognitive performance. Furthermore, we examined the influence of hypertension on CBF alterations in T2DM patients. T2DM patients (n = 38) and non-T2DM subjects (n = 40) were recruited from clinics, hospitals, and normal community health screenings. Cerebral blood flow images were collected and analyzed using arterial spin labeling perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Regions with major CBF differences between T2DM patients and non-T2DM controls were detected via 1-way ANOVA. The interaction effects between hypertension and T2DM for CBF alterations were also examined. Correlation analyses illustrated the association between CBF values and cognitive performance and between CBF and blood pressure. Compared with non-T2DM controls, T2DM patients exhibited decreased CBF, primarily in the visual area and the default mode network (DMN); decreased CBF in these regions was correlated with cognitive performance. There was a significant interaction effect between hypertension and diabetes for CBF in the precuneus and the middle occipital gyrus. Additionally, blood pressure correlated negatively with CBF in T2DM patients.T2DM patients exhibited reduced CBF in the visual area and DMN. Hypertension may facilitate a CBF decrease in the setting of diabetes. T2DM patients may benefit from blood pressure control to maintain their brain perfusion through CBF preservation.

  12. Intelligent micro blood typing system using a fuzzy algorithm (United States)

    Kang, Taeyun; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Yonggoo; Lee, Gyoo-Whung; Cho, Dong-Woo


    ABO typing is the first analysis performed on blood when it is tested for transfusion purposes. The automated machines used in hospitals for this purpose are typically very large and the process is complicated. In this paper, we present a new micro blood typing system that is an improved version of our previous system (Kang et al 2004 Trans. ASME, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126 766, Lee et al 2005 Sensors Mater. 17 113). This system, fabricated using microstereolithography, has a passive valve for controlling the flow of blood and antibodies. The intelligent micro blood typing system has two parts: a single-line micro blood typing device and a fuzzy expert system for grading the strength of agglutination. The passive valve in the single-line micro blood typing device makes the blood stop at the entrance of a micro mixer and lets it flow again after the blood encounters antibodies. Blood and antibodies are mixed in the micro mixer and agglutination occurs in the chamber. The fuzzy expert system then determines the degree of agglutination from images of the agglutinated blood. Blood typing experiments using this device were successful, and the fuzzy expert system produces a grading decision comparable to that produced by an expert conducting a manual analysis.

  13. An aqueous extract of Vitex agnus castus alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Regina de Macedo; Ribeiro, Camila Godinho; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem de Almeida [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail:; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria


    The development of experimental assays to study properties of herbal medicine is worthwhile. Vitex agnus castus (VAC) is utilized in popular medicine and some actions have been attributed to its extract. Blood cells (BC) and plasma proteins are labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) and have been used in nuclear medicine, as in basic research. This procedure uses a reducing agent and stannous ion is utilized. There are reports that drugs can alter this labeling process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of an aqueous extract of VAC on the labeling of blood constituents with Tc-99m. Blood was incubated with VAC, stannous chloride and Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, and centrifuged. Samples of BC and plasma were separated, aliquots of BC and plasma were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid to obtain soluble and insoluble fractions and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was determined. The results show a statistical (p<0.05) alteration in the %ATI on blood compartments and on the insoluble fractions of plasma and BC. Probably, this extract would have chemical compounds with oxidant properties. (author)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱珠; 王宪衍; 金翠燕; 陈丽莎; 董寿琪


    Objective To study the pattern of circadian blood pressure changes in patients with secondary hypertension. Methods The 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in 80 patients with secondary hypertension ( SH ) including primary aldosteronisrn in 44, pheochromocytoma in 11, renovascular hypertension in 10, renoparenchymal hypertension in 15 and compared with 80 patients with essential hypertension (EH) matched by age and sex. Results The diurnal rhythm in patients with SH was different from that of patients with EH. The diurnal curves in SH and EH was overlapped in daytime and separated from each other at nighttime. The nocturnal blood pressure fall was less and average blood pressure at nighttime was higher in patients with SH than those in patients with EH (P<0.01). The nighttime blood pressure loading and non-dipper phenomenon were much more frequently seen in patients with SH than those in patients with EH (P<0.01). The nighttime blood pressure/daytime blood pressure ratio was significantly higher in patients with SH than that in patients with EH (P<0.01). Conclusion The non-invasive 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring may be a useful method in screening for SH.

  15. Altered Blood Biomarker Profiles in Athletes with a History of Repetitive Head Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P Di Battista

    Full Text Available The long-term health effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport are unknown. Growing evidence suggests both inflammation and neurodegeneration are pivotal to secondary injury processes and the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we characterized circulating brain injury and inflammatory mediators in healthy male and female athletes according to concussion history and collision sport participation. Eighty-seven university level athletes (male, n = 60; female, n = 27 were recruited before the start of the competitive season. Athletes were healthy at the time of the study (no medications, illness, concussion or musculoskeletal injuries. Dependent variables included 29 inflammatory and 10 neurological injury analytes assessed in the peripheral blood by immunoassay. Biomarkers were statistically evaluated using partial least squares multivariate analysis to identify possible relationships to self-reported previous concussion history, number of previous concussions and collision sport participation in male and female athletes. Multiple concussions were associated with increases in peripheral MCP-1 in females, and MCP-4 in males. Collision sport participation was associated with increases in tau levels in males. These results are consistent with previous experimental and clinical findings that suggest ongoing inflammatory and cerebral injury processes after repetitive mild head trauma. However, further validation is needed to correlate systemic biomarkers to repetitive brain impacts, as opposed to the extracranial effects common to an athletic population such as exercise and muscle damage.

  16. Adrenergic mechanism responsible for pathological alteration in gastric mucosal blood flow in rats with ulcer bleeding (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskiy, I. A.; Gekalyuk, A. S.; Ulanova, M. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.


    The adrenergic system plays an important role in regulation of central and peripheral circulation in normal state and during hemorrhage. Because the impaired gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) is the major cause of gastroduodenal lesions, including ulcer bleeding (UB), we studied the adrenergic mechanism responsible for regulation of GMBF in rats with a model of stress-induced UB (SUB) using the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). First, we examined the effect of adrenaline on GMBF in rats under normal state and during UB. In all healthy animals the submucosal adrenaline injection caused a decrease in local GMBF. During UB the submucosal injection of adrenaline was accompanied by less pronounced GMBF suppression in 30,3% rats with SUB vs. healthy ones. In 69,7% rats with SUB we observed the increase in local GMBF after submucosal injection of adrenaline. Second, we studied the sensitivity of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors and the activity of two factors which are involved in β2-adrenomediated vasorelaxation-KATP -channels and NO. The effects of submucosal injection of isoproterenol, ICI118551 and glybenclamide on GMBF as well as NO levels in gastric tissue were significantly elevated in rats with SUB vs. healthy rats. Thus, our results indicate that high activation of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors associated with the increased vascular KATP -channels activity and elevated NO production is the important adrenergic mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis of UB.

  17. GC-MS Metabolomics Identifies Metabolite Alterations That Precede Subclinical Mastitis in the Blood of Transition Dairy Cows. (United States)

    Dervishi, Elda; Zhang, Guanshi; Dunn, Suzanna M; Mandal, Rupasri; Wishart, David S; Ametaj, Burim N


    The objectives of this study were to determine alterations in the serum metabolites related to amino acid (AA), carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism in transition dairy cows before diagnosis of subclinical mastitis (SCM), during, and after diagnosis of disease. A subclinical mastitis case was determined as a cow having somatic cell count (SCC) > 200 000/mL of milk for two or more consecutive reports. Blood samples were collected from 100 Holstein dairy cows at five time points at -8 and -4 weeks before parturition, at the week of SCM diagnosis, and +4 and +8 weeks after parturition. Twenty healthy control cows (CON) and six cows that were diagnosed with SCM were selected for serum analysis with GC-MS. At -8 weeks a total of 13 metabolites were significantly altered in SCM cows. In addition, at the week of SCM diagnosis 17 metabolites were altered in these cows. Four weeks after parturition 10 metabolites were altered in SCM cows and at +8 weeks 11 metabolites were found to be different between the two groups. Valine (Val), serine (Ser), tyrosine (Tyr), and phenylalanine (Phe) had very good predictive abilities for SCM and could be used at -8 weeks and -4 weeks before calving. Combination of Val, isoleucine (Ile), Ser, and proline (Pro) can be used as diagnostic biomarkers of SCM during early stages of lactation at +4 to +8 weeks after parturition. In conclusion, SCM is preceded and followed by alteration in AA metabolism.

  18. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García


    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  19. Renal cortical and medullary blood flow responses to altered NO-availability in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, Mads; Vafaee, Manoucher; Møller, Michael Lehd;


    of one voxel were eliminated stepwise from the external surface of the VOI ('voxel peeling'), and the blood flow subsequently determined in each new, reduced VOI. Blood flow in the shrinking volumes of interest (VOIs) decreased as the number of cycles of voxel peeling increased. After 4-5 cycles, blood...... flow was not reduced further by additional voxel peeling. This volume-insensitive flow was measured to be 2.30 ±0.17 ml·(g·min)(-1) during the control period; it increased during infusion of glyceryl nitrate to 2.97 ±0.18 ml·(g·min)(-1) (p...

  20. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Varani


    Full Text Available Toscana virus (TOSV is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS.

  1. Chronic changes of hematocrit value alter blood pressure and glomerular filtration in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović S.


    Full Text Available Many studies in hypertensive humans and animals have shown that increased blood viscosity is in direct relation with essential hypertension. The aim of our studies was to investigate the effects of chronic hematocrit value changes on arterial blood pressure and kidney function in genetically induced hypertension. To this end, we studied the effects of several interventions, designed to increase/decrease hematocrit, on hemodynamic parameters, vascular reactivity, glomerular filtration and renal function curve in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Results of our study show that chronic hematocrit value elevation increases blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance in SHR. On the other hand, chronic hematocrit lowering elucidates blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance decrease followed by cardiac output rising. Both hematocrit value changes significantly reduce vasodilatory vascular response. Hematocrit lowering induces acute renal failure. Sodium excretion is shifted to higher blood pressure values in high hematocrit value animals and opposite - lower blood pressure values in low hematocrit value animals. Repeated transfusions develop salt sensitive malignant hypertension in SHR. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the degree of kidney damage after chronic hematocrit value changes in SHR.

  2. Bisphenol A and its analogs induce morphological and biochemical alterations in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study). (United States)

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Mokra, Katarzyna; Bąk, Agata


    Few studies have addressed the cellular effects of bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on cells, and no study has been conducted to analyze the mechanism of action of bisphenols in blood cells. In this study, the effect of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), BPS and BPAF on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed. It was shown that BPA, BPF and BPAF in particular, decreased cell viability, which was associated with depletion of intracellular ATP level and alterations in PBMCs size and granulation. Bisphenols enhanced ROS (including OH˙) formation, which led to damage to lipids and proteins in PBMCs. The most significant alterations in ROS level were induced by BPF, and particularly BPAF. Moreover, it was shown that BPAF most strongly provoked lipid peroxidation, while BPA and BPS caused the greatest damage to proteins. It may be concluded that BPA and its analogs were capable of inducing oxidative stress and damage in PBMCs in the concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 0.5 μM (0.02-0.1 μg/ml), which may be present in human blood as a result of environmental exposure. Although, most of bisphenols studied decreased cell viability, size and ATP level at higher concentrations, BPAF exhibited its cytotoxic potential at low concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 3 μM (0.1-1.0 μg/ml) that may correspond to concentrations in humans following occupational exposure.

  3. Dietary canola oil alters hematological indices and blood lipids in neonatal piglets fed formula. (United States)

    Innis, S M; Dyer, R A


    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of canola oil on platelet characteristics, blood lipids and growth in exclusively formula-fed piglets. Piglets were fed from birth to 10 or 18 d with formula containing 51% energy from fat, with 100% fat as canola or soybean oil; 26% soybean, 59% high oleic acid sunflower and 12% flax oil (canola mimic); or 26% canola (canola blend) or soybean (soybean blend) with high oleic acid sunflower, palm and coconut oil. The canola mimic provided similar carbon chain 16 and 18 fatty acids without the sterol or 20:1 and erucic acid (22:1) of canola oil. The oil blends provided formula resembling infant formulas but with higher 16:0 and lower unsaturated fatty acid levels than in canola or soybean oil. Body weight, weight gain and heart and liver weight were not different after 10 or 18 d feeding canola when compared to soybean oil alone or blended oil formulas. Piglets fed formulas with 100% canola oil had lower platelet counts than piglets fed formula soybean oil or the canola oil mimic. Platelet counts were lower, and platelet distribution width and volume were higher, when formulas with 100% canola or soybean rather than the blended oil formulas were fed. The results show that formula fat composition influences the developing hematological system and that canola oil suppresses the normal developmental increase in platelet count in piglets by a mechanism apparently unrelated to the formula 16:0, 18:1, 18:2(n-6) or 18:3(n-3), or plasma phospholipid 20:4(n-6) or 20:5(n-3).

  4. The sympathetic nervous system alterations in human hypertension. (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Mark, Allyn; Esler, Murray


    Several articles have dealt with the importance and mechanisms of the sympathetic nervous system alterations in experimental animal models of hypertension. This review addresses the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology and therapy of human hypertension. We first discuss the strengths and limitations of various techniques for assessing the sympathetic nervous system in humans, with a focus on heart rate, plasma norepinephrine, microneurographic recording of sympathetic nerve traffic, and measurements of radiolabeled norepinephrine spillover. We then examine the evidence supporting the importance of neuroadrenergic factors as promoters and amplifiers of human hypertension. We expand on the role of the sympathetic nervous system in 2 increasingly common forms of secondary hypertension, namely hypertension associated with obesity and with renal disease. With this background, we examine interventions of sympathetic deactivation as a mode of antihypertensive treatment. Particular emphasis is given to the background and results of recent therapeutic approaches based on carotid baroreceptor stimulation and radiofrequency ablation of the renal nerves.

  5. [Research on Zhejiang blood information network and management system]. (United States)

    Yan, Li-Xing; Xu, Yan; Meng, Zhong-Hua; Kong, Chang-Hong; Wang, Jian-Min; Jin, Zhen-Liang; Wu, Shi-Ding; Chen, Chang-Shui; Luo, Ling-Fei


    This research was aimed to develop the first level blood information centralized database and real time communication network at a province area in China. Multiple technology like local area network database separate operation, real time data concentration and distribution mechanism, allopatric backup, and optical fiber virtual private network (VPN) were used. As a result, the blood information centralized database and management system were successfully constructed, which covers all the Zhejiang province, and the real time exchange of blood data was realised. In conclusion, its implementation promote volunteer blood donation and ensure the blood safety in Zhejiang, especially strengthen the quick response to public health emergency. This project lays the first stone of centralized test and allotment among blood banks in Zhejiang, and can serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems in China.

  6. Changes in the human blood coagulating system during prolonged hypokinesia (United States)

    Filatova, L. M.; Anashkin, O. D.


    Changes in the coagulating system of the blood were studied in six subjects during prolonged hypokinesia. Thrombogenic properties of the blood rose in all cases on the 8th day. These changes are explained by stress reaction due to unusual conditions for a healthy person. Changes in the blood coagulating system in the group subjected to physical exercise and without it ran a practically parallel course. Apparently physical exercise is insufficient to prevent such changes that appear in the coagulating system of the blood during prolonged hypokinesia.

  7. Studies on the potential neurotoxic and convulsant effects of increased blood levels of quinolinic acid in rats with altered blood-brain barrier permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezzani, A.; Stasi, M.A.; Wu, H.Q.; Castiglioni, M.; Weckermann, B.; Samanin, R. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano (Italy))


    Intravenous injection of 450 mg/kg quinolinic acid (Quin), an endogenous kynurenine metabolite with excitotoxic properties, induced only minor electroencephalographic (EEG) modifications and no neurotoxicity in rats with a mature blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB permeability was altered in rats by focal unilateral irradiation of the cortex (7 mm in diameter and 5 mm in depth) with protons (60 Gy, 9 Gy/min). Three days after irradiation, Evans blue dye staining showed BBB breakdown in the dorsal hippocampus of the irradiated hemisphere. No neurotoxic or convulsant effects were observed as a consequence of the radiation itself. When BBB-lesioned rats were challenged with 225 mg/kg Quin iv, epileptiform activity was observed on EEG analysis. Tonic-clonic seizures were induced by 225-450 mg/kg Quin. Light microscopic analysis showed a dose-related excitotoxic type of lesion restricted to the hippocampus ipsilateral to the irradiated side. Neuro-degeneration was prevented by local injection of 120 nmol D(-)2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, a selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. No lesions or EEG or behavioral modifications occurred after 450 mg/kg nicotinic acid, an inactive analog of Quin. The potential neurotoxic and convulsant effects of increased blood levels of Quin under conditions of altered BBB permeability are discussed.

  8. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H;


    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  9. EMP-induced alterations of tight junction protein expression and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. (United States)

    Ding, Gui-Rong; Qiu, Lian-Bo; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Li, Kang-Chu; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Jia-Xing; Li, Yu-Rong; Guo, Guo-Zhen


    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical to maintain cerebral homeostasis. In this study, we examined the effects of exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the functional integrity of BBB and, on the localization and expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins (occludin and ZO-1) in rats. Animals were sham or whole-body exposed to EMP at 200 kV/m for 400 pulses. The permeability of BBB in rat cerebral cortex was examined by using Evans Blue (EB) and lanthanum nitrate as vascular tracers. The localization and expression of TJ proteins were assessed by western blot and immunofluorescence analysis, respectively. The data indicated that EMP exposure caused: (i) increased permeability of BBB, and (ii) altered localization as well as decreased levels of TJ protein ZO-1. These results suggested that the alteration of ZO-1 may play an important role in the disruption of tight junctions, which may lead to dysfunction of BBB after EMP exposure.

  10. Renal cortical and medullary blood flow responses to altered NO availability in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Vafaee, Manoucher; Møller, Michael L;


    , tissue layers with a thickness of one voxel were eliminated stepwise from the external surface of the VOI (voxel peeling), and the blood flow subsequently was determined in each new, reduced VOI. Blood flow in the shrinking VOIs decreased as the number of cycles of voxel peeling increased. After 4......-5 cycles, blood flow was not reduced further by additional voxel peeling. This volume-insensitive flow was measured to be 2.30 ± 0.17 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) during the control period; it increased during infusion of glyceryl nitrate to 2.97 ± 0.18 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) (P

  11. Role of Altered Venous Blood Lactate and HbA1c in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (United States)

    Santhosh, N U; Krishnamurthy, N; Chethan, Chethana; Shilpashree, M K


    Introduction Being a mirror image of metabolic syndrome, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity. Increased blood lactate concentration and alterations of substrate utilization are partly involved in development of insulin resistance in GDM. Fetuses born to such mothers have shown low umbilical vein oxygen saturation and low oxygen content and increased lactate concentrations. These changes may certainly reflect enhanced fetal metabolism as a result of hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia and therefore, these fetuses deserve intense surveillance at term and during delivery. Ideally, HbA1c should be maintained below 5% during their first trimesters and below 6% during third trimester. We planned to investigate GDM women for their HbA1c levels too. Aim To know if there is any alteration in blood lactate and/or HbA1c levels and to know if there is any correlation between these two parameters in GDM pregnancies, in comparison with the previous studies which measured lactate in cord blood and placental vessels of GDM women. Materials and Methods It was a hospital based prospective study on 40 women with gestational diabetes and 40 age-matched normal pregnant women. We analysed the biochemical and metabolic mileau in these women by estimating venous blood lactate and HbA1c levels. We paid special attention to follow them up regarding maternal complications if any and perinatal outcomes. The independent samples t-test and Pearson’s correlation test were applied. Results GDM mothers showed significantly higher lactate and HbA1c levels than normal pregnant women, both with p<0.001. Blood pressure and fetal birth weight were also significantly higher in GDM group than Normal Pregnant (NP) group, both with p-values of <0.001. Further, this increased lactate levels showed significant positive correlation with HbA1c, blood pressure and fetal birth weight. Conclusion Maternal blood lactate and HbA1c levels have a

  12. Physical Properties of Blood Are Altered in Young and Lean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (United States)

    Simmonds, Michael J.; Milne, Nikki; Ong, Kee; Brotherton, Emily; McNamee, Antony P.; Horobin, Jarod; Sabapathy, Surendran


    Classic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) include derangement of metabolic and cardiovascular health, and vascular dysfunction is commonly reported. These comorbidities indicate impaired blood flow; however, other than limited reports of increased plasma viscosity, surprisingly little is known regarding the physical properties of blood in PCOS. We aimed to investigate whether haemorheology was impaired in women with PCOS. We thus measured a comprehensive haemorheological profile, in a case-control design, of lean women with PCOS and age-matched healthy controls. A clinical examination determined similar cardiovascular risk for the two groups. Whole blood and plasma viscosity was measured using a cone-plate viscometer. The magnitude and rate of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation was determined using a light-transmission aggregometer, and the degree of RBC deformability was measured via laser-diffraction ektacytometry. Plasma viscosity was significantly increased in women with PCOS. Blood viscosity was also increased for PCOS at lower-to-moderate shear rates in both native and standardised haematocrit samples. The magnitude of RBC aggregation–a primary determinant of low-shear blood viscosity–was significantly increased in PCOS at native and 0.4 L·L-1 haematocrit. No difference was detected between PCOS and CON groups for RBC deformability measurements. A novel measure indicating the effectiveness of oxygen transport by RBC (i.e., the haematocrit-to-viscosity ratio; HVR) was decreased at all shear rates in women with PCOS. In a group of young and lean women with PCOS with an unremarkable cardiovascular risk profile based on clinical data, significant haemorheological impairment was observed. The degree of haemorheological derangement observed in the present study reflects that of overt chronic disease, and provides an avenue for future therapeutic intervention in PCOS. PMID:27902766

  13. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of the blood group ABO gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Worm, Jesper; Guldberg, Per;


    Loss of histo-blood group A and B antigen expression is a frequent event in oral carcinomas and is associated with decreased activity of glycosyltransferases encoded by the ABO gene. We examined 30 oral squamous cell carcinomas for expression of A and B antigens and glycosyltransferases. We also ...

  14. Obesity alters the expression profile of clock genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (United States)

    Tahira, Kazunobu; Fukuda, Noboru; Aoyama, Takahiko; Tsunemi, Akiko; Matsumoto, Siroh; Nagura, Chinami; Matsumoto, Taro; Soma, Masayoshi; Shimba, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki


    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the variation in expression profile of clock genes and obesity using peripheral blood mononuclear (PMN) cells. Material and methods The subjects comprised 10 obese patients and 10 healthy volunteers. Blood was collected at different time-points during the day and levels of blood sugar, IRI, adiponectin and leptin were determined. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were sampled, and expression levels of brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1), Period (PER)1, PER2, Cryptochrome (CRY)1, CRY2, and REV-ERBα mRNA were quantified. Results During the day, the expression levels of BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2 and PER2 genes in PMN cells of the obese group were all significantly higher compared to those in the non-obese group. In addition, expression of BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2 and PER2 genes in PMN cells increased between 12:00 and 21:00 in the obese group. In PMN cells of both groups, PER1 gene expression showed a bimodal pattern, with high expression at 9:00 and 18:00. Conclusions Differences were observed in the expression profile variation of clock genes between the obese and non-obese groups. This study reveals the differences in clock gene expression profiles between obese and non-obese subjects, with evidence for two distinct chronotypes, and suggests a contribution of these chronotypes to fat accumulation in humans. PMID:22328874

  15. Association of depressive symptoms with circadian blood pressure alterations in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Vetrano, Davide L; Pisciotta, Maria S; Lo Monaco, Maria R; Onder, Graziano; Laudisio, Alice; Brandi, Vincenzo; La Carpia, Domenico; Guglielmo, Mauro; Nacchia, Antonio; Fusco, Domenico; Ricciardi, Diego; Bentivoglio, Anna R; Bernabei, Roberto; Zuccalà, Giuseppe


    To assess whether among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) depression, a common non-motor symptom associated with reduced survival, is associated with cardiovascular dysautonomia. We enrolled 125 subjects with PD consecutively admitted to a geriatric day hospital. All participants underwent comprehensive evaluation, fasting blood sampling, and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The percent reduction in nocturnal blood pressure (dipping) was calculated. Depressive symptoms were assessed through the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS); a score ≥5 identified moderate to severe symptoms. Among participants (mean age 72.7 ± 7.8 years, 32 % women) 61 subjects (49 %) presented with a GDS score ≥ 5. When compared with other participants, subjects with a GDS score ≥ 5 had reduced adjusted levels of percent systolic (-2.6 ± 2.7 vs. 4.7 ± 2.5; p = 0.003), diastolic (0.6 ± 2.8 vs. 7.4 ± 2.6; p = 0.007), and mean blood pressure dipping (-0.7 ± 2.6 vs. 6.8 ± 2.5; p = 0.002). In separate logistic regression models, depressive symptoms were associated with reduced systolic (OR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89; 0.98), diastolic (OR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.90; 0.99), and mean blood pressure dipping (OR 0.93; 95 % CI 0.89; 0.98), after adjusting for potential confounders. Depressive symptoms are prevalent, and independently associated with cardiovascular dysautonomia among patients with Parkinson's disease. This might explain the remarkable incidence of sudden death, as well as the association of depressive symptoms with reduced survival reported in these patients. The finding of depressive symptoms in subjects with Parkinson's disease should therefore prompt assessment of cardiovascular autonomic function.

  16. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K


    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  17. Disodium Cromoglycate, A Mast-Cell Stabilizer, Alters Postradiation Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Primates (United States)


    ranD RISEARCH INSTITUTI SCIENTIFIC REPORTTC SR86-14 ELECTE JUL0186_ _ ~D DISODIUM CROMOGLYCATE , A MAST-CELL STABILIZER, ALTERS POSTRADIATION...were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCC) or BRL 22321 (Beecham Phar- maceuticals, Research Division) before exposure to 100 Gy...flow could be mitigated by the pre- radiation administration of either disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) (Fisons Corporation, ledford, Mass.) or BRL 22321

  18. Ontogenetic oxygen changes alter zebra fish size, behavior, and blood glucose. (United States)

    Marks, C; Kaut, K P; Moore, F B-G; Bagatto, B


    Four male and four female zebra fish were crossed in all possible combinations, resulting in 389 offspring. These offspring were divided among four treatments: normoxia for 90 d, hypoxia for 90 d, normoxia for 30 d followed by hypoxia for 60 d, and hypoxia for 30 d followed by normoxia for 60 d. The effects of early oxygen environment, later oxygen environment, and genotype were then assessed with respect to zebra fish behavior, size, and blood glucose. Fish were tested in an arena where they could shoal with conspecifics before, during, and after the introduction of a novel stimulus. Blood glucose and size were also measured. Early oxygen environment influenced fish size, time spent swimming, and reactivity to a novel stimulus. Environmentally induced plasticity was predominate, with little evidence of among-sire variation for any of the measured parameters.

  19. Alterations of blood serum parameters in patients with chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadrudin Magomedov; Larisa Polishchuk


    Objective:To examine metabolic disorders of major components of organic basis of bone tissue in patients with chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis and response to surgical treatment. Methods: The cubital vein puncture was conducted to take blood for analysis in patients with chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis. The activity of collagenase and hyaluronidase, elastin, elastase and total content of glycosaminoglycans were measured in blood serum. Results: The study revealed an enhancement of catabolic phase of metabolism of the main components in bone organic matrix during the relapse of inflammation. It was evidenced by indicators reflecting the synthetic and catabolic phases of the main components of the connective tissue collagen and glycosaminoglycans. The effective therapeutic treatments led to the reduction and normalization of studied compounds. Conclusions: The initial development of hematogenous osteomyelitis happens in a background of metabolic disorders of the main components of organic matrix of bone tissue, and normalizes upon effective therapy.

  20. Mathematical Model of Extrinsic Blood Coagulation Cascade Dynamic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The blood coagulation system is very important to life. This paper presents a mathematical blood coagulation model for the extrinsic pathway. This model simulates clotting factor VIII, which plays an important role in the coagulation mechanism. The mathematical model is used to study the equilibrium stability, orbit structure, attractors and global stability behavior, with conclusions in accordance with the physiological phenomena. Moreover, the results provide information about blood related illnesses, which can be used for further study of the coagulation mechanism.

  1. Influence of altered blood rheology on ventricular-vascular response to exercise. (United States)

    Sharman, James E; Brown, Joseph; Holland, David J; Macdonald, Graeme; Kostner, Karam; Marwick, Thomas H


    Blood (or plasma) rheology is related to cardiovascular risk. Mechanisms of this association are unclear but may be partially related to impaired left ventricular (LV) function and increased central blood pressure (BP) during light activity. This study aimed to test these hypotheses. Twenty patients (14 men; aged 61+/-12 years) with polycythemia rubra vera (n=16) or hemochromatosis (n=4) were studied at rest and during exercise at approximately 50% of maximal heart rate before and after venesection (500 mL; volume replaced with saline) to elicit an acute decrease in plasma viscosity at stable BP. Controls (n=20) underwent the same protocol with 25-mL venesection. Central BP and augmentation index were determined by tonometry. Resting LV systolic (peak longitudinal systolic strain rate and strain) and diastolic functions were determined by tissue-Doppler echocardiography. Venesection with blood volume replacement decreased viscosity (1.46+/-0.10 to 1.41+/-0.11 centipoise), protein, and hemoglobin (P0.10 for all). There was no change in LV diastolic function (P>0.12 for all). Exercise augmentation index in patients was reduced after venesection (24+/-12% to 17+/-9%; P=0.001) despite no significant change in other BP variables. Hemodynamics (resting or exercise) were not significantly changed in controls. Exercise central systolic BP correlated with triglycerides (r=0.59; P0.05). We conclude that an acute change in blood rheology improves ventricular-vascular interaction by enhanced LV systolic function and reduced light-exercise central BP.

  2. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System (United States)

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu


    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  3. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures. (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man


    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  4. Cytogenetic and oxidative alterations after exposure of cultured human whole blood cells to lithium metaborate dehydrate. (United States)

    Çelikezen, Fatih Çağlar; Toğar, Başak; Özgeriş, Fatma Betül; İzgi, Mehmet Sait; Türkez, Hasan


    Boron compounds have an ability of supporting antioxidant properties in human and animal tissues. Lithium metaborate dihydrate (LiBO2·2H2O; LMD) is commonly used in nonlinear optic materials, cellular phones and pagers. But, there are limited data on the genotoxic and antioxidant effects of LMD in cultured human whole blood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the genotoxicity and antioxidant/oxidant activity of LMD on human whole blood lymphocytes (n = 5). LMD was applied at various concentrations (0-1,280 µg/ml) to cultured blood samples. Antioxidant/oxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity levels. Micronuclei and chromosomal aberration tests were used in genotoxicity studies. Our results clearly revealed that all tested concentrations of LMD were found to be non-genotoxic when compared to that of the control group. In addition, LMD exhibited antioxidant activities at low concentrations. In addition the TOS levels were not changed at all concentrations of LMD. Consequently, our results clearly demonstrated that LMD is non-genotoxic and it has an important antioxidant potential in vitro.

  5. Hemorheological alterations of red blood cells induced by non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma (United States)

    Kim, Jeongho; Kim, Jae Hyung; Chang, Boksoon; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Hun-Kuk


    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been introduced in various applications such as wound healing, sterilization of infected tissues, blood coagulation, delicate surgeries, and so on. The non-thermal plasma generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), including ozone. Various groups have reported that the produced ROS influence proliferation and differentiation of cells, as well as apoptosis and growth arrest of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of non-thermal plasma on rheological characteristics of red blood cells (RBC). We experimentally measured the extent of hemolysis, deformability, and aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) with respect to exposure times of non-thermal plasma. RBC morphology was also examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The absorbance of hemoglobin released from the RBCs increased with increasing exposure time of the non-thermal plasma. Values of the elongation index and aggregation index were shown to decrease significantly with increasing plasma exposure times. Therefore, hemorheological properties of RBCs could be utilized to assess the performance of various non-thermal plasmas.

  6. Increased Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Is Associated With Altered Gut Microbiota Composition and Butyrate Production in Early Pregnancy. (United States)

    Gomez-Arango, Luisa F; Barrett, Helen L; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K; Morrison, Mark; Dekker Nitert, Marloes


    The risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia is higher in obese pregnant women. In obesity, the composition of the gut microbiota is altered. Obesity is also associated with low-grade inflammation. Metabolites from the gut microbiota may contribute to both hypertension and inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese pregnant women is associated with blood pressure and levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The composition of the gut microbiota was determined with 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing in 205 women at 16 weeks gestation from the SPRING study (the Study of Probiotics in Gestational Diabetes). Expression of butyrate-producing genes in the gut microbiota was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were measured in fasting serum of a subset of 70 women. Blood pressure was slightly but significantly higher in obese compared with overweight women. The abundance of the butyrate-producing genus Odoribacter was inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. Butyrate production capacity was decreased, but plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations increased in obese pregnant women. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were inversely correlated with expression of butyrate kinase and Odoribacter abundance. This study shows that in overweight and obese pregnant women at 16 weeks gestation, the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate production in the gut microbiota is significantly negatively associated with blood pressure and with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Increasing butyrate-producing capacity may contribute to maintenance of normal blood pressure in obese pregnant women.

  7. 76 FR 4449 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... Altered System of Records AGENCY: Scientific Resources Program, Material, Data and Specimen Handling...). ACTION: Notification of Proposed Altered System of Records. SUMMARY: The Department of Health and Human..., Federal holidays excepted. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NCID proposes to alter System of Records, No....

  8. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems. (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R


    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption.

  9. BACE1-Deficient Mice Exhibit Alterations in Immune System Pathways. (United States)

    Stertz, L; Contreras-Shannon, V; Monroy-Jaramillo, N; Sun, J; Walss-Bass, C


    BACE1 encodes for the beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 or β-secretase. Genetic deletion of Bace1 leads to behavioral alterations and affects midbrain dopaminergic signaling and memory processes. In order to further understand the role of BACE1 in brain function and behavior, we performed microarray transcriptome profiling and gene pathway analysis in the hippocampus of BACE1-deficient mice compared to wild type. We identified a total of 91 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), mostly enriched in pathways related to the immune and inflammation systems, particularly IL-9 and NF-κB activation pathways. Serum levels of IL-9 were elevated in BACE1-deficient mice. Our network analysis supports an intimate connection between immune response via NF-κB and BACE1 signaling through the NRG1/Akt1 pathway. Our findings warrant future mechanistic studies to determine if BACE1 signaling and the IL-9 pathway interact to alter behavior and brain function. This study opens new avenues in the investigation of hippocampus-related neuroimmunological and neuroinflammation-associated disorders.

  10. Unsuspected pheochromocytoma: Risk of blood-pressure alterations during percutaneous adrenal biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casola, G.; Nicolet, V.; van Sonnenberg, E.; Withers, C.; Bretagnolle, M.; Saba, R.M.; Bret, P.M.


    Four unsuspected pheochromocytomas were discovered during percutaneous fine-needle biopsy of the adrenal gland under ultrasound (n = 1) and computed tomographic (n = 3) guidance. One patient suffered an acute episode of alternating hypertension and hypotension during the procedure. A second patient had no alterations in vital signs during the procedure but had a severe hypertensive crisis during induction of anesthesia at surgery. Neither biopsy nor surgery affected the vital signs in the other two patients. During biopsy study of adrenal lesions, the possibility of unsuspected pheo-chromocytoma should be considered, and the interventional radiologist must be familiar with the emergency treatment of hypotensive or hypertensive crises that may occur.

  11. Nickel-induced blood biochemistry alterations in hens after an experimental peroral administration. (United States)

    Kolesarova, Adriana; Capcarova, Marcela; Arpasova, Henrieta; Kalafova, Anna; Massanyi, Peter; Lukac, Norbert; Kovacik, Jaroslav; Schneidgenova, Monika


    The purpose of this study was to determine certain blood biochemical parameters in hens of Isa Brown breed (n = 20) after nickel administration. Animals were divided into four groups (K, P1, P2, P3). Experimental hens (n = 5; in each group) received nickel (NiCl2) as peroral administration in drinking water in various doses (P1 - 0.02 g NiCl2/L; P2 - 0.2 g NiCl2/L; P3 - 2.0 g NiCl2/L of drinking water) for 28 days. The last group - K (n = 5) was the control, receiving no nickel. Biochemical parameters of mineral profile (calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; sodium; potassium) and of energy and enzymatic profile [(glucose; total cholesterol; total proteins; triglycerides; alanine aminotransferase (ALT) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH)] were analyzed in blood serum on Day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experiment. Average levels of mineral metabolism parameters were relatively stable apart from calcium. The evaluation registered a significant decrease in calcium during the experiment mainly in the group with highest nickel concentration in drinking water. No significant differences were detected between groups in energy and enzymatic profile apart from the concentrations of ALT on Day 7. In conclusion, there were significant associations between nickel levels and calcium and ALT in blood serum of the hens. No significant differences were detected in other biochemical parameters of mineral profile (P, Mg, Na, K) and energy and enzymatic profile (glucose, total cholesterol, total proteins, triglycerides, AST, GGT and GLDH) after nickel administration. Our results may contribute to an evaluation of reference levels of analyzed parameters, to monitor the health and nutritional status of hens. In this study also the negative effect of nickel mainly on calcium metabolism was detected.

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow alterations remote from the site of intracranial tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endo, H; Larsen, B; Lassen, N A


    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated in 12 patients with brain tumors, using a 254-channel dynamic gamma camera. In nine of the 12 cases, hyperemic regions with loss of autoregulation were seen in sites remote from the tumor (the area around the tumor was in most cases also...... hyperemic). These remote rCBF abnormalities were found in the lower posterior part of the hemisphere in six cases, and in the frontal region in three. The location of the remote rCBF abnormality seemed to depend on the site of the tumor: cases with frontal and posterior fossa mass lesions had hyperemia...

  13. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells. (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M


    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles.

  14. Alterations of adenine nucleotide metabolism and function of blood platelets in patients with diabetes. (United States)

    Michno, Anna; Bielarczyk, Hanna; Pawełczyk, Tadeusz; Jankowska-Kulawy, Agnieszka; Klimaszewska, Joanna; Szutowicz, Andrzej


    Increased activity of blood platelets contributes to vascular complications in patients with diabetes. The aim of this work was to investigate whether persisting hyperglycemia in diabetic patients generates excessive accumulation of ATP/ADP, which may underlie platelet hyperactivity. Platelet ATP and ADP levels, thiobarbituric acid-reactive species synthesis, and aggregation of platelets from patients with diabetes were 18-82% higher than in platelets from healthy participants. In patients with diabetes, platelet stimulation with thrombin caused about two times greater release of ATP and ADP than in the healthy group while decreasing intraplatelet nucleotide content to similar levels in both groups. This indicates that the increased content of adenylate nucleotides in the releasable pool in the platelets of diabetic patients does not affect their level in metabolic cytoplasmic/mitochondrial compartments. Significant correlations between platelet ATP levels and plasma fructosamine, as well as between platelet ATP/ADP and platelet activities, have been found in diabetic patients. In conclusion, chronic hyperglycemia-evoked elevations of ATP/ADP levels and release from blood platelets of patients with diabetes may be important factors underlying platelet hyperactivity in the course of the disease.

  15. A comparative study of the protein C system in mother's blood, cord blood and amniotic fluid.


    Ewa Zekanowska; Waldemar Uszyński; Mieczysław Uszyński; Jarosław Kuczyński; Marek Szymański


    Activated protein C (APC) is an important anticoagulant which plays a role in pathophysiology of pregnancy, e.g. in maintenance of the uteroplacental circulation and development of the fetus as well as in pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The study objective was to compare the levels of the respective components of the protein C system (protein C, PC; protein S, PS; thrombomodulin, TM) as well as thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor - TAFI in mother's blood, cord blood and amniotic fluid. ...

  16. Red blood cells in Rett syndrome: oxidative stress, morphological changes and altered membrane organization. (United States)

    Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Signorini, Cinzia; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef


    In this review, we summarize the current evidence on the erythrocyte as a previously unrecognized target cell in Rett syndrome, a rare (1:10 000 females) and devastating neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in a single gene (i.e. MeCP2, CDKL5, or rarely FOXG1). In particular, we focus on morphological changes, membrane oxidative damage, altered membrane fatty acid profile, and aberrant skeletal organization in erythrocytes from patients with typical Rett syndrome and MeCP2 gene mutations. The beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are also summarized for this condition to be considered as a 'model' condition for autism spectrum disorders.

  17. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Díaz-Rúa


    Full Text Available Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases. Objective: We analysed PBMC expression of key energy homeostasis-related genes in a time-course analysis in order to find out early markers of metabolic alterations due to sustained intake of high-fat (HF and high-protein (HP diets. Design: We administered HF and HP diets (4 months to adult Wistar rats in isocaloric conditions to a control diet, mainly to avoid overweight associated with the intake of hyperlipidic diets and, thus, to be able to characterise markers of metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW syndrome. PBMC samples were collected at different time points of dietary treatment and expression of relevant energy homeostatic genes analysed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Serum parameters related with metabolic syndrome, as well as fat deposition in liver, were also analysed. Results: The most outstanding results were those obtained for the expression of the lipolytic gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a. Cpt1a expression in PBMC increased after only 1 month of exposure to both unbalanced diets, and this increased expression was maintained thereafter. Interestingly, in the case of the HF diet, Cpt1a expression was altered even in the absence of increased body weight but correlated with alterations such as higher insulin resistance, alteration of serum lipid profile and, particularly, increased fat deposition in liver, a feature characteristic of metabolic syndrome, which was even observed in animals fed with HP diet. Conclusions: We propose Cpt1a gene expression analysis in PBMC as an early biomarker of metabolic alterations associated with MONW phenotype due to the intake of isocaloric HF diets, as

  18. Thermodynamics of Organic Compound Alteration in Hydrothermal Systems (United States)

    Shock, E. L.


    Organic compounds enter hydrothermal systems through infiltrating surface waters, zones of microbial productivity in the subsurface, extracts of organic matter in surrounding host rocks, and abiotic synthesis. Owing to variations in pH, oxidation state, composition, temperature, and pressure throughout the changing pathways of fluid migration over the duration of the system, organic compounds from all of these sources are introduced to conditions where their relative stabilities and reactivities can be dramatically transformed. If those transformations were predictable, then the extent to which organic alteration reactions have occurred could be used to reveal flowpaths and histories of hydrothermal systems. Speciation and mass transfer calculations permit some insight into the underlying thermodynamic driving forces that result in organic compound alteration. As an example, the speciation of many geochemist's canonical organic matter: CH2O depends strongly on oxidation state, temperature, and total concentration of dissolved organic matter. Calculations show that at oxidation states buffered by iron-bearing mineral assemblages, organic acids dominate the speciation of CH2O throughout hydrothermal systems, with acetic acid (itself equivalent to 2 CH2O by bulk composition) and propanoic acid generally the most abundant compounds. However, at more reduced conditions, which may prevail in organic-rich iron-poor sediments, the drive is to form ketones and especially alcohols at the expense of organic acids. The distribution of organic carbon among the various members of these compound classes is strongly dependent on the total concentration of dissolved organic matter. As an example, at a bulk concentration equivalent to average dissolved organic matter in seawater (45μm), the dominant alcohols at 100°C are small compounds like ethanol and 1-propanol. In contrast, at a higher bulk concentration of 500μm, there is a drive to shift large percentages of dissolved

  19. Numerical Models of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity: Brain Circulation (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; David, Tim


    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is presented to model the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Models required for CFD simulation relevant to major hemodynamic issues are introduced such as non-Newtonian flow models governed by red blood cells, a model for arterial wall motion due to fluid-wall interactions, a vascular bed model for outflow boundary conditions, and a model for auto-regulation mechanism. The three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with these models are solved iteratively using the pseudocompressibility method and dual time stepping. Moving wall boundary conditions from the first-order fluid-wall interaction model are used to study the influence of arterial wall distensibility on flow patterns and wall shear stresses during the heart pulse. A vascular bed modeling utilizing the analogy with electric circuits is coupled with an auto-regulation algorithm for multiple outflow boundaries. For the treatment of complex geometry, a chimera overset grid technique is adopted to obtain connectivity between arterial branches. For code validation, computed results are compared with experimental data for steady and unsteady non-Newtonian flows. Good agreement is obtained for both cases. In sin-type Gravity Benchmark Problems, gravity source terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effect of gravitational variation on the human circulatory system. This computational approach is then applied to localized blood flows through a realistic carotid bifurcation and two Circle of Willis models, one using an idealized geometry and the other model using an anatomical data set. A three- dimensional anatomical Circle of Willis configuration is reconstructed from human-specific magnetic resonance images using an image segmentation method. The blood flow through these Circle of Willis models is simulated to provide means for studying gravitational effects on the brain

  20. Acute systemic rapamycin induces neurobehavioral alterations in rats. (United States)

    Hadamitzky, Martin; Herring, Arne; Keyvani, Kathy; Doenlen, Raphael; Krügel, Ute; Bösche, Katharina; Orlowski, Kathrin; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred


    Rapamycin is a drug with antiproliferative and immunosuppressive properties, widely used for prevention of acute graft rejection and cancer therapy. It specifically inhibits the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a protein kinase known to play an important role in cell growth, proliferation and antibody production. Clinical observations show that patients undergoing therapy with immunosuppressive drugs frequently suffer from affective disorders such as anxiety or depression. However, whether these symptoms are attributed to the action of the distinct compounds remains rather elusive. The present study investigated in rats neurobehavioral consequences of acute rapamycin treatment. Systemic administration of a single low dose rapamycin (3mg/kg) led to enhanced neuronal activity in the amygdala analyzed by intracerebral electroencephalography and FOS protein expression 90min after drug injection. Moreover, behavioral investigations revealed a rapamycin-induced increase in anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze and in the open-field. The behavioral alterations correlated to enhanced amygdaloid expression of KLK8 and FKBP51, proteins that have been implicated in the development of anxiety and depression. Together, these results demonstrate that acute blockade of mTOR signaling by acute rapamycin administration not only causes changes in neuronal activity, but also leads to elevated protein expression in protein kinase pathways others than mTOR, contributing to the development of anxiety-like behavior. Given the pivotal role of the amygdala in mood regulation, associative learning, and modulation of cognitive functions, our findings raise the question whether therapy with rapamycin may induce alterations in patients neuropsychological functioning.

  1. Altered signaling in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis monocytes. (United States)

    Macaubas, Claudia; Wong, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yujuan; Nguyen, Khoa D; Lee, Justin; Milojevic, Diana; Shenoi, Susan; Stevens, Anne M; Ilowite, Norman; Saper, Vivian; Lee, Tzielan; Mellins, Elizabeth D


    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is characterized by systemic inflammation and arthritis. Monocytes are implicated in sJIA pathogenesis, but their role in disease is unclear. The response of sJIA monocytes to IFN may be dysregulated. We examined intracellular signaling in response to IFN type I (IFNα) and type II (IFNγ) in monocytes during sJIA activity and quiescence, in 2 patient groups. Independent of disease activity, monocytes from Group 1 (collected between 2002 and 2009) showed defective STAT1 phosphorylation downstream of IFNs, and expressed higher transcript levels of SOCS1, an inhibitor of IFN signaling. In the Group 2 (collected between 2011 and 2014), monocytes of patients with recent disease onset were IFNγ hyporesponsive, but in treated, quiescent subjects, monocytes were hyperresponsive to IFNγ. Recent changes in medication in sJIA may alter the IFN hyporesponsiveness. Impaired IFN/pSTAT1 signaling is consistent with skewing of sJIA monocytes away from an M1 phenotype and may contribute to disease pathology.

  2. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction. (United States)

    Ahmed, R G


    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system.

  3. Fluid-filled blood pressure measurement systems. (United States)

    Li, J K; van Brummelen, A G; Noordergraaf, A


    The performance of catheter-manometer systems for the measurement of pulsatile pressure has been evaluated by both experimental techniques and theoretical considerations. The former approach has shown, on occasion, multiple maxima in the amplitude response. The latter has been approached in a variety of ways, ranging from extreme lumping to application of transmission line theory while employing different configurations in the system's representation. Multiple maxima have also been seen, The present paper identifies the sources of the differences found and compares the relative merits of various theoretical approaches. It introduces the compliance of the system as a figure of merit and provides a simple first-order approximation formula for evaluation of the quality of a system. Damping and impedance matching to improve the system's frequency response were studied. It was found that they were not needed in a very stiff or a very compliant system, nor should one worry about the representation of such a system.

  4. Alterations in Arterial Blood Parameters in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Charalabopoulos, Dimitrios Peschos, Leonidas Zoganas, George Bablekos, Christos Golias, Alexander Charalabopoulos, Dimitrios Stagikas, Angi Karakosta, Athanasios Papathanasopoulos, George Karachalios, Anna Batistatou


    Full Text Available In cirrhotic patients, in addition to hepatocytes and Kuppfer cells dysfunction circulatory anatomic shunt and ventilation/perfusion (VA/ Q ratio abnormalities can induce decrease in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2, in oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2 as well as various acid-base disturbances. We studied 49 cases of liver cirrhosis (LC with ascites compared to 50 normal controls. Causes were: posthepatic 37 (75.51%, alcoholic 7 (14.24%, cardiac 2 (4.08%, and cryptogenic 3 (6.12%. Complications were: upper gastrointestinal bleeding 24 (48.97, hepatic encephalopathy 20 (40.81%, gastritis 28 (57.14%, hepatoma 5 (10.2%, renal hepatic syndrome 2 (4.01%, HbsAg (+ 24 (48.97%, and hepatic pleural effusions 7 (14.28%. Average PaO2 and SaO2 were 75.2 mmHg and 94.5 mmHg, respectively, compared to 94.2 mmHg and 97.1 mmHg of the control group, respectively (p value in both PaO2 and SaO2 was pA/Q inequality can induce a decrease in PaO2 and SaO2 as well as various acid-base disturbances. As a result, pulmonary resistance is impaired and patients more likely succumb to infections and adult respiratory distress syndrome.

  5. Alteration of blood clot structures by interleukin-1 beta in association with bone defects healing (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Friis, Thor E.; Masci, Paul P.; Crawford, Ross W.; Liao, Wenbo; Xiao, Yin


    The quality of hematomas are crucial for successful early bone defect healing, as the structure of fibrin clots can significantly influence the infiltration of cells, necessary for bone regeneration, from adjacent tissues into the fibrin network. This study investigated if there were structural differences between hematomas from normal and delayed healing bone defects and whether such differences were linked to changes in the expression of IL-1β. Using a bone defect model in rats, we found that the hematomas in the delayed healing model had thinner fibers and denser clot structures. Moreover, IL-1β protein levels were significantly higher in the delayed healing hematomas. The effects of IL-1β on the structural properties of human whole blood clots were evaluated by thrombelastograph (TEG), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), compressive study, and thrombolytic assays. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was applied to modulate de novo hematoma structure and the impact on bone healing was evaluated in the delayed healing model. We found that GSNO produced more porous hematomas with thicker fibers and resulted in significantly enhanced bone healing. This study demonstrated that IL-1β and GSNO had opposing effects on clot architecture, the structure of which plays a pivotal role in early bone healing. PMID:27767056

  6. 10th NTES Conference: Nickel and Arsenic Compounds Alter the Epigenome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. (United States)

    Brocato, Jason; Costa, Max


    The mechanisms that underlie metal carcinogenesis are the subject of intense investigation; however, data from in vitro and in vivo studies are starting to piece together a story that implicates epigenetics as a key player. Data from our lab has shown that nickel compounds inhibit dioxygenase enzymes by displacing iron in the active site. Arsenic is hypothesized to inhibit these enzymes by diminishing ascorbate levels--an important co-factor for dioxygenases. Inhibition of histone demethylase dioxygenases can increase histone methylation levels, which also may affect gene expression. Recently, our lab conducted a series of investigations in human subjects exposed to high levels of nickel or arsenic compounds. Global levels of histone modifications in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from exposed subjects were compared to low environmentally exposed controls. Results showed that nickel increased H3K4me3 and decreased H3K9me2 globally. Arsenic increased H3K9me2 and decreased H3K9ac globally. Other histone modifications affected by arsenic were sex-dependent. Nickel affected the expression of 2756 genes in human PBMCs and many of the genes were involved in immune and carcinogenic pathways. This review will describe data from our lab that demonstrates for the first time that nickel and arsenic compounds affect global levels of histone modifications and gene expression in exposed human populations.

  7. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Rausch


    Full Text Available Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2 are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations.

  8. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection. (United States)

    Rausch, Philipp; Steck, Natalie; Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Seidel, Janice A; Künzel, Sven; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Basic, Marijana; Bleich, Andre; Johnsen, Jill M; Vallance, Bruce A; Baines, John F; Grassl, Guntram A


    Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2) are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations.

  9. Primary Somatosensory Cortices Contain Altered Patterns of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in the Interictal Phase of Migraine (United States)

    Hodkinson, Duncan J.; Veggeberg, Rosanna; Wilcox, Sophie L.; Scrivani, Steven; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David


    The regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is a complex integrated process that is critical for supporting healthy brain function. Studies have demonstrated a high incidence of alterations in CBF in patients suffering from migraine with and without aura during different phases of attacks. However, the CBF data collected interictally has failed to show any distinguishing features or clues as to the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. In this study we used the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique—arterial spin labeling (ASL)—to non-invasively and quantitatively measure regional CBF (rCBF) in a case-controlled study of interictal migraine. We examined both the regional and global CBF differences between the groups, and found a significant increase in rCBF in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) of migraine patients. The CBF values in S1 were positively correlated with the headache attack frequency, but were unrelated to the duration of illness or age of the patients. Additionally, 82% of patients reported skin hypersensitivity (cutaneous allodynia) during migraine, suggesting atypical processing of somatosensory stimuli. Our results demonstrate the presence of a disease-specific functional deficit in a known region of the trigemino-cortical pathway, which may be driven by adaptive or maladaptive functional plasticity. These findings may in part explain the altered sensory experiences reported between migraine attacks. PMID:26372461

  10. Primary Somatosensory Cortices Contain Altered Patterns of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in the Interictal Phase of Migraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J Hodkinson

    Full Text Available The regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF is a complex integrated process that is critical for supporting healthy brain function. Studies have demonstrated a high incidence of alterations in CBF in patients suffering from migraine with and without aura during different phases of attacks. However, the CBF data collected interictally has failed to show any distinguishing features or clues as to the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. In this study we used the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique-arterial spin labeling (ASL-to non-invasively and quantitatively measure regional CBF (rCBF in a case-controlled study of interictal migraine. We examined both the regional and global CBF differences between the groups, and found a significant increase in rCBF in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 of migraine patients. The CBF values in S1 were positively correlated with the headache attack frequency, but were unrelated to the duration of illness or age of the patients. Additionally, 82% of patients reported skin hypersensitivity (cutaneous allodynia during migraine, suggesting atypical processing of somatosensory stimuli. Our results demonstrate the presence of a disease-specific functional deficit in a known region of the trigemino-cortical pathway, which may be driven by adaptive or maladaptive functional plasticity. These findings may in part explain the altered sensory experiences reported between migraine attacks.

  11. Malaria Parasite Proteins and Their Role in Alteration of the Structure and Function of Red Blood Cells. (United States)

    Proellocks, Nicholas I; Coppel, Ross L; Mohandas, Narla; Cooke, Brian M


    Malaria, caused by Plasmodium spp., continues to be a major threat to human health and a significant cause of socioeconomic hardship in many countries. Almost half of the world's population live in malaria-endemic regions and many of them suffer one or more, often life-threatening episodes of malaria every year, the symptoms of which are attributable to replication of the parasite within red blood cells (RBCs). In the case of Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for most malaria-related deaths, parasite replication within RBCs is accompanied by striking alterations to the morphological, biochemical and biophysical properties of the host cell that are essential for the parasites' survival. To achieve this, the parasite establishes a unique and extensive protein export network in the infected RBC, dedicating at least 6% of its genome to the process. Understanding the full gamut of proteins involved in this process and the mechanisms by which P. falciparum alters the structure and function of RBCs is important both for a more complete understanding of the pathogenesis of malaria and for development of new therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat this devastating disease. This review focuses on what is currently known about exported parasite proteins, their interactions with the RBC and their likely pathophysiological consequences.

  12. Performance of Gram staining on blood cultures flagged negative by an automated blood culture system. (United States)

    Peretz, A; Isakovich, N; Pastukh, N; Koifman, A; Glyatman, T; Brodsky, D


    Blood is one of the most important specimens sent to a microbiology laboratory for culture. Most blood cultures are incubated for 5-7 days, except in cases where there is a suspicion of infection caused by microorganisms that proliferate slowly, or infections expressed by a small number of bacteria in the bloodstream. Therefore, at the end of incubation, misidentification of positive cultures and false-negative results are a real possibility. The aim of this work was to perform a confirmation by Gram staining of the lack of any microorganisms in blood cultures that were identified as negative by the BACTEC™ FX system at the end of incubation. All bottles defined as negative by the BACTEC FX system were Gram-stained using an automatic device and inoculated on solid growth media. In our work, 15 cultures that were defined as negative by the BACTEC FX system at the end of the incubation were found to contain microorganisms when Gram-stained. The main characteristic of most bacteria and fungi growing in the culture bottles that were defined as negative was slow growth. This finding raises a problematic issue concerning the need to perform Gram staining of all blood cultures, which could overload the routine laboratory work, especially laboratories serving large medical centers and receiving a large number of blood cultures.

  13. Sox7-sustained expression alters the balance between proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors at the onset of blood specification. (United States)

    Gandillet, Arnaud; Serrano, Alicia G; Pearson, Stella; Lie-A-Ling, Michael; Lacaud, Georges; Kouskoff, Valerie


    The molecular mechanisms that regulate the balance between proliferation and differentiation of precursors at the onset of hematopoiesis specification are poorly understood. By using a global gene expression profiling approach during the course of embryonic stem cell differentiation, we identified Sox7 as a potential candidate gene involved in the regulation of blood lineage formation from the mesoderm germ layer. In the present study, we show that Sox7 is transiently expressed in mesodermal precursors as they undergo specification to the hematopoietic program. Sox7 knockdown in vitro significantly decreases the formation of both primitive erythroid and definitive hematopoietic progenitors as well as endothelial progenitors. In contrast, Sox7-sustained expression in the earliest committed hematopoietic precursors promotes the maintenance of their multipotent and self-renewing status. Removal of this differentiation block driven by Sox7-enforced expression leads to the efficient differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors to all erythroid and myeloid lineages. This study identifies Sox7 as a novel and important player in the molecular regulation of the first committed blood precursors. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the mere sustained expression of Sox7 is sufficient to completely alter the balance between proliferation and differentiation at the onset of hematopoiesis.

  14. Effects of carboxymethyl chitosan on the blood system of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Dawei [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Han, Baoqin, E-mail: [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Dong, Wen; Yang, Zhao; Lv, You; Liu, Wanshun [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China)


    Highlights: {yields} We report, for the first time, the safety of carboxymethyl chitosan in blood system. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on coagulation function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on anticoagulation performance of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on fibrinolytic function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on hemorheology of rats. -- Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan), a derivative of chitosan, was extensively studied in the biomedical materials field for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CM-chitosan in the blood system are lacking. In this study CM-chitosan was implanted into the abdominal cavity of rats to determine blood indexes at different times and to evaluate the effects of CM-chitosan on the blood system of rats. Coagulation function was reflected by thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) indexes; anti-coagulation performance was assessed by the index of antithrombinIII (ATIII); fibrinolytic function was reflected by plasminogen (PLG) and fibrin degradation product (FDP) indexes; and blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV) indexes reflected hemorheology. Results showed that CM-chitosan has no significant effects on the blood system of rats, and provides experimental basis for CM-chitosan to be applied in the field of biomedical materials.

  15. Altered B cell receptor signaling in human systemic lupus erythematosus (United States)

    Jenks, Scott A.; Sanz, Iñaki


    Regulation of B cell receptor signaling is essential for the development of specific immunity while retaining tolerance to self. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by a loss of B cell tolerance and the production of anti-self antibodies. Accompanying this break down in tolerance are alterations in B cell receptor signal transduction including elevated induced calcium responses and increased protein phosphorylation. Specific pathways that negatively regulate B cell signaling have been shown to be impaired in some SLE patients. These patients have reduced levels of the kinase Lyn in lipid raft microdomains and this reduction is inversely correlated with increased CD45 in lipid rafts. Function and expression of the inhibitory immunoglobulin receptor FcγRIIB is also reduced in Lupus IgM- CD27+ memory cells. Because the relative contribution of different memory and transitional B cell subsets can be abnormal in SLE patients, we believe studies targeted to well defined B cell subsets will be necessary to further our understanding of signaling abnormalities in SLE. Intracellular flow cytometric analysis of signaling is a useful approach to accomplish this goal. PMID:18723129

  16. Broadly altered gene expression in blood leukocytes in essential hypertension is absent during treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chon, H; Gaillard, CAJM; van der Meijden, BB; Dijstelbloem, HM; Kraaijenhagen, RJ; van Leenen, D; Holstege, FCP; Joles, JA; Bluyssen, HAR; Koomans, HA; Braam, B


    We assessed whether large-scale expression profiling of leukocytes of patients with essential hypertension reflects characteristics of systemic disease and whether such changes are responsive to antihypertensive therapy. Total RNA from leukocytes were obtained from untreated (n=6) and treated (n=6)

  17. 76 FR 4451 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... Altered System of Records AGENCY: Executive Systems and Fellowship Staff, Atlanta Human Resources Center... Health and Human Services (HHS) may disclose information from this system of records to the Department of...). ACTION: Notification of Proposed Altered System of Records. SUMMARY: The Department of Health and...

  18. Followup Audit: Enterprise Blood Management System Not Ready for Full Deployment (United States)


    Blood Donor Management System (donor system) and the Blood Management Blood Bank /Transfusion Service (transfusion system). The Component Acquisition...transfusion system Business Case Analysis, EBMS will enhance the DoD blood program capabilities for blood banking and transfusion services through...state that it is used to organize the management of blood bank and transfusion services. The transfusion system will interface with outside systems

  19. Blood (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  20. Changes in EEG, systemic circulation and blood gas parameters following two or six aliquots of porcine surfactant. (United States)

    Lundstrøm, K E; Greisen, G


    Surfactant instillation often causes transient EEG suppression, the cause remaining unknown. To compare the timing of the EEG changes with the timing of the changes in blood gases and systemic circulation we compared two administration modes: 20 preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive the initial dose of surfactant divided into two or six aliquots. Heart rate, blood pressure and transcutaneous blood gases were measured continuously, while left ventricular output was estimated intermittently. No difference in blood gas response was found between the groups, whereas the circulatory changes occurred more gradually with six aliquots. EEG suppression was similar in the two groups and not related to the circulatory or the respiratory changes. Left ventricular output increased in all patients following surfactant instillation. We conclude that the EEG suppression is not directly related to alterations in blood gases or systemic circulation.

  1. Nanowired Drug Delivery Across the Blood-Brain Barrier in Central Nervous System Injury and Repair. (United States)

    Sharma, Aruna; Menon, Preeti; Muresanu, Dafin F; Ozkizilcik, Asya; Tian, Z Ryan; Lafuente, José V; Sharma, Hari S


    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physiological regulator of transport of essential items from blood to brain for the maintenance of homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) within narrow limits. The BBB is also responsible for export of harmful or metabolic products from brain to blood to keep the CNS fluid microenvironment healthy. However, noxious insults to the brain caused by trauma, ischemia or environmental/chemical toxins alter the BBB function to small as well as large molecules e.g., proteins. When proteins enter the CNS fluid microenvironment, development of brain edema occurs due to altered osmotic balance between blood and brain. On the other hand, almost all neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic insults to the CNS and subsequent BBB dysfunction lead to edema formation and cell injury. To treat these brain disorders suitable drug therapy reaching their brain targets is needed. However, due to edema formation or only a focal disruption of the BBB e.g., around brain tumors, many drugs are unable to reach their CNS targets in sufficient quantity. This results in poor therapeutic outcome. Thus, new technology such as nanodelivery is needed for drugs to reach their CNS targets and be effective. In this review, use of nanowires as a possible novel tool to enhance drug delivery into the CNS in various disease models is discussed based on our investigations. These data show that nanowired delivery of drugs may have superior neuroprotective ability to treat several CNS diseases effectively indicating their role in future therapeutic strategies.

  2. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  4. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S;


    A coarctation hypertensive rat model was used to examine the effects of elevated blood pressure on basement membrane component synthesis by cardiac myocytes and aorta using immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis. Carotid arterial pressure increased immediately on coarctation, and left...

  5. Highly sensitive optical sensor system for blood leakage detection (United States)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Jie, Chen; Sanae, Mizuno; Touma, Yasunori

    A highly sensitive method for the detection of blood leakage has been developed, and a practical sensor system for blood concentration measurement has been constructed. The present method is based on the attenuation of laser light by blood cells. The effects of the fluctuations of the incident laser light power are eliminated by normalizing the attenuated light intensity by the incident light intensity. A part of the incident laser light is reflected by a beam splitter mounted at the entrance of the test cell, of which the power is measured to provide base data for normalization. The optical path is extended to enhance sensitivity by using a pair of side mirrors. This multi-reflection method is very effective to increase sensitivity; the maximum sensitivity obtained for blood concentration is about 4 X 10 -6 by volume, which is significantly higher than that of the conventional sensors.

  6. The ABO blood group system revisited: a review and update. (United States)

    Storry, J R; Olsson, M L


    The antigens of the ABO system were the first to be recognized as blood groups and actually the first human genetic markers known. Their presence and the realization of naturally occurring antibodies to those antigens lacking from the cells made sense of the erratic failure of blood transfusion hitherto and opened up the possibility of a safe treatment practice in life-threatening blood loss. Although initially apparently simple, the ABO system has come to grow in complexity over the years. The mass of knowledge relating to carbohydrate chemistry, enzymology, molecular genetics, and structural and evolutionary biology is now enormous thanks to more than a century of research using ABO as a principal model. This has provided us with data to form a solid platform of evidence-based transfusion and transplantation medicine used every day in laboratories and clinics around the globe. This review aims to summarize key findings and recent progress made toward further understanding of this surprisingly polymorphic system.

  7. Blood parameter analysis and morphological alterations as biomarkers on the health of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Romão


    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the influence of the environment on fish health. Samples of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis, were collected from three different environments: area I was urban and areas II and III were rural. Analyses of red blood cell count, microhematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count and differential white cell count in blood smear were carried out. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated. To analyze morphological alterations, gills, liver, kidney and gonads were submitted to routine histological processing. Individuals collected from area III had slightly lower blood indices than collected from area I . Severe kidney changes, degeneration of and crystallization within kidney tubules were observed. In area I, crystallization was observed in 92% of the specimens of G. brasiliensis. These results suggested that such alterations were related with poor water circulation in the place.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do ambiente sobre a higidez dos peixes. Animais, das espécies Hoplias malabaricus e Geophagus brasiliensis foram coletados em três ambientes distintos, sendo ambiente I região urbana e ambientes II e III em região rural. Foram realizadas análises do número total de eritrócitos por microlitro de sangue, microhematócrito, taxa de hemoglobina, porcentagem de leucócito e contagem diferencial de leucócitos em extensão sanguínea. Calcularam-se os índices hematimétricos absolutos: volume corpuscular médio e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média. Para análises das alterações morfológicas, brânquias, fígado, gônadas e rim seguiram processamento histológico de rotina. Foram observados índices hematológicos ligeiramente menores em indivíduos coletados no ambiente III em relação aos animais coletados no ambiente I. As análises histológicas de brânquias, fígado e gônadas das espécies G

  8. Microfluidic filtration system to isolate extracellular vesicles from blood. (United States)

    Davies, Ryan T; Kim, Junho; Jang, Su Chul; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Gho, Yong Song; Park, Jaesung


    Extracellular vesicles are released by various cell types, particularly tumor cells, and may be potential targets for blood-based cancer diagnosis. However, studies performed on blood-borne vesicles to date have been limited by lack of effective, standardized purification strategies. Using in situ prepared nanoporous membranes, we present a simple strategy employing a microfluidic filtration system to isolate vesicles from whole blood samples. This method can be applied to purify nano-sized particles from blood allowing isolation of intact extracellular vesicles, avoiding the need for laborious and potentially damaging centrifugation steps or overly specific antibody-based affinity purification. Porous polymer monoliths were integrated as membranes into poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chips by benchtop UV photopolymerization through a mask, allowing precise positioning of membrane elements while preserving simplicity of device preparation. Pore size could be manipulated by changing the ratio of porogenic solvent to prepolymer solution, and was tuned to a size proper for extraction of vesicles. Using the membrane as a size exclusion filter, we separated vesicles from cells and large debris by injecting whole blood under pressure through the microfluidic device. To enhance isolation purity, DC electrophoresis was employed as an alternative driving force to propel particles across the filter and increase the separation efficiency of vesicles from proteins. From the whole blood of melanoma-grown mice, we isolated extracellular vesicles and performed RT-PCR to verify their contents of RNA. Melan A mRNA derived from melanoma tumor cells were found enriched in filtered samples, confirming the recovery of vesicles via their cargo. This filtration system can be incorporated into other on-chip processes enabling integrated sample preparation for the downstream analysis of blood-based extracellular vesicles.

  9. How the python heart separates pulmonary and systemic blood pressures and blood flows. (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jan M; Axelsson, Michael; Pedersen, Michael; Löfman, Carl; Wang, Tobias


    The multiple convergent evolution of high systemic blood pressure among terrestrial vertebrates has always been accompanied by lowered pulmonary pressure. In mammals, birds and crocodilians, this cardiac separation of pressures relies on the complete division of the right and left ventricles by a complete ventricular septum. However, the anatomy of the ventricle of most reptiles does not allow for complete anatomical division, but the hearts of pythons and varanid lizards can produce high systemic blood pressure while keeping the pulmonary blood pressure low. It is also known that these two groups of reptiles are characterised by low magnitudes of cardiac shunts. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms that allow for this pressure separation. Here we provide a description of cardiac structures and intracardiac events that have been revealed by ultrasonic measurements and angioscopy. Echocardiography revealed that the atrioventricular valves descend deep into the ventricle during ventricular filling and thereby greatly reduce the communication between the systemic (cavum arteriosum) and pulmonary (cavum pulmonale) ventricular chambers during diastole. Angioscopy and echocardiography showed how the two incomplete septa, the muscular ridge and the bulbuslamelle - ventricular structures common to all squamates - contract against each other in systole and provide functional division of the anatomically subdivided ventricle. Washout shunts are inevitable in the subdivided snake ventricle, but we show that the site of shunting, the cavum venosum, is very small throughout the cardiac cycle. It is concluded that the python ventricle is incapable of the pronounced and variable shunts of other snakes, because of its architecture and valvular mechanics.

  10. [Possibility of using DST-30 thermoelastoplast in blood transfusion systems]. (United States)

    Il'iakov, E V; El'tsefon, B S; Polezhaev, V V; Zotkina, I V; Krivonosov, A I


    Investigating possible application of the DCT-30 thermoelastoplastic shows advantages of some physico-technical properties of this product based on natural caoutchouc and latex by comparison with base-rubber onene. It justifies recommending the former for making injection tubes in the blood transfusion systems.

  11. The cyclic AMP cascade is altered in the fragile X nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kelley

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FX, the most common heritable cause of mental retardation and autism, is a developmental disorder characterized by physical, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. FX results from a trinucleotide expansion mutation in the fmr1 gene that reduces levels of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. Although research efforts have focused on FMRP's impact on mGluR signaling, how the loss of FMRP leads to the individual symptoms of FX is not known. Previous studies on human FX blood cells revealed alterations in the cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP cascade. We tested the hypothesis that cAMP signaling is altered in the FX nervous system using three different model systems. Induced levels of cAMP in platelets and in brains of fmr1 knockout mice are substantially reduced. Cyclic AMP induction is also significantly reduced in human FX neural cells. Furthermore, cAMP production is decreased in the heads of FX Drosophila and this defect can be rescued by reintroduction of the dfmr gene. Our results indicate that a robust defect in cAMP production in FX is conserved across species and suggest that cAMP metabolism may serve as a useful biomarker in the human disease population. Reduced cAMP induction has implications for the underlying causes of FX and autism spectrum disorders. Pharmacological agents known to modulate the cAMP cascade may be therapeutic in FX patients and can be tested in these models, thus supplementing current efforts centered on mGluR signaling.

  12. Altered blood oxygen level-dependent signal variability in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder during symptom provocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke J


    Full Text Available Jun Ke,1,* Li Zhang,2,* Rongfeng Qi,1,* Qiang Xu,1 Weihui Li,2 Cailan Hou,3 Yuan Zhong,1 Zhiqiang Zhang,1 Zhong He,4 Lingjiang Li,2,5 Guangming Lu11Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 2Mental Health Institute, the Second Xiangya Hospital, National Technology Institute of Psychiatry, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, 3Guangdong Academy of Medical Science, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Mental Health Center, Guangzhou, 4Department of Radiology of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 5Shenzhen Kangning Hospital of Guangdong Province, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Recent research suggests that variability in brain signal provides important information about brain function in health and disease. However, it is unknown whether blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signal variability is altered in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We aimed to identify the BOLD signal variability changes of PTSD patients during symptom provocation and compare the brain patterns of BOLD signal variability with those of brain activation.Methods: Twelve PTSD patients and 14 age-matched controls, who all experienced a mining accident, underwent clinical assessment as well as fMRI scanning while viewing trauma-related and neutral pictures. BOLD signal variability and brain activation were respectively examined with standard deviation (SD and general linear model analysis, and compared between the PTSD and control groups. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between PTSD symptom severity and these two brain measures across all subjects as well as in the PTSD group.Results: PTSD patients showed increased activation in the middle occipital gyrus compared with controls, and an inverse correlation was found between PTSD

  13. Elimination of young erythrocytes from blood circulation and altered erythropoietic patterns during paraquat induced anemic phase in mice. (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Nitin; Saxena, Rajiv K


    Paraquat a widely used herbicide causes a variety of toxic effects on humans and animals. The present study is focused on the interaction of paraquat with the mouse erythroid system. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg body weight i.p. on alternate days in C57Bl/6 mice) induced a significant fall in blood erythrocyte count on 7, 14, and 21 day time points but the erythrocyte count reverted back to normal by 28th day indicating the emergence of refractoriness to paraquat. A marked surge in the blood reticulocyte count was observed in paraquat treated mice that also subsided by 28th day. Young erythrocytes in circulation were randomly eliminated from blood circulation in paraquat treated mice and a significant elevation in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also observed maximally the erythrocytes of this age group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were identified and enumerated flow cytometrically based on their expression of Ter119 and transferrin (CD71) receptor. Proliferative activity of erythroid cells, their relative proportion as well as their absolute numbers fell significantly in bone marrow of paraquat treated mice but all these parameters were significantly elevated in spleens of paraquat treated mice. These changes were essentially restricted to the cells belonging to the two earliest stages of erythroid differentiation. Taken together our results indicate that paraquat treatment causes a transient anemia in mice resulting from random elimination of young circulating erythrocytes as well as depressed erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. Spleen erythropoietic activity however was elevated in paraquat treated mice.

  14. CKbeta8-1 alters expression of cyclin E in colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) lineage from human cord blood CD34+ cells. (United States)

    Noh, Eui Kyu; Ra, Jae Sun; Lee, Seong Ae; Kwon, Byoung S; Han, In Seob


    A C6 beta-chemokine, CKbeta8-1, suppressed the colony formation of CD34+ cells of human cord blood (CB). Molecular mechanisms involved in CKbeta8-1-medicated suppression of colony formation of CD34+ cells are not known. To address this issue, the level of various G1/S cell cycle regulating proteins in CKbeta8-1-treated CD34+ cells were compared with those in untreated CD34+ cells. CKbeta8-1 did not significantly alter the expression of the G1/S cycle regulation proteins (cyclin D1, D3, and E), CDK inhibitor (p27and Rb), and other cell proliferation regulation protein (p53) in CB CD34+ cells. Here we describe an in vitro system in which CB CD34+ cells were committed to a multipotent progenitor lineage of colony forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) by a simple combination of recombinant human (rh) GM-CSF and rhIL-3. In this culture system, we found that cyclin E protein appeared later and disappeared faster in the CKbeta8-1-treated cells than in the control cells during CFU-GM lineage development. These findings suggested that cyclin E may play a role in suppressing the colony formation of CFU-GM by CKbeta8-1.

  15. Systemic sclerosis patients present alterations in the expression of molecules involved in B cell regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eSoto


    Full Text Available The activation threshold of B cells is tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activator receptors, in such a way that disturbances in their expression can lead to the appearance of autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of activating and inhibitory molecules involved in the modulation of B cell functions in transitional, naïve and memory B cell sub-populations from systemic sclerosis patients. To achieve this, blood samples were drawn from thirty one systemic sclerosis patients and fifty three healthy individuals. Surface expression of CD86, MHC II, CD19, CD21, CD40, CD22, Siglec 10, CD35, and FcgammaRIIB was determined by flow cytometry. IL-10 production was evaluated by intracellular flow cytometry from isolated B cells. Soluble IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA from supernatants of stimulated B cells. Systemic sclerosis patients exhibit an increased frequency of transitional and naïve B cells related to memory B cells, compared to healthy controls. Transitional and naïve B cells from patients express higher levels of CD86 and FcgammaRIIB than healthy donors. Also, B cells from patients show high expression of CD19 and CD40, while memory cells from systemic sclerosis patients show reduced expression of CD35. CD19 and CD35 expression levels associate to different autoantibody profiles. IL-10+ B cells and secreted levels of IL-10 were markedly reduced in patients. In conclusion, systemic sclerosis patients show alterations in the expression of molecules involved in B cell regulation. These abnormalities may be determinant in the B cell hyperactivation observed in systemic sclerosis.

  16. Altered Expression of Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors and NKG2D on Peripheral Blood NK Cell Subsets in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeli Goreti Nieto-Velázquez


    Full Text Available Human natural killer (NK cells are considered professional cytotoxic cells that are integrated into the effector branch of innate immunity during antiviral and antitumoral responses. The purpose of this study was to examine the peripheral distribution and expression of NK cell activation receptors from the fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 30 breast cancer patients prior to any form of treatment (including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, 10 benign breast pathology patients, and 24 control individuals. CD3−CD56dimCD16bright NK cells (CD56dim NK and CD3−CD56brightCD16dim/− NK cells (CD56bright NK were identified using flow cytometry. The circulating counts of CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells were not significantly different between the groups evaluated, nor were the counts of other leukocyte subsets between the breast cancer patients and benign breast pathology patients. However, in CD56dim NK cells, NKp44 expression was higher in breast cancer patients (P = .0302, whereas NKp30 (P = .0005, NKp46 (P = .0298, and NKG2D (P = .0005 expression was lower with respect to healthy donors. In CD56bright NK cells, NKp30 (P = .0007, NKp46 (P = .0012, and NKG2D (P = .0069 expression was lower in breast cancer patients compared with control group. Only NKG2D in CD56bright NK cells (P = .0208 and CD56dim NK cells (P = .0439 showed difference between benign breast pathology and breast cancer patients. Collectively, the current study showed phenotypic alterations in activation receptors on CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells, suggesting that breast cancer patients have decreased NK cell cytotoxicity.

  17. Blood-Pressure Measuring System Gives Accurate Graphic Output (United States)


    The problem: To develop an instrument that will provide an external (indirect) measurement of arterial blood pressure in the form of an easily interpreted graphic trace that can be correlated with standard clinical blood-pressure measurements. From sphygmograms produced by conventional sphygmographs, it is very difficult to differentiate the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure pulses and to correlate these indices with the standard clinical values. It is nearly impossible to determine these indices when the subject is under physical or emotional stress. The solution: An electronic blood-pressure system, basically similar to conventional ausculatory sphygmomanometers, employing a standard occluding cuff, a gas-pressure source, and a gas-pressure regulator and valve. An electrical output transducer senses cuff pressure, and a microphone positioned on the brachial artery under the occluding cuff monitors the Korotkoff sounds from this artery. The output signals present the conventional systolic and diastolic indices in a clear, graphical display. The complete system also includes an electronic timer and cycle-control circuit.

  18. Alterations of growth, blood biochemical components and hormone profiles by intensified nutrition in growth retarded Japanese Black cattle. (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisaku; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kazamatsuri, Hiroyuki; Ando, Takaaki; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Oikawa, Masaaki; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu


    In order to determine the clinical conditions of Japanese Black (JB) cattle with growth retardation, we determined the changes of body growth, blood profiles of metabolism and hormones caused by intensified nutrition (sufficient total digestible nutrients and digestible crude protein for a target daily gain set at 1.2-1.3 kg/day) in three cattle. The daily gain (DG) was increased during the intensified period (Intense) compared with the preparation period (Pre), but the DG in the Intense period was 36-66% of the target DG. Serum albumin, total cholesterol, insulin and IGF-1 increased during the Intense period compared with the Pre period. Serum GH showed high levels in the Pre period, whereas it showed lower levels in the Intense period. These results suggested that the present growth retarded cattle had abnormalities in their metabolic systems and lacked nutrient absorption.

  19. Ginkgo biloba extract alters the binding of the sodium [{sup 123}I] iodide (Na{sup 123}I) on blood constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, Luiz Claudio Martins [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Via Cinco s/n, 21945-450 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias, E-mail: [Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24030-210, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24030-210, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, Rosimeire de Souza [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Thomaz, Helio [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Via Cinco s/n, 21945-450 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    We evaluated the in vitro effect of an aqueous extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) on the distribution in blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) and on the binding of Na{sup 123}I to the blood constituents using precipitation with trichloroacetic acid. The radioactivity percentages insoluble (SF) and insoluble fraction (IF) of blood constituents were determined. The EGb interfered (p<0.05) on the distribution of Na{sup 123}I in the P (from 69.64 to 86.13) and BC (from 30.36 to 13.87) and altered the fixation of the Na{sup 123}I in IF-P and in IF-BC. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction between the Ginkgo biloba and blood constituents radiolabeled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of the binding of sodium iodide (Na{sup 123}I) to the blood constituents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This alteration should have influence in a diagnosis of nuclear medicine.

  20. 78 FR 32256 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered CMS System of Records Notice (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered CMS System of Records Notice AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and... requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 USC 552a), CMS proposes the following alterations to existing...

  1. 75 FR 60468 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered... requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is proposing... alterations are to update the system name, authority, and location; make a minor change to the purposes,...

  2. Primitive Liquid Water of the Solar System in an Aqueous Altered Carbonaceous Chondrite (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Kitayama, A.; Matsuno, J.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakano, T.; Zolensky, M. E.


    Non-destructive 3D observations of the aqueous altered CM chondrite Sutter's Mill using scanning imaging x-ray microscopy (SIXM) showed that some of calcite and enstatite grains contain two-phase inclusion, which is most probably composed of liquid water and bubbles. This water should be primitive water responsible for aqueous alteration in an asteroid in the early solar system.

  3. 78 FR 18353 - Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System... ``Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility'' dated April... establishment computer system validation program, consistent with recognized principles of software...

  4. The effect of Panax notoginseng on blood coagulation system


    橋本, 洋幸; 荒, 敏昭; 藤波, 義明; 服部, 敏己; 王, 宝禮; 宮沢, 裕夫


    Panax notoginseng is used as a hemostatic drug to treat the dental extraction socket. However, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the effects of Panax notoginseng on the blood coagulation system were examined in this study. Extraction of Panax notoginseng with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or PBS + bovine serum albumin (BSA) prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), but had no effect on prothrombin time (PT). APTT by treatment with PBS+BSA-extraction was shorte...

  5. Chemical transport in geothermal systems in Iceland: Evidence from hydrothermal alteration (United States)

    Franzson, Hjalti; Zierenberg, Robert; Schiffman, Peter


    This study focuses on the chemical changes in basaltic rocks in fossil low- and high-temperature hydrothermal systems in Iceland. The method used takes into account the amount of dilution caused by vesicle and vein fillings in the rocks. The amount of dilution allows a calculation of the primary concentration of the immobile element Zr, and by multiplying the composition of the altered rock by the ratio of Zr (protolith)/Zr (altered rock) one can compute the mass addition caused by the dilution of the void fillings, and also make a direct comparison with the likely protoliths from the same areas. The samples were divided into three groups; two from Tertiary fossil high-temperature systems (Hafnarfjall, Geitafell), and the third group from a low temperature, zeolite-altered plateau basalt succession. The results show that hydrothermally altered rocks are enriched in Si, Al, Fe, Mg and Mn, and that Na, K and Ca are mobile but show either depletion or enrichment. The elements that are immobile include Zr, Y, Nb and probably Ti. The two high-temperature systems show quite similar chemical alteration trends, an observation which may apply to Icelandic fresh water high-temperature systems in general. The geochemical data show that the major changes in the altered rocks from Icelandic geothermal systems may be attributed to addition of elements during deposition of pore-filling alteration minerals. A comparison with seawater-dominated basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems shows much greater mass flux within the seawater systems, even though both systems have similar alteration assemblages. The secondary mineral assemblages seem to be controlled predominantly by the thermal stability of the alteration phases and secondarily by the composition of the hydrothermal fluids.

  6. 78 FR 64196 - Privacy Act Altered System of Records (United States)


    ..., Biographical Files (78 FR 171). In that notice, the Department announced its intent to amend that system of..., Biographical Files. The notice of proposed amendment to this system of records was published in the Federal..., Biographical Files and Social Networks. The amendment serves to modify the system of records by...

  7. The LAN blood group system:a review. (United States)

    Peyrard, Thierry


    LAN (Langereis) was officially recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion in 2012 as being the 33rd human blood group system. It consists of one single high-prevalence antigen,Lan (LANl). The ABCB6 protein is the carrier of the Lan blood group antigen. The ABCB6 gene (chromosome 2q36, 19 exons)encodes the ABCB6 polypeptide (ATP-binding cassette protein,subfamily B, member 6), known as a porphyrin transporter.The exceptional Lan- people do not express ABCB6 (Lan null phenotype), owing to several different molecular mechanisms affecting ABCB6: frameshift leading to a premature stop codon(deletion, insertion, or nonsense mutation of nucleotides);missense mutation; or intronic mutation responsible for RNA splicing defect. Despite the Lan antigen's being reported to play a key role in erythropoiesis and detoxification of cells, Lan people do not appear to demonstrate susceptibility to any disease or seemingly physiologic disorder. Anti-Lan has been described as having variable clinical significance, either for hemolytic transfusion reactions (none to severe) or hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (none to mild). Despite challenging conditions caused by the scarcity of Lan- donors worldwide, Lan- blood should ideally be given to patients with anti-Lan, especially those with a high-titer antibody.

  8. Alterations in the Medullary Endocannabinoid System Contribute to Age-related Impairment of Baroreflex Sensitivity. (United States)

    Schaich, Chris L; Shaltout, Hossam A; Grabenauer, Megan; Thomas, Brian F; Gallagher, Patricia E; Howlett, Allyn C; Diz, Debra I


    As they age, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats develop elevated systolic blood pressure associated with impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) for control of heart rate. We previously demonstrated in young hypertensive (mRen2)27 rats that impaired BRS is restored by CB1 cannabinoid receptor blockade in the solitary tract nucleus (NTS), consistent with elevated content of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in dorsal medulla relative to normotensive SD rats. There is no effect of CB1 receptor blockade in young SD rats. We now report in older SD rats that dorsal medullary 2-AG levels are 2-fold higher at 70 versus 15 weeks of age (4.22 ± 0.61 vs. 1.93 ± 0.22 ng/mg tissue; P < 0.05). Furthermore, relative expression of CB1 receptor messenger RNA is significantly lower in aged rats, whereas CB2 receptor messenger RNA is significantly higher. In contrast to young adult SD rats, microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (36 pmole) into the NTS of older SD rats normalized BRS in animals exhibiting impaired baseline BRS (0.56 ± 0.06 baseline vs. 1.06 ± 0.05 ms/mm Hg after 60 minutes; P < 0.05). Therefore, this study provides evidence for alterations in the endocannabinoid system within the NTS of older SD rats that contribute to age-related impairment of BRS.

  9. Alterations of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Tinnitus Patients as Assessed Using Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ueyama

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is the perception of phantom sound without an external auditory stimulus. Using neuroimaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, many studies have demonstrated that abnormal functions of the central nervous system are closely associated with tinnitus. In our previous research, we reported using resting-state fMRI that several brain regions, including the rectus gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, hippocampus, caudate, inferior temporal gyrus, cerebellar hemisphere, and medial superior frontal gyrus, were associated with tinnitus distress and loudness. To reconfirm these results and probe target regions for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, we investigated the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF between younger tinnitus patients (<60 years old and the age-matched controls using single-photon emission computed tomography and easy Z-score imaging system. Compared with that of controls, the rCBF of tinnitus patients was significantly lower in the bilateral medial superior frontal gyri, left middle occipital gyrus and significantly higher in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres and vermis, bilateral middle temporal gyri, right fusiform gyrus. No clear differences were observed between tinnitus patients with normal and impaired hearing. Regardless of the assessment modality, similar brain regions were identified as characteristic in tinnitus patients. These regions are potentially involved in the pathophysiology of chronic subjective tinnitus.

  10. Alterations in the Coagulation System during Major Visceral Surgery in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordjian, Hayarpi H; Nybo, Mads; Qvist, Niels


    Purpose. The description of the alterations in the hemostatic system in children undergoing abdominal surgery is sparse. Enhanced clinical outcomes for previously untreatable conditions have led to an increased incidence of venous thromboembolic complications. Alterations in children's coagulation...... system during major abdominal operations compared to minor procedures were examined. Methods. Children (0-12 years) undergoing either laparotomy, thoracotomy, or minor surgery were included. Participants were divided into two groups: group 1 was open laparotomy including operations for solid abdominal...

  11. Altered time structure of neuro-endocrine-immune system function in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carughi Stefano


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset and the development of neoplastic disease may be influenced by many physiological, biological and immunological factors. The nervous, endocrine and immune system might act as an integrated unit to mantain body defense against this pathological process and reciprocal influences have been evidenced among hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pineal gland and immune system. In this study we evaluated differences among healthy subjects and subjects suffering from lung cancer in the 24-hour secretory profile of melatonin, cortisol, TRH, TSH, FT4, GH, IGF-1 and IL-2 and circadian variations of lymphocyte subpopulations. Methods In ten healthy male volunteers (age range 45-66 and ten male patients with untreated non small cell lung cancer (age range 46-65 we measured melatonin, cortisol, TRH, TSH, FT4, GH, IGF-1 and IL-2 serum levels and percentages of lymphocyte subpopulations on blood samples collected every four hours for 24 hours. One-way ANOVA between the timepoints for each variable and each group was performed to look for a time-effect, the presence of circadian rhythmicity was evaluated, MESOR, amplitude and acrophase values, mean diurnal levels and mean nocturnal levels were compared. Results A clear circadian rhythm was validated in the control group for hormone serum level and for lymphocyte subsets variation. Melatonin, TRH, TSH, GH, CD3, CD4, HLA-DR, CD20 and CD25 expressing cells presented circadian rhythmicity with acrophase during the night. Cortisol, CD8, CD8bright, CD8dim, CD16, TcRδ1 and δTcS1 presented circadian rhythmicity with acrophase in the morning/at noon. FT4, IGF-1 and IL-2 variation did not show circadian rhythmicity. In lung cancer patients cortisol, TRH, TSH and GH serum level and all the lymphocyte subsubsets variation (except for CD4 showed loss of circadian rhythmicity. MESOR of cortisol, TRH, GH, IL-2 and CD16 was increased, whereas MESOR of TSH, IGF-1, CD8, CD8bright, TcRδ1 and

  12. Sodium homeostasis in lymphocytes and blood pressure alterations before and during salt restriction in normotensives and in essential hypertensives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jest, P; Pedersen, K E; Klitgaard, N A


    Blood pressure, lymphocytic sodium content and sodium efflux were studied in hypertensive and normotensive subjects during salt restriction. Diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups. In essential hypertension the initial high lymphocyte sodium content decreased during salt...... mechanisms with regard to lymphocyte sodium metabolism differs between hypertensive and normotensive subjects....

  13. 75 FR 5604 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered... requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is proposing... of the system, the system location, categories of individuals covered by the system, categories...

  14. 75 FR 34755 - Privacy Act; Proposed Alteration to Existing Systems of Records, Single Family Mortgage Asset... (United States)


    .... HUD/HS-59 SYSTEM NAME: Single Family Mortgage Asset Recovery Technology (SMART). SYSTEM LOCATION... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act; Proposed Alteration to Existing Systems of Records, Single Family Mortgage Asset Recovery Technology (SMART/A80H) AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer,...

  15. 76 FR 4483 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... automatic sprinkler system, numerous automatic sensors (e.g., water, heat, smoke, etc.) are installed, and a proper mix of portable fire extinguishers is located throughout the computer room. The system is backed... Altered System of Records AGENCY: Division of Select Agents and Toxins (DSAT), Coordinating Office...

  16. 76 FR 4480 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... sprinkler system, numerous automatic sensors (e.g., water, heat, smoke, etc.) are installed, and a proper... room is controlled by a cardkey and security code (numeric keypad) system. The local fire department is... Altered System of Records AGENCY: National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), Coordinating Center...

  17. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency alters erythroblastic island formation, steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan in mice. (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart T; Midwinter, Robyn G; Coupland, Lucy A; Kong, Stephanie; Berger, Birgit S; Yeo, Jia Hao; Andrade, Osvaldo Cooley; Cromer, Deborah; Suarna, Cacang; Lam, Magda; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Chong, Beng H; Parish, Christopher R; Stocker, Roland


    Heme oxygenase-1 is critical for iron recycling during red blood cell turnover, whereas its impact on steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan is not known. We show here that in 8- to 14-week old mice, heme oxygenase-1 deficiency adversely affects steady-state erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This is manifested by a decrease in Ter-119(+)-erythroid cells, abnormal adhesion molecule expression on macrophages and erythroid cells, and a greatly diminished ability to form erythroblastic islands. Compared with wild-type animals, red blood cell size and hemoglobin content are decreased, while the number of circulating red blood cells is increased in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, overall leading to microcytic anemia. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases oxidative stress in circulating red blood cells and greatly decreases the frequency of macrophages expressing the phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 in bone marrow, spleen and liver. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases spleen weight and Ter119(+)-erythroid cells in the spleen, although α4β1-integrin expression by these cells and splenic macrophages positive for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are both decreased. Red blood cell lifespan is prolonged in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that while macrophages and relevant receptors required for red blood cell formation and removal are substantially depleted in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, the extent of anemia in these mice may be ameliorated by the prolonged lifespan of their oxidatively stressed erythrocytes.

  18. Hydrothermal alteration in the Reykjanes geothermal system: Insights from Iceland deep drilling program well RN-17 (United States)

    Marks, Naomi; Schiffman, Peter; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Franzson, Hjalti; Fridleifsson, Gudmundur Ó.


    The Reykjanes geothermal system is a seawater-recharged hydrothermal system that appears to be analogous to seafloor hydrothermal systems in terms of host rock type and low water/rock alteration. The similarities make the Reykjanes system a useful proxy for seafloor vents. At some time during the Pleistocene, the system was dominated by meteoric water recharge, and fluid composition at Reykjanes has evolved through time as a result of changing proportions of meteoric water influx as well as differing pressure and temperature conditions. The purpose of this study is to characterize secondary mineralization, degree of metasomatic alteration, and bulk composition of cuttings from well RN-17 from the Reykjanes geothermal system. The basaltic host rock includes hyaloclastite, breccia, tuff, extrusive basalt, diabase, as well as a marine sedimentary sequence. The progressive hydrothermal alteration sequence observed with increasing depth results from reaction of geothermal fluids with the basaltic host rock. An assemblage of greenschist facies alteration minerals, including actinolite, prehnite, epidote and garnet, occurs at depths as shallow as 350 m; these minerals are commonly found in Icelandic geothermal systems at temperatures above 250 °C (Bird and Spieler, 2004). This requires hydrostatic pressures that exceed the present-day depth to boiling point curve, and therefore must record alteration at higher fluid pressures, perhaps as a result of Pleistocene glaciation. Major, minor, and trace element profiles of the cuttings indicate transitional MORB to OIB composition with limited metasomatic shifts in easily mobilized elements. Changes in MgO, K 2O and loss on ignition indicate that metasomatism is strongly correlated with protolith properties. The textures of alteration minerals reveal alteration style to be strongly dependent on protolith as well. Hyaloclastites are intensely altered with calc-silicate alteration assemblages comprising calcic hydrothermal

  19. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelao, Gennaro; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Perri, Anna Gina


    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used for local alarms, data collection and remote monitoring.

  20. Development of inexpensive blood imaging systems: where are we now? (United States)

    Chu, Kaiqin; Smith, Zachary J; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian


    Clinical applications in the developing world, such as malaria and anemia diagnosis, demand a change in the medical paradigm of expensive care given in central locations by highly trained professionals. There has been a recent explosion in optical technologies entering the consumer market through the widespread adoption of smartphones and LEDs. This technology commoditization has enabled the development of small, portable optical imaging systems at an unprecedentedly low cost. Here, we review the state-of-the-field of the application of these systems for low-cost blood imaging with an emphasis on cellular imaging systems. In addition to some promising results addressing specific clinical issues, an overview of the technology landscape is provided. We also discuss several key issues that need to be addressed before these technologies can be commercialized.

  1. Vascular Alterations and Sexual Function in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Julie Impens


    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction is common in systemic sclerosis (SSc. Male erectile dysfunction (MED has been reported in around 80% of subjects and more than half of female patients fulfill criteria for diagnosis as female sexual arousal Disorder (FSAD. While some evidence supports a role for cavernosal fibrosis, abundant data suggest that MED is yet another clinical feature of SSc related to vasculopathy. The contribution of vasculopathy to the more complex issues of female sexual dysfunction is less clear. Inhibitors of Type V phosphodiesterase are effective in men with MED secondary to SSc. Limited study in women suggests inconsistent effects on behavior (frequency but not on measures related to perfusion. Sexual activity is an important component of quality of life and an important domain for the caregiver to address; it is not clear that it warrants primary consideration as a consistent measure of scleroderma-related vasculopathy.

  2. A model of blood flow in the mesenteric arterial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Leo K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are some early clinical indicators of cardiac ischemia, most notably a change in a person's electrocardiogram. Less well understood, but potentially just as dangerous, is ischemia that develops in the gastrointestinal system. Such ischemia is difficult to diagnose without angiography (an invasive and time-consuming procedure mainly due to the highly unspecific nature of the disease. Understanding how perfusion is affected during ischemic conditions can be a useful clinical tool which can help clinicians during the diagnosis process. As a first step towards this final goal, a computational model of the gastrointestinal system has been developed and used to simulate realistic blood flow during normal conditions. Methods An anatomically and biophysically based model of the major mesenteric arteries has been developed to be used to simulate normal blood flows. The computational mesh used for the simulations has been generated using data from the Visible Human project. The 3D Navier-Stokes equations that govern flow within this mesh have been simplified to an efficient 1D scheme. This scheme, together with a constitutive pressure-radius relationship, has been solved numerically for pressure, vessel radius and velocity for the entire mesenteric arterial network. Results The computational model developed shows close agreement with physiologically realistic geometries other researchers have recorded in vivo. Using this model as a framework, results were analyzed for the four distinct phases of the cardiac cycle – diastole, isovolumic contraction, ejection and isovolumic relaxation. Profiles showing the temporally varying pressure and velocity for a periodic input varying between 10.2 kPa (77 mmHg and 14.6 kPa (110 mmHg at the abdominal aorta are presented. An analytical solution has been developed to model blood flow in tapering vessels and when compared with the numerical solution, showed excellent agreement. Conclusion An

  3. Alterations in vasomotor systems and mechanics of resistance-sized mesenteric arteries from SHR and WKY male rats following in vivo testosterone manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toot Jonathan D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Testosterone (T and the sympathetic nervous system each contribute to the pathology of hypertension. Altered blood vessel reactivity is also associated with the pathology of high blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of T manipulation in the regulation of resistance-sized blood vessel reactivity. Methods Adult spontaneously hypertensive (SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY male rats at 8 weeks of age were used. The rats were divided into groups consisting of gonadally intact controls (CONT, castrate with sham implant (CAST and castrate with T implant (CAST + T (n = 6 to 12 per group. Following a short-term period of T treatment (approximately 4 weeks, plasma norepinephrine (NE and plasma T were assessed by performing high-performance liquid chromatography and RIA, respectively. Resistance-sized mesenteric artery reactivity was assessed on a pressurized arteriograph for myogenic reactivity (MYO, phenylephrine (PE responsiveness and passive structural mechanics. Results SHR and WKY males exhibited similar physiological trends in T manipulation, with castration significantly lowering plasma T and NE and T replacement significantly increasing plasma T and NE. T manipulation in general resulted in significant alterations in MYO of second-order mesenteric arteries, with T replacement decreasing MYO in SHR (P P P Conclusions These data suggest that T and NE are involved in a complex interaction with both myogenic reactivity and structural alterations of resistance-sized blood vessels and that these factors likely contribute to the development and maintenance of hypertension.

  4. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and blood pressure in mature male guinea pigs. (United States)

    Banjanin, Sonja; Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G


    Pregnant guinea pigs were treated with dexamethasone (1 mg kg(-1)) or vehicle on days 40-41, 50-51 and 60-61 of gestation, after which animals delivered normally. Adult male offspring were catheterized at 145 days of age and subjected to tests of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in basal and activated states. Animals exposed to dexamethasone in utero (mat-dex) exhibited increased hippocampus-to-brain weight ratio, increased adrenal-to-body weight ratio and increased mean arterial pressure. There were no effects on gestation length, birth weight and postnatal growth. There were no overall differences in diurnal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol profiles, though there were subtle differences during the subjective afternoon between control and mat-dex offspring. A significant decrease in initial ACTH suppression was observed following dexamethasone injection in mat-dex offspring compared to control offspring. Molecular analysis revealed significantly increased MR mRNA expression in the limbic system and particularly in the dentate gyrus in mat-dex offspring. In the anterior pituitary, both pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels were significantly elevated in mat-dex offspring. In conclusion, (1) repeated prenatal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) permanently programmes organ growth, blood pressure and HPA regulation in mature male offspring and these changes involve modification of corticosteroid receptor expression in the brain and pituitary; (2) the effects of prenatal sGC exposure on HPA function appear to change as a function of age, indicating the importance of investigating HPA and cardiovascular outcome at multiple time points throughout life.

  5. Systemic alterations and their oral manifestations in pregnant women. (United States)

    Silva de Araujo Figueiredo, Camilla; Gonçalves Carvalho Rosalem, Cíntia; Costa Cantanhede, Andre Luis; Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Érika Bárbara; Fontoura Nogueira da Cruz, Maria Carmen


    The aims of this literature review are: to depict the main oral diseases that are related to pregnancy; to clarify some of the possible systemic mechanisms that are associated with these changes; and to address issues about oral care during pregnancy. A woman's organs undergo various physiological, neurological, and hormonal changes during pregnancy. Such changes occur gradually and are essential for the development of the fetus, providing what is needed for tissue formation and establishment of reserves for uterine and fetal life. In turn, the oral cavity shows some events during this period. Among the changes most frequently cited in the literature are pyogenic granuloma, gingivitis, and periodontitis. The inflammation of the periodontal tissues due to the formation of the biofilm increases dramatically in size and severity during the course of a normal pregnancy, even without changes in the amount of biofilm present. In addition, a decrease in salivary pH is observed in pregnant women and may lead to an increased incidence of dental caries in this period.

  6. Caffeine Alters Blood Potassium and Catecholamine Concentrations but not the Perception of Pain and Fatigue with a 1 km Cycling Sprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Cordingley


    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine has been used by some athletes to improve short-term high-intensity exercise performance; however, the literature is equivocal. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on plasma potassium and catecholamine concentrations, pain and fatigue perception, to determine whether potassium ion handling and altered perception related to the central nervous system are associated with enhanced performance during a 1 km cycling time trial.  Methods: Thirteen well trained men with a mean age of 27 ± 6 yrs (body mass: 76.4 ± 6.4 kg, height: 180 ± 7 cm, and max: 57.5 ± 4.6 ml·kg-1·min-1 were recruited.  Participants were randomized to a caffeine (5 mg·kg-1 or a placebo condition using a double blind, cross over design.  Results: Caffeine had no significant effects on the 1 km time-trial performance indicators of time (82.1 ± 2.4 vs. 81.9 ± 3.9s, peak (633.0 ± 83.6 vs. 638.7 ± 110.1 watts or average power (466.0 ± 37.3 vs. 467.5 ± 59.9 watts; caffeine and placebo conditions respectively.  In addition, caffeine had no significant effect on oxygen consumption ( (4.11 ± 0.24 vs 4.06 ± 0.29 L,the perception of pain (5.6 ± 2.4 vs. 5.5 ± 2.6 or fatigue (7.1 ± 1.8 vs.7.1 ± 1.8: caffeine and placebo conditions respectively.  There was a significantly greater increase in post-exercise blood lactate (p<0.05 and catecholamines (p<0.05 as well as a lower pre-exercise blood potassium concentration (p<0.05 in the caffeine condition. Conclusions: The results suggest that caffeine can enhance certain metabolic parameters, but these changes were unable to augment short-distance (1km, high-intensity cycling performance. Keywords: ergogenic, anaerobic exercise, performance, oxygen consumption

  7. Evaluation of the systemic innate immune response and metabolic alterations of nonlactating cows with diet-induced subacute ruminal acidosis. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lecompte, J C; Kroeker, A D; Ceballos-Márquez, A; Li, S; Plaizier, J C; Gomez, D E


    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) increases lipopolysaccharide endotoxin in the rumen, which might translocate into the systemic circulation, triggering a cascade of clinical and immunological alterations. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical immune and metabolic responses to ruminal-derived lipopolysaccharide in nonlactating cows induced with SARA using 2 challenges, a grain-based SARA challenge (GBSC) or an alfalfa-pellet SARA challenge (APSC). Six dry, nonlactating Holstein cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement of treatments with 4-wk experimental cycles. All cows received the control diet containing 70% forage and 30% mixed concentrates (dry matter basis) for 3 wk. In wk 4, cows received a control diet, GBSC (38% wheat-barley pellets, 32% other mixed concentrate, and 30% forages), or APSC (45% mixed concentrate, 32% alfalfa pellets, and 23% other forages). Total plasma proteins and immunology-related proteins, acute phase proteins, blood cells, serum chemistry, mRNA gene expression of peripheral blood cell surface markers, and selected proinflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Ruminal pH was lower in both groups with induced SARA compared with a control group. Ruminal endotoxins were higher in GBSC; however, plasma endotoxin was not detected in any study group. No significant differences in feed intake, rectal temperature, white blood cell counts, or differentials were found between control and SARA challenge groups; changes in glucose, urea, Ca, and Mg were observed in SARA groups. Total plasma proteins were lower in both SARA groups, and acute phase proteins were higher in GBSC. The expression of CD14, MD2, and TLR4 mRNA in peripheral blood leukocytes was not affected by SARA induction. The induction of SARA as a result of GBSC or APSC challenge was successful; however, LPS was not detected in plasma. Changes in clinical, metabolic, and inflammatory responses were not observed in the SARA-challenged cows, suggesting that

  8. An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System (United States)

    George, Paul E; Vidal, Julio; Garcia, Patricia J


    Background Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. Methods Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007–2008. These evaluations consisted of an update of the national registry of blood banks and visits to each blood bank from MINSA oversight teams. Information was collected on the condition of the blood bank personnel, equipment, supplies, and practices. Further, previously-collected blood at each blood bank was randomly selected and screened for TTI-causing pathogens. Results Uncovered in this investigation was a fragmented, under-equipped, and poorly-staffed blood collection and transfusion network, consisting of 241 independent blood banks and resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. Further, blood with evidence of TTI-causing pathogens (including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis) and set for transfusion was discovered at three separate blood banks as part of the random screening process. Conclusion Using the successful reorganizations of national blood supply systems in other Latin American countries as examples, Peru would be well-served to form large, high-volume, regional blood collection and transfusion centers, responsible for blood collection and screening for the entire country. The small, separate blood banks would then be transformed into a network of blood transfusion centers, not responsible for blood collection. This reorganization would allow Peru to better utilize its resources, standardize the blood collection and transfusion process, and increase voluntary donation, resulting in a safer, more abundant national blood product.

  9. 75 FR 5094 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered... the requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA... location of this system and the system manager, to modify routine use number 6, correct...

  10. 75 FR 57806 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Health Resources and Services... Health and Human Services (DHHS) may disclose information from this system of records to a...

  11. 76 FR 4446 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... locked rooms. The local fire department is located nearby. The computer room is protected by an automatic sprinkler system, automatic sensors (e.g., water, heat, smoke, etc.) are installed, and portable fire... Altered System of Records AGENCY: National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHSTP), Department...

  12. 76 FR 4443 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... locked rooms. The local fire department is located nearby. The computer room is protected by an automatic sprinkler system, automatic sensors (e.g., water, heat, smoke, etc.) are installed, and portable fire... Altered System of Records AGENCY: National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHSTP), Centers...

  13. 76 FR 4438 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... locked rooms. The local fire department is located nearby. The computer room is protected by an automatic sprinkler system, automatic sensors (e.g., water, heat, smoke, etc.) are installed, and portable fire... Altered System of Records AGENCY: Divisions of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD...

  14. 76 FR 4440 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... locked rooms. The local fire department is located nearby. The computer room is protected by an automatic sprinkler system, automatic sensors (e.g., water, heat, smoke, etc.) are installed, and portable fire... Altered System of Records AGENCY: Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD...

  15. Hydrothermal alteration of Hercynian granites, its significance to the evolution of geothermal systems in granitic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Jose M.; Matias, Maria J.; Basto, Maria J.; Aires-Barros, Luis A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Carreira, Paula M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional n 10, 2686 - 953 Sacavem (Portugal); Goff, Fraser E. [Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)


    We discuss geochemical and isotopic ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) data recording the hydrothermal alteration of northern Portuguese Hercynian granites by Na-HCO{sub 3}-CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters. Whole-rock samples from drill cores of Vilarelho da Raia granite have {delta}{sup 18}O values in the +11.47 to +10.10 permille range. The lower values correspond to highly fractured granite samples displaying vein and pervasive alteration. In the pervasive alteration stage, which probably results from a convective hydrothermal system set up by the intrusion of the granites, the metamorphic waters are in equilibrium with hydrous minerals. In contrast, the vein alteration of these granitic rocks was caused by water of meteoric origin. The oxygen ratios between water (W) and rock (R), the so-called W/R ratios, obtained for the open system (where the heated water is lost from the system by escape to the surface) range between 0.05 and 0.11, suggesting that the recrystallization of the veins was influenced by a small flux of meteoric water. Stable isotope analyses performed on the cores show that the vein alteration stage relates to post-emplacement tectonic stresses acting on the granite, probably of late Hercynian age. Our results are consistent with the existence of two separate alteration events (pervasive and vein) caused by hydrothermal waters of different isotopic characteristics. The studies presented in this paper should be viewed as a natural analogue that uses the alteration features observed in a fossil geothermal system at Vilarelho da Raia to assess possible water-rock reactions presently occurring at depth in granitic rocks of the nearby Chaves area. (author)

  16. Does Ramadan fasting alter body weight and blood lipids and fasting blood glucose in a healthy population? A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Kul, Seval; Savaş, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Karadağ, Gülendam


    In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of self-controlled cohort studies comparing body weights, blood levels of lipids and fasting blood glucose levels before and after Ramadan taking into account gender differences. Several databases were searched up to June 2012 for studies showing an effect of Ramadan fasting in healthy subjects, yielding 30 articles. The primary finding of this meta-analysis was that after Ramadan fasting, low-density lipoprotein (SMD = -1.67, 95 % CI = -2.48 to -0.86) and fasting blood glucose levels (SMD = -1.10, 95 % CI = -1.62 to -0.58) were decreased in both sex groups and also in the entire group compared to levels prior to Ramadan. In addition, in the female subgroup, body weight (SMD = -0.04, 95 % CI = -0.20, 0.12), total cholesterol (SMD = 0.05, 95 % CI = -0.51 to 0.60), and triglyceride levels (SMD = 0.03, 95 % CI = -0.31, 0.36) remained unchanged, while HDL levels (SMD = 0.86, 95 % CI = 0.11 to 1.61, p = 0.03) were increased. In males, Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss (SMD = -0.24, 95 % CI = -0.36, -0.12, p = 0.001). Also, a substantial reduction in total cholesterol (SMD = -0.44, 95 % CI = -0.77 to -0.11) and LDL levels (SMD = -2.22, 95 % CI = -3.47 to -0.96) and a small decrease in triglyceride levels (SMD = -0.35, 95 % CI = -0.67 to -0.02) were observed in males. In conclusion, by looking at this data, it is evident that Ramadan fasting can effectively change body weight and some biochemical parameters in healthy subjects especially in males compared to pre-Ramadan period.

  17. Aging in blood vessels. Medicinal agents FOR systemic arterial hypertension in the elderly. (United States)

    Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Soto, María Elena; Pastelín, Gustavo; Guarner-Lans, Verónica


    Aging impairs blood vessel function and leads to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying the age-related endothelial, smooth muscle and extracellular matrix vascular dysfunction are discussed. Vascular dysfunction is caused by: (1) Oxidative stress enhancement. (2) Reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, by diminished NO synthesis and/or augmented NO scavenging. (3) Production of vasoconstrictor/vasodilator factor imbalances. (4) Low-grade pro-inflammatory environment. (5) Impaired angiogenesis. (6) Endothelial cell senescence. The aging process in vascular smooth muscle is characterized by: (1) Altered replicating potential. (2) Change in cellular phenotype. (3) Changes in responsiveness to contracting and relaxing mediators. (4) Changes in intracellular signaling functions. Systemic arterial hypertension is an age-dependent disorder, and almost half of the elderly human population is hypertensive. The influence of hypertension on the aging cardiovascular system has been studied in models of hypertensive rats. Treatment for hypertension is recommended in the elderly. Lifestyle modifications, natural compounds and hormone therapies are useful for initial stages and as supporting treatment with medication but evidence from clinical trials in this population is needed. Since all antihypertensive agents can lower blood pressure in the elderly, therapy should be based on its potential side effects and drug interactions.

  18. Maternal and cord blood LC-HRMS metabolomics reveal alterations in energy and polyamine metabolism, and oxidative stress in very-low birth weight infants. (United States)

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Moyon, Thomas; Küster, Alice; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Tea, Illa; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Darmaun, Dominique


    To assess the global effect of preterm birth on fetal metabolism and maternal-fetal nutrient transfer, we used a mass spectrometric-based chemical phenotyping approach on cord blood obtained at the time of birth. We sampled umbilical venous, umbilical arterial, and maternal blood from mothers delivering very-low birth weight (VLBW, with a median gestational age and weight of 29 weeks, and 1210 g, respectively) premature or full-term (FT) neonates. In VLBW group, we observed a significant elevation in the levels and maternal-fetal gradients of butyryl-, isovaleryl-, hexanoyl- and octanoyl-carnitines, suggesting enhanced short- and medium chain fatty acid β-oxidation in human preterm feto-placental unit. The significant decrease in glutamine-glutamate in preterm arterial cord blood beside lower levels of amino acid precursors of Krebs cycle suggest increased glutamine utilization in the fast growing tissues of preterm fetus with a deregulation in placental glutamate-glutamine shuttling. Enhanced glutathione utilization is likely to account for the decrease in precursor amino acids (serine, betaine, glutamate and methionine) in arterial cord blood. An increase in both the circulating levels and maternal-fetal gradients of several polyamines in their acetylated form (diacetylspermine and acetylputrescine) suggests an enhanced polyamine metabolic cycling in extreme prematurity. Our metabolomics study allowed the identification of alterations in fetal energy, antioxidant defense, and polyamines and purines flux as a signature of premature birth.

  19. Altered extracellular ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis in blood serum of sedentary individuals after an acute, aerobic, moderate exercise session. (United States)

    Moritz, Cesar Eduardo Jacintho; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Rockenbach, Liliana; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Casali, Emerson André; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira


    Nucleotidases participate in the regulation of physiological and pathological events, such as inflammation and coagulation. Exercise promotes distinct adaptations, and can influence purinergic signaling. In the present study, we investigated soluble nucleotidase activities in the blood serum of sedentary young male adults at pre- and post-acute moderate aerobic exercise. In addition, we evaluated how this kind of exercise could influence adenine nucleotide concentrations in the blood serum. Sedentary individuals were submitted to moderate aerobic exercise on a treadmill; blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise, and serum was separated for analysis. Results showed increases in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis post-exercise, compared to pre-exercise values. The ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase was also evaluated, showing an increased activity post-exercise, compared to pre-exercise. Purine levels were analyzed by HPLC in the blood serum, pre- and post-exercise. Decreased levels of ATP and ADP were found post-exercise, in contrast with pre-exercise values. Conversely, post-exercise levels of adenosine and inosine increased compared to pre-exercise levels. Our results indicate an influence of acute exercise on ATP metabolism, modifying enzymatic behavior to promote a protective biological environment.

  20. Passive leg movements and passive cycling do not alter arterial leg blood flow in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerds, W. ter; Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Hopman, M.T.E.


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subjects with a spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease-related secondary complications, such as pressure ulcers and attenuated wound healing. It has been suggested that passive exercise enhances blood flow via mechanical pump effects or refl

  1. Blood Lead Concentration Is Not Altered by High Dose Vitamin D Supplementation in Children and Young Adults with HIV (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Herold, Rachel A; Schall, Joan I; Wagner, Julia L; Dougherty, Kelly A; Zemel, Babette S; Rutstein, Richard M; Stallings, Virginia A


    OBJECTIVES Optimal vitamin D status is known to have beneficial health effects and vitamin D supplements are commonly used. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation may increase blood lead in children and adults with previous lead exposure. The objective was to determine the safety regarding lead toxicity during 12 weeks of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation in children and young adults with HIV. METHODS Subjects with HIV (age 8 to 24 yrs) were randomized to vitamin D3 supplementation of 4000 IU/day or 7000 IU/day and followed at 6 and 12 weeks for changes in 25D and whole blood lead concentration. This was a secondary analysis of a larger study of vitamin D3 supplementation in children and adolescents with HIV. RESULTS In 44 subjects (75% African American), the baseline mean ± SD serum 25D was 48.3 ± 18.6 nmol/L. 50% of subjects had baseline serum 25D 5.0 μg/dL at baseline or during subsequent visits. Whole blood lead and 25D were not correlated at baseline, and were negatively correlated after 12 weeks of supplementation (p= 0.014). Whole blood lead did not differ between those receiving 4000 IU versus 7000 IU of vitamin D3. CONCLUSION High dose vitamin D3 supplementation and the concomitant increased serum 25D did not result in increased whole blood lead concentration in this sample of children and young adults living in a northeastern urban city. PMID:23059649

  2. Phenotypic Profile of Rh and Kell Blood Group Systems among Blood Donors in Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa (United States)

    Siransy Bogui, L.; Dembele, B.; Sekongo, Y.; Abisse, S.; Konaté, S.; Sombo, M.


    Few countries in sub-Saharan Africa make systematic searches for antigens C, c, E, and e of the Rh and Kell system antigens in the donor and recipient, thereby exposing transfused patients. Purpose and Objectives. In this paper, we propose to determine the red cell Rh and Kell blood groups among blood donors from traditional techniques to improve medical care of transfused patients. This study will allow us to assess the frequency of blood group antigens in these systems. Study Design and Methods. We carried out a study on the red cell typing in the blood donor population of the National Blood Transfusion Center in Abidjan. This study was performed on 651 blood donors. Results. For the Rh system, the antigen frequencies of D, c, e, C, and E are, respectively, 92.93%, 99.85%, 99.85%, 21.97%, and 13.82%. K antigen is found in 0.77% of donors. Discussion and Conclusion. Although the frequencies of the most immunogenic antigens are lower than in the white race, lack of preventive measures makes the immunological risk high in Africa. Furthermore, Africa is full of specificities that are important to note for a better care of our patients. PMID:25328758

  3. In-vitro laser anemometry blood flow systems (United States)

    Liepsch, Dieter W.; Poll, Axel; Pflugbeil, Gottlieb


    Lasers are used in a wide variety of medical applications. While laser catheters have been developed for highly accurate velocity measurements these are invasive; noninvasive techniques are more desirable but not as precise. The laser is, however, a great tool for in vitro measurements. Several groups internationally are using the laser in the study of local velocity distribution in microscopic areas of specially constructed models. Laser Doppler anemometry is widely used to measure the local, time-dependent velocities, while phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure particle size, distribution and velocity. Most recently, laser analyzer techniques have been developed for analyzing the particle size of two phase flow systems. It has become increasingly important for physicians to visualize blood flow. In addition to the techniques mentioned above, several laser sheet techniques have been developed for precise measurements. This paper presents a short review of laser techniques and shows some applications especially for the laser-Doppler anemometer.

  4. Improved metabolic health alters host metabolism in parallel with changes in systemic xeno-metabolites of gut origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Campbell

    Full Text Available Novel plasma metabolite patterns reflective of improved metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, fitness, reduced body weight were identified before and after a 14-17 wk weight loss and exercise intervention in sedentary, obese insulin-resistant women. To control for potential confounding effects of diet- or microbiome-derived molecules on the systemic metabolome, sampling was during a tightly-controlled feeding test week paradigm. Pairwise and multivariate analysis revealed intervention- and insulin-sensitivity associated: (1 Changes in plasma xeno-metabolites ("non-self" metabolites of dietary or gut microbial origin following an oral glucose tolerance test (e.g. higher post-OGTT propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate [tricarballylic acid] or in the overnight-fasted state (e.g., lower γ-tocopherol; (2 Increased indices of saturated very long chain fatty acid elongation capacity; (3 Increased post-OGTT α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG, fasting α-KG inversely correlated with Matsuda index, and altered patterns of malate, pyruvate and glutamine hypothesized to stem from improved mitochondrial efficiency and more robust oxidation of glucose. The results support a working model in which improved metabolic health modifies host metabolism in parallel with altering systemic exposure to xeno-metabolites. This highlights that interpretations regarding the origins of peripheral blood or urinary "signatures" of insulin resistance and metabolic health must consider the potentially important contribution of gut-derived metabolites toward the host's metabolome.

  5. Chemokine mediated monocyte trafficking into the retina: role of inflammation in alteration of the blood-retinal barrier in diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Rangasamy

    Full Text Available Inflammation in the diabetic retina is mediated by leukocyte adhesion to the retinal vasculature and alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB. We investigated the role of chemokines in the alteration of the BRB in diabetes. Animals were made diabetic by streptozotocin injection and analyzed for gene expression and monocyte/macrophage infiltration. The expression of CCL2 (chemokine ligand 2 was significantly up-regulated in the retinas of rats with 4 and 8 weeks of diabetes and also in human retinal endothelial cells treated with high glucose and glucose flux. Additionally, diabetes or intraocular injection of recombinant CCL2 resulted in increased expression of the macrophage marker, F4/80. Cell culture impedance sensing studies showed that purified CCL2 was unable to alter the integrity of the human retinal endothelial cell barrier, whereas monocyte conditioned medium resulted in significant reduction in cell resistance, suggesting the relevance of CCL2 in early immune cell recruitment for subsequent barrier alterations. Further, using Cx3cr1-GFP mice, we found that intraocular injection of CCL2 increased retinal GFP+ monocyte/macrophage infiltration. When these mice were made diabetic, increased infiltration of monocytes/macrophages was also present in retinal tissues. Diabetes and CCL2 injection also induced activation of retinal microglia in these animals. Quantification by flow cytometry demonstrated a two-fold increase of CX3CR1+/CD11b+ (monocyte/macrophage and microglia cells in retinas of wildtype diabetic animals in comparison to control non-diabetic ones. Using CCL2 knockout (Ccl2-/- mice, we show a significant reduction in retinal vascular leakage and monocyte infiltration following induction of diabetes indicating the importance of this chemokine in alteration of the BRB. Thus, CCL2 may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

  6. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood-brain barrier. (United States)

    Alyautdin, Renad; Khalin, Igor; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail; Haron, Muhammad Huzaimi; Kuznetsov, Dmitry


    The protective properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review comprehensively discusses the functional morphology of the BBB and the challenges that must be overcome by drug-delivery systems and elaborates on the potential targets, mechanisms, and formulations to improve drug delivery to the CNS.

  7. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.


    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  8. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.


    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  9. Code development of the national hemovigilance system and expansion strategies for hospital blood banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jeongeun


    Full Text Available Objectives : The aims of this study were to develop reportable event codes that are applicable to the national hemovigilance systems for hospital blood banks, and to present expansion strategies for the blood banks. Materials and Methods : The data were obtained from a literature review and expert consultation, followed by adding to and revising the established hemovigilance code system and guidelines to develop reportable event codes for hospital blood banks. The Medical Error Reporting System-Transfusion Medicine developed in the US and other codes of reportable events were added to the Korean version of the Biologic Products Deviation Report (BPDR developed by the Korean Red Cross Blood Safety Administration, then using these codes, mapping work was conducted. We deduced outcomes suitable for practice, referred to the results of the advisory councils, and conducted a survey with experts and blood banks practitioners. Results : We developed reportable event codes that were applicable to hospital blood banks and could cover blood safety - from blood product safety to blood transfusion safety - and also presented expansion strategies for hospital blood banks. Conclusion : It was necessary to add 10 major categories to the blood transfusion safety stage and 97 reportable event codes to the blood safety stage. Contextualized solutions were presented on 9 categories of expansion strategies of hemovigilance system for the hospital blood banks.

  10. Microcontroller-based system for collecting anaerobic blood samples from a running greyhound. (United States)

    Schmalzried, R T; Toll, P W; Devore, J J; Fedde, M R


    Many physiological variables change rapidly in the blood during sprint exercise. To characterize the dynamics and extent of these changes, blood samples must be obtained during exercise. We describe herein a portable, microcontroller-based system used to automatically obtain repeated, anaerobic, arterial blood samples from greyhounds before, during, and following a race on a track. In addition, the system also records the blood temperature in the pulmonary artery each time a blood sample is taken. The system has been tested for more than 2 years and has proven to be reliable and effective.

  11. Hematobiochemical alterations and direct blood polymerase chain reaction detection of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ganguly


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine hemato-biochemical changes and rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Blood samples from lactating crossbred cows (n=40 between 3 and 7 years of age and showing clinical signs of tropical theileriosis were collected, with or without anticoagulant, and analyzed for tropical theileriosis by direct smear, direct blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection of merozoite-piroplasm surface antigen (Tams1 gene specific amplicon, estimation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Healthy crossbred cows (n=6, examined free from hemoprotozoan infections were included as control. Results: The infected crossbred cows revealed significantly (p<0.001 lower values of total erythrocytic counts (4.46±0.2× 106/μL, hemoglobin (Hb 6.025±0.39 g%, packed cell volume (17.05±1.1%, mean corpuscular volume (37.94±1.70 fL and mean corpuscular Hb (13.5±0.48 pg; p<0.002 compared with healthy control. The serum samples of infected cows revealed profound (p<0.05 hyponatremia (Na 133.21±2.36 mEq/l and hypocalcemia (Ca 8.39±0.34 mg%. Infected crossbred cows showed a significant increase (p<0.05 of mean serum activity of alanine aminotransferase (61.45±13.36 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (146.1±20.97 U/L, blood urea nitrogen (28.26±3.90 mg%, creatinine (1.55±0.13 mg%, direct bilirubin (0.33±0.04 mg%; p<0.001 and lactate dehydrogenase (3001.32±167.0 U/L; p<001. Blood direct PCR revealed a 721-bp fragment amplified from the target gene encoding 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata using specific primer pairs. This assay was positive for all the infected animals. Conclusion: The assessments of hemato-biochemical parameters in T. annulata infected crossbred cows may be useful in understanding disease pathogenesis, prognosis and corrective measures for supportive therapy. Moreover, blood direct PCR can reliably be used for rapid detection of T. annulata

  12. Effects of peripheral blood stem cell apheresis on systemic cytokine levels in patients with multiple myeloma. (United States)

    Akkök, Ciğdem Akalin; Hervig, Tor; Stamnesfet, Siren; Nesthus, Ingerid; Melve, Guro K; Lassalle, Philippe; Bruserud, Oystein


    BACKGROUND AIMS. Pro-angiogenic cytokines can affect myeloma cell proliferation directly and indirectly through stimulation of cancer-associated angiogenesis. METHODS. We investigated how peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection affected plasma angioregulatory cytokine levels in 15 consecutive myeloma patients. RESULTS. Plasma levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly increased prior to apheresis in patients compared with donors, and a further increase was detected immediately after PBSC apheresis. HGF levels decreased within 24 h, but were still higher than the levels in healthy donors, whose HGF levels were not altered by platelet apheresis. Pre-apheresis levels of other angioregulatory cytokines, angiopoietin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were also increased in patients, whereas angiopoietin-1, angiogenin and basic fibroblast growth factor levels did not differ from healthy controls. PBSC harvesting decreased angiopoietin-1 and VEGF levels, increased the microvascular endothelial cell marker endocan levels but did not affect the other mediators. CONCLUSIONS. Our results show that PBSC apheresis alters systemic angioregulatory profiles in myeloma patients. This cytokine modulation is not a general characteristic of all apheresis procedures and was not seen in healthy platelet donors.

  13. Altered expression of talin 1 in peripheral immune cells points to a significant role of the innate immune system in spontaneous autoimmune uveitis. (United States)

    Degroote, Roxane L; Hauck, Stefanie M; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Amann, Barbara; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A


    The molecular mechanism which enables activated immune cells to cross the blood-retinal barrier in spontaneous autoimmune uveitis is yet to be unraveled. Equine recurrent uveitis is the only spontaneous animal model allowing us to investigate the autoimmune mediated transformation of leukocytes in the course of this sight threatening disease. Hypothesizing that peripheral blood immune cells change their protein expression pattern in spontaneous autoimmune uveitis, we used DIGE to detect proteins with altered abundance comparing peripheral immune cells of healthy and ERU diseased horses. Among others, we found a significant downregulation of talin 1 in peripheral blood granulocytes of ERU specimen, pointing to changes in β integrin activation and indicating a significant role of the innate immune system in spontaneous autoimmune diseases.

  14. Nailfold capillaroscopy and blood flow laser-doppler analysis of the microvascular damage in systemic sclerosis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pizzorni


    Full Text Available Objectives: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is characterized by altered microvascular structure and function. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC is the tool to evaluate capillary morphological structure and laser-Doppler Blood flowmetry (LDF can be used to estimate cutaneous blood flow of microvessels. The aim of this study was to investigate possible relationships between capillary morphology and blood flow in SSc. Methods: 27 SSc patients and 12 healthy subjects were enrolled. SSc microvascular involvement, as evaluated by NVC, was classified in three different patterns (“Early”, “Active”, “Late”. LDF analysis was performed at the II, III, IV, V hand fingers in both hands and both at cutaneous temperature and at 36°C. Statistical evaluation was carried out by non-parametric procedures. Results: Blood flow was found significantly lower in SSc patients when compared with healthy subjects (p<0.05. The heating of the probe to 36°C induced a significant increase in peripheral blood flow in all subjects compared to baseline (p <0.05, however, the amount of variation was significantly lower in patients with SSc, compared with healthy controls (p <0.05. The SSc patients with NVC “Late” pattern, showed lower values of peripheral blood flow than patients with NVC “Active” or “Early” patterns (p<0.05. Moreover, a negative correlation between the tissue perfusion score and the progression of the SSc microangiopathy was observed, as well as between the tissue perfusion and the duration of the Raynaud’s phenomenon (p <0.03. Conclusions: LDF can be employed to evaluate blood perfusion in the microvascular circulation in SSc patients. The blood flow changes observed with the LDF seem to correlate with the severity of microvascular damage in SSc as detected by NVC.

  15. SIBAS: a blood bank information system and its 5-year implementation at Macau. (United States)

    Li, Bing Nan; Chao, Sam; Chui Dong, Ming


    Automation systems and information technology can greatly help medical facilities to improve their working efficiency and optimize the whole workflow. This article surveys electronic information management in blood donation and transfusion service, and explores the rationale and archetype of blood bank information systems, then exemplifies a successful in-running system-Sistema Integrado de Bancos de Sangue (SIBAS), which is developed by the Institute of Systems and Computer Engineering of Macau (INESC-Macau) in cooperation with the Macau Blood Transfusion Center (CTS-Macau). Its implementation and the related lessons are briefly introduced too. In essence, this article is oriented to serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems.

  16. The Alterations of Serum Cortisol Level and Blood Cell Count in Male Rats after a Short Term Exposure to Burned Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mohsen


    Full Text Available Background: Most lantern mantles contain low levels of radioactive thorium. Although radioactive lantern mantles present a minimal radiation health hazard, it is generally believed when inhaled or ingested, it can be dangerous. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of short term exposure to radioactive lantern mantle on serum cortisol level and blood count.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2007-2009 in the school of medicine of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. Twenty eight rats were divided randomly into two groups of 14 animals each. The first group was exposed to 600 mg burned radioactive lantern mantle powder (activity of 800Bq for 24 hours and inhaled radon released from mantles. The second group was exposed to non-radioactive lantern mantle powder at the same interval. Paired t-test was used to evaluate the difference in the means of cortisol and blood cell count in both groups. P<0.05 was considered as the significance level.Results: Short term exposure of animals to radioactive lantern mantle powder led to a statistically significant decreased cortisol level, while no statistically significant decrease was found in animals that were exposed to non-radioactive mantle powder. Furthermore, a significant reduction was shown in post-exposure counts of WBC in the case group.Conclusions: Despite alteration of serum cortisol level, this study could not show stimulatory effects in some blood counts

  17. Alteration of oxidative stress parameters in red blood cells of rats after chronic in vivo treatment with cisplatin and selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Snežana D.


    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the possible protective effects of selenium (Se on hematological and oxidative stress parameters in rats chronically treated with cisplatin (cisPt. Four groups of Wistar albino rats were examined: a control, untreated rats (I, rats treated with Se (II, rats treated with cisPt (III, and rats treated with Se and cisPt (IV. All animals were treated for 5 days successively and killed 24 h after the last treatment. Hematological and oxidative stress parameters were followed in whole blood and red blood cells (RBC. Results showed that the chronic application of Se was followed by a higher number of reticulocytes and platelets, increased lipid peroxidation and GSH content in the RBC. Cisplatin treatment induced depletion of RBC and platelet numbers and an elevation of the superoxide anion, nitrites and glutathione levels. Se and cisPt co-treatment was followed by an elevation of the hematological parameters and the recovery of the glutathione status when compared to the control and cisPt-treated rats.

  18. Altered circadian blood pressure profile in patients with active acromegaly. Relationship with left ventricular mass and hormonal values. (United States)

    Pietrobelli, D J; Akopian, M; Olivieri, A O; Renauld, A; Garrido, D; Artese, R; Feldstein, C A


    To determine the relationships between the circadian blood pressure profile and left ventricular mass, hormonal pattern and insulin sensitivity indices in patients with active acromegaly, ambulatory 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was recorded in 25 subjects (47.0 +/- 15.1 years, range 23-72). Serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1, fasting and mean plasma glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulinogenic index, the sum of the plasma insulin levels and the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (Homa's index) were determined. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated from two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiogram. The prevalence of hypertension was 56% (n = 14) and 40% (n = 10) according to sphygmomanometric measurements and ABPM, respectively. Non-dipping profile was observed in six of 10 hypertensives and in six of 15 normotensives. Serum growth hormone, fasting glucose, the area under the serum insulin curve and LVMI were higher for acromegalics with non-dipping profile than for dippers (all of them, P regulation in essential hypertension deserves further studies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Up till now about 400red cells antigen have been identified. The majority are inherited by Mendelian fashion. The ABO and Rh blood group system was first to be identified and is most important for blood transfusion purposes. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the frequency of ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups in a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective data based study was conducted at blood bank , Chirayu Medical College and Hospital, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India over a period of four years. RESULTS: Study includes a record of 3188 (28.54% voluntary and 7982 (71.46% replacement donors attending blood bank from February 2011 to January 2015. Out of 11170, 10723(95.998% were male and 447(4.002% female donors. The most common blood group was found to be B in 4013 (35.927% donors followed by O in 3462 (30.994% donors , an in 2516 (22.524% donors and AB in 1179 (10.555% donors. Out of these, 10659(95.425% donors were Rh - positive while 511 ( 4.575 % were Rh - negative.

  20. 75 FR 25904 - Privacy Act of 1974; as Amended; Proposed Alteration to an Existing Privacy Act System of Records... (United States)


    ... THE SYSTEM: This system covers persons who allegedly fail to meet our qualifications to serve as a... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; as Amended; Proposed Alteration to an Existing Privacy Act System of Records, Housekeeping Changes, and New Routine Uses AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Altered...

  1. [Development of an automatic pneumatic tourniquet system that determines pressures in synchrony with systolic blood pressure]. (United States)

    Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zhengbo; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong


    The correlation coefficients between arterial occlusion pressure and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, limb circumference, body mass etc were obtained through healthy volunteer experiments, in which tourniquet were applied on upper/lower extremities. The prediction equations were derived from the data of experiments by multiple regression analysis. Based on the microprocessor C8051F340, a new pneumatic tourniquet system that can determine tourniquet pressure in synchrony with systolic blood pressure was developed and verified the function and stability of designed system. Results showed that the pneumatic tourniquet which automatically adjusts occlusion pressure in accordance with systolic blood pressure could stop the flow of blood to get a bloodless field.

  2. Follicular Viability and Histological Alterations after nAuto-transplantation of Dog Ovaries by Experimentally Inducing Blood Sinus on Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazhir Khoram


    Full Text Available Background:Currently, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are considered most effective methods forcancer treatment, however these strategies often result in fertility problems. A favorable alternativeto prevent fertility loss in cancer patients is the cryopreservation and transplantation of sexualtissues (ovaries and/or testes. There is a low rate of fertilization following cryopreservation ofovaries prior to implantation. Therefore, in our opinion, this low rate is caused by instable bloodflow during organ transplantation. Thus, this study researches a canine ovarian model that focuses ondirect exposure of ovaries with blood in an experimentally induced sinus-like cavity. We implantedthis tissue on the muscular layer of the stomach, which is its most vascularized region.Materials and Methods: Ovarian transplantation was conducted on T1 animals (n=5, bilateralovariectomy was performed on T2 animals (n=5, unilateral ovariectomy was conducted on T3 casesand animals in the control-sham group (n=5 did not undergo ovariectomy or transplantation.Results: All isotransplanted ovaries survived. Ovaries resumed follicular growth andrevascularization. Transplanted ovaries contained 75%-76% of survived small follicles (pre antralafter 60 days. The ovarian granulosa cells showed considerable resistance against ischemia. Afterday 30 no statistically significant differences in the level of estradiol and progesterone were observedbetween T1 animals and the T3 group. T1 animals showed considerably high levels of progesteroneand estradiol in comparison to T2 cases.Conclusion: This study showed that using blood sinus method for ovarian isotransplantation helpsovarian tissue to survive from post implantation ischemia which confirms with normal folliclespresentation and intact endocrine function of the implanted ovaries.

  3. Natural functional SNPs in miR-155 alter its expression level, blood cell counts and immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Li


    Full Text Available miR-155 has been confirmed to be a key factor in immune responses in humans and other mammals. Therefore, investigation of variations in miR-155 could be useful for understanding the differences in immunity between individuals. In this study, four SNPs in miR-155 were identified in mice (Mus musculus and humans (Homo sapiens. In mice, the four SNPs were closely linked and formed two miR-155 haplotypes (A and B. Ten distinct types of blood parameters were associated with miR-155 expression under normal conditions. Additionally, 4 and 14 blood parameters were significantly different between these two genotypes under normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation conditions, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-155, the inflammatory response to LPS stimulation and the lethal ratio following Salmonella typhimurium infection were significantly increased in mice harboring the AA genotype. Further, two SNPs, one in the loop region and the other near the 3' terminal of pre-miR-155, were confirmed to be responsible for the differential expression of miR-155 in mice. Interestingly, two additional SNPs, one in the loop region and the other in the middle of miR-155*, modulated the function of miR-155 in humans. Predictions of secondary RNA structure using RNAfold showed that these SNPs affected the structure of miR-155 in both mice and humans. Our results provide novel evidence of the natural functional SNPs of miR-155 in both mice and humans, which may affect the expression levels of mature miR-155 by modulating its secondary structure. The SNPs of human miR-155 may be considered as causal mutations for some immune-related diseases in the clinic. The two genotypes of mice could be used as natural models for studying the mechanisms of immune diseases caused by abnormal expression of miR-155 in humans.

  4. Mobile Personal Health System for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Mena


    Full Text Available The ARVmobile v1.0 is a multiplatform mobile personal health monitor (PHM application for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP monitoring that has the potential to aid in the acquisition and analysis of detailed profile of ABP and heart rate (HR, improve the early detection and intervention of hypertension, and detect potential abnormal BP and HR levels for timely medical feedback. The PHM system consisted of ABP sensor to detect BP and HR signals and smartphone as receiver to collect the transmitted digital data and process them to provide immediate personalized information to the user. Android and Blackberry platforms were developed to detect and alert of potential abnormal values, offer friendly graphical user interface for elderly people, and provide feedback to professional healthcare providers via e-mail. ABP data were obtained from twenty-one healthy individuals (>51 years to test the utility of the PHM application. The ARVmobile v1.0 was able to reliably receive and process the ABP readings from the volunteers. The preliminary results demonstrate that the ARVmobile 1.0 application could be used to perform a detailed profile of ABP and HR in an ordinary daily life environment, bedsides of estimating potential diagnostic thresholds of abnormal BP variability measured as average real variability.

  5. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments. (United States)

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan


    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  6. Postpartal immunometabolic gene network expression and function in blood neutrophils are altered in response to prepartal energy intake and postpartal intramammary inflammatory challenge. (United States)

    Moyes, K M; Graugnard, D E; Khan, M J; Mukesh, M; Loor, J J


    The effect of over-feeding energy prepartum on blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) response remains unclear. Cows fed controlled (CON; 1.34Mcal/kg of dry matter) or excess energy (OVE; 1.62Mcal/kg dry matter) during the dry period (~45d before expected calving date) received an intramammary (IM) challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during the postpartal period to determine the effects of IM LPS and prepartal diet on the expression of key genes associated with immunometabolic response in blood PMN. Feed intake and daily milk yield were recorded throughout the study period. At 7d in milk (DIM), all cows received LPS (200µg) into 1 rear mammary quarter. Blood PMN were isolated at 7, 14, and 30 DIM, as well as before (0h) and after (12h) IM LPS challenge for gene expression analysis using quantitative real time PCR. Phagocytosis capabilities in vitro were assessed at 7, 14, and 30 DIM. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with repeated measures. No differences in feed intake and milk yield were observed between OVE- and CON-fed cows. As expected, IM LPS challenge altered the expression of genes associated with the immune response (e.g., 1.9- and 1.8-fold for SELL and TLR2, respectively), metabolism (e.g., 1.8- and -1.8-fold for LDHA and SLC2A1, respectively), and transcription (e.g., 1.1- and 1.7-fold for NCOR1 and PPARD, respectively). At 12h postchallenge, an upregulation of TLR2 (1.8-fold), HIF1A (1.9-fold), and NFKB1 (1.5-fold) was observed for OVE rather than CON. At 7 DIM, S100A9 tended (2.2-fold) to be upregulated for OVE rather than CON. At 14 DIM, OVE resulted in lower PMN phagocytosis and an upregulation of NCOR2 (1.6-fold) and RXRA (1.9-fold) compared with CON-fed cows. At 30 DIM, an upregulation of MPO (3.5-fold) and PLA2G4A (1.5-fold) and a tendency for RXRA (1.7-fold) was observed for OVE- rather than CON-fed cows. Our results suggest that IM LPS challenge altered gene expression associated with metabolism in PMN

  7. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K


    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  8. Eucommia bark (Du-Zhong improves diabetic nephropathy without altering blood glucose in type 1-like diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu HS


    Full Text Available Ho-Shan Niu,1 I-Min Liu,2 Chiang-Shan Niu,1 Po-Ming Ku,3,4 Chao-Tien Hsu,5 Juei-Tang Cheng4,6 1Department of Nursing, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Hualien City, 2Department of Pharmacy & Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tajen University, Pingtung County, 3Department of Cardiology, 4Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Yong Kang, Tainan City, 5Department of Pathology, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, 6Institute of Medical Science, College of Health Science, Chang Jung Christian University, Guei-Ren, Tainan City, Taiwan Background: Eucommia bark, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver barks (Du-Zhong in Mandarin, is an herb used for renal dysfunction in Chinese traditional medicine. In an attempt to develop this herb as a treatment for diabetic nephropathy (DN, we investigated the effects of Du-Zhong on renal dysfunction in type 1-like diabetic rats. Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ was used to induce type 1-like diabetes in rats (STZ-diabetic rats. In addition to hyperglycemia, STZ-diabetic rats showed significant nephropathy, including higher plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and renal fibrosis. Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue was applied to characterize the changes in potential signals related to nephropathy. Results: Oral administration of Du-Zhong (1 g/kg/day to STZ-diabetic rats for 20 days not only decreased the plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine but also improved renal fibrosis, whereas the plasma glucose level was not changed. The higher expressions of protein levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β and connective tissue growth factor in diabetic rats were markedly attenuated by Du-Zhong. The increased phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in STZ-diabetic rats was also reduced by Du-Zhong. However, Du-Zhong cannot reverse the hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 in the diabetic kidney

  9. Alterations in blood glucose and plasma glucagon concentrations during deep brain stimulation in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene eDiepenbroek


    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAc is an effective therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and is currently under investigation as a treatment for eating disorders. DBS of this area is associated with altered food intake and pharmacological treatment of OCD is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore we examined if DBS of the NAc-shell (sNAc influences glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to DBS, or sham stimulation, for a period of one hour. To assess the effects of stimulation on blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, blood samples were drawn before, during and after stimulation. Subsequently, all animals were used for quantitative assessment of Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA using computerized image analysis. DBS of the sNAc rapidly increased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucose while sham stimulation and DBS outside the sNAc were ineffective. In addition, the increase in glucose was dependent on DBS intensity. In contrast, the DBS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations was independent of intensity and region, indicating that the observed DBS-induced metabolic changes were not due to corticosterone release. Stimulation of the sNAc with 200 μA increased Fos immunoreactivity in the LHA compared to sham or 100 μA stimulated animals. These data show that DBS of the sNAc alters glucose metabolism in a region- and intensity dependent manner in association with neuronal activation in the LHA. Moreover, these data illustrate the need to monitor changes in glucose metabolism during DBS-treatment of OCD patients.

  10. Interaction of p-benzoquinone with hemoglobin in smoker’s blood causes alteration of structure and loss of oxygen binding capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Ghosh


    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke (CS is an important source of morbidity and early mortality worldwide. Besides causing various life-threatening diseases, CS is also known to cause hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia would induce early aging and premature death. Continuation of smoking during pregnancy is a known risk for the unborn child. Although carbon monoxide (CO is considered to be a cause of hypoxia, the effect of other component(s of CS on hypoxia is not known. Here we show by immunoblots and mass spectra analyses that in smoker’s blood p-benzoquinone (p-BQ derived from CS forms covalent adducts with cysteine 93 residues in both the β chains of hemoglobin (Hb producing Hb-p-BQ adducts. UV–vis spectra and CD spectra analyses show that upon complexation with p-BQ the structure of Hb is altered. Compared to nonsmoker’s Hb, the content of α-helix decreased significantly in smoker’s Hb (p = 0.0224. p-BQ also induces aggregation of smoker’s Hb as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE, dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. Alteration of Hb structure in smoker’s blood is accompanied by reduced oxygen binding capacity. Our results provide the first proof that p-BQ is a cause of hypoxia in smokers. We also show that although both p-BQ and CO are responsible for causing hypoxia in smokers, exposure to CO further affects the function over and above that produced by Hb-p-BQ adduct.

  11. An upgraded camera-based imaging system for mapping venous blood oxygenation in human skin tissue (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Xiao; Qiu, Lina; Leotta, Daniel F.


    A camera-based imaging system was previously developed for mapping venous blood oxygenation in human skin. However, several limitations were realized in later applications, which could lead to either significant bias in the estimated oxygen saturation value or poor spatial resolution in the map of the oxygen saturation. To overcome these issues, an upgraded system was developed using improved modeling and image processing algorithms. In the modeling, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was used to verify the effectiveness of the ratio-to-ratio method for semi-infinite and two-layer skin models, and then the relationship between the venous oxygen saturation and the ratio-to-ratio was determined. The improved image processing algorithms included surface curvature correction and motion compensation. The curvature correction is necessary when the imaged skin surface is uneven. The motion compensation is critical for the imaging system because surface motion is inevitable when the venous volume alteration is induced by cuff inflation. In addition to the modeling and image processing algorithms in the upgraded system, a ring light guide was used to achieve perpendicular and uniform incidence of light. Cross-polarization detection was also adopted to suppress surface specular reflection. The upgraded system was applied to mapping of venous oxygen saturation in the palm, opisthenar and forearm of human subjects. The spatial resolution of the oxygenation map achieved is much better than that of the original system. In addition, the mean values of the venous oxygen saturation for the three locations were verified with a commercial near-infrared spectroscopy system and were consistent with previously published data.

  12. Buying blood diamonds and altering global capitalism. Mads Brügger as unruly artivist in The Ambassador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Møhring Reestorff


    Full Text Available This article argues that it is necessary to distinguish between different modalities of globalisation to ensure that we do not simply equate globalisation with global capitalism. Following this, this article conducts a study of the way in which Mads Brügger's documentary film The Ambassador challenges global inequality in relation to finance and mobility. This critique of global inequality is staged through a peculiar “unruly artivist” provocation. Mads Brügger fictionalises his character and over-identifies with the corrupt diplomat seeking to buy and trade blood diamonds. The film is unruly because it rejects any explicit ethical claims and norms of participation, thus reproducing the self-same patterns of inequality that it seeks to document. This article studies the film as an unruly documentary that applies satire, cartoon aesthetics, and culture jamming as its artivist strategy. This strategy is one of provocation. The provocation enters the mediatised public sphere, in which it simultaneously is condemned and works as a critique of the global mobility and financial inequality that it portrays.

  13. Modelling of the Blood Coagulation Cascade in an In Vitro Flow System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Efendiev, Messoud A.;


    We derive a mathematical model of a part of the blood coagulation cascade set up in a perfusion experiment. Our purpose is to simulate the influence of blood flow and diffusion on the blood coagulation pathway. The resulting model consists of a system of partial differential equations taking into...... and flow equations, which guarantee non negative concentrations at all times. The criteria is applied to the model of the blood coagulation cascade.......We derive a mathematical model of a part of the blood coagulation cascade set up in a perfusion experiment. Our purpose is to simulate the influence of blood flow and diffusion on the blood coagulation pathway. The resulting model consists of a system of partial differential equations taking...

  14. Duffy blood group system and the malaria adaptation process in humans


    Gledson Barbosa de Carvalho; Glauber Barbosa de Carvalho


    Malaria is an acute infectious disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. The antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System, in addition to incompatibilities in transfusions and hemolytic disease of the newborn, are of great interest in medicine due to their association with the invasion of red blood cells by the parasite Plasmodium vivax. For invasions to occur an interaction between the parasites and antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System is necessary. In Caucasians six antigens a...

  15. Volatiles on solar system objects: Carbon dioxide on Iapetus and aqueous alteration in CM chondrites (United States)

    Palmer, Eric Edward


    Volatiles are critical in understanding the history of the solar system. We conducted two case studies intended to further this understanding. First, we analyzed the presence of CO2 on Iapetus. Second, we evaluated aqueous alteration in CM chondrites. We studied the distribution, stability and production of CO2 on Saturn's moon Iapetus. We determined that CO2 is concentrated exclusively on Iapetus' dark material with an effective thickness of 31 nm. The total CO2 on Iapetus' surface is 2.3x108 kg. However, CO2 should not be present because it has a limited residence time on the surface of Iapetus. Our thermal calculations and modeling show that CO2 in the form of frost will not remain on Iapetus' surface beyond a few hundred years. Thus, it must be complexed with dark material. However, photodissociation will destroy the observed inventory in ˜1/2 an Earth year. The lack of thermal and radiolytic stability requires an active source. We conducted experiments showing UV radiation generates CO2 under Iapetus-like conditions. We created a simulated regolith by mixing crushed water ice with isotopically labeled carbon. We then irradiated it with UV light at low temperature and pressure, producing 1.1x1015 parts m-2 s-1. Extrapolating to Iapetus, photolysis could generate 8.4x107 kg y-1, which makes photolytic production a good candidate for the source of the CO2 detected on Iapetus. We also studied the aqueous alteration of metal-bearing assemblages in CM chondrites. We examined Murchison, Cold Bokkeveld, Nogoya, and Murray using microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Alteration on CM meteorites occurred within at least three microchemical environments: S-rich water, Si-rich water and water without substantial reactive components. Kamacite alters into tochilinite, cronstedtite, or magnetite. Sulfur associated alteration can form accessory minerals: P-rich sulfides, eskolaite and schreibersite. Additionally, we determined that there

  16. Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1-/- immunodeficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza eRattazzi


    Full Text Available Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1-/- knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1-/- mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1-/- mice.

  17. Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1(-∕-) immunodeficient mice. (United States)

    Rattazzi, Lorenza; Cariboni, Anna; Poojara, Ridhika; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; D'Acquisto, Fulvio


    Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1)(-∕-) knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

  18. Alterations of the Brain Reward System in Antipsychotic Naïve Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne;


    BACKGROUND: Various schizophrenic symptoms are suggested to be linked to a dysfunction of the brain reward system. Several studies have found alterations in the reward processing in patients with schizophrenia; however, most previous findings might be confounded by medication effects. METHODS...... as arousing events) into behavioral salience (events where a predicted reward requires performance) and valence anticipation (the anticipation of a monetarily significant outcome). Furthermore, the evaluation of monetary gain and loss was assessed. RESULTS: During reward anticipation, patients had...

  19. Alteration of the systemic and microcirculation by a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodai Ingawa

    Full Text Available Several systematic reviews have reported that flow mediated dilatation (FMD was significantly increased in subjects after ingestion of chocolate that contains flavan-3-ols; however, the mechanisms responsible for this effect are not clear. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols on the systemic circulation and microcirculation in the cremaster muscle using intravital video microscopy in vivo. The cremaster muscle in rats was spread over a plastic chamber and a gastric tube was placed into the stomach. Blood flow in the cremasteric artery was determined using a laser Doppler flowmeter, while blood pressure and heart rate were measured by the tail-cuff method. Red blood cell velocity in arterioles and blood flow in the artery were significantly increased 5 min after the administration of 10 mg/kg flavan-3-ols compared with distilled water treatment. The number of capillaries recruited in the cremaster muscle was also significantly increased 15 min after treatment. Microscopic observation confirmed that increased shear stress on endothelial cells was maintained during the measurement period. The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were also significantly elevated soon after administration and returned to baseline before the end of the observation period. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels, and NO phosphorylation of aortic tissue were significantly increased at 60 min after administration of flavan-3-ols. According to these results, a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols elevates blood pressure and flow transiently, and these effects induce NO production through increased shear stress on endothelial cells.

  20. ABO blood group system and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan


    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25-1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.

  1. [ABO system blood group ratios in patients with neuroinfections]. (United States)

    Rudometov, Iu P; Umanskiĭ, K G; Ashmarina, E E; Andreeva, L S


    The distribution of the ABO blood groups in 2009 patients including 1441 ones suffering from etiologically diverse neuroinfections was studied. Certain correlations between the nosological forms and groups of the diseases on the one hand, and the blood factors on the other are demonstrated. The data obtained point to a certain role of hereditary predisposition in the genesis of the neuroinfections. This predisposition predetermines the risk of the illnesses and the gravity of their course, the fact, which is of a practical importance for the clinician.

  2. [Sequence of venous blood flow alterations in patients after recently endured acute thrombosis of lower-limb deep veins based on the findings of ultrasonographic duplex scanning]. (United States)

    Tarkovskiĭ, A A; Zudin, A M; Aleksandrova, E S


    This study was undertaken to investigate the sequence of alterations in the venous blood flow to have occurred within the time frame of one year after sustained acute thrombosis of the lower-limb deep veins, which was carried out using the standard technique of ultrasonographic duplex scanning. A total of thirty-two 24-to-62-year-old patients presenting with newly onset acute phlebothrombosis were followed up. All the patients were sequentially examined at 2 days, 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months after the manifestation of the initial clinical signs of the disease. Amongst the parameters to determine were the patency of the deep veins and the condition of the valvular apparatus of the deep, superficial and communicant veins. According to the obtained findings, it was as early as at the first stage of the phlebohaemodynamic alterations after the endured thrombosis, i. e., during the acute period of the disease, that seven (21.9%) patients were found to have developed valvular insufficiency of the communicant veins of the cms, manifesting itself in the formation of a horizontal veno-venous reflux, and 6 months later, these events were observed to have occurred in all the patients examined (100%). Afterwards, the second stage of the phlebohaemodynamic alterations was, simultaneously with the process of recanalization of the thrombotic masses in the deep veins, specifically characterized by the formation of valvular insufficiency of the latter, manifesting itself in the form of the development of a deep vertical veno-venous reflux, which was revealed at month six after the onset of the disease in 56.3% of the examined subjects, to be then observed after 12 months in 93.8% of the patients involved. Recanalization of thrombotic masses was noted to commence 3 months after the onset of thrombosis in twelve (37.5%) patients, and after 12 months it was seen to ensue in all the patients (100%), eventually ending in complete restoration of the patency of the affected

  3. 5-HT systems: emergent targets for memory formation and memory alterations. (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo


    Drugs acting through 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin or 5-HT) systems modulate memory and its alterations, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. 5-HT drugs may present promnesic and/or antiamnesic (or even being amnesic) effects. Key questions regarding 5-HT markers include whether receptors directly or indirectly participate and/or contribute to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis; hence, the major aim of this article was to examine recent advances in emergent targets of the 5-HT systems for memory formation and memory alterations. Recent reviews and findings are summarized, mainly in the context of the growing notion of memory deficits in brain disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, mild cognitive impairment, consumption of drugs, poststroke cognitive dysfunctions, schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, and infection-induced memory impairments). Mainly, mammalian and (some) human data were the focus. At least agonists and antagonists for 5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as serotonin uptake inhibitors seem to have a promnesic and/or antiamnesic effect in different conditions and 5-HT markers seem to be associated to neural changes. Available evidence offers clues about the possibilities, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, 5-HT transporter expression seems to be a reliable neural marker related to memory mechanisms and its alterations.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    This review deals with active targeting of particulate drug carriers through (1) physico-chemical (e.g., complex formation between a homing device and a surface exposed molecule at the target site) and (2) physical means, Target sites discussed are restricted to those in the blood circulation. Targe

  5. Imaging of blood cells based on snapshot Hyper-Spectral Imaging systems (United States)

    Robison, Christopher J.; Kolanko, Christopher; Bourlai, Thirimachos; Dawson, Jeremy M.


    Snapshot Hyper-Spectral imaging systems are capable of capturing several spectral bands simultaneously, offering coregistered images of a target. With appropriate optics, these systems are potentially able to image blood cells in vivo as they flow through a vessel, eliminating the need for a blood draw and sample staining. Our group has evaluated the capability of a commercial Snapshot Hyper-Spectral imaging system, the Arrow system from Rebellion Photonics, in differentiating between white and red blood cells on unstained blood smear slides. We evaluated the imaging capabilities of this hyperspectral camera; attached to a microscope at varying objective powers and illumination intensity. Hyperspectral data consisting of 25, 443x313 hyperspectral bands with ~3nm spacing were captured over the range of 419 to 494nm. Open-source hyper-spectral data cube analysis tools, used primarily in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, indicate that white blood cells features are most prominent in the 428-442nm band for blood samples viewed under 20x and 50x magnification over a varying range of illumination intensities. These images could potentially be used in subsequent automated white blood cell segmentation and counting algorithms for performing in vivo white blood cell counting.

  6. Security Policies for Mitigating the Risk of Load Altering Attacks on Smart Grid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, Tatyana; AlMajali, Anas; Neuman, Clifford


    While demand response programs implement energy efficiency and power quality objectives, they bring potential security threats to the Smart Grid. The ability to influence load in a system enables attackers to cause system failures and impacts the quality and integrity of power delivered to customers. This paper presents a security mechanism to monitor and control load according to a set of security policies during normal system operation. The mechanism monitors, detects, and responds to load altering attacks. We examined the security requirements of Smart Grid stakeholders and constructed a set of load control policies enforced by the mechanism. We implemented a proof of concept prototype and tested it using the simulation environment. By enforcing the proposed policies in this prototype, the system is maintained in a safe state in the presence of load drop attacks.

  7. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Miyamoto


    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC adenocarcinoma and other lung cancer cases. Metabolomic analysis of blood samples from the two studies yielded a total of 437 metabolites, of which 148 were identified as known compounds and 289 identified as unknown compounds. Differential analysis identified 15 known metabolites in one study and 18 in a second study that were statistically different (p-values <0.05. Levels of maltose, palmitic acid, glycerol, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, and lactic acid were increased in cancer samples while amino acids tryptophan, lysine and histidine decreased. Many of the metabolites were found to be significantly different in both studies, suggesting that metabolomics appears to be robust enough to find systemic changes from lung cancer, thus showing the potential of this type of analysis for lung cancer detection.

  8. Alteration of the exDNA profile in blood serum of LLC-bearing mice under the decrease of tumour invasion potential by bovine pancreatic DNase I treatment (United States)

    Brenner, Evgenyi V.; Kurilshikov, Alexander M.; Patutina, Olga A.; Zenkova, Marina A.


    Taking into account recently obtained data indicating the participation of circulating extracellular DNA (exDNA) in tumorigenesis, enzymes with deoxyribonucleic activity have again been considered as potential antitumour and antimetastatic drugs. Previously, using murine Lewis lung carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma A1 tumour models, we have shown the antimetastatic activity of bovine DNase I, which correlates with an increase of DNase activity and a decrease of exDNA concentration in the blood serum of tumour-bearing mice. In this work, using next-generation sequencing on the ABS SOLiD™ 5.500 platform, we performed a search for molecular targets of DNase I by comparing the exDNA profiles of healthy animals, untreated animals with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and those with LLC treated with DNase I. We found that upon DNase I treatment of LLC-bearing mice, together with inhibition of metastasis, a number of strong alterations in the patterns of exDNA were observed. The major differences in exDNA profiles between groups were: i) the level of GC-poor sequences increased during tumour development was reduced to that of healthy mice; ii) levels of sequences corresponding to tumour-associated genes Hmga2, Myc and Jun were reduced in the DNase I-treated group in comparison with non-treated mice; iii) 224 types of tandem repeat over-presented in untreated LLC-bearing mice were significantly reduced after DNase I treatment. The most important result obtained in the work is that DNase I decreased the level of B-subfamily repeats having homology to human ALU repeats, known as markers of carcinogenesis, to the level of healthy animals. Thus, the obtained data lead us to suppose that circulating exDNA plays a role in tumour dissemination, and alteration of multiple molecular targets in the bloodstream by DNase I reduces the invasive potential of tumours. PMID:28222152

  9. Glycans in the immune system and The Altered Glycan Theory of Autoimmunity: a critical review. (United States)

    Maverakis, Emanual; Kim, Kyoungmi; Shimoda, Michiko; Gershwin, M Eric; Patel, Forum; Wilken, Reason; Raychaudhuri, Siba; Ruhaak, L Renee; Lebrilla, Carlito B


    Herein we will review the role of glycans in the immune system. Specific topics covered include: the glycosylation sites of IgE, IgM, IgD, IgE, IgA, and IgG; how glycans can encode "self" identity by functioning as either danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or self-associated molecular patterns (SAMPs); the role of glycans as markers of protein integrity and age; how the glycocalyx can dictate the migration pattern of immune cells; and how the combination of Fc N-glycans and Ig isotype dictate the effector function of immunoglobulins. We speculate that the latter may be responsible for the well-documented association between alterations of the serum glycome and autoimmunity. Due to technological limitations, the extent of these autoimmune-associated glycan alterations and their role in disease pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. Thus, we also review the current technologies available for glycan analysis, placing an emphasis on Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM), a rapid high-throughput technology that has great potential for glycan biomarker research. Finally, we put forth The Altered Glycan Theory of Autoimmunity, which states that each autoimmune disease will have a unique glycan signature characterized by the site-specific relative abundances of individual glycan structures on immune cells and extracellular proteins, especially the site-specific glycosylation patterns of the different immunoglobulin(Ig) classes and subclasses.

  10. Alcohol abuse and smoking alter inflammatory mediator production by pulmonary and systemic immune cells. (United States)

    Gaydos, Jeanette; McNally, Alicia; Guo, Ruixin; Vandivier, R William; Simonian, Philip L; Burnham, Ellen L


    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and tobacco smoking are associated with an increased predisposition for community-acquired pneumonia and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanisms are incompletely established but may include alterations in response to pathogens by immune cells, including alveolar macrophages (AMs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We sought to determine the relationship of AUDs and smoking to expression of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα by AMs and PBMCs from human subjects after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA). AMs and PBMCs from healthy subjects with AUDs and controls, matched on smoking, were cultured with LPS (1 μg/ml) or LTA (5 μg/ml) in the presence and absence of the antioxidant precursor N-acetylcysteine (10 mM). Cytokines were measured in cell culture supernatants. Expression of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα in AMs and PBMCs was significantly increased in response to stimulation with LPS and LTA. AUDs were associated with augmented production of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IFNγ and IL-1β, by AMs and PBMCs in response to LPS. Smoking diminished the impact of AUDs on AM cytokine expression. Expression of basal AM and PBMC Toll-like receptors-2 and -4 was not clearly related to differences in cytokine expression; however, addition of N-acetylcysteine with LPS or LTA led to diminished AM and PBMC cytokine secretion, especially among current smokers. Our findings suggest that AM and PBMC immune cell responses to LPS and LTA are influenced by AUDs and smoking through mechanisms that may include alterations in cellular oxidative stress.

  11. Blood flow in the cerebral venous system: modeling and simulation. (United States)

    Miraucourt, Olivia; Salmon, Stéphanie; Szopos, Marcela; Thiriet, Marc


    The development of a software platform incorporating all aspects, from medical imaging data, through three-dimensional reconstruction and suitable meshing, up to simulation of blood flow in patient-specific geometries, is a crucial challenge in biomedical engineering. In the present study, a fully three-dimensional blood flow simulation is carried out through a complete rigid macrovascular circuit, namely the intracranial venous network, instead of a reduced order simulation and partial vascular network. The biomechanical modeling step is carefully analyzed and leads to the description of the flow governed by the dimensionless Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible viscous fluid. The equations are then numerically solved with a free finite element software using five meshes of a realistic geometry obtained from medical images to prove the feasibility of the pipeline. Some features of the intracranial venous circuit in the supine position such as asymmetric behavior in merging regions are discussed.

  12. Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles. (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin


    Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes.

  13. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...

  14. The Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in ABO Blood Groups and Rh Type System (United States)

    Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri; Kaur, Viplesh; Giri, Sumit; Kaushal, Ravi Prakash


    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV), anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research Laboratory test (VDRL) and malaria parasite (MP) antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50), O negative (1/66), B negative (1/91), AB positive (2/377) blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rhnegative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect. PMID:25568761

  15. The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in ABO blood groups and Rh type system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh Nigam


    Full Text Available Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs. The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV, anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL and malaria parasite (MP antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50, O negative (1/66, B negative (1/91, AB positive (2/377 blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rh-negative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect.

  16. Non-classical processes in surface hemostasis: mechanisms for the poly-N-acetyl glucosamine-induced alteration of red blood cell morphology and surface prothrombogenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Thomas H; Smith, Carr J; Scull, Christopher M; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Nichols, Timothy C [Francis Owen Blood Research Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 125 University Lake Dr., CB 3114, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Valeri, C Robert [Naval Blood Research Laboratory, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Demcheva, Marina; Vournakis, John N [Marine Polymer Technologies, Inc., Danvers, MA (United States)


    It is well established that platelets and the intrinsic plasma coagulation pathway can be activated when blood contacts artificial surfaces. Experiments were performed to assess the effect of hemostatic poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (pGlcNAc) nanofibers on red blood cells. The pGlcNAc nanofibers, isolated from a marine diatom, interact with red blood cells (RBCs) to produce stomatocytes. The stomatocytes could be converted to echinocytes by treatment with echinocytic reagents, as measured by electron microscopy. Electrophoretic and Western blot analysis of RBC surface proteins demonstrated that pGlcNAc fibers were bound to band 3 of the RBC. An important and unique result of the interaction of RBCs with pGlcNAc fibers was the activation of the intrinsic coagulation cascade. This prothrombotic effect was associated with the presentation of phosphatidylserine on the outer layer of the surface membrane of nanofiber bound RBCs. The results demonstrate that RBCs can play a direct and important role in achieving surface hemostasis by accelerating the generation of thrombin, and add to the growing body of evidence that RBCs can strongly interact with hemostatic systems.

  17. Intrarenal alterations of the angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2/angiotensin 1-7 complex of the renin-angiotensin system do not alter the course of malignant hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. (United States)

    Husková, Zuzana; Kopkan, Libor; Červenková, Lenka; Doleželová, Šárka; Vaňourková, Zdeňka; Škaroupková, Petra; Nishiyama, Akira; Kompanowska-Jezierska, Elzbieta; Sadowski, Janusz; Kramer, Herbert J; Červenka, Luděk


    The role of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathophysiology of malignant hypertension is not fully understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that the recently discovered vasodilator axis of the RAS, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) type 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin 1-7 (ANG 1-7), constitutes an endogenous system counterbalancing the hypertensiogenic axis, ACE/angiotensin II (ANG II)/AT1 receptor. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the intrarenal vasodilator RAS axis in the pathophysiology of ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension was induced by 13 days' dietary administration of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural xenobiotic that activates the mouse renin gene in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. It was hypothesized that pharmacologically-induced inhibition of the ACE2/ANG 1-7 complex should aggravate, and activation of this axis should attenuate, the course of ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) was monitored by radiotelemetry. ACE2 inhibitor (DX 600, 0.2 μg/day) and ACE2 activator (DIZE, 1 mg/day) were administrated via osmotic minipumps. Even though ACE2 inhibitor significantly decreased and ACE2 activator increased intrarenal ANG 1-7 concentrations, the course of BP, as well as of albuminuria, cardiac hypertrophy and renal glomerular damage, were not altered. It was shown that intrarenal alterations in the ACE2/ANG 1-7 complex did not significantly modify the course of malignant hypertension in I3C-induced Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. Thus, in our experimental setting alterations of this intrarenal vasodilator complex of the RAS do not significantly modify the form of malignant hypertension that clearly depends on the inappropriately increased activity of the ACE/ANG II/AT1 receptor axis.

  18. Alzheimer's disease susceptibility variants in the MS4A6A gene are associated with altered levels of MS4A6A expression in blood. (United States)

    Proitsi, Petroula; Lee, Sang Hyuck; Lunnon, Katie; Keohane, Aoife; Powell, John; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Furney, Simon; Soininen, Hilkka; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Lovestone, Simon; Hodges, Angela


    An increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) has previously been found to be associated with variants at the MS4A6A locus. We sought to identify which genes and transcripts in this region have altered expression in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and are influenced by the AD risk variant(s), as a first step to understanding the molecular basis of AD susceptibility at this locus. Common variants located within highly expressed MS4A6A transcripts were significantly associated with AD and MS4A6A expression levels in blood from MCI and AD subjects (p < 0.05, rs610932, rs7232, rs583791). More copies of the protective (minor) allele were associated with lower MS4A6A expression of each transcript (e.g., p = 0.019; rs610932-total MS4A6A). Furthermore, in heterozygous AD subjects, relative expression of the protective allele of V4-MS4A6A transcripts was lower (p < 0.008). Irrespective of genotype, MS4A6A transcripts were increased in blood from people with AD (p < 0.003), whereas lower expression of full length V1-MS4A6A (p = 0.002) and higher expression of V4-MS4A6A (p = 1.8 × 10(-4)) were observed in MCI, relative to elderly controls. The association between genotype and expression was less consistent in brain, although BA9 did have a similar genotype association with V4-MS4A6A transcripts as in blood. MS4A6A transcripts were widely expressed in tissues and cells, with the exception of V4-MS4A6A, which was not expressed in neuronal cells. Together these results suggest that high levels of MS4A6A in emerging AD pathology are detrimental. Persons with MCI may lower MS4A6A expression to minimize detrimental disease associated MS4A6A activity. However, those with the susceptibility allele appear unable to decrease expression sufficiently, which may explain their increased risk for developing AD. Inhibiting MS4A6A may therefore promote a more neuroprotective phenotype, although further work is needed to establish whether this is the case.

  19. System Accuracy Evaluation of the GlucoRx Nexus Voice TD-4280 Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan


    Full Text Available Use of blood glucose (BG meters in the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG significantly lowers the risk of diabetic complications. With several BG meters now commercially available, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO ensures that each BG meter conforms to a set degree of accuracy. Although adherence to ISO guidelines is a prerequisite for commercialization in Europe, several BG meters claim to meet the ISO guidelines yet fail to do so on internal validation. We conducted a study to determine whether the accuracy of the GlucoRx Nexus TD-4280 meter, utilized by our department for its cost-effectiveness, complied with ISO guidelines. 105 patients requiring laboratory blood glucose analysis were randomly selected and reference measurements were determined by the UniCel DxC 800 clinical system. Overall the BG meter failed to adhere to the ≥95% accuracy criterion required by both the 15197:2003 (overall accuracy 92.4% and 15197:2013 protocol (overall accuracy 86.7%. Inaccurate meters have an inherent risk of over- and/or underestimating the true BG concentration, thereby risking patients to incorrect therapeutic interventions. Our study demonstrates the importance of internally validating the accuracy of BG meters to ensure that its accuracy is accepted by standardized guidelines.

  20. Altered of apoptotic markers of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways induced by hepatitis C virus infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertoni Guilherme


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hepatitis C (CHC has emerged as a leading cause of cirrhosis in the U.S. and across the world. To understand the role of apoptotic pathways in hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, we studied the mRNA and protein expression patterns of apoptosis-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC obtained from patients with HCV infection. Methods The present study included 50 subjects which plasma samples were positive for HCV, but negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or hepatitis B virus (HBV. These cases were divided into four groups according to METAVIR, a score-based analysis which helps to interpret a liver biopsy according to the degree of inflammation and fibrosis. mRNA expression of the studied genes were analyzed by reverse transcription of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and protein levels, analyzed by ELISA, was also conducted. HCV genotyping was also determined. Results HCV infection increased mRNA expression and protein synthesis of caspase 8 in group 1 by 3 fold and 4 fold, respectively (p group 4 HCV infection increased mRNA expression and protein synthesis of caspase 9 by 2 fold and 1,5 fold, respectively (p group 1 by 4 fold and 5 fold, respectively, and in group 4 by 6 fold and 7 fold, respectively (p Conclusions HCV induces alteration at both genomic and protein levels of apoptosis markers involved with extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.

  1. Effects of Replenishing Qi, Promoting Blood Circulation and Resolving Phlegm on Vascular Endothelial Function and Blood Coagulation System in Senile Patients with Hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huimin; Han Libei; Sheng Tong; He Qiong; Liang Jinpu


    Objective: To observe the curative effect of the method of replenishing qi, promoting blood circulation and resolving phlegm on senile hyperlipemia and its effects on vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system. Method: 96 patients with senile hyperlipemia were randomly divided into a treatment group and a of blood lipid, vascular endothelial function, blood coagulation system and safety. Results: After treatment,the treatment group was obviously superior to the control group (P<0.05) in reducing plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as in the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB). Conclusion: Danshen Jueming Granules have the effect of regulating metabolism of blood lipid, and improving vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system in senile patients with hyperlipemia.

  2. Phenotypic and allelic profile of ABO and Rhésus D blood group system among blood donor in Antananarivo. (United States)

    Randriamanantany, Z A; Rajaonatahina, D H; Razafimanantsoa, F E; Rasamindrakotroka, M T; Andriamahenina, R; Rasoarilalamanarivo, F B; Hanitriniala, S P; Herisoa, F R; Rasamindrakotroka, A; Rakoto Alson, O A


    This study assessed the phenotypic and allelic profiles of ABO and Rhesus D blood group system among first time blood donors at the National Centre of Blood Supply of Antananarivo. We collected through this retrospective study all data registered during 7 years of practice (from 2003 to 2009). Age and sex were analysed with the result of ABO and RhD screening. They were tested both with Beth Vincent and Simonin tests which were performed in a plate, by using commercial monoclonal antibody (Diaclone(®) et Eryclone(®)), and home-made red cells tests. The Rh D was performed with the same commercial kits. The frequencies of alleles were calculated by using Bernstein method. Data about 45,857 donors were obtained. A male predominance (80.46%) was found and most of our donors were aged ABO antigen was, respectively, 22.61, 29.66, 6.13 and 41.60% for A, B, AB and O antigen. Allelic frequencies of A, B and O were 0.1559, 0.1987 and 0.6454. These results confirmed the fact that Madagascan population had admixed ethnic origin.

  3. Effects of altered auditory feedback across effector systems: production of melodies by keyboard and singing. (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q; Mantell, James T


    We report an experiment that tested whether effects of altered auditory feedback (AAF) during piano performance differ from its effects during singing. These effector systems differ with respect to the mapping between motor gestures and pitch content of auditory feedback. Whereas this action-effect mapping is highly reliable during phonation in any vocal motor task (singing or speaking), mapping between finger movements and pitch occurs only in limited situations, such as piano playing. Effects of AAF in both tasks replicated results previously found for keyboard performance (Pfordresher, 2003), in that asynchronous (delayed) feedback slowed timing whereas alterations to feedback pitch increased error rates, and the effect of asynchronous feedback was similar in magnitude across tasks. However, manipulations of feedback pitch had larger effects on singing than on keyboard production, suggesting effector-specific differences in sensitivity to action-effect mapping with respect to feedback content. These results support the view that disruption from AAF is based on abstract, effector independent, response-effect associations but that the strength of associations differs across effector systems.

  4. Systemic Cytokine Profiles in Strongyloides stercoralis Infection and Alterations following Treatment. (United States)

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukti; Jagannathan, Jeeva; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Shen, Kui; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash


    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth organism that infects ~50 to 100 million people worldwide. Despite its widespread prevalence, very little is known about the immune response that characterizes human S. stercoralis infection. To study the systemic cytokine profile characteristic of Strongyloides infection, we measured the circulating levels of a large panel of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic, infected individuals (n = 32) and compared them to those in uninfected, controls (n = 24). Infected individuals exhibited significantly lower circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin-1β [IL-1β]) and significantly higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-27, IL-37, and transforming growth factor β [TGF-β]). Moreover, treatment of Strongyloides infection resulted in a significant reversal of the cytokine profile, with increased levels of proinflammatory (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-23, and IL-1β) and decreased levels of anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-27, IL-37, and TGF-β) cytokines following treatment. Thus, S. stercoralis infection is characterized by alterations in the levels of systemic cytokines, reflecting major alterations in the underlying immune response to this chronic helminth infection.

  5. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System (United States)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.


    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  6. [Studies of the blood antioxidant system and oxygen-transporting properties of human erythrocytes during 105-day isolation]. (United States)

    Brazhe, N A; Baĭzhumanov, A A; Parshina, E Iu; Iusipovich, A I; Akhalaia, M Ia; Iarlykova, Iu V; Labetskaia, O I; Ivanova, S M; Morukov, B V; Maksimov, G V


    Effects of strict 105-d isolation on blood antioxidant status, erythrocyte membrane processes and oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobin were studied in 6 male volunteers (25 to 40 y.o.) in ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars (experiment Mars-105). The parameters were measured using venous blood samples collected during BDC, on days 35, 70 and 105 of the experiment and on days 7 and 14-15 after its completion. Methods of biochemistry (determination of enzyme activity and thin-layer chromatography) and biophysical (laser interference microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) showed changes in relative content of lipid and phospholipid fractions suggesting growth of membrane microviscosity and increase in TBA-AP (active products of lipids peroxidation interacting with thiobarbituric acid). A significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase activities against reduction of catalase activity points to both reparative processes in erythrocytes and disbalance between the number of evolving active forms of oxygen and antioxidant protection mechanisms in cells. Hemoglobin sensitivity of oxygen and blood level of oxyhemoglobin were found to increase, too. It is presumed that adaptation of organism to stresses experienced during and after the experiment may destroy balance of the antioxidant protection systems which is conducive to oxidation of membrane phospholipids, alteration of their content, increase of membrane microviscosity and eventual failure of the gas-exchange function of erythrocytes.

  7. Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia (United States)

    Zabrodina, L. V.


    Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

  8. Thermal variability alters the impact of climate warming on consumer-resource systems. (United States)

    Fey, Samuel B; Vasseur, David A


    Thermal variation through space and time are prominent features of ecosystems that influence processes at multiple levels of biological organization. Yet, it remains unclear how populations embedded within biological communities will respond to climate warming in thermally variable environments, particularly as climate change alters existing patterns of thermal spatial and temporal variability. As environmental temperatures increase above historical ranges, organisms may increasingly rely on extreme habitats to effectively thermoregulate. Such locations desirable in their thermal attributes (e.g., thermal refugia) are often suboptimal for resource acquisition (e.g., underground tunnels). Thus, via the expected increase in both mean temperatures and diel thermal variation, climate warming may heighten the trade-off for consumers between behaviors maximizing thermal performance and those maximizing resource acquisition. Here, we integrate behavioral, physiological, and trophic ecology to provide a general framework for understanding how temporal thermal variation, mediated by access to a thermal refugium, alters the response of consumer-resource systems to warming. We use this framework to predict how temporal variation and access to thermal refugia affect the persistence of consumers and resources during climate warming, how the quality of thermal refugia impact consumer-resource systems, and how consumer-resource systems with fast vs. slow ecological dynamics respond to warming. Our results show that the spatial thermal variability provided by refugia can elevate consumer biomass at warmer temperatures despite reducing the fraction of time consumers spend foraging, that temporal variability detrimentally impacts consumers at high environmental temperatures, and that consumer-resource systems with fast ecological dynamics are most vulnerable to climate warming. Thus, incorporating both estimates of thermal variability and species interactions may be necessary to

  9. Alterations in the hippocampal endocannabinoid system in diet-induced obese mice. (United States)

    Massa, Federico; Mancini, Giacomo; Schmidt, Helmut; Steindel, Frauke; Mackie, Ken; Angioni, Carlo; Oliet, Stéphane H R; Geisslinger, Gerd; Lutz, Beat


    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays central roles in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Its alteration in activity contributes to the development and maintenance of obesity. Stimulation of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB(1) receptor) increases feeding, enhances reward aspects of eating, and promotes lipogenesis, whereas its blockade decreases appetite, sustains weight loss, increases insulin sensitivity, and alleviates dysregulation of lipid metabolism. The hypothesis has been put forward that the eCB system is overactive in obesity. Hippocampal circuits are not directly involved in the neuronal control of food intake and appetite, but they play important roles in hedonic aspects of eating. We investigated the possibility whether or not diet-induced obesity (DIO) alters the functioning of the hippocampal eCB system. We found that levels of the two eCBs, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, were increased in the hippocampus from DIO mice, with a concomitant increase of the 2-AG synthesizing enzyme diacylglycerol lipase-alpha and increased CB(1) receptor immunoreactivity in CA1 and CA3 regions, whereas CB(1) receptor agonist-induced [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was unchanged. eCB-mediated synaptic plasticity was changed in the CA1 region, as depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition and long-term depression of inhibitory synapses were enhanced. Functionality of CB(1) receptors in GABAergic neurons was furthermore revealed, as mice specifically lacking CB(1) receptors on this neuronal population were partly resistant to DIO. Our results show that DIO-induced changes in the eCB system affect not only tissues directly involved in the metabolic regulation but also brain regions mediating hedonic aspects of eating and influencing cognitive processes.

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi disrupts thymic homeostasis by altering intrathymic and systemic stress-related endocrine circuitries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailin Lepletier


    Full Text Available We have previously shown that experimental infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is associated with changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Increased glucocorticoid (GC levels are believed to be protective against the effects of acute stress during infection but result in depletion of CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes by apoptosis, driving to thymic atrophy. However, very few data are available concerning prolactin (PRL, another stress-related hormone, which seems to be decreased during T. cruzi infection. Considering the immunomodulatory role of PRL upon the effects caused by GC, we investigated if intrathymic cross-talk between GC and PRL receptors (GR and PRLR, respectively might influence T. cruzi-induced thymic atrophy. Using an acute experimental model, we observed changes in GR/PRLR cross-activation related with the survival of CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes during infection. These alterations were closely related with systemic changes, characterized by a stress hormone imbalance, with progressive GC augmentation simultaneously to PRL reduction. The intrathymic hormone circuitry exhibited an inverse modulation that seemed to counteract the GC-related systemic deleterious effects. During infection, adrenalectomy protected the thymus from the increase in apoptosis ratio without changing PRL levels, whereas an additional inhibition of circulating PRL accelerated the thymic atrophy and led to an increase in corticosterone systemic levels. These results demonstrate that the PRL impairment during infection is not caused by the increase of corticosterone levels, but the opposite seems to occur. Accordingly, metoclopramide (MET-induced enhancement of PRL secretion protected thymic atrophy in acutely infected animals as well as the abnormal export of immature and potentially autoreactive CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes to the periphery. In conclusion, our findings clearly show that Trypanosoma cruzi subverts mouse thymus homeostasis by altering intrathymic and

  11. Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Oxidative Stress in Guinea Pig after Systemic Exposure to Modified Cell-Free Hemoglobin (United States)

    Butt, Omer I.; Buehler, Paul W.; D'Agnillo, Felice


    Systemic exposure to cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) or its breakdown products after hemolysis or with the use of Hb-based oxygen therapeutics may alter the function and integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Using a guinea pig exchange transfusion model, we investigated the effect of a polymerized cell-free Hb (HbG) on the expression of endothelial tight junction proteins (zonula occludens 1, claudin-5, and occludin), astrocyte activation, IgG extravasation, heme oxygenase (HO), iron deposition, oxidative end products (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3). Reduced zonula occludens 1 expression was observed after HbG transfusion as evidenced by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Claudin-5 distribution was altered in small- to medium-sized vessels. However, total expression of claudin-5 and occludin remained unchanged except for a notable increase in occludin 72 hours after HbG transfusion. HbG-transfused animals also showed increased astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and IgG extravasation after 72 hours. Increased HO activity and HO-1 expression with prominent enhancement of HO-1 immunoreactivity in CD163-expressing perivascular cells and infiltrating monocytes/macrophages were also observed. Consistent with oxidative stress, HbG increased iron deposition, 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine immunoreactivity, and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Systemic exposure to an extracellular Hb triggers blood-brain barrier disruption and oxidative stress, which may have important implications for the use of Hb-based therapeutics and may provide indirect insight on the central nervous system vasculopathies associated with excessive hemolysis. PMID:21356382

  12. System Design and Development of a Robotic Device for Automated Venipuncture and Diagnostic Blood Cell Analysis. (United States)

    Balter, Max L; Chen, Alvin I; Fromholtz, Alex; Gorshkov, Alex; Maguire, Tim J; Yarmush, Martin L


    Diagnostic blood testing is the most prevalent medical procedure performed in the world and forms the cornerstone of modern health care delivery. Yet blood tests are still predominantly carried out in centralized labs using large-volume samples acquired by manual venipuncture, and no end-to-end solution from blood draw to sample analysis exists today. Our group is developing a platform device that merges robotic phlebotomy with automated diagnostics to rapidly deliver patient information at the site of the blood draw. The system couples an image-guided venipuncture robot, designed to address the challenges of routine venous access, with a centrifuge-based blood analyzer to obtain quantitative measurements of hematology. In this paper, we first present the system design and architecture of the integrated device. We then perform a series of in vitro experiments to evaluate the cannulation accuracy of the system on blood vessel phantoms. Next, we assess the effects of vessel diameter, needle gauge, flow rate, and viscosity on the rate of sample collection. Finally, we demonstrate proof-of-concept of a white cell assay on the blood analyzer using in vitro human samples spiked with fluorescently labeled microbeads.

  13. Noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring: clinical test of multiwavelength optoacoustic system (United States)

    Petrov, Y. Y.; Prough, D. S.; Petrova, I.; Patrikeev, I. A.; Cicenaite, I.; Esenaliev, R. O.


    Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions like severe brain injury or during cardiac surgery. We designed and built a novel multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation. We use an Optical Parametric Oscillator as a light source. We successfully tested the system in vitro as well as in vivo in large animals (sheep) through thick tissues overlying blood vessels which drain venous blood out of the brain (e.g., superior sagittal sinus or jugular vein). Here we present the results of clinical tests of the system for continuous noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring in the internal jugular vein of healthy volunteers. We applied our custom-built optoacoustic probe (which incorporated a wide-band acoustic transducer and an optical fiber) to the neck area overlying the internal jugular vein. We performed measurements with volunteers at 18 wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range. Despite a thick layer of overlying connective tissue and low energy used in the experiments, we recorded signals with high signal-to-noise ratios for all volunteers. We found that the temporal (independent of signal amplitude) parameters of recorded profiles for different levels of blood oxygenation correlated well with the spectrum of effective attenuation coefficients of blood.

  14. Altered cerebral vascular volumes and solute transport at the blood-brain barriers of two transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Do, Tuan Minh; Alata, Wael; Dodacki, Agnès; Traversy, Marie-Thérèse; Chacun, Hélène; Pradier, Laurent; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Farinotti, Robert; Calon, Frédéric; Bourasset, Fanchon


    We evaluated the integrity and function of the blood-brain barrier in 3xTg-AD mice aged 3-18 months and in APP/PS1 mice aged 8-months to determine the impacts of changes in amyloid and tau proteins on the brain vascular changes. The vascular volume (Vvasc) was sub-normal in 3xTg-AD mice aged from 6 to 18 months, but not in the APP/PS1 mice. The uptakes of [(3)H]-diazepam by the brains of 3xTg-AD, APP/PS1 and their age-matched control mice were similar at all the times studied, suggesting that the simple diffusion of small solutes is unchanged in transgenic animals. The uptake of d-glucose by the brains of 18-month old 3xTg-AD mice, but not by those of 8-month old APP/PS1 mice, was reduced compared to their age-matched controls. Accordingly, the amount of Glut-1 protein was 1.4 times lower in the brain capillaries of 18 month-old 3xTg-AD mice than in those of age-matched control mice. We conclude that the brain vascular volume is reduced early in 3xTg-AD mice, 6 months before the appearance of pathological lesions, and that this reduction persists until they are at least 18 months old. The absence of alterations in the BBB of APP/PS1 mice suggests that hyperphosphorylated tau proteins contribute to the vascular changes that occur in AD.

  15. Alteration of RH gene structure and expression in human dCCee and DCW-red blood cells: phenotypic homozygosity versus genotypic heterozygosity. (United States)

    Huang, C H


    This report describes a comparative study on the dCCee and DCW-red blood cells devoid of RhD and CcEe antigens, respectively. Southern blots showed that the two variants carried opposite deletions in the D and non-D (CcEe) genes. Rh haplotyping and exon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay indicated that the deletions did not extend beyond the 5' region upstream from exon 1 or the 3' region downstream from exon 10 of the respective genes. This was confirmed by finding intact promoters and 3' untranslated regions in both D and non-D genes in each variant. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and cDNA sequencing showed the expression of two transcripts in each cell type. In dCCee cells, one transcript was the regular Ce form and the other occurred as a D-Ce-D hybrid whose Ce sequence spanned exons 2 through 9. In DCW-cells, the two transcripts were derived from reversely arranged hybrid genes, ie, the CW-D gene was formed by fusion of CW exon 1 with D exons 2 through 10, whereas the reverse product was formed by fusion of D exons 1 through 9 with non-D exon 10. These results indicated that DNA deletion and recombination had occurred in either cis or trans configuration and involved both RH loci in the dCCee or DCW-genome. Identification of such compound alterations correlates the genotypes with phenotypes and explains the lost Rh antigenic expression. A reinvestigation of gene organization also led to the reassignment of several 5' and 3' splice sites. Together, this study not only shows the complexity of Rh phenotypic diversity, but also points to the importance of concurrent analysis of genomic structure and transcript expression in deciphering the underlying genetic mechanisms.

  16. Pathogenesis of Bone Alterations in Gaucher Disease: The Role of Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Marcos Mucci


    Full Text Available Gaucher, the most prevalent lysosomal disorder, is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder due to a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. Glucocerebrosidase deficiency leads to the accumulation of glucosylceramide primarily in cells of mononuclear-macrophage lineage. Clinical alterations are visceral, hematological, and skeletal. Bone disorder in Gaucher disease produces defects on bone metabolism and structure and patients suffer from bone pain and crisis. Skeletal problems include osteopenia, osteoporosis, osteolytic lesions, and osteonecrosis. On the other hand a chronic stimulation of the immune system is a well-accepted hallmark in this disease. In this review we summarize the latest findings in the mechanisms leading to the bone pathology in Gaucher disease in relationship with the proinflammatory state.

  17. [Meta-analysis of blood system adverse events of Tripterygium wilfordii]. (United States)

    Li, Zhi-xia; Ma, Dong-mei; Yang, Xing-hua; Sun, Feng; Yu, Kai; Zhan, Si-yan


    A systematic review was undertaken, including studies that evaluated the incidence of the blood system adverse events of Tripterygium wilfordii (TWP). Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library were searched for relevant studies, including RCT, cohort studies and case series, of patients treated with TWP published in English and Chinese from inception up until May 25th, 2013 with the keywords including "Tripterygium wilfordii", "toxicity", "reproductive", "side effect", "adverse", "safety" and "tolerability". Relevant information was extracted and the incidence of the blood system adverse events was pooled with MetaAnalyst software. Besides, subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and disease system. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 49 articles were included in the meta-analysis, they were split into 54 researches incorporated in the analysis. There is a large degree of heterogeneity among the studies, so data was analyzed using random-effects model and the summary estimates of incidence of the blood system adverse events was 6.1%. The weighted combined incidence of three major blood system adverse events were white-blood cells decreasing 5.6% (95% CI, 4.3% - 7.3%), hemoglobin decreasing 1.7% (95% CI, 0.5% - 5.0%) and platelet decreasing 1.8% (95% CI, 1.0% - 3.1%), respectively . Sensitivity analyses based on 45 studies with high quality showed the combined value was close to the summary estimate of total 54 studies. The current evidence indicates that the incidence of the blood system adverse events induced by TWP was high; attentions should be paid on to the prevention and treatment of the blood system adverse events.

  18. Blood compounds irradiation process: assessment of absorbed dose using Fricke and Thermoluminescent dosimetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gabriela de Amorim; Squair, Peterson Lima; Pinto, Fausto Carvalho; Belo, Luiz Claudio Meira; Grossi, Pablo Andrade [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:


    The assessment of gamma absorbed doses in irradiation facilities allows the quality assurance and control of the irradiation process. The liability of dose measurements is assign to the metrological procedures adopted including the uncertainty evaluation. Fricke and TLD 800 dosimetric systems were used to measure absorbed dose in the blood compounds using the methodology presented in this paper. The measured absorbed doses were used for evaluating the effectiveness of the irradiation procedure and the gamma dose absorption inside the irradiation room of a gamma irradiation facility. The radiation eliminates the functional and proliferative capacities of donor T-lymphocytes, preventing Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), a possible complication of blood transfusions. The results show the applicability of such dosimetric systems in quality assurance programs, assessment of absorbed doses in blood compounds and dose uniformity assign to the blood compounds irradiation process by dose measurements in a range between 25 Gy and 100 Gy. (author)

  19. Use of a pneumatic tube system for delivery of blood bank products and specimens. (United States)

    Tanley, P C; Wallas, C H; Abram, M C; Richardson, L D


    This study evaluated the effect of pneumatic tube transport on blood bank specimens and products. No important differences were found between aliquots transported in the tube system and those stored in the laboratory as controls. ABO, Rh, antibody detection or identification, direct antiglobulin testing, and elution were studied. Further, no differences in plasma hemoglobin and potassium concentration were found between units of whole blood and packed cells handled in either manner. Platelet counts in platelet concentrates were not decreased and coagulation factor levels in units of fresh-frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate did not decrease after pneumatic transport. The system tested is currently providing expeditious transport of specimens and blood between blood banks and patient care areas.

  20. Early alterations in blood and brain RANTES and MCP-1 expression and the effect of exercise frequency in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Haskins, Morgan; Jones, Terry E; Lu, Qun; Bareiss, Sonja K


    Exercise has been shown to protect against cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression, however the dose of exercise required to protect against AD is unknown. Recent studies show that the pathological processes leading to AD cause characteristic alterations in blood and brain inflammatory proteins that are associated with the progression of AD, suggesting that these markers could be used to diagnosis and monitor disease progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of exercise frequency on AD blood chemokine profiles, and correlate these findings with chemokine brain expression changes in the triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mouse model. Three month old 3xTg-AD mice were subjected to 12 weeks of moderate intensity wheel running at a frequency of either 1×/week or 3×/week. Blood and cortical tissue were analyzed for expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). Alterations in blood RANTES and MCP-1 expression were evident at 3 and 6 month old animals compared to WT animals. Three times per week exercise but not 1×/week exercise was effective at reversing serum and brain RANTES and MCP-1 expression to the levels of WT controls, revealing a dose dependent response to exercise. Analysis of these chemokines showed a strong negative correlation between blood and brain expression of RANTES. The results indicate that alterations in serum and brain inflammatory chemokines are evident as early signs of Alzheimer's disease pathology and that higher frequency exercise was necessary to restore blood and brain inflammatory expression levels in this AD mouse model.

  1. The Rheology of Blood Flow in a Branched Arterial System. (United States)

    Shibeshi, Shewaferaw S; Collins, William E


    Blood flow rheology is a complex phenomenon. Presently there is no universally agreed upon model to represent the viscous property of blood. However, under the general classification of non-Newtonian models that simulate blood behavior to different degrees of accuracy, there are many variants. The power law, Casson and Carreau models are popular non-Newtonian models and affect hemodynamics quantities under many conditions. In this study, the finite volume method is used to investigate hemodynamics predictions of each of the models. To implement the finite volume method, the computational fluid dynamics software Fluent 6.1 is used. In this numerical study the different hemorheological models are found to predict different results of hemodynamics variables which are known to impact the genesis of atherosclerosis and formation of thrombosis. The axial velocity magnitude percentage difference of up to 2 % and radial velocity difference up to 90 % is found at different sections of the T-junction geometry. The size of flow recirculation zones and their associated separation and reattachment point's locations differ for each model. The wall shear stress also experiences up to 12 % shift in the main tube. A velocity magnitude distribution of the grid cells shows that the Newtonian model is close dynamically to the Casson model while the power law model resembles the Carreau model. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Die Rheologie von Blutströmungen ist ein komplexes Phänomen. Gegenwärtig existiert kein allgemein akzeptiertes Modell, um die viskosen Eigenschaften von Blut wiederzugeben. Jedoch gibt es mehrere Varianten unter der allgemeinen Klassifikation von nicht-Newtonschen Modellen, die das Verhalten von Blut mit unterschiedlicher Genauigkeit simulieren. Die Potenzgesetz-, Casson und Carreau-Modelle sind beliebte nicht-New-tonsche Modelle und beeinflussen die hämodynamischen Eigenschaften in vielen Situationen. In dieser Studie wurde die finite Volumenmethode angewandt, um die h

  2. Mechanisms of alteration of the immune system by ionizing radiations: a basis for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, M. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Perez, M.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carosella, E. [CEA, Service de Recherches en Hemato -Immunologie, 75 - Paris (France)


    Full text of publication follows: Alterations of the immune system appear in relationship with exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) in different situations, e.g., accidents, radiation therapy of cancer, prenatal irradiation, some human diseases with hypersensitivity to IR and aging. Thus, the comprehension of the mechanisms of the alterations of the immune system by IR is necessary to elaborate strategies of protection and to pave the way for future possible therapies. At least 9 mechanisms of alterations can be identified: 1- Apoptosis. Apoptosis is a key mechanism of the natural regulation of the immune system and plays also a key role in the response to IR: lymphocytes die rapidly by apoptosis after exposure. Different pathways of induction of apoptosis have been identified, and include p53 dependent and mitochondria mediated pathways, as well as CD95 and ROS initiation; 2- TCR mutations. The T cell antigen receptor is responsible to discriminate between self and non self. Mutations of the TCR may result from exposure to IR; 3- Modification of the Th1-Th2 balance. T helper cells may express 2 distinct secretion patterns: Th1 cytokines promote cell-mediated immunity while Th2 cytokines favor humoral immunity. Although the effects of IR on the Th1/Th2 balance remains controversial, an imbalance towards a Th2 profile is likely and patients with cancer and systemic auto-immune disease often present a switch from Th1 to Th2; 4- Bystander effects and genetic instability. Stimulatory effect or genomic instability have been observed in haematopoietic cells exposed to IR and related to a bystander mechanism. 5- Shift toward an inflammatory profile. Ionizing radiation may induce a persistent inflammatory profile as a result of dis-regulation of cytokine production; such a status of persistent inflammation has been observed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. 6- Modification of antigen presentation. Antigen presentation by dendritic cells is an essential function preceding

  3. Judicial Control over Althingi: Altered Balance of Powers in the Constitutional System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björg Thorarensen


    Full Text Available The article focuses on how the control of the judiciary over the legislature has increased in the last decades and the reasons for altered balance of powers in the Icelandic constitutional system are explored. Earlier theories of parliamentary precedence over other branches of state power are in transition. There is a growing trend towards the balancing of powers, in which the courts monitor that legislation complies with the constitution. A comparison is made with the developments in the constitutional systems of Denmark and Norway which points at the same direction. The European Convention on Human Rights and constitutional amendments in 1995 have affected the interpretation methods of the Icelandic courts and strengthened their supervisory role. Ideas underlying constitutional democracy, rule of law and effective remedies for individuals are prevailing over the idea of preferred position of the legislative power vis-à-vis the judiciary. The courts see it as a constitutional duty to adjudicate whether a legislative act conforms with constitutional human rights. The Supreme Court of Iceland has referred to the wide discretion of the legislature in the field of fiscal powers, such as regarding taxation and the social security system. However, even where legislation aims at the implementation of important political policies, the discretion of Althingi is subject to certain limits. The effective judicial control requires that Althingi must assess carefully whether legislation which limits constitutionally protected human rights conforms with the principles of equality and proportionality.

  4. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan


    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

  5. A Digital Method for the Detection of Blood Flow Direction in Ultrasonic Doppler Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Acevedo–Contla.


    Full Text Available Doppler ultrasound systems are widely used to study blood flow and diagnosis of vascular diseases. An important characteristic of these systems is the ability to detect the direction of the blood flow. Most Doppler ultrasound systems apply a quadrature demodulation technique on the ultrasonic transducer output signal. Therefore additional treatment is necessary to separate forward and reverse flow signals. This work presents a digital method to convert signals in quadrature into directional signals using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT approach. Validation of the method has been achieved using simulated Doppler ultrasound signals.

  6. Systemic blood loss affects NF-kappa B regulatory mechanisms in the lungs. (United States)

    Moine, P; Shenkar, R; Kaneko, D; Le Tulzo, Y; Abraham, E


    The nuclear regulatory factor (NF)-kappa B is activated in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In experimental models of acute lung injury, activation of NF-kappa B contributes to the increased expression of immunoregulatory cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators in the lungs. Because of the important role that NF-kappa B activation appears to play in the development of acute lung injury, we examined cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kappa B counterregulatory mechanisms in lung mononuclear cells, using a murine model in which inflammatory lung injury develops after blood loss. Sustained activation of NF-kappa B was present in lung mononuclear cells over the 4-h period after blood loss. The activation of NF-kappa B after hemorrhage was accompanied by alterations in levels of the NF-kappa B regulatory proteins I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3. Cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha were increased and nuclear Bcl-3 was decreased during the first hour after blood loss, but, by 4 h posthemorrhage, cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha levels were decreased and nuclear levels of Bcl-3 were increased. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity in otherwise unmanipulated unhemorrhaged mice resulted in increased levels of I kappa B alpha and decreased amounts of Bcl-3 in nuclear extracts from lung mononuclear cells. No changes in the levels of nuclear I kappa B alpha or Bcl-3 occurred after hemorrhage when xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited. These results demonstrate that blood loss, at least partly through xanthine oxidase-dependent mechanisms, produces alterations in the levels of both I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3 in lung mononuclear cell populations. The effects of hemorrhage on proteins that regulate activation of NF-kappa B may contribute to the frequent development of inflammatory lung injury in this setting.

  7. Automatic system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Menéndez Barrios


    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of infectious diseases transmission through blood transfusion is one of the biggest challenges in the transfusion field of medicine. Objective: to design a computerized system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests. Methods: A system designed by the Provincial Blood Bank using Microsoft Access as a data base system and DELFHI 7 as associated language. It runs under Windows 2000 or any other superior system with 64 RAM and do not need special requirements of software or hardware. It includes the following data: Full name, age, sex, race, Id number, home address, number of the clinical record in the blood bank, date when the trial took place in each patient, kind of disease diagnosed, technical data of the trial such as: fluorescence, sectional level of the 1st trial as well as the repetition, name of the technician who performed it. Results: It permits to consult general data of donors as well as the disease diagnosed. It also permits to elaborate reports of these patients from any PC of the blood bank acceding with the security password of the program. Conclusions: It constitutes a beneficial tool which permits to improve the notification system established in the program of the web about sexually transmitted diseases from the Minister of Public Health in Cuba.

  8. Altered reactivity and nitric oxide signaling in the isolated thoracic duct from an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow. (United States)

    Datar, Sanjeev A; Oishi, Peter E; Gong, Wenhui; Bennett, Stephen H; Sun, Christine E; Johengen, Michael; Maki, Jun; Johnson, Rebecca C; Raff, Gary W; Fineman, Jeffrey R


    We have previously shown decreased pulmonary lymph flow in our lamb model of chronically increased pulmonary blood flow, created by the in utero placement of an 8-mm aortopulmonary shunt. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abnormal lymphatic function in shunt lambs is due to impaired lymphatic endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP signaling resulting in increased lymphatic vascular constriction and/or impaired relaxation. Thoracic duct rings were isolated from 4-wk-old shunt (n = 7) and normal (n = 7) lambs to determine length-tension properties, vascular reactivity, and endothelial NO synthase protein. At baseline, shunt thoracic duct rings had 2.6-fold higher peak to peak tension and a 2-fold increase in the strength of contractions compared with normal rings (P < 0.05). In response to norepinephrine, shunt thoracic duct rings had a 2.4-fold increase in vascular tone compared with normal rings (P < 0.05) and impaired relaxation in response to the endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine (63% vs. 13%, P < 0.05). In vivo, inhaled NO (40 ppm) increased pulmonary lymph flow (normalized for resistance) ∼1.5-fold in both normal and shunt lambs (P < 0.05). Inhaled NO exposure increased bioavailable NO [nitrite/nitrate (NOx); ∼2.5-fold in normal lambs and ∼3.4-fold in shunt lambs] and cGMP (∼2.5-fold in both) in the pulmonary lymph effluent (P < 0.05). Chronic exposure to increased pulmonary blood flow is associated with pulmonary lymphatic endothelial injury that disrupts NO-cGMP signaling, leading to increased resting vasoconstriction, increased maximal strength of contraction, and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation. Inhaled NO increases pulmonary lymph NOx and cGMP levels and pulmonary lymph flow in normal and shunt lambs. Therapies that augment NO-cGMP signaling within the lymphatic system may provide benefits, warranting further study.

  9. Problematic internet use is associated with structural alterations in the brain reward system in females. (United States)

    Altbäcker, Anna; Plózer, Enikő; Darnai, Gergely; Perlaki, Gábor; Horváth, Réka; Orsi, Gergely; Nagy, Szilvia Anett; Bogner, Péter; Schwarcz, Attila; Kovács, Norbert; Komoly, Sámuel; Clemens, Zsófia; Janszky, József


    Neuroimaging findings suggest that excessive Internet use shows functional and structural brain changes similar to substance addiction. Even though it is still under debate whether there are gender differences in case of problematic use, previous studies by-passed this question by focusing on males only or by using gender matched approach without controlling for potential gender effects. We designed our study to find out whether there are structural correlates in the brain reward system of problematic Internet use in habitual Internet user females. T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance (MR) images were collected in 82 healthy habitual Internet user females. Structural brain measures were investigated using both automated MR volumetry and voxel based morphometry (VBM). Self-reported measures of problematic Internet use and hours spent online were also assessed. According to MR volumetry, problematic Internet use was associated with increased grey matter volume of bilateral putamen and right nucleus accumbens while decreased grey matter volume of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Similarly, VBM analysis revealed a significant negative association between the absolute amount of grey matter OFC and problematic Internet use. Our findings suggest structural brain alterations in the reward system usually related to addictions are present in problematic Internet use.

  10. Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. (United States)

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H


    Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance.

  11. The development of a recruiting-drawing-inventory model for a community blood bank system. (United States)

    Smackey, B M


    A community blood bank system is a multiorganizational program that is designed to supply the blood needs of a community. Participating in such a program are hospitals, a central blood bank, industrial donor groups, the American Red Cross, advisory committees, and the community at large. The underlying determinant of the community's success or failure with its blood program is the degree of cooperation among the various organizations. Intertwined with organizational considerations are the management problems associated with the operation of a responsive and efficient inventory control system. This paper reports on the development of a system for a community blood bank that is in its third year of operation. The system that has been developed can be operated manually by a part-time clerk. Details of the model include an integration of the donor scheduling function and the inventory control function. Simulated testing of the model has been conducted and full-scale implementation is awaiting the expansion of the known donor base.

  12. Microgravity-induced alterations in signal transduction in cells of the immune system (United States)

    Paulsen, Katrin; Thiel, Cora; Timm, Johanna; Schmidt, Peter M.; Huber, Kathrin; Tauber, Svantje; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Seibt, Dieter; Kroll, Hartmut; Grote, Karl-Heinrich; Zipp, Frauke; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Cogoli, Augusto; Hilliger, Andre; Engelmann, Frank; Ullrich, Oliver


    Since decades it is known that the activity of cells of the immune system is severely dysregulated in microgravity, however, the underlying molecular aspects have not been elucidated yet. The identification of gravity-sensitive molecular mechanisms in cells of the immune system is an important and indispensable prerequisite for the development of counteractive measures to prevent or treat disturbed immune cell function of astronauts during long-term space missions. Moreover, their sensitivity to altered gravity renders immune cells an ideal model system to understand if and how gravity on Earth is required for normal mammalian cell function and signal transduction. We investigated the effect of simulated weightlessness (2D clinostat) and of real microgravity (parabolic flights) on key signal pathways in a human monocytic and a T lymphocyte cell line. We found that cellular responses to microgravity strongly depend on the cell-type and the conditions in which the cells are subjected to microgravity. In Jurkat T cells, enhanced phosphorylation of the MAP kinases ERK-1/2, MEK and p38 and inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kB were the predominant responses to simulated weightlessness, in either stimulated or non-stimulated cells. In contrast, non-stimulated monocytic U937 cells responded to simulated weightlessness with enhanced overall tyrosine-phosphorylation and activation of c-jun, whereas PMA-stimulated U937 cells responded the opposite way with reduced tyrosine-phosphorylation and reduced activation of c-jun, compared with PMA-stimulated 1 g controls. P53 protein was phosphorylated rapidly in microgravity. The identification of gravi-sensitive mechanisms in cells of the immune system will not only enable us to understand and prevent the negative effects of long time exposure to microgravity on Astronauts, but could also lead to novel therapeutic targets in general.

  13. Alterations in luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence from nondiluted whole blood in the course of low-level laser therapy of angina pectoris patients (United States)

    Voeikov, Vladimir L.; Novikov, Cyril N.; Siuch, Natalia I.


    Addition of Luminol to nondiluted blood of healthy donors results in a short and weak increase of chemiluminescence (CL) from it. Contrary to that in 25 cases of stable angina pectoris the intensity of CL from blood of patients sharply increased upon addition of luminol exceeding that form healthy donors' blood 10-100-fold. 24 hours after the 3D intravenous low-level treatment CL burst in patients' blood in the presence of Luminol was in general significantly lower than before the beginning of the treatment. After the 7th treatment the pattern of CL kinetics was in most cases similar to that of healthy donors' blood. However, after the 10th treatment intensity of Luminol-enhanced CL usually increased and for blood of some patients even exceeded its values obtained before the treatment. Some correlation CL from nondiluted blood with neutrophil activity studied by NTB-test and plasma viscosity of same blood was noted. Using highly sensitive single photon counters it is possible to reveal abnormal levels of CL from no more than 0.1-0.2 ml of blood within 3-5 min.

  14. The Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Mitochondrial Function: Influence on Blood Pressure and Baroreflex in Transgenic Rat Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Nautiyal


    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, and may be associated with an overactive renin-angiotensin system (RAS. Angiotensin (Ang II, a potent vasoconstrictor hormone of the RAS, also impairs baroreflex and mitochondrial function. Most deleterious cardiovascular actions of Ang II are thought to be mediated by NADPH-oxidase- (NOX- derived reactive oxygen species (ROS that may also stimulate mitochondrial oxidant release and alter redox-sensitive signaling pathways in the brain. Within the RAS, the actions of Ang II are counterbalanced by Ang-(1–7, a vasodilatory peptide known to mitigate against increased oxidant stress. A balance between Ang II and Ang-(1–7 within the brain dorsal medulla contributes to maintenance of normal blood pressure and proper functioning of the arterial baroreceptor reflex for control of heart rate. We propose that Ang-(1–7 may negatively regulate the redox signaling pathways activated by Ang II to maintain normal blood pressure, baroreflex, and mitochondrial function through attenuating ROS (NOX-generated and/or mitochondrial.

  15. Whole finger iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside to increase blood flow in patients with systemic sclerosis: Influence of concentration. (United States)

    Little, Jayne; Murray, Andrea; Dinsdale, Graham; Wilkinson, Jack; Moore, Tonia; Herrick, Ariane L


    Iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside increases finger blood flow in patients with systemic sclerosis, a multisystem connective tissue disease. Our aim was to examine the influence of dose, as a first step in exploring a possible new therapeutic approach. Ten patients with SSc and nine healthy controls were recruited. Blood flow in a single finger was assessed using laser Doppler imaging following iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside at 'doses' of 2, 1, 0.5 and 0%. Graphs of perfusion over time (30 min) were produced for each dose and from these curves, summary measures of response were calculated (area under curve/baseline and maximum perfusion/baseline. These measures were subject to regression analysis to investigate the effect of dose on response and to consider whether response differed between patients and healthy controls. Individual responses to altering the dose of iontophoresed sodium nitroprusside were highly variable but there was evidence to suggest increased response at doses of 0.5 and 1% (but not at 2%) compared to 0% for both area under curve/baseline (p=0.028 and p=0.011 respectively) and maximum perfusion/baseline (p=0.001 and p=0.002 respectively). There was no evidence that responses differed between patients and controls. Therefore the optimal dose for sodium nitroprusside iontophoresis is likely to be around 1%.

  16. [Evaluation of the blood coagulation system after surgeries on abdominal aortic aneurysms]. (United States)

    Nikul'nikov, P I; Liksunov, O V; Ratushniuk, A V; Lugovs'koĭ, E V; Kolesnikova, I M; Lytvynova, L M; Kostiuchenko, O P; Chernyshenko, T M; Hornyts'ka, O V; Platonova, T M


    Basing on data of analysis of the hemostasis system state in the patients, suffering abdominal aorta aneurysm, a tendency for raising of postoperative soluble fibrin and D-dimer content in the blood plasm and reduction of these indices on the third day was noted. The abovementioned markers content depends on the aneurysm size, the fibrin deposits presence, the terms from clinical signs beginning to the certain therapy administration and anticoagulants application. Information about correlation between content of D-dimer and soluble fibrin in the treatment dynamics is important for determination of activation degree in the patients blood coagulation system and the thrombotic complications prognosis.

  17. Profile of Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego blood group systems among blood donors in the Southwest region of the Paraná state, Southern Brazil. (United States)

    Zacarias, Joana Maira Valentini; Langer, Ieda Bernadete Volkweis; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria


    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of alleles and genotypes of the blood group systems Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego in 251 regular blood donors registered in the hemotherapy unit of the Southwestern region of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The frequencies were obtained by direct counting on a spreadsheet program and statistical analyses were conducted in order to compare them with other Brazilian populations using chi-squared with Yates correction on OpenEpi software. The frequencies of RHD* negative, RHCE*c/c and RHCE*e/e were higher than expected for the Caucasian population. A difference was also observed for FY alleles, FY*01/FY*01 genotype and FY*02N.01 -67T/C (GATA Box mutation). Two homozygous individuals were defined as a low frequency phenotype K + k- (KEL*01.01/KEL*01.01) and, for Diego blood group system the rare DI*01 allele was found in ten blood donors, of which one was DI*01/DI* 01 (0.4%). The allele and genotype frequencies of Kidd blood group system were similar to expected to Caucasians. The results showed the direction in which to choose donors, the importance of extended genotyping in adequate blood screening and the existence of rare genotypes in Brazilian regular blood donors.

  18. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay


    Full Text Available Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

  19. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management (United States)

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert


    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  20. Urine proteomes of healthy aging humans reveal extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations and immune system dysfunction. (United States)

    Bakun, M; Senatorski, G; Rubel, T; Lukasik, A; Zielenkiewicz, P; Dadlez, M; Paczek, L


    Aging is a complex physiological process that poses considerable conundrums to rapidly aging societies. For example, the risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases and/or cancer steadily declines for people after their 60s, and other causes of death predominate for seniors older than 80 years of age. Thus, physiological aging presents numerous unanswered questions, particularly with regard to changing metabolic patterns. Urine proteomics analysis is becoming a non-invasive and reproducible diagnostic method. We investigated the urine proteomes in healthy elderly people to determine which metabolic processes were weakened or strengthened in aging humans. Urine samples from 37 healthy volunteers aged 19-90 years (19 men, 18 women) were analyzed for protein expression by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This generated a list of 19 proteins that were differentially expressed in different age groups (young, intermediate, and old age). In particular, the oldest group showed protein changes reflective of altered extracellular matrix turnover and declining immune function, in which changes corresponded to reported changes in cardiovascular tissue remodeling and immune disorders in the elderly. Thus, urinary proteome changes in the elderly appear to reflect the physiological processes of aging and are particularly clearly represented in the circulatory and immune systems. Detailed identification of "protein trails" creates a more global picture of metabolic changes that occur in the elderly.

  1. A systems-based approach to managing blood pressure in children following kidney transplantation. (United States)

    Hooper, David K; Mitsnefes, Mark


    Hypertension is one of the most common and well-known complications following kidney transplantation in children. Yet, despite numerous available therapies many pediatric kidney transplant recipients continue to have poorly controlled blood pressure, suggesting that traditional approaches to blood pressure management in this population might be inadequate. Over the last two decades, the Chronic Care Model has been developed to improve chronic illness outcomes through delivery system design and clinical information systems that support patient self-management and provider decision-making. In this educational review we discuss key elements of managing blood pressure following pediatric kidney transplantation and suggest ways that they may be reliably implemented into clinical practice using principles from the Chronic Care Model.

  2. Expression of manganese superoxide dismutase in rat blood, heart and brain during induced systemic hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septelia I. Wanandi


    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia results in an increased generation of ROS. Until now, little is known about the role of MnSOD - a major endogenous antioxidant enzyme - on the cell adaptation response against hypoxia. The aim of this study was to  determine the MnSOD mRNA expression and levels of specific activity in blood, heart and brain of rats during induced systemic hypoxia.Methods: Twenty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to systemic hypoxia in an hypoxic chamber (at 8-10% O2 for 0, 1, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. The mRNA relative expression of MnSOD was analyzed using Real Time RT-PCR. MnSOD specific activity was determined using xanthine oxidase inhibition assay.Results: The MnSOD mRNA relative expression in rat blood and heart was decreased during early induced systemic hypoxia (day 1 and increased as hypoxia continued, whereas the mRNA expression in brain was increased since day 1 and reached its maximum level at day 7. The result of MnSOD specific activity during early systemic hypoxia was similar to the mRNA expression. Under very late hypoxic condition (day 21, MnSOD specific activity in blood, heart and brain was significantly decreased. We demonstrate a positive correlation between MnSOD mRNA expression and specific activity in these 3 tissues during day 0-14 of induced systemic hypoxia. Furthermore, mRNA expression and specific activity levels in heart strongly correlate with those in blood.Conclusion: The MnSOD expression at early and late phases of induced systemic hypoxia is distinctly regulated. The MnSOD expression in brain differs from that in blood and heart revealing that brain tissue can  possibly survive better from induced systemic hypoxia than heart and blood. The determination of MnSOD expression in blood can be used to describe its expression in heart under systemic hypoxic condition. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:27-33Keywords: MnSOD, mRNA expression, ROS, specific activity, systemic hypoxia

  3. Water Velocity and Bioturbation Alter Sediment Resuspension and Biogeochemistry in an Experimental Freshwater Mesocosm System (United States)

    Spivak, A.; Vanni, M. J.


    Processes such as bioturbation and resuspension can affect organic matter decomposition by altering sediment redox conditions. Increased oxygen availability may, in turn, affect remineralization rates and larger scale processes such as benthic-pelagic coupling. However, relatively few studies have explicitly tested the simultaneous effects of bioturbation and water velocity on benthic biogeochemistry and sediment resuspension. Using a mesocosm system we conducted two experiments testing the effects of bioturbator identity on particulate and dissolved nutrient dynamics before and after a resuspension event (i.e. water velocity held constant at 0.12 m s-1 for 2 hr; Expt. 1) and rates of sediment resuspension with increasing water velocity (0.00 - 0.20 m s-1; Expt. 2). We manipulated bioturbator identity across four levels as sediments were undisturbed (control), manually punctured (2% of surface area), or disturbed by one of two fish species, either bluegill or catfish. For Expt. 1, the bioturbation treatments were applied for several days and measurements were made before and after the resuspension event. Initially, water column chlorophyll and total suspended sediment (TSS) concentrations were highest in the catfish treatments. Bioturbator identity did not affect the stoichiometry of TSS as strongly; C:N was unaffected by our treatments while N:P was lowest in the disturbed treatments. After the resuspension event, there was no difference in TSS concentrations or stoichiometric ratios across the bioturbation treatments. Dissolved nutrient flux rates were insensitive to the bioturbation treatments and were more strongly influenced by the resuspension event. For instance, sediment NO3- fluxes were negative (i.e. net flux into sediments) until after the resuspension event when they became positive. In Expt. 2, we gradually increased water velocity from 0.00 - 0.20 m s-1 and measured TSS concentrations only. TSS was initially highest in catfish treatments and lowest in

  4. Different Bleeding Patterns with the Use of Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System: Are They Associated with Changes in Uterine Artery Blood Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bastianelli


    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate if different bleeding patterns associated with the use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS are associated with different uterine and endometrial vascularization patterns, as evidenced by ultrasound power Doppler analysis. Methodology. A longitudinal study, with each subject acting as its own control was conducted between January 2010 and December 2012. Healthy volunteers with a history of heavy but cyclic and regular menstrual cycles were enrolled in the study. Ultrasonographic examination was performed before and after six months of LNG-IUS placement: uterine volume, endometrial thickness, and subendometrial and myometrial Doppler blood flow patterns have been evaluated. Results. A total of 32 women were enrolled out of 186 initially screened. At six months of follow-up, all subjects showed a reduction in menstrual blood loss; for analysis, they were retrospectively divided into 3 groups: normal cycling women (Group I, amenorrheic women (Group II, and women with prolonged bleedings (Group III. Intergroup analysis documented a statistically significant difference in endometrial thickness among the three groups; in addition, mean pulsatility index (PI and resistance index (RI in the spiral arteries were significantly lower in Group I and Group III compared to Group II. This difference persisted also when comparing—within subjects of Group III—mean PI and RI mean values before and after insertion. Conclusions. The LNG-IUS not only altered endometrial thickness, but—in women with prolonged bleedings—also significantly changed uterine artery blood flow. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and enable gynecologists to properly counsel women, improving initial continuation rates.

  5. The effects of transport by pneumatic tube system on blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation and coagulation tests


    Koçak, Fatma Emel; Yöntem, Mustafa; Yücel, Özlem; Çilo, Mustafa; Genç, Özlem; Meral, Ayfer


    Introduction: Today, the pneumatic tube transport system (PTS) is used frequently because of its advantages related to timing and speed. However, the impact of various types of PTS on blood com-ponents is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of PTS on the quality of rou-tine blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation, and certain blood coagulation tests. Materials and methods: Paired blood samples were obtained from each of 45 human volunteers and evaluated by bloo...

  6. An intelligent system for continuous blood pressure monitoring on remote multi-patients in real time

    CERN Document Server

    Marani, Roberto


    In this paper we present an electronic system to perform a non-invasive measurement of the blood pressure based on the oscillometric method, which does not suffer from the limitations of the well-known auscultatory one. Moreover the proposed system is able to evaluate both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and makes use of a microcontroller and a Sallen-Key active filter. With reference to other similar devices, a great improvement of our measurement system is achieved since it performs the transmission of the systolic and diastolic pressure values to a remote computer. This aspect is very important when the simultaneous monitoring of multi-patients is required. The proposed system, prototyped and tested at the Electron Devices Laboratory (Electrical and Information Engineering Department) of Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy, is characterized by originality, by plainness of use and by a very high level of automation (so called intelligent system).

  7. Wfs1-deficient mice display altered function of serotonergic system and increased behavioural response to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanel eVisnapuu


    Full Text Available It has been shown that mutations in the WFS1 gene make humans more susceptible to mood disorders. Besides that, mood disorders are associated with alterations in the activity of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Therefore, in this study, the effects of imipramine, an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA reuptake, and paroxetine, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, were studied in tests of behavioural despair. The tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were performed in Wfs1-deficient mice. Simultaneously, gene expression and monoamine metabolism studies were conducted to evaluate changes in 5-HT- and NA-ergic systems of Wfs1-deficient mice. The basal immobility time of Wfs1-deficient mice in TST and FST did not differ from that of their wild-type littermates. However, a significant reduction of immobility time in response to lower doses of imipramine and paroxetine was observed in homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice, but not in their wild-type littermates. In gene expression studies, the levels of 5-HT transporter (SERT were significantly reduced in the pons of homozygous animals. Monoamine metabolism was assayed separately in the dorsal and ventral striatum of naive mice and mice exposed for 30 minutes tobrightly lit motility boxes. We found that this aversive challenge caused a significant increase in the levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, a metabolite of 5-HT, in the ventral and dorsal striatum of wild-type mice, but not in their homozygous littermates. Taken together, the blunted 5-HT metabolism and reduced levels of SERT are a likely reason for the elevated sensitivity of these mice to the action of imipramine and paroxetine. These changes in the pharmacological and neurochemical phenotype of Wfs1-deficient mice may help to explain the increased susceptibility of Wolfram syndrome patients to depressive states.

  8. Phenotypic Alterations Involved in CD8+ Treg Impairment in Systemic Sclerosis. (United States)

    Negrini, Simone; Fenoglio, Daniela; Parodi, Alessia; Kalli, Francesca; Battaglia, Florinda; Nasi, Giorgia; Curto, Monica; Tardito, Samuele; Ferrera, Francesca; Filaci, Gilberto


    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease characterized by tissue fibrosis, vasculopathy, and autoimmunity. Although the exact pathogenetic mechanisms behind SSc remain to be fully elucidated, a great deal of evidence suggests the existence of an unbalanced ratio between the effector and regulatory arms of the immune system. With regard to the T regulatory (Treg) compartment, we observed that CD8+ Treg subsets display functional defects in SSc-affected patients. Since CD127 down-modulation and CD39 upregulation have been observed on Treg subsets, the phenotypic expression of these molecules was analyzed on the CD8+CD28- Treg precursors and on CD8+ Treg cells generated in vitro through interleukin-10 commitment. Immunophenotypic data from SSc patients were compared to those obtained from healthy subjects. The analyses performed on ex vivo-isolated CD8+CD28- Treg precursors did not show any significant differences in CD39 or CD127 expression as compared to values obtained from healthy donors. On the contrary, in vitro-generated CD8+ Tregs obtained from SSc patients displayed reduced expression of the CD39 molecule as compared to controls. Moreover, the percentage of CD127+ cells was significantly higher in in vitro-generated CD8+ Tregs from SSc patients compared to CD8+ Tregs obtained from healthy donors. Taken together, these findings may indicate an impairment of maturation processes affecting CD8+ Treg cells in SSc patients. This impairment of maturation involves phenotypic alterations that are mainly characterized by a deficient CD39 upregulation and a lack of down-modulation of the CD127 molecule.

  9. Altered Striatocerebellar Metabolism and Systemic Inflammation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiun-Chieh Yu


    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is the most second common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Neuroinflammation due to systemic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress is considered a major factor promoting the pathogenesis of PD, but the relationship of structural brain imaging parameters to clinical inflammatory markers has not been well studied. Our aim was to evaluate the association of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS measures with inflammatory markers. Blood samples were collected from 33 patients with newly diagnosed PD and 30 healthy volunteers. MRS data including levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA, creatine (Cre, and choline (Cho were measured in the bilateral basal ganglia and cerebellum. Inflammatory markers included plasma nuclear DNA, plasma mitochondrial DNA, and apoptotic leukocyte levels. The Cho/Cre ratio in the dominant basal ganglion, the dominant basal ganglia to cerebellum ratios of two MRS parameters NAA/Cre and Cho/Cre, and levels of nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA, and apoptotic leukocytes were significantly different between PD patients and normal healthy volunteers. Significant positive correlations were noted between MRS measures and inflammatory marker levels. In conclusion, patients with PD seem to have abnormal levels of inflammatory markers in the peripheral circulation and deficits in MRS measures in the dominant basal ganglion and cerebellum.

  10. Immunological alterations in patients with primary tumors in central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play an important role in immune surveillance against tumors. The present work aimed to study the cytotoxic activity of NK cells and T cell subsets in peripheral blood of 13 patients with primary tumors in central nervous system (CNS. As controls 29 healthy subjects with the age range equivalent to the patients were studied. The methods employed were: a determination of cytotoxic activity of NK cells towards K562 target cells, evaluated by single cell-assay; b enumeration of CD3+ lymphocytes and their CD4+ and CD8+ subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies; c the identification of tumors were done by histologic and immunochemistry studies. The results indicated that adults and children with tumor in CNS display reduced percentage of total T cells, helper/inducer subset and low helper/suppressor ratio. The cytotoxic activity of NK cells was decreased in patients with CNS tumors due mainly to a decrease in the proportion of target-binding lymphocytes. These results suggest that cytotoxic activity of NK cells may be affected by the immunoregulatory disturbances observed in patients with primary tumors in CNS.

  11. Expression and alteration of insulin-like growth factor Ⅱ-messenger RNA in hepatoma tissues and peripheral blood of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Zhen Dong; Deng-Fu Yao; Deng-Bing Yao; Xin-Hua Wu; Wei Wu; Li-Wei Qiu; Dao-Rong Jiang; Jian-Hua Zhu; Xian-Yong Meng


    AIM: To investigate the clinical values of serum free insulin-like growth factor Ⅱ (IGF-Ⅱ) levels and IGF-Ⅱ mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and peripheral blood for diagnosis of HCC and monitoring of extrahepatic metastasis.METHODS: Total RNAs were extracted from HCC tissues or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with HCC, liver diseases devoid of cancer, non-hepatic tumors,and healthy controls, respectively. IGF-Ⅱ cDNAs were synthesized through random primers and reversetranscriptase, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and confirmed by DNA sequencing analysis. Serum free IGF-Ⅱ levels in patients with different liver diseases were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: The amplified fragments of IGF-Ⅱ mRNA by RT-PCR were identical to originally designed ones with a size of 170 bp and confirmed by sequencing analysis.The dilution experiments revealed that the lowest sensitivity of our system was 2 ng/L of total RNA. The positive frequencies of IGF-Ⅱ mRNA were 100% in HCC tissues,53.3% in para-cancerous tissues, and 0% in non-cancerous tissues, respectively. The serum free IGF-Ⅱ levels were significantly higher in HCC than those in chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. The positive frequency of circulating IGF-Ⅱ mRNA was 34.2% in HCC, no amplified fragment was found in other liver diseases, extrahepatic tumors,and normal controls, respectively. The circulating IGF-Ⅱ mRNA correlated with the stage of HCC, and its positive rate was 100% in HCC with extrahepatic metastasis and 35.5% in HCC with AFP-negative. No significant correlation was found between tumor sizes and circulating IGF-Ⅱ mRNA fragment.CONCLUSION: The abnormal expressions of free IGF-Ⅱ and IGF-Ⅱ mRNA are useful tumor markers for HCC diagnosis, differentiation of extrahepatic metastasis and monitoring postoperative recurrence.

  12. Non-association between anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and ABO blood group system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACF Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infects humans through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, which elicits humoral immune response with specific antibodies. The expression of the ABO blood group glycoconjugates also occurs in this same system and may influence the human susceptibility of infection by T. gondii. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ABO blood group phenotypes and the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies. Data - including age, results of serology tests for T. gondii infection and ABO blood group phenotypes - were assembled from the medical records of 1,006 pregnant women attended in the Base Hospital of the Medical School of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, between 2001 and 2004. The chi-square test was used to compare the results with the level of significance set at 5%. Of the studied cases, 64.1% (645/1006 and 35.9% (391/1006 presented respectively positive and negative serology tests for anti-T. gondii antibodies. The mean age of those who tested positive was higher than those with negative serology tests (p = 0.0004. The frequencies of ABO blood group phenotypes were similar in those with and without anti-T. gondii antibodies (p = 0.35. In conclusion, the ABO blood group system is not associated with the presence or absence of anti-T. gondii antibodies.

  13. Opiates Upregulate Adhesion Molecule Expression in Brain MicroVascular Endothelial Cells (BMVEC: Implications for Altered Blood Brain Barrier (BBB Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan P.N. Nair


    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB is an intricate cellular system composed of vascular endothelial cells and perivascular astrocytes that restrict the passage of immunocompetent cells into the central nervous system (CNS. Expression of the adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC and their interaction with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 viral proteins may help enhance viral adhesion and virus-cell fusion resulting in increased infectivity. Additionally, transmigration through the BBB is facilitated by both endothelial and monocyte/macrophage-derived nitric oxide (NO. Dysregulated production of NO by BMVEC due to opiates and HIV-1 viral protein interactions play a pivotal role in brain endothelial injury, resulting in the irreversible loss of BBB integrity, which may lead to enhanced infiltration of virus-carrying cells across the BBB. Opioids act as co-factors in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 by facilitating BBB dysfunction however, no studies have been done to investigate the role of opiates alone or in combination with HIV-1 viral proteins on adhesion molecule expression in BMVEC. We hypothesize that opiates such as heroin and morphine in conjunction with the HIV-1 viral protein gp120 increase the expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and these effects are mediated via the modulation of NO. Results show that opiates alone and in synergy with gp120 increase both the genotypic and phenotypic expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by BMVEC, additionally, these opiate induced effects may be the result of increased NO production. These studies will provide a better understanding of how opiate abuse in conjunction with HIV-1 infection facilitates the breakdown of the BBB and exacerbates the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1. Elucidation of the mechanisms of BBB modulation will provide new therapeutic approaches to maintain BBB integrity

  14. Adaptations of the vestibular system to short and long-term exposures to altered gravity (United States)

    Bruce, L.

    Long-term space flight creates unique environmental conditions to which the vestibular system must adapt for optimal survival. We are studying two aspects of this vestibular adaptation: (1) How does long-term exposure to microgravity and hypergravity affect the development of vestibular afferents? (2) How does short- term exposure to extremely rapid changes in gravity, such as those that occur during launch and landing, affect the vestibular system. During space flight the gravistatic receptors in the otolith organs are effectively unloaded. In hypergravity conditions they are overloaded. However, the angular acceleration receptors of the semicircular canals receive relatively normal stimulation in both micro- and hypergravity.Rat embryos exposed to microgravity from gestation day 10 (prior to vestibular function) until gestation day 20 (vestibular system is somewhat functional) showed that afferents from the posterior vertical canal projecting to the medial vestibular nucleus developed similarly in microgravity, hypergravity, and in controls . However, afferents from the saccule showed delayed development in microgravity as compared to development in hypergravity and in controls. Cerebellar plasticity is crucial for modification of sensory-motor control and learning. Thus we explored the possibility that strong vestibular stimuli would modify cerebellar motor control (i.e., eye movement, postural control, gut motility) by altering the morphology of cerebellar Purkinje cells. To study the effects of short-term exposures to strong vestibular stimuli we focused on structural changes in the vestibulo-cerebellum that are caused by strong vestibular stimuli. Adult mice were exposed to various combinations of constant and/or rapidly changing angular and linear accelerations for 8.5 min (the time length of shuttle launch). Our data shows that these stimuli cause intense excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, inducing up-regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis

  15. The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; Possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderWerf, YD; DeJongste, MJL; terHorst, GJ


    The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses. In this investigation the effects of immune activation on the brain are characterized In order to study this, we used a model for chronic immune activation, the myocardial

  16. An Analysis of Pulsed Wave Ultrasound Systems for Blood Velocity Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. A.


    Pulsed wave ultrasound systems can be used for determining blood's velocity non-invasively in the body. A region of interest is selected, and the received signal is range gated to measure data from the region. One complex sample value is acquired for each pulse emission after complex demodulation...

  17. Blood feeding of Ornithodoros turicata larvae using an artificial membrane system (United States)

    An artificial membrane system was adapted to feed Ornithodoros turicata larvae from a laboratory colony using defibrinated swine blood. Aspects related to larval feeding and molting to the 1st nymphal instar were evaluated. Fifty-five percent of all larvae exposed to the artificial membrane in two e...

  18. 78 FR 77255 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of Republication and Alteration of Systems of Records Notices (SORNs) (United States)


    ... December 20, 2013 Part III National Archives and Records Administration Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of... Act of 1974; Notice of Republication and Alteration of Systems of Records Notices (SORNs) AGENCY... records and its SORNs, in compliance with the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (5...

  19. Alterações do nível pressórico e fatores de risco em graduandos de enfermagem Alteraciones del nível de la presión y factores de riesgo en profesionales graduandos en enfermería Risk factors and alterations in blood pressure levels in undergraduate nursing students


    Alba Lúcia Botura Leite de Barros; Fabiana de Souza Vieira; Cinthia Calsinski de Assis; Sandra Salloum Zeitoun


    Objectives: To identify risk factors and alterations in blood pressure levels in undergraduate nursing students and to examine the associations between the risk factors and blood pressure levels. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between November 2006 and May 2007. The sample consisted of 120 undergraduate nursing students from the Federal University of São Paulo. A specific questionnaire on risk factors for high blood pressure was used. Blood pressure measures were t...

  20. Modeling of human colonic blood flow for a novel artificial anal sphincter system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZAN; Guo-zheng YAN; Hua LIU


    A novel artificial anal sphincter system has been developed to simulate the normal physiology of the human anorectum. With the goal of engineering a safe and reliable device, the model of human colonic blood flow has been built and the relationship between the colonic blood flow rate and the operating occlusion pressure of the anorectum is achieved. The tissue ischemia is analyzed based on constitutive relations for human anorectum. The results suggest that at the planned operating occlusion pressure of less than 4 kPa the artificial anal sphincter should not risk the vaseularity of the human colon.

  1. The Diabetes Assistant: A Smartphone-Based System for Real-Time Control of Blood Glucose


    Patrick Keith-Hynes; Benton Mize; Antoine Robert; Jérôme Place


    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and insulin must be injected daily to enable the body to metabolize glucose. Standard therapy for T1DM involves self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) several times daily with a blood glucose meter and injecting insulin via a syringe, pen or insulin pump. An “Artificial Pancreas” (AP) is a closed-loop control system that uses a continuous glucose monitor (CGM), a...

  2. Role of histaminergic system in blood-brain barrier dysfunction associated with neurological disorders. (United States)

    Bañuelos-Cabrera, Ivette; Valle-Dorado, María Guadalupe; Aldana, Blanca Irene; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra Adela; Rocha, Luisa


    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has been associated with several acute and chronic brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. This represents a critical situation because damaged integrity of the BBB is related to the influx of immune mediators, plasma proteins and other outside elements from blood to the central nervous system (CNS) that may trigger a cascade of events that leads to neuroinflammation. In this review, evidence that mast cells and the release of factors such as histamine play an important role in the neuroinflammatory process associated with brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy is presented.

  3. Poor performance of BACTEC NR 730 blood culture system in early detection of Neisseria meningitidis.



    During an 8-month period at Children's Hospital, Oakland, Calif., a 9% rate for positive blood culture for children with Neisseria meningitidis meningitis was identified. The blood culture system used in each case was the BACTEC NR 730. This rate seemed significantly lower than previous rates (33 to 55%) (P.R. Dodge and M.N. Swartz, N. Engl. J. Med. 272:1003-1010, 1965; A.L. Hoyne and R.H. Brown, Ann. Intern. Med. 28:248-259, 1948; S. Levin and M.B. Painter, Ann. Intern. Med. 64:1049-1057, 19...

  4. Performance of two updated blood glucose monitoring systems: an evaluation following ISO 15197:2013. (United States)

    Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido


    Objective For patients with diabetes, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is essential to ensure adequate glycemic control. Therefore, accurate and reliable blood glucose measurements with SMBG systems are necessary. The international standard ISO 15197 describes requirements for SMBG systems, such as limits within which 95% of glucose results have to fall to reach acceptable system accuracy. The 2013 version of this standard sets higher demands, especially regarding system accuracy, than the currently still valid edition. ISO 15197 can be applied by manufacturers to receive a CE mark for their system. Research design and methods This study was an accuracy evaluation following ISO 15197:2013 section 6.3 of two recently updated SMBG systems (Contour * and Contour TS; Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland) with an improved algorithm to investigate whether the systems fulfill the requirements of the new standard. For this purpose, capillary blood samples of approximately 100 participants were measured with three test strip lots of both systems and deviations from glucose values obtained with a hexokinase-based comparison method (Cobas Integra † 400 plus; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) were determined. Percentages of values within the acceptance criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were calculated. This study was registered at (NCT02358408). Main outcome Both updated systems fulfilled the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013 as 98.5% to 100% of the results were within the stipulated limits. Furthermore, all results were within the clinically non-critical zones A and B of the consensus error grid for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions The technical improvement of the systems ensured compliance with ISO 15197 in the hands of healthcare professionals even in its more stringent 2013 version. Alternative presentation of system accuracy results in radar plots provides additional information with certain advantages. In addition

  5. A multi-faceted approach to characterize acid-sulfate alteration processes in volcanic hydrothermal systems on Earth and Mars (United States)

    Marcucci, Emma Cordts

    Acid-sulfate alteration is a dominant weathering process in high temperature, low pH, sulfur-rich volcanic environments. Additionally, hydrothermal environments have been proposed as locations where life could have originated on Earth. Based on the extensive evidence of flowing surface water and persistent volcanism, similar locations and processes could have existed on early Mars. Globally observed alteration mineral assemblages likely represent relic Martian hydrothermal settings. Yet the limited understanding of environmental controls, limits the confidence of interpreting the paleoconditions of these hydrothermal systems and assessing their habitability to support microbial life. This thesis presents a series of laboratory experiments, geochemical models, analog fieldwork, and Martian remote sensing to characterize distinguishing features and controls of acid-sulfate alteration. The experiments and models were designed to replicate alteration is a highly acidic, sulfurous, and hot field sites. The basaltic minerals were individually reacted in both experimental and model simulations with varying initial parameters to infer the geochemical pathways of acid-sulfate alteration on Earth and Mars. It was found that for a specific starting material, secondary mineralogies were consistent. Variations in pH, temperature and duration affected the abundance, shape, and size of mineral products. Additionally evaporation played a key role in secondary deposits; therefore, both alteration and evaporitic processes need to be taken into consideration. Analog volcanic sites in Nicaragua were used to supplement this work and highlight differences between natural and simulated alteration. In situ visible near-infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that primary lithology and gas chemistry were dominant controls of alteration, with secondary effects from environmental controls, such as temperature and pH. The spectroscopic research from the field was directly related to Mars

  6. Blood Types (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  7. Repeated dexamphetamine treatment alters the dopaminergic system and increases the phMRI response to methylphenidate (United States)

    Schrantee, Anouk; Tremoleda, Jordi L.; Wylezinska-Arridge, Marzena; Bouet, Valentine; Hesseling, Peter; Meerhoff, Gideon F.; de Bruin, Kora M.; Koeleman, Jan; Freret, Thomas; Boulouard, Michel; Desfosses, Emilie; Galineau, Laurent; Gozzi, Alessandro; Dauphin, François; Gsell, Willy; Booij, Jan; Lucassen, Paul J.; Reneman, Liesbeth


    Dexamphetamine (AMPH) is a psychostimulant drug that is used both recreationally and as medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated exposure to AMPH can induce damage to nerve terminals of dopamine (DA) neurons. We here assessed the underlying neurobiological changes in the DA system following repeated AMPH exposure and pre-treated rats with AMPH or saline (4 times 5 mg/kg s.c., 2 hours apart), followed by a 1-week washout period. We then used pharmacological MRI (phMRI) with a methylphenidate (MPH) challenge, as a sensitive and non-invasive in-vivo measure of DAergic function. We subsequently validated the DA-ergic changes post-mortem, using a.o. high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and autoradiography. In the AMPH pre-treated group, we observed a significantly larger BOLD response to the MPH challenge, particularly in DA-ergic brain areas and their downstream projections. Subsequent autoradiography studies showed that AMPH pre-treatment significantly reduced DA transporter (DAT) density in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens, whereas HPLC analysis revealed increases in the DA metabolite homovanillic acid in the CPu. Our results suggest that AMPH pre-treatment alters DAergic responsivity, a change that can be detected with phMRI in rats. These phMRI changes likely reflect increased DA release together with reduced DAT binding. The ability to assess subtle synaptic changes using phMRI is promising for both preclinical studies of drug discovery, and for clinical studies where phMRI can be a useful tool to non-invasively investigate DA abnormalities, e.g. in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:28241065

  8. On the sputter alteration of regoliths of outer solar system bodies (United States)

    Hapke, Bruce


    Several processes that are expected to occur when the porous regoliths of outer solar system bodies (without atmospheres) are subjected to energetic ion bombardment are discussed. The conclusions reached in much of the literature addressing sputtering are quantitatively or qualitatively incorrect because effects of soil porosity have been neglected. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that porosity reduces the effective sputtering yield of a soil by more than an order of magnitude. Between 90 and 97% of the sputtered atoms are trapped within the regolith, where they are factionated by differential desorption. Experiments indicate that more volatile species have higher desorption probabilities. This process is the most important way in which alteration of chemical and optical properties occurs when a regolith is sputtered. When a basic silicate soil is irradiated these effects lead to sputter-deposited films enriched in metallic iron, while O, Na and K are preferentially lost. The Na and K are present in the atmosphere above the sputtered silicate in quantities much greater than their abundances in the regolith. Icy regoliths of SO2 should be enriched in elemental S and/or S2O. This prediction is supported by the probable identification of S2O and polysulfur oxide bands in the IR spectra of H-sputtered SO2 reported by Moore. When porous mixtures of water, ammonia and methane frosts are sputtered, the loss of H and surface reactions of C, N and O in the deposits should produce complex hydrocarbons and carbohydrates, some of which may be quite dark. Such reactions may have played a role in the formation of the matrix material of carbonaceous chondrites prior to agglomeration.

  9. Application of Blood Appointment System in Hospital%血液预约系统在医院的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 李刚荣; 蒋天伦


    目的:通过血液预约,缓解血液供需关系.方法:应用现代信息技术手段,通过血液信息管理系统与医院信息管理系统的无缝连接及互联网优势,制订血液采集计划,招募献血者,控制血液库存.结果:规范了临床用血,缩短了血液在血库的流动周期,降低了血液管理成本.结论:血液预约是缓解血液供需关系的有效途径.%Objective: according to blood appointment, to relieve the supply and demand of blood.Method: apply the modern information technology, through seamless connection of the blood information system and hospital information system, the advantage of internet, to develop the program of blood connection, and recruit blood donors to control blood inventory.Result: standard the clinic blood, shorten the flow cycle of blood in blood bank, reduce the blood management costs.Conclusion: blood appointment is effective way to relieve the supply and demand of blood.

  10. Alterations in the Levels of Amyloid-β, Phospholipid Hydroperoxide, and Plasmalogen in the Blood of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Possible Interactions between Amyloid-β and These Lipids. (United States)

    Yamashita, Shinji; Kiko, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Hironori; Hashimoto, Michio; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kinoshita, Mikio; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Teruo


    Aside from accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported as being associated with peroxidation of major phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho)) and degradation of antioxidative phospholipids (e.g., ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn)). In addition to its presence in the brain, Aβ is also found in blood; however, there is still little information about the levels of PtdCho hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and PlsEtn in the blood of patients with AD. In this study, by assuming a possible interaction among Aβ, PCOOH, and PlsEtn in blood circulation, we evaluated the levels of these molecules and correlations in blood samples that had been obtained from our former AD study for PCOOH measurement (Kiko et al., J Alzheimers Dis28, 593-600, 2012). We found that when compared to controls, plasma from patients with AD showed lower concentrations of PlsEtn species, especially PlsEtn bearing the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) moiety. In addition, lower PlsEtn and higher PCOOH levels were observed in red blood cells (RBCs) of patients with AD. In both AD and control blood samples, RBC PCOOH levels tended to correlate with plasma levels of Aβ40, and each PlsEtn species showed different correlations with plasma Aβ. These results, together with in vitro data suggesting Aβ aggregation due to a decrease in levels of PlsEtn having DHA, led us to deduce that Aβ is involved in alterations in levels of PCOOH and PlsEtn species observed in the blood of patients with AD.


    Starodubtseva, L A; Vasilieva, L V


    The osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are considered as the most prevalent diseases in the structure of diseases of musculoskeletal system. The higher social significance of these nosologies dictates necessity of searching reliable cartilage biomarkers having diagnostic validity both in discerning degenerative alterations at early stage of disease of joints and in monitoring of treatment effectiveness. The content of oligomeric matrix protein of cartilage using ELISA was evaluated in blood serum ofpatients with secondary osteoarthritis under rheumatoid arthritis (n=248). The comparison of derived results was carried out using control groups. Within the framework of study relationship was evaluated between level of oligomeric matrix protein of cartilage in patients with secondary osteoarthritis under rheumatoid arthritis with values offunctional KOOS index. The analysis of derived results established trend to increasing of level of oligomeric matrix protein of cartilage in blood serum ofpatients with secondary osteoarthritis under rheumatoid arthritis as compared with control groups. The moderate correlation interdependence between cartilage biomarker and KOOS index.

  12. Immunophenotyping of Lymphocyte T and B in the Peripheral Blood of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The immunophenotyping expression levels of lymphocyte in the peripheral blood from 21 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were analyzed by using the immunofluorescence labeling-flow cytometry technique to investigate the immunophenotyping expression of lymphocytes T and B in the peripheral blood of active SLE patients and its clinical value. It was showed that, compared with normal controls, the expression of CD+3, CD+4 and the ratio of CD+4/CD+8 in the peripheral blood of these patients were decreased (P<0.01), while the expression of CD+8, CD+20 was significantly increased (P<0.01). It was suggested that both T and B cells in patients with active SLE involved in immunoregulation, were activated. The abnormal expression of lymphocyte immunophenotyping could influence the immune reaction in SLE patients, which might be one of the important pathogenesis factors in SLE.

  13. Leukocyte Mitochondrial DNA Alteration in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Its Relevance to the Susceptibility to Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau-Huei Wei


    Full Text Available The role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA alterations in the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE remains unclear. We investigated sequence variations in the D310 region and copy number change of mtDNA in 85 SLE patients and 45 normal subjects. Leukocyte DNA and RNA were extracted from leukocytes of the peripheral venous blood. The D310 sequence variations and copy number of mtDNA, and mRNA expression levels of mtDNA-encoded genes in leukocytes were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR and PCR-based direct sequencing, respectively. We found that leukocyte mtDNA in SLE patients exhibited higher frequency of D310 heteroplasmy (69.4% vs. 48.9%, p = 0.022 and more D310 variants (2.2 vs. 1.7, p = 0.014 than those found in controls. Among normal controls and patients with low, medium or high SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI, an ever-increasing frequency of D310 heteroplasmy was observed (p = 0.021. Leukocyte mtDNA copy number tended to be low in patients of high SLEDAI group (p = 0.068, especially in those harboring mtDNA with D310 heteroplasmy (p = 0.020. Moreover, the mtDNA copy number was positively correlated with the mRNA level of mtDNA-encoded ND1 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (p = 0.041 and ATPase 6 (ATP synthase subunit 6 (p = 0.030 genes. Patients with more D310 variants were more susceptible to lupus nephritis (p = 0.035. Taken together, our findings suggest that decrease in the mtDNA copy number and increase in D310 heteroplasmy of mtDNA are related to the development and progression of SLE, and that the patients harboring more D310 variants of mtDNA are more susceptible to lupus nephritis.

  14. Fast Blood Vector Velocity Imaging using ultrasound: In-vivo examples of complex blood flow in the vascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik;


    speckle tracking between segments in consecutive speckle images. The flow patterns of six bifurcations and two veins were investigated in-vivo. It was shown: 1) that a stable vortex in the carotid bulb was present opposed to other examined bifurcations, 2) that retrograde flow was present......Conventional ultrasound methods for acquiring color flow images of the blood motion are restricted by a relatively low frame rate and angle dependent velocity estimates. The Plane Wave Excitation (PWE) method has been proposed to solve these limitations. The frame rate can be increased, and the 2-D...... vector velocity of the blood motion can be estimated. The transmitted pulse is not focused, and a full speckle image of the blood can be acquired for each emission. A 13 bit Barker code is transmitted simultaneously from each transducer element. The 2-D vector velocity of the blood is found using 2-D...

  15. Persistence of blood changes associated with alteration of the dietary electrolyte balance in commercial pigs after feed withdrawal, transportation, and lairage, and the effects on performance and carcass quality. (United States)

    Edwards, L N; Engle, T E; Paradis, M A; Correa, J A; Anderson, D B


    Increasing dietary electrolyte balance (dEB) has previously been shown to reduce the incidence of nonambulatory and noninjured swine, improve meat quality, and reduce the incidence of gastric ulcers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dEB under commercial conditions. Due to the variability in feed withdrawal, transport, and lairage conditions in the swine industry, it was necessary to determine first the persistence of blood changes during the marketing process after alteration of dEB. Sixteen pens of 8 crossbred barrows were assigned to a low (121 mEq/kg) or high (375 mEq/kg) dEB diet, calculated as Na(+) + K(+) - Cl(-), to determine the persistence of blood changes associated with the alteration of dEB. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) requirements for energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Dietary treatments were provided for ad libitum intake for 3 d before slaughter. Before transport, animals were fasted in the barn for approximately 10 h. After fasting, animals were shipped to the packing plant, rested for 8 h, and subsequently slaughtered. Initial and final BW of the animals were obtained. Blood was sampled at baseline (2 d before administration of diets), before feed withdrawal (0 h), after feed withdrawal (10 h), and at exsanguination (20 h). Consumption of the high dEB diet for 3 d resulted in an increase in blood TCO(2) (P = 0.001), HCO(3)(-) (P = 0.001), and base excess (P = 0.0003) and a decrease in Cl(-) (P = 0.0002) and anion gap (P = 0.01). These differences, however, were not maintained for any of the blood components after the 10-h feed withdrawal (P > 0.22). Increasing dEB had no adverse effects (P > 0.18) on growth performance, meat quality, or carcass yield and did not decrease pars esophageal ulcer scores. This study demonstrated that the effect of dEB on blood components was not maintained after a 10-h feed withdrawal. Therefore, it is likely that the ability of the animal to withstand any increased

  16. Irradiation Alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 System and Collagen Type IV Degradation in Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hee [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Warrington, Junie P.; Sonntag, William E. [Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Lee, Yong Woo, E-mail: [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)


    Purpose: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials: Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy {gamma}-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy {gamma}-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  17. Protection against 1,2-di-methylhydrazine-induced systemic oxidative stress and altered brain neurotransmitter status by probiotic Escherichia coli CFR 16 secreting pyrroloquinoline quinone. (United States)

    Pandey, Sumeet; Singh, Ashish; Chaudhari, Nirja; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P; Kumar, G Naresh


    Exposure to environmental pollutant 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is attributed to systemic oxidative stress and is known to cause neurotropic effect by altering brain neurotransmitter status. Probiotics are opted as natural therapeutic against oxidative stress and also have the ability to modulate gut-brain axis. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is water-soluble, heat-stable antioxidant molecule. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of PQQ-producing probiotic E. coli CFR 16 on DMH-induced systemic oxidative damage and altered neurotransmitter status in rat brain. Adult virgin Charles Forster rats (200-250 g) were given DMH dose (25 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) for 8 weeks. Blood lipid peroxidation levels exhibited a marked increase while antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were found to be reduced in DMH-treated rats. Likewise, brain serotonin and norepinephrine levels displayed a significant decrease, whereas epinephrine levels demonstrated a marked increase in brain of these rats. PQQ-producing E. coli CFR 16 supplementation reduced systemic oxidative stress and also restored brain neurotransmitter status. However, E. coli CFR 16 did not show any effect on these parameters. In contrast, E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp and E. coli CFR 16:: vgb-gfp vector exhibited some degree of protection again oxidative stress but they were not able to modulate neurotransmitter levels. In conclusion, continuous and sustained release of PQQ by probiotic E. coli in rat intestine ameliorates systemic oxidative stress and restored brain neurotransmitter levels.

  18. Blood Transfusion (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions A A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  19. Phenotype frequencies of blood group systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran in blood donors of south Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj A Kahar


    Full Text Available Background: This is the first study on phenotype frequencies of various blood group systems in blood donors of south Gujarat, India using conventional tube technique. Material and Methods: A total of 115 "O" blood group donors from three different blood banks of south Gujarat were typed for D, C, c, E, e, K, Jk a , Le a , Le b , P 1 , M, and N antigens using monoclonal antisera and k, Kp a , Kp b , Fy a ,Fy b , Jk b , S,s, Lu a , and Lu b antigens were typed using polyclonal antisera employing Indirect Antiglobulin Test. Antigens and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages. Results: From the 115 blood donor samples used for extended antigen typing in the Rh system, e antigen was found in 100% donors, followed by D [84.35%], C [81.74%], c [56.32%], and E [21.74%] with DCe/DCe (R 1 R 1 , 40.87% as the most common phenotype. k was found to be positive in 100% of donors and no K+k- phenotype was found in Kell system. For Kidd and Duffy blood group system, Jk(a+b+ and Fy(a-b- were the most common phenotypes with frequency of 52.17% and 48.69%, respectively. In the MNS system, 39.13% donors were typed as M+N+, 37.39% as M+N-, and 23.48% as M-N+. S+s+ was found in 24.35% of donors, S+s- in 8.69%, and S-s+ as the commonest amongst donors with 66.96%. No Lu(a+b+ or Lu(a+b- phenotypes were detected in 115 donors typed for Lutheran antigens. A rare Lu(a-b- phenotype was found in 2.61% donors. Conclusion: Data base for antigen frequency of various blood group systems in local donors help provide antigen negative compatible blood units to patients with multiple antibodies in order to formulate in-house red cells for antibody detection and identification and for preparing donor registry for rare blood groups.

  20. Strontium and oxygen isotopic profiles through 3 km of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust in the Reykjanes Geothermal System, Iceland (United States)

    Marks, N. E.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.


    The Iceland Deep Drilling Program well of opportunity RN-17 was drilled 3 km into a section of hydrothermally altered basaltic crust in the Reykjanes geothermal system in Iceland. The system is located on the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the circulating hydrothermal fluid is modified seawater, making Reykjanes a useful analogue for mid-oceanic ridge hydrothermal systems. Whole rock oxygen isotope ratios range from -0.13 to 3.61‰, which are significantly depleted relative to fresh MORB (5.8±0.2‰). If oxygen isotope exchange between fluid and rock proceeded under equilibrium in a closed system, the bulk of the exchange must have occurred in the presence of a meteoric- as opposed to seawater-derived fluid. The concentrations of Sr in the altered basalt range from well below to well above concentrations in fresh rock, and appear to be strongly correlated with the dominant alteration mineralogy, although there is no correlation with 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios. Whole rock Sr isotopic ratios ranged from 0.70329 in the least altered crystalline basalt, to 0.70609 in the most altered hyaloclastite samples; there is no correlation with depth. Sr isotopic variation in epidote grains measured by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS ranged from 0.70353 to 0.70731. Three depth intervals have distinctive isotopic signatures, at 1000 m, 1350 m, and 2000 m depth, where 87Sr/86Sr ratios are elevated (mean value >0.7050) relative to background levels (mean altered basalt value ~0.7042). These areas are proximal to feed zones, and the 1350 m interval directly overlies the transition from dominantly extrusive to intrusive lithologies. Strontium and oxygen isotope data indicate that the greenschist-altered basalts were in equilibrium with modified hydrothermal fluids at a relatively high mean water/rock mass ratios (generally in the range 1-3), and require the presence of both meteoric- and seawater-derived recharge fluids at various stages in the hydrothermal history.

  1. Rapid, label-free, electrical whole blood bioassay based on nanobiosensor systems. (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Kang; Ishikawa, Fumiaki N; Zhang, Rui; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard J; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu


    Biomarker detection based on nanowire biosensors has attracted a significant amount of research effort in recent years. However, only very limited research work has been directed toward biomarker detection directly from physiological fluids mainly because of challenges caused by the complexity of media. This limitation significantly reduces the practical impact generated by the aforementioned nanobiosensors. In this study, we demonstrate an In(2)O(3) nanowire-based biosensing system that is capable of performing rapid, label-free, electrical detection of cancer biomarkers directly from human whole blood collected by a finger prick. Passivating the nanowire surface successfully blocked the signal induced by nonspecific binding when performing active measurement in whole blood. Passivated devices showed markedly smaller signals induced by nonspecific binding of proteins and other biomaterials in serum and higher sensitivity to target biomarkers than bare devices. The detection limit of passivated sensors for biomarkers in whole blood was similar to the detection limit for the same analyte in purified buffer solutions at the same ionic strength, suggesting minimal decrease in device performance in the complex media. We then demonstrated detection of multiple cancer biomarkers with high reliability at clinically meaningful concentrations from whole blood collected by a finger prick using this sensing system.

  2. Blood compatibility of a ferulic acid (FA)-eluting PHBHHx system for biodegradable magnesium stent application. (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Shen, Feng


    Magnesium stent has shown potential application as a new biodegradable stent. However, the fast degradation of magnesium stent limited its clinic application. Recently, a biodegradable and drug-eluting coating system was designed to prevent magnesium from fast degradation by adding ferulic acid (FA) in poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) by a physical method. In vitro study has demonstrated that the FA-eluting system exhibited strong promotion to the endothelialization, which might be a choice for the stent application. In this paper, the hemolysis rate, the plasma recalcification time (PRT), the plasma prothrombin time (PT) and the kinetic clotting time of the FA-eluting films were investigated and the platelet adhesion was observed in order to assess the blood compatibility of the FA-eluting PHBHHx films in comparison with PHBHHx film. The results have shown that the addition of FA had no influence on the hemolysis, but prolonged PRT, PT and the clotting time and reduced the platelet adhesion and activation, displaying that the FA-eluting PHBHHx exhibited better blood compatibility than PHBHHx. In addition, the effect of alkali treatment on the blood compatibility of FA-eluting PHBHHx was also studied. It was indicated that alkali treatment had no effect on the hemolysis and the coagulation time, but enhanced slightly the platelet adhesion. All these demonstrated that FA-eluting PHBHHx film had good blood compatibility and might be a candidate surface coating for the biodegradable magnesium stent.

  3. Effect of magnetic bracelets on the coagulation and anticoagulation systems of the blood of patients with hypertension (United States)

    Bublis, V. V.; Zabrodina, L. V.; Platonova, A. T.; Meyerova, Y. A.


    The data which have been obtained on the influence of magnetic bracelets on the coagulation and anticoagulation systems of the blood indicate that the wearing of magnetic bracelets results in a decrease in the coagulation activity of the blood and an increase in the activity of the anticoagulation system. These changes must be viewed as favorable for patients with cardiovascular pathology.

  4. [The biological reaction of inflammation, methylglyoxal of blood plasma, functional and structural alterations in elastic type arteries at the early stage of hypertension disease]. (United States)

    Titov, V N; Dmitriev, V A; Oshchepkov, E V; Balakhonova, T V; Tripoten', M I; Shiriaeva, Iu K


    The article deals with studying of the relationship between biologic reaction of inflammation with glycosylation reaction and content of methylglyoxal in blood serum. The positive correlation between pulse wave velocity and content of methylglyoxal, C-reactive protein in intercellular medium and malleolar brachial index value was established. This data matches the experimental results concerning involvement of biological reaction of inflammation into structural changes of elastic type arteries under hypertension disease, formation of arteries' rigidity and increase of pulse wave velocity. The arterial blood pressure is a biological reaction of hydrodynamic pressure which is used in vivo by several biological functions: biological function of homeostasis, function of endoecology, biological function of adaptation and function of locomotion. The biological reaction of hydrodynamic (hydraulic) pressure is a mode of compensation of derangement of several biological functions which results in the very high rate of hypertension disease in population. As a matter of fact, hypertension disease is a syndrome of lingering pathological compensation by higher arterial blood pressure of the biological functions derangements occurring in the distal section at the level of paracrine cenoses of cells. The arterial blood pressure is a kind of in vivo integral indicator of deranged metabolism. The essential hypertension disease pathogenically is a result of the derangement of three biological functions: biological function of homeostasis, biological function of trophology - nutrition (biological reaction of external feeding - exotrophia) and biological function of endoecology. In case of "littering" of intercellular medium in vivo with nonspecific endogenic flogogens a phylogenetically earlier activation of biological reactions of excretion, inflammation and hydrodynamic arterial blood pressure occur. In case of derangement of biological function of homeostasis, decreasing of

  5. The blood-brain barrier in psychoneuroimmunology. (United States)

    Banks, William A


    The term ''psychoneuroimmunology'' connotes separate compartments that interact. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is both the dividing line, physical and physiologic, between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) and the locale for interaction. The BBB restricts unregulated mixing of immune substances in the blood with those in the CNS, directly transports neuroimmune-active substances between the blood and CNS, and itself secretes neuroimmune substances. These normal functions of the BBB can be altered by neuroimmune events. As such, the BBB is an important conduit in the communication between the immune system and the CNS.

  6. [Effects of solcoseryl on the cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure, systemic blood pressure and EEG in acute intracranial hypertensive cats (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Kubota, S; Asakura, T; Kitamura, K


    The experiment was performed on 86 cases under intraperitoneal pentobarbital anesthesia. One balloon was placed in the extradural space of right frontal region, and the other balloon was placed in the left extradural space and the intracranial pressure was measured. A needle was stereotaxically inserted into the subcortical area in order to measure the cerebral blood flow. Systemic blood pressure was recorded by inserting a catheter into the femoral artery, and electrocorticogram was also recorded. An expanding intracranial lesion was made by inflating the extradural balloon with physiological saline. The animals were arbitrarily divided into two groups.: 1) light or moderate groups which intracranial pressure before the injection of drug was below 400 mmH2O. 2) severe groups above 400 mmH2O. After the maintenance of the pressure, Solcoseryl was infused intravenously. The investigation was focused to observe whether Solcoseryl reveales any potent effect on cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure, systemic blood pressure and on electroencephalogram in acute intracranial hypertension. Results 1) Intravenous injection of Solcoseryl had the effect of lowering intracranial pressure in the light or moderate and severe groups. Particularly, dose of 80 mg/kg showed the marked effect, though with a rebound phenomenon in the light or moderate groups. Furthermore, the effect was more marked and lasting by drip infusion of Solcoseryl and also by intravenous injection of Solcoseryl after pretreatment with hydrocortisone, and at this time no rebound phenomenon was recognized. 2) Solcoseryl had the effect of increasing the cerebral blood flow accompained with the lowering of intracranial pressure. 3) Systemic blood pressure was transiently lowered by the injection of Solcoseryl 20 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg and recovered immediately. 4) Solcoseryl had no effect on electroencephalogram in the severe groups. Conclusion On the basis of these results, it is rational to conclude that

  7. Short communication: amino acid supplementation and stage of lactation alter apparent utilization of nutrients by blood neutrophils from lactating dairy cows in vitro (United States)

    Glutamine is the preferred AA used by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) during the inflammatory response. However, the effect of other AA on bovine PMN response during inflammation and how this is altered by stage of lactation has not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to dete...

  8. Alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and caspase 8 expression in cobalt chloride-induced cardio-renal dysfunction are reversed by Ocimum gratissimum and gallic acid in Wistar rats. (United States)

    Akinrinde, A S; Oyagbemi, A A; Omobowale, T O; Asenuga, E R; Ajibade, T O


    The protective abilities of the chloroform extract of Ocimum gratissimum (COG) and gallic acid against cobalt chloride (CoCl2) - induced cardiac and renal toxicity were evaluated. Rats were exposed to CoCl2 (350ppm) for 7 days, either alone, or in combination with COG (100 and 200mg/kg) or gallic acid (120mg/kg). CoCl2 given alone, caused significant increases (pgallic acid treatment significantly reduced (pgallic acid by modulation of CoCl2-induced alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and pro-apoptotic caspase 8 in Wistar rats.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mego


    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTC play a crucial role in disseminating tumors and in the metastatic cascade. CTCs are found only in small numbers, and the limited amount of isolated CTCs makes it impossible to characterize them closely. This paper presents a proposal for a new system for isolating CTCs from the peripheral blood in vivo. The system enables CTCs to be isolated from the whole blood volume for further research and applications. The proposed system consists of magnetic nanoparticles covered by monoclonal antibodies against a common epithelial antigen, large supermagnets, which are used to control the position of the nanoparticles within the human body, and a special wire made of a magnetic core wrapped in a non-magnetic shell. The system could be used not only for isolating CTCs, but also for in vivo isolation of other rare cells from the peripheral blood, including hematopoietic and/or mesenchymal stem cells, with applications in regenerative medicine and/or in stem cell transplantation.

  10. Altered systemic bioavailability and organ distribution of azathioprine in methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf A Karbelkar


    Conclusion: Study outcome has thrown light on altered fate of AZA when administered to individuals with mucositis which suggests modified drug therapy. These findings can further be investigated in different drug classes which might be administered concomitantly in mucositis and study outcome can be further confirmed in mucositis patients in clinical practice also.

  11. Response of the photosynthetic system to altered protein composition and changes in environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, T.


    The photosynthetic thylakoid membrane has a hierarchically ordered structure containing pigment-protein complexes that capture solar radiation and convert it into chemical energy. Its highly dynamic structure is capable to continuously respond to the altered environmental conditions, e.g., light qua

  12. 76 FR 47190 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System (United States)


    ... Medicare Advantage (MA) and Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MA- PD) plan members for accounting and... Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MA- PD) plan members for accounting and payment control; expedite the... requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, we are proposing to modify or alter a SOR titled, ``Medicare...

  13. 75 FR 5606 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered... requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is proposing... Identifiable Information, released on May 22, 2007 by OMB; change the location of records; update...

  14. Brief Report: Alterations in Cerebral Blood Flow as Assessed by PET/CT in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder with Normal IQ (United States)

    Pagani, Marco; Manouilenko, Irina; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Odh, Richard; Salmaso, Dario; Hatherly, Robert; Brolin, Fredrik; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.; Bejerot, Susanne


    Specific biological markers for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have not yet been established. Functional studies have shown abnormalities in the anatomo-functional connectivity of the limbic-striatal "social" brain. This study aimed to investigate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest. Thirteen patients with ASD of normal intelligence and…

  15. Strengthening of the Blood Safety System in the National Blood Transfusion Service - Implementation of the European Union IPA Project - at the Institute for Transfusion Medicine of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada M. Grubovic


    Full Text Available The Safety of the Blood Supply in any country is of utmost importance to safeguard patients from serious adverse events of blood transfusion. Implementation of a Quality System in the Blood Transfusion Service, with support of Government and Ministry of Health is a key element to guarantee safe blood. The IPA TAIB 2009 project - Strengthening of the Blood Safety System executed in 2013/14 provided the means to start implementing a Quality System in the Institute for Transfusion Medicine of the Republic of Macedonia. This project aimed to ultimately bring the Blood Transfusion Service to European Union standards, allowing the exchange of blood components and all other types of collaboration with other European Union countries in future. The project put the basis for unification of blood transfusion standards and operating procedures in the whole country as well as set up essential education of blood transfusion personnel.

  16. Linkage disequilibrium between the ELA and the A blood group systems in Standardbred horses. (United States)

    Bailey, E


    The linkage group formed by the ELA and A blood group system in horses was studied in American Standardbred horses. The distance between the ELA locus and the A blood group locus was measured as 1.61 centimorgans, observing only the haplotypes contributed by the sires. Strong linkage disequilibrium was found in pacing Standardbred horses for ELA-W1 with Aa, ELA-W5 with Ab and ELA-W10 with Ab. Linkage disequilibrium was apparent at both the population and family level. Among trotting Standardbred horses, linkage disequilibrium was found for ELA-W1 with Aa and for ELA-W10 with Ab. It was not possible to investigate linkage relationships in Thoroughbred horses because of the high frequency of Aa and low frequency of other A system markers.

  17. Maternal consumption of organic trace minerals alters calf systemic and neutrophil mRNA and microRNA indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress. (United States)

    Jacometo, Carolina B; Osorio, Johan S; Socha, Michael; Corrêa, Marcio N; Piccioli-Cappelli, Fiorenzo; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J


    Organic trace mineral (ORG) supplementation to dairy cows in substitution of sulfate (INO) sources has been associated with improvement in immune function during stressful states such as the peripartal period. However, the effect of supplemental ORG during pregnancy on the neonatal calf is unknown. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of ORG supplementation during late pregnancy on the immune system and growth of the neonatal calf. Of specific interest was the evaluation of inflammation-related microRNA (miRNA) and target gene expression in blood neutrophils as indicators of possible nutritional programming. Forty multiparous cows were supplemented for 30d prepartum with 40 mg/kg of Zn, 20 mg/kg of Mn, 5 mg/kg of Cu, and 1mg/kg of Co from either organic (ORG) or sulfate (INO) sources (total diet contained supplemental 75 mg/kg of Zn, 65 mg/kg of Mn, 11 mg/kg of Cu, and 1 mg/kg of Co, and additional Zn, Mn, and Co provided by sulfates), and a subset of calves (n=8/treatment) was used for blood immunometabolic marker and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) gene and miRNA expression analyses. Samples were collected at birth (before colostrum feeding), 1d (24 h after colostrum intake), and 7 and 21d of age. Data were analyzed as a factorial design with the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. No differences were detected in BW, but maternal ORG tended to increase calf withers height. Calves from INO-fed cows had greater concentrations of blood glucose, GOT, paraoxonase, myeloperoxidase, and reactive oxygen metabolites. Antioxidant capacity also was greater in INO calves. The PMNL expression of toll-like receptor pathway genes indicated a pro-inflammatory state in INO calves, with greater expression of the inflammatory mediators MYD88, IRAK1, TRAF6, NFKB, and NFKBIA. The lower expression of miR-155 and miR-125b in ORG calves indicated the potential for maternal organic trace minerals in regulating the PMNL inflammatory response at least via alterations in mRNA and

  18. Nanoparticles and blood-brain barrier: the key to central nervous system diseases. (United States)

    Domínguez, Alazne; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe


    Major central nervous system disorders represent a significant and worldwide public health problem. In fact, the therapeutic success of many pharmaceuticals developed to treat central nervous system diseases is still moderate, since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the access of systemically administered compounds to the brain. Therefore, they require the application of a large total dose of a drug, and cause numerous toxic effects. The development of nanotechnological systems are useful tools to deliver therapeutics and/or diagnostic probes to the brain due to nanocarriers having the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs and to reduce their side effects. This review provides a brief overview of the variety of carriers employed for central nervous system drug and diagnostic probes delivery. Further, this paper focuses on the novel nanocarriers developed to enhance brain delivery across the blood-brain barrier. Special attention is paid to liposomes, micelles, polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes. The recent developments in nanocarrier implementation through size/charge optimization and surface modifications (PEGylation, targeting delivery, and coating with surfactants) have been discussed. And a detailed description of the nanoscaled pharmaceutical delivery devices employed for the treatment of central nervous system disorders have also been defined. The aim of the review is to evaluate the nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategies to treat different central nervous system disorders.

  19. Numerical modeling of the fetal blood flow in the placental circulatory system (United States)

    Shannon, Alexander; Gallucci, Sergio; Mirbod, Parisa


    The placenta is a unique organ of exchange between the growing fetus and the mother. It incorporates almost all functions of the adult body, acting as the fetal lung, digestive and immune systems, to mention a few. The exchange of oxygen and nutrients takes place at the surface of the villous tree. Using an idealized geometry of the fetal villous trees in the mouse placenta, in this study we performed 3D computational analysis of the unsteady fetal blood flow, gas, and nutrient transport over the chorionic plate. The fetal blood was treated as an incompressible Newtonian fluid, and the oxygen and nutrient were treated as a passive scalar dissolved in blood plasma. The flow was laminar, and a commercial CFD code (COMSOL Multiphysics) has been used for the simulation. COMSOL has been selected because it is multi-physics FEM software that allows for the seamless coupling of different physics represented by partial differential equations. The results clearly illustrate that the specific branching pattern and the in-plane curvature of the fetal villous trees affect the delivery of blood, gas and nutrient transport to the whole placenta.

  20. A Novel System for Measuring Optical Properties in Arterial Blood of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castañeda-Miranda


    Full Text Available The necessity of man–machine communication has been increasing day by day because of the great number of approaches that help to make human life agile or comfortable. Health is one of the aspects that has generated more interest in recent years. The optical technologies are new technical tools that are being implemented for medical diagnosis and for describing various processes occurring within human blood. These techniques have the virtue of being nondestructive; in addition they have the advantage of remote direction by using an in situ technique, with sensitivity capable of studying the properties of the blood through electromagnetic excitation. A device to obtain the electromagnetic spectrum in the blood has being designed and is presented in this work. This device uses a quartz lamp, emitting electromagnetic radiation between 200 nm and 2200 nm. A model for measuring the light attenuation through the blood is used. By applying a control in the frequency domain, a circuit device is designed. This device uses a database in time domain for its subsequent analysis by Fast Fourier Transformation in order to obtain absorption spectra. The acquisition time is of the order of microseconds, and the system is controlled automatically through accessible software from a personal computer.

  1. Investigation of the cerebral blood flow of an Omani man with supposed ‘spirit possession’ associated with an altered mental state : a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Azri Faisal


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The view that spirits may possess humans is found in 90% of the world population, including Arab/Islamic societies. Despite the association between possessive states and various neurological and psychiatric disorders, the available literature has yet to correlate possessive states with functional brain imaging modalities such as single-photon-emission computed tomography. Case presentation This paper describes the clinical case of a 22-year-old male Omani patient who presented to us with an altered state of consciousness that his caregiver attributed to possession. We examined whether the patient's mental state correlated with neuro-imaging data. The patient's distress was invariably associated with specific perfusion in the left temporal lobe and structural abnormality in the left basal ganglia. Conclusion We discuss the case in the context of possession as a culturally sanctioned idiom of distress, and highlight the importance of studying cross-cultural presentations of altered states of consciousness within biomedical models.

  2. [Kallikrein-kinin system of blood in patients in the post-infarction period, and its reaction to physical exertion]. (United States)

    Azimova, F I; Nekrasova, A A; Chernova, N A; Nikolaeva, L F


    Blood kallikrein-kinin function was assessed in myocardial infarction survivors. Increased blood kinin-forming activity was demonstrated, accompanied with a simultaneous rise in the system's inhibitor level and excessive response to exercise, with slower regaining of the baseline after exercise was discontinued. It is concluded that functional testing of blood kallikrein-kinin status by means of rationed exercise yields more informative data on this system in various groups of postinfarction patients and that the extent of the system's activation depends on systemic circulatory function.

  3. Activity of the positive and negative reinforcement motivation systems and baseline arterial blood pressure in humans. (United States)

    Aftanas, L I; Sidorova, P V; Pavlov, S V; Makhnev, V P; Korenek, V V; Reva, N V; Amstislavskaya, T G


    The aim of the present work was to identify possible associations between individual balances in the activity of the positive and negative reinforcement motivation systems using a method based on emotional modulation of the startle reaction (EMSR) by motivationally significant emotionally positive and negative contextual visual stimuli and measures of cardiovascular system activity. Studies were performed using healthy males (mean age 30.29 +/- 9.8 years) with normal and first-episode excessive increases in arterial blood pressure (systolic blood pressure to greater than 140 mmHg, diastolic to greater than 90 mmHg). Cluster analysis of EMSR data identified groups of individuals with different activity profiles for the positive and negative reinforcement systems. Groups of subjects with changes in the balance of activity towards a lower level of positive reinforcement system activity (smaller startle reflexes to positive contextual stimuli) or a higher level of negative reinforcement system activity (larger startle reactions to threatening contextual stimuli) showed significantly greater baseline SBP and DBP. The possible mechanisms of the modulatory influences of the balance of system activities on autonomic vascular regulatory processes are discussed.

  4. Flow cytometry analysis of FITC-labeled concanavalin A binding to human blood cells as an indicator of radiation-induced membrane alterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnadieu-Claraz, M.; Paillole, N.; Voisin, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l`Homme et de Dosimetrie; Djounova, J. [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The {sup 3}H concanavalin-A binding to human blood cells have been described as a promising biological indicator of radiation overexposure. Flow cytometry adaptation of this technique using fluorescein-labelled concanavalin-A were performed to estimate time-dependent changes in binding on human blood cells membranes after in vitro {gamma} irradiation ({sup 60}Co). Result revealed significant enhanced lectin-binding to platelets and erythrocytes in a dose range of 0,5-5 Gy, 1 and 3 hours after irradiation. However for both platelets and erythrocytes, it was impossible to discriminate between the different doses. Further studies are necessary to confirm the suitability of lectin-binding as a biological indicator for radiation dose assessment. (authors). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  5. The transmission potential of malaria-infected mosquitoes (An.gambiae-Keele, An.arabiensis-Ifakara) is altered by the vertebrate blood type they consume during parasite development (United States)

    Emami, S. Noushin; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa C.; Ferguson, Heather M.


    The efficiency of malaria parasite development within mosquito vectors (sporogony) is a critical determinant of transmission. Sporogony is thought to be controlled by environmental conditions and mosquito/parasite genetic factors, with minimal contribution from mosquito behaviour during the period of parasite development. We tested this assumption by investigating whether successful sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum parasites through to human-infectious transmission stages is influenced by the host species upon which infected mosquitoes feed. Studies were conducted on two major African vector species that generally are found to differ in their innate host preferences: Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae sensu stricto. We show that the proportion of vectors developing transmissible infections (sporozoites) was influenced by the source of host blood consumed during sporogony. The direction of this effect was associated with the innate host preference of vectors: higher sporozoite prevalences were generated in the usually human-specialist An. gambiae s.s. feeding on human compared to cow blood, whereas the more zoophilic An. arabiensis had significantly higher prevalences after feeding on cow blood. The potential epidemiological implications of these results are discussed. PMID:28094293

  6. Systemic inhibition of canonical Notch signaling results in sustained callus inflammation and alters multiple phases of fracture healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I Dishowitz

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway is an important regulator of embryological bone development, and many aspects of development are recapitulated during bone repair. We have previously reported that Notch signaling components are upregulated during bone fracture healing. However, the significance of the Notch pathway in bone regeneration has not been described. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the importance of Notch signaling in regulating bone fracture healing by using a temporally controlled inducible transgenic mouse model (Mx1-Cre;dnMAML(f/- to impair RBPjκ-mediated canonical Notch signaling. The Mx1 promoter was synthetically activated resulting in temporally regulated systemic dnMAML expression just prior to creation of bilateral tibial fractures. This allowed for mice to undergo unaltered embryological and post-natal skeletal development. Results showed that systemic Notch inhibition prolonged expression of inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil cell inflammation, and reduced the proportion of cartilage formation within the callus at 10 days-post-fracture (dpf Notch inhibition did not affect early bone formation at 10dpf, but significantly altered bone maturation and remodeling at 20dpf. Increased bone volume fraction in dnMAML fractures, which was due to a moderate decrease in callus size with no change in bone mass, coincided with increased trabecular thickness but decreased connectivity density, indicating that patterning of bone was altered. Notch inhibition decreased total osteogenic cell density, which was comprised of more osteocytes rather than osteoblasts. dnMAML also decreased osteoclast density, suggesting that osteoclast activity may also be important for altered fracture healing. It is likely that systemic Notch inhibition had both direct effects within cell types as well as indirect effects initiated by temporally upstream events in the fracture healing cascade. Surprisingly, Notch inhibition did not alter

  7. Development of magnetic bearing system for a new third-generation blood pump. (United States)

    Lee, Jung Joo; Ahn, Chi Bum; Choi, Jaesoon; Park, Jun Woo; Song, Seung-Joon; Sun, Kyung


    A magnetic bearing system is a crucial component in a third-generation blood pump, particularly when we consider aspects such as system durability and blood compatibility. Many factors such as efficiency, occupying volume, hemodynamic stability in the flow path, mechanical stability, and stiffness need to be considered for the use of a magnetic bearing system in a third-generation blood pump, and a number of studies have been conducted to develop novel magnetic bearing design for better handling of these factors. In this study, we developed and evaluated a new magnetic bearing system having a motor for a new third-generation blood pump. This magnetic bearing system consists of a magnetic levitation compartment and a brushless direct current (BLDC) motor compartment. The active-control degree of freedom is one; this control is used for controlling the levitation in the axial direction. The levitation in the radial direction has a passive magnetic levitation structure. In order to improve the system efficiency, we separated the magnetic circuit for axial levitation by using a magnetic circuit for motor drive. Each magnetic circuit in the bearing system was designed to have a minimum gap by placing mechanical parts, such as the impeller blades, outside the circuit. A custom-designed noncontact gap sensor was used for minimizing the system volume. We fabricated an experimental prototype of the proposed magnetic bearing system and evaluated its performance by a control system using the Matlab xPC Target system. The noncontact gap sensor was an eddy current gap sensor with an outer diameter of 2.38 mm, thickness of 0.88 mm, and resolution of 5 µm. The BLDC motor compartment was designed to have an outer diameter of 20 mm, length of 28.75 mm, and power of 4.5 W. It exhibited a torque of 8.6 mNm at 5000 rpm. The entire bearing system, including the motor and the sensor, had an outer diameter of 22 mm and a length of 97 mm. The prototype exhibited sufficient levitation

  8. Designing and Constructing Blood Flow Monitoring System to Predict Pressure Ulcers on Heel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari H.


    Full Text Available Background: A pressure ulcer is a complication related to the need for the care and treatment of primarily disabled and elderly people. With the decrease of the blood flow caused by the pressure loaded, ulcers are formed and the tissue will be wasted with the passage of time. Objective: The aim of this study was to construct blood flow monitoring system on the heel tissue which was under external pressure in order to evaluate the tissue treatment in the ulcer. Methods: To measure the blood flow changes, three infrared optical transmitters were used at the distances of 5, 10, and 15 mm to the receiver. Blood flow changes in heels were assessed in pressures 0, 30, and 60 mmHg. The time features were extracted for analysis from the recorded signal by MATLAB software. Changes of the time features under different pressures were evaluated at the three distances by ANOVA in SPSS software. The level of significance was considered at 0.05. Results: In this study, 15 subjects, including both male and female, with the mean age of 54±7 participated. The results showed that the signal amplitude, power and absolute signal decreased significantly when pressure on the tissue increased in different layers (p<0.05. Heart rate only decreased significantly in pressures more than 30 mmHg (p=0.02. In pressures more than 30 mmHg, in addition to a decrease in the time features, the pattern of blood flow signal changed and it wasn’t the same as noload signal. Conclusion: By detecting the time features, we can reach an early diagnosis to prognosticate the degeneration of the tissue under pressure and it can be recommended as a method to predict bedsores in the heel.

  9. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojka Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  10. Blood hibernation: a novel strategy to inhibit systemic inflammation and coagulation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; WU Xiao-dong; LIN Ke; Raphael C. Lui; AN Qi; TAO Kai-yu; DU Lei; LIU Jin


    Background Inflammation and coagulation are two intimately cross-linked defense mechanisms of most, if not all organisms to injuries. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), these two process-is are activated and interact with each other through several common pathways, which may result in subsequent organ dysfunction. In the present study, we hypothesized that the addition of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and aprotinin to the systemic circulation, hereby referred to as blood hibernation, would attenuate the inflammation and coagulation induced by CPB. Methods Thirty adult mongrel dogs were equally divided into five groups, anesthetized and placed on hypothermic CPB (32 C). Each group received respectively the following treatments: (1) inhalation of 40 ppm nitric oxide; (2) intravenous infusion of 20 ng·kg-1·min-1 of PGE1; (3) 80 000 kallikrein inhibitor units (KIU)/kg of aprotinin; (4) the combination of all three agents (blood hibernation group); and (5) no treatment (control group) during CPB. Activation of leukocyte, platelet, endothelial cell, and formation of thrombin were assessed after CPB.Results As compared with the other four groups, leukocyte counts were higher, while plasma elastase, interleukin-8, CD11b mRNA expression, myeloperoxidase activities and lung tissue leukocyte counts were lower in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups after CPB). Plasma prothrombin fragment (PTF)1+2, and platelet activation factors were lower, while platelet counts were higher in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups at 6 and 12 hours after CPB). Electron microscopy showed endothelial pseudopods protrusion, with cell adherence in all four groups except the blood hibernation group where endothelial cells remained intact.Conclusion Blood hibernation, effected by the addition of nitric oxide, PGE1 and aprotinin to the circulating blood during extra-corporeal circulation, was observed to attenuate the inflammation and

  11. Study of a centrifugal blood pump in a mock loop system. (United States)

    Uebelhart, Beatriz; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Fonseca, Jeison; Bock, Eduardo; Leme, Juliana; da Silva, Cibele; Leão, Tarcísio; Andrade, Aron


    An implantable centrifugal blood pump (ICBP) is being developed to be used as a ventricular assist device (VAD) in patients with severe cardiovascular diseases. The ICBP system is composed of a centrifugal pump, a motor, a controller, and a power supply. The electricity source provides power to the controller and to a motor that moves the pump's rotor through magnetic coupling. The centrifugal pump is composed of four parts: external conical house, external base, impeller, and impeller base. The rotor is supported by a pivot bearing system, and its impeller base is responsible for sheltering four permanent magnets. A hybrid cardiovascular simulator (HCS) was used to evaluate the ICBP's performance. A heart failure (HF) (when the heart increases beat frequency to compensate for decrease in blood flow) was simulated in the HCS. The main objective of this work is to analyze changes in physiological parameters such as cardiac output, blood pressure, and heart rate in three situations: healthy heart, HF, and HF with left circulatory assistance by ICBP. The results showed that parameters such as aortic pressure and cardiac output affected by the HF situation returned to normal values when the ICBP was connected to the HCS. In conclusion, the test results showed satisfactory performance for the ICBP as a VAD.

  12. A Mathematical Model of Renal Blood Distribution Coupling TGF, MR and Tubular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ci-xiu; YANG Lin; WANG Ke-qiang; XU Shi-xiong; DAI Pei-dong


    Objective:To investigate the relationship between renal blood distribution and the physiological activities of the kidney. Methods:A mathematical model is developed based on Hagan-Poiseuille law and mass transport, coupling mechanics of myogenic response (MR), tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and the tubular system in the renal medulla. The model parameters, including the permeability coefficients, the vascular lumen radius and the solute concentration at the inlet of the tubes, are derived from the experimental results. Simulations of the blood and water flow in the loop of Henel, the collecting duct and vas rectum, are carried out by the model of the tubular system in the renal medulla, based on conservations of water and solutes for transmural transport. Then the tubular model is coupled with MR and TGF mechanics. Results:The results predict the dynamics of renal autoregulation on its blood pressure and flow,and the distributions are 88.5% in the cortex, 10.3% in the medulla, and 1.2% at papilla,respectively. The fluid flow and solute concentrations along the tubules and vasa recta are obtained. Conclusion:The present model could assess renal functions qualitatively and quantitatively and provide a methodological approach for clinical research.

  13. Improved tunable filter-based multispectral imaging system for detection of blood stains on construction material substrates (United States)

    Janchaysang, Suwatwong; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Buranasiri, Prathan


    We present the improved tunable filter based multispectral imaging system for detecting blood stains on construction materials. Based upon the reflectance and Kubelka Munk absorbance spectra stocked from our previous work, we modify the blood discrimination criteria to make the system more efficient by replacing the old criteria which make use of polynomial fitting with new criteria associated with a few wavelengths images. The newly established criteria are tested to be able to detect blood against other stains almost as efficient as the old criteria, while the number of spectral images required for detecting blood stains are reduced significantly from 64 to 9 spectral images. The reduction of required spectral images will reduce the time needed for image capturing and blood detection criteria application with little sacrificing of the specificity and sensitivity of the system.

  14. Coupled Flow-Structure-Biochemistry Simulations of Dynamic Systems of Blood Cells Using an Adaptive Surface Tracking Method


    Hoskins, M.H.; Kunz, R.F.; Bistline, J.E.; Dong, C.


    A method for the computation of low Reynolds number dynamic blood cell systems is presented. The specific system of interest here is interaction between cancer cells and white blood cells in an experimental flow system. Fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, six-degree-of freedom motion control and surface biochemistry analysis components are coupled in the context of adaptive octree-based grid generation. Analytical and numerical verification of the quasi-steady assumption for the fluid mecha...

  15. Pathogenic LRRK2 mutations do not alter gene expression in cell model systems or human brain tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Devine

    Full Text Available Point mutations in LRRK2 cause autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. Despite extensive efforts to determine the mechanism of cell death in patients with LRRK2 mutations, the aetiology of LRRK2 PD is not well understood. To examine possible alterations in gene expression linked to the presence of LRRK2 mutations, we carried out a case versus control analysis of global gene expression in three systems: fibroblasts isolated from LRRK2 mutation carriers and healthy, non-mutation carrying controls; brain tissue from G2019S mutation carriers and controls; and HEK293 inducible LRRK2 wild type and mutant cell lines. No significant alteration in gene expression was found in these systems following correction for multiple testing. These data suggest that any alterations in basal gene expression in fibroblasts or cell lines containing mutations in LRRK2 are likely to be quantitatively small. This work suggests that LRRK2 is unlikely to play a direct role in modulation of gene expression, although it remains possible that this protein can influence mRNA expression under pathogenic cicumstances.

  16. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Menasria

    Full Text Available The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE. To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2 x 10(6 plaque forming units. Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P < 0.05 and "Ly6C hi" inflammatory monocytes (P < 0.001 significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P < 0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of "Ly6C low" patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P < 0.01 at a later time point (day 8, which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus

  17. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis (United States)

    Menasria, Rafik; Canivet, Coraline; Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy


    The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2x106 plaque forming units). Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P<0.05) and «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes (P<0.001) significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P<0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls) to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of «Ly6Clow» patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P<0.01) at a later time point (day 8), which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus, our findings suggest

  18. Poultry blood from slaughterhouses: development of a biopreservation system to improve microbiological quality prior to transforming blood into by-products. (United States)

    Zbrun, M V; Frizzo, L S; Soto, L P; Rosmini, M R; Sequeira, G J; Astesana, D M; Blajman, J E; Rossler, E; Berisvil, A; Romero Scharpen, A; Signorini, M L


    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with specific additives as a Biopreservation System (BS) for poultry blood during its storage in slaughterhouses. The BS consisted of two LAB (Enterococcus faecalis DSPV 008SA or Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 032SA) with 4 additives (lactose 2 g/l, yeast extract 0.4 g/l, ammonium citrate 0.4 g/l and NaCl 1 g/l). After 24 h storage at 30ºC, lower counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were evident in blood treated with the BS than in untreated blood. The ability of LAB to prevent haemolysis was evident. A decrease in pH was associated with control of spoilage microorganisms but it needed to be regulated to prevent coagulation of proteins. On the basis of these results it is recommended to supplement blood with a BS to avoid undesirable changes during blood storage before processing.

  19. 1H-NMR-based metabolic profiling of maternal and umbilical cord blood indicates altered materno-foetal nutrient exchange in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illa Tea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate foetal growth is primarily determined by nutrient availability, which is dependent on placental nutrient transport and foetal metabolism. We have used (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy to probe the metabolic adaptations associated with premature birth. METHODOLOGY: The metabolic profile in (1H NMR spectra of plasma taken immediately after birth from umbilical vein, umbilical artery and maternal blood were recorded for mothers delivering very-low-birth-weight (VLBW or normo-ponderal full-term (FT neonates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clear distinctions between maternal and cord plasma of all samples were observed by principal component analysis (PCA. Levels of amino acids, glucose, and albumin-lysyl in cord plasma exceeded those in maternal plasma, whereas lipoproteins (notably low-density lipoprotein (LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and lipid levels were lower in cord plasma from both VLBW and FT neonates. The metabolic signature of mothers delivering VLBW infants included decreased levels of acetate and increased levels of lipids, pyruvate, glutamine, valine and threonine. Decreased levels of lipoproteins glucose, pyruvate and albumin-lysyl and increased levels of glutamine were characteristic of cord blood (both arterial and venous from VLBW infants, along with a decrease in levels of several amino acids in arterial cord blood. CONCLUSION: These results show that, because of its characteristics and simple non-invasive mode of collection, cord plasma is particularly suited for metabolomic analysis even in VLBW infants and provides new insights into the materno-foetal nutrient exchange in preterm infants.

  20. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring. (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro


    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n = 1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2 mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients.

  1. Encapsulation altered starch digestion: toward developing starch-based delivery systems. (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas


    Starch is an abundant biomaterial that forms a vital energy source for humans. Altering its digestion, e.g. increasing the proportions of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), would revolutionize starch utility in addressing a number of health issues related to glucose absorption, glycemic index and colon health. The research reported in this article is based on my hypothesis that water channels present in the B-type starch crystalline matrix, particularly in tuber starches, can embed guest molecules such as nutraceuticals, drugs, flavor compounds and vitamins leading to altered starch digestion. Toward this goal, potato starch has been chosen as the model tuber starch, and ibuprofen, benzocaine, sulfapyridine, curcumin, thymol and ascorbic acid as model guest molecules. X-ray powder diffraction and FT-IR analyses clearly suggest the incorporation of guest molecules in the water channels of potato starch. Furthermore, the in vitro digestion profiles of complexes are intriguing with major variations occurring after 60 min of starch digestion and finally at 120 min. These changes are concomitantly reflected in the SDS and RS amounts, with about 24% decrease in SDS for benzocaine complex and 6% increase in RS for ibuprofen complex, attesting the ability of guest molecule encapsulation in modulating the digestion properties of potato starch. Overall, this research provides an elegant opportunity for the design and development of novel starch-based stable carriers that not only bestow tailored glucose release rates but could also transport health promoting and disease preventing compounds.

  2. A suction detection system for rotary blood pumps based on the Lagrangian support vector machine algorithm. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Simaan, Marwan A


    The Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) is a rotary mechanical pump that is implanted in patients with congestive heart failure to help the left ventricle in pumping blood in the circulatory system. However, using such a device may result in a very dangerous event, called ventricular suction that can cause ventricular collapse due to overpumping of blood from the left ventricle when the rotational speed of the pump is high. Therefore, a reliable technique for detecting ventricular suction is crucial. This paper presents a new suction detection system that can precisely classify pump flow patterns, based on a Lagrangian Support Vector Machine (LSVM) model that combines six suction indices extracted from the pump flow signal to make a decision about whether the pump is in suction, approaching suction, or not in suction. The proposed method has been tested using in vivo experimental data based on two different pumps. The simulation results show that the system can produce superior performance in terms of classification accuracy, stability, learning speed, and good robustness compared to three other existing suction detection methods and the original SVM-based algorithm. The ability of the proposed algorithm to detect suction provides a reliable platform for the development of a feedback control system to control the speed of the pump while at the same time ensuring that suction is avoided.

  3. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli


    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  4. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system. (United States)

    Pai, Praful P; Sanki, Pradyut K; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna


    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  5. Hollow-Fiber Cartridges: Model Systems for Virus Removal from Blood (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Menon, Jeevan


    Aethlon Medical is developing a hollow-fiber hemodialysis device designed to remove viruses and toxins from blood. Possible target viruses include HIV and pox-viruses. The filter could reduce virus and viral toxin concentration in the patient's blood, delaying illness so the patient's immune system can fight off the virus. In order to optimize the design of such a filter, the fluid mechanics of the device is both modeled analytically and investigated experimentally. The flow configuration of the proposed device is that of Starling flow. Polysulfone hollow-fiber dialysis cartridges were used. The cartridges are charged with water as a model fluid for blood and fluorescent latex beads are used in the experiments as a model for viruses. In the experiments, properties of the flow through the cartridge are determined through pressure and volume flow rate measurements of water. The removal of latex beads, which are captured in the porous walls of the fibers, was measured spectrophotometrically. Experimentally derived coefficients derived from these experiments are used in the analytical model of the flow and removal predictions from the model are compared to those obtained from the experiments.

  6. Defective mitochondrial respiration, altered dNTP pools and reduced AP endonuclease 1 activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Alzheimer's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Dinh, Tran Thuan Son;


    AIMS: Accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are badly needed. Recent reports suggest that dysfunctional mitochondria and DNA damage are associated with AD development. In this report, we measured various cellular parameters, related to mitochondrial bioenergetics...... as possible. We measured glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration fluxes using the Seahorse Bioscience flux analyzer, mitochondrial ROS production using flow cytometry, dNTP levels by way of a DNA polymerization assay, DNA strand breaks using the Fluorometric detection of Alkaline DNA Unwinding (FADU) assay...... on adjustments for gender and/or age. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals impaired mitochondrial respiration, altered dNTP pools and reduced DNA repair activity in PBMCs of AD patients, thus suggesting that these biochemical activities may be useful as biomarkers for AD....

  7. Does Pneumatic Tube System Transport Contribute to Hemolysis in ED Blood Samples?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredric M. Hustey


    Full Text Available Introduction: Our goal was to determine if the hemolysis among blood samples obtained in an emergency department and then sent to the laboratory in a pneumatic tube system was different from those in samples that were hand-carried. Methods: The hemolysis index is measured on all samples submitted for potassium analysis. We queried our hospital laboratory database system (SunQuest® for potassium results for specimens obtained between January 2014 and July 2014. From facility maintenance records, we identified periods of system downtime, during which specimens were hand-carried to the laboratory. Results: During the study period, 15,851 blood specimens were transported via our pneumatic tube system and 92 samples were hand delivered. The proportions of hemolyzed specimens in the two groups were not significantly different (13.6% vs. 13.1% [p=0.90]. Results were consistent when the criterion was limited to gross (3.3% vs 3.3% [p=0.99] or mild (10.3% vs 9.8% [p=0.88] hemolysis. The hemolysis rate showed minimal variation during the study period (12.6%–14.6%. Conclusion: We found no statistical difference in the percentages of hemolyzed specimens transported by a pneumatic tube system or hand delivered to the laboratory. Certain features of pneumatic tube systems might contribute to hemolysis (e.g., speed, distance, packing material. Since each system is unique in design, we encourage medical facilities to consider whether their method of transport might contribute to hemolysis in samples obtained in the emergency department.

  8. Chronic Sleep Disruption Alters Gut Microbiota, Induces Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Mice (United States)

    Poroyko, Valeriy A.; Carreras, Alba; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Khalyfa, Ahamed A.; Leone, Vanessa; Peris, Eduard; Almendros, Isaac; Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Hubert, Nathaniel; Farré, Ramon; Chang, Eugene B.; Gozal, David


    Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and inflammation, as well as circulating measures of inflammation, were assayed. Effect of fecal water on colonic epithelial permeability was also examined. Chronic SF-induced increased food intake and reversible gut microbiota changes characterized by the preferential growth of highly fermentative members of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and a decrease of Lactobacillaceae families. These lead to systemic and visceral white adipose tissue inflammation in addition to altered insulin sensitivity in mice, most likely via enhanced colonic epithelium barrier disruption. Conventionalization of germ-free mice with SF-derived microbiota confirmed these findings. Thus, SF-induced metabolic alterations may be mediated, in part, by concurrent changes in gut microbiota, thereby opening the way for gut microbiome-targeted therapeutics aimed at reducing the major end-organ morbidities of chronic SF. PMID:27739530

  9. Developmental exposure to the pesticide dieldrin alters the dopamine system and increases neurotoxicity in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R; Caudle, W Michael; Wang, Minzheng; Dean, E Danielle; Pennell, Kurt D; Miller, Gary W


    Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms responsible for this association are not clear. Here, we report that perinatal exposure of mice during gestation and lactation to low levels of dieldrin (0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg every 3 days) alters dopaminergic neurochemistry in their offspring and exacerbates MPTP toxicity. At 12 wk of age, protein and mRNA levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were increased by perinatal dieldrin exposure in a dose-related manner. We then administered MPTP (2 x 10 mg/kg s.c) at 12 wk of age and observed a greater reduction of striatal dopamine in dieldrin-exposed offspring, which was associated with a greater DAT:VMAT2 ratio. Additionally, dieldrin exposure during development potentiated the increase in GFAP and alpha-synuclein levels induced by MPTP, indicating increased neurotoxicity. In all cases there were greater effects observed in the male offspring than the female, similar to that observed in human cases of PD. These data suggest that developmental exposure to dieldrin leads to persistent alterations of the developing dopaminergic system and that these alterations induce a "silent" state of dopamine dysfunction, thereby rendering dopamine neurons more vulnerable later in life.

  10. Age, gender, insulin and blood glucose control status alter the risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke among elderly diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattori Yoshiyuki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyzed the effects of insulin therapy, age and gender on the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD and cerebrovascular accident (CVA according to glycemic control. Methods and Results We performed a prospective cohort study (Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study of type 2 diabetes patients (n = 4014 for 2 years. The primary endpoint was the onset of fatal/non-fatal IHD and/or CVA, which occurred at rates of 7.9 and 7.2 per 1000 person-years, respectively. We divided diabetic patients into four groups based on age (≤ 70 and > 70 and hemoglobin A1C levels (≤ 7.0 and > 7.0%. Multiple regression analysis revealed that IHD was associated with high systolic blood pressure and low HDL-C in patients under 70 years of age with fair glycemic control and was associated with low diastolic blood pressure in the older/fair group. Interestingly, insulin use was associated with IHD in the older/poor group (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.11-5.89; p = 0.026 and was associated with CVA in the older/fair group (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.06-4.25; p = 0.028. CVA was associated with lower HDL-C and longer duration of diabetes in younger/poor glycemic control group. Results by stepwise analysis were similar. Next, patients were divided into four groups based on gender and diabetic control(hemoglobinA1C 7.0%. Multiple regression analysis revealed that IHD was associated with high systolic blood pressure in male/fair glycemic control group, age in male/poor control group, and short duration of diabetic history in females in both glycemic control groups. Interestingly, insulin use was associated with IHD in the male/poor group(OR = 4.11, 95% CI = 1.22-8.12; p = 0.018 and with CVA in the female/poor group(OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.12-6.24; p = 0.02. CVA was associated with short duration of diabetes in both female groups. Conclusions IHD and CVA risks are affected by specific factors in diabetics, such as treatment, gender and age. Specifically, insulin

  11. Arterial dysfunction but maintained systemic blood pressure in cavin-1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Swärd

    Full Text Available Caveolae are omega-shaped plasma membrane micro-domains that are abundant in cells of the vascular system. Formation of caveolae depends on caveolin-1 and cavin-1 and lack of either protein leads to loss of caveolae. Mice with caveolin-1 deficiency have dysfunctional blood vessels, but whether absence of cavin-1 similarly leads to vascular dysfunction is not known. Here we addressed this hypothesis using small mesenteric arteries from cavin-1-deficient mice. Cavin-1-reporter staining was intense in mesenteric arteries, brain arterioles and elsewhere in the vascular system, with positive staining of both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Arterial expression of cavin-1, -2 and -3 was reduced in knockout (KO arteries as was expression of caveolin-1, -2 and -3. Caveolae were absent in the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of small mesenteric arteries as determined by electron microscopy. Arginase, a negative regulator of nitric oxide production, was elevated in cavin-1 deficient arteries as was contraction in response to the α1-adrenergic agonist cirazoline. Detailed assessment of vascular dimensions revealed increased media thickness and reduced distensibility, arguing that enhanced contraction was due to increased muscle mass. Contrasting with increased α1-adrenergic contraction, myogenic tone was essentially absent and this appeared to be due in part to increased nitric oxide production. Vasomotion was less frequent in the knock-out vessels. In keeping with the opposing influences on arterial resistance of increased agonist-induced contractility and reduced myogenic tone, arterial blood pressure was unchanged in vivo. We conclude that deficiency of cavin-1 affects the function of small arteries, but that opposing influences on arterial resistance balance each other such that systemic blood pressure in unstressed mice is well maintained.

  12. Altered systemic bile acid homeostasis contributes to liver disease in pediatric patients with intestinal failure (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Tao; Cao, Yi; Zhou, Ke-Jun; Lu, Li-Na; Cai, Wei


    Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD), as a major complication, contributes to significant morbidity in pediatric IF patients. However, the pathogenesis of IFALD is still uncertain. We here investigate the roles of bile acid (BA) dysmetabolism in the unclear pathogenesis of IFALD. It found that the histological evidence of pediatric IF patients exhibited liver injury, which was characterized by liver bile duct proliferation, inflammatory infiltration, hepatocyte apoptosis and different stages of fibrosis. The BA compositions were altered in serum and liver of pediatric IF patients, as reflected by a primary BA dominant composition. In IF patients, the serum FGF19 levels decreased significantly, and were conversely correlated with ileal inflammation grades (r = −0.50, p CYP7A1) increased evidently. In conclusion, ileum inflammation decreases FXR expression corresponding to reduce serum FGF19 concentration, along with increased hepatic bile acid synthesis, leading to liver damages in IF patients. PMID:27976737

  13. Altered parasympathetic nervous system regulation of the sinoatrial node in Akita diabetic mice. (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Pooja S; Egom, Emmanuel E; Moghtadaei, Motahareh; Jansen, Hailey J; Azer, John; Bogachev, Oleg; Mackasey, Martin; Robbins, Courtney; Rose, Robert A


    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus that impairs autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR). This has been attributed to damage to the nerves that modulate spontaneous pacemaker activity in the sinoatrial node (SAN). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that impaired parasympathetic regulation of HR in diabetes is due to reduced responsiveness of the SAN to parasympathetic agonists. We used the Akita mouse model of type 1 diabetes to study the effects of the parasympathetic agonist carbachol (CCh) on SAN function using intracardiac programmed stimulation, high resolution optical mapping and patch-clamping of SAN myocytes. CCh decreased HR by 30% and increased corrected SAN recovery time (cSNRT) by 123% in wildtype mice. In contrast, CCh only decreased HR by 12%, and only increased cSNRT by 37% in Akita mice. These alterations were due to smaller effects of CCh on SAN electrical conduction and spontaneous action potential firing in isolated SAN myocytes. Voltage clamp experiments demonstrate that the acetylcholine-activated K(+) current (IKACh) is reduced in Akita SAN myocytes due to enhanced desensitization and faster deactivation kinetics. These IKACh alterations were normalized by treating Akita SAN myocytes with PI(3,4,5)P3 or an inhibitor of regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4). There was no difference in the effects of CCh on the hyperpolarization-activated current (If) between wildtype and Akita mice. Our study demonstrates that Akita diabetic mice demonstrate impaired parasympathetic regulation of HR and SAN function due to reduced responses of the SAN to parasympathetic agonists. Our experiments demonstrate a key role for insulin-dependent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in the parasympathetic dysfunction seen in the SAN in diabetes.

  14. Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko eMaekawa


    Full Text Available Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli.Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant and white circle (target stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard, 10% (deviant, and 10% (target probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus.Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls.Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in bipolar disorder, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli.Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD.

  15. 6-Hydroxydopamine-induced glutathione alteration occurs via glutathione enzyme system in primary cultured astrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji ZHANG; Jun HU; Jian-hua DING; Hong-hong YAO; Gang HU


    Aim: To define the role of enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced glutathione alteration in primary cultured astrocytes.Methods: Total glutathione (GSx) levels were determined using the modified enzymatic microtiter plate assay.The mRNA levels ofγ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γGCS), γ-glutamyltransferase (γGT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), GR (glutathione reductase), and glutathione transferases (GST) were determined using RT-PCR.γGT activity was determined using γGT assay kits.Results: In primary cultured astrocytes, 6-OHDA induced a significant elevation of cellular GSx levels after treatment for 24 h.However, the GSx levels decreased after 24 h and the values were even lower than the value in the control group without 6-OHDA at 48 h.RT-PCR data showed that the mRNA levels of γGCS, the ratelimiting enzyme of γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (GSH) synthesis, were increased by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; the mRNA levels of GPx, GR, and GST did not alter in 6-OHDA-treated astrocytes after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; and 6-OHDA increased the mRNA levels and the activity of γGT after treatment for 48 h,which induced a decrease in GSx levels, despite the up-regulation of γGCS after exposure to 6-OHDA for 48 h.Conclusion: The change in γGCS correlated with the increase in GSH levels induced by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h.GSx levels decreased because of increased γGT mRNA levels and γGT activity induced by 6-OHDA after treatment for 48 h.

  16. Assessment of a continuous blood gas monitoring system in animals during circulatory stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzulli Attilio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was aimed to determine the measurement accuracy of The CDI™ blood parameter monitoring system 500 (Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Corporation, Ann Arbor MI in the real-time continuous measurement of arterial blood gases under different cardiocirculatory stress conditions Methods Inotropic stimulation (Dobutamine 2.5 and 5 μg/kg/min, vasoconstriction (Arginine-vasopressin 4, 8 and 16 IU/h, hemorrhage (-10%, -20%, -35%, and -50% of the theoretical volemia, and volume resuscitation were induced in ten swine (57.4 ± 10.7 Kg.Intermittent blood gas assessments were carried out using a routine gas analyzer at any experimental phase and compared with values obtained at the same time settings during continuous monitoring with CDI™ 500 system. The Bland-Altman analysis was employed. Results Bias and precision for pO2 were - 0.06 kPa and 0.22 kPa, respectively (r2 = 0.96; pCO2 - 0.02 kPa and 0.15 kPa, respectively; pH -0.001 and 0.01 units, respectively ( r2 = 0.96. The analysis showed very good agreement for SO2 (bias 0.04,precision 0.33, r2 = 0.95, Base excess (bias 0.04,precision 0.28, r2 = 0.98, HCO3 (bias 0.05,precision 0.62, r2 = 0.92,hemoglobin (bias 0.02,precision 0.23, r2 = 0.96 and K+ (bias 0.02, precision 0.27, r2 = 0.93. The sensor was reliable throughout the experiment during hemodynamic variations. Conclusions Continuous blood gas analysis with the CDI™ 500 system was reliable and it might represent a new useful tool to accurately and timely monitor gas exchange in critically ill patients. Nonetheless, our findings need to be confirmed by larger studies to prove its reliability in the clinical setting.

  17. Temporal and spatial distribution of alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusions in the transitional high-sulfidation epithermal-porphyry copper system at Red Mountain, Arizona (United States)

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Newton, M. Claiborne; Westman, Erik C.; Kamilli, Robert J.; Canby, Vertrees M.; Bodnar, Robert J.


    Red Mountain, Arizona, is a Laramide porphyry Cu system (PCD) that has experienced only a modest level of erosion compared to most other similar deposits in the southwestern United States. As a result, the upper portion of the magmatic–hydrothermal system, which represents the transition from shallower high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization to deeper porphyry Cu mineralization, is well preserved. Within the Red Mountain system, alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusion assemblages show a systematic distribution in both time and space. Early-potassic alteration (characterized by the minerals biotite and magnetite) is paragenetically earlier than late-potassic alteration (K-feldspar–anhydrite) and both are followed by later phyllic (sericite–pyrite) alteration. Advanced argillic alteration (pyrophyllite–alunite–other clay minerals) is thought to be coeval with or postdate phyllic alteration. Minerals characteristic of advanced argillic alteration are present in the near surface. Phyllic alteration extends to greater depths compared to advanced argillic alteration. Early-potassic and late-potassic alteration are only observed in the deepest part of the system. Considerable overlap of phyllic alteration with both early-potassic and late-potassic alteration zones is observed. The hypogene mineralization contains 0.4–1.2% Cu and is spatially and temporally related to the late-potassic alteration event. Molybdenum concentration is typically In the deepest part of the system, an early generation of low-to-moderate density and salinity liquid + vapor inclusions with opaque daughter minerals is followed in time by halite-bearing inclusions that also contain opaque daughter minerals indicating that an early intermediate-density magmatic fluid evolved to a high-density, high-salinity mineralizing fluid. The increase in density and salinity of fluids with time observed in the deeper parts of the system may be the result of immiscibility (“boiling”) of

  18. Phasic reflux of pulmonary blood flow in atelectasis: influence of systemic PO2. (United States)

    Newell, J C; Levitzky, M G; Krasney, J A; Dutton, R E


    In 16 dogs ventilated with 100% O2, control blood flow to the left lung was 35 +/- 2% of aortic flow. When left lung atelectasis was induced, left pulmonary artery flow fell to 19 +/- 2% of aortic flow. A large retrograde component of flow developed in this pulmonary artery, suggesting that blood flows into the pulmonary arteries of both lungs during systole, but flows back out of the collapsed lung and into the uncollapsed lung during diastole. Systemic PaO2 remained above 78 mmHg. Subsequently, when the ventilation of the right lung was changed from oxygen to room air, systemic PaO2 fell to 64 +/- 3 mmHg and atelectatic left lung flow rose from 19 +/- 2% to 28 +/- 2% f aortic flow. This was associated with a reduction in reflux from the atelectatic lung. These results suggest that the attenuation of flow to an atelectatic lung is more pronounced if systemic normoxemia is maintained by adequate oxygenation of the normal lung.

  19. Comparing Alterations of Blood Glucose Level in type II Diabetic Patients Taking Metformin and Withhold of Metformin on the Morning of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tarbiat


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In the context effect of metformin in patients with acute coronary syndrome, available evidence supports cardiac effect. Yet, there is doubt about continuation or discontinuation of metformin before major surgery. The aim of the present study is to determine the efficacy of continuing metformin in plasma glucose, renal function index, arterial PH in type II diabetic patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Materials & Methods: In this clinical-experimental study, 90 type II diabetic patients with ASA class II admitted for CABG surgery in Hamadan Ekbatan Hospital were enrolled in the study in 2014 and were randomly assigned to two groups , one group treated with insulin and continued metformin and the other group treated with insulin and discontinued metformin.In the beginning indicators such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI were compared which were not significantly different in the two groups. Then, other parameters such as blood glucose, BUN, Cr, arterial blood PH, cardiac arrhythmia and need for inotrope were compared. Used inotropes in this study included dopamine, dobutamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, milrinon to achieve systolic blood presser pressure over 100mmHg. Results: Average plasma BUN after surgery and one day after surgery in the group who discontinued metformin significantly were higher compared with the metformin group, but no differences were observed in average plasma BUN in the 2nd and 3rd days after surgery in the two groups. During 3 days after surgery, average plasma creatinine was significantly lower in metformin group compared to non- metformin group. Although there was no difference between the two groups in pH parameter before surgery but in the metformin group, average pH was lower than non-metformin group after surgery. Before and 3 days after surgery mean blood glucose level was not significantly different between the two groups. During surgery, average need for inotrope in

  20. Inhibition of fried meat-induced colorectal DNA damage and altered systemic genotoxicity in humans by crucifera, chlorophyllin, and yogurt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Shaughnessy

    Full Text Available Dietary exposures implicated as reducing or causing risk for colorectal cancer may reduce or cause DNA damage in colon tissue; however, no one has assessed this hypothesis directly in humans. Thus, we enrolled 16 healthy volunteers in a 4-week controlled feeding study where 8 subjects were randomly assigned to dietary regimens containing meat cooked at either low (100°C or high temperature (250°C, each for 2 weeks in a crossover design. The other 8 subjects were randomly assigned to dietary regimens containing the high-temperature meat diet alone or in combination with 3 putative mutagen inhibitors: cruciferous vegetables, yogurt, and chlorophyllin tablets, also in a crossover design. Subjects were nonsmokers, at least 18 years old, and not currently taking prescription drugs or antibiotics. We used the Salmonella assay to analyze the meat, urine, and feces for mutagenicity, and the comet assay to analyze rectal biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes for DNA damage. Low-temperature meat had undetectable levels of heterocyclic amines (HCAs and was not mutagenic, whereas high-temperature meat had high HCA levels and was highly mutagenic. The high-temperature meat diet increased the mutagenicity of hydrolyzed urine and feces compared to the low-temperature meat diet. The mutagenicity of hydrolyzed urine was increased nearly twofold by the inhibitor diet, indicating that the inhibitors enhanced conjugation. Inhibitors decreased significantly the mutagenicity of un-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed feces. The diets did not alter the levels of DNA damage in non-target white blood cells, but the inhibitor diet decreased nearly twofold the DNA damage in target colorectal cells. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that dietary factors can reduce DNA damage in the target tissue of fried-meat associated NCT00340743.

  1. MicroRNA expression profiles identify disease-specific alterations in systemic lupus erythematosus and primary Sjögren's syndrome (United States)

    Póliska, Szilárd; Szabó, Krisztina; Tarr, Tünde; Bálint, Bálint László; Szodoray, Péter


    The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their critical role in genetic control opened new avenues in understanding of various biological processes including immune cell lineage commitment, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. However, a given miRNA may have hundreds of different mRNA targets and a target might be regulated by multiple miRNAs, thus the characterisation of dysregulated miRNA expression profiles could give a better insight into the development of immunological disturbances in autoimmune diseases. The aim of our study was to examine the changes in miRNA expression profiles in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Eight SLE patients, 8 pSS patients and 7 healthy subjects were enrolled in the investigation. MiRNAs were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and expression patterns were determined with Illumina next-generation sequencing technology. Since the immunopathogenesis of pSS and SLE encompasses pronounced B cell hyperactivity along with specific autoantibody production, we paid a special attention on the association between miRNA expression levels and altered peripheral B cell distribution. In SLE patients 135, while in pSS patients 26 miRNAs showed altered expression. Interestingly, the 25 miRNAs including miR-146a, miR-16 and miR-21, which were over-expressed in pSS patients, were found to be elevated in SLE group, as well. On the contrary, we observed the down-regulation of miR-150-5p, which is a novel and unique finding in pSS. Levels of several miRNAs over-expressed in SLE, were not changed in pSS, such as miR-148a-3p, miR-152, miR-155, miR-223, miR-224, miR-326 and miR-342. Expression levels of miR-223-5p, miR-150-5p, miR-155-5p and miR-342-3p, which miRNAs are potentially linked to B cell functions, showed associations with the B cell proportions within peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The observed differences in miRNA expression profiles and the better understanding

  2. [The development of the system of blood flow block by using magnetic compression abdominal large vascular]. (United States)

    Yan, Xiaopeng; Lv, Yi; Ma, Feng; Ma, Jia; Wang, Haohua; Wang, Shanpei; Li, Dichen; Liu, Yaxiong; Jia, Shenli; Shi, Zongqian; Luo, Ruixue


    A new system of blood flow block for control of bleeding in abdominal operation is composed of an abdominal magnetic blocking unit, an abdominal external electromagnet unit and other non-magnetic operation instrument. The abdominal external electromagnetic unit is placed in advance in the operation bed. The abdominal magnetic blocking unit can be placed directly on the ventral of the large vessels when need to blocking the abdominal large vessels during the operation. According to the non-contact suction characteristics of magnetic materials, the two magnetic units will attract each other and compression the vessels. Using this system for vascular occlusion does not need clear exposure and without separating vessel. There is the advantage of rapid, accurate and reliable for the system.

  3. 76 FR 4458 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... automatic sprinkler system, numerous automatic sensors (e.g., water, heat, smoke, etc.) are installed, and a proper mix of portable fire extinguishers is located throughout the computer room. The system is backed... cardkey system. The hard copy records are kept in locked cabinets in locked rooms. The local...

  4. Stability of cirrhotic systemic hemodynamics ensures sufficient splanchnic blood flow after living-donor liver transplantation in adult recipients with liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM: To investigate the correlation between systemic hemodynamics and splanchnic circulation in recipients with cirrhosis undergoing living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), and to clarify how systemic hemodynamics impact on local graft circulation after LDLT.METHODS: Systemic hemodynamics, indocyanine green (ICG) elimination rate (KICG) and splanchnic circulation were simultaneously and non-invasively investigated by pulse dye densitometry (PDD) and ultrasound. Accurate estimators of optimal systemic hyperdynamics after LDLT [i.e., balance of cardiac output (CO) to blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT), defined as the time required for half the administered ICG to pass through an attached PDD sensor in the first circulation] were also measured. Thirty recipients with cirrhosis were divided into two groups based on clinical outcomes corresponding to postoperative qraft function.RESULTS: Cirrhotic systemic hyperdynamics characterized by high CO, expanded BV and low total peripheral resistance (TPR) were observed before LDLT. TPR reflecting cirrhotic vascular alterations was slowly restored after LDLT in both groups. Although no significant temporal differences in TPR were detected between the two groups, CO/BV and MTT differed significantly. Recipients with good outcomes showed persistent cirrhotic systemic hyperdynamics after LDLT, whereas recipients with poor outcomes presented with unstable cirrhotic systemic hyperdynamics and severely decreased KICG. Systemic hyperdynamic disorders after LDLT impacted on portal venous flow but not hepatic arterial flow.CONCLUSION: We conclude that subtle systemic hyperdynamics disorders impact on splanchnic circulation, and that an imbalance between CO and BV decreases portal venous flow, which results in critical outcomes.

  5. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun


    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD.

  6. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System (United States)

    Nater, Urs M.; La Marca, Roberto; Erni, Katja; Ehlert, Ulrike


    Background & Aim Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies. Methods In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies. Results Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest. Conclusions Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals. PMID:26110636

  7. 明胶微球阻塞胎羊胎盘后血气及生化指标的变化%Alteration of Fetal Blood-Gas, pH and Biochemical Parameters after Placental Occlusion in Ewe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 建立胎儿窘迫的妊娠羊动物模型并观测胎羊窘迫的动态过程。方法 妊娠晚期绵羊(湖羊)16头,于妊娠116~125d进宫腔行胎儿手术,胎羊股动脉插管,使导管顶端达胎羊腹主动脉水平,留置导管于胎羊体内,经三通管接压力感受器,连续动态监测胎羊血压,定期采血。手术成功后经胎羊腹主动脉注射明胶微球颗粒,阻塞胎盘建立胎儿窘迫的动物模型。每次注射微球前后胎羊采血作血气分析,留置血清检测血乳酸、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)和血糖等。结果 16例中10例手术成功,经胎羊腹主动脉注射微球后,pH、p∞2、和Po2,与微球注射的次数(MS)均有明显的关系,相关系数分别为-0.724 0(P0.05)和0.141 2(P>0.05)。乳酸浓度与pH值之间有明显的相关性,pH值7.0以下时,乳酸浓度明显升高。结论 经胎羊腹主动脉注射微球的方法,可以定量地表达胎盘阻塞的程度,符合胎儿窘迫的临床表现;该模型可动态地观察胎儿窘迫的过程。%Purpose To establish an animal model of fetal distress and to evaluate the alteration of pH, blood gas and biochemical parameters at fetal artery blood in ewe. Methods Intrauterine surgeries were performed at 116 - 125 gestational days in 16 ewes for vascular catheterization at fetal abdominal aorta 0.5 ml of 1% microspheres suspension was injected per 15 to 20 minutes after the surgeries had been succeed. Fetal blood pressure was continually monitored, and the fetal blood were sampled through the catheter before and after injection of microsphere for measurement of pH,blood gas,lactic acid,and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Results The of 16 pregnant sheeps were successfully operated. The times of microsphere injection (MS) was significantly related to fetal blood pH ( - 0. 724 0,P<0.01), Po2 (0. 521 5 ,P<0.05), p∞2( - 0. 700 79, P < 0.01 ) and lactate acid ( r = 0.50, P < 0.05 ). There was

  8. Evaluation of low level laser therapy irradiation parameters on rat muscle inflammation through systemic blood cytokines (United States)

    Mantineo, Matias; Pinheiro, João. P.; Morgado, António M.


    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for inflammation treatment. Here, we evaluate the effect of different doses, using continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. Animals were randomly divided into five groups per wavelength (5 animals per group: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mW) plus a control group. LLLT was applied during five days, with constant exposure time and irradiated area (3 minutes; 0.5026 cm2). Blood was collected on days 0, 3 and 6. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Rats were killed on day 6. Muscle inflammatory cells were counted using optical microscopy. Treatment effects occurred for all applied doses (largest effect at 40 mW: 7.2 J, 14 J/cm2 per irradiation), with reduction of proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines and lower number of inflammatory cells. Results were better for 830 nm. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Hz). Treatment effects were observed at higher frequencies, with no significant differences between them. However, the treatment effect was lower than for continuous illumination. LLLT effect on inflammation treatment can be monitored by measuring systemic blood cytokines. A larger treatment effect was observed with continuous illumination, where results seem to be compatible with a biphasic dose response.

  9. Non-invasive blood glucose detection system based on conservation of energy method. (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Yong-Bo; Chen, Hong-Bo; Yin, Shi-Min; Chen, Zhen-Cheng


    The most common method used for minimizing the occurrence of diabetes complications is frequent glucose testing to adjust the insulin dose. However, using blood glucose (BG) meters presents a risk of infection. It is of great importance to develop non-invasive BG detection techniques. To realize high-accuracy, low-cost and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a non-invasive BG detection system using a mixed signal processor 430 (MSP430) microcontroller. This method is based on the combination of the conservation-of-energy method with a sensor integration module, which collects physiological parameters, such as the blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), blood flow velocity and heart rate. New methods to detect the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and BV are proposed, which combine the human body heat balance and characteristic signals of photoplethysmography as well dual elastic chambers theory. Four hundred clinical trials on real-time non-invasive BG monitoring under suitable experiment conditions were performed on different individuals, including diabetic patients, senior citizens and healthy adults. A multisensory information fusion model was applied to process these samples. The algorithm (we defined it as DCBPN algorithm) applied in the model combines a decision tree and back propagation neural network, which classifies the physiological and environmental parameters into three categories, and then establishes a corresponding prediction model for the three categories. The DCBPN algorithm provides an accuracy of 88.53% in predicting the BG of new samples. Thus, this system demonstrates a great potential to reliably detect BG values in a non-invasive setting.

  10. Altered miR-143 and miR-150 expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells for diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xiao-li; ZHANG Shao-yan; ZHENG Jun-fang; YUAN Hui; WANG Yan


    Background Sensitive and specific biomarkers for identifying early stage of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are urgently needed to improve the therapeutic outcome and reduce the mortality.Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are key components of cancer development and are considered as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and for monitoring treatment.The aim of this study was to determine whether aberrant miRNA expression can be used as a marker in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for the diagnosis of NSCLC.Methods The levels of two mature miRNAs (miR-143 and miR-150) were detected by probe-based stem-loop quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) in PBMC of 64 patients with NSCLC and 26 healthy individuals,and the relationship between miR-143 and miR-150 levels and clinical and pathological factors was explored.Results All endogenous miRNAs were present in peripheral blood in a remarkably stable form and detected by RT-qPCR.MiR-143 expression in the PBMC specimens was significantly lower in NSCLC patients than in healthy individuals (P <0.0001).MiR-150 expression in the PBMC specimens was not significantly different between NSCLC patients and healthy individuals (P=0.260).MiR-150 expression was significantly higher in lung adenocarcinoma patients than in healthy individuals (P=0.001).There was a very strong difference in the expression level of miR-150 between lung adenocarcinoma patients and lung squamous cell caminoma patients (P <0.0001).In receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis,low expression of miR-143 showed the area under the ROC (AUC) of 0.885 for distinguishing cancer patients from healthy subjects.High expression of miR-150 had an AUC of 0.834 for distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma patients from healthy subjects.High expression of miR-150 had an AUC of 0.951 for distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma from lung squamous cell carcinoma.The miR-150 level was significantly associated with distant metastasis (P=0

  11. Cardiac Arrest Alters Regional Ubiquitin Levels in Association with the Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and Neuronal Damages in the Porcine Brain. (United States)

    Sharma, Hari S; Patnaik, Ranjana; Sharma, Aruna; Lafuente, José Vicente; Miclescu, Adriana; Wiklund, Lars


    The possibility that ubiquitin expression is altered in cardiac arrest-associated neuropathology was examined in a porcine model using immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. Our observations show that cardiac arrest induces progressive increase in ubiquitin expression in the cortex and hippocampus in a selective and specific manner as compared to corresponding control brains using enzyme-linked immunoassay technique (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)). Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies showed ubiquitin expression in the neurons exhibiting immunoreaction in the cytoplasm and karyoplasm of distorted or damaged cells. Separate Nissl and ubiquitin staining showed damaged and distorted neurons and in the same cortical region ubiquitin expression indicating that ubiquitin expression after cardiac arrest represents dying neurons. The finding that methylene blue treatment markedly induced neuroprotection following identical cardiac arrest and reduced ubiquitin expression strengthens this view. Taken together, our observations are the first to show that cardiac arrest enhanced ubiquitin expression in the brain that is related to the magnitude of neuronal injury and the finding that methylene blue reduced ubiquitin expression points to its role in cell damage, not reported earlier.

  12. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus


    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  13. Method for photo-altering a biological system to improve biological effect (United States)

    Hill, Richard A.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Crean, David H.


    Photodynamic therapy is a new adjunctive therapy for filtration surgery that does not use chemotherapy agents or radiation, but uses pharmacologically-active sensitizing compounds to produce a titratable, localized, transient, post operative avascular conjunctiva. A photosensitizing agent in a biological system is selectively activated by delivering the photosensitive agent to the biological system and laser activating only a spatially selected portion of the delivered photosensitive agent. The activated portion of the photosensitive agent reacts with the biological system to obtain a predetermined biological effect. As a result, an improved spatial disposition and effectuation of the biological effect by the photosensitive agent in the biological system is achieved.

  14. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio, a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littman, Karin; Petersen, Eva R.B.; Pussinen, Christel


    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio® is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... (ADA) quality goals. Blood samples were collected and measured on the OneTouch Verio® by laboratory personnel and patients with diabetes (n = 91, randomized into groups receiving personal training or mail instructions for the OneTouch Verio® system). Results were compared to a validated routine method......, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when tested by laboratory...

  15. Alterations in the histaminergic system in Alzheimer's disease: a postmortem study. (United States)

    Shan, Ling; Bossers, Koen; Unmehopa, Unga; Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F


    Histamine is produced by the hypothalamic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN). We studied its involvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by in situ hybridization of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the key enzyme of histamine production, in 9 AD patients and 9 controls. Additionally, messenger (m) RNA levels of the 4 histamine receptors (H(1-4)R) and of the enzyme involved in histamine metabolism, histamine methyltransferase (HMT), were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the course of AD (n = 49). Moreover, alterations in glia markers were studied. HDC-mRNA levels in the TMN were unchanged in AD, despite of the reduced number of Nissl-stained neurons (p = 0.001). However, a decrease in HDC-mRNA was observed in its medial part (mTMN; p = 0.047). In the course of AD only females had increased prefrontal cortex expression of histamine receptor-3 (H(3)R) (p = 0.007) and histamine methyltransferase-mRNA (p = 0.011) and of the glia markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein-mRNA, vimentin-mRNA and proteolipid protein-mRNA. These findings indicate the presence of regional changes in the TMN that are at least partly gender-dependent.

  16. 76 FR 4431 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of Modified or Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... controlled by a cardkey and security code (numeric keypad) system. The local fire department is located directly next door to the Clifton Road facility. The computer room is protected by an automatic sprinkler system, numerous automatic sensors (e.g., water, heat, smoke, etc.) are installed, and a proper mix...

  17. 75 FR 30411 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of a Modified or Altered System of Records (United States)


    ... Services, CMS, Room N2-24-08, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, Maryland 21244-1850. Comments received... Information Security Handbook. V. Effects of the Modified System of Records on Individual Rights CMS proposes...), HHS/CMS/ OFM''. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION: Level Three Privacy Act Sensitive Data. SYSTEM LOCATION:...

  18. Altered glycosylation of complexed native IgG molecules is associated with disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Sjöwall, C; Zapf, J; von Löhneysen, S; Magorivska, I; Biermann, M; Janko, C; Winkler, S; Bilyy, R; Schett, G; Herrmann, M; Muñoz, L E


    In addition to the redundancy of the receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulins, glycans result in potential ligands for a plethora of lectin receptors found in immune effector cells. Here we analysed the exposure of glycans containing fucosyl residues and the fucosylated tri-mannose N-type core by complexed native IgG in longitudinal serum samples of well-characterized patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Consecutive serum samples of a cohort of 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus during periods of increased disease activity and remission were analysed. All patients fulfilled the 1982 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. Sera of 15 sex- and age-matched normal healthy blood donors served as controls. The levels and type of glycosylation of complexed random IgG was measured with lectin enzyme-immunosorbent assays. After specifically gathering IgG complexes from sera, biotinylated lectins Aleuria aurantia lectin and Lens culinaris agglutinin were employed to detect IgG-associated fucosyl residues and the fucosylated tri-mannose N-glycan core, respectively. In sandwich-ELISAs, IgG-associated IgM, IgA, C1q, C3c and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected as candidates for IgG immune complex constituents. We studied associations of the glycan of complexed IgG and disease activity according to the physician's global assessment of disease activity and the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index 2000 documented at the moment of blood taking. Our results showed significantly higher levels of Aleuria aurantia lectin and Lens culinaris agglutinin binding sites exposed on IgG complexes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus than on those of normal healthy blood donors. Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus correlated with higher exposure of Aleuria aurantia lectin-reactive fucosyl residues by immobilized IgG complexes. Top levels of Aleuria aurantia lectin-reactivity were found in samples taken during the

  19. Blood sugar test - blood (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  20. Blood-derived DNA methylation markers of cancer risk. (United States)

    Marsit, Carmen; Christensen, Brock


    The importance of somatic epigenetic alterations in tissues targeted for carcinogenesis is now well recognized and considered a key molecular step in the development of a tumor. Particularly, alteration of gene-specific and genomic DNA methylation has been extensively characterized in tumors, and has become an attractive biomarker of risk due to its specificity and stability in human samples. It also is clear that tumors do not develop as isolated phenomenon in their target tissue, but instead result from altered processes affecting not only the surrounding cells and tissues, but other organ systems, including the immune system. Thus, alterations to DNA methylation profiles detectable in peripheral blood may be useful not only in understanding the carcinogenic process and response to environmental insults, but can also provide critical insights in a systems biological view of tumorigenesis. Research to date has generally focused on how environmental exposures alter genomic DNA methylation content in peripheral blood. More recent work has begun to translate these findings to clinically useful endpoints, by defining the relationship between DNA methylation alterations and cancer risk. This chapter highlights the existing research linking the environment, blood-derived DNA methylation alterations, and cancer risk, and points out how these epigenetic alterations may be contributing fundamentally to carcinogenesis.

  1. Functional state of rat cardiomyocytes and blood antioxidant system under psycho-emotional stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zurab Kuchukashvili; Ketevan Menabde; Matrona Chachua; George Burjanadze; Manana Chipashvili; Nana Koshoridze


    We studied the functionality of the antioxidant system in laboratory rat cardiomyocytes and blood under psychoemotional stress.It was found that 40-day isolation and violation of diurnal cycle among the animals were accompanied by the intensification of lipid peroxidation process and marked with a reduced activity of antioxidant system enzymes, such as catalase and superoxide dismutase activity.The results suggested that psycho-emotional stress was accompanied by oxidative stress, causing a reduction in the intensity of energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes, which was further strengthened by the fact that the activity of the enzymes involved in ATP synthesis in mitochondria was reduced.Based on the results, we proposed that psychological stress is one of the factors contributing to the development of various cardiac diseases.

  2. Portable point-of-care blood analysis system for global health (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Dou, James J.; Aitchison, James Stewart; Chen, Lu; Nayyar, Rakesh


    In this paper we present a portable blood analysis system based on a disposable cartridge and hand-held reader. The platform can perform all the sample preparation, detection and waste collection required to complete a clinical test. In order to demonstrate the utility of this approach a CD4 T cell enumeration was carried out. A handheld, point-of-care CD4 T cell system was developed based on this system. In particular we will describe a pneumatic, active pumping method to control the on-chip fluidic actuation. Reagents for the CD4 T cell counting assay were dried on a reagent plug to eliminate the need for cold chain storage when used in the field. A micromixer based on the active fluidic actuation was designed to complete sample staining with fluorescent dyes that was dried on the reagent plugs. A novel image detection and analysis algorithm was developed to detect and track the flight of target particles and cells during each analysis. The handheld, point-of-care CD4 testing system was benchmarked against clinical cytometer. The experimental results demonstrated experimental results were closely matched with the flow cytometry. The same platform can be further expanded into a bead-array detection system where other types of biomolecules such as proteins can be detected using the same detection system.

  3. Design of a breath analysis system for diabetes screening and blood glucose level prediction. (United States)

    Yan, Ke; Zhang, David; Wu, Darong; Wei, Hua; Lu, Guangming


    It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics' breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in breath, are compensated or handled in the algorithm. Considering the intersubject variance of the components in breath, we build subject-specific prediction models to improve the accuracy of BGL prediction. A total of 295 breath samples from healthy subjects and 279 samples from diabetic subjects were collected to evaluate the performance of the system. The sensitivity and specificity of diabetes screening are 91.51% and 90.77%, respectively. The mean relative absolute error for BGL prediction is 21.7%. Experiments show that the system is effective and that the strategies adopted in the system can improve its accuracy. The system potentially provides a noninvasive and convenient method for diabetes screening and BGL monitoring as an adjunct to the standard criteria.

  4. Altered TNF-Alpha, Glucose, Insulin and Amino Acids in Islets Langerhans Cultured in a Microgravity Model System (United States)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.; Hashemi, Brian B.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.


    The present studies were designed to determine effects of a microgravity model system upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) activity and indices of insulin and fuel homeostasis of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Islets (1726+/-1 17,150 u IEU) from Wistar Furth rats were treated as: 1) HARV (High Aspect Ratio Vessel cell culture) , 2) HARV plus LPS, 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS. TNF-alpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (parginine in islets cultured in HARVs. While nitrogenous compound analysis indicated a ubiquitous reliance upon glutamine in all experimental groups, arginine was converted to ornithine at a two-fold greater rate in the islets cultured in the HARV microgravity model system (p<0.05). These studies demonstrate alterations in LPS induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF activity in the HARV. These alterations in fuel homeostasis may be promulgated by gravity averaged cell culture methods or by three dimensional cell assembly.

  5. Alterations of hydraulic soil properties influenced by land-use changes and agricultural management systems (United States)

    Weninger, Thomas; Kreiselmeier, Janis; Chandrasekhar, Parvathy; Jülich, Stefan; Schwärzel, Kai; Schwen, Andreas


    Estimation and modeling of soil water movement and the hydrologic balance of soils requires sound knowledge about hydraulic soil properties (HSP). The soil water characteristics, the hydraulic conductivity function and the pore size distribution (PSD) are commonly used instruments for the mathematical representation of HSP. Recent research highlighted the temporal variability of these functions caused by meteorological or land-use influences. State of the art modeling software for the continuous simulation of soil water movement uses a stationary approach for the HSP which means that their time dependent alterations and the subsequent effects on soil water balance is not considered. Mathematical approaches to describe the evolution of PSD are nevertheless known, but there is a lack of sound data basis for parameter estimation. Based on extensive field and laboratory measurements at 5 locations along a climatic gradient across Austria and Germany, this study will quantify short-term changes in HSP, detect driving forces and introduce a method to predict the effects of soil and land management actions on the soil water balance. Amongst several soil properties, field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities will be determined using a hood infiltration experiments in the field as well as by evaporation and dewpoint potentiometer method in the lab. All measurements will be carried out multiple times over a span of 2 years which will allow a detailed monitoring of changes in HSP. Experimental sites where we expect significant inter-seasonal changes will be equipped with sensors for soil moisture and matric potential. The choice of experimental field sites follows the intention to involve especially the effects of tillage operations, different cultivation strategies, microclimatically effective structures and land-use changes. The international project enables the coverage of a broad range of soil types as well as climate conditions and hence will have broad

  6. Ablation of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells exacerbates Japanese encephalitis by regulating blood-brain barrier permeability and altering tight junction/adhesion molecules. (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Hossain, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John-Hwa; Kim, Bumseok; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug


    Japanese encephalitis (JE), characterized by extensive neuroinflammation following infection with neurotropic JE virus (JEV), is becoming a leading cause of viral encephalitis due to rapid changes in climate and demography. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in restricting neuroinvasion of peripheral leukocytes and virus, thereby regulating the progression of viral encephalitis. In this study, we explored the role of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating BBB integrity and JE progression using a conditional depletion model of CD11c(hi) DCs. Transient ablation of CD11c(hi) DCs resulted in markedly increased susceptibility to JE progression along with highly increased neuro-invasion of JEV. In addition, exacerbated JE progression in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated hosts was closely associated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and CC chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2) in the brain. Moreover, our results revealed that the exacerbation of JE progression in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated hosts was correlated with enhanced BBB permeability and reduced expression of tight junction and adhesion molecules (claudin-5, ZO-1, occluding, JAMs). Ultimately, our data conclude that the ablation of CD11c(hi) DCs provided a subsidiary impact on BBB integrity and the expression of tight junction/adhesion molecules, thereby leading to exacerbated JE progression. These findings provide insight into the secondary role of CD11c(hi) DCs in JE progression through regulation of BBB integrity and the expression of tight junction/adhesion molecules.

  7. Nitric oxide synthetic pathway and cGMP levels are altered in red blood cells from end-stage renal disease patients. (United States)

    Di Pietro, Natalia; Giardinelli, Annalisa; Sirolli, Vittorio; Riganti, Chiara; Di Tomo, Pamela; Gazzano, Elena; Di Silvestre, Sara; Panknin, Christina; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Csonka, Csaba; Kelm, Malte; Ferdinandy, Péter; Bonomini, Mario; Pandolfi, Assunta


    Red blood cells (RBCs) enzymatically produce nitric oxide (NO) by a functional RBC-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS). NO is a vascular key regulatory molecule. In RBCs its generation is complex and influenced by several factors, including insulin, acetylcholine, and calcium. NO availability is reduced in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and associated with endothelial dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that, through increased phosphatidylserine membrane exposure, ESRD-RBCs augmented their adhesion to human cultured endothelium, in which NO bioavailability decreased. Since RBC-NOS-dependent NO production in ESRD is unknown, this study aimed to investigate RBC-NOS levels/activation, NO production/bioavailability in RBCs from healthy control subjects (C, N = 18) and ESRD patients (N = 27). Although RBC-NOS expression was lower in ESRD-RBCs, NO, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), RBC-NOS Serine1177 phosphorylation level and eNOS/Calmodulin (CaM)/Heat Shock Protein-90 (HSP90) interaction levels were higher in ESRD-RBCs, indicating increased enzyme activation. Conversely, following RBCs stimulation with insulin or ionomycin, NO and cGMP levels were significantly lower in ESRD- than in C-RBCs, suggesting that uremia might reduce the RBC-NOS response to further stimuli. Additionally, the activity of multidrug-resistance-associated protein-4 (MRP4; cGMP-membrane transporter) was significantly lower in ESRD-RBCs, suggesting a possible compromised efflux of cGMP across the ESRD-RBCs membrane. This study for the first time showed highest basal RBC-NOS activation in ESRD-RBCs, possibly to reduce the negative impact of decreased NOS expression. It is further conceivable that high NO production only partially affects cell function of ESRD-RBCs maybe because in vivo they are unable to respond to physiologic stimuli, such as calcium and/or insulin.

  8. Environmental pollutants and alterations in the reproductive system in wild male mink (Neovison vison) from Sweden. (United States)

    Persson, Sara; Magnusson, Ulf


    The wild American mink, a semi-aquatic top predator, is exposed to high levels of environmental pollutants that may affect its reproductive system. In this study, the reproductive organs from 101 wild male mink collected in Sweden were examined during necropsy. Potential associations between various variables of the reproductive system and fat concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and other organochlorine pesticides and liver concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated using multiple regression models. The anogenital distance was negatively associated (penvironmental pollution affects male reproduction in both wildlife and humans. Overall, the study suggests endocrine disrupting effects in wild mink and identifies potentially important pollutants in the complex mixture of contaminants in the environment. In addition, the results suggest that the variables of the reproductive system of male mink used in this study are good candidates for use as indicators of environmental pollution affecting the mammalian reproductive system.

  9. Functional and anatomic alterations in the gentamicin-damaged vestibular system in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, MLYM; Segenhout, HM; Dijk, T; Stokroos, [No Value; van der Want, TJL; Albers, FWJ


    Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expected functional and morphologic effect of gentamicin on the vestibular system simultaneously by measurement of vestibular evoked potentials and electron microscopic evaluation. Background: Vestibular short-latency evoked potentials to

  10. Favourable results of a new intraoperative and postoperative filtered autologous blood re-transfusion system in total hip arthroplasty : A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstmann, Wieger G.; Swierstra, Martzen J.; Ohanis, David; Rolink, Rob; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.


    A new intraoperative filtered salvaged blood re-transfusion system has been developed for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) that filters and re-transfuses the blood that is lost during THA. This system is intended to increase postoperative haemoglobin (Hb) levels, reduce perioperative net blood l

  11. The altered gravity effect on proliferative system of two-day pea germs (United States)

    Artemenko, O. A.

    The study of clinorotation effect on proliferative system sensibility of plants is very important for understanding and future investigations of their development characteristics and for examination of cell cycle regulation molecular mechanisms. Determination of two-day pea germ mitotic activity of cells, correlation of mitosis phase and DNA content point to decrease of these parameters under clinorotation during the first 12 hours of the factor influence. Cell cycle stabilization after 12 hours of the experiment show high adaptation capacity of plant proliferative system.

  12. Excessive zinc intake increases systemic blood pressure and reduces renal blood flow via kidney angiotensin II in rats. (United States)

    Kasai, Miyoko; Miyazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromichi


    This study investigated the effects of excess zinc intake on the mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow (RBF), inulin clearance (IC), serum zinc level, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, and kidney angiotensin II (AT II) levels in rats. Experiments were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained for 4 weeks on a diet containing either 5 mg/100 g (control group), 50 mg/100 g (Zn50 group), or 200 mg/100 g (Zn200 group) zinc carbonate. Serum zinc levels significantly increased to 126.5 % in the Zn50 group and 198.1 % in the Zn200 group compared with controls. MAP significantly increased to 107.8 % in the Zn50 group and 114.5 % in the Zn200 group again compared with controls. Although the difference in serum ACE activity was independent of the serum zinc levels, the kidney AT II levels increased significantly to 137.2 % in the Zn50 group and 174.4 % in the Zn200 group compared with the controls. RBF was decreased significantly to 74.4 % in the Zn50 group and 69.7 % in the Zn200 group compared with the controls. IC values were significantly decreased to 69.6 % in the Zn50 group and 52.7 % in the Zn200 group as compared with control levels. Combined together, these results show that excessive Zn intake reduced IC and RBF and increased MAP and kidney AT II levels, suggesting that excessive Zn intake reduces renal function.

  13. Adapting MRI systems to propel and guide microdevices in the human blood circulatory system. (United States)

    Martel, S; Mathieu, J B; Felfoul, O; Macicior, H; Beaudoin, G; Soulez, G; Yahia, L H


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems are widely used to gather noninvasively images of the interior of the human body. This paper suggests that an MRI system can be seen beyond being just a tool for imaging purpose but one that can propel and guide special microdevices in the human body to perform specific medical tasks. More specifically, an MRI system can potentially be used to image the region of interest, propel a microdevice through the generation of magnetic gradients, determine the location of the device, compute the corrective actions through feedback control algorithms and adjust the generation of the magnetic gradients accordingly to navigate such a microdevice in a preplanned path. This paper presents an introductory description of the proposed techniques, the main issues to consider, and some preliminary data indicating the validity of this approach.

  14. Direct effect of cadmium on blood pressure and adrenergic system in the cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.W.; Bingham, G.


    The dose-response effect of cadmium on systolic and diastolic pressure were measured in the cat after injecting a bolus of cadmium intravenously. In animals treated with 100, 125, or 150 ug cadmium/kg BW systolic and diastolic pressure were both significantly increased. These increases were gradual as the dose Cd was increased from 75 to 125 ug. In an attempt to determine the mechanism associated with cadmium-induced hypertension in the cat the effect of this element on the adrenergic system was studied. The effect of ..cap alpha.. and BETA agonists on cadmium-induced increase in blood pressure were determined by the injection of either propranolol or phentolamine at 20 mg/kg BW. The hypertensive effect of 125 ug Cd was abolished by phentolamine but not by propranolol suggesting, that Cd may induce the release of norepinephrine from storage sites. In support of this suggestion we observed in cats treated with 125 ug Cd a significant increase in plasma norepinephrine which was not affected by propranolol or phentolamine injections. However reserpine pretreatment abolished both the increase in plasma norepinephrine and the cadmium-induced hypertensive effect. The data suggest that the associated mechanism of cadmium-induced hypertension may be related to the effect of this element of the release of norepinephrine. Increases in the extracellular levels of this neurotransmitter in turn provokes a rise in blood pressure through its interaction with the receptors of vascular smooth muscle cells. 38 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  15. Decreasing vitamin premix on chicken carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor and battery cage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shivazad


    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted the to compare the effect of a decreasing amount of vitamin premix in diets inbroilers from 29 to 42 days of age on carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor (Experiment 1 and battery cage (Experiment 2 systems. At 35 and 42 days of ages, one bird of each replicate was slaughtered and carcass composition was measured. Blood concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Ca were used to diagnose vitamin D3 deficiency and enzymes aspartate amino transferase (AST to identify vitamin E deficiency. Floor raised birds showed that vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal at 29 days of age did not impair body weight (BW, carcass composition, ALP and Ca during the final rearing period. However, diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a higher AST at 42 days of age than the other diets. Birds reared in cages were slightly more sensitive to vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal, probably due to the impracticality of performing coprophagy. Diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a lower BW, carcass breast and thigh yield at 42 days of age; also serum ALP, AST and Ca were impaired. In conclusion, the withdrawal of vitamins is not a reasonable option but it is possible to reduce vitamin premix in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on performance and on some metabolic traits during the finisher period with both methods of rearing.

  16. Effects of diving and oxygen on autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow. (United States)

    Winklewski, Pawel J; Kot, Jacek; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Nuckowska, Magdalena K; Tkachenko, Yurii


    Recreational scuba diving is a popular leisure activity with the number of divers reaching several millions worldwide. Scuba diving represents a huge challenge for integrative physiology. In mammalian evolution, physiological reflexes developed to deal with lack of oxygen, rather than with an excess, which makes adaptations to scuba diving more difficult to describe and understand than those associated with breath-hold diving. The underwater environment significantly limits the use of equipment to register the organism's functions, so, in most instances, scientific theories are built on experiments that model real diving to some extent, like hyperbaric exposures, dive reflexes or water immersion. The aim of this review is to summarise the current knowledge related to the influence exerted by physiological conditions specific to diving on the autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow. The main factors regulating cerebral blood flow during scuba diving are discussed as follows: 1) increased oxygen partial pressure; 2) immersion-related trigemino-cardiac reflexes and 3) exposure to cold, exercise and stress. Also discussed are the potential mechanisms associated with immersion pulmonary oedema.

  17. Multicenter Systems Analysis of Human Blood Reveals Immature Neutrophils in Males and During Pregnancy (United States)

    Blazkova, Jana; Gupta, Sarthak; Liu, Yudong; Gaudilliere, Brice; Ganio, Edward A.; Bolen, Christopher R.; Saar-Dover, Ron; Fragiadakis, Gabriela K.; Angst, Martin S.; Hasni, Sarfaraz; Aghaeepour, Nima; Stevenson, David; Baldwin, Nicole; Anguiano, Esperanza; Chaussabel, Damien; Altman, Matthew C.; Kaplan, Mariana J.; Davis, Mark M.


    Despite clear differences in immune system responses and in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases between males and females, there is little understanding of the processes involved. In this study, we identified a gene signature of immature-like neutrophils, characterized by the overexpression of genes encoding for several granule-containing proteins, which was found at higher levels (up to 3-fold) in young (20–30 y old) but not older (60 to >89 y old) males compared with females. Functional and phenotypic characterization of peripheral blood neutrophils revealed more mature and responsive neutrophils in young females, which also exhibited an elevated capacity in neutrophil extracellular trap formation at baseline and upon microbial or sterile autoimmune stimuli. The expression levels of the immature-like neutrophil signature increased linearly with pregnancy, an immune state of increased susceptibility to certain infections. Using mass cytometry, we also find increased frequencies of immature forms of neutrophils in the blood of women during late pregnancy. Thus, our findings show novel sex differences in innate immunity and identify a common neutrophil signature in males and in pregnant women. PMID:28179497

  18. MicroRNAs in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Blood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yuan


    Full Text Available Common blood disorders include hematopoietic cell malignancies or leukemias and plasma cell dyscrasia, all of which have associated microRNA abnormalities. In this paper, we discuss several leukemias including acute myeloid leukemia (AML and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and identify altered microRNAs and their targets. Immune disorders with altered blood levels of antibodies include autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE with associated anti-self-autoantibodies and immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN also have related microRNA abnormalities. The alterations in microRNAs may serve as therapeutic targets in these blood disorders.

  19. 77 FR 4004 - Privacy Act of 1974; Altered System of Records (United States)


    ...; Economic information--housing characteristics, income, occupation, employment and unemployment information... name of the system of records to ``Economic Survey Collection;'' would amend certain provisions... to include all economic programs, as well as surveys, such as the Survey of Business Owners...

  20. 78 FR 23811 - Privacy Act of 1974; Proposed New Routine Uses and System of Records Alterations (United States)


    ... systems of records. It will enable us to disclose information to Federal, State, and local law enforcement... the Privacy Act and all other applicable Federal statutes that govern our use and disclosure of the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL...

  1. Cocaine Self-Administration Alters the Relative Effectiveness of Multiple Memory Systems during Extinction (United States)

    Gabriele, Amanda; Setlow, Barry; Packard, Mark G.


    Rats were trained to run a straight-alley maze for an oral cocaine or sucrose vehicle solution reward, followed by either response or latent extinction training procedures that engage neuroanatomically dissociable "habit" and "cognitive" memory systems, respectively. In the response extinction condition, rats performed a runway approach response…

  2. Normal and system lupus erythematosus red blood cell interactions studied by double trap optical tweezers: direct measurements of aggregation forces (United States)

    Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Eugeny V.; Zhdanov, Alexander G.; Rykova, Sophia Yu.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.


    Direct measurements of aggregation forces in piconewton range between two red blood cells in pair rouleau are performed under physiological conditions using double trap optical tweezers. Aggregation and disaggregation properties of healthy and pathologic (system lupus erythematosis) blood samples are analyzed. Strong difference in aggregation speed and behavior is revealed using the offered method which is proposed to be a promising tool for SLE monitoring at single cell level.

  3. Pervasive, high temperature hydrothermal alteration in the RN-17B drill core, Reykjanes Geothermal System-Iceland Deep Drilling Project (United States)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.; Marks, N. E.; Reed, M. H.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.


    burial at T<300 is replaced by more calcic plagioclase at higher temperature. Texturally, hydrothermal anorthite (An90-98) and pargasite (up to 13.5 wt % Al2O3) appear to have grown at the expense of earlier formed epidote + chlorite + actinolite. Measured downhole temperature at 2800m in RN-17B following reequilibration was 320°C, although amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry imply that anorthite + pargasite, if in equilibrium, should have formed at much higher temperatures. The differences in extent and intensity of alteration inferred from examination of cuttings compared to drill core indicate that selective recovery and mixing of cuttings from multiple depths may be a larger problem than presently appreciated. Previous work has shown that the Reykjanes geothermal system has evolved from a meteoric water-dominated system to higher salinity system dominated by seawater-recharge. The paragenetic relationships that are discernible in the core hopefully will allow us to quantify the alteration processes related to the change in salinity.

  4. Application of mobile blood purification system in the treatment of acute renal failure dog model in the field environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-min ZHANG


    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the stability, safety and efficacy of mobile blood purification system in the treatment of acute renal failure dog model in the field environment. Methods The acute renal failure model was established in 4 dogs by bilateral nephrectomy, which was thereafter treated with the mobile blood purification system. The evaluation of functional index of the mobile blood purification system was performed after a short-time (2 hours and conventional (4 hours dialysis treatment. Results The mobile blood purification system ran stably in the field environment at a blood flow of 150-180ml/min, a dialysate velocity of 2000ml/h, a replacement fluid velocity of 2000ml/h, and ultrafiltration rate of 100-200ml/h. All the functions of alarming system worked well, including static upper limit alarm of ultrafiltration pressure (>100 mmHg, upper limit alarm of ambulatory arterial pressure (>400mmHg, upper limit alarm of ambulatory venous pressure (>400mmHg, bubble alarm of vascular access, bubble alarm during the infusion of solutions, pressure alarm at the substitution pump segment and blood leaking alarm. The vital signs of the 4 dogs with acute renal failure kept stable during the treatment. After the treatment, a remarkable decrease was seen in the levels of serum urea nitrogen, creatinine and serum potassium (P0.05. Conclusions The mobile blood purification system runs normally even in a field environment. It is a flexible and portable device with a great performance in safety and stability in the treatment of acute renal failure. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.15

  5. Association of gene polymorphisms in RANKL/RANK/OPG system with hypertension and blood pressure in Chinese women. (United States)

    Duan, P; Wang, Z-M; Liu, J; Wang, L-N; Yang, Z; Tu, P


    Recent studies have revealed that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand/RANK/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/RANK/OPG) system has an important role in vascular calcification, which is contributory to various cardiovascular diseases and intimately linked to the regulation of blood pressure. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate the associations of 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNFSF11, TNFRSF11A and TNFRSF11B genes in the RANKL/RANK/OPG system with hypertension and blood pressure in post-menopausal Chinese women. In this study, 503 hypertensive patients and 509 normal controls were recruited. Genotyping was performed using the high-throughput Sequenom genotyping platform. The results showed that two SNPs (rs6567270 and rs4603673) in the TNFRSF11A were associated with hypertension (P=0.010 and P=0.013, respectively) and systolic blood pressure (P=0.024 and P=0.023, respectively). One SNP (rs9646629) in the TNFRSF11A showed significant association with diastolic blood pressure (P=0.031). The results of this study suggest that TNFRSF11A but not TNFSF11 and TNFRSF11B genetic variation is associated with hypertension and blood pressure in Chinese women. The findings provide additional support for the genetic role of RANKL/RANK/OPG system in hypertension and blood pressure regulation.

  6. Improved Blood Pressure Control Using an Interactive Mobile Phone Support System. (United States)

    Bengtsson, Ulrika; Kjellgren, Karin; Hallberg, Inger; Lindwall, Magnus; Taft, Charles


    This explorative, longitudinal study evaluated the effect of the daily use of a mobile phone-based self-management support system for hypertension in reducing blood pressure (BP) among 50 primary care patients with hypertension over 8 weeks. The self-management system comprises modules for (1) self-reports of BP, pulse, lifestyle, symptoms, and well-being; (2) delivery of reminders and encouragements; and (3) graphical feedback of self-reports. Daily use of the support system significantly reduced BP (systolic BP -7 mm Hg, diastolic BP -4.9 mm Hg) between baseline and week 8, with daily improvements leveling off as the study progressed. Three homogenous subsets of patients were identified who, despite different initial BP levels, showed similar decreases in BP during the study, indicating that patients benefited irrespective of baseline BP. In showing significant reductions in BP, our results suggest that the self-management support system may be a useful tool in clinical practice to help patients self-manage their hypertension.

  7. Dynamic expression of leukocyte innate immune genes in whole blood from horses with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anne Mette L.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;


    inflammation was induced in 6 adult horses by the intravenous injection of 1 mu g lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per kg btw. Sixteen blood samples were collected for each horse at predetermined intervals and analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Post-induction expression levels for each gene......) and sepsis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of 31 selected blood leukocyte immune genes in an equine model of acute systemic inflammation to identify significantly regulated genes and to describe their expression dynamics during a 24-h experimental period. Systemic...... expressions in blood leukocytes during equine acute LPS-induced systemic inflammation thoroughly characterized a highly regulated and dynamic innate immune response. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of equine systemic inflammation....

  8. Brexpiprazole Alters Monoaminergic Systems following Repeated Administration: an in Vivo Electrophysiological Study


    Oosterhof, Chris A.; Mansari, Mostafa El; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Blier, Pierre


    Background: Brexpiprazole was recently approved as adjunctive therapy for depression and treatment of schizophrenia in adults. To complement results from a previous study in which its acute effects were characterized, the present study assessed the effect of repeated brexpiprazole administration on monoaminergic systems. Methods: Brexpiprazole (1mg/kg, subcutaneous) or vehicle was administered once daily for 2 and 14 days. Single-unit electrophysiological recordings from noradrenaline neurons...

  9. Cocaine self-administration alters the relative effectiveness of multiple memory systems during extinction


    Gabriele, Amanda; Setlow, Barry; Packard, Mark G.


    Rats were trained to run a straight-alley maze for an oral cocaine or sucrose vehicle solution reward, followed by either response or latent extinction training procedures that engage neuroanatomically dissociable “habit” and “cognitive” memory systems, respectively. In the response extinction condition, rats performed a runway approach response to an empty fluid well. In the latent extinction condition, rats were placed at the empty fluid well without performing a runway approach response. R...

  10. Altered Dynamics Between Neural Systems Sub-serving Decisions for Unhealthy Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua eHe


    Full Text Available Using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI techniques, we examined the relationships between activities in the neural systems elicited by the decision stage of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, and food choices of either vegetables or snacks high in fat and sugar. Twenty-three healthy normal weight adolescents and young adults, ranging in age from 14-21, were studied. Neural systems implicated in decision-making and inhibitory control were engaged by having participants perform the IGT during fMRI scanning. The Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, was used to obtain daily food choices. Higher consumption of vegetables correlated with higher activity in prefrontal cortical regions, namely the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG, and lower activity in sub-cortical regions, namely the right insular cortex. In contrast, higher consumption of fatty and sugary snacks correlated with lower activity in the prefrontal regions, combined with higher activity in the sub-cortical, insular cortex.These results provide preliminary support for our hypotheses that unhealthy food choices in real life are reflected by neuronal changes in key neural systems involved in habits, decision-making and self-control processes. These findings have implications for the creation of decision-making based intervention strategies that promote healthier eating.

  11. Altered dynamics between neural systems sub-serving decisions for unhealthy food. (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Xiao, Lin; Xue, Gui; Wong, Savio; Ames, Susan L; Xie, Bin; Bechara, Antoine


    Using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques, we examined the relationships between activities in the neural systems elicited by the decision stage of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and food choices of either vegetables or snacks high in fat and sugar. Twenty-three healthy normal weight adolescents and young adults, ranging in age from 14 to 21, were studied. Neural systems implicated in decision-making and inhibitory control were engaged by having participants perform the IGT during fMRI scanning. The Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, was used to obtain daily food choices. Higher consumption of vegetables correlated with higher activity in prefrontal cortical regions, namely the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and lower activity in sub-cortical regions, namely the right insular cortex. In contrast, higher consumption of fatty and sugary snacks correlated with lower activity in the prefrontal regions, combined with higher activity in the sub-cortical, insular cortex. These results provide preliminary support for our hypotheses that unhealthy food choices in real life are reflected by neuronal changes in key neural systems involved in habits, decision-making and self-control processes. These findings have implications for the creation of decision-making based intervention strategies that promote healthier eating.

  12. Systems Biology of cancer: Moving toward the Integrative Study of the metabolic alterations in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Erika Hernández Patiño


    Full Text Available One of the main objectives in systems biology is to understand the biological mechanisms that give rise to the phenotype of a microorganism by using high-throughput technologies and genome-scale mathematical modeling. The computational modeling of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions is one systemic and quantitative strategy for characterizing the metabolic phenotype associated with human diseases and potentially for designing drugs with optimal clinical effects. The purpose of this short review is to describe how computational modeling, including the specific case of constraint-based modeling, can be used to explore, characterize and predict the metabolic capacities that distinguish the metabolic phenotype of cancer cell lines. As we show herein, this computational framework is far from a pure theoretical description, and to ensure proper biological interpretation, it is necessary to integrate high-throughput data and generate predictions for later experimental assessment. Hence, genome-scale modeling serves as a platform for the following: 1 the integration of data from high-throughput technologies, 2 the assessment of how metabolic activity is related to phenotype in cancer cell lines and 3 the design of new experiments to evaluate the outcomes of the in silico analysis. By combining the functions described above, we show that computational modeling is a useful methodology to construct an integrative, systemic and quantitative scheme for understanding the metabolic profiles of cancer cell lines, a first step to determine the metabolic mechanism by which cancer cells maintain and support their malignant phenotype in human tissues.

  13. Systems biology of cancer: moving toward the integrative study of the metabolic alterations in cancer cells. (United States)

    Hernández Patiño, Claudia E; Jaime-Muñoz, Gustavo; Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo


    One of the main objectives in systems biology is to understand the biological mechanisms that give rise to the phenotype of a microorganism by using high-throughput technologies (HTs) and genome-scale mathematical modeling. The computational modeling of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions is one systemic and quantitative strategy for characterizing the metabolic phenotype associated with human diseases and potentially for designing drugs with optimal clinical effects. The purpose of this short review is to describe how computational modeling, including the specific case of constraint-based modeling, can be used to explore, characterize, and predict the metabolic capacities that distinguish the metabolic phenotype of cancer cell lines. As we show herein, this computational framework is far from a pure theoretical description, and to ensure proper biological interpretation, it is necessary to integrate high-throughput data and generate predictions for later experimental assessment. Hence, genome-scale modeling serves as a platform for the following: (1) the integration of data from HTs, (2) the assessment of how metabolic activity is related to phenotype in cancer cell lines, and (3) the design of new experiments to evaluate the outcomes of the in silico analysis. By combining the functions described above, we show that computational modeling is a useful methodology to construct an integrative, systemic, and quantitative scheme for understanding the metabolic profiles of cancer cell lines, a first step to determine the metabolic mechanism by which cancer cells maintain and support their malignant phenotype in human tissues.

  14. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely


    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  15. Collaborative Processing of Wearable and Ambient Sensor System for Blood Pressure Monitoring (United States)

    Nakamura, Masayuki; Nakamura, Jiro; Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Yamada, Ichiro


    This paper describes wireless wearable and ambient sensors that cooperate to monitor a person’s vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure during daily activities. Each wearable sensor is attached on different parts of the body. The wearable sensors require a high sampling rate and time synchronization to provide a precise analysis of the received signals. The trigger signal for synchronization is provided by the ambient sensors, which detect the user’s presence. The Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless technologies are used for real-time sensing and time synchronization. Thus, this wearable health-monitoring sensor response is closely related to the context in which it is being used. Experimental results indicate that the system simultaneously provides information about the user’s location and vital signs, and the synchronized wearable sensors successfully measures vital signs with a 1 ms resolution. PMID:22163984

  16. Collaborative Processing of Wearable and Ambient Sensor System for Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Yamada


    Full Text Available This paper describes wireless wearable and ambient sensors that cooperate to monitor a person’s vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure during daily activities. Each wearable sensor is attached on different parts of the body. The wearable sensors require a high sampling rate and time synchronization to provide a precise analysis of the received signals. The trigger signal for synchronization is provided by the ambient sensors, which detect the user’s presence. The Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless technologies are used for real-time sensing and time synchronization. Thus, this wearable health-monitoring sensor response is closely related to the context in which it is being used. Experimental results indicate that the system simultaneously provides information about the user’s location and vital signs, and the synchronized wearable sensors successfully measures vital signs with a 1 ms resolution.

  17. Effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms on blood pressure response to antihypertensive treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao; SHENG Hai-hui; LIN Gang; LI Jian; LU Xin-zheng; CHENG Yun-lin; HUANG Jun; XIAO Hua-sheng; ZHAN Yi-yang


    Background The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is important for the development of essential hypertension, and many antihypertensive drugs target it. This study was undertaken to determine whether polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are related to the blood pressure (BP) response to diuretic treatment in a Chinese Han ethnic population.Methods Fifty-four patients with essential hypertension received hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg, once daily) as monotherapy for four weeks. Seven polymorphisms in RAAS genes were genotyped by gene chip technology. The relationship between these polymorphisms and the change in blood pressure was observed after the 4-week treatment.Results The patients with angiotensinogen (AGT) -6G allele showed a greater reduction in diastolic BP (P= 0.025) and mean BP (P=0.039) than those carrying AA genotype. Patients carrying aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) CC genotype exhibited a greater BP reduction than those carrying CT and TT genotypes (systolic BP: P= 0.030; diastolic BP: P= 0.026; mean BP: P=0.003). In addition, patients with a combination of CYP11B2 CC genotype and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) D allele might have a more pronounced reduction of systolic BP than those with any other genotypic combinations of the two genes (P= 0.007).Conclusions AGT-6G allele, CYP11B2 -344CC genotype and its combination with ACE D allele are associated with BP response to hydrochlorothiazide treatment. Larger studies are warranted to validate this finding.

  18. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  19. Closed system generation of dendritic cells from a single blood volume for clinical application in immunotherapy. (United States)

    Elias, M; van Zanten, J; Hospers, G A P; Setroikromo, A; de Jong, M A; de Leij, L F M H; Mulder, N H


    Dendritic cells (DC) used for clinical trials should be processed on a large scale conforming to current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) guidelines. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for clinical grade generation of immature DC in a closed-system. Aphereses were performed with the Cobe Spectra continuous flow cell separator and material