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  1. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

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    Broderick Nichole A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin.

  2. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely...

  3. How topography induces reproductive asynchrony and alters gypsy moth invasion dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jonathan A; Meixler, Marcia S; Mueller, Thomas; Fagan, William F; Tobin, Patrick C; Haynes, Kyle J

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-dependent development, but it is not known how strongly this influences reproductive asynchrony or the population growth of invasive species. We examined whether spatial variation in reproductive asynchrony, due to differences in elevation and local heterogeneity in elevation (hilliness), can explain spatial heterogeneity in the population growth rate of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), along its invasion front in Virginia and West Virginia, USA. We used a spatially explicit model of the effects of reproductive asynchrony on mating success to develop predictions of the influences of elevation and elevational heterogeneity on local population growth rates. Population growth rates declined with increased elevation and more modestly with increased elevational heterogeneity. As in earlier work, we found a positive relationship between the population growth rate and the number of introduced egg masses, indicating a demographic Allee effect. At high elevations and high heterogeneity in elevation, the population growth rate was lowest and the density at which the population tended to replace itself (i.e. the Allee threshold) was highest. An analysis of 22 years of field data also showed decreases in population growth rates with elevation and heterogeneity in elevation that were largely consistent with the model predictions. These results highlight how topographic characteristics can affect reproductive asynchrony and influence mate-finding Allee effects in an invading non-native insect population. Given the dependence of developmental rates on temperature in poikilotherms, topographic effects on reproductive success could

  4. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

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    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  5. Effects of pedunculate oak tree vitality on gypsy moth preference and performance

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    Milanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moths and powdery mildew play a significant role in oak decline processes. However, information is lacking on the effects on the gypsy moth of impaired tree vitality caused by defoliation or parasite infection. We assessed how pedunculate oak leaves collected from vigorous, declining, and infected trees influenced gypsy moth preference and performance (growth and nutritional indices. We found a negative effect of powdery mildew-infected leaves on gypsy moth performance, while declining trees had positive effects on gypsy moth performance and preference. All examined parameters of larvae fed declining oak leaves were higher than those of larvae fed vigorous oak leaves. Increased growth on declining oak leaves was caused by both higher consumption and more efficient food utilization. The results of this research could help us to better understand multitrophic interactions in complex communities such as oak forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  6. Host plant effect on the susceptibility of gypsy moth caterpillars to insecticides

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    Milanović Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L is the most significant pest of broadleaf forests. The dynamics of gypsy moth population depends on several biotic and abiotic factors, but it is also highly dependent on the quality of consumed food. The gypsy moth control increasingly relies on the biological preparations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subspec. kurstaki (Btk and Lymantria dispar Nuclear Poliedrosis virus (NPV. Chemical preparations are still applied although more rarely, the pyrethroids which include also lambda-cyhalothrin This paper presents the study results of the effect of host plant on gypsy moth caterpillar (Lymantria dispar L susceptibility to lambda cihalotrine insecticide, by which the study oak leaves were contaminated. The study results show the lowest mortality of the caterpillars fed on contaminated leaves of Turkey oak (17.5%, then pedunculate oak (86.1%, and the highest mortality of caterpillars fed on sessile oak leaves (92%. The rate of the gypsy moth caterpillar development depends on the host plant Susceptibility of the gypsy moth caterpillars to the above preparation depends on the host plant The knowledge of the effect of host plant on insecticide efficiency in gypsy moth suppression would render insecticide utilisation optimal.

  7. Stand Factors and Risk Analysis of Harm Extent of Gypsy Moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Juan; Yan Guozeng; Guan Ling; Li Zhenyu; Feng Jihua

    2006-01-01

    Twelve stand factors affecting the harm extent of Gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) were studied.Through stepwise regression analyses,three key factors were selected,such as crown density,soil infertility extent,and forestland area.The results showed that there exists a positive correlation between soil infertility extent and the harm extent of Gypsy moths and a significant negative correlation between the other two key factors and the harm extent of this insect.Using the three key factors,a multivariate linear regression model was established by which the authors made a risk analysis of the harm extent of Gypsy moths.

  8. 76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the gypsy moth program, contact Mr. Paul Chaloux, National Program..., fences, vehicles, and houses during their search for food. Entire areas may be stripped of all...

  9. Forest Pest Management, Gypsy Moth Trap Catches on Federal Land, 1990-1997

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Enclosed are the results of the 1990-1997 gypsy moth pheromone trapping program on Federal lands inVirginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee,...

  10. Genetic variation and correlations of life-history traits in gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar L. from two populations in Serbia

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    Lazarević Jelica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic fluctuations in density impose different selection pressures on populations of outbreaking Lepidoptera due to changes in their nutritional environment. The maternal effects hypothesis of insect outbreak predicts the transmission of this nutritional "information" to subsequent generations and alterations in offspring life-history traits. To test for these time-delayed effects of the parental generation, we compared life-history traits and their variation and covariation among laboratory-reared gypsy moths hatched from egg masses collected from low- and medium-density populations. Decreased individual performance was recorded in offspring from the medium-density population, indicating reduced egg provisioning under crowding conditions. Genetic variance and covariance were also shown to be sensitive to density of the parental generation. In gypsy moths from the medium-density population, quantitative genetic analysis revealed significantly higher broad-sense heritabilities for development duration traits and demonstrated a trade-off between development duration and body size.

  11. Specificity of Developmental Resistance in Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) to two DNA-Insect Viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelli Hoover; Michael J. Grove

    2009-01-01

    Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae displayed marked developmental resistance within an instar to L. dispar M nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) regardless of the route of infection (oral or intrahemocoelic) in a previous study, indicating that in gypsy moth, this resistance has a systemic component. In this study, gypsy moth larvae challenged with the Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (AMEV) showed developmental resistance within the fourth instar to oral, but not intrahemocoelic, inoculation. In general, gypsy moth is considered refractory to oral challenge with AMEV, but in this study, 43% mortality occurred in newly molted fourth instars fed a dose of 5×106 large spheroids of AMEV; large spheroids were found to be more infectious than small spheroids when separated by a sucrose gradient. Developmental resistance within the fourth instar was reflected by a 2-fold reduction in mortality (18%-21%) with 5×106 large spheroids in larvae orally challenged at 24, 48 or 72 h post-molt. Fourth instars were highly sensitive to intrahemocoelic challenge with AMEV; 1PFU produced approximately 80% mortality regardless of age within the instar. These results indicate that in gypsy moth, systemic developmental resistance may be specific to LdMNPV, reflecting a co-evolutionary relationship between the baculovirus and its host.

  12. Sensitivity of gypsy moth neurosecretory neurons to acute thermal stress

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    Ilijin Larisa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In gypsy moth caterpillars exposed to a temperature of 35°C (for 1, 12 and 24 h and caterpillars that were exposed to elevated temperature for 12 h and were allowed to recover for 12 h at 23°C, changes in the brain protein profiles and morphometric characteristics of A1’ medial and L2 lateral protocerebral neurosecretory neurons were analyzed. In all groups, protein bands with a molecular mass corresponding to that of members of heat-shock protein families were detected, indicating that acute exposure to this temperature likely induced the synthesis of HSP. Increased morphometric parameters of A1’ neurons and the large amount of neurosecretory material in the neuron body implicate that the temperature of 35°C is not in the temperature range that exerts stimulatory effects on growth and survival. Changes in the morphometric characteristics of L2 neurosecretory neurons from the lateral part of the protocerebrum, and retention of neurosecretory material in their cytoplasm indicate a low level of secretion.

  13. Transcriptome of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis

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    Transcriptomic profiles of the lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which...

  14. Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

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    Vyacheslav V Martemyanov

    Full Text Available Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs, particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids.

  15. Gypsy moth basic knowledge and its prevention%舞毒蛾基本知识及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓芬

    2012-01-01

    舞毒蛾属鳞翅目夜蛾总科毒蛾科舞毒蛾属。是一种食性广谱的食叶害虫,本文主要介绍了它的生活史、主要形态特征和主要防治措施。%gypsy moth genus Lepidoptera Lymantriidae gypsy moth genus of moth. Is a kind of feeding broad leaf eating insects, this paper mainly introduces its life history, the main characteristics and the main preventive measures.

  16. Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae.

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    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-06-01

    Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a pathogen in its host's population. We tested the hypothesis that an ant species like Formica fusca L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) can affect the horizontal transmission of two microsporidian pathogens, Nosema lymantriae Weiser (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Timofejeva) (Microsporidia: Burenellidae), infecting the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae). Observational studies showed that uninfected and infected L. dispar larvae are potential prey items for F. fusca. Laboratory choice experiments led to the conclusion that F. fusca did not prefer L. dispar larvae infected with N. lymantriae and avoided L. dispar larvae infected with V. disparis over uninfected larvae when given the choice. Experiments carried out on small potted oak, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. (Fagaceae), saplings showed that predation of F. fusca on infected larvae did not significantly change the transmission of either microsporidian species to L. dispar test larvae. Microscopic examination indicated that F. fusca workers never became infected with N. lymantriae or V. disparis after feeding on infected prey. PMID:23926361

  17. Progress of Researching Chitinase of Gypsy Moth%舞毒蛾几丁质酶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绥冬; 宋志芳; 张常; 李瑶; 范晓军

    2012-01-01

    The gypsy moth that is a worldwide forestry pests are distributed in China's provinces. Gypsy moth larvae eat the leaves of fi-uit trees, willow trees, which have serious harm to forestry safety. The article was described the hazards of the gypsy moth, Chitinase relevant knowledge and research status of the gypsy moth Chitinase, and expounded the prospect of application of Chitinase to combat gypsy moth.%舞毒蛾是一种世界性林业害虫,在我国各省均有分布。舞毒蛾幼虫主要蚕食果树、柳树等树木的树叶.严重危害林业安全。文章介绍了舞毒蛾的危害、几丁质酶的相关知识及舞毒蛾几丁质酶的研究现状.并对应用几丁质酶防治舞毒蛾的前景进行了论述。

  18. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

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    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  19. Evolution of oviposition behavior in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar in Hyrcanian forests, North of Iran

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    GOODARZ HAJIZADEH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hajizadeh G, Kavosi MR, Jalilvand H. 2013. Evolution of oviposition behavior in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar in Hyrcanian forests, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 101-105. Oviposition behavior has been introduced at the center of many of the major debates on the ecology and evolution of interactions between insects and plants. The objective of this research was to determine the number of egg masses gypsy moth in relation to diameter at breast height (dbh, egg placement, orientation and host tree species. Sampling was carried out in Daland national park, Gorgan province. By global position system (GPS device using polygons with width of 20 m and determined azimuth, defoliated trees were recorded. Data and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range tests. Results showed that the diameter at breast height was not significantly affected by the number of egg masses. The effect of oviposition place on number of egg masses gypsy moth were significant (P<0.01. The highest number of egg masses (2.148 egg masses/tree was observed at trunk of defoliated trees; also, minimum (1.65 egg masses/tree occurred in branches of defoliated trees. The effects of oviposition orient were significant (P<0.05. The means comparison showed that the maximum rates of egg masses was occurred in the south geographical position (2.04 egg masses/tree, the least of defoliation was related to the north direction (1.57 egg masses/tree. The primary host tree species was Persian iron wood (Parrotia persica. In finally, the selectivity of oviposition females may often provide the initial basis for divergence of insect populations on to different plant species, and it may drive the evolution of some plant defenses.

  20. Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm.

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    Frank, K L; Tobin, P C; Thistle, H W; Kalkstein, Laurence S

    2013-05-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions.

  1. Effects of tannic acid on trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase activities in gypsy moth larval midgut

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    Mrdaković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of allelochemical stress on genetic variations in the specific activities of gypsy moth digestive enzymes (trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase and relative midgut mass (indirect measure of food consumption, as well as variability in their plasticity, were investigated in fifth instar gypsy moths originating from two populations with different trophic adaptations (oak and locust-tree forests. Thirty-two full-sib families from the Quercus population and twenty-six full-sib families from the Robinia population were reared on an artificial diet with or without supplementation with tannic acid. Between population differences were observed as higher average specific activity of trypsin and relative midgut mass in larvae from the Robinia population. Significant broad-sense heritabilities were observed for the specific activity of trypsin in the control state, and for specific activity of leucine aminopeptidase in a stressful environment. Significantly lower heritability for relative midgut mass was recorded in larvae from the Robinia population reared under stressful conditions. Significant variability of trypsin plasticity in larvae from both populations and significant variability of leucine aminopeptidase plasticity in larvae from the Robinia population point to the potential for the evolution of enzyme adaptive plastic responses to the presence of stressor. Non-significant across-environment genetic correlations do not represent a constraint for the evolution of enzyme plasticity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173027

  2. Genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae using inter simple sequence repeats markers.

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    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar, one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei's, H was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling, revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (F ST = 0.2543, P < 0.001 was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei's and Shannon and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern.

  3. Synthesis and biological activity of conformationally restricted gypsy moth pheromone mimics.

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    Chen, Hao; Gong, Yongmei; Gries, Regine M; Plettner, Erika

    2010-04-15

    The design and synthesis of a series of conformationally constrained mimics of gypsy moth sex pheromone, (+)-disparlure (7R,8S)-2-methyl-7,8-epoxyoctadecane, are described. The core structure of the mimics is derived from 5-(2'-hydroxyethyl)cyclopent-2-en-1-ol. Substituent optimization of the analogs was accomplished through the synthesis of mini-libraries and pure individual compounds, followed by electrophysiological experiments with male gypsy moth antennae. The electroantennogram results show that the analogs elicited weak to no antennal responses themselves. There was a clear structure-activity pattern for odorant activity, with ethyl substituents being best. Further, when puffed simultaneously with the pheromone, some of the compounds gave a significant enhancement of the antennal depolarization, indicating an additive or synergistic effect. A pure pheromone stimulus following a mixed compound/pheromone stimulus was generally not affected, with two exceptions: one compound enhanced and another inhibited a subsequent stimulus. The compounds also prolonged the stimulation of the antenna, which manifested itself in widened electroantennogram peaks. We tested the hypothesis that this prolonged stimulation may be due to the stabilization of a particular conformer of the pheromone-binding protein (PBP). Compounds that caused PBP2 to adopt a similar conformation than in the presence of pheromone also caused peak widening. This was not the case with PBP1.

  4. Development of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L on the foliage of Quercus cerris L., Q. Petraea (matt Liebl. and Q. Robur L. in the controlled conditions

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    Milanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L was monitored in laboratory conditions, on the foliage of the species Quercus cerris L. Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl. and Quercus robur L. The experiment was established in the controlled environmental conditions, at the temperature of 25°C, photoperiod 14:10 (day: night and relative humidity 70%. The objective of the research was to determine the suitability of the study host plant species for gypsy moth development. The study results show that Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. petraea foliage had a lower survival, higher number of moultings, longer preadult development and lower fecundity, which makes this species less suitable compared to the other two. Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. cerris foliage had the highest survival degree the lowest number of moultings, the shortest preadult development and the highest fecundity, which makes this species the most favourable for gypsy moth development. Q. robur was between the former two species in this respect.

  5. Activity of gypsy moth dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons under increased rearing density

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    Mrdaković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar caterpillars were reared under two different rearing densities for the first three days of the 4th larval instar: 5 larvae that were kept in a Petri dish (V = 80 ml belonged to the intense stress (D1 group; 5 larvae that were kept in a plastic cup (V = 300ml belonged to the group exposed to less intense stress (D2 group. In the control group, single larvae were reared in a Petri dish. Morphometric changes in L1, L2 and L2’ dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons (nsn were analyzed. After keeping 5 larvae in a Petri dish, the size of L2 neurosecretory neurons (nsn significantly increased. Rearing 5 larvae in a plastic cup significantly increased the size of L1 nsn nuclei and the number of L2’nsn. A decrease in relative band densities in the region of molecular masses (11-15 kD that correspond to prothoracicotropic hormones in the gypsy moth was observed in the electrophoretic profiles that were obtained after both treatments in comparison to the control group. [Acknowledgments. This study was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (Grant No. 173027.

  6. Hitchhikers on trade routes: A phenology model estimates the probabilities of gypsy moth introduction and establishment.

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    Gray, David R

    2010-12-01

    As global trade increases so too does the probability of introduction of alien species to new locations. Estimating the probability of an alien species introduction and establishment following introduction is a necessary step in risk estimation (probability of an event times the consequences, in the currency of choice, of the event should it occur); risk estimation is a valuable tool for reducing the risk of biological invasion with limited resources. The Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is a pest species whose consequence of introduction and establishment in North America and New Zealand warrants over US$2 million per year in surveillance expenditure. This work describes the development of a two-dimensional phenology model (GLS-2d) that simulates insect development from source to destination and estimates: (1) the probability of introduction from the proportion of the source population that would achieve the next developmental stage at the destination and (2) the probability of establishment from the proportion of the introduced population that survives until a stable life cycle is reached at the destination. The effect of shipping schedule on the probabilities of introduction and establishment was examined by varying the departure date from 1 January to 25 December by weekly increments. The effect of port efficiency was examined by varying the length of time that invasion vectors (shipping containers and ship) were available for infection. The application of GLS-2d is demonstrated using three common marine trade routes (to Auckland, New Zealand, from Kobe, Japan, and to Vancouver, Canada, from Kobe and from Vladivostok, Russia).

  7. Growth responses of gypsy moth larvae to elevated CO2:the influence of methods of insect rearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Zhu Ji; Lin-Li An; Xiao-Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on foliar chemistry of two tree species (Populus pseudo-simonii Kitag.and Betula platyphylla) and on growth of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae were examined.Furthermore,we focused on the comparison of results on the growth responses of larvae obtained from two methods of insect rearing,the nochoice feeding trial performed in the laboratory or in situ in open-top chambers.On the whole,both primary and secondary metabolites in the leaves of the two tree species were significantly affected by main effects of time (sampling date),CO2 and species.Elevated CO2 significantly increased the C:N ratio and concentrations of the soluble sugar,starch,total nonstructural carbohydrates,total phenolics and condensed tannins,but significantly decreased the concentration of nitrogen.Higher contents of total phenolics and condensed tannins were detected in the frass of larvae reared in elevated CO2 treatments.Overall,the growth of gypsy moth larvae were significantly inhibited by elevated CO2 and CO2induced changes in leaf quality.Our study did not indicate the two methods of insect rearing could influence the direction of effects of elevated CO2 on the growth of individual insects; however,the magnitude of negative effects of elevated CO2 on larval growth did differ between the two insect rearing methods,and it seems that the response magnitude was also mediated by larval age and host plant species.

  8. Single-stranded DNA fragments of insect-specific nuclear polyhedrosis virus act as selective DNA insecticides for gypsy moth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2014-07-01

    This paper focuses on the DNA insecticides as a novel preparation against gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) based on DNA fragments of the anti-apoptotic gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus. It was found that the external application of a solution with two single-stranded DNA fragments from BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV (L.dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene induces a significantly higher mortality of gypsy moth caterpillars in comparison with the application of the control solutions. This effect does not depend on the infection of caterpillars with LdMNPV. The results also show that DNA insecticides based on LdMNPV IAP-3 gene fragments can be selective in action, and at least are not harmful to tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon). Part of the gypsy moth genome cloned with the fragments of BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV IAP-3 gene as primers, has an overlap with the corresponding part of the LdMNPV IAP-3 gene and L.dispar IAP-1 mRNA for an inhibitor of apoptosis protein with the high cover by query, allows assuming that we cloned a part of gypsy moth anti-apoptosis gene. This finding gives the grounding that proposed here DNA insecticides might act through the blocking of the mechanisms involved in post transcriptional expression of insect anti-apoptosis genes. The results show the insecticidal potential of the viral genome fragments that can be used to create safe and relatively fast-acting DNA insecticides to control the quantity of gypsy moth populations, important task for forestry and agriculture.

  9. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  10. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and heat shock proteins (Hsp70) of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae in response to long-term fluoranthene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdaković, Marija; Ilijin, Larisa; Vlahović, Milena; Matić, Dragana; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may affect biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms, thus impairing fitness related traits and influencing their populations. This imposes the need for providing early-warning signals of pollution. Our study aimed to examine changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the concentration of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) in homogenates of brain tissues of fifth instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae, exposed to the ubiquitous PAH, fluoranthene, supplemented to the rearing diet. Significantly increased activity of AChE in larvae fed on the diets with high fluoranthene concentrations suggests the necessity for elucidation of the role of AChE in these insects when exposed to PAH pollution. Significant induction of Hsp70 in gypsy moth larvae reared on the diets containing low fluoranthene concentrations, indicate that changes in the level of Hsp70 might be useful as an indicator of pollution in this widespread forest species. PMID:27343862

  11. Efficacy of single and double applications of Foray 48B (bacillus thuringiensis) against the gypsy moth (lymantria dispar l. ) in Ontario. Information report No. O-X-423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    In May 1991, an experimental aerial spraying program was conducted in Pembroke District to compare the efficacy of single and double applications of Foray 48B (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner) (B.t.) against gypsy moths. Two blocks were treated with a double application of 30 BIU/2.4L/ha and six blocks (three early and three late) were treated with a single application of 50 BIU/4 L/ha. This report gives the results of the program.

  12. Influence of Genotype, Environment, and Gypsy Moth Herbivory on Local and Systemic Chemical Defenses in Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Couture, John J; Major, Ian T; Constabel, C Peter; Lindroth, Richard L

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have explored the impacts of intraspecific genetic variation and environment on the induction of plant chemical defenses by herbivory. Relatively few, however, have considered how those factors affect within-plant distribution of induced defenses. This work examined the impacts of plant genotype and soil nutrients on the local and systemic phytochemical responses of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) to defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). We deployed larvae onto foliage on individual tree branches for 15 days and then measured chemistry in leaves from: 1) branches receiving damage, 2) undamaged branches of insect-damaged trees, and 3) branches of undamaged control trees. The relationship between post-herbivory phytochemical variation and insect performance also was examined. Plant genotype, soil nutrients, and damage all influenced phytochemistry, with genotype and soil nutrients being stronger determinants than damage. Generally, insect damage decreased foliar nitrogen, increased levels of salicinoids and condensed tannins, but had little effect on levels of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, TI3. The largest damage-mediated tannin increases occurred in leaves on branches receiving damage, whereas the largest salicinoid increases occurred in leaves of adjacent, undamaged branches. Foliar nitrogen and the salicinoid tremulacin had the strongest positive and negative relationships, respectively, with insect growth. Overall, plant genetics and environment concomitantly influenced both local and systemic phytochemical responses to herbivory. These findings suggest that herbivory can contribute to phytochemical heterogeneity in aspen foliage, which may in turn influence future patterns of herbivory and nutrient cycling over larger spatial scales.

  13. Effects of temperature and dietary nitrogen on genetic variation and covariation in gypsy moth larval performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković-Tomanić Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the plastic and genetic components of variation in responses of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar 4th instar larvae to temperature and food quality, we applied a split-family four-environment experimental design where full-sibs were reared on two constant temperatures (23°C and 28°C and two concentrations of dietary nitrogen (1.5 and 3.7% dry weight. A temperature of 28°C and low dietary nitrogen decreased larval weight and prolonged larval developmental time, while viability was not affected. Only a marginally significant interaction between the two environmental factors was found for larval weight. The broad-sense heritability for larval developmental time did not change across environments, and across-environment genetic correlations were close to one. Heritability for larval weight depended on environmental and across-environmental genetic correlations that were not significant. There was no evidence of a trade-off between developmental time and larval weight. The implications of the obtained results for the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in complex environments are discussed. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of Serbia, grant No. 173027.

  14. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) control with ground-based hydraulic applications of Gypchek, in vitro-produced virus, and Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gypchek, a registered microbial insecticide for aerial and ground-based application against the gypsy moth, Lymantris dispar L., was field-tested in 1996 and 1997 at 2 doses (10(11) and 10(12) polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) per 379 liters (100 gallons)) and with and without a sunscreen. An in vitro-produced strain of gypsy moth virus was tested in 1997 at the 10(11)-PIB dose; however, the effective dose was lower because in vitro-produced PIBs contained 5-fold fewer virions than Gypchek PIBs. Treatments were applied to overstory oak, Quercus spp., trees with a truck-mounted hydraulic sprayer. Larval mortality was significantly greater, and larval density was significantly lower, on trees treated with both Gypchek and in vitro-produced virus than on untreated trees. Treatment with in vitro-produced virus resulted in significantly lower mortality and higher larval density than Gypchek treatment. Defoliation was significantly reduced by all treatments in 1996 but not in 1997, when overall gypsy moth population density dropped to very low levels. Mortality was significantly higher among larvae treated at the 10(12)-PIB dose in 1996, but there was no significant dose effect on larval density or defoliation. Mortality, density, and defoliation were not dose dependent in the 1997 test. The addition of sunscreen to Gypchek applied at the 10(12)-PIB dose did not have a significant effect on any of the measured parameters in 1996 or 1997. In 1996, the addition of an enhancer, Blankophor BBH, to the 10(11)-PIB dose increased mortality to a level that was not significantly different from that at the 10(12)-PIB dose. The level of control with the 10(12)-PIB treatment was not significantly different from that achieved with an application of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner (Foray 48B) at 36 billion international units (BIU) per 379 liters

  15. Evaluation of the Effects of Light Intensity and Time Interval After the Start of Scotophase on the Female Flight Propensity of Asian Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Keena, Melody

    2016-04-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one from Korea) were compared under all combinations of three light intensities (0.05, 0.10, and 0.40 lux) and during three time intervals after the start of scotophase. A total of 567 females were flight tested. Female flight propensity, time to initiate walking, fanning, and flying, and duration of fanning differed significantly among geographic populations. Females were less likely to voluntarily fly during the 0-1-h time interval after the start of scotophase than during the later time intervals (1-2 and 2-3 h), suggesting that the light intensity cue has to occur at the correct time after the expected start of scotophase for flight initiation. Light intensity did not significantly affect the proportion of females that voluntarily flew, but did impact the timing of the walking and fanning preflight behaviors. The interaction between light intensity and time interval after the start of scotophase had a significant effect on the proportion of females that fanned. The proportion of females with sustained flight capability varied among the populations evaluated. These results may aid in determining the risk of Asian gypsy moth dispersal, but further work is needed to assess other factors that play a role in flight propensity.

  16. A Multi-Species TaqMan PCR Assay for the Identification of Asian Gypsy Moths (Lymantria spp.) and Other Invasive Lymantriines of Biosecurity Concern to North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donald; Zahiri, Reza; Djoumad, Abdelmadjid; Freschi, Luca; Lamarche, Josyanne; Holden, Dave; Cervantes, Sandra; Ojeda, Dario I.; Potvin, Amélie; Nisole, Audrey; Béliveau, Catherine; Capron, Arnaud; Kimoto, Troy; Day, Brittany; Yueh, Hesther; Duff, Cameron; Levesque, Roger C.; Hamelin, Richard C.; Cusson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Preventing the introduction and establishment of forest invasive alien species (FIAS) such as the Asian gypsy moth (AGM) is a high-priority goal for countries with extensive forest resources such as Canada. The name AGM designates a group of closely related Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) comprising two L. dispar subspecies (L. dispar asiatica, L. dispar japonica) and three closely related Lymantria species (L. umbrosa, L. albescens, L. postalba), all considered potential FIAS in North America. Ships entering Canadian ports are inspected for the presence of suspicious gypsy moth eggs, but those of AGM are impossible to distinguish from eggs of innocuous Lymantria species. To assist regulatory agencies in their identification of these insects, we designed a suite of TaqMan® assays that provide significant improvements over existing molecular assays targeting AGM. The assays presented here can identify all three L. dispar subspecies (including the European gypsy moth, L. dispar dispar), the three other Lymantria species comprising the AGM complex, plus five additional Lymantria species that pose a threat to forests in North America. The suite of assays is built as a “molecular key” (analogous to a taxonomic key) and involves several parallel singleplex and multiplex qPCR reactions. Each reaction uses a combination of primers and probes designed to separate taxa through discriminatory annealing. The success of these assays is based on the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5’ region of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) or in its longer, 3’ region, as well as on the presence of an indel in the “FS1” nuclear marker, generating North American and Asian alleles, used here to assess Asian introgression into L. dispar dispar. These assays have the advantage of providing rapid and accurate identification of ten Lymantria species and subspecies considered potential FIAS. PMID:27513667

  17. Useof phyto-attractant in monitoring and controlling gypsy moth%利用植物源引诱剂监测与控制舞毒蛾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菁; 骆有庆; 石娟; 周娇; 王先礼; 马凌云; 陈超

    2011-01-01

    Trunk window traps baiting with plant volatile compounds from damaged Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. branches were applied in L. gmelinii forests in Aershan area, Inner-Mongolia. The effects of phytoattractant, sex pheromone and their combination were used to test the effect of phyto-attractant on gypsy moth and the interaction of phyto-attractant and sex pheromone. The experiment was carried out in nine forest stands covering young, middle-aged and mature forests. Traps were also used in five other forests to test the effective distance of phyto-attractant. The results showed that the phyto-attractant could not exceed the attractive level of the sex pheromone except when the population size of the gypsy moth is very large. The phyto-attractant had an obvious synergistic effect on the sex pheromone. Gypsy moths 90 m away from the traps could be attracted with an optimum distance around 70 m. All of the attracted moths were males, most of which are virginal or not fully mated. The plant volatile compound had an obvious effect in monitoring and controlling the gypsy moth as a phyto-attractant, but it can also be applied as an accessory ingredient of sex pheromone in the management of the moth. The results also supported that our phyto-attractant can be developed as a pesticide for gypsy moth.%在内蒙古阿尔山林业局兴安落叶松纯林内,选取受害兴安落叶松针叶的挥发物并复配成引诱剂(植物源引诱剂),测定其对舞毒蛾成虫的引诱效果。试验一利用窗式诱捕器携带4种诱芯:1)植物源引诱剂(引诱剂I),2)舞毒蛾性信息素(引诱剂Ⅱ),3)前两者之结合(引诱剂Ⅲ),4)空白对照于9块样地(幼、中龄林和成熟林各3块)进行测定。试验二利用窗式诱捕器携带第1种诱芯在5块新样地中测定了植物源引诱剂的有效距离。试验三通过观测诱集到的舞毒蛾成虫交配或产卵(精子)状况从而确定植物源引诱剂

  18. Canopy recovery of pedunculate oak, Turkey oak and beech trees after severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar): Case study from Western Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Csóka György; Pödör Zoltán; Nagy Gyula; Hirka Anikó

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the canopy recovery of 3 tree species (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, European beech) at two locations in the Veszprém county (Western Hungary) after severe defoliation by gypsy moth caterpillars in the spring of 2005. The Turkey oak has evidently the best recovery potential, and it almost completely replaced the lost foliage in 4 months. The pedunculate oak and beech needed 2 years to reach the same level of recovery. The pedunculate oak suffered from a heavy infection of Micro...

  19. Canopy recovery of pedunculate oak, Turkey oak and beech trees after severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar: Case study from Western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csóka György

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the canopy recovery of 3 tree species (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, European beech at two locations in the Veszprém county (Western Hungary after severe defoliation by gypsy moth caterpillars in the spring of 2005. The Turkey oak has evidently the best recovery potential, and it almost completely replaced the lost foliage in 4 months. The pedunculate oak and beech needed 2 years to reach the same level of recovery. The pedunculate oak suffered from a heavy infection of Microsphaera alphitoides after defoliation and it probably slowed down its recovery. Neither the presence of Agrilus biguttatus in the oak plot nor the appearance of Agrilus viridis in the beech plot was observed during the study period. Population density of the buprestid Coraebus floerentinus showed a considerable increase in the oak plot, but remained under the damage level. Neither other harmful appearance of other pests nor significant tree mortality were observed within 4 years from the defoliation. These results provide information for the evaluation of longer term influences of the gypsy moth defoliation and may support the decisions concerning pest control.

  20. Volatile organic compound emission from holm oak infested by gypsy moth larvae: evidence for distinct responses in damaged and undamaged leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, Michael; Lhoutellier, Louise

    2007-10-01

    Foliage of Quercus ilex L. (holm oak), a widespread Mediterranean species, constitutively emits large quantities of a complex genotype-dependent mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). During a mass outbreak of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in southern France, we examined the effects of gypsy moth feeding on VOC production from whole apices and single leaves of Q. ilex. Feeding induced the emission of new VOCs at rates up to 240 ng m(-2) s(-1) (16% of the total VOC release), which mainly consisted of sesquiterpenes, a homoterpene and a monoterpene alcohol. The new compounds were emitted after a delay of several hours following infestation and their production declined rapidly when caterpillars were removed. Undamaged leaves of infested trees emitted new VOCs, but with a different composition to those of damaged leaves and at lower rates. Neither caterpillars nor caterpillar excrement released VOCs. Emission of constitutive VOCs by undamaged leaves of infested trees temporary increased by up to 30%, whereas, in damaged leaves, they remained stable and decreased after some days when necrotic spots occurred around the feeding sites. In continuous light and at constant temperature, emissions of new VOCs showed a marked diurnal cycle, whereas those of constitutive VOCs did not. The results suggest that induced VOCs make a significant contribution to the atmospheric VOC load and may mediate trophic interactions. The observed differential local and systemic responses in composition, quantity and time courses of emissions mirror the existence of several regulation processes triggered by different signaling compounds and elicitors. PMID:17669734

  1. Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a...

  2. Molecular identification of the genotype of gypsy moth larvae%舞毒蛾幼虫基因型的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林瑶; 雷桥; 朱雅君; 周国梁; 叶军; 易建平; 查利文; 杨轶

    2012-01-01

    To identify 2 Lepidoptera larvae intercepted in the red oak from Belgium,their morphological characters were identified and the comparative analysis between them and other gypsy moth samples was carried out through amplification and sequencing of the two genetic markers of their mitochondria and autosomes.The results showed that the larvae were hybrids of Lymantria dispar.%为鉴定来自比利时红橡木原木上截获的2头鳞翅目幼虫,通过形态特征鉴定及对样本线粒体和常染色体上两段分子标记进行扩增和测序,并与其他舞毒蛾样本进行比对与分析.结果表明:该样品为舞毒蛾幼虫,且为亚洲型和欧洲型的杂交种.

  3. Structural and Functional Difference of Pheromone Binding Proteins in Discriminating Chemicals in the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria Dispar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxue Yu, Fei Ma, Yixia Cao, Junhua Zhang, Yongan Zhang, Shengnan Duan, Yadong Wei, Shuifang Zhu, Naizhong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., play an important role in olfaction. Here structures of PBPs were first built by Homology Modeling, and each model of PBPs had seven α-helices and a large hydrophobic cavity including 25 residues for PBP1 and 30 residues for PBP2. Three potential semiochemicals were first screened by CDOCKER program based on the PBP models and chemical database. These chemicals were Palmitic acid n-butyl ester (Pal, Bis(3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl adipate (Bis, L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-isoleucyl-proline methyl ester propylamide (CA-074. The analysis of chemicals docking the proteins showed one hydrogen bond was established between the residues Lys94 and (+-Disparlure ((+-D, and л-л interactions were present between Phe36 of PBP1 and (+-D. The Lys94 of PBP1 formed two and three hydrogen bonds with Bis and CA-074, respectively. There was no residue of PBP2 interacting with these four chemicals except Bis forming one hydrogen bond with Lys121. After simulating the conformational changes of LdisPBPs at pH7.3 and 5.5 by constant pH molecular dynamics simulation in implicit solvent, the N-terminal sequences of PBPs was unfolded, only having five α-helices, and PBP2 had larger binding pocket at 7.3 than PBP1. To investigate the changes of α-helices at different pH, far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism showed PBPs consist of α-helices, and the tertiary structures of PBP1 and PBP2 were influenced at pH7.3 and 5.5. The fluorescence binding assay indicated that PBP1 and PBP2 have similarly binding affinity to (+-D at pH 5.5 and 7.3, respectively. At pH 5.5, the dissociation constant of the complex between PBP1 and 2-decyl-1-oxaspiro [2.2] pentane (OXP1 was 0.68±0.01μM, for (+-D was 5.32±0.11μM, while PBP2 with OXP1 and (+-D were 1.88±0.02μM and 5.54±0.04μM, respectively. Three chemicals screened had higher affinity to PBP1 than (+-D except Pal at pH5.5, and had lower affinity than (+-D at p

  4. The RING for gypsy moth control: Topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Laikova, Kateryna V; Zaitsev, Aleksei S; Gushchin, Vladimir A; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies suggest a cellular origin for the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) anti-apoptosis genes IAPs, thus opening a possibility to use the fragments of these genes for modulation of host metabolism. We report here the strong insecticidal and metabolic effect of single-stranded antisense DNA fragment from RING (really interesting new gene) domain of gypsy moth LdMNPV IAP-3 gene: specifically, on reduction of biomass (by 35%) and survival of L. dispar caterpillars. The treatment with this DNA fragment leads to a significantly higher mortality rates of female insects (1.7 fold) accompanied with the signs of apoptosis. Additionally, we show increased expression of host IAP-1, caspase-4 and gelsolin genes in eggs laid by survived females treated with RING DNA fragment accompanied with calcium and magnesium imbalance, indicating that the strong stress reactions and metabolic effects are not confined to treated insects but likely led to apoptosis in eggs too. The proposed new approach for insect pest management, which can be considered as advancement of "microbial pesticides", is based on the application of the specific virus DNA, exploiting the knowledge about virus-pest interactions and putting it to the benefit of mankind. PMID:27265824

  5. Larval instar impact on host selection suitability of asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica, AGM).%亚洲型舞毒蛾幼虫寄主选择与龄期关系初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏靖; 骆有庆; 石娟; 王德鹏; 沈绍伟

    2012-01-01

    The Asian gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar asiatica, AGM) is one of three gypsy found in Asia. European gypsy moth was introduced to USA which caused a great damage moth subspecies that is . Former study showed Asia gypsy moth could harm more kinds of trees than European gypsy moth. In this experiment, we choose 16 kinds of tree species to test host selection suitability which are common in USA or China. Statistics mortality rate, developmental duration and pupae weight to analyze the host impact on Asia gypsy moth. The result showed the larve of AGM feed on Acer saccharum, Betula platyphylla, Populus canadensi could complete life cycle. Larvae feed on Juniperus rigida, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus megistophylla, Picea koraiensis, Albizia julibrissin, Lirioden- dron chinense × tulipifera, Pinus bungeana, Pinus massoniana and Pinus thunbergii all died before 2nd instar. Larvae feed on P. tabulaeformis, P. strobus and Diospyros kaki after 4th instar, mortality is lower than 2nd instar. Once the larve develop after 4th instar, host range is wider than 1 st and 2nd instar.%舞毒蛾是一种世界性的害虫,常被分为欧洲型和亚洲型2种类型,欧洲型舞毒蛾在传入美国之后造成了巨大危害。之前报道指出亚洲型舞毒蛾的寄主范围比欧洲型舞毒蛾的广,故造成的危害和损失更大,北美植物保护组织据此对中国的高风险港口实施了船舶特别检疫措施,对我国的进出口贸易产生了巨大影响。鉴于此,本实验以16种北美和中国常见的行道树种和绿化树种作为供试树种,分析了不同寄主植物对亚洲型舞毒蛾生长发育指标的影响规律。结果表明:饲喂白桦、加杨和糖槭的幼虫可以完成生活周期。饲喂杜松、女贞、大叶黄杨、红皮云杉、合欢、杂交鹅掌楸、马尾松、黑松和白皮松的幼虫在2龄以前全部死亡。虽然2龄以前幼虫饲喂北美乔松、油松和柿树后死亡率较高,但

  6. Genetic variation and correlations of life-history traits in gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar L.) from two populations in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarević Jelica; Nenadović Vera; Janković-Tomanić Milena; Milanović S.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic fluctuations in density impose different selection pressures on populations of outbreaking Lepidoptera due to changes in their nutritional environment. The maternal effects hypothesis of insect outbreak predicts the transmission of this nutritional "information" to subsequent generations and alterations in offspring life-history traits. To test for these time-delayed effects of the parental generation, we compared life-history traits and their variation and covariation among laborato...

  7. Effect of Two α-pinene Derivatives on Enzymes Activity of the Gypsy Moth%2种α-蒎烯衍生物对舞毒蛾体内酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 马玲; 陈旭日; 马伟

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide the concept and the actual reference to effectively control the harm of the gypsy moth and practice the concrete prevention and control work, we studied the effect of two α-pinene derivatives involving 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-α-pinene maleimide group acylhydrazone and (10z)-N-[5.7.7-trimethyl(4.1.0) heptyl-4-ethylenedia⁃mine-3-subunit] aniline on the 3rd instar larvae of gypsy moth by using feed mixed drug law and measured the ( CarE) , ( CAT) , ( SOD) and ( AChE) activity by using enzyme activity assay. Both agents have a certain role in virulence on the 3rd instar larvae of gypsy moth, the LC50 were 68.344 and 119.537 mg/kg at 48 h, and (10z)-N-[5.7.7-trimethyl(4.1.0) heptyl-4-ethylenediamine-3-subunit] aniline have an more significant effect. When the 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-α-pi⁃nene maleimide group acylhydrazone was dealt with the 3rd instar larvae of gypsy moth on the one hand its effects were more obvious on the CarE and AChE activity with the largest inhibition rate of 70.97% and 71.23%, respectively, and it had a clear activating effect on the CAT and SOD activity that the maximum values were 1.62 and 1.42 times than those of the control, respectively. When the (10z)-N-[5.7.7-trimethyl(4.1.0) heptyl-4-ethylenediamine-3-subunit] aniline was dealt with the 3rd instar larvae of gypsy moth, its effects were more obvious on CAT, CarE and AChE activity with the largest inhibition rate of 67.4%, 31.43% and 26.04%, respectively, and it showed the inhibition first and activation later for SOD activity.%为了探明α-蒎烯的2种衍生物3-甲氧基-4-羟基苯基-α-蒎烯马来酰亚胺基酰腙和(10z)-N-[5.7.7-三甲基(4.1.0)庚-4-乙二胺-3-亚基]苯胺对舞毒蛾(Lymantria dispar)3龄幼虫的毒力作用,采用饲料混药法研究了2种衍生物不同剂量处理下,其体内CarE、CAT、SOD和AChE活性的变化规律。结果表明:2种衍生物对舞毒蛾3龄幼虫

  8. 舞毒蛾不同地理种群基于AFLP分子标记的遗传分析%AFLP Analysis of Different Geographic Populations of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar ( Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱路; 安榆林; 徐梅; 杨晓军; 朱宏斌

    2011-01-01

    舞毒蛾是一种食性很广、危害很大的世界性林木害虫,根据其地理分布和生活特性,现在被分为亚洲型和欧洲型2种.对来自俄罗斯远东地区、蒙古、日本、美国和中国5个地理种群,共26份舞毒蛾样品进行AFLP分子标记研究.成功建立并优化舞毒蛾AFLP分析体系,从16对引物组合中筛选出3对扩增条带多、多态检出率高的荧光标记引物组合,利用CEQ - 8000遗传分析仪进行毛细管电泳及数据分析,共检测到507个多态性位点.通过PAUP软件对AFLP数据进行UPGM和NJ树的聚类分析以及遗传距离分析,结果表明:5个地理种群舞毒蛾明显分成欧洲型(美国种群)和亚洲型,其中亚洲型又可分成俄罗斯、日本、中国及蒙古3个类群.美国种群间遗传变异比其他种群较大,中国种群与美国种群遗传距离最大,而与蒙古种群遗传分化最小.从分子水平上研究舞毒蛾不同种群的遗传分类情况,揭示利用AFLP分子标记技术可以区分舞毒蛾不同地理种群的基因型,为研究舞毒蛾的起源、入侵与扩散、遗传与变异以及检疫措施的制定等方面提供科学依据.%The gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, is one of the most serious insect pests of palaearctic and nearctic forests. According to their geographical distribution and biology characteristics, they were divided into the Asian and European types of populations. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to detect genetic diversities within and among the gypsy moth populations. Three fluorescent-labeled AFLP primer combinations were used on 26 L. Dispar samples collected from different locations of Russia, Mongolia, Japan, United States of America and China, detecting a total of 507 polymorphic fragments. Genetic similarities based on these data were calculated and cluster analysis was performed to graphically display groupings between populations. L. Dispar samples from these areas were grouped

  9. Establishment of Optimum Reaction System of Carboxylesterase from Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar)%舞毒蛾羧酸酯酶最佳反应体系的确立1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付莉; 胡春祥

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the optimum reaction system of carboxylesterase (CarE) from the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), we used orthogonal experiment to measure the effects of the concentrations of carboxylesterase and substrate , pH, reaction temperature and reaction time to the activity of CarE .Through analyzing the data from orthogonal experiment with range analy-sis and analysis of variance , the optimum reaction system of carboxylesterase was ultimately determined as 0.2 beetle· mL-1 of carboxylesterase concentration , 0.2 mmol· L-1 of substrate concentration , 7.5 of pH, 45℃of reaction temperature , and 10 min of reaction time .%为了确定舞毒蛾(Lymantrai dispar)羧酸酯酶(CarE)活性的最佳反应体系,运用正交试验测定了反应体系中酶浓度、底物浓度、pH值、反应温度和反应时间5个因素对CarE活性的影响。极差分析和方差分析显示,舞毒蛾CarE的最优反应体系为酶浓度0.2头· mL-1,底物浓度0.2 mmol· L-1,pH=7.5,反应温度45℃,反应时间10 min。

  10. THE LETHAL EFFECT AND SUBLETHAL EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHIC STRAINS LDMNPV FOR THE 2nd INSTAR ASIAN GYPSY MOTH LARVAETH%不同地理品系LdMNPV对取食青杨的亚洲型舞毒蛾幼虫的致死与亚致死作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树娟; 立清; 单艳敏; 李海平; 冯淑军

    2011-01-01

    In order to use of the LdMNPV to Asian gypsy moth larvae to the biological control better, the study use the diet to poison method to determine the lethal effect and sublethal effect of different geographic strains LdMNPV, which to the 2nd instar Asian gypsy moth larvae feeding poplar (Popvlus cathayana). The results showed: The LC5Os of LdMNPV - D, LdMNPV-H, LdMNPV-Jwere 33, 39 and 1076 Obs/Ux and the LT^s of the three isolates were 10. 5, 13.5 and 8.9d. The sublethal dose of three geography LdMNPV strains have a certain influence to the developmental time, the sex ratio and the pupal weight of Asian gypsy moth larvae. The sublethal dose of LdMNPV - H and LdMNPV - J prolonged the developmental time of Asian gypsy moth, and the total insects stage had significant difference with the contrast; LdMNPV - D also prolonged the developmental time of Asian gypsy moth but the total insects stage had no significant difference with the contrast. The sublethal dose of three geography LdMNPV strains reduced the sex ratio of the females than males. LdMNPV - D strains had significant difference with the pupal weight of female and male ones, but LdMNPV - J strains have highly significant difference with the pupal weight of the female ones. The sublethal dose of LdMNPV - H have no significant effects to the the pupal weight of the female and male ones.%为了更好的利用LdMNPV对亚洲型舞毒蛾幼虫进行生物防治,本文采用食料给毒法测定了不同地理品系LdMNPV对取食青杨的亚洲型舞毒蛾2龄幼虫的致死与亚致死作用.结果表明:LdMNPV -D、LdMNPV -H、LdMN-PV-J 3个地理品系的LC50分别为33、39、1076 0Bs/μL,LT50分别为10.5d、13.5d、8.9d;亚致死剂量的LdMNPV 3个地理品系对亚洲型舞毒蛾雌雄虫的发育历期、雌雄性比及蛹重均有一定影响,主要的表现为:亚致死剂量的LdMNPV-H和LdMNPV -J品系均延长了亚洲型舞毒蛾发育历期,且与对照相比总虫期达到显著水平;LdMNPV -D品

  11. Detection of Extermination Effect of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Gypsy Moth Eggs by Fluorescence Probe Technique%紫外线照射灭卵效果的荧光探针技术检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景奎; 戚大伟

    2011-01-01

    以林木害虫舞毒蛾(Lymantria dispar L.)虫卵为试验材料,利用吖啶橙、罗丹明123、Ho33342和碘化丙啶4种荧光探针追踪标记虫卵细胞内部的不同细胞器,研究了紫外线照射对舞毒蛾虫卵的微现影响.研究表明:经过紫外线照射后,吖啶橙标记的虫卵细胞产生红色荧光;罗丹明123标记虫卵细胞荧光强度有所减弱;Ho33342和碘化丙啶标记的虫卵细胞产生大量粉红色荧光,并且,细胞形态发生了改变.紫外线照射导致虫卵细胞大量DNA链断裂,线粒体膜电位差下降,坏死细胞逐渐增多.荧光探针技术体现了物理灭虫的有效性.%An experiment was conducted to study the effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the microstructure of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. ) eggs using fluorescence probes such as acridine orange, rhodanmine123, Ho33342 and Propidium iodide (PI) to trace and mark different organelles in egg cells. Results indicated that, after ultraviolet in'adiation, the egg cells marked with acridine orange gave off red fluorescence; the fluorescence intensity of egg cells marked with rhodamine123 decreased; egg cells marked with Ho33342 and PI gave off a lot of pink fluorescence, and the shape of cells changed. Because of the ultraviolet irradiation,much DNA of egg cells strands broke; electric potential of mitochondria membrane decreased; necrotic cells increased by degrecs. Fluorescence probe technique shows the validity of physical extermination of insects.

  12. Fumigation effects of two fumigates on different development stages of the gypsy moth%2种不同熏蒸剂对舞毒蛾不同虫态的杀灭效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞峰; 程瑜; 杨菲; 康芬芬; 魏亚东

    2013-01-01

    为判断溴甲烷和硫酰氟对舞毒蛾不同虫态的杀灭效果,在25℃下,分别在经过气密性检测的熏蒸桶内投入16、20、24、32 g/m3的溴甲烷和40、56、72、88 g/m3的硫酰氟,熏蒸处理舞毒蛾卵、幼虫、蛹和成虫4.5h.结果表明,经过4.5h熏蒸,杀灭舞毒蛾卵、1龄幼虫、蛹和成虫的溴甲烷浓度分别为32、20、24和16 g/m3,杀灭上述虫态硫酰氟浓度分别为88、56、72和40 g/m3.本文结果表明,舞毒蛾卵为最耐受溴甲烷和硫酰氟熏蒸的虫态,在目前口岸实际熏蒸处理中应充分考虑熏蒸剂对舞毒蛾卵的杀灭效果.%In order to determine the fumigation effects of methyl bromide (MB) and sulfuryl fluoride (SF) on different development stages of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L.,the killing effects were tested in the laboratory at 25 ℃ and 16,20,24 and 32 g/m3of MB,and 40,56,72 and 88 g/m3 of SF,respectively,for 4.5 h.The results showed that the adults,larvae,pupae and eggs could be completely killed after treated with 16,20,24 and 32 g/m3 of MB and 40,56,72 and 88 g/m3 of SF,respectively,at 25 ℃ for 4.5 h.These results showed that the egg was the most tolerant stage against MB and SF,which should be taken into consideration in port fumigation treatments.

  13. 76 FR 28948 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Gypsy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...) imported from Canada. These regulated articles are: Trees without roots (e.g., Christmas trees), trees with... shippers of Christmas trees, shrubs, logs, pulpwood, and other articles from gypsy moth-infested...

  14. In Vitro Spermatogenesis of Gypsy Moth Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judy; Loeb, Marcia J.

    1994-01-01

    Students establish simple cell developmental cultures to observe the process of spermatogenesis, mitosis, and meiosis in living cells. Using the background information, hints for further exploration, and experimental procedures provided, teachers can easily modify this experiment to suit their students needs. (ZWH)

  15. Future Risk of Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from the suitable habitat combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be...

  16. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale. PMID:25687127

  17. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale.

  18. 1.2%烟碱·苦参碱乳油防治落叶松舞毒蛾田间药效试验%Field Trials of Nocotine·Matrine 1.2% EC against Gypsy Moth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯长江

    2013-01-01

    [目的]明确1.2%烟碱·苦参碱乳油对林业害虫落叶松舞毒蛾的田间防治效果及田间用量.[方法]采用随机区组排列试验小区,以邓肯氏新复极差分析试验结果.[结果]1.2%烟碱·苦参碱乳油对落叶松舞毒蛾田间用量在10~15 mg a.i./L时,1d的防效在71.15%~92.73%之间;处理后3d,10 mg a.i./L防效达到80%以上,15 mg a.i./L防效达到100%;7 d防效在84%~100%之间,15 mg a.i./L比氰戊菊酯66.7 mg a.i./L防效高,10、12 mg a.i./L与后者防效相当.[结论]1.2%烟碱·苦参碱乳油对林业害虫落叶松舞毒蛾具有优良的田间防治效果,使用质量浓度以10~12 mg a.i./L为宜.%[Aims] The paper aims to evaluate field control efficiency and to determine field application rate of nicotinic·matrine 1.2% EC against gypsy moth.[Methods] The field trial was carried out using the randomized block design and the significance of difference was performed by Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT).[Results] Nocotine·matrine 1.2% EC's control of 1 d after treatment were in 71.15-92.73% at the concentration of 10-15 mg a.i./L; on the 3 d after treatment,the control at 10 and 15 mg a.i./L reached more than 80 and 100%,respectively; on the 7 d after treatment,the controls of three concentrations were in 84-100%,the control at 15 mg a.i./L was higher than that of fenvalerate at 66.7 mg a.i./L high,the controls at 10 and 12 mg a.i./L were the same as the control of fenvalerate at 66.7 mg a.i./L.[Conclusions] Nocotine·matrine 1.2% EC shows good control efficiency against gypsy moth,and could be used to effectively control gypsy moth at the concentration of 12 mg a.i./L.The reasonable dosage ranges from 10-12 mg a.i./L.

  19. Gypsy dragon: An evolutionary approach to narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Čvorović Jelena

    2007-01-01

    This paper will attempt to explain Serbian Gypsy oral narratives by applying concepts drawn from evolutionary psychology. The Gypsy story will illustrate how various narrative characteristics are used by Gypsies to employ social knowledge on local surroundings to better serve fitness solutions.

  20. Gypsy/Roma Community i Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep EREN

    2006-01-01

    # In this project, topic area is the Gypsy/Roma identity construction in terms of daily life practices with respect to work life. Gypsy/Roma groups are defined on the basis of two main groups: Helsingør Gypsy/Roma group and asylum-seekers group in the Sandholm refugee camp in Denmark.

  1. Homoerotic Sensibility in Gypsy Ballads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio de Villena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defends that Federico García Lorca’s Gypsy Ballads, far from being a neo-popular work that sings of the Andalusian region; it is a hymn to absolute sex. Gypsy Ballads means open and free exaltation of sexuality, which is expressed through praise and description of masculine positiveness, and through the different faces of virile and macho essence. This paper deals with the elements that ballad after ballad show the predominance of masculine nature, which is extolled by the poet as a choice of his sexual interest. Without making an allusion to biography, Lorca’s homoerotism is stated this way in the very poetic text.

  2. Gypsy stories: Narrative as a teaching stratagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čvorović Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of narratives as adaptive cultural beha­viors among Gypsies in Mačva county, western Serbia. Storytelling is a universal activity and may well be oldest of the arts. It has always provided a vehicle for the expression of ideas, particularly in societies relying on oral tradition. Gypsies are present in Serbia since the Middle Ages, living within a larger Serbian culture as a minority group. Mačva, an agriculturally rich county in western Serbia, is a place where local Gypsy traditions are still alive and which help distinguish between Gypsy subgroups and the larger Serbian society. The stories analyzed are part of a collec­tion made from several different Gypsy groups exhibiting varying degrees of influence from Serbian culture. Gypsies in Serbia have no written literature, but possess a rich and varied storytelling tradition delivered by word of mouth through the generations. Their stories bear testimony to the evolutionarily important mecha­nisms employed by Gypsies to make their way in the world. Gypsy stories concern many aspects of the relationship between themselves and other social groups, both in the past and the present. At the same time, the stories deal with universal adaptive problems, such as origin/ethnicity, kinship and mate acquisition. By applying the concepts and folk knowledge from their own culture, Gypsies have managed to provide for themselves the guidelines to overcome these problems within a par­ticular environment. Thus it is that these stories reflect both human universals and cultural peculiarities - by utilization of localized cultural solutions to adaptive problems. The success Gypsies have achieved in surviving harassment, and their ability to sustain themselves and their cultures despite social rejection can be attributed, in part, to the power of the traditional stories to influence the behavior of those who hear them. For the Gypsies, telling and listening to the stories

  3. Two variants of the Drosophila melanogaster retrotransposon gypsy (mdg4): structural and functional differences, and distribution in fly stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubomirskaya, N V; Smirnova, J B; Razorenova, O V; Karpova, N N; Surkov, S A; Avedisov, S N; Kim, A I; Ilyin, Y V

    2001-04-01

    Two variants of the Drosophila melanogaster retrotransposon gypsy were subjected to detailed structural and functional analysis. A series of hybrid constructs containing various combinations of "active" and "inactive" gypsy copies were tested for their ability to produce new DNA copies in cultured cells by means of reverse transcription. It was shown that the previously demonstrated variations in retrotranspositional activity are associated with either one or both of two amino acid substitutions at the beginning of ORF2. The first substitution is located at the boundary between the putative protease and reverse transcriptase domains and, hence, may influence the processing of the polyprotein. The other substitution may alter reverse transcriptase activity since it is located in the second of the seven conserved domains of the RT gene. To address the question of the evolutionary relationship between the two gypsy variants, their distribution was analyzed in among various fly stocks. Southern analysis revealed that all D. melanogaster strains studied so far contain the "inactive" gypsy variant, while the "active" copies are present only in some strains; most of the latter were established from flies recently isolated from natural populations. Finally, in stocks carrying the flamenco mutation the "active" gypsy variant is much more abundant than the "inactive" form. Possible scenarios for the orgin of the "active" form of gypsy are discussed. PMID:11361349

  4. MAPK Signaling Pathway Alters Expression of Midgut ALP and ABCC Genes and Causes Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin in Diamondback Moth

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaojiang Guo; Shi Kang; Defeng Chen; Qingjun Wu; Shaoli Wang; Wen Xie; Xun Zhu; Baxter, Simon W.; Xuguo Zhou; Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes; Youjun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resis...

  5. Voices in the "Gypsy Developmental Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalueza, Jose Luis; Crespo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The starting point for this article is, What are the hegemonic models of man and woman that educational practices are orientated toward in gypsy communities (models that are often in conflict with mainstream schooling institution's models of socialization)? We do not find the collectivism/individualism approach for explaining socialization in…

  6. Reflections on Educational Policies for Spanish Gypsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    In Spain, the existence of a central government and the governments of 17 autonomous communities, each with its own authority and control over educational matters, results in variation and inequality in educational policies toward Gypsies. The conservative or progressive tendencies of political parties in office and their influence on education as…

  7. MAPK signaling pathway alters expression of midgut ALP and ABCC genes and causes resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in diamondback moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojiang Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L., was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1. Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella.

  8. MAPK signaling pathway alters expression of midgut ALP and ABCC genes and causes resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Chen, Defeng; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Xun; Baxter, Simon W; Zhou, Xuguo; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-04-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC) genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella. PMID:25875245

  9. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, John P.; Jr., O' Meara, Daniel J.

    2000-01-12

    The overall objective of this project was to use extensive Gypsy Field Laboratory and data as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. This report describes progress since project report DOE/BC/14970-7 and covers the period June 1997-September 1998 and represents one year of funding originally allocated for the year 1996. During the course of the work previously performed, high resolution geophysical and outcrop data revealed the importance of fractures at the Gypsy site. In addition, personnel changes and alternative funding (OCAST and oil company support of various kinds) allowed the authors to leverage DOE contributions and focus more on geophysical characterization.

  10. Higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in gypsies than in non-gypsies in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Hanson, Robert L;

    2003-01-01

    Gypsies (or Roma) recently experienced a transition from a traditional to a Westernized lifestyle. Although mortality in this population is 4-fold higher compared with non-Gypsies, very limited information is available on their morbidity especially with regard to non-communicable diseases. Our ai...

  11. Gypsy Field Project in Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Castagna; William J. Lamb; Carlos Moreno; Roger Young; Lynn Soreghan

    2000-09-19

    The objective of the Gypsy Project was to properly calculate seismic attributes and integrate these into a reservoir characterization project. Significant progress was made on the project in four areas. (1) Attenuation: In order for seismic inversion for rock properties or calculation of seismic attributes used to estimate rock properties to be performed validly, it is necessary to deal with seismic data that has had true amplitude and frequency content restored to account for earth filtering effects that are generally not included in seismic reservoir characterization methodologies. This requires the accurate measurement of seismic attenuation, something that is rarely achieved in practice. It is hoped that such measurements may also provide additional independent seismic attributes for use in reservoir characterization studies. In 2000, we were concerned with the ground truthing of attenuation measurements in the vicinity of wells. Our approach to the problem is one of extracting as time varying wavelet and relating temporal variations in the wavelet to an attenuation model of the earth. This method has the advantage of correcting for temporal variations in the reflectivity spectrum of the earth which confound the spectral ratio methodology which is the most commonly applied means of measuring attenuation from surface seismic data. Part I of the report describes our efforts in seismic attenuation as applied to the Gypsy data. (2) Optimal Attributes: A bewildering array of seismic attributes is available to the reservoir geoscientist to try to establish correlations to rock properties. Ultimately, the use of such a large number of degrees of freedom in the search for correlations with limited well control leads to common misapplication of statistically insignificant results which yields invalid predictions. Cross-validation against unused wells can be used to recognize such problems, but does not offer a solution to the question of which attributes should be used

  12. Pheromone transduction in moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Stengl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30 Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLCβ-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth´s physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors.

  13. Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Diane; Murray, Marion; Reding, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Codling moth (Order Lepidoptera, Family Tortricidae) is the most serious pest of apple and pear worldwide. In most commercial fruit producing regions and home yards in Utah, fruit must be protected to harvest a crop. Insecticides are the main control tactic. There are new insecticides available, many of which are less toxic to humans and beneficial insects and mites than earlier insecticides. For commercial orchards with more than 10 acres of contiguous apple and pear plantings, pheromone-bas...

  14. Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth

    OpenAIRE

    Geffen, van, J; Grunsven, van, ECE; Ruijven, van, L.J.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on developme...

  15. Civilising offensives and ambivalence : the case of British Gypsies

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This paper utilises Norbert Elias’s theory of the civilizing process to examine British society’s response to Gypsies and explore the perception of this group as in ‘need of corrective treatment’. It demonstrates how state policies towards Gypsies are presented as improving their welfare but are in fact characterised by ambivalence. It is argued that mechanisms employed with the expressed goal of ‘civilising’ behaviour actually exhibitdecivilising elements in terms of their effect upon Gyps...

  16. The Enemy Within’: Liminality, Otherness and Neo-Victorian Gypsies

    OpenAIRE

    Martín González, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Gypsies, or Romanies, are a collective against whom, for centuries, white Europeans have posited a series of racial prejudices and stereotypes. Qualified alternatively as criminals, child kidnappers, or tricksters, gypsies have long been portrayed in British literature as liminal individuals, positively perceived as linked to nature and the pastoral ancestry of European populations, on the one hand, but contrary to the values of modernity, on the other (Nord 3-4), as well as often linked to E...

  17. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud`homme, N.; Gans, M.; Masson, M.; Terzian, C.; Bucheton, A. [Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is table and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovo{sup D1} female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovo{sup D1} reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. 40 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, N; Gans, M; Masson, M; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is stable and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovoD1 female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovoD1 reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. PMID:7713426

  19. Towards a global barcode library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae tussock moths of biosecurity concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R deWaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detecting and controlling the movements of invasive species, such as insect pests, relies upon rapid and accurate species identification in order to initiate containment procedures by the appropriate authorities. Many species in the tussock moth genus Lymantria are significant forestry pests, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., and consequently have been a focus for the development of molecular diagnostic tools to assist in identifying species and source populations. In this study we expand the taxonomic and geographic coverage of the DNA barcode reference library, and further test the utility of this diagnostic method, both for species/subspecies assignment and for determination of geographic provenance of populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcodes were obtained from 518 individuals and 36 species of Lymantria, including sequences assembled and generated from previous studies, vouchered material in public collections, and intercepted specimens obtained from surveillance programs in Canada. A maximum likelihood tree was constructed, revealing high bootstrap support for 90% of species clusters. Bayesian species assignment was also tested, and resulted in correct assignment to species and subspecies in all instances. The performance of barcoding was also compared against the commonly employed NB restriction digest system (also based on COI; while the latter is informative for discriminating gypsy moth subspecies, COI barcode sequences provide greater resolution and generality by encompassing a greater number of haplotypes across all Lymantria species, none shared between species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the efficacy of DNA barcodes for diagnosing species of Lymantria and reinforces the view that the approach is an under-utilized resource with substantial potential for biosecurity and surveillance. Biomonitoring agencies currently employing the NB restriction

  20. Gypsy pentecostal ascetism and body management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena Cabezas, Ignacio Ramón

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Pentecostal religious beliefs and practices consist of a complex set of strategies of transformation and personal renewal. Among other aspects of their experiences in the Church of Philadelphia, the social construction of Gypsy reality turns on the reform of the body. The present paper lies on aspects such as the body as object and subject of biopolitical and religious practices; the relationships between religious experience and body management; new social and community interactions; and autobiographical discourse as the ideological vehicle of personal conversion and transformation. All these processes reveal how social practices remake and shape bodily behaviour and its meaning. Pentecostal charismatic practices channel and express the community and individual demands of Church of Philadelphia converts, and represent central issues in the Pentecostal management of body and spirit. Our aim in this paper is to analyze the bodily practices which provide for believers´ transformation, and which shape community rituals and the congregation's interactions.

  1. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Andrews, St. Croix, St. David, St. George, St. James, St. Patrick, and St. Stephen. (2) Kings County. That portion of Kings County that includes the following parishes: Greenwich, Kars, and Springfield. (3) Queens... line beginning at the intersection of the Hants/Kings County border and the shoreline of the...

  2. “Ay, But Droma Pkhirdyom”: The Gypsy and the Road (Self-Identity in Soviet and Post-Soviet Gypsy Literature in the Russian Cultural and Political Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valentinovna Kuglerova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Ay, But Droma Pkhirdyom”: The Gypsy and the Road (Self-Identity in Soviet and Post-Soviet Gypsy Literature in the Russian Cultural and Political Context The Gypsies have always been a peculiar minority in Russia. On one hand, the Russians admired Gypsies’ vagrancy and desire for freedom. The Gypsies were a kind of an alter-ego of the Russians’ – as they wished to be, but dared not. On the other hand, the Gypsies even in relatively liberal czarist times were treated as the second-rate people, not mentioning the soviet deportations. The Gypsy wandering was especially irritating, so the authorities always tried to settle them down. From the Gypsies’ side the attitude (the strict opposition Gadjo/Roma and at the same time the phenomenon of the “choral” settled Gypsies who connected Russian and Gypsy cultures was ambiguous, too. It shows the main feature of Gypsy identity – the desire for wandering, the dependence – but only on the road, and the dual attitude to this feature from the side of the Russian majority. This feature and the ambiguous attitude towards it one can define as the crucial feature of the Soviet and Post-Soviet Gypsy literature. By 1938 (before the supporting of the national minorities stopped in Soviet Gypsy literature existed two main directions in the narration: the narration about the evil capitalistic past (the exploitation of the “choral” Gypsies, who were devoid of the road by Russians – M.Iljinsko’s stories and the depicting of the brave Soviet reality – when the Gypsies are happy to work and to be settled in the kolkhozes (M.Bezludzko’s poems. This image of the new Soviet Gypsy is rooted in the image of the vagrancy (through its’ denial for Soviet epoch and its’ glorification for czarist times, as the detailed analysis of the texts shows.   „Ay, But Droma Pkhirdyom”: Cygan i droga  (Tożsamość własna w radzieckiej i postradzieckiej literaturze cygańskiej w rosyjskim kontek

  3. Jews, Gypsies and soviet prisoners of war: comparing nazi persecutions*1

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The explicit or implicit focus of most published studies dealing with the image of the Gypsy, or with policies toward Gypsies in Germany, is the Nazi policy of extermination. Avoiding the horror at its center, historians have approached this mass murder, too, with synoptic accounts, research on particular aspects of the Nazi persecution of the Gypsies, and attempts to measure the policy of annihilating the Gypsies against crimes perpetrated against other groups, primarily the Jews, who stand ...

  4. Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Marushiakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations During recent years the topic of Gypsy/Roma migration and identities became burning topic of pan-EUropean public discourse. Much less attention is paid to the Gypsy migrations outside the borders of European Union. The present article has ambitious goal to fulfill this gap and to present contemporary Gypsy migrations in Post-soviet Central Asian in order to see how this “burning” topic looks outside European space. After breakdown of Soviet Union and establishing of new independent republics in Central Asia and in connection to economical difficulties, wars and social unrest, in order to make their living, the communities of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’ revitalised their former nomadic traditions and migrate towards Russian Federation and in frames of Central Asia towards Kazakhstan. There they are earning their living through begging and sporadic work in construction and scrap collection. A central point of this article is the impact of these contemporary migrations on the development of identities and well being of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’. The multilevel, hierarchically structured identities of Central-Asian ‘Gypsies' are analysed as demonstrated in different historical contexts – as former “Soviet people”, member of former ruling class of agricultural proletariat, and as declassed community today; as Central-Asian ‘Gypsies’ or as citizens of respective Central Asian Republics during migrations in Russian Federation in front of Russian majority society and in front of Roma; and in context of the Central Asian region during the migrations to Kazakhstan and in their home countries.     Cyganie środkowoazjatyccy – tożsamości i migracje W ostatnich latach tematyka migracji i tożsamości Cyganów (Romów stała się tematem palącym w unijnoeuropejskim dyskursie publicznym. O wiele mniej uwagi poświęca się w nim migracjom Cyganów, które mają miejsce poza granicami

  5. Moths smell with their antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas; Ballard, Matthew; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Moths are reported to smell each other from over 6 miles away, locating each other with just 200 airborne molecules. In this study, we investigate how the structure of the antennae influences particle capture. We measure the branching patterns of over 40 species of moths, across two orders of magnitude in weight. We find that moth antennae have 3 levels of hierarchy, with dimensions on each level scaling with body size. We perform lattice-Boltzman simulations to determine optimal flow patterns around antennae branches allowing for capture of small particles.

  6. Distribution and conservation of the transposable element gypsy in drosophilid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Herédia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to understand the dynamics of transposable elements (T'S in the genome of host species, we investigated the distribution, representativeness and conservation of DNA sequences homologous to the Drosophila melanogaster gypsy retrotransposon in 42 drosophilid species. Our results extended the knowledge about the wide distribution of gypsy in the genus Drosophila, including several Neotropical species not previously studied. The gypsy-like sequences showed high divergence compared to the D. melanogaster gypsy element. Furthermore, the conservation of the restriction sites between gypsy sequences from phylogenetically unrelated species pointed to a more complex evolutionary picture, which includes the possibility of the horizontal transfer events already described for this retrotransposon.

  7. [Autosomal recessive ethnic diseases of Czech Gypsies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, P; Sisková, D

    2006-01-01

    Roma (Gypsy ethnic) form a genetically isolated ethnical group of the identical origin with the world population of 10 to 14 millions derived from a limited number of so-called founders. Majority (about 8 millions) of Roma ethnic live in Europe, namely at Balkan and in the southwest of Europe. Roma have specific hereditary diseases, namely those caused by recessive genetic mutations. The molecular-genetic mechanism has been recently elucidated and confirmed in several diseases of the Roma population. Owing to the significant proportion of Roma in the population, patients with those diseases are possible to meet also in the Czech Republic. However, the diagnostics of those diseases is frequently difficult and they are often under diagnosed or misdiagnosed. The article gives examples of autosomal recessive diseases, which can be confirmed at the DNA level which occur in Roma population of the Czech Republic: syndrome of congenital cataract, facial dysmorphism and demyelinating neuropathy, non-syndromic prelingual deafness with GJB2 gene impairment and the congenital myastenic syndrome. PMID:16921785

  8. Gypsies and Travellers: their history, culture and traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Gypsies and Travellers living in Britain today are culturally diverse and made up of differing groups. The aim of this paper is to describe the different groups and sub-groups, and look at similarities and differences between these groups while highlighting the discrimination and prejudice experienced by the Travelling community as a whole. Although there is no one culture common to all these groups, they share an ancient tradition of 'nomadism' and an oral tradition of passing on knowledge. Gypsies and Irish Travellers are recognised as ethnic minorities under the Equality Act 2010 and it is estimated that there are between 200,000 and 300,000 living in the UK. This paper offers an account of how a specialist health visitor working in the south Gloucestershire area has attempted to reduce prejudice and discrimination experienced by Gypsies and Travellers by raising awareness of their cultural issues. It will also focus on how to ensure services take into account the needs of Gypsies and Travellers.

  9. Gypsies: “The People of Another World”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Bayraktar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will attempt to examine the validity of multiculturalist policies for overcoming the various kinds of injustice experienced by Gypsies in Turkey. The focus of the study is the interviews made with the inhabitants of a settlement area in İstanbul, Sarıyer, Rumelikavağı, called “Gypsy Quarter.” This article will seek answers to the questions like what objective and subjectives dynamics are behind the identity formation processes of these people called Romans or Gypsies, how they define the patterns of social hierarchy which define them, how they manage to domesticate “their pains” and at what moments they fail in doing so.On the other hand, this articles examines whether the self-expression of the Gypsy identity in a heterogeneous public sphere can provide a potential space for Gypsies’ struggle against “the dominant national subject” and for healing their “pains”. This article will also try to show that multiculturalist policies risk falling into “cultural essentialism,” by accepting cultural identities as unchanging, clearly delienated entities. Before seeking answers to such questions, the article will shed light

  10. Juvenile marriages, child-brides and infant mortality among Serbian gypsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čvorović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsies/Roma make up the largest minority in Europe. Roma communities tend to be segregated and characterized by poverty, unemployment, poor education, and poor quality housing. So far, the European strategy for Gypsy/Roma integration proved insufficient because it fails to account to the normative nature of the isolationist and ethnocentric nature of certain elements of Gypsy culture, as well as the deep and mutual distrust between Gypsies and non-Gypsies within European countries. In Serbia, the Gypsy population tends to suffer disproportionately from higher rates of poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and disease. At the same time, the Serbian Gypsy women average an infant mortality rate between 10-20%. For most of these girls/women, endogamous, arranged marriages are negotiated at an early age, usually without their consent. Among these women, a certain level of infant mortality is “expected”, following an underinvestment in some children manifested in their care, feeding, and the response to their illnesses. These juvenile arranged marriages, subsequent reproduction and child mortality are culturally self-sufficient and hence pose a challenge for international human rights: while many Gypsy girls/women are being denied the right to choose whom and when to marry, the Gypsy community itself openly accepts juvenile arranged marriage as a preservation strategy and means of cultural, economic, and societal maintenance and independence. Although efforts to improve education, health, living conditions, encourage employment and development opportunities for Gypsies/Roma are essential, these objectives cannot be attained without directing the changes needed within Gypsy/Roma culture itself. The initial point for change must come from an increased sense of responsibility among the Gypsies themselves.

  11. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar...

  12. The influence of subjective criteria USGE as official principle at nationality identification in censuses to manifestation Gypsies ethnic identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to final results of Census in 2002, total number of declare Gypsies in Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija was 108.193, apropos 1.44% in total population of Serbia, conditional third position in rang of ethnic minorities (behind Hungarians and Bosnians. Though, in sense population dynamics of Gypsies, it is needs to know, that official statistic data could give only information about population which "them selves repute Gypsies", declare as Gypsies in that moment, and because of that we are probability to take on scientific observe only number of declare Gypsies. During the period 1948-2002, Gypsies was included on all census statistic classifications of nationalities. But, oscillations in number of Gypsies show population dynamics without any evenly and projected trends of population development. This fact is problem and for official statistic research. Certainly, the main defect at statistic registration of Gypsies is ability to change attitude about nationality declare in censuses.

  13. The Song of the Other/Public Space as a Learning Environment and Gypsy Musicians in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ulas

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on both public musical practices of Gypsy musicians who live in the Thracian land lying within the northwest of Turkey, and musical learning that takes place here. I primarily highlight the historic dimensions of the relation between Gypsies and music and emphasized musicianship in the lives of Gypsies as a fundamental class…

  14. Unlocking hidden community assets : Marginal specialization and community resilience of Gypsy-Travelers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Enduring social exclusion has forced Gypsy-Travelers to specialize in marginal economic activities. These marginal specializations build on specific skills, attitudes, and strategies which are valuable for the communities’ overall development. Today’s Gypsy-Traveler communities face a context of rap

  15. Comparative and functional studies of Drosophila species invasion by the gypsy endogenous retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejlumian, Lucine; Pélisson, Alain; Bucheton, Alain; Terzian, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. Phylogenetic studies suggest that occasional horizontal transfer events of gypsy occur between Drosophila species. gypsy possesses infective properties associated with the products of the envelope gene that might be at the origin of these interspecies transfers. We report here the existence of DNA sequences putatively encoding full-length Env proteins in the genomes of Drosophila species other than D. melanogaster, suggesting that potentially infective gypsy copies able to spread between sexually isolated species can occur. The ability of gypsy to invade the genome of a new species is conditioned by its capacity to be expressed in the naive genome. The genetic basis for the regulation of gypsy activity in D. melanogaster is now well known, and it has been assigned to an X-linked gene called flamenco. We established an experimental simulation of the invasion of the D. melanogaster genome by gypsy elements derived from other Drosophila species, which demonstrates that these non- D. melanogaster gypsy elements escape the repression exerted by the D. melanogaster flamenco gene. PMID:11805056

  16. At the Crossroads: Gypsy and Traveller Parents' Perceptions of Education, Protection and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Martin; McGhee, Derek; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2010-01-01

    This article uses empirical data gathered during a pilot study funded by a local education authority to consider Gypsy and Traveller parents' perceptions of education. It examines the changing role of education within the lives of Gypsy and Traveller parents and children reflecting changing social circumstances, in particular how many parents now…

  17. Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Koert G; van Grunsven, Roy H A; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M

    2014-06-01

    Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history. PMID:25360250

  18. The Elusive Search for Nora Luca: Tony Gatlif's Adventures in Gypsy Land

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    Sylvie Eve Blum-Reid

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines Gypsy filmmaker Tony Gatlif and his 1997 film Gadjo Dilo (The Crazy Foreigner. The film ventures on the icy roads of Romania and casts a young French man in search for Nora Luca’s voice, a woman taped by his musicologist father. The young man is adopted by a Romanian Gypsy community and initiated to Gypsy culture. The film reverts stereotypes associated to Gypsies and questions the place of the white traveler in late 20th century Europe. Questions of otherness and exoticism are raised amidst the Western urge to preserve and collect other cultures. The essay is informed by current Gypsies studies on Gypsy law that locate the interaction Rom cultures have had with non-Rom cultures. The film may be seen as a trilingual road movie set in Eastern Europe, yet Gatlif, a man for whom “the road is his country” stretches the limits of the genre, usually situated in the vast open spaces of North America. Gender is important in the analysis of the film as Rom women encountered act as mediators between two different cultures and spaces. Last, the essay reconsiders the place of Tony Gatlif, a now recognized French filmmaker, a spokesperson for Gypsies who delocalised the story and traveled to Eastern Europe. An analysis of the reception of the film adds to the discussion of a filmmaker, born in Algeria, of Berber and Andalusian descent.

  19. Gypsy endogenous retrovirus maintains potential infectivity in several species of Drosophilids

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    de Frutos Rosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequences homologous to the gypsy retroelement from Drosophila melanogaster are widely distributed among drosophilids. The structure of gypsy includes an open reading frame resembling the retroviral gene env, which is responsible for the infectious properties of retroviruses. Results In this study we report molecular and phylogeny analysis of the complete env gene from ten species of the obscura group of the genus Drosophila and one species from the genus Scaptomyza. Conclusion The results indicate that in most cases env sequences could produce a functional Env protein and therefore maintain the infectious capability of gypsy in these species.

  20. The relationship between the flamenco gene and gypsy in Drosophila: how to tame a retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheton, A

    1995-09-01

    For a long time, retroviruses have been considered to be restricted to vertebrates. However, the genome of insects contains elements like gypsy in Drosophila melanogaster that are strikingly similar to vertebrate proviruses of retroviruses, which were considered to be transposable elements. Recent results indicate that gypsy has infective properties and is therefore a retrovirus, the first to be identified in invertebrates. It is normally repressed by a host gene called flamenco, which apparently controls the transposition and infective properties of gypsy. This provides an exceptional experimental model to investigate the genetic relationships between retroviruses and their hosts. PMID:7482786

  1. Expression of the Drosophila retrovirus gypsy as ultrastructurally detectable particles in the ovaries of flies carrying a permissive flamenco allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécher, P; Bucheton, A; Pélisson, A

    1997-09-01

    The endogenous retrovirus gypsy is controlled by the Drosophila gene flamenco (flam). New insertions of gypsy occur in any individual Drosophila if its mother is homozygous for the flam1 permissive allele and contains functional gypsy proviruses. The ovaries of flam1 females also contain high amounts of gypsy RNAs. Unexpectedly however, gypsy derepression does not occur in the flam1 female germ-line proper but in the somatic follicular epithelium of the ovary. Since extracts from these females are able to efficiently infect the germ-line of a strain devoid of active gypsy proviruses, we assume that a similar kind of germ-line infection, which would occur inside the flam1 females themselves, could be required for gypsy insertions to occur in their progeny. This hypothesis was confirmed by electron microscopy observations showing that non-enveloped intracytoplasmic particles containing gypsy RNAs accumulate in the apical region of the flam1 follicle cells, close to specific membrane domains to which the gypsy envelope proteins are targeted, whereas both are absent in the flam+ controls. Low amounts of similar virus-like particles were also observed in flam1 oocytes, but it is not yet known whether they entered passively or as a result of membrane fusion. This is the first report of the beginning of a retrovirus cycle in invertebrates and these observations should be taken into account when explaining the maternal effect of the flamenco gene on the multiplication of gypsy proviruses. PMID:9292028

  2. Protecting Delmarva Fox Squirrel Habitat from Gypsy Moth and Southern Pine Beetle at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer of 1992 and 1993, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service personnel conducted an inventory and analysis of the forested resources...

  3. Transposable elements P and gypsy in natural populations of Drosophila willistoni

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    Adriana Koslovski Sassi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence and integrity of the P transposon and the gypsy retrotransposon in the genome of 18 samples of natural Drosophila willistoni populations collected from a large area of South America were Southern blot screened using Drosophila melanogaster probes. The aim of this screening was provide further knowledge-base on the geographical distribution of D. willistoni and to carry out an inter-population analysis of the P and gypsy elements present in the genomes of the populations analyzed. The fragment patterns obtained indicate that both the P and gypsy elements are ancient in the D. willistoni genome, but whereas the gypsy retroelement appears to be invariable and stable the P element varies between populations and appears to still have some capacity for mobilization.

  4. Sterile insect technique in codling moth control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of mature pupae or adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), to 30-40 krad of gamma radiation induces a high level of sterility in the male and complete sterility in the female without seriously affecting behaviour except for sperm competitiveness which is drastically reduced. Substerilizing doses (below about 25 krad) have very little adverse effect and induces higher level of sterility in the F1 male than in the irradiated male parent. The most satisfactory method of measuring the population density of native moths is by examining fruit for larval exit holes. Population increase per generation depends largely on evening temperatures during the moth's reproductive period. The codling moth is a sedentary species, and its distribution is very uneven in commercial orchards. Neglected host trees must be sprayed or destroyed to avoid reinfestation of sterile insect release orchards with immigrant moths. Laboratory-reared moths may be marked externally with fluorescent powders or internally with calco oil red without adverse effects. Mass rearing is still unreliable and expensive, and prolonged colonization affects the insects' behaviour. Successful codling moth suppression was achieved in North America and/or Europe by release of sterile males, sterile females or sterile mixed sexes; by substerile males; and by F1 male progeny (released as diapausing larvae) of substerile males X untreated females. Arthropod predators and parasites held aphids and spider mites at noninjurious levels in most insect release orchards, but leafrollers eventually built up to damaging numbers. The sterile insect technique for commercial control of the codling moth is not feasible at this time because of high costs. (author)

  5. Gypsies in 19th-Century French Literature: The Paradox in Centering the Periphery

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    Udasmoro W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of liberty and views of the “Other” were common in 19th-century French literary discourse. In many aspects, the “Other” appeared to hold a position of strength. In literature, Prosper Mérimée and Victor Hugo attempted to centralize gypsy women through their narratives, even though gypsies (as with Jews had been marginalized (though present throughout French history. Mérimée’s Carmen and Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris presented new central perspectives on the peripheral, which in this context should be understood to mean gypsies. This research paper attempts to answer the following questions: What ideology lies behind both stories’ centralization of the peripheral gypsy women? How do the authors portray gypsy women? The goal of this article is to explore the operations of power in a gender-relations context, focusing on the construction of gypsy women in two 19th-century French novels.

  6. Vándorcigányok az államszocializmusban - Gypsy Travellers in the Communist Era

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    GYENGE, András

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Afterhaving recognised the social problems of settled Gypsies, we also have to turn our attention to the tensions resulting from the lack of social integration of travelling Gypsies in Hungary. Can we even talk about classical examples of travelling Gypsies in Hungary in the Communist era? The literature published so far claims that most statistics on Romani people in Hungary are unreliable. This doesn’t mean that the results of research carried out on this topic should be completely ignored, but the data have to be considered cautiously. It is especially true for surveys after 1945, since at that time highly different methods were used to determine the proportion of Romani people in the Hungarian society; hence the divergent results and obscurity of actual numbers. All we can give is estimation. My aim was to resolve contradictions and give a more precise picture of the situation of Gypsies, especially that of travelling Gypsies in Hungary, therefore I have involved in my research written sources such as reports of the MSZMP KB [Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party], case studies, qualitative field-works etc. Based on these documents, it has become possible to describe the process how the nomadic lifestyle of Gypsies in Hungary disappeared during the period from the turn of the century until the political transition. Additionally, a quite unique phenomenonis detectable in the Communist era; an institutionalised wandering controlled by the state which can be seen as the temporal extension of the former nomadism.

  7. The flamenco locus controls the gypsy and ZAM retroviruses and is required for Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mével-Ninio, Maryvonne; Pelisson, Alain; Kinder, Jennifer; Campos, Ana Regina; Bucheton, Alain

    2007-04-01

    In Drosophila, the as yet uncloned heterochromatic locus flamenco (flam) controls mobilization of the endogenous retrovirus gypsy through the repeat-associated small interfering (rasi) RNA silencing pathway. Restrictive alleles (flamR) downregulate accumulation of gypsy transcripts in the somatic follicular epithelium of the ovary. In contrast, permissive alleles (flamP) are unable to repress gypsy. DIP1, the closest transcription unit to a flam-insertional mutation, was considered as a good candidate to be a gypsy regulator, since it encodes a dsRNA-binding protein. To further characterize the locus we analyzed P-induced flam mutants and generated new mutations by transposon mobilization. We show that flam is required somatically for morphogenesis of the follicular epithelium, the tissue where gypsy is repressed. This developmental activity is necessary to control gypsy and another retroelement, ZAM. We also show that flam is not DIP1, as none of the new permissive mutants affect the DIP1 coding sequence. In addition, two deletions removing DIP1 coding sequences do not affect any of the flamenco functions. Our results suggest that flamenco extends proximally to DIP1, spanning >130 kb of transposon-rich heterochromatin. We propose a model explaining the multiple functions of this large heterochromatic locus. PMID:17277359

  8. HIV/AIDS knowledge amongst gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Four gypsy settlements around Multan Road, Lahore were surveyed from July to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and thirteen randomly selected gypsies, aged 15-50 years, were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire based on UNAIDS survey indicators. Socio-demographic information and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, its spread and preventive practices was asked. Scoring systems were devised to categorize the level of knowledge and preventive practices as satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Statistically significant difference between knowledge and preventive practices was calculated by Pearson's chi-square test using Epi Info. version 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.5 +- 6.5 years, including 60.2% males and 39.8% females. Aggregate score for the level of knowledge indicated that 17 (7.98%) of these gypsies had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its transmission, whereas 40 (18.77%) and 156 (73.23%) were classified as having unsatisfactory and poor knowledge respectively. However, there was a statistically significant difference (p=0.003) when this knowledge was compared with preventive practices. Conclusion: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore was largely unsatisfactory. Improving knowledge about HIV/AIDS among gypsy community may result in positive behavioural change for disease prevention. (author)

  9. Representations About Discrimination Practices in the Education System Built by Gypsies (Ciganos in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portugal

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    Maria Manuela Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal, Gypsies (Ciganos are categorized as ethnical and minority group, and they are particularly vulnerable to poverty and social exclusion. There is no doubt that they are one of the groups that rise more antipathy among the other Portuguese. In what concerns the “social images” built by the dominant society, there is a negative evaluation of the Gypsies and this image has persisted and resisted so far. Therefore, Gypsy identity and culture are considered marginal. However, the historical discrimination against Gypsies and the existence of a scarce interaction with the non-Gypsy society are some interesting results coming out from a qualitative study finished in 2006 about social representations and emotions that emerged in discriminatory contexts related with the educational system. One of the main objectives of this article is to find how Gypsies represent the school, the formal education, and the social agents that intervene in this educational context, like teachers, other school workers, and other students (non-Gypsies. It is possible to notice some discourses that revealed negative perceptions and rejection feelings incorporated by some Gypsies. They feel that they are treated like “inferior” persons and not recognized by the whole society.

  10. Morphological and molecular characterization of new Drosophila cell lines established from a strain permissive for gypsy transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvet, F; Debec, A; Marcaillou, C; Rougeau, C; Bucheton, A

    1998-01-01

    The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster is the first retrovirus identified in invertebrates. Its transposition is controlled by a host gene called flamenco (flam): restrictive alleles of this gene maintain the retrovirus in a repressed state while permissive alleles allow high levels of transposition. To develop a cell system to study the gypsy element, we established four independent cell lines derived from the Drosophila strain SS, which contains a permissive allele of flamenco, and which is devoid of transposing copies of gypsy. The ultrastructural analysis of three SS cell lines revealed some remarkable characteristics, such as many nuclear virus-like particles, cytoplasmic dense particles, and massive cisternae filled with a fibrous material of unknown origin. Gypsy intragenomic distribution has been compared between the three cell lines and the original SS fly strain, and revealed in two of the cell lines an increase in copy number of a restriction fragment usually present in active gypsy elements. This multiplication seems to have occurred during the passage to the cell culture. Availability of SS cell lines should assist studies of gypsy transposition and infectivity and might be useful to produce high amounts of gypsy viral particles. These new lines already allowed us to show that the Envelope-like products of gypsy can be expressed as membrane proteins. PMID:9870529

  11. Evidence for a piwi-dependent RNA silencing of the gypsy endogenous retrovirus by the Drosophila melanogaster flamenco gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarot, Emeline; Payen-Groschêne, Geneviève; Bucheton, Alain; Pélisson, Alain

    2004-03-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the endogenous retrovirus gypsy is repressed by the functional alleles (restrictive) of an as-yet-uncloned heterochromatic gene called flamenco. Using gypsy-lacZ transcriptional fusions, we show here that this repression takes place not only in the follicle cells of restrictive ovaries, as was previously observed, but also in restrictive larval female gonads. Analyses of the role of gypsy cis-regulatory sequences in the control of gypsy expression are also presented. They rule out the hypothesis that gypsy would contain a single binding region for a putative Flamenco repressor. Indeed, the ovarian expression of a chimeric yp3-lacZ construct was shown to become sensitive to the Flamenco regulation when any of three different 5'-UTR gypsy sequences (ranging from 59 to 647 nucleotides) was incorporated into the heterologous yp3-lacZ transcript. The piwi mutation, which is known to affect RNA-mediated homology-dependent transgene silencing, was also shown to impede the repression of gypsy in restrictive female gonads. Finally, a RNA-silencing model is also supported by the finding in ovaries of short RNAs (25-27 nucleotides long) homologous to sequences from within the gypsy 5'-UTR. PMID:15082550

  12. Fight, Flight and Playing White: An Examination of Coping Strategies Adopted by Gypsy Traveller Adolescents in English Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrington, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on findings from a longitudinal study of Gypsy Traveller students attending English secondary schools. Analysis of over 400 interviews with 44 Gypsy Traveller students, their parents and teachers over a 5-year period identified several pull and push factors that impact on secondary school engagement and retention. Of these,…

  13. Evolutionary dynamics of the Ty3/gypsy LTR retrotransposons in the genome of Anopheles gambiae.

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    Jose Manuel C Tubio

    Full Text Available Ty3/gypsy elements represent one of the most abundant and diverse LTR-retrotransposon (LTRr groups in the Anopheles gambiae genome, but their evolutionary dynamics have not been explored in detail. Here, we conduct an in silico analysis of the distribution and abundance of the full complement of 1045 copies in the updated AgamP3 assembly. Chromosomal distribution of Ty3/gypsy elements is inversely related to arm length, with densities being greatest on the X, and greater on the short versus long arms of both autosomes. Taking into account the different heterochromatic and euchromatic compartments of the genome, our data suggest that the relative abundance of Ty3/gypsy LTRrs along each chromosome arm is determined mainly by the different proportions of heterochromatin, particularly pericentric heterochromatin, relative to total arm length. Additionally, the breakpoint regions of chromosomal inversion 2La appears to be a haven for LTRrs. These elements are underrepresented more than 7-fold in euchromatin, where 33% of the Ty3/gypsy copies are associated with genes. The euchromatin on chromosome 3R shows a faster turnover rate of Ty3/gypsy elements, characterized by a deficit of proviral sequences and the lowest average sequence divergence of any autosomal region analyzed in this study. This probably reflects a principal role of purifying selection against insertion for the preservation of longer conserved syntenyc blocks with adaptive importance located in 3R. Although some Ty3/gypsy LTRrs show evidence of recent activity, an important fraction are inactive remnants of relatively ancient insertions apparently subject to genetic drift. Consistent with these computational predictions, an analysis of the occupancy rate of putatively older insertions in natural populations suggested that the degenerate copies have been fixed across the species range in this mosquito, and also are shared with the sibling species Anopheles arabiensis.

  14. Simple ears-flexible behavior: Information processing in the moth auditory pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerit PFUHL; Blanka KALINOVA; Irena VALTEROVA; Bente G.BERG

    2015-01-01

    Lepidoptera evolved tympanic ears in response to echolocating bats.Comparative studies have shown that moth ears evolved many times independently from chordotonal organs.With only 1 to 4 receptor cells,they are one of the simplest hearing organs.The small number of receptors does not imply simplicity,neither in behavior nor in the neural circuit.Behaviorally,the response to ultrasound is far from being a simple reflex.Moths' escape behavior is modulated by a variety of cues,especially pheromones,which can alter the auditory response.Neurally the receptor cell(s) diverges onto many intemeurons,enabling pa rallel processing and feature extraction.Ascending interneurons and sound-sensitive brain neurons innervate a neuropil in the ventrolateral protocerebrum.Further,recent electrophysiological data provides the first glimpses into how the acoustic response is modulated as well as how ultrasound influences the other senses.So far,the auditory pathway has been studied in noctuids.The findings agree well with common computational principles found in other insects.However,moth ears also show unique mechanical and neural adaptation.Here,we first describe the variety of moths' auditory behavior,especially the co-option of ultrasonic signals for intraspecific communication.Second,we describe the current knowledge of the neural pathway gained from noctuid moths.Finally,we argue that Galleriinae which show negative and positive phonotaxis,are an interesting model species for future electrophysiological studies of the auditory pathway and multimodal sensory integration,and so are ideally suited for the study of the evolution of behavioral mechanisms given a few receptors [Current Zoology 61 (2):292-302,2015].

  15. Drosophila germline invasion by the endogenous retrovirus gypsy: involvement of the viral env gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelisson, A; Mejlumian, L; Robert, V; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    2002-10-01

    The endogenous retrovirus gypsy is expressed at high levels in mutant flamenco female flies. Gypsy viral particles extracted from such flies can infect naive flamenco individuals raised in the presence of these extracts mixed into their food. This results in the integration of new proviruses into the germline genome. These proviruses can then increase their copy number by (1) expression in the flamenco female somatic cells, (2) transfer into the oocyte and (3) integration into the genome of the progeny. Surprisingly, unlike the infection observed in the feeding experiments, this strategy of endogenous proviral multiplication does not seem to involve the expression of the viral env gene. PMID:12225916

  16. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J;

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...

  17. About the origin of retroviruses and the co-evolution of the gypsy retrovirus with the Drosophila flamenco host gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélisson, A; Teysset, L; Chalvet, F; Kim, A; Prud'homme, N; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster is the first retrovirus identified so far in invertebrates. According to phylogenetic data, gypsy belongs to the same group as the Ty3 class of LTR-retrotransposons, which suggests that retroviruses evolved from this kind of retroelements before the radiation of vertebrates. There are other invertebrate retroelements that are also likely to be endogenous retroviruses because they share with gypsy some structural and functional retroviral-like characteristics. Gypsy is controlled by a Drosophila gene called flamenco, the restrictive alleles of which maintain the retrovirus in a repressed state. In permissive strains, functional gypsy elements transpose at high frequency and produce infective particles. Defective gypsy proviruses located in pericentromeric heterochromatin of all strains seem to be very old components of the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, which indicates that gypsy invaded this species, or an ancestor, a long time ago. At that time, Drosophila melanogaster presumably contained permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. One can imagine that the species survived to the increase of genetic load caused by the retroviral invasion because restrictive alleles of flamenco were selected. The characterization of a retrovirus in Drosophila, one of the most advanced model organisms for molecular genetics, provides us with an exceptional clue to study how a species can resist a retroviral invasion. PMID:9440256

  18. Proviral amplification of the Gypsy endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster involves env-independent invasion of the female germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvet, F; Teysset, L; Terzian, C; Prud'homme, N; Santamaria, P; Bucheton, A; Pélisson, A

    1999-05-01

    Gypsy is an infectious endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. The gypsy proviruses replicate very efficiently in the genome of the progeny of females homozygous for permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. This replicative transposition is correlated with derepression of gypsy expression, specifically in the somatic cells of the ovaries of the permissive mothers. The determinism of this amplification was studied further by making chimeric mothers containing different permissive/restrictive and somatic/germinal lineages. We show here that the derepression of active proviruses in the permissive soma is necessary and sufficient to induce proviral insertions in the progeny, even if the F1 flies derive from restrictive germ cells devoid of active proviruses. Therefore, gypsy endogenous multiplication results from the transfer of some gypsy-encoded genetic material from the soma towards the germen of the mother and its subsequent insertion into the chromosomes of the progeny. This transfer, however, is not likely to result from retroviral infection of the germline. Indeed, we also show here that the insertion of a tagged gypsy element, mutant for the env gene, occurs at high frequency, independently of the production of gypsy Env proteins by any transcomplementing helper. The possible role of the env gene for horizontal transfer to new hosts is discussed. PMID:10228177

  19. Genetic studies of the Roma (Gypsies: a review

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    Gresham David

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data provided by the social sciences as well as genetic research suggest that the 8-10 million Roma (Gypsies who live in Europe today are best described as a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations. The relationship between the traditional social structure observed by the Roma, where the Group is the primary unit, and the boundaries, demographic history and biological relatedness of the diverse founder populations appears complex and has not been addressed by population genetic studies. Results Recent medical genetic research has identified a number of novel, or previously known but rare conditions, caused by private founder mutations. A summary of the findings, provided in this review, should assist diagnosis and counselling in affected families, and promote future collaborative research. The available incomplete epidemiological data suggest a non-random distribution of disease-causing mutations among Romani groups. Conclusion Although far from systematic, the published information indicates that medical genetics has an important role to play in improving the health of this underprivileged and forgotten people of Europe. Reported carrier rates for some Mendelian disorders are in the range of 5 -15%, sufficient to justify newborn screening and early treatment, or community-based education and carrier testing programs for disorders where no therapy is currently available. To be most productive, future studies of the epidemiology of single gene disorders should take social organisation and cultural anthropology into consideration, thus allowing the targeting of public health programs and contributing to the understanding of population structure and demographic history of the Roma.

  20. "What about Us?" Gypsies, Travellers and "White Racism" in Secondary Schools in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the concept of "White racism" in relation to the experiences of Gypsy and Traveller groups in England. It is based on ethnographic research conducted in two secondary schools during the years 2006-2009. Interviews were carried out with pupils attending the secondary schools, their mothers and members of the Traveller…

  1. Multimodal floral signals and moth foraging decisions.

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    Jeffrey A Riffell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combinations of floral traits - which operate as attractive signals to pollinators - act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition - a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers - a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths - showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however - a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths - did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as

  2. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  3. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Xia-Fei; Chen, Peng; Liu, Fang-Tao; Zheng, Shuai-Chao; Ye, Hui; Mo, Ming-He

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses. PMID:27775569

  4. Control of moth pests by mating disruption: Successes and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardé, R.T.; Minks, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Male moths generally find their mates by following the females' pheromone plume to its source. A formulated copy of this message is used to regulate mating of many important pests, including pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella, oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta and tomato pinworm Keiferia ly

  5. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  6. Access, agency, assimilation: exploring literacy among adult Gypsies and travellers in three authorities in Southern England

    OpenAIRE

    McCaffery, Juliet D

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explored Gypsies’ and Travellers’ perceptions of the value and importance of literacy to themselves and their communities. It examined the political and social factors that affected the extent and availability of literacy provision for adult Gypsies and Travellers and their level of participation. It focused on how Gypsies’ and Travellers’ levels of literacy impacted on their ability to engage effectively with authority. The research focused on two rural and one urb...

  7. Serial Monodomy in the Gypsy Ant, Aphaenogaster araneoides: Does Nest Odor Reduction Influence Colony Relocation?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Serial monodomy is the nesting behavior in which a colony of animals maintains multiple nests for its exclusive use, occupying one nest at a time. Among serially monodomous ants, the availability of unoccupied nests reduces the probability and costs of army ant attacks. It has been proposed that nest odors mediate serial monodomy in the gypsy ant, Aphaenogaster araneoides Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and that colonies avoid returning to previously occupied nests that harbor colony odors. ...

  8. The Gypsy Database (GyDB) of mobile genetic elements: release 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Carlos; Futami, Ricardo; Covelli, Laura; Domínguez-Escribá, Laura; Viu, Jose M; Tamarit, Daniel; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Jose; Vicente-Ripolles, Miguel; Fuster, Gonzalo; Bernet, Guillermo P; Maumus, Florian; Munoz-Pomer, Alfonso; Sempere, Jose M; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andres

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the second release of the Gypsy Database of Mobile Genetic Elements (GyDB 2.0): a research project devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and transposable elements based on their phylogenetic classification (per lineage and protein domain). The Gypsy Database (GyDB) is a long-term project that is continuously progressing, and that owing to the high molecular diversity of mobile elements requires to be completed in several stages. GyDB 2.0 has been powered with a wiki to allow other researchers participate in the project. The current database stage and scope are long terminal repeats (LTR) retroelements and relatives. GyDB 2.0 is an update based on the analysis of Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia and Bel/Pao LTR retroelements and the Caulimoviridae pararetroviruses of plants. Among other features, in terms of the aforementioned topics, this update adds: (i) a variety of descriptions and reviews distributed in multiple web pages; (ii) protein-based phylogenies, where phylogenetic levels are assigned to distinct classified elements; (iii) a collection of multiple alignments, lineage-specific hidden Markov models and consensus sequences, called GyDB collection; (iv) updated RefSeq databases and BLAST and HMM servers to facilitate sequence characterization of new LTR retroelement and caulimovirus queries; and (v) a bibliographic server. GyDB 2.0 is available at http://gydb.org. PMID:21036865

  9. The moth as an allusion to (symbol of?) mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengold, L

    1996-07-01

    The meanings of the image of the moth are examined. The use of the moth as both victim and predator, with allusive and symbolic reference to parent and child, is elucidated. My emphasis is on the equation of the moth by children with their intrapsychic registration of a destructive yet vulnerable parent (usually mother) whom the child both wants to destroy and feels it cannot live without. This simple thesis is made use of chiefly to explicate aspects of the life and works of the great American writer, Elizabeth Bishop.

  10. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of gypsy retrotransposons in the Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payen, Thibaut; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis

    2016-08-01

    Truffles are ascomycete fungi belonging to genus Tuber, and they form ectomycorrhizal associations with trees and shrubs. Transposable elements constitute more than 50 % of the black Périgord truffle (Tuber melanosporum) genome, which are mainly class 1 gypsy retrotransposons, but their impact on its genome is unknown. The aims of this study are to investigate the diversity of gypsy retrotransposons in this species and their evolutionary history by analysing the reference genome and six resequenced genomes of different geographic accessions. Using the reverse transcriptase sequences, six different gypsy retrotransposon clades were identified. Tmt1 and Tmt6 are the most abundant transposable elements, representing 14 and 13 % of the T. melanosporum genome, respectively. Tmt6 showed a major burst of proliferation between 1 and 4 million years ago, but evidence of more recent transposition was observed. Except for Tmt2, the other clades tend to aggregate, and their mode of transposition excluded the master copy model. This suggests that each new copy has the same probability of transposing as other copies. This study provides a better view of the diversity and dynamic nature of gypsy retrotransposons in T. melanosporum. Even if the major gypsy retrotransposon bursts are old, some elements seem to have transposed recently, suggesting that they may continue to model the truffle genomes. PMID:27025914

  11. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Sarto i Monteys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths", which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as

  12. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie;

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both...... the male song and bat calls by "freezing", which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept...... males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not...

  13. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    2015-01-01

    * Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  14. The moths (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) of northern Maharashtra: a preliminary checklist

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Gurule; S.M. Nikam

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of moth species collected in north Maharashtra is presented based on studies carried out in various localities from June 2009 to June 2010. From a total of 728 individuals, 245 morphospecies, placed in 177 genera and 20 families, were recognized. Almost a third of these species were collected as singletons and can be considered as rare. The moth fauna is very rich in arboreal feeding forms, indicating that the area is a fairly undisturbed forest patch. Of the 20 famili...

  15. Restrictive flamenco alleles are maintained in Drosophila melanogaster population cages, despite the absence of their endogenous gypsy retroviral targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélisson, Alain; Payen-Groschêne, Geneviève; Terzian, Christophe; Bucheton, Alain

    2007-02-01

    The flamenco (flam) locus, located at 20A1-3 in the centromeric heterochromatin of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome, is a major regulator of the gypsy/mdg4 endogenous retrovirus. In restrictive strains, functional flam alleles maintain gypsy proviruses in a repressed state. By contrast, in permissive strains, proviral amplification results from infection of the female germ line and subsequent insertions into the chromosomes of the progeny. A restrictive/permissive polymorphism prevails in natural and laboratory populations. This polymorphism was assumed to be maintained by the interplay of opposite selective forces; on one hand, the increase of genetic load caused by proviral insertions would favor restrictive flam alleles because they make flies resistant to these gypsy replicative transpositions and, on the other, a hypothetical resistance cost would select against such alleles in the absence of the retrovirus. However, the population cage data presented in this paper do not fit with this simple resistance cost hypothesis because restrictive alleles were not eliminated in the absence of functional gypsy proviruses; on the contrary, using 2 independent flam allelic pairs, the restrictive frequency rose to about 90% in every experimental population, whatever the pair of alleles and the allelic proportions in the initial inoculum. These data suggest that the flam polymorphism is maintained by some strong balancing selection, which would act either on flam itself, independently of the deleterious effect of gypsy, or on a hypothetical flanking gene, in linkage disequilibrium with flam. Alternatively, restrictive flam alleles might also be resistant to some other retroelements that would be still present in the cage populations, causing a positive selection for these alleles. Whatever selective forces that maintain high levels of restrictive alleles independently of gypsy, this unknown mechanism can set up an interesting kind of antiviral innate immunity, at

  16. Temporal patterns in Saturnidae (silk moth) and Sphingidae (hawk moth) assemblages in protected forests of central Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M.; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2015-01-01

    Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and rich...

  17. 吉普赛风情狂欢夜——聆听《Gypsy Swing》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张郭蓉

    2012-01-01

    Harmonious Wail成立于1987年,是由辛姆斯.戴兰尼.伯特洛夫带领的一支来自威斯康辛州的美国爵士乐队.《Gypsy Swing》是Harmonious Wail最新的一张唱片,发于2003年9月23日.由Naxos World Music出品.Harmonious是和谐的意思,这里是指将吉普赛音乐与美国本土爵士乐完美的结合成吉普赛爵士乐.

  18. 电磁辐射对舞毒蛾卵孵化率的影响%Influence of electromagnetic radiation on the hatchability of gypsy moth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景奎; 戚大伟

    2007-01-01

    该文研究了电磁辐射对舞毒蛾卵孵化率的影响,其目的是为物理辐照灭虫的研究和实际应用提供理论依据.分别用微波、X射线、γ射线照射舞毒蛾卵,观察照射后卵孵化率变化情况.研究表明:经过微波、γ射线、X射线照射后卵孵化率都明显降低,但X射线、γ射线辐照剂量改变较小时对孵化率影响不明显,而微波辐射随着辐照剂量升高孵化率有明显下降趋势.

  19. Study On Biological Characteristics And Control Mode Of Gypsy Moth%模毒蛾生物学特性及防治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先礼

    2016-01-01

    通过对模毒蛾的形态特征、生活习性、天敌及防治情况进行研究,第—次准确认定模毒蛾在阿尔山林区一年发生一代,以卵在枯枝落叶层下越冬,也有少量在树皮缝等处越冬.5月下旬为幼虫始见期,7月初始化蛹,7月20日开始羽化为成虫,平均产卵量为110粒.在蛹期寄生蝇寄生率达34%,幼虫期以猎蝽和蝇类天敌取食率为5%.并简介了几种防治技术,为模毒蛾综合防治工作提供科学依据.

  20. γ射线辐照对舞毒蛾幼虫DNA作用的研究%Effects of Gesture Ray Irradiation on DNA of Gypsy Moth Larva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海峰; 戚大伟; 李花顺

    2008-01-01

    应用γ射线辐照灭虫方法防治病虫害,可以避免化学防治的药物残留问题.采用不同剂量γ射线辐照舞毒蛾幼虫,再用经典的琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测DNA的损伤程度,研究γ射线对舞毒蛾幼虫细胞的生物学效应.实验结果表明:γ射线照射后的幼虫细胞核DNA片段的大小与辐照剂量之间有明显的剂量效应关系,这为物理灭虫提供理论数据.

  1. Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar

    OpenAIRE

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey. Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar l...

  2. DNA insecticides based on iap3 gene fragments of cabbage looper and gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis viruses show selectivity for non-target insects

    OpenAIRE

    Oberemok Volodymyrovych Volodymyr; Laikova Volodymyrivna Kateryna; Zaitsev Sergeevich Aleksei; Nyadar Mutah Palmah; Shumskykh Nikolaevich Maksym; Gninenko Ivanovich Yuri

    2015-01-01

    DNA insecticides are novel preparations based on short single-stranded fragments of anti-apoptotic (IAP) genes of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. In this article we report about the harmlessness of the DNA insecticides based on single-stranded fragments of the LdMNPV (Lymantria dispar multiple nucleocapsid polyhedrosis virus) IAP3 gene for tobacco hornworm and black cutworm, and present the first evidence of significant insect-specific insecticidal effect of ...

  3. Animal or Plant Disease, Gypsy Moth spray blocks, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Animal or Plant Disease dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  4. Gypsy transposition correlates with the production of a retroviral envelope-like protein under the tissue-specific control of the Drosophila flamenco gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélisson, A; Song, S U; Prud'homme, N; Smith, P A; Bucheton, A; Corces, V G

    1994-09-15

    Gypsy displays striking similarities to vertebrate retroviruses, including the presence of a yet uncharacterized additional open reading frame (ORF3) and the recent evidence for infectivity. It is mobilized with high frequency in the germline of the progeny of females homozygous for the flamenco permissive mutation. We report the characterization of a gypsy subgenomic ORF3 RNA encoding typical retroviral envelope proteins. In females, env expression is strongly repressed by one copy of the non-permissive allele of flamenco. A less dramatic reduction in the accumulation of other transcripts and retrotranscripts is also observed. These effects correlate well with the inhibition of gypsy transposition in the progeny of these females, and are therefore likely to be responsible for this phenomenon. The effects of flamenco on gypsy expression are apparently restricted to the somatic follicle cells that surround the maternal germline. Moreover, permissive follicle cells display a typically polarized distribution of gypsy RNAs and envelope proteins, both being mainly accumulated at the apical pole, close to the oocyte. We propose a model suggesting that gypsy germinal transposition might occur only in individuals that have maternally inherited enveloped gypsy particles due to infection of the maternal germline by the soma. PMID:7925283

  5. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis by the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella: comparison of midgut proteinases from susceptible and resistant larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D E; Brookhart, G L; Kramer, K J; Barnett, B D; McGaughey, W H

    1990-03-01

    Midgut homogenates from susceptible and resistant strains of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, were compared for their ability to activate the entomocidal parasporal crystal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis. The properties of midgut proteinases from both types of larvae were also examined. Electrophoretic patterns of crystal protein from B. thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki (HD-1) and aizawai (HD-133 and HD-144) were virtually unchanged following digestion by either type of midgut homogenate. Changes in pH (9.5 to 11.5) or midgut homogenate concentration during digestion failed to substantially alter protein electrophoretic patterns of B. thuringiensis HD-1 crystal toxin. In vitro toxicity of crystal protein activated by either type of midgut preparation was equal toward cultured insect cells from either Manduca sexta or Choristoneura fumiferana. Electrophoresis of midgut extracts in polyacrylamide gels containing gelatin as substrate also yielded matching mobility patterns of proteinases from both types of midguts. Quantitation of midgut proteolytic activity using tritiated casein as a substrate revealed variation between midgut preparations, but no statistically significant differences between proteolytic activities from susceptible and resistant Indian meal moth larvae. Inhibition studies indicated that a trypsin-like proteinase with maximal activity at pH 10 is a major constituent of Indian meal moth midguts. The results demonstrated that midguts from susceptible and resistant strains of P. interpunctella are similar both in their ability to activate B. thuringiensis protoxin and in their proteolytic activity.

  6. Multiple invasions of Gypsy and Micropia retroelements in genus Zaprionus and melanogaster subgroup of the genus Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carareto Claudia MA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zaprionus genus shares evolutionary features with the melanogaster subgroup, such as space and time of origin. Although little information about the transposable element content in the Zaprionus genus had been accumulated, some of their elements appear to be more closely related with those of the melanogaster subgroup, indicating that these two groups of species were involved in horizontal transfer events during their evolution. Among these elements, the Gypsy and the Micropia retroelements were chosen for screening in seven species of the two Zaprionus subgenera, Anaprionus and Zaprionus. Results Screening allowed the identification of diverse Gypsy and Micropia retroelements only in species of the Zaprionus subgenus, showing that they are transcriptionally active in the sampled species. The sequences of each retroelement were closely related to those of the melanogaster species subgroup, and the most parsimonious hypothesis would be that 15 horizontal transfer events shaped their evolution. The Gypsy retroelement of the melanogaster subgroup probably invaded the Zaprionus genomes about 11 MYA. In contrast, the Micropia retroelement may have been introduced into the Zaprionus subgenus and the melanogaster subgroup from an unknown donor more recently (~3 MYA. Conclusion Gypsy and Micropia of Zaprionus and melanogaster species share similar evolutionary patterns. The sharing of evolutionary, ecological and ethological features probably allowed these species to pass through a permissive period of transposable element invasion, explaining the proposed waves of horizontal transfers.

  7. Culture and the School: The Degree of Educational Integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese Region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded…

  8. Culture and the school: The degree of educational integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded by the European Union. Despite governmental incentives for poor families to enrol their school-aged children, school attendance of Roma and Gypsy children was found to decline from primary year one to primary year six, with hardly any of them entering secondary school at all. Besides looking at school attendance figures and Roma and Gypsy children's proficiency in reading, writing and numeracy, this paper also considers gender, family composition, living conditions and economic situation, as well as culturally constructed perceptions of childhood and a person's life cycle. The aim of this article is to highlight the contradictions and ambiguities involved in the process of incorporating Roma and Gypsy children in formal education, and to evaluate their school performance and assess their academic choices.

  9. Multivariate coupling mechanism of NOCTUIDAE moth wings' surface superhydrophobicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoJun; CONG Qian; ZHANG JianJun; WAN YanLing

    2009-01-01

    The surface shape, structure, biomaterial and wettability of moth wings (10 NOCTUIDAE species) from the northeast region of China were qualitatively and quantitatively studied by means of a stereoscopic microscope, a scanning electronic microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) and the interface contact angle measurement. The observation shows that there are scales arranged like over-lapping tiles on the surface of the moth wings. The shapes of the scales are different between species. They overlap horizontally and there is particular space vertically in the direction of the wing veins. The surface of the scale is structured by micron-class grooves and nanometer-class vertical gibbosities. The biomaterial components of the moth wing scale are mostly made up of protein, lipids and chitin. The observation also shows that the contact angle for wings with scales is in the range from 144.8° to 152.9°, while that for those without scales is from 90.0° to 115.9°. It indicates that the surfaces of the wings with scales are more hydrophobic. According as Cassie model, the equation of wettability on the NOCTUIDAE moth wing surface is established and the hydrophobic mechanism is analyzed. It is con-cluded that the hydrophobicity of the moth wings is induced by the multivariate coupling of the shape, structures and biomaterial of the scales.

  10. Resolving The Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Ricarte, Angelo; Hughes, A Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P; Andrews, Sean M; Wilner, David J

    2013-01-01

    HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.9 arcsec that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution. The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constr...

  11. Geographical Distribution and Status of Actias Moths in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Surachai CHOLDUMRONGKUL; Nopachon TUBTIM; Sungwol RATANACHAN

    2007-01-01

    Geographical distribution and status of Actias moths was assessed at 46 forest stations throughout Thailand from January 2004 to December 2006. At each station, an eighteen watt black light was operated against a white sheet from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am daily. All Actias moths were observed and collected twice during the trapping period at 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. Distribution, abundance, seasonality and status were analyzed. Three out of the four Actias species previously encountered in Thailand wer...

  12. The moths (Lepidoptera: Heterocera of northern Maharashtra: a preliminary checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Gurule

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary checklist of moth species collected in north Maharashtra is presented based on studies carried out in various localities from June 2009 to June 2010. From a total of 728 individuals, 245 morphospecies, placed in 177 genera and 20 families, were recognized. Almost a third of these species were collected as singletons and can be considered as rare. The moth fauna is very rich in arboreal feeding forms, indicating that the area is a fairly undisturbed forest patch. Of the 20 families encountered, Erebidae, Noctuidae, Crambidae, Geometridae and Sphingidae are the most diverse.

  13. Temporal patterns in Saturnidae (silk moth) and Sphingidae (hawk moth) assemblages in protected forests of central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard J; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2015-04-01

    Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and richness of forest-dependent species over the last 20-40 years. The observed changes in species richness and composition among different forests, ecological types, and moth groups highlight the need to repeatedly monitor biodiversity even within protected and relatively intact forests. PMID:25937916

  14. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

  15. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Simmons

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal area mortality in mixed Quercus and mixed Quercus—Pinus strobus forests in eastern Massachusetts ranged from 0–30%; mortality of Quercus in these forests was related to site quality and the number of winter moth defoliation events. In addition, winter moth defoliation events lead to a subsequent increase in understory woody plant density. Our results indicate that winter moth defoliation has been an important disturbance in New England forests that may have lasting impacts.

  16. Infection of the germ line by retroviral particles produced in the follicle cells: a possible mechanism for the mobilization of the gypsy retroelement of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S U; Kurkulos, M; Boeke, J D; Corces, V G

    1997-07-01

    The gypsy retroelement of Drosophila moves at high frequency in the germ line of the progeny of females carrying a mutation in the flamenco (flam) gene. This high rate of de novo insertion correlates with elevated accumulation of full-length gypsy RNA in the ovaries of these females, as well as the presence of an env-specific RNA. We have prepared monoclonal antibodies against the gypsy Pol and Env products and found that these proteins are expressed in the ovaries of flam females and processed in the manner characteristic of vertebrate retroviruses. The Pol proteins are expressed in both follicle and nurse cells, but they do not accumulate at detectable levels in the oocyte. The Env proteins are expressed exclusively in the follicle cells starting at stage 9 of oogenesis, where they accumulate in the secretory apparatus of the endoplasmic reticulum. They then migrate to the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane where they assemble into viral particles. These particles can be observed in the perivitelline space starting at stage 10 by immunoelectron microscopy using anti-Env antibodies. We propose a model to explain flamenco-mediated induction of gypsy mobilization that involves the synthesis of gypsy viral particles in the follicle cells, from where they leave and infect the oocyte, thus explaining gypsy insertion into the germ line of the subsequent generation. PMID:9226450

  17. Genetic Innovation in Vertebrates: Gypsy Integrase Genes and Other Genes Derived from Transposable Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domitille Chalopin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to drive DNA rearrangements and to serve as a source of new coding and regulatory sequences, transposable elements (TEs are considered as powerful evolutionary agents within genomes. In this paper, we review the mechanism of molecular domestication, which corresponds to the formation of new genes derived from TE sequences. Many genes derived from retroelements and DNA transposons have been identified in mammals and other vertebrates, some of them fulfilling essential functions for the development and survival of their host organisms. We will particularly focus on the evolution and expression of Gypsy integrase (GIN genes, which have been formed from ancient event(s of molecular domestication and have evolved differentially in some vertebrate sublineages. What we describe here is probably only the tip of the evolutionary iceberg, and future genome analyses will certainly uncover new TE-derived genes and biological functions driving genetic innovation in vertebrates and other organisms.

  18. [Mobile genetic element MDG4 (gypsy) in Drosophila melanogaster. Features of structure and regulation of transposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusulidu, L K; Karpova, N N; Razorenova, O V; Glukhov, I A; Kim, A I; Liubomirskaia, N V; Il'in, Iu V

    2001-12-01

    Distribution of two structural functional variants of the MDG4 (gypsy) mobile genetic element was examined in 44 strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The results obtained suggest that less transpositionally active MDG4 variant is more ancient component of the Drosophila genome. Using Southern blotting, five strains characterized by increased copy number of MDG4 with significant prevalence of the active variant over the less active one were selected for further analysis. Genetic analysis of these strains led to the suggestion that some of them carry factors that mobilize MDG4 independently from the cellular flamenco gene known to be responsible for transposition of this element. Other strains probably contained a suppressor of the flam- mutant allele causing active transpositions of the MDG4. Thus, the material for studying poorly examined relationships between the retrovirus and the host cell genome was obtained. PMID:11785284

  19. Molecular evolution of magellan, a maize Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, M D; Wessler, S R

    1994-11-22

    The magellan transposable element is responsible for a spontaneous 5.7-kb insertion in the maize wx-M allele. This element has the sequence and structural characteristics of a Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposon. The magellan element is present in all Zea species and Tripsacum andersonii; it is absent, however, in the genomes of all other Tripsacum species analyzed. The genetic distances between magellan elements suggest that this retrotransposon is evolving faster than other Zea nuclear loci. The phylogeny of magellan within Zea and T. andersonii also reveals a pattern of interspecies transfers, resulting in the movement of magellan subfamilies between different species genomes. Interspecific hybridization may be a major mechanism by which this retrotransposon invades and establishes itself in new taxa.

  20. Moths are not silent, but whisper ultrasonic courtship songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, R; Takanashi, T; Fujii, T;

    2009-01-01

    ) were recently shown to whisper extremely low-intensity ultrasonic courtship songs close to females. Since low sound levels will prevent eavesdropping by predators, parasites and conspecific rivals, we predicted low intensity ultrasound communication to be widespread among moths. Here we tested 13...

  1. Olfactory coding in five moth species from two families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisch-Knaden, Sonja; Carlsson, Mikael A; Sugimoto, Yuki; Schubert, Marco; Mißbach, Christine; Sachse, Silke; Hansson, Bill S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine what impact phylogeny and life history might have on the coding of odours in the brain. Using three species of hawk moths (Sphingidae) and two species of owlet moths (Noctuidae), we visualized neural activity patterns in the antennal lobe, the first olfactory neuropil in insects, evoked by a set of ecologically relevant plant volatiles. Our results suggest that even between the two phylogenetically distant moth families, basic olfactory coding features are similar. But we also found different coding strategies in the moths' antennal lobe; namely, more specific patterns for chemically similar odorants in the two noctuid species than in the three sphingid species tested. This difference demonstrates the impact of the phylogenetic distance between species from different families despite some parallel life history traits found in both families. Furthermore, pronounced differences in larval and adult diet among the sphingids did not translate into differences in the olfactory code; instead, the three species had almost identical coding patterns. PMID:22496291

  2. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Eck, van E.; Boer, de R.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Salis, F.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  3. Trapping noctuid moths with synthetic floral volatile lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male and female noctuid moths were collected from plastic bucket traps that were baited with different synthetic floral chemicals and placed in peanut fields. Traps baited with phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and a blend of phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and benzaldehyde collected more soyb...

  4. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  5. Evolutionary genomics revealed interkingdom distribution of Tcn1-like chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons among fungi and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinov Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons or chromoviruses are widely distributed among eukaryotes and have been found in plants, fungi and vertebrates. The previous comprehensive survey of chromoviruses from mosses (Bryophyta suggested that genomes of non-seed plants contain the clade which is closely related to the retrotransposons from fungi. The origin, distribution and evolutionary history of this clade remained unclear mainly due to the absence of information concerning the diversity and distribution of LTR retrotransposons in other groups of non-seed plants as well as in fungal genomes. Results In present study we preformed in silico analysis of chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons in 25 diverse fungi and a number of plant species including spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii (Lycopodiophyta coupled with an experimental survey of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons from diverse non-seed vascular plants (lycophytes, ferns, and horsetails. Our mining of Gypsy LTR retrotransposons in genomic sequences allowed identification of numerous families which have not been described previously in fungi. Two new well-supported clades, Galahad and Mordred, as well as several other previously unknown lineages of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons were described based on the results of PCR-mediated survey of LTR retrotransposon fragments from ferns, horsetails and lycophytes. It appeared that one of the clades, namely Tcn1 clade, was present in basidiomycetes and non-seed plants including mosses (Bryophyta and lycophytes (genus Selaginella. Conclusions The interkingdom distribution is not typical for chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons clades which are usually very specific for a particular taxonomic group. Tcn1-like LTR retrotransposons from fungi and non-seed plants demonstrated high similarity to each other which can be explained by strong selective constraints and the

  6. Context variations and pluri-methodological issues concerning the expression of a social representation: the example of the Gypsy community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattéo, Anthony; Lo Monaco, Grégory; Moreau, Laure; Girandola, Fabien; Tavani, Jean-Louis

    2014-11-20

    Within the social representations' field of research, the "mute zone" hypothesis considers that some objects are characterized by counternormative content that people usually do not express in standard conditions of production. Within the framework of this approach, this study aims to explore the variations in the expression about the Gypsy community following the manipulation of different contexts and the issues associated with a pluri-methodological approach of data analysis. Indeed, two methodologies have been combined. The participants were asked to express themselves in public or in private. In addition, the identity of the experimenter was also manipulated as she presented herself as a Gypsy or not. Then, through a set of analyses based on a methodological triangulation approach, we were able to observe a recurrent modulation of the participants' answers. These analyses highlighted a greater incidence of the expression of counternormative elements when the context of expression was private and especially when the experimenter did not present herself as a Gypsy (p < .01, η p ² = .06). These results will be discussed in terms of the contribution of the methodologies employed and their comparison within the framework of the study of counternormative content.

  7. A piece of the mosaic: Gypsies in the building of an intercultural Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Sidoti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a critical approach to the notion of interculturality in the context of the geopolitical and social transformations that marked the transition from the nation-state system to the birth of a common European identity.In the European society the demarginalisation of  territorial and identification borders raises the question of cultural differences and the need to redefine the new criteria for social inclusion. In this perspective, the process of European integration finds its own testing ground in social policies designed to cultural minority. The article focuses precisely on the case of Gypsy communities, exploring the symbolic and political mechanisms that have historically compromised public image of Gypsies through the ‘nomad theory’ by considering nomadism as part of an inherent identity. The reproduction of this stereotype is at the basis of a social stigma of Gypsy groups, perceived as a public order problem that is reflected in national and supranational politics according to the tendency to consider Gypsies as incapable of decision making and not interlocutors on issues such as health, education and housing. In this text, the author aims to examine these aspects of social exclusion of Gypsy communities and the fault lines of their Europeanisation process, emphasizing their deep roots in the historical and social structure of Europe and their political migration as a creative adaptation strategy to the historical-economic conjunctures. In this framework of reference, interculturality becomes an analytical and political tool that is capable of overcoming the conflicts between the majority society and minorities and a project able to oppose to the ideologies of difference that transform the cultures into abstract and incommunicable entities.El artículo propone un acercamiento crítico a la noción de interculturalidad en el cuadro de las transformaciones sociales y geopolíticas que han

  8. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus - a novel method for codling moth control

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Alan; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally effici...

  9. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    OpenAIRE

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the...

  10. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    OpenAIRE

    Eric eWarrant; Barrie eFrost; Ken eGreen; Henrik eMouritsen; David eDreyer; Andrea eAdden; Kristina eBrauburger; Stanley eHeinze

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the...

  11. The small-scale spatial distribution of an invading moth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David Richard; Agassiz, David J. L.; Godfray, H. C. J.;

    1995-01-01

    , we report the pattern of spread at scales of 1 km2. By locating all bushes of the insect's foodplant (Pyracanrha spp.) within 1-km2 quad- rats, the precise pattern of colonisation at finer spatial scales could be established. Where the 1-km2 site was colonised by moths from the main advancing front......We studied the spread of a small leaf-mining moth [Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller), Gracillariidae] after its accidental introduction into the British Isles. At large geographical scales, previous work had shown the spread to be well described by a travelling wave of constant velocity. Here...... the results in terms of a two-stage mod- el of invasion that produces different patterns at small and large geographical scales....

  12. Moth diversity of Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents results of an expedition to Tawang district (Arunachal Pradesh by the Zoological Survey of India, during the period 27th September 2009 to 15th October 2009. Field camps were established at two places i.e. Lumla and Zemmethang. From these two camps, collections of moths were made at various localities by installing light traps. During the survey, more than 250 morpho-species were collected, of which 102 species pertaining to 15 families were identified. The analysis of the fauna revealed that the moth fauna of the area is dominated by the family Geometridae, followed by Arctiidae, Drepanidae, Crambidae, Lymantriidae, Noctuidae, Uraniidae, Lasiocampidae, Sphingidae, Pyralidae, Zygaenidae, Bombycidae, Saturniidae, Pantheidae and Notodontidae.

  13. New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems. PMID:16365714

  14. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-08-22

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  15. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Buchmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York’s Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale.

  16. Genome-wide Characterization of Long Terminal Repeat-retrotransposons in Apple Reveals the Differences in Heterogeneity and Copy Number between Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy Retrotransposons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yue Sun; Hong-Yan Dai; Gui-Ling Zhao; Yue Ma; Chun-Qing Ou; He Li; Lin-Guang Li; Zhi-Hong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The conserved domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy groups of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were isolated from the Malus domestica genome using degenerate oligonucleotide primers.Sequence analysis showed that 45% of Ty1-copia and 63% of Ty3-gypsy RT sequences contained premature stop codons and/or indels disrupting the reading frame.High heterogeneity among RT sequences of both Tyl-copia and Ty3-gypsy group retrotransposons was observed,but Ty3-gypsy group retrotransposons in the apple genome are less heterogeneous than Ty1-copia elements.Retrotransposon copy number was estimated by dot blot hybridizations for Ty1-copia (~500O) and Ty3-gypsy ( ~26000).All elements of the two types of LTR retrotransposons comprise approximately 38% of the M.domestica genome,with the Ty3-gypsy group contribution being higher (33.5%) than the Ty1-copia one (4.6%).Transcription was not detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for either Tyl.copia or Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons in the leaves of plants in vitro or in leaf explants cultured on medium supplemented with high concentration benzylaminopurine.This research reveals the differences in heterogeneity and copy number between Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons in the apple genome.Ty1-copia retrotransposon has higher heterogeneity than Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon,but the latter has a higher copy number,which implies that Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons may play a more important role in the apple genome evolution.

  17. Suppressor of hairy-wing, modifier of mdg4 and centrosomal protein of 190 gene orthologues of the gypsy insulator complex in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballar-Lejarazú, R; Brennock, P; James, A A

    2016-08-01

    DNA insulators organize independent gene regulatory domains and can regulate interactions amongst promoter and enhancer elements. They have the potential to be important in genome enhancing and editing technologies because they can mitigate chromosomal position effects on transgenes. The orthologous genes of the Anopheles stephensi putative gypsy-like insulator protein complex were identified and expression characteristics studied. These genes encode polypeptides with all the expected protein domains (Cysteine 2 Histidine 2 (C2H2) zinc fingers and/or a bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger). The mosquito gypsy transcripts are expressed constitutively and are upregulated in ovaries of blood-fed females. We have uncovered significant experimental evidence that the gypsy insulator protein complex is widespread in vector mosquitoes.

  18. Suppressor of hairy-wing, modifier of mdg4 and centrosomal protein of 190 gene orthologues of the gypsy insulator complex in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballar-Lejarazú, R; Brennock, P; James, A A

    2016-08-01

    DNA insulators organize independent gene regulatory domains and can regulate interactions amongst promoter and enhancer elements. They have the potential to be important in genome enhancing and editing technologies because they can mitigate chromosomal position effects on transgenes. The orthologous genes of the Anopheles stephensi putative gypsy-like insulator protein complex were identified and expression characteristics studied. These genes encode polypeptides with all the expected protein domains (Cysteine 2 Histidine 2 (C2H2) zinc fingers and/or a bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger). The mosquito gypsy transcripts are expressed constitutively and are upregulated in ovaries of blood-fed females. We have uncovered significant experimental evidence that the gypsy insulator protein complex is widespread in vector mosquitoes. PMID:27110891

  19. Corky, a gypsy-like retrotransposon is differentially transcribed in Quercus suber tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocheta Margarida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements (TEs make up a large part of eukaryotic genomes. Due to their repetitive nature and to the fact that they harbour regulatory signals, TEs can be responsible for chromosomal rearrangements, movement of gene sequences and evolution of gene regulation and function. Retrotransposon ubiquity raises the question about their function in genomes and most are transcriptionally inactive due to rearrangements that compromise their activity. However, the activity of TEs is currently considered to have been one of the major processes in genome evolution. Findings We report on the characterization of a transcriptionally active gypsy-like retrotransposon (named Corky from Quercus suber, in a comparative and quantitative study of expression levels in different tissues and distinct developmental stages through RT-qPCR. We observed Corky’s differential transcription levels in all the tissues analysed. Conclusions These results document that Corky’s transcription levels are not constant. Nevertheless, they depend upon the developmental stage, the tissue analysed and the potential occurring events during an individuals’ life span. This modulation brought upon by different developmental and environmental influences suggests an involvement of Corky in stress response and during development.

  20. Tolerance or Assimilation: The Legends of the Chinese Restaurant and "The Gypsy's Tavern"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying urban legends, the French folklorist Véronique Campion-Vincent posed the question of whether some of the more recent legends preach tolerance. The "elevator incident" or "swallowed ticket" legends display a different attitude to Others from that found in classic xenophobic urban legends. This different attitude is also to be found in two legends recorded in Serbia, namely, the legend of the Chinese restaurant and the legend of "The Gypsy's Tavern". An analysis of the two legends shows that the ambiguity of "tolerance legends" does not arise from the fact that they speak about a xenophobic environment while at the same time having a denouement that "preaches" tolerance, but rather from the fact that the "preaching" relates to those Others who have gone through a process of acculturation, who have been assimilated and who have accepted the rules of "our" culture. These legends do not preach tolerance towards the Otherness of Others but towards Others who are striving to become or have managed to become "Us".

  1. Nested Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons of a single Beta procumbens centromere contain a putative chromodomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Beatrice; Schmidt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    LTR retrotransposons belong to a major group of DNA sequences that are often localized in plant centromeres. Using BAC inserts originating from the centromere of a monosomic wild beet (Beta procumbens) chromosome fragment in Beta vulgaris, two complete LTR retrotransposons were identified. Both elements, designated Beetle1 and Beetle2, possess a coding region with genes in the order characteristic for Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons. Beetle1 and Beetle2 have a chromodomain in the C-terminus of the integrase gene and are highly similar to the centromeric retrotransposons (CRs) of rice, maize, and barley. Both retroelements were localized in the centromeric region of B. procumbens chromosomes by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. They can therefore be classified as centromere-specific chromoviruses. PCR analysis using RNA as template indicated that Beetle1 and Beetle2 are transcriptionally active. On the basis of the sequence diversity between the LTR sequences, it was estimated that Beetle1 and Beetle2 transposed within the last 60,000 years and 130,000 years, respectively. The centromeric localization of Beetle1 and Beetle2 and their transcriptional activity combined with high sequence conservation within each family play an important structural role in the centromeres of B. procumbens chromosomes.

  2. Early predictors of reading in three groups of native Spanish speakers: Spaniards, Gypsies, and Latin Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Escribano, Carmen; Beltrán, Jesús A

    2009-05-01

    The main purpose of the study reported here was to examine the early linguistic predictors of reading (e.g., Knowledge About Print, Listening Comprehension, Receptive Vocabulary, Rapid Naming of Objects and Letters, and Phonological Awareness), for a sample of 77 Spaniards, 48 Latinos, and 30 Gypsies kindergartens (mean age = 5 years 9 months) living in Spain. The relative contribution of ethnic background, neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender was assessed. Findings revealed that ethnic background, neighborhood SES, and age differentially predicted children's pre-literacy skills. The implications of these results for understanding the role played by these demographic and socio-cultural variables in alphabetic literacy acquisition are discussed. The second purpose of this study was to add to the growing literature on the nature of reading challenges in children who are learning to read a transparent orthography-Spanish. Cross-linguistic research between different subtypes of readers will add to understand the impact of language characteristics in reading acquisition. Finally, the present study suggested that early assessment of pre-literacy skills can be a highly effective way to determine the instructional needs of students who are at risk for reading failure before formal reading instruction begins. PMID:19476222

  3. Origins of the Moken Sea Gypsies inferred from mitochondrial hypervariable region and whole genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Chan, Chim W; Arunotai, Narumon Hinshiranan; Lum, J Koji

    2009-02-01

    The origins of the Moken 'Sea Gypsies,' a group of traditionally boat-dwelling nomadic foragers, remain speculative despite previous examinations from linguistic, sociocultural and genetic perspectives. We explored Moken origin(s) and affinities by comparing whole mitochondrial genome and hypervariable segment I sequences from 12 Moken individuals, sampled from four islands of the Mergui Archipelago, to other mainland Asian, Island Southeast Asian (ISEA) and Oceanic populations. These analyses revealed a major (11/12) and a minor (1/12) haplotype in the population, indicating low mitochondrial diversity likely resulting from historically low population sizes, isolation and consequent genetic drift. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close relationships between the major lineage (MKN1) and ISEA, mainland Asian and aboriginal Malay populations, and of the minor lineage (MKN2) to populations from ISEA. MKN1 belongs to a recently defined subclade of the ancient yet localized M21 haplogroup. MKN2 is not closely related to any previously sampled lineages, but has been tentatively assigned to the basal M46 haplogroup that possibly originated among the original inhabitants of ISEA. Our analyses suggest that MKN1 originated within coastal mainland SEA and dispersed into ISEA and rapidly into the Mergui Archipelago within the past few thousand years as a result of climate change induced population pressure. PMID:19158811

  4. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  5. Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleia davidii as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleia davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies and moths, as well as other insects. Moths captured in traps over flowers were 21 species of Geometridae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae, and Tortricidae. The most abundant moths trapped at these flowers were the cabbage loop...

  6. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M;

    2013-01-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than ...

  7. Sex pheromones of the southern armyworm moth: isolation, identification, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Jones, W A; Aldridge, M H

    1970-10-30

    Two sex pheromones have been isolated from the female southern armyworm moth, Prodenia eridania (Cramer), and identified as cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, identical with the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cis-9,trans-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate. PMID:5507205

  8. Attractiveness of binary blends of floral odorant compounds to moths in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl...

  9. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  10. Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Foletti, S; Palasantzas, G; Arikawa, K

    2006-01-01

    The outer surface of the facet lenses in the compound eyes of moths consists of an array of excessive cuticular protuberances, termed corneal nipples. We have investigated the moth-eye corneal nipple array of the facet lenses of 19 diurnal butterfly species by scanning electron microscopy, transmiss

  11. Attractiveness of floral compounds to male and female moths in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl a...

  12. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Martijn F. L.; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S.; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A. M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth allo

  13. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella – expression in larvae and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide key pest of apple and pear. Behavior-modifying semiochemicals are successfully used and are being further developed for environmentally safe control of codling moth. The chemical senses, olfaction and gustation, play critically important role...

  14. Good News? Codling Moth Exhibits Negative Cross Resistance Between Guthion and Rimon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The responses of adult codling moth from several field-collected populations and a laboratory-reared colony to residues of Rimon were evaluated in plastic cup adult bioassays. Both fecundity and successful egg hatch varied among populations. Populations of codling moth that exhibited the highest LC5...

  15. Identification of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Sex pheromones of nocturnal hawk moths have been identified previously, but not those of diurnal hawk moths. Here, we report laboratory analyses and field testing of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis (Bremer 1861) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Sex pheromone glands were removed and extracted in hexane during peak calling activity of virgin female moths. Analysis of gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC) with electroantennographic detection revealed three components that elicited responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified, based on their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns, as (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (10E, 12Z)- and (10E,12E)-10,12-hexadecadienals with a ratio of 45:20:35. In a field experiment, traps baited with the three-component synthetic blend, but none of the single- or two-component blends, caught male moths. All three pheromone components have been identified previously in pheromones of other Lepidoptera, including Sphingid moths, and thus the ternary blend is probably responsible for the species specificity of the pheromone of this moth. PMID:25533775

  16. On the correlation of moth flight to characteristics of a turbulent plume

    CERN Document Server

    Hadad, Tal; Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Several mechanisms control male moth's navigation towards a female releasing sex pheromone. Optomotor anemotaxis is a visual mechanism for the moth flight direction relative to the ground, mechanoreceptors are used for calculating its speed relative to the air current and chemoreceptors on the antennae for sampling the pheromone concentration in the air. All together result in a zigzagging flight pattern of the male moth that depends on the characteristics of its encounters with the pheromone plume. The zigzagging flight pattern includes constant counter-turnings across the wind line in an angle up to 90 degree (casting). In this paper we address how air turbulence manifests the male flight behavior in respect to the streamwise current that carries the pheromone, emphasizing a relationship between the flight speed and the turbulent plume properties. The interaction between the moth flight and the flow field characteristics was examined in a wind tunnel where moth trajectory was recorded. Particle image veloci...

  17. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-01

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments.

  18. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  19. Potentially active copies of the gypsy retroelement are confined to the Y chromosome of some strains of Drosophila melanogaster possibly as the result of the female-specific effect of the flamenco gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvet, F; di Franco, C; Terrinoni, A; Pelisson, A; Junakovic, N; Bucheton, A

    1998-04-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus present in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. This element is mobilized only in the progeny of females which contain active gypsy elements and which are homozygous for permissive alleles of a host gene called flamenco (flam). Some data strongly suggest that gypsy elements bearing a diagnostic HindIII site in the central region of the retrovirus body represent a subfamily that appears to be much more active than elements devoid of this site. We have taken advantage of this structural difference to assess by the Southern blotting technique the genomic distribution of active gypsy elements. In some of the laboratory Drosophila stocks tested, active gypsy elements were found to be restricted to the Y chromosome. Further analyses of 14 strains tested for the permissive vs. restrictive status of their flamenco alleles suggest that the presence of permissive alleles of flam in a stock tends to be associated with the confinement of active gypsy elements to the Y chromosome. This might be the result of the female-specific effect of flamenco on gypsy activity. PMID:9541538

  20. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations

  1. Geographical Distribution and Status of Actias Moths in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai CHOLDUMRONGKUL

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographical distribution and status of Actias moths was assessed at 46 forest stations throughout Thailand from January 2004 to December 2006. At each station, an eighteen watt black light was operated against a white sheet from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am daily. All Actias moths were observed and collected twice during the trapping period at 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. Distribution, abundance, seasonality and status were analyzed. Three out of the four Actias species previously encountered in Thailand were collected: A. maenas Doubleday, A. selene Hübner and A. rhodopneuma Röber. A. maenas was the most widespread species in the country with an average of 0.001037 individuals/spot sample and was found all year round. The highest abundance was in Narathiwat province, the northernmost border of the Sundaic region. A. selene was found at higher latitudes ranging from 20 °N at Doi Chiang Dao, Chiang Mai to 13 °N at Prachub Kirikhan province with an average of 0.003303 individuals/spot sample and were found all year round, with the highest abundance in July. By applying IUCN Categories & Criteria A. maenas and A. selene were designated as Vulnerable (VU and Near Threatened (NT species respectively. A. rhodopneuma moths were found only at Doi Phuka National Park, Nan province with 0.000263 individuals/spot sample from February to April and are therefore designated as a Critically Endangered (CR species. A. sinensis was not found during this study and is therefore assigned the status of extinct (EX.

  2. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control.

  3. The cotton centromere contains a Ty3-gypsy-like LTR retroelement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Luo

    Full Text Available The centromere is a repeat-rich structure essential for chromosome segregation; with the long-term aim of understanding centromere structure and function, we set out to identify cotton centromere sequences. To isolate centromere-associated sequences from cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum we surveyed tandem and dispersed repetitive DNA in the genus. Centromere-associated elements in other plants include tandem repeats and, in some cases, centromere-specific retroelements. Examination of cotton genomic survey sequences for tandem repeats yielded sequences that did not localize to the centromere. However, among the repetitive sequences we also identified a gypsy-like LTR retrotransposon (Centromere Retroelement Gossypium, CRG that localizes to the centromere region of all chromosomes in domestic upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, the major commercially grown cotton. The location of the functional centromere was confirmed by immunostaining with antiserum to the centromere-specific histone CENH3, which co-localizes with CRG hybridization on metaphase mitotic chromosomes. G. hirsutum is an allotetraploid composed of A and D genomes and CRG is also present in the centromere regions of other AD cotton species. Furthermore, FISH and genomic dot blot hybridization revealed that CRG is found in D-genome diploid cotton species, but not in A-genome diploid species, indicating that this retroelement may have invaded the A-genome centromeres during allopolyploid formation and amplified during evolutionary history. CRG is also found in other diploid Gossypium species, including B and E2 genome species, but not in the C, E1, F, and G genome species tested. Isolation of this centromere-specific retrotransposon from Gossypium provides a probe for further understanding of centromere structure, and a tool for future engineering of centromere mini-chromosomes in this important crop species.

  4. Floral CO2 reveals flower profitability to moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Corinna; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Mechaber, Wendy L; Hildebrand, John G

    2004-06-01

    The hawkmoth Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), an experimentally favorable Lepidopteran that is highly sensitive to carbon dioxide (CO2), feeds on the nectar of a range of flowering plants, such as Datura wrightii (Solanaceae). Newly opened Datura flowers give off dramatically elevated levels of CO2 and offer ample nectar. Thus, floral CO2 emission could indicate food-source profitability. This study documents that foraging Manduca moths prefer surrogate flowers that emit high levels of CO2, characteristic of newly opened Datura flowers. We show for the first time that CO2 may play an important role in the foraging behavior of nectar-feeding insects. PMID:15303329

  5. Moth diversity of Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, K; S. Sambath

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents results of an expedition to Tawang district (Arunachal Pradesh) by the Zoological Survey of India, during the period 27th September 2009 to 15th October 2009. Field camps were established at two places i.e. Lumla and Zemmethang. From these two camps, collections of moths were made at various localities by installing light traps. During the survey, more than 250 morpho-species were collected, of which 102 species pertaining to 15 families were identified. The analysis of t...

  6. Cyclically outbreaking geometrid moths in sub-arctic mountain birch forest: the organization and impacts of their interactions with animal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo

    2015-01-01

    In sub-arctic mountain birch forest in northern Fennoscandia, the 2 geometrid moth species Epirrita autumnata (autumnal moth) and Operophtera brumata (winter moth) show high-amplitude population cycles with regular 10-year periodicity. During some population peaks, moth populations attain outbreak densities and cause region-wide defoliation and mortality of mountain birch. The severity and duration of moth outbreaks presently appears to be increasing, owing to climate-driven range-expansions ...

  7. I Met Lucky People: The Story of the Romani Gypsies. By Yaron Matras. London: Allen Lane, Penguin Books, 2014, 276 pp.; ISBN 978-1-846-14481-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A Friedman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a book review of I met lucky people: The story of the Romani Gypsies, by Yaron Matras. The work is oriented for a general reading public, but it can be highly recommended for academics and policy makers as well.

  8. The CDCC Teacher Bursaries Scheme. European Teachers' Seminar on "Towards Intercultural Education: Training for Teachers of Gypsy Pupils" (Benidorm, Spain, June 9-13, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegois, Jean-Pierre

    The Council of Europe's third seminar on Gypsy and migrant children's education attracted 75 educators from 6 European countries. This report provides a synopsis of each of eight plenary lectures and complete reports from four workshops. An introduction offers background information and an opening address by Jean-Pierre Liegois is given in full.…

  9. Variation in Copy Number of Ty3/Gypsy Centromeric Retrotransposons in the Genomes of Thinopyrum intermedium and Its Diploid Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Khuat, Thi Mai L.; Kroupin, Pavel Yu.; Kirov, Ilya V.; Romanov, Dmitry V.; Kiseleva, Anna V.; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Zelenin, Alexandr S.; Klimushina, Marina V.; Razumova, Olga V.; Karlov, Gennady I.

    2016-01-01

    Speciation and allopolyploidization in cereals may be accompanied by dramatic changes in abundance of centromeric repeated transposable elements. Here we demonstrate that the reverse transcriptase part of Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposon (RT-CR) is highly conservative in the segmental hexaploid Thinopyrum intermedium (JrJvsSt) and its possible diploid progenitors Th. bessarabicum (Jb), Pseudoroegneria spicata (St) and Dasypyrum villosum (V) but the abundance of the repeats varied to a large extent. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed hybridization signals in centromeric region of all chromosomes in the studied species, although the intensity of the signals drastically differed. In Th. intermedium, the strongest signal of RT-CR probe was detected on the chromosomes of Jv, intermediate on Jr and faint on Js and St subgenome suggesting different abundance of RT-CR on the individual chromosomes rather than the sequence specificity of RT-CRs of the subgenomes. RT-CR quantification using real-time PCR revealed that its content per genome in Th. bessarabicum is ~ 2 times and P. spicata is ~ 1,5 times higher than in genome of D. villosum. The possible burst of Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposon in Th. intermedium during allopolyploidization and its role in proper mitotic and meiotic chromosome behavior in a nascent allopolyploid is discussed. PMID:27119343

  10. Behaviour Patterns of the Pine Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams; Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Houri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni is a serious pest of pine trees, especially the wide-spread Pinus brutia. This infestation has a significant economic impact both in the loss of forest wood growth and in medical expenses for treating related human diseases. This paper presents a detailed study of the behaviour patterns of the moth stage in an attempt to identify best control methods. Several key observations are made towards the moth emergence timing and period of nocturnal activity. Specifically, 92% of the moths were found to be most active between midnight and 6:00 a.m. Effects of light traps vs. pheromone traps are analyzed and light traps were found to be 15 times more efficient. In addition, 84% of the captured moths were males and only 16% were females. Several attempts were made to lure females into traps but were mostly unsuccessful. Finally, moth emergence in relevance to various weather conditions was analyzed and a clear relationship was established where rain appeared to motivate moth emergence. This work has been done over the span of two consecutive years. A clear mode of action is deduced for the best methods of moth control.

  11. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  12. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order.

  13. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2000-01-01

    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...... and A2 have almost equal thresholds in contrast to noctuids and geometrids. A3 responds at + 12 to + 16 dB relative to the A1 threshold. The threshold data from the A-cells give no indication of frequency discrimination in greater wax moths. Tethered greater wax moths respond to ultrasound with short...

  14. To females of a noctuid moth, male courtship songs are nothing more than bat echolocation calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Skals, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    production in the male moth, and subsequently the role of the sound with reference to the female's ability to discriminate male courtship songs from bat calls. We found that males have sex-specific tymbals for ultrasound emission, and that the broadcast of either male songs or simulated bat calls equally...... increased the acceptance of muted males by the female. It was concluded that females of this moth do not distinguish between male songs and bat calls, supporting the idea that acoustic communication in this moth evolved through a sensory exploitation process....

  15. Radiobiological studies on the angoumois moth sitotroga cerealella (oliv.) (lepidoptera - Celechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain in bins or ear corn in storage has small buff moths flying about the bins or cramling rapidly over the surface of the grain when it is disturbed. One or two small round holes are eaten in the kernels of infested corn or in other grain. This insect is the most destructive grain moth occurring in our country casing great damage to corn in cribs and also destroying ripening grain, especially wheat, in the field. The present study deals with the effects of gamma irradiation on the different developmental stages of the angoumois grain moth sitotroga cerealella (olivier) with special reference to the effects of sterilizing dosage on sexual competition

  16. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they "hibernate" over the summer months (referred to as "estivation"). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that the Bogong

  17. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eWarrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they hibernate over the summer months (referred to as aestivation. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their aestivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear

  18. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  19. The impact of Ty3-gypsy group LTR retrotransposons Fatima on B-genome specificity of polyploid wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huneau Cecile

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements (TEs are a rapidly evolving fraction of the eukaryotic genomes and the main contributors to genome plasticity and divergence. Recently, occupation of the A- and D-genomes of allopolyploid wheat by specific TE families was demonstrated. Here, we investigated the impact of the well-represented family of gypsy LTR-retrotransposons, Fatima, on B-genome divergence of allopolyploid wheat using the fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH method and phylogenetic analysis. Results FISH analysis of a BAC clone (BAC_2383A24 initially screened with Spelt1 repeats demonstrated its predominant localisation to chromosomes of the B-genome and its putative diploid progenitor Aegilops speltoides in hexaploid (genomic formula, BBAADD and tetraploid (genomic formula, BBAA wheats as well as their diploid progenitors. Analysis of the complete BAC_2383A24 nucleotide sequence (113 605 bp demonstrated that it contains 55.6% TEs, 0.9% subtelomeric tandem repeats (Spelt1, and five genes. LTR retrotransposons are predominant, representing 50.7% of the total nucleotide sequence. Three elements of the gypsy LTR retrotransposon family Fatima make up 47.2% of all the LTR retrotransposons in this BAC. In situ hybridisation of the Fatima_2383A24-3 subclone suggests that individual representatives of the Fatima family contribute to the majority of the B-genome specific FISH pattern for BAC_2383A24. Phylogenetic analysis of various Fatima elements available from databases in combination with the data on their insertion dates demonstrated that the Fatima elements fall into several groups. One of these groups, containing Fatima_2383A24-3, is more specific to the B-genome and proliferated around 0.5-2.5 MYA, prior to allopolyploid wheat formation. Conclusion The B-genome specificity of the gypsy-like Fatima, as determined by FISH, is explained to a great degree by the appearance of a genome-specific element within this family for Ae

  20. Coloration using higher order optical interference in the wing pattern of the Madagascan sunset moth

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, S; Nakano, T; Nozue, Y.; Kinoshita, S.

    2007-01-01

    Colour patterns of animals' bodies are usually produced by the spatial distribution of pigments with different colours. However, some animals use the spatial variation of colour-producing microstructures. We have studied one distinctive example of such structurally produced colour patterns, the wing of the Madagascan sunset moth, to clarify the physical rules that underlie the colour variation. It is known that the iridescent wing scale of the sunset moth has the alternate air–cuticle multila...

  1. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended. PMID:24026215

  2. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Gupta; Nidhi Shrivastava; Pramod Kumar Singh; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean acces...

  3. Surviving cave bats: auditory and behavioural defences in the Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, James H; Jackson, Matt E; Jacobs, David S; Pavey, Chris R; Burwell, Chris J

    2008-12-01

    The Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans shares its subterranean day roosts (caves and abandoned mines) with insectivorous bats, some of which prey upon it. The capacity of this moth to survive is assumed to arise from its ability to listen for the bats' echolocation calls and take evasive action; however, the auditory characteristics of this moth or any tropically distributed Australian moth have never been examined. We investigated the ears of S. spectans and determined that they are among the most sensitive ever described for a noctuid moth. Using playbacks of cave-recorded bats, we determined that S. spectans is able to detect most of the calls of two co-habiting bats, Rhinolophus megaphyllus and Miniopterus australis, whose echolocation calls are dominated by frequencies ranging from 60 to 79 kHz. Video-recorded observations of this roost site show that S. spectans adjusts its flight activity to avoid bats but this defence may delay the normal emergence of the moths and leave some 'pinned down' in the roosts for the entire night. At a different day roost, we observed the auditory responses of one moth to the exceptionally high echolocation frequencies (150-160 kHz) of the bat Hipposideros ater and determined that S. spectans is unable to detect most of its calls. We suggest that this auditory constraint, in addition to the greater flight manoeuvrability of H. ater, renders S. spectans vulnerable to predation by this bat to the point of excluding the moth from day roosts where the bat occurs. PMID:19043053

  4. Weather Affecting Macro-Moth Diversity at Khao Nan National Park, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Mullica JAROENSUTASINEE; Wittaya PHEERA; Ratree NINLAEARD; Krisanadej JAROENSUTASINEE; Surachai CHOLDUMRONGKUL

    2011-01-01

    Surveying on the diversity of the macro-moths was done at Khao Nan National Park, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand from January 2007 to December 2008. We caught 57 species with 170 individuals of macro-moths covering nine families: Cossidae, Cyclidiidae, Eupterotidae, Geometridae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae and Uraniidae. We collected 46 species with 24 singletons and 123 individuals belonging to nine families at Headquarters and 24 species with 16 singletons and 47 indivi...

  5. Development of the larval ovary in the moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckemeyer, E F; Shirk, P D

    2004-11-01

    The morphogenesis of ovaries and the organization of germ cells within them were visualized during the larval stages of the moth, Plodia interpunctella. The germ cells were observed by utilizing confocal microscopy coupled with immuno-fluorescent staining for the alpha-crystallin protein 25 (alphaCP25). The alphaCP25 was previously shown to be specific to germ cells of pupae and adults, and this study shows that alphaCP25 is present in larval germ cells as well. A cluster of 28 germ cells that stain for alphaCP25 was found in the gonads of newly hatched first instar larvae. The founding germ cells became segregated into four clusters, most likely by somatic cell intrusion, around the beginning of the second instar. Division of the primary germ cells began by the end of the second instar and the formation of all cystoblasts appeared to be completed within the four ovarioles by the end of the third instar. Within the ovarioles of third instar larvae, the germ cells were organized with a distal cap of seven germ cells which was segregated from the majority of the germ cells. The main body of germ cells was arranged around a central germ cell-free core as a spiral. Divisions of the cystoblasts to form cystocyte clusters were nearly completed during the fourth (last) larval instar. These features suggest that the strategy to produce follicles in moths is fundamentally different from the fruitfly, Drosophila. It appears that during the initial stages of ovary development in P. interpunctella, the primary germ cells undergo stage-complete divisions that are completed prior to the onset of the next set of divisions, which results in a complete complement of follicles available by the time of adult eclosion, while in Drosophila the primary germ cell divisions are initiated in the adult stage, and follicles are produced individually as resources are available.

  6. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

  7. Development of synthetic volatile attractant for maleEctropis obliqua moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-ling; LI Xi-wang; XIN Zhao-jun; HAN Juan-juan; RAN Wei; LEI Shu

    2016-01-01

    The tea geometridEctropis obliquais one of the most serious leaf-feeding insect pests in tea (Camelia sinensis) in East Asia. Although several volatile chemicals emitted from tea plants have been reported to be attractive toE. obliqua moths, no synthetic attractants for E. obliqua moths have been developed. By measuring the behavioral responses of the moth to a series of chemicals in the lab, we found that a blend containing a ternary mixture containing (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate and benzyl alcohol clearly attracted toE. obliqua moths of both sex and that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate could enhance the attractiveness of the ternary blend. Moreover, we found that the volatiles emitted from the plant-E. obliqua larva com-plex have the same attractiveness as: 1) the blend of volatiles containing the ternary mixture and 2) the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture to both male and female moths. In a ifeld bioassay, more male moths were observed on traps that were baited with the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture than on control traps. Our study raises the tantalizing possibility that synthetic blends could be deployed as attractants for pests in the ifeld.

  8. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States

  9. Mobile Mating Disruption of Light Brown Apple Moths Using Pheromone-Treated Sterile Mediterranean Fruit Flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Public opposition to aerial application of sex pheromone for mating disruption of light-brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.), in California stopped its further use in the ca $ 74 million eradication programme in 2008, underscoring the need for other eradication tactics. It is demonstrated that pheromone- treated sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies), Ceratitis capitata Wied., can disrupt communication in male moths. Results: Medflies topically dosed with moth pheromone (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate showed a no observed effect level (NOEL) of ∼ 10 μg fly-1, with increasing toxicity from 30 to 100 μg fly-1. Greater potency and longevity of attraction and lower mortality were achieved using microencapsulated pheromone. Releases of 1000 pheromone- treated medflies ha-1 prevented male moth catch to synthetic lures in treated 4 ha plots for 1 day in suburban Perth, Australia. Releases of ca 3000 pheromone-treated medflies ha-1 disrupted catch to single female moths in delta traps, and to synthetic pheromone lures. Percentage disruption on the first four nights was 95, 91, 82 and 85%. Conclusions: Disruption of moth catch using pheromonetreated medflies is a novel development that, with future improvement, might provide a socially acceptable approach for application of the insect mating disruption technique to control invasive insects in urban environments. Adequacy of payload and other issues require resolution. (author)

  10. Weather Affecting Macro-Moth Diversity at Khao Nan National Park, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullica JAROENSUTASINEE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveying on the diversity of the macro-moths was done at Khao Nan National Park, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand from January 2007 to December 2008. We caught 57 species with 170 individuals of macro-moths covering nine families: Cossidae, Cyclidiidae, Eupterotidae, Geometridae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae and Uraniidae. We collected 46 species with 24 singletons and 123 individuals belonging to nine families at Headquarters and 24 species with 16 singletons and 47 individuals belonging to 6 families at Huilek Park Ranger station. Sphingidae was recorded as the most diverse family sampled in Khao Nan National Park, followed by Noctuidae, and Saturniidae. The macro-moths visited the light trap at Headquarters every month during the study period. The highest species richness was observed in June 2007 with 10 species. The number of macro-moths at Huilek Park Ranger station was highest in October and December 2007. The species composition in the Headquarters was approximately three times higher than at Huilek Park Ranger station. At Headquarters, the number of individual macro-moths was positively correlated with mean/max/min temperatures and negatively correlated with relative humidity and not associated with rainfall. On the other hand, the number of individual macro-moths at Huilek Park Ranger station was not associated with mean/max/min temperatures, relative humidity or rainfall.

  11. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region. PMID:26313955

  12. [Interlineage distribution and characteristics of the structure of two subfamilies of Drosophila melanogaster MDG4 (gypsy) retrotransposon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razorenova, O V; Karpova, N N; Smirnova, Iu B; Kusulidu, L K; Reneva, N K; Subocheva, E A; Kim, A I; Liubomirskaia, N V; Il'in, Iu V

    2001-02-01

    The distribution of two variants of MDG4 (gypsy) was analyzed in several Drosophila melanogaster strains. Southern blot hybridization revealed the inactive variant of MDG4 in all strains examined and active MDG4 only in some of them. Most of the strains harboring the active MDG4 variant were recently isolated from natural populations. It is of interest that the active MDG4 prevailed over the inactive one only in strains carrying the mutant flamenco gene. Several lines were analyzed in more detail. The number of MDG4 sites on salivary-gland polytene chromosomes was established via in situ hybridization, and MDG4 was tested for transposition using the ovoD test. PMID:11253423

  13. UNderstanding uptake of Immunisations in TravellIng aNd Gypsy communities (UNITING): a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cath; Dyson, Lisa; Bedford, Helen; Cheater, Francine M; Condon, Louise; Crocker, Annie; Emslie, Carol; Ireland, Lana; Kemsley, Philippa; Kerr, Susan; Lewis, Helen J; Mytton, Julie; Overend, Karen; Redsell, Sarah; Richardson, Zoe; Shepherd, Christine; Smith, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers) are less likely to access health services, including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, we need to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. AIMS (1) Investigate the barriers to and facilitators of acceptability and uptake of immunisations among six Traveller communities across four UK cities; and (2) identify possible interventions to increase uptake of immunisations in these Traveller communities that could be tested in a subsequent feasibility study. METHODS Three-phase qualitative study underpinned by the social ecological model. Phase 1: interviews with 174 Travellers from six communities: Romanian Roma (Bristol); English Gypsy/Irish Traveller (Bristol); English Gypsy (York); Romanian/Slovakian Roma (Glasgow); Scottish Showpeople (Glasgow); and Irish Traveller (London). Focus on childhood and adult vaccines. Phase 2: interviews with 39 service providers. Data were analysed using the framework approach. Interventions were identified using a modified intervention mapping approach. Phase 3: 51 Travellers and 25 service providers attended workshops and produced a prioritised list of potentially acceptable and feasible interventions. RESULTS There were many common accounts of barriers and facilitators across communities, particularly across the English-speaking communities. Scottish Showpeople were the most similar to the general population. Roma communities experienced additional barriers of language and being in a new country. Men, women and service providers described similar barriers and facilitators. There was widespread acceptance of childhood and adult immunisation, with current parents perceived as more positive than their elders. A minority of English-speaking Travellers worried about multiple/combined childhood vaccines, adult flu and whooping cough. Cultural concerns about vaccines offered during pregnancy and about human

  14. Ethnologie und Tsiganologie. Warum studieren wir „überrollte“ Kulturen?/Anthropology and Gypsy Studies. Why are we interested in „overrolled“ cultures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Streck

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy Studies (in German: Tsiganologie on the one side have a long tradition since the 18th century,on the other side it is still difficult to define it between social or cultural anthropology (in German:Ethnologie and sociology. The Leipzig Forum Tsiganologische Forschung has collected data whichcan be explained by a paradigm of order and para-order, two systems of thinking and doing closelyconnected and interdependent, but in an asymmetric way, comparable with the relation of mother anddaughter. Whereas anthropology tries to understand what sometimes is described as the recent losersof the civilization process, Gypsies represent a traditional skill of being marginalized, a certain wayof mastering para-orders, which could be relevant for all other “overrolled” communities.

  15. Presence of Gypsy origin vocabulary in Latin American Spanish varieties:the case of Mexican Spanish and its caló

    OpenAIRE

    Buzek Ivo

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the lexicographical treatment of word units of Gypsy origin in some dictionaries of Mexican Spanish and it is focused on their treatment in integral as well as differential dictionaries of the Mexican Spanish. Příspěvek pojednává o lexikografickém zpracování hesel romského původu ve slovnících mexické španělštiny, a to jak v integrálních, tak i v diferenciálních slovnících mexické španělštiny. The paper deals with the lexicographical treatment of word units of Gypsy...

  16. Efficacies and Second-Year Effects of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ksenia S. Onufrieva; Andrea D. Hickman; Donna S. Leonard; Patrick C. Tobin

    2014-01-01

    Mating disruption is the primary control tactic used against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) under the gypsy moth Slow the Spread (STS) program. In this paper, we present the results of the multiyear study designed to evaluate a new liquid SPLAT GM™ (ISCA Tech, Riverside, CA, USA) Organic formulation, which is approved by the USDA to meet National Organic Program Standards for use in organic certified farms, for its ability to disrupt gypsy moth mating, and t...

  17. Cloning and Characterization of Ty3/gypsy Retrotransposon in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)%二化螟 Ty3/gypsy 反转座子的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓欢; 罗光华; 张志春; 刘宝生; 方继朝

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements constitute a substantial fraction of host genomes.Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon,one group of LTR retrotransposons,is widespread in different species.By inverse-PCR and genome walking,a novel member of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons was cloned from Chilo suppressalis .This new member of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons was named Csu-Ty3 (GenBank accession No.KJ1 9 126 1 ).The sequence is 4 934 bp in length and integrated into the “AACGT”target site duplications (TSDs)of the genome.There is a pair of non-completely identical long terminal repeats (LTRs)in the Csu-Ty3 retrotransposon.The 5′LTR is 1 6 1 bp in length and the 3′LTR is 1 68 bp,sharing 93•5 % similarities.A polypurine tract (PPT),1 5 bp in length,is adjacent to the 3′LTR.There are three independent open reading frames (ORFs)in Csu-Ty3.The first ORF encodes a protein which is related to viral structural protein,termed GAG.The second encodes aspartic protease (AP).The third encodes a polyprotein including a reverse transcriptase (RT)which produces a cDNA copy of the transposon′s RNA,an RNase H (RH)which splits the DNA-RNA hybrid and an integrase (IN ) which inserts the cDNA into the host′s genome.The southern hybridization indicated that there were many Csu-Ty3 copies in different C .suppressalis populations.Flanking PCR results showed that the Csu-Ty3 copy was inserted at the same locus in different populations.At this locus,all the individuals have the Csu-Ty3 copy insertion except some individuals from Deyang and Jiangjin populations.The Csu-Ty3 insertion ratio varied with field populations.%转座子是宿主基因组的重要组成部分.Ty3/gypsy 反转座子是广泛存在于生物体内的一类反转座子.通过反向PCR(inverse PCR)和基因组步移方法成功地从二化螟体内获得一个具有完整结构的 Ty3/gypsy 反转座子拷贝,命名为Csu-Ty3(GenBank 登录号:KJ191261).该反转座子拷贝全长4934 bp,在基因组上插入的靶位点(target sit

  18. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) among Three Neotropical Ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zeballos, Sebastián Rodolfo; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano). Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor. PMID:27681478

  19. Quantitative analysis of the effects of ultrasound from an odor sprayer on moth flight behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skals, Niels; Plepys, Dainius; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Löfstedt, Christer; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2003-01-01

    A piezoelectric sprayer was recently developed for precision release of odor stimuli in olfactory research. The device replaces conventional dispensers used to release semiochemicals in studies of moth flight toward sources. However, the device generates high-frequency sounds in the range that some moths can hear. Ultrasound from the standard set-up sprayer had a considerable impact on flight behavior of the silver Y moth, Autographa gamma, tested in a flight tunnel. It was affected at all behavioral stages when the dispenser was driven at 120 kHz. Only 5% of the moths reached the source when exposed to 120-kHz sound from the dispenser compared to 65% in the control group without sound. The proportion taking flight was also reduced. Hearing threshold curves obtained electrophysiologically revealed that moths were sensitive to the frequency range at which the sprayer was operated and that sound intensity from the sprayer was up to 40 dB above the moths' electrophysiological hearing threshold. The audiogram for A. gamma was similar to audiograms obtained for other noctuids. Hearing sensitivity was highest at around 15 kHz, where the threshold was 35 dB SPL (sound pressure level). The threshold increased with frequency up to 94 dB SPL at 160 kHz. We improved the sprayer to operate at 300 kHz, which is beyond the hearing ability of most insects with ears. At this high frequency, the moths' sensitivity to ulrasound is reduced considerably, and we did not observe any effect on flight behavior compared to a control group without sound. Accordingly, this new piezoelectric sprayer can be used with ultrasound-sensitive insects and insensitive insects alike. PMID:12647854

  20. Biochemical Mechanism of Chlorantraniliprole Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhen-di; FENG Xia; LIN Qing-sheng; CHEN Huan-yu; LI Zhen-yu; YIN Fei; LIANG Pei; GAO Xi-wu

    2014-01-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole exhibits good efifcacy and plays an important role in controlling the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus. However, resistance to chlorantraniliprole has been observed recently in some ifeld populations. At present study, diamondback moths with resistance to chlorantraniliprole (resistant ratio (RR) was 82.18) for biochemical assays were selected. The assays were performed to determine potential resistance mechanisms. The results showed that the selected resistant moths (GDLZ-R) and susceptible moth could be synergized by known metabolic inhibitors such as piperonyl butoxide (PBO), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl-maleate (DEM) at different levels (1.68-5.50-fold and 2.20-2.89-fold, respectively), and DEM showed the maximum synergism in both strains. In enzymes assays, a high level of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in the resistant moth, in contrast, moths that are susceptible to the insecticide had only 1/3 the GST activity of the resistant moths. The analysis of short-term exposure of chlorantraniliprole on biochemical response in the resistant strain also showed that GST activity was signiifcantly elevated after exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of chlorantraniliprole (about 1/3 LC50, 12 mg L-1) 12 and 24 h, respectively. The results show that there is a strong correlation between the enzyme activity and resistance, and GST is likely the main detoxiifcation mechanism responsible for resistance to chlorantraniliprole in P. xylostella L., cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) and carboxy-lesterase (CarE) are involved in to some extent.

  1. Distribution of a Ty3/gypsy-like retroelement on the A and B-chromosomes of Cestrum strigilatum Ruiz & Pav. and Cestrum intermedium Sendtn. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéferson Nunes Fregonezi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroelements are a diversified fraction of eukaryotic genomes, with the Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy groups being very common in a large number of plant genomes. We isolated an internal segment of the Ty3/gypsy retroelement of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae using PCR amplification with degenerate primers for a conserved region of reverse transcriptase. The isolated segment (pCs12 was sequenced and showed similarity with Ty3/gypsy retroelements of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. This segment was used as probe in chromosomes of C. strigilatum and Cestrum intermedium. Diffuse hybridization signals were observed along the chromosomes and more accentuated terminal signals in some chromosome pairs, always associated with nucleolus organizer regions (NORs. The physical relationship between the hybridization sites of pCs12 and pTa71 ribosomal probes was assessed after sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Hybridization signals were also detected in the B chromosomes of these species, indicating an entail among the chromosomes of A complement and B-chromosomes.

  2. Heritable variation of sex pheromone composition and the potential for evolution of resistance to pheromone-based control of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Glenn P; Ryne, Camilla; Löfstedt, Christer

    2002-07-01

    The short-term evolutionary effect of pheromone-based mating disruption on the mating ability of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, was investigated. Three independent selection lines were established, and the mating ability of moths in plastic tents treated with high doses of pheromone and in control tents was compared for two consecutive generations. In addition, the heritability of the sex pheromone blend, measured as the ratio of two major pheromone components (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienol, was estimated. Based on a mother-daughter regression analysis including 21 families, the heritability of the pheromone blend was 0.65 +/- 0.14, indicating a potential for evolutionary change of the character. However, no increase in mating ability of females in pheromone-treated tents or alteration of the pheromone blend was observed in any selection line when compared with control lines, indicating no or weak selection on the pheromone blend as well as other traits influencing mating ability of this species under the created mating disruption conditions. Factors contributing to the lack of selection effects are discussed.

  3. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies.

  4. Toxicity of Six Insecticides on Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Effect on Expression of Detoxification Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Barros-Parada, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a key worldwide fruit pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of conventional insecticides. Neonicotinoids, a new reduced-risk biorational insecticide class, have remained an effective control approach. In this study, the toxicity and sublethal effect of conventional and reduced-risk biorational insecticides on transcripts abundance of three detoxification genes in codling moth were determined. Bioassays on a codling moth laboratory strain suggested that acetamiprid had the highest oral toxicity against the third-instar larvae compared with the other five pesticides. Results also indicated that acetamiprid exhibits long-term efficacy against codling moth even at 120 h post feeding. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the detoxification genes CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 were differentially induced or suppressed by deltamethrin, cypermethrin, methomyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid, depending on the type of insecticides; in contrast, no significant difference in CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 expressions were observed after acetamiprid exposure, when compared with the control. These results suggest that the reduced-risk biorational insecticide acetamiprid is an effective insecticide with no induction of detoxification genes and can be integrated into the management of codling moth.

  5. Pink bollworm moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) catches in the Imperial Valley, California from 1989 to 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG-CHI CHU; ERIC T.NATWICK; RAUL LE(O)N L(O)PEZ; JOLENE R.DESSERT; THOMAS J.HENNEBERRY

    2006-01-01

    We examined the patterns of male pink bollworm (PBW),Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders),moth catches in gossyplure-baited traps over a 15-year period from 1989 to 2003 in the Imperial Valley,California,USA. Monitoring was conducted during periods when different pink bollworm areawide control strategies were being used. Numbers of male pink bollworm moths caught in gossyplure-baited traps progressively decreased each year from 1990 to 1994 during short-season cotton production. High numbers of male moths caught in traps from 1995 to 1997 may have been related to moth migrations from the large cotton acreages grown in the Mexicali Valley bordering the Imperial Valley. Transgenic Bollgard(R) (Bt) cotton was planted in 3% of the cotton area in 1996 and thereafter in 80%-94% of the cotton area from 1997 to 2003. Pink bollworm moth trap catches were significantly lower from 1998 to 2003 than catches in 1995 to 1997,except for 1999. The trapping results suggested that Bt cotton had significant input on reduction of pink bollworm populations,confirming results of other investigators and providing additional documentation on the benefits of the Bt cotton culture.

  6. Outbreaks of Mass Reproduction of Siberian Moth in the 2nd Half of the 20th Century in Priamurye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Siberian moth Dendcrolimus superans sibiricus Tschetw. is the main important insect pest not only in Siberian coniferous taiga, but it often forms foci of mass reproduction in larch stands in the Russian Far East. This article has described outbreaks of the Siberian moth and other insect pests since 1960 till now.

  7. Apple and sugar feeding in adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella: effects on longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented; however, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated convincingly. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pair...

  8. Effect of rearing strategy and gamma radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide. In an effort to reduce the use of pesticides to control this pest, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being used or considered as an integrated pest control tactic. Rearing codling moths through diapause has been...

  9. Multiple mating of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and recovering fertility of its progeny after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maximum multiple mating of the male diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) was 30 times in its life, and the average was 16 times. The maximum multiple mating of the male moth irradiated with a substerilizing dose (35 kR) was 14 times, and the average was 7.2 times. The maximum multiple mating of the female moth was 8 times, and the average was 4 times. The rates of egg sterility in F1 and F2 were 57.3% and 99.1% respectively, when the normal female diamondback moths were mated with male moths irradiated with 35 kR dose. However, the fertility was recovered in F3 as the rate of egg sterility was 0.7%

  10. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  11. The experiment of the pathogenicity of gypsy moth NPV on the larva of Antheraea pernyi%舞毒蛾病毒对柞蚕幼虫的致病性试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟丽敏; 李文斌; 王昶远; 徐吉良

    2005-01-01

    采用3种浓度的舞毒蛾NPV进行了舞毒蛾幼虫防治试验和柞蚕幼虫的致病性试验,结果表明防治舞毒蛾的效果在93%以上,对柞蚕幼虫无毒性和致死作用.应用舞毒蛾病毒方法简单,效果好,为今后在柞蚕场区防治舞毒蛾探索出了一条新路.

  12. X射线辐照对舞毒蛾幼虫死亡率和化蛹率的影响%Influence of X-ray irradiation on mortality and pupation rate of gypsy moth larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩书霞; 戚大伟; 李景奎; 李花顺

    2007-01-01

    为了给物理辐照灭虫的研究和实际应用提供理论依据,文章分别用不同剂量的X射线照射舞毒蛾虫卵,观察照射后虫卵孵化、幼早死亡、化蛹等变化情况.实验表明,随着X射线辐剂量增大幼虫的死亡率有明显上升的趋势,而化蛹率有明显下降趋势.

  13. The processing effect to Gypsy moth eggs and larva by using microwave irradiation%微波辐照对舞毒蛾的卵及幼虫的处理效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景奎; 戚大伟

    2007-01-01

    本文根据微波与物质的相互作用情况,用微波照射舞毒蛾虫卵和幼虫,观察照射后虫卵孵化率和幼虫的死亡率的变化情况,目的是为物理辐照灭虫的研究和实际应用提供理论依据.实验表明:随着微波辐照剂量增大孵化率有明显下降趋势,而幼虫的死亡率有明显上升的趋势.

  14. Where to find a mate? Resource-based sexual communication of webbing clothes moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine

    2002-02-01

    Mate location in moths typically entails long-range attraction of males to female-produced pheromone. Here, we show that male and female webbing clothes moths, Tineola bisselliella, seek larval habitats (dry carrion, animal lairs, etc) to encounter mates. With males seeking, and arriving at, larval habitat earlier at night than females, male-produced pheromonal and sonic signals enhance the habitat's attractiveness to females. This resource-based mating strategy of T. bisselliella differs from that known for most other moths. It may have evolved in response to larval habitats that are patchy and temporary, but that disseminate attractive semiochemicals so abundantly that T. bisselliella encounter them more readily than their own pheromones.

  15. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L. Seeds and Their Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8.

  16. Regulatory role of PBAN in sex pheromone biosynthesis of heliothine moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell eJurenka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long-range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone PBAN (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide. This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hair-pencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hair-pencil pheromones.

  17. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3-10 in a molecular weight range of 11-170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6-8. PMID:27239343

  18. Body-size influence on defensive behavior of Amazonlan moths: an ecophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F B

    2005-02-01

    Ectotherm locomotion is restricted by low temperatures, and many species, such as some flying insects, need to achieve thermal thresholds before taking off. Body size influences heat exchange between an animal and the environment. Therefore, larger animals have higher thermal inertia, and necessarily spend more time in pre-flight warming up, a critical period when they remain exposed and more susceptible to predators. Thus, one could expect larger animals, along their evolutionary history, to have developed a more diversified repertoire of defensive behaviors when compared to their smaller counterparts. Moths are an interesting model for testing this hypothesis, as they exhibit considerable variation in body size and many species present pre-flight warming up by muscle shivering, an evidence of thermal restriction on locomotion. I registered the responses of 76 moths immediately after simulating the attack of a predator and then associated behavioral response to body size. I conducted the experiments at 20 and 25 degrees C to check for possible thermal restrictions on behavior, and identified animals to the family level to check for the effects of a common phylogenetic history. When disturbed at 25 degrees C, smaller moths tend to fly, while larger ones tend to run. At 20 degreedC almost all moths ran, including the smaller ones, indicating a possible thermal restriction on flight. Corroborating the proposed hypothesis, a more diversified repertoire of defensive behaviors was registered among larger moths. An alternative interpretation would be that common behaviors among related moths could be explained by common phylogenetic histories. However, two facts support the physiological restriction hypothesis: (1) the analysis within Sphingidae and Geometridae (not closely related families) showed similar results to those of the overall analysis, and (2) a more diverse repertoire of defensive behaviors was associated to the lower, and therefore more restrictive to

  19. Use of \\kur{Notch} gene for the production of genetic "sexing" lines of codling moth.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVELLEROVÁ, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is the key pest of pome fruit and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. The extensive use of insecticides for a control of this pest has resulted in the development of resistance to these chemicals, and there is an increasing demand on the use of environment-friendly control tactics, such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Codling moth SIT relies on the mass rearing and release of genetically sterile both males and females into a wild po...

  20. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) fertility and reproductive behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to examine the effects of gamma radiation on fertility and reproductive behaviour. Data accumulated during these studies showed that egg production and hatch decreased with increasing radiation dose. Females were more sensitive to radiation treatment than were males. A dose of 150 Gy caused 100% sterility in females and significantly reduced fecundity, and a dose of 350 Gy reduced male fertility to less than 1%. Radiation dosages up to 400 Gy had no adverse effect on male longevity or competitiveness in cages using laboratory reared moths. However, males exposed to a dose of 350 or 400 Gy mated fewer times than unirradiated males. (author)

  1. [Transcriptional analysis of the Grp gene, a genomic homolog of the retrotransposon gypsy gag gene, in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, L N; Kuz'min, I V; Burmistrova, D A; Rezazadekh, S; Kim, A I

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, we studied the Grp gene (CG4680, Gag related protein) expression at the transcriptional level. It was found that at the embryonic and larval stages of D. melanogaster development the Grp expression proceeds at a low level, but it significantly increases at the adult stage. Adult individuals display a tissue-specific expression: an eleveated level of transcription is observed in the gut tissues, but not in the chitin carcass, head, and gonads. Since the gut may potentially be a primary barrier for the penetration of a viral infection, we conducted a comparative analysis of Grp gene transcription in D. melanogaster strains differing in the presence of active copies of the gypsy errantivirus and in the status of the flamenco gene controlling sensitivity to errantiviral infections. No noticeable differences in the level of Grp gene transcription were revealed. Thus, the Grp gene is not a pseudogene, but it is a functional gene of the D. melanogaster genome whose role remains to be elucidated. PMID:21954611

  2. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it.

  3. Pathogenicity of a microsporidium isolate from the diamondback moth against Noctuid moths: characterization and implications for microbiological pest management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Abd Ghani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to problems with chemical control, there is increasing interest in the use of microsporidia for control of lepidopteran pests. However, there have been few studies to evaluate the susceptibility of exotic species to microsporidia from indigenous Lepidoptera. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated some biological characteristics of the microsporidian parasite isolated from wild Plutella xylostella (PX and evaluated its pathogenicity on the laboratory responses of sympatric invasive and resident noctuid moths. There were significant differences in spore size and morphology between PX and Spodoptera litura (SL isolates. Spores of PX isolate were ovocylindrical, while those of SL were oval. PX spores were 1.05 times longer than those of SL, which in turn were 1.49 times wider than those of the PX. The timing of infection peaks was much shorter in SL and resulted in earlier larval death. There were no noticeable differences in amplicon size (two DNA fragments were each about 1200 base pairs in length. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene sequences of the two isolates shared a clade with Nosema/Vairimorpha sequences. The absence of octospores in infected spodopteran tissues suggested that PX and SL spores are closely related to Nosema plutellae and N. bombycis, respectively. Both SL and S. exigua (SE exhibited susceptibility to the PX isolate infection, but showed different infection patterns. Tissular infection was more diverse in the former and resulted in much greater spore production and larval mortality. Microsporidium-infected larvae pupated among both infected and control larvae, but adult emergence occurred only in the second group. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The PX isolate infection prevented completion of development of most leafworm and beet armyworm larvae. The ability of the microsporidian isolate to severely infect and kill larvae of both native and introduced spodopterans makes it a

  4. Moth diversity in three biofuel crops and native prairie in Illinois

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terry Harrison; May R.Berenbaum

    2013-01-01

    The expanding demand for biofuel feedstock may lead to large-scale conscription of land for monoculture production ofbiofuel crops with concomitant substantial negative impacts on biodiversity.We compared moth diversity in light-trap samples from corn,miscanthus,switchgrass and native prairie,to determine whether there is an observable relationship between plant species diversity and moth abundance and diversity.Moth alpha diversity was highest in prairie and was higher in switchgrass than in the other two biofuel crops.Beta diversity generally was low among the biofuel crops,and prairie shared lower beta diversity with switchgrass than with corn or miscanthus.Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in moth abundance per species among treatments.The alpha and beta diversity index findings are consistent with those of other studies on arthropods in biofuel crops and provide evidence to suggest that large-scale conversion of acreage to biofuel crops may have substantial negative effects on arthropod biodiversity both within the cropping systems and in the surrounding landscape.

  5. Moth diversity in three biofuel crops and native prairie in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-06-01

    The expanding demand for biofuel feedstock may lead to large-scale conscription of land for monoculture production of biofuel crops with concomitant substantial negative impacts on biodiversity. We compared moth diversity in light-trap samples from corn, miscanthus, switchgrass and native prairie, to determine whether there is an observable relationship between plant species diversity and moth abundance and diversity. Moth alpha diversity was highest in prairie and was higher in switchgrass than in the other two biofuel crops. Beta diversity generally was low among the biofuel crops, and prairie shared lower beta diversity with switchgrass than with corn or miscanthus. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in moth abundance per species among treatments. The alpha and beta diversity index findings are consistent with those of other studies on arthropods in biofuel crops and provide evidence to suggest that large-scale conversion of acreage to biofuel crops may have substantial negative effects on arthropod biodiversity both within the cropping systems and in the surrounding landscape.

  6. Chemical espionage by parasitic wasps. How Trichogramma species exploit moth sex pheromone systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noldus, L.P.J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Interactions between insects are for a great deal mediated by semiochemicals. For instance, female moths release specific volatile chemicals in order to attract males of the same species. These substances are called sex pheromones. Egg parasitoids use various chemical cues in their search for hosts,

  7. Standardised methods for the GMO monitoring of butterflies and moths: the whys and hows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera are correlated with many biotic and abiotic characteristics of the environment, and are widely accepted as relevant protection goals. Adverse effects on butterflies and moths through genetically modified (GM crops have been demonstrated, by both insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant events. Thus, Lepidoptera are considered suitable bio-indicators for monitoring the potential adverse effects due to the cultivation of GM crops, and guidelines were developed under the umbrella of the Association of German Engineers VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, entitled “Monitoring the effects of genetically modified organisms (GMO – Standardised monitoring of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera: transect method, light trap and larval survey”. Here, the background and rationale of the VDI guidelines is presented, including a summary of the methods described in the guidelines. Special emphasis is given to the discussion of underlying reasons for the selection and adjustment of the applied methodology with respect to the GMO monitoring of day-active Lepidoptera, of night-active moths and of the recording of lepidopteran larvae, as well as to sample design and strategy. Further aspects possibly interfering with monitoring quality are treated such as landscape patterns, low species number and abundance in agro-ecosystems, or high year-to-year fluctuations of populations of Lepidoptera. Though specifically designed for GM crops, the VDI guidelines may also serve as a template to monitor the effects of a wider range of adverse factors on Lepidoptera in agriculture.

  8. Moth diversity in three biofuel crops and native prairie in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-06-01

    The expanding demand for biofuel feedstock may lead to large-scale conscription of land for monoculture production of biofuel crops with concomitant substantial negative impacts on biodiversity. We compared moth diversity in light-trap samples from corn, miscanthus, switchgrass and native prairie, to determine whether there is an observable relationship between plant species diversity and moth abundance and diversity. Moth alpha diversity was highest in prairie and was higher in switchgrass than in the other two biofuel crops. Beta diversity generally was low among the biofuel crops, and prairie shared lower beta diversity with switchgrass than with corn or miscanthus. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in moth abundance per species among treatments. The alpha and beta diversity index findings are consistent with those of other studies on arthropods in biofuel crops and provide evidence to suggest that large-scale conversion of acreage to biofuel crops may have substantial negative effects on arthropod biodiversity both within the cropping systems and in the surrounding landscape. PMID:23955892

  9. Trail marking and following by larvae of the small ermine moth Yponomeuta cagnagellus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessingh, P.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of chemical cues in insect behaviour is well established (Bell & Cardé, 1984). The best known examples include the sex pheromones of butterflies and moths, and the aggregation pheromones of bark beetles. In eusocial insects (bees, wasps, ants, and termites) pheromones are widely used

  10. Flavonoids from cabbage are feeding stimulants for diamondback moth larvae additional to glucosinolates : chemoreception and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Wang, C.Z.; Nielsen, J.K.; Gols, R.; Qiu, Y.T.

    2002-01-01

    In caterpillars two styloconic contact chemoreceptors on the maxillary galea are assumed to contain the main taste receptors involved in host plant selection. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. is a specialist feeder of plants in the Brassicaceae, a plant family characterized by the biosyn

  11. Wind selection and drift compensation optimize migratory pathways in a high-flying moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jason W; Reynolds, Don R; Mouritsen, Henrik; Hill, Jane K; Riley, Joe R; Sivell, Duncan; Smith, Alan D; Woiwod, Ian P

    2008-04-01

    Numerous insect species undertake regular seasonal migrations in order to exploit temporary breeding habitats [1]. These migrations are often achieved by high-altitude windborne movement at night [2-6], facilitating rapid long-distance transport, but seemingly at the cost of frequent displacement in highly disadvantageous directions (the so-called "pied piper" phenomenon [7]). This has lead to uncertainty about the mechanisms migrant insects use to control their migratory directions [8, 9]. Here we show that, far from being at the mercy of the wind, nocturnal moths have unexpectedly complex behavioral mechanisms that guide their migratory flight paths in seasonally-favorable directions. Using entomological radar, we demonstrate that free-flying individuals of the migratory noctuid moth Autographa gamma actively select fast, high-altitude airstreams moving in a direction that is highly beneficial for their autumn migration. They also exhibit common orientation close to the downwind direction, thus maximizing the rectilinear distance traveled. Most unexpectedly, we find that when winds are not closely aligned with the moth's preferred heading (toward the SSW), they compensate for cross-wind drift, thus increasing the probability of reaching their overwintering range. We conclude that nocturnally migrating moths use a compass and an inherited preferred direction to optimize their migratory track.

  12. Haruchlora maesi, a new emerald moth genus and species from Mesoamerica (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viidalepp, Jaan; Lindt, Aare

    2014-01-01

    A new genus and species of Neotropical emerald geometrid moths, Haruchlora Viidalepp & Lindt, gen. nov., and Haruchlora maesi Viidalepp & Lindt, sp. nov. are described. The new genus differs from all other New World Geometrinae genera in having a bifid uncus, in characters of the pregenital segments of the male abdomen, and in the male genitalia.  PMID:25283909

  13. Genetic Transformation of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L., with piggyBac EGFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was accomplished through embryo microinjection with a plasmid-based piggyBac vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. Sequencing of the flanking regions around the inserted construct results in identification o...

  14. Effect of spectral composition of artificial light on the attraction of moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Ettema, J.A.; Donners, M.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Groenendijk, D.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, artificial night lighting has increased globally, which largely affected many plant and animal species. So far, current research highlights the importance of artificial light with smaller wavelengths in attracting moths, yet the effect of the spectral composition of artifici

  15. Effect of insecticide on the irradiated tropical warehouse moth,Cadra cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroids, Fenom(r) on the gamma- irradiated Tropical Warehouse Moth, Cadra cautella (Walker)(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) larvae have been studied. Both theinsecticide and gamma irradiation either singly or in combination,significantly increased larval mortality and developmental periods.The pupation and adult eclosion, reproductive potential and longevity of the adults from treated larvae were significantly decreased

  16. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  17. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI AFFECTS A BENEFICIAL INSECT, THE CINNABAR MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial insecticide bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki is used to control forest pests in regions where tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. occurs. iological control of this noxious weed may be compromised if the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae (L), is susceptible ...

  18. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Duménil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  19. alpha- and beta-diversity in moth communities in salt marshes is driven by grazing management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, C.; Fichtner, A.; van Klink, R.; Bakker, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of long-term sheep grazing in salt marshes on the diversity of moths and derives conclusive management suggestions for the conservation of invertebrate diversity in salt marshes. Study sites were located on the Hamburger Hallig, on the Western coast of Schleswig-Hols

  20. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  1. Sex Attractants of the Banana Moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae): Provisional Identification and Field Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer, is a ployphagous agricultural pest in many tropical areas of the world. The identification of an attractant for male O. sacchari could offer new methods for detection, study and control. RESULTS: A male electroantennographically active compound w...

  2. Flying slower: Floor pattern object size affects orthokinetic responses during moth flight to sex pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies with Oriental Fruit Moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta) and Heliothis virescens males flying upwind along a pheromone plume showed that they increased their upwind flight speed as they flew higher above striped floor patterns and, for OFM, to a similar degree over dotted floor patterns. ...

  3. Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Min; Jeong, Yonkil; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

    2012-11-01

    We present the effect of broadband antireflective coverglasses (BARCs) with moth eye structures on the power generation capability of a sub-receiver module for concentrated photovoltaics. The period and height of the moth eye structures were designed by a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in order to cover the full solar spectral ranges without transmission band shrinkage. The BARCs with moth eye structures were prepared by the dry etching of silver (Ag) nanomasks, and the fabricated moth eye structures on coverglass showed strongly enhanced transmittance compared to the bare glass with a flat surface, at wavelengths of 300 - 1800 nm. The BARCs were mounted on InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells and the power conversion efficiency of this sub-receiver module reached 42.16% for 196 suns, which is a 7.41% boosted value compared to that of a module with bare coverglass, without any detrimental changes of the open circuit voltages (V(oc)) and fill factor (FF). PMID:23326839

  4. Components of female sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer moth,Conopomorpha cramerella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; Nesbitt, B F; Day, R K; Mumford, J D

    1986-01-01

    The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40∶60∶4∶6∶10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth. PMID:24306393

  5. Wind selection and drift compensation optimize migratory pathways in a high-flying moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jason W; Reynolds, Don R; Mouritsen, Henrik; Hill, Jane K; Riley, Joe R; Sivell, Duncan; Smith, Alan D; Woiwod, Ian P

    2008-04-01

    Numerous insect species undertake regular seasonal migrations in order to exploit temporary breeding habitats [1]. These migrations are often achieved by high-altitude windborne movement at night [2-6], facilitating rapid long-distance transport, but seemingly at the cost of frequent displacement in highly disadvantageous directions (the so-called "pied piper" phenomenon [7]). This has lead to uncertainty about the mechanisms migrant insects use to control their migratory directions [8, 9]. Here we show that, far from being at the mercy of the wind, nocturnal moths have unexpectedly complex behavioral mechanisms that guide their migratory flight paths in seasonally-favorable directions. Using entomological radar, we demonstrate that free-flying individuals of the migratory noctuid moth Autographa gamma actively select fast, high-altitude airstreams moving in a direction that is highly beneficial for their autumn migration. They also exhibit common orientation close to the downwind direction, thus maximizing the rectilinear distance traveled. Most unexpectedly, we find that when winds are not closely aligned with the moth's preferred heading (toward the SSW), they compensate for cross-wind drift, thus increasing the probability of reaching their overwintering range. We conclude that nocturnally migrating moths use a compass and an inherited preferred direction to optimize their migratory track. PMID:18394893

  6. Black metal thin films by deposition on dielectric antireflective moth-eye nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Caringal, Gideon Peter; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik;

    2015-01-01

    Although metals are commonly shiny and highly reflective, we here show that thin metal films appear black when deposited on a dielectric with antireflective moth-eye nanostructures. The nanostructures were tapered and close-packed, with heights in the range 300-600 nm, and a lateral, spatial freq...... for decoration and displays are discussed....

  7. Response of rice gypsy retrotransposons to different stress conditions%水稻gypsy类逆转座子对不同胁迫条件的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玲; 杨静; 刘林; 李成云

    2012-01-01

    LTR retrotransposons are the largest and most widely distributed transposable elements in rice, of which Ty3-gypsy class are more numerous. Using degenerate primers based on conserved region of reverse transcriptase gene in Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons, transcript fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced respectively from cDNAs of rice variety Acuche treated by 5 different stresses (M oryza, SA, 2,4-D, high-salt and tissue culture) to analyze the characteristics of Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons activated by different stresses. The results showed that all the 5 different stresses could activate Tyl-gypsy retrotransposon; amino acid sequences of reverse transcriptase of retrotransposons responding to different stresses were highly conserved and distributed crossly, only few of them showed specificity of stress response, suggesting that many Ty3-gy/wy retrotransposons could respond to different stresses.%LTR类逆转座子是水稻基因组中数量最多、分布最广的转座元件,其中Ty3-ypsy类所占比例较大.根据Ty3-gypsy类逆转座子逆转录酶的保守区域,采用简并引物,通过RT-PCR,对5种胁迫处理(稻瘟菌、水杨酸、2,4-D、高盐及组织培养)后的云南地方水稻品种月亮谷的cDNA进行扩增,并测序获得了一批转录片段,分析不同胁迫条件诱导激活的Ty3-ypsy类逆转座子的特点.结果表明:5种胁迫处理都能诱导月亮谷中Ty3-gypsy类逆转座子的表达;对不同胁迫响应的逆转座子序列大部分同源性较高,且呈交叉分布,仅有少部分具有胁迫响应的特异性,说明很多Ty3-gypsy类逆转座子能对不同胁迫进行响应.

  8. Description of the Diadegma fenestrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae Attacking the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lep.: Gelechiidae New to Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diadegma fenestrale is known as a parasitoid of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella. The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller is one of the most destructive pest of potatoes. Also, we found this species attacking the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Ratio of parasitism is 20-30% and cocoon of lepidopteran was parasitic ichneumonid species after 3 days. This species and the genus Diadegma are recorded for the first time from Korea. In this paper, description of the parasitoid and photographs of the diagnostic characteristics are provided.

  9. Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Andrew; Stone, Emma L.; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed ‘powerdive’ flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predator behaviour of moths, shifting the balance in favour of their predators, aerial hawking bats. PMID:26361558

  10. Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Andrew; Stone, Emma L; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed 'powerdive' flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predator behaviour of moths, shifting the balance in favour of their predators, aerial hawking bats. PMID:26361558

  11. Competitiveness of irradiated adults of the almond moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When unmated 24 h old males of Ephestia cautella (Walker) were irradiated (I) at 60 krad and confined with unirradiated (U) males and U females (in a 1:1:1 ratio), the infertility of eggs was 45.1%. Increasing the ratio of I:U male to 5, 10, 15 and 20 increased the percentage of infertile eggs to 85.7, 92.0, 95.4 and 97.7, respectively. Thus, males treated with a sterilizing dose (60 krad) were fully competitive with U males, especially at the two highest 'flooding' ratios. Males and females treated with a sterilizing dose (60 krad) and confined with U males and U females in a ratio of I male:I female:U male:U female caused 60.9% infertility in the resulting eggs. When the ratio of sterile males and females was increased to 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1, 15:15:1:1 or 20:20:1:1 (I male:I female:U male:U female), the percentage of infertility reached 83.5, 97.3, 99.1 and 100.0, respectively. The percentage of actual infertility was less than the expected infertility for the ratios 1:1:1:1, 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1 and 15:15:1:1, but it was exceeded by the highest ratio used (20:20:1:1). The competitiveness value for this flooding ratio was 1.00 (i.e. the sterile adults were fully competitive with the normal ones). The results indicated that irradiation at 60 krad, a sterilizing dose, did not decrease the sexual competitiveness of adults. Also, the release of I males only, or of I females together with I males, could give good results in controlling the almond moth population in an autocidal control programme and, therefore, separation of the sexes prior to release is probably unnecessary. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs

  12. Annex 5: Potential markets for sterile date moth for use in SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing research in Tunisia has now shown that Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller, the date moth or, in many countries commonly known as the carob moth, has characteristics that will allow development of genetic sexing strains (Mediouni-BenJemaa, 2005). Development of such strains will take years, but will reduce costs of field programmes of SIT considerably as well as reducing damage from feeding sterile moths (Franz, 2005). A new Technical Cooperation Project under IAEA is starting in Tunisia in 2007 aimed at building capacity for implementing area-wide SIT technology to address this pest problem (IAEA, 2007a). This indicates the continuing interest of that government in finding an environmentally benign pest control method for this species. In many countries, such as Iraq and Iran, the primary host is pomegranate (A. Altaweel, pers. comm. 2005), and dates are rarely attacked during production. Mozaffarian et al. (2007) has shown that other less preferable hosts may provide over-wintering opportunities that then populate their preferred host in the next growth season. This may affect the coverage required for effective SIT once developed. Further research on this pest will continue to provide improved options for its control, including biological control agents that may be released simultaneously with sterile moths to bring some cost savings (Bloem et al., 2005). Studies on control of other key date pests (such as Ephestia cautella) have taken place, although field trials have not been pursued. Eventually, SIT control of multiples species simultaneously will be possible if research continues to resolve present limitations in mass rearing and quality control. Field performance of the irradiated date moth in Tunisia is discussed in Mediouni and Dhouibi, 2007. Commercial scale releases are not anticipated for several years, however, due to limited supply of sterile males and the need for additional research

  13. Thioredoxin from the Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella: cloning and test of the allergenic potential in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hoflehner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella is a highly prevalent food pest in human dwellings, and has been shown to contain a number of allergens. So far, only one of these, the arginine kinase (Plo i 1 has been identified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify further allergens and characterise these in comparison to Plo i 1. METHOD: A cDNA library from whole adult P. interpunctella was screened with the serum of a patient with indoor allergy and IgE to moths, and thioredoxin was identified as an IgE-binding protein. Recombinant thioredoxin was generated in E. coli, and tested together with Plo i 1 and whole moth extracts in IgE immunoblots against a large panel of indoor allergic patients' sera. BALB/c mice were immunised with recombinant thioredoxin and Plo i 1, and antibody production, mediator release from RBL cells, T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were measured. RESULT: For the first time a thioredoxin from an animal species was identified as allergen. About 8% of the sera from patients with IgE against moth extracts reacted with recombinant P. interpunctella thioredoxin, compared to 25% reacting with recombinant Plo i 1. In immunised BALB/c mice, the recombinant allergens both induced classical Th2-biased immune responses such as induction IgE and IgG1 antibodies, upregulation of IL-5 and IL-4 and basophil degranulation. CONCLUSION: Thioredoxin from moths like Plo i 1 acts like a classical Type I allergen as do the thioredoxins from wheat or corn. This clearly supports the pan-allergen nature of thioredoxin. The designation Plo i 2 is suggested for the new P. interpunctella allergen.

  14. Mechanical tuning of the moth ear: distortion-product otoacoustic emissions and tympanal vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Emanuel C; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Macías-Escrivá, Frank; Pérez, Martha; Nowotny, Manuela; Kössl, Manfred

    2013-10-15

    The mechanical tuning of the ear in the moth Empyreuma pugione was investigated by distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). DPOAE audiograms were assessed using a novel protocol that may be advantageous for non-invasive auditory studies in insects. To evoke DPOAE, two-tone stimuli within frequency and level ranges that generated a large matrix of values (960 frequency-level combinations) were used to examine the acoustic space in which the moth tympanum shows its best mechanical and acoustical responses. The DPOAE tuning curve derived from the response matrix resembles that obtained previously by electrophysiology, and is V-shaped and tuned to frequencies between 25 and 45 kHz with low Q10dB values of 1.21±0.26. In addition, while using a comparable stimulation regime, mechanical distortion in the displacement of the moth's tympanal membrane at the stigma was recorded with a laser Doppler vibrometer. The corresponding mechanical vibration audiograms were compared with DPOAE audiograms. Both types of audiograms have comparable shape, but most of the mechanical response fields are shifted towards lower frequencies. We showed for the first time in moths that DPOAE have a pronounced analogy in the vibration of the tympanic membrane where they may originate. Our work supports previous studies that point to the stigma (and the internally associated transduction machinery) as an important place of sound amplification in the moth ear, but also suggests a complex mechanical role for the rest of the transparent zone. PMID:23868848

  15. The Technical and Performance Characteristics of a Low-Cost, Simply Constructed, Black Light Moth Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter J T; Glover, Katharine; Stewart, Joel; Rice, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The universal mercury vapor black light trap is an effective device used for collecting moth specimens in a wide variety of habitats; yet, they can present challenges for researchers. The mercury vapor trap is often powered by a heavy automotive battery making it difficult to conduct extensive surveys in remote regions. The mercury vapor trap also carries a considerable financial cost per trap unit, making trapping challenging with low research budgets. Here, we describe the development and trapping properties of a lighter, simply constructed, and less expensive trap. The LED funnel trap consists of a funnel, soda bottles with plastic vanes, and is powered by rechargeable 9-V batteries. Two strips of low-wavelength LEDs are used as attractants. We tested the trapping parameters of this trap design compared to a standard mercury vapor trap over 10 trap nights in a suburban woodlot in the summer of 2015. The mercury vapor trap caught significantly more moth individuals than the LED trap (average of 78 vs 40 moths per trap night; P < 0.05), and significantly more species than the LED trap (23 vs 15 per trap night; P < 0.05); the mercury vapor trap caught a total of 104 macromoth species over the duration of the study, compared to a total of 87 by the LED trap. Despite the lower yields, the low cost of the LED trap (<$30 ea.) makes it superior to the mercury vapor trap in cost-acquisition per moth species and per moth individual trapped. The LED trap may be a viable alternative to the standard mercury vapor trap, facilitating insect trapping in more diverse settings. PMID:26936923

  16. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  17. Outbreaks by canopy-feeding geometrid moth cause state-dependent shifts in understorey plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Stein Rune; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Odland, Arvid; Ims, Rolf Anker; Elvebakk, Arve

    2013-11-01

    The increased spread of insect outbreaks is among the most severe impacts of climate warming predicted for northern boreal forest ecosystems. Compound disturbances by insect herbivores can cause sharp transitions between vegetation states with implications for ecosystem productivity and climate feedbacks. By analysing vegetation plots prior to and immediately after a severe and widespread outbreak by geometrid moths in the birch forest-tundra ecotone, we document a shift in forest understorey community composition in response to the moth outbreak. Prior to the moth outbreak, the plots divided into two oligotrophic and one eutrophic plant community. The moth outbreak caused a vegetation state shift in the two oligotrophic communities, but only minor changes in the eutrophic community. In the spatially most widespread communities, oligotrophic dwarf shrub birch forest, dominance by the allelopathic dwarf shrub Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum, was effectively broken and replaced by a community dominated by the graminoid Avenella flexuosa, in a manner qualitatively similar to the effect of wild fires in E. nigrum communities in coniferous boreal forest further south. As dominance by E. nigrum is associated with retrogressive succession the observed vegetation state shift has widespread implications for ecosystem productivity on a regional scale. Our findings reveal that the impact of moth outbreaks on the northern boreal birch forest system is highly initial-state dependent, and that the widespread oligotrophic communities have a low resistance to such disturbances. This provides a case for the notion that climate impacts on arctic and northern boreal vegetation may take place most abruptly when conveyed by changed dynamics of irruptive herbivores. PMID:23568711

  18. Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G; Waters, D A

    2000-08-22

    We measured the auditory responses of the noctuid moth Noctua pronuba to bat echolocation calls which were manipulated independently in time and frequency. Such manipulations are important in understanding how insect hearing influences the evolution of echolocation call characteristics. We manipulated the calls of three bat species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis nattereri and Pipistrellus pipistrellus) that use different echolocation call features by doubling their duration or reducing their frequency, and measured the auditory thresholds from the A1 cells of the moths. Knowing the auditory responses of the moth we tested three predictions. (i) The ranking of the audibility of unmanipulated calls to the moths should be predictable from their temporal and/or frequency structure. This was supported. (ii) Doubling the duration of the calls should increase their audibility by ca. 3 dB for all species. Their audibility did indeed increase by 2.1-3.5 dB. (iii) Reducing the frequency of the calls would increase their audibility for all species. Reducing the frequency had small effects for the two bat species which used short duration (2.7-3.6 ms) calls. However, the relatively long-duration (50 ms), largely constant-frequency calls of R. hipposideros increased in audibility by 21.6 dB when their frequency was halved. Time and frequency changes influence the audibility of calls to tympanate moths in different ways according to call design. Large changes in frequency and time had relatively small changes on the audibility of calls for short, largely broadband calls. Channelling energy into the second harmonic of the call substantially decreased the audibility of calls for bats which use long-duration, constant-frequency components in echolocation calls. We discuss our findings in the contexts of the evolution of both bat echolocation call design and the potential responses of insects which hear ultrasound. PMID:11467425

  19. Characterization of Silicon Moth-Eye Antireflection Coatings for Astronomical Applications in the Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeram, Sarik; Ge, Jian; Jiang, Peng; Phillips, Blayne

    2016-01-01

    Silicon moth-eye antireflective structures have emerged to be an excellent approachfor reducing the amount of light that is lost upon incidence on a given surface of optics made of silicon. This property has been exploited for a wide variety of products ranging from eyeglasses and flat-panel displays to solar panels. These materials typically come in the form of coatings that are applied to an optical substrate such as glass. Moth-eye coatings, made of a periodic array of subwavelength pillars on silicon substrates or other substrates, can produce the desired antireflection (AR) performance for a broad wavelength range and over a wide range of incident angles. In the field of astronomy, every photon striking a detector is significant - and thus, losses from reflectivity at the various optical interfaces before a detector can have significant implications to the science at hand. Moth-eye AR coatings on these optical interfaces may minimize their reflection losses while maximizing light throughput for a multitude of different astronomical instruments. In addition, moth-eye AR coatings, which are patterned directly on silicon surfaces, can significantly enhance the coating durability. At the University of Florida, we tested two moth-eye filters designed for use in the near-infrared regime at 1-8 microns by examining their optical properties, such as transmission, the scattered light, and wavefront quality, and testing the coatings at cryogenic temperatures to characterize their viability for use in both ground- and space-based infrared instruments. This presentation will report our lab evaluation results.

  20. Effects of delayed mating on the fecundity, fertility and longevity of females of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Ping Wang; Yu-Ling Fang; Zhong-Ning Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of delayed mating on the copulation duration, female fertility, fecundity, egg fertility, longevity and the number days alive after mating of females of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, were studied. When male mating was delayed, the female fertility, fecundity, egg fertility, longevity and number days alive after mating of DBM decreased, and there was a negative correlation between the age of the moth with those variables except copulation duration. When female mating was delayed, the female fertility, fecundity, percent egg fertility and number days alive after mating of DBM also decreased, but the longevity increased, which also showed a negative relationship between the age of the moth with the variables except copulation duration and longevity. When both males and females delayed mating, the female fertility and fecundity decreased; egg fertility was affected marginally, and the longevity of females increased. The moth age was negatively correlated with those variables.

  1. Moths of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge: Results from 15 sites sampled 13-16 September 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Macro-moths were sampled from the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge 13-15 September, 2012 as part of a faunal inventory of this abundant and diverse insect group....

  2. National preventive campaign against the cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mexico has the highest genetic diversity of cactus (Opuntia spp.), with 107 species of this genus (51 species of Platyopuntia and 56 of Cilyndropuntia; 38 native to Mexico). It is estimated that from cactus growing areas 150,000 ha are for forage, 60,000 ha for fruit production, 10,500 ha for green vegetable production and 100 ha for rearing mealy-bugs for dye production. In addition, wild cactus areas in the country cover approximately 3,000,000 ha. Cactus in Mexico is an important resource for human and livestock food diet. It is used as a mechanism to prevent soil erosion. It is a great source to generate employment, is the most important component of genetic biodiversity, and host for a wide variety of wildlife. The cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) in its larval stage feeds on Opuntias spp., therefore, it has been used worldwide as a control agent against cactus species considered as exotic invasives. C. cactorum was introduced into countries where some cactus species have become invasive species (Australia 1925, South Africa 1933, Hawaii 1950 and West Indies 1960). Since its introduction, either voluntary or accidentally, in the Caribbean, including Nevis Islands, Monserrat, Antigua, Haiti, Bahamas and Virgin Islands, the native population of Opuntias spp. have been seriously affected. The insect was found in Florida in 1989 and has already spread to several States in the southeast, and could be further spread to the southwest of the USA, moving towards Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, and threatening areas with a vast presence of Opuntias spp., and as a consequence the potential of entry into Mexico. In response, the Mexican Government through the Plant Health General Directorate (SENASICA-SAGARPA), has implemented phytosanitary measures through a National Campaign to prevent the entry of the cactus moth. Actions Plans: A) To prevent the introduction of cactus moth into Mexico: - Risk analysis of the potential impact of cactus moth in terms of the

  3. Comparative analysis of pepper and tomato reveals euchromatin expansion of pepper genome caused by differential accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Jong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the Solanaceae plants, the pepper genome is three times larger than that of tomato. Although the gene repertoire and gene order of both species are well conserved, the cause of the genome-size difference is not known. To determine the causes for the expansion of pepper euchromatic regions, we compared the pepper genome to that of tomato. Results For sequence-level analysis, we generated 35.6 Mb of pepper genomic sequences from euchromatin enriched 1,245 pepper BAC clones. The comparative analysis of orthologous gene-rich regions between both species revealed insertion of transposons exclusively in the pepper sequences, maintaining the gene order and content. The most common type of the transposon found was the LTR retrotransposon. Phylogenetic comparison of the LTR retrotransposons revealed that two groups of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements (Tat and Athila were overly accumulated in the pepper genome. The FISH analysis of the pepper Tat elements showed a random distribution in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, whereas the tomato Tat elements showed heterochromatin-preferential accumulation. Conclusions Compared to tomato pepper euchromatin doubled its size by differential accumulation of a specific group of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements. Our results could provide an insight on the mechanism of genome evolution in the Solanaceae family.

  4. Putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits express differentially through the life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica A; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchardists in Washington State are concerned about the possibility of codling moth field populations developing resistance to these two insecticides. In an effort to help mitigate this issue, we initiated a project to identify and characterize codling moth nAChR subunits expressed in heads. This study had two main goals; (i) identify transcripts from a codling moth head transcriptome that encode for nAChR subunits, and (ii) determine nAChR subunit expression profiles in various life stages of codling moth. From a codling moth head transcriptome, 24 transcripts encoding for 12 putative nAChR subunit classes were identified and verified by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequence determination. Characterization of the deduced protein sequences encoded by putative nAChR transcripts revealed that they share the distinguishing features of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily with 9 α-type subunits and 3 β-type subunits identified. Phylogenetic analysis comparing these protein sequences to those of other insect nAChR subunits supports the identification of these proteins as nAChR subunits. Stage expression studies determined that there is clear differential expression of many of these subunits throughout the codling moth life cycle. The information from this study will be used in the future to monitor for potential target-site resistance mechanisms to neonicotinoids and spinosads in tolerant codling moth populations.

  5. Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, Andrew; Stone, Emma L.; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed ‘powerdive’ flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predato...

  6. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology: nonlinear effects of temperature and developmental stage on developmental rate

    OpenAIRE

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; van Asch, Margriet; Visser, Marcel E

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match bud burst of the host tree. In the winter moth, as in many insect species, egg development is strongly affected by ambient temperatures. Here we use laboratory experiments to show for the first time ...

  7. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Adam J; Sadler, Jon P; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  8. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Bates

    Full Text Available Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1 that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2 that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some

  9. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  10. Study of the mechanism and possibilities of using F1 sterility for genetic control of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer based model was developed to simulate the suppression through three filial generations of field populations of codling moths, Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), that have been exposed to the release of codling moths exposed to doses of gamma rays ranging from 1 to 500 Gy. The main purpose of the model is to select the optimal dose of radiation. The model runs on an IBM compatible computer. Numerous experiments were conducted to provide the experimental data required for the model. The model takes into account the fact that individual moths are affected in different ways by exposure to gamma rays. Some irradiated males mate and form spermatophore, while others fail to mate. Some males that form spermatophores fail to produce eupyrene sperm. These undesirable effects occur with increasing frequencies as the dose increases. Indeed, a high doses of radiation these negative effects are so great that the treated moths are totally non-competitive with the untreated moths. The release of F1 individuals has a number of advantages for the control of the codling moth. This approach involves the mass rearing and stockpiling of diapausing F1 larvae during the winter months. It facilitates the synchronization of the emergence and flight of genetically impaired individuals with the emergence and flight of the wild population. In addition, this approach facilitates the separation of the sexes and the release of only F1 males. The optimum dose for this approach was found to be 100 Gy. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs

  11. Host-Related Olfactory Behavior in a Fruit-Piercing Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in Far Eastern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaspel, Jennifer M; Kononenko, Vladimir S; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon R

    2016-01-01

    The host preference of the economically important fruit piercing moth, Calyptra lata (Butler 1881), was studied when exposed to different fruits and the odors of those fruits in enclosed feeding assays and in a two-choice olfactometer. The fruits consisted of three ripe and locally available types: raspberries, cherries and plums. Moths were released in cages with the ripened fruit and observed for any feeding events, which were then documented. Moths fed on both raspberries and cherries, but not on plums. To test the role of olfactory cues in fruit preference, male moths were released singly in the two choice olfactometer, with one type of fruit odor released in one arm and background control air in the other. The behavior of the moths was recorded on video. Parameters scored were 1) time to take off, 2) flight duration and 3) total time to source contact. The moths showed a significant preference for raspberry odor, exhibited a neutral response to cherry odor and significantly avoided the odor of plums. These results indicate that Calyptra lata demonstrates selective polyphagic feeding behavior and uses olfactory cues from both preferred and non-preferred fruits to detect and locate potential food sources. The possible implications for pest control are discussed. PMID:27324579

  12. Host-Related Olfactory Behavior in a Fruit-Piercing Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in Far Eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaspel, Jennifer M.; Kononenko, Vladimir S.; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon R.

    2016-01-01

    The host preference of the economically important fruit piercing moth, Calyptra lata (Butler 1881), was studied when exposed to different fruits and the odors of those fruits in enclosed feeding assays and in a two-choice olfactometer. The fruits consisted of three ripe and locally available types: raspberries, cherries and plums. Moths were released in cages with the ripened fruit and observed for any feeding events, which were then documented. Moths fed on both raspberries and cherries, but not on plums. To test the role of olfactory cues in fruit preference, male moths were released singly in the two choice olfactometer, with one type of fruit odor released in one arm and background control air in the other. The behavior of the moths was recorded on video. Parameters scored were 1) time to take off, 2) flight duration and 3) total time to source contact. The moths showed a significant preference for raspberry odor, exhibited a neutral response to cherry odor and significantly avoided the odor of plums. These results indicate that Calyptra lata demonstrates selective polyphagic feeding behavior and uses olfactory cues from both preferred and non-preferred fruits to detect and locate potential food sources. The possible implications for pest control are discussed. PMID:27324579

  13. Analysis of forestry impacts and biodiversity in two Pyrenean forests through a comparison of moth communities (Lepidoptera, Heterocera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CARINE LUQUE; CHARLES GERS; JACQUES LAUGA; NESTOR MARIANO; MICHAEL WINK; LUC LEGAL

    2007-01-01

    We have compared the biodiversity variations in moth communities between unmanaged forests and commercial forests in a mountainous environment (Pyrenees France). The aim was to evaluate the impact of forestry activities on moth diversity. The data collected from the insects were analysed with a Bayesian specific similarity index (noted SSP index) and by statistical biodiversity indexes comparison. It was seen that diversity and richness were decreased in the plantation compared to the unmanaged forest. Interestingly,the composition of the communities of moths was shown to be not only related to the presence/absence of host plants, but also to be in relation with changes in the differences in forest architecture (i.e. the relative coverage by the different vegetation levels). However, the moth community in the commercial forest still has a high capacity to converge with the moth community present in more natural forests. We report here a list of 177 species of moths,providing information on the distribution of some uncommon species, poorly studied as yet in the Pyrenees.

  14. Fluorescent SiC with pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Aijaz, Imran; Ou, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    to enhance the extraction efficiency, we present a simple method to fabricate the pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures on the surface of the fluorescent SiC. A thin gold layer is deposited on the fluorescent SiC first. Then the thin gold layer is treated by rapid thermal processing. After annealing, the thin...... material much superior to the phosphors in terms of high color rendering index value and long lifetime. The light extraction efficiency of the fluorescent SiC based all semiconductor LED light sources is usually low due to the large refractive index difference between the semiconductor and air. In order...... gold layer turns into discontinuous nano-islands. The average size of the islands is dependent on the annealing condition which could be well controlled. By using the reactive-ion etching, pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures would be obtained using the gold nano-islands as a mask layer. Reactive...

  15. Moth Fauna of Gageodo Island in the Southwestern Sea, Korean Peninsula, including Seven Unrecorded Species (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed moths on Gageodo island in the southwestern sea of the Korean Peninsula over three years (2009, 2012, 2013 and found a total of 253 species in 18 families. Geometridae had the greatest species richness, with 63 species, followed by Noctuidae, Erebidae, Crambidae and Sphingidae. The annual changes in species richness and abundance were not different and seasonal occurrence of species showed a unimodal pattern in which the numbers of species and individuals increased from April and May, peaked in June and decreased to September and October. Seven moth species (Pyralidae: Herculia drabicilialis Yamanaka, Didia striatella (Inoue; Crambidae: Clupeosoma pryeri (Butler, Demobotys pervulgalis (Hampson, Yezobotys dissimilis (Yamanaka, Syllepte cissalis Yamanaka; Erebidae: Hypena sinuosa (Wileman are reported for the first time in Korea.

  16. A multisensory centrifugal neuron in the olfactory pathway of heliothine moths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Pfuhl, Gerit; Surlykke, Annemarie;

    2013-01-01

    We have characterized, by intracellular recording and staining, a unique type of centrifugal neuron in the brain olfactory center of two heliothine moth species; one in Heliothis virescens and one in Helicoverpa armigera. This unilateral neuron, which is not previously described in any moth, has...... fine processes in the dorsomedial region of the protocerebrum and extensive neuronal branches with blebby terminals in all glomeruli of the antennal lobe. Its soma is located dorsally of the central body close to the brain midline. Mass-fills of antennal-lobe connections with protocerebral regions...... showed that the centrifugal neuron is, in each brain hemisphere, one within a small group of neurons having their somata clustered. In both species the neuron was excited during application of non-odorant airborne signals, including transient sound pulses of broad bandwidth and air velocity changes...

  17. Management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) by mating disruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qino-Jun Wu; Shu-Fa Zhang; Jin-Liang Yao; Bao-Yun Xu; Shao-Li Wang; You-Jun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in China in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the efficacy of mating disruption (MD) on diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella,in cabbage,Brassica oleracea var.capitata.Effectiveness was positively correlated with the MD dispenser density in the field.A density of 167 MD dispensers per ha produced an average population decrease of about 50% compared to the conventional-practice field.Significant fewer males were captured in pheromone-treated and conventional-practice fields than in the blank control field,but the difference was not significant between the pheromone-treated and conventional-practice fields.In addition,fewer eggs and larvae were observed in pheromone-treated fields.Our results suggest mating disruption coupled with minimal insecticidal supplements is a promising solution for resistance management and control of diamondback moth infestation.

  18. Biomimetic ‘moth-eye’ anti-reflection boundary for graphene plasmons circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we propose the anti-reflection boundary design for planar graphene plasmons (GPs) circuits based on biomimetic moth-eye structures. The anti-reflection functionalities are investigated by analytical effective medium theory combined with transfer matrix method and numerical finite element method. Both analytical and numerical methods have shown that average reflection losses of 1% can be achieved within the mid-infrared region. Moreover, for plasmons with a very wide incident angle, the performance of such anti-reflection boundary could still be maintained, achieving less than 1% reflection up to 60° incident angle. The proposed moth-eye anti-reflection boundary would be helpful for the future development of high integration GPs circuits. (paper)

  19. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera; Gelichiidae) to plant volatiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P D Das; R Raina; A R Prasad; A Sen

    2007-03-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from males and females of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella in response to a broad range of plant volatile compounds belonging to diverse chemical classes. The responses to 27 compounds were evaluated, which indicated significant differences in EAGs between chemicals as well as between sexes. The fatty acid derivatives comprising essentially green leaf volatile components elicited significantly greater responses in females. The response profile of males was, in general, lower than that of females. EAG responses to the oxygenated and hydrocarbon monoterpenes were lower in both males and females. Dose–response studies indicate differences in response between the sexes and concentrations, suggesting the existence of sexual dimorphism. Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in this species.

  20. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    OpenAIRE

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irr...

  1. Quantifying interspecific variation in dispersal ability of noctuid moths using an advanced tethered flight technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Hayley B. C.; Lim, Ka S.; Bell, James R.; Hill, Jane K.; Chapman, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dispersal plays a crucial role in many aspects of species' life histories, yet is often difficult to measure directly. This is particularly true for many insects, especially nocturnal species (e.g. moths) that cannot be easily observed under natural field conditions. Consequently, over the past five decades, laboratory tethered flight techniques have been developed as a means of measuring insect flight duration and speed. However, these previous designs have tended to focus on single...

  2. When are good genes good? Variable outcomes of female choice in wax moths

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, F.-Y.; Greenfield, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Female lesser wax moths (Achroia grisella) choose males based on characters of their ultrasonic advertisement signals. Because a female's opportunity to obtain increased somatic benefits by mating with a particular male is limited, we investigated whether females obtain genetic benefits for their offspring via mate choice. Controlled breeding experiments conducted under favourable food and temperature conditions showed that developmental characters are heritable, that sire attractiveness and ...

  3. Distribution of two pine processionary moth species in Turkey evidences a contact zone

    OpenAIRE

    İpekdal, Kahraman; Burban, Christian; Kerdelhue, Carole; ÇAĞLAR, SELİM SÜALP

    2015-01-01

    The pine processionary moths Thaumetopoea pityocampa and T. Wilkinsoni are among the most important Mediterranean pine defoliators. Although recent studies suggest that the two species may coexist in Turkey, the relevant literature lacks precise information on the occurrence and exact distribution of the two species in this country. In particular, whether the two sister taxa form a contact zone is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to reveal the limits of the ranges of the two species in ...

  4. Chemical ecology of the cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae ) on a newly recorded host Senecio adonidifolius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Klaas

    2006-09-01

    The cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae, Arctiidae) normally feeds on Senecio jacobaea in the field. For the first time, naturally occurring populations of T. jacobaeae have been found thriving on Senecio adonidifolius, even though the moth's preferred host, S. jacobaea, is available within 50-400 m. In the laboratory, the cinnabar moth has been shown to feed on and develop on S. adonidifolius despite its different leaf morphology, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) profile and a large taxonomic distance to S. jacobaea. Here I examined whether T. jacobaeae has adapted to this new host in the field using adult oviposition behavior and plant acquired defense chemistry in pupae as criteria. Choice tests indicated local adaptation to this newly recorded host. T. jacobaeae reared on S. adonidifolius hosts laid more egg batches and total eggs on it than T. jacobaeae from S. jacobaea. The egg batches were smaller on S. adonidifolius possibly due to highly pinnate thread-like structure of its leaves. The bouquet of plant acquired PAs and the insect metabolized callimorphine in pupae differed widely between pupae collected from the two hosts. T. jacobaeae pupae taken from S. adonidifolius hosts contained more of the insect metabolized callimorphine than pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts, but they did not differ in total PA concentration. Pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts contained more unmetabolized plant PA's than pupae from S. adonidifolius hosts. Additionally, 10% of T. jacobaeae larvae taken from S. adonidifolius in Biausse were infested with Carcelia dubia, a parasitic and rare tachinid fly that typically attacks arctiid moths.

  5. Attractancy and toxicity of an attracticide for Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Phillips, Thomas W

    2004-04-01

    Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) is a serious and widespread postharvest pest on cereal products, dried fruits, candy, and pet food. Due to the strong positive anemotactic flight response of P. interpunctella males to the main component of the female-produced pheromone [(Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, herein referred to as ZETA], we evaluated the potential of an attracticide for this pest, in which ZETA as attractant was combined with permethrin as the killing agent. Two concentrations of ZETA [0.16 and 0.32% (wt:wt)] and five concentrations of permethrin [0, 3, 6, 12, and 18% (wt:wt)] were incorporated into Last Call gel (10 different permethrin:ZETA combinations). All attracticide gels were evaluated in a toxicity test, in which either the tip of a leg or an antenna of a virgin P. interpunctella male was touched interpunctella males with attracticide gel containing 3-18% permethrin caused a significant reduction in mating and killed males moths within 24 h. A wind tunnel test was conducted to evaluate the flight responses of P. interpunctella males to the same 10 attracticide gels. Male moths displayed significantly higher levels of positive anemotactic flight and more males made contact with the attracticide gel when the ZETA concentration was 0.16% compared with 0.32%. P. interpunctella males showed no signs of repellency to permethrin concentrations within a range of 0-18% in the attracticide gel. Three densities of P. interpunctella pairs were released into small warehouse rooms, and we found that the attracticide gel suppressed oviposition when the moth density was at a low level, but it was ineffective when the moth density exceeded one male-female pair per 11.3 m3.

  6. Decline of a Rare Moth at Its Last Known English Site: Causes and Lessons for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baker

    Full Text Available The conditions required by rare species are often only approximately known. Monitoring such species over time can help refine management of their protected areas. We report population trends of a rare moth, the Dark Bordered Beauty Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus, 1767 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae at its last known English site on a protected lowland heath, and those of its host-plant, Salix repens (L. (Malpighiales: Salicaceae. Between 2007 and 2014, adult moth density reduced by an average of 30-35% annually over the monitored area, and its range over the monitored area contracted in concert. By comparing data from before this decline (2005 with data taken in 2013, we show that the density of host-plants over the monitored area reduced three-fold overall, and ten-fold in the areas of highest host-plant density. In addition, plants were significantly smaller in 2013. In 2005, moth larvae tended to be found on plants that were significantly larger than average at the time. By 2013, far fewer plants were of an equivalent size. This suggests that the rapid decline of the moth population coincides with, and is likely driven by, changes in the host-plant population. Why the host-plant population has changed remains less certain, but fire, frost damage and grazing damage have probably contributed. It is likely that a reduction in grazing pressure in parts of the site would aid host-plant recovery, although grazing remains an important site management activity. Our work confirms the value of constant monitoring of rare or priority insect species, of the risks posed to species with few populations even when their populations are large, of the potential conflict between bespoke management for species and generic management of habitats, and hence the value of refining our knowledge of rare species' requirements so that their needs can be incorporated into the management of protected areas.

  7. Cross-Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin CryIF in the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella)

    OpenAIRE

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Finson, Naomi; Johnson, Marshall W.; Heckel, David G.

    1994-01-01

    Selection with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, which contains CryIA and CryII toxins, caused a >200-fold cross-resistance to CryIF toxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. CryIE was not toxic, but CryIB was highly toxic to both selected and unselected larvae. The results show that extremely high levels of cross-resistance can be conferred across classes of CryI toxins of B. thuringiensis.

  8. Automated Inspection of Apple Moth : Machine vision using OpenCV and Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Mohamed; Gumaa, El Motasim

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the implementation of a machine vision algo-rithm on a Raspberry Pi Microcomputer. The commissioning client Teo Kanniainen conducted a research project on the subject of arranging low-cost apple moth inspection on his garden. The research resulted in production of a device collecting pictures of insects in order to process these images later. The contact person Markku Kippola discussed the issues of improved functionality and cost, so the overall aim of this t...

  9. Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, G.; Waters, D A

    2000-01-01

    We measured the auditory responses of the noctuid moth Noctua pronuba to bat echolocation calls which were manipulated independently in time and frequency. Such manipulations are important in understanding how insect hearing influences the evolution of echolocation call characteristics. We manipulated the calls of three bat species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis nattereri and Pipistrellus pipistrellus) that use different echolocation call features by doubling their duration or reducing the...

  10. Model Predicts a Future Pine Processionary Moth Risk in Artvin and Adjacent Regions

    OpenAIRE

    İPEKDAL, Kahraman; Beton, Damla

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has been receiving a lot of attention from researchers as it is believed to be proceeding at an extraordinary rate during the last 1,300 years and many studies have attempted to document and predict its environmental effects. Eastern winter pine processionary moth (PPM), Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae), an economically important pest of pines in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, distributed through almost all coastal regions within Turkey. ...

  11. Decline of a Rare Moth at Its Last Known English Site: Causes and Lessons for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David; Barrett, Sinead; Beale, Colin M.; Crawford, Terry J.; Ellis, Sam; Gullett, Tallulah; Parsons, Mark S.; Relf, Penny; Robertson, Paul; Small, Julian; Wainwright, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The conditions required by rare species are often only approximately known. Monitoring such species over time can help refine management of their protected areas. We report population trends of a rare moth, the Dark Bordered Beauty Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus, 1767) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) at its last known English site on a protected lowland heath, and those of its host-plant, Salix repens (L.) (Malpighiales: Salicaceae). Between 2007 and 2014, adult moth density reduced by an average of 30–35% annually over the monitored area, and its range over the monitored area contracted in concert. By comparing data from before this decline (2005) with data taken in 2013, we show that the density of host-plants over the monitored area reduced three-fold overall, and ten-fold in the areas of highest host-plant density. In addition, plants were significantly smaller in 2013. In 2005, moth larvae tended to be found on plants that were significantly larger than average at the time. By 2013, far fewer plants were of an equivalent size. This suggests that the rapid decline of the moth population coincides with, and is likely driven by, changes in the host-plant population. Why the host-plant population has changed remains less certain, but fire, frost damage and grazing damage have probably contributed. It is likely that a reduction in grazing pressure in parts of the site would aid host-plant recovery, although grazing remains an important site management activity. Our work confirms the value of constant monitoring of rare or priority insect species, of the risks posed to species with few populations even when their populations are large, of the potential conflict between bespoke management for species and generic management of habitats, and hence the value of refining our knowledge of rare species’ requirements so that their needs can be incorporated into the management of protected areas. PMID:27333285

  12. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for walnuts infested with codling moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation may be a potential quarantine treatment for either diapausing or nondiapausing codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae in walnuts. Exposure of larvae to 51.9 Gy from a 60Co source significantly reduced emergence of normal adults. The dose required for quarantine security (99.9968% mortality) was 230 Gy based on emergence of adults from treated larvae. Normal adults did not emerge from larvae exposed to 177 Gy in walnuts

  13. Insecticidal activities of garlic substances against adults of grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Lian Yang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The angoumois grain moth,Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier),is one of the most serious stored grain pests around the world.In attempts to reduce the losses caused by the moth and to suppress its populations,the fumigant activities,behavioral influence and ovipositional inhibition of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil and its two major components,diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,were investigated against the adult grain moth.Their effects on reduction in survival of first instar larvae to adult emergence were also evaluated.Results showed that these three materials (garlic essential oil,diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide) had significant fumigant activity with 50% lethal concentration values at 1.33,0.99,and 1.02μL/L air space,respectively; meanwhile,the three materials possessed high behavioral deterrent activities against adults in the Y-tube olfactometer.When applied to rice grains,these materials reduced adult longevity and inhibited oviposition,with ovipositional inhibition above 70% at a concentration of 1.5 tL/25 g in either no-choice or two-choice tests.In short,the study showed that both diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,like garlic essential oil,acted as fumigants,produced behavioral deterfence and inhibited oviposition against angoumois grain moth.Our work here indicates that diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide may serve as potential alternatives for grain protectants since both of them can be prepared easily from readily available chemicals.

  14. Do anthropogenic transports facilitate stored-product pest moth dispersal? A molecular approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryne, Camilla; Bensch, Staffan

    2008-02-01

    Stored-product moths cause large economic damage in food processing industries and storage facilities. Control of indoor pests is currently dealt with locally, and control strategies seldom include different mills or cooperative industries in joint efforts to reduce infestations. In colder climates where conditions hinder flight dispersal of stored-product moths, we hypothesize that human transport between mills will facilitate dispersal. Albeit considered intuitive, this hypothesis has so far never been tested. Male moths from three mills (populations) in southern Sweden and Denmark were collected and by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) pair-wise F st values were calculated. Cluster (population) origins of the genotypes were computed by using a model-based method, structure. The results suggest that known transportation of flour between two mills generate genetically more similar populations of the economically important stored-product moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zell.) (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae), compared to the third mill, with another distribution area, but situated geographically in between the other mills. The structure model placed the sampled genotypes to belong to either two or five original populations, with a higher probability of two original populations. The third mill was consistently different from the other two mills independent of the models’ calculated number of populations. Although the study was restricted to three mills and one transportation route, it highlights the possibility that transportation of food products promotes genetic mixing (i.e. dispersal) of insect pest populations. Including cooperating mills in control (or monitor) strategy schemes against stored-product pest insects would therefore be a more effective action, rather than to treat each mill separately.

  15. Economic thresholds level for the fruit generation of olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard) (Lepidoptera: Hyponomeutidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Albino; Pereira, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), is one of the most destructive pests of olive groves in the Mediterranean basin. In recent years, the interest in evaluating the economic importance of P. oleae has been increasing, being loss assessment essential to the development of integrated pest management programs (IPM). Reliable economic thresholds for the pest are associated to any IPM practice, since enables the growers to reduce the input of pesticid...

  16. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis D(delta)-endotoxins against codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncheva, R.; Dukiandjiev, S.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.; Naimov, S.

    2006-01-01

    Solubilized protoxins of nine Cry1 and one hybrid Cry1 ¿-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their activity against larvae of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L). Cry1Da was the most toxic, followed by Cry1Ab, Cry1Ba, and Cry1Ac, while Cry1Aa, Cry1Fa, Cry1Ia, and SN19 were still l

  17. Diversity and composition of Amazonian moths in primary, secondary and plantation forests.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawes, Joseph; da Silva Motta, Catarina; Overal, William L.; Barlow, Jos; Gardner, Toby A.; Peres, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    The response of tropical fauna to landscape-level habitat change is poorly understood. Increased conversion of native primary forest to alternative land-uses, including secondary forest and exotic tree plantations, highlights the importance of assessing diversity patterns within these forest types. We sampled 1848 moths from 335 species of Arctiidae, Saturniidae and Sphingidae, over a total of 30 trap-nights. Sampling was conducted during the wet season 2005, using three light-traps at 15 sit...

  18. Moth Fauna of Gageodo Island in the Southwestern Sea, Korean Peninsula, including Seven Unrecorded Species (Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Sung-Soo; An, Jeong-Seop; Kwon, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed moths on Gageodo island in the southwestern sea of the Korean Peninsula over three years (2009, 2012, 2013) and found a total of 253 species in 18 families. Geometridae had the greatest species richness, with 63 species, followed by Noctuidae, Erebidae, Crambidae and Sphingidae. The annual changes in species richness and abundance were not different and seasonal occurrence of species showed a unimodal pattern in which the numbers of species and individuals increased from April and...

  19. New species of “giant” plume moths of the genus Platyptilia (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ustjuzhanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two new species of plume moths from the group of the so-called “giant” Platyptilia Hubner, 1825: Platyptilia fletcheri Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. and P. stanleyi Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. Both species were collected in the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda and Rwanda, respectively. Platyptilia stanleyi Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. exceeds all the known African species of Pterophoridae in its wingspan of 49 mm.

  20. The gene cortex controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan A; Saenko, Suzanne V; Wallbank, Richard W R; Wu, Grace C; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard M; Dowling, Andrea J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-06-01

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and whether this control shows any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we use fine-scale mapping with population genomics and gene expression analyses to identify a gene, cortex, that regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast-evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell-cycle regulators, suggesting that it probably regulates pigmentation patterning by regulating scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia), our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects. PMID:27251285

  1. Are the moth larvae able to withstand tree fall caused by wind storm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Parák

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wind storms play an important role in structuring European forests, however, the direct effects of strong wind on insects roosting in tree canopies are poorly known. In this study we assess the proportion of moth larvae which remain on Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst. trees which have fallen during high winds. Next, we contribute to the knowledge of potential importance of such larvae in forests fragmented by local wind damage. We studied the effects of wind in spruce forest in the West Carpathians in March 2013. Branches were sampled from randomly chosen fallen and standing (undamaged spruce trees in April 2013. Larvae or emerged moths were obtained from branches in the laboratory using photoeclectors. Assemblages of larvae were analysed at community level using several approaches. In total, 11 species of Lepidoptera were found on the branches, 10 of them overwinter as larvae and one as eggs. No differences were observed between abundance and species richness of larval assemblages on fallen and standing trees. Assemblages were very similar; there was no difference detected between standing and fallen trees. Overwintering larvae can successfully complete their development on wind-felled trees; hence, the emerged moths may contribute to greater infestation of standing spruce trees surviving wind disturbance.

  2. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  3. Sound-sensitive neurons innervate the ventro-lateral protocerebrum of the heliothine moth brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfuhl, Gerit; Zhao, Xin Cheng; Ian, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    Many noctuid moth species perceive ultrasound via tympanic ears that are located at the metathorax. Whereas the neural processing of auditory information is well studied at the peripheral and first synaptic level, little is known about the features characterizing higher order sound-sensitive neur......Many noctuid moth species perceive ultrasound via tympanic ears that are located at the metathorax. Whereas the neural processing of auditory information is well studied at the peripheral and first synaptic level, little is known about the features characterizing higher order sound...... of the auditory neurons ascended from the ventral cord and ramified densely within the anterior region of the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. The physiological and morphological characteristics of these auditory neurons were similar. We detected one additional sound-sensitive neuron, a brain interneuron with its...... soma positioned near the calyces of mushroom bodies and with numerous neuronal processes in the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. Mass-staining of ventral-cord neurons supported the assumption that the ventro-lateral region of the moth brain was the main target for the auditory projections ascending from...

  4. Power distribution in the hovering flight of the hawk moth Manduca sexta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Liang; Deng Xinyan, E-mail: xdeng@purdue.ed [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 500 Allison Rd., Chaffee Hall, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    We investigated inertial and aerodynamic power consumption during hovering flight of the hawk moth Manduca sexta. The aerodynamic power was estimated based on the aerodynamic forces and torques measured on model hawk-moth wings and hovering kinematics. The inertial power was estimated based on the measured wing mass distribution and hovering kinematics. The results suggest that wing inertial power (without consideration of muscle efficiency and elastic energy storage) consumes about half of the total power expenditure. Wing areal mass density was measured to decrease sharply from the leading edge toward the trailing edge and from the wing base to the wing tip. Such a structural property helps to minimize the wing moment of inertia given a fixed amount of mass. We measured the aerodynamic forces on the rigid and flexible wings, which were made to approximate the flexural stiffness (EI) distribution and deformation of moth wings. It has been found that wings with the characteristic spanwise and chordwise decreasing EI (and mass density) are beneficial for power efficiency while generating aerodynamic forces comparative to rigid wings. Furthermore, negative work to aid pitching in stroke reversals from aerodynamic forces was found, and it showed that the aerodynamic force contributes partially to passive pitching of the wing

  5. Multiple origins of the sodium channel kdr mutations in codling moth populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Franck

    Full Text Available Resistance to insecticides is one interesting example of a rapid current evolutionary change. DNA variability in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (trans-membrane segments 5 and 6 in domain II was investigated in order to estimate resistance evolution to pyrethroid in codling moth populations at the World level. DNA variation among 38 sequences revealed a unique kdr mutation (L1014F involved in pyrethroid resistance in this gene region, which likely resulted from several convergent substitutions. The analysis of codling moth samples from 52 apple orchards in 19 countries using a simple PCR-RFLP confirmed that this kdr mutation is almost worldwide distributed. The proportions of kdr mutation were negatively correlated with the annual temperatures in the sampled regions. Homozygous kdr genotypes in the French apple orchards showed lower P450 cytochrome oxidase activities than other genotypes. The most plausible interpretation of the geographic distribution of kdr in codling moth populations is that it has both multiple independent origins and a spreading limited by low temperature and negative interaction with the presence of alternative resistance mechanisms to pyrethroid in the populations.

  6. Nutritional composition, processing, and utilization of horse gram and moth bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, S S; Salunkhe, D K

    1985-01-01

    Horse gram and moth bean are the unexploited legumes of the tropics and subtropics grown mostly under dry-land agriculture. The chemical composition is comparable with commonly cultivated legumes. Like other legumes, these are deficient in methionine and tryptophan. Horse gram is an excellent source of iron and molybdenum. Comparatively, horse gram seeds have higher trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinin activities and polyphenols than moth bean seeds. Dehusking, germination, cooking, and roasting have been shown to produce beneficial effects on nutritional quality of both the legumes. Both the legumes require prolonged cooking to obtain product of acceptable nature. A soak solution (1.5% NaHCO3 + 0.5% Na2CO3 + 0.75% citric acid) treatment has been shown to reduce cooking time and improve protein quality. Moth bean is mostly consumed as dhal or sprouts. The whole seeds of horse gram are generally utilized as cattle feed. However, it is consumed as a whole seed, sprouts, or whole meal by a large population in rural areas of southern India. Medical uses of these legumes have been discussed.

  7. The gene cortex controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan A; Saenko, Suzanne V; Wallbank, Richard W R; Wu, Grace C; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard M; Dowling, Andrea J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-06-01

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and whether this control shows any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we use fine-scale mapping with population genomics and gene expression analyses to identify a gene, cortex, that regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast-evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell-cycle regulators, suggesting that it probably regulates pigmentation patterning by regulating scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia), our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects.

  8. Stay out (almost) all night: contrasting responses in flight activity among tropical moth assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarre, G P A; Mendoza, I; Rougerie, R; Decaëns, T; Hérault, B; Bénéluz, F

    2015-04-01

    Variations in diel activity among hyperdiverse tropical communities of moths, despite representing a key component of niche partitioning between species, have barely been studied so far. Using light trapping from dawn to sunset over a 1-year period in French Guiana, we investigated these variations within and between two families of moths (Sphingidae and Saturniidae). Our results revealed contrasting patterns in flight activity at night between Sphingidae and Saturniidae. Sphingidae reached their peak in species richness and abundance between 7:00 and 8:00 p.m., followed by a decrease around 11:00 p.m. to midnight, whereas Saturniidae were continuously present throughout the night, with a peak around midnight. In addition, we found changes in diel activity among some of the most common genera in each family, highlighting distinct behavioral, physiological, and functional traits among taxa. Given differences in flight activity at different taxonomic levels, it is strongly recommended to monitor by light trapping throughout the night to effectively sample saturniid and sphingid assemblages, even though the activity of Sphingidae sharply declines after midnight. These results improve the general natural history information of tropical moths and reinforce the need of further research on the ecological and taxonomic consequences of differences in diel activity. PMID:26013127

  9. Identification of conjugated pentadecadienals as sex pheromone components of the sphingid moth, Dolbina tancrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; van Vang, Le; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Homologs of bombykal, (10E,12Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal, have been reported to be sex pheromones or sexual attractants of several species of sphingid moths. In this study, we identified novel bombykal analogs as sex pheromone components from a Japanese sphingid moth, Dolbina tancrei. Staudinger (Sphingidae: Lepidoptera). Sex pheromone gland extracts from calling female moths were subjected to gas chromatography/electroantennograhic detection (GC/EAD), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and gas chromatography (GC) analyses. GC/EAD analyses showed two active components in the crude pheromone extracts. GC/MS analysis determined these two components to be pentadecadienals. GC/MS of their MTAD derivatives showed conjugated double bonds at the 9- and 11-positions, indicating 9,11-pentadecadienals. The isomeric configurations of these candidates were determined by comparison of their Kováts retention indices with those of synthetic compounds. Field bioassays with the four isomers of 9,11-pentadecadienal and their mixtures confirmed that the two sex pheromone components of D. tancrei are (9E,11Z)-9,11-pentadecadienal and (9Z,11Z)-9,11-pentadecadienal, with the highest male catches observed for a 90:10 blend. This is the first report of 9,11-pentadecadienals as sex pheromone components in lepidopteran species. PMID:24190021

  10. Female dietary bias towards large migratory moths in the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Vanessa A; Amorim, Francisco; Corley, Martin F V; McCracken, Gary F; Rebelo, Hugo; Beja, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    In bats, sexual segregation has been described in relation to differential use of roosting and foraging habitats. It is possible that variation may also exist between genders in the use of different prey types. However, until recently this idea was difficult to test owing to poorly resolved taxonomy of dietary studies. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing to describe gender-related variation in diet composition of the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis), while controlling for effects of age and season. We analysed guano pellets collected from 143 individuals mist-netted from April to October 2012 and 2013, in northeast Portugal. Moths (Lepidoptera; mainly Noctuidae and Geometridae) were by far the most frequently recorded prey, occurring in nearly all samples and accounting for 96 out of 115 prey taxa. There were significant dietary differences between males and females, irrespective of age and season. Compared to males, females tended to consume larger moths and more moths of migratory behaviour (e.g.Autographa gamma). Our study provides the first example of gender-related dietary variation in bats, illustrating the value of novel molecular tools for revealing intraspecific variation in food resource use in bats and other insectivores. PMID:27009885

  11. Histopathological effects of Bacillus Thuringiensis and gamma irradiation on F1 Larvae of the greater Wax Moth, Galleria Mellonella L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full grown male pupae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L., were gamma irradiated with 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy. The resulting F1 larvae were treated at the fourth instar with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 %) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt.) var. kurstaki. Combined effects of the two doses of gamma radiation (50 and 100 Gy) and / or Bt. (LC50) on certain biological aspects in addition to histological effects on larval mid gut were studied. The obtained results indicated that Bt. or irradiation treatments either alone or in combination decreased the number of F1 larvae that reached the adult stage as compared to the control. Also, the reduction in survived individuals was obvious at dose level 400 Gy than 50, 100 and 200 Gy (the lower doses). The larval mortality, percent pupation, percent emergence and adult survival were decreased gradually by increasing the concentration of Bt. especially at the combined treatments. The sex ratio was altered in favour of males at either Bt. and / or irradiation treatments. Certain histological changes through longitudinal sections of the mid gut of F1 larvae due to irradiation and / or Bt. treatments were detected. The damage of tissues was increased by increasing the dose of irradiation and / or concentration of Bt. The cytoplasmic extrusion was appeared as the apical margin of cells as a confluent mass and the muscular layers were broken in some parts, large amount of secretions was released in the lumen of the mid gut while a few amounts were attached to the apical margin of the cells. Much destruction of the mid gut took place when the Bt. treatments were combined with gamma irradiation where large number of epithelial cells became vacuolated and the cytoplasm was appeared as confluent masses because of the hydropic analysis of the epithelium

  12. Host Plants Affect the Foraging Success of Two Parasitoids that Attack Light Brown Apple Moth Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Wratten, Steve; Sandhu, Harpinder; Keller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana is a key pest of wine grapes in Australia. Two parasitoids, Dolichogenidea tasmanica and Therophilus unimaculatus, attack the larval stage of this pest. D. tasmanica is dominant in vineyards, whereas T. unimaculatus is mainly active in native vegetation. We sought to understand why they differ in their use of habitats. Plants are a major component of habitats of parasitoids, and herbivore-infested plants influence parasitoid foraging efficiency by their architecture and emission of volatile chemicals. We investigated how different plant species infested by E. postvittana could affect the foraging success of the two parasitoid species in both laboratory and field experiments. Four common host-plant species were selected for this study. In paired-choice experiments to determine the innate foraging preferences for plants, both parasitoid species showed differences in innate search preferences among plant species. The plant preference of D. tasmanica was altered by oviposition experience with hosts that were feeding on other plant species. In a behavioral assay, the two parasitoid species allocated their times engaged in various types of behavior differently when foraging on different plant species. For both parasitoids, parasitism on Hardenbergia violacea was the highest of the four plant species. Significantly more larvae dropped from Myoporum insulare when attacked than from the other three host-plant species, which indicates that parasitism is also affected by interactions between plants and host insects. In vineyards, parasitism by D. tasmanica was significantly lower on M. insulare than on the other three host-plant species, but the parasitism rates were similar among the other three plant species. Our results indicate that plants play a role in the habitat preferences of these two parasitoid species by influencing their foraging behavior, and are likely to contribute to their distributions among habitats. PMID

  13. Host Plants Affect the Foraging Success of Two Parasitoids that Attack Light Brown Apple Moth Epiphyas postvittana (Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Feng

    Full Text Available The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana is a key pest of wine grapes in Australia. Two parasitoids, Dolichogenidea tasmanica and Therophilus unimaculatus, attack the larval stage of this pest. D. tasmanica is dominant in vineyards, whereas T. unimaculatus is mainly active in native vegetation. We sought to understand why they differ in their use of habitats. Plants are a major component of habitats of parasitoids, and herbivore-infested plants influence parasitoid foraging efficiency by their architecture and emission of volatile chemicals. We investigated how different plant species infested by E. postvittana could affect the foraging success of the two parasitoid species in both laboratory and field experiments. Four common host-plant species were selected for this study. In paired-choice experiments to determine the innate foraging preferences for plants, both parasitoid species showed differences in innate search preferences among plant species. The plant preference of D. tasmanica was altered by oviposition experience with hosts that were feeding on other plant species. In a behavioral assay, the two parasitoid species allocated their times engaged in various types of behavior differently when foraging on different plant species. For both parasitoids, parasitism on Hardenbergia violacea was the highest of the four plant species. Significantly more larvae dropped from Myoporum insulare when attacked than from the other three host-plant species, which indicates that parasitism is also affected by interactions between plants and host insects. In vineyards, parasitism by D. tasmanica was significantly lower on M. insulare than on the other three host-plant species, but the parasitism rates were similar among the other three plant species. Our results indicate that plants play a role in the habitat preferences of these two parasitoid species by influencing their foraging behavior, and are likely to contribute to their distributions

  14. Box Tree Moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae, New Invasive Insect Pest in Croatia

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    Dinka Matošević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Alien invasive species have been described as an outstanding global problem. Hundreds of species are intentionally and unintentionally moved worldwide and and numbers of introductions to new habitats have been accelerated all over the world due to the increasing mobility of people and goods over the past decades. Numerous alien insect species, many of them introduced only in the last 20 years, have become successfully established in various ecosystems in Croatia. Box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae is an invasive pest recently introduced to Europe causing serious damage to ornamental box (Buxus sp. shrubs and trees. The aim of this paper is to describe the biology of box tree moth with prognosis of its future spread and damages in Croatia. Material and Methods: Young larvae (first and second larval stage and adults of box tree moth were collected in August and September 2013 in Arboretum Opeka and in Varaždin. They were brought to the entomological laboratory of Croatian Forest Research Institute where they were reared to pupae and then to moths. Results and Conclusions: The box tree moth was recorded for the first time in North Croatia in August 2013. Larvae were found defoliating box plants (B. sempervirens in Arboretum Opeka, Vinica and they have been identified as C. prespectalis. According to damages it can be assumed that the pest has been introduced to the region earlier (in 2011 or 2012 and that the primary infection has not been detected. At least two generations per year could be assumed in Croatia in 2013. The damage done to box tree plants on the locality of study is serious. The plants have been defoliated, particularly in the lower parts. The defoliation reduced the amenity value of plants. This is the first record of this pest and its damages in Northern Croatia and it can be expected that the pest will rapidly spread to other parts of Croatia seriously damaging box plants

  15. Utility of Greater Wax Moth Larva (Galleria mellonella) for Evaluating the Toxicity and Efficacy of New Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Andrew P; Coote, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antimicrobial agents to combat infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens. Once a compound is shown to be effective in vitro, it is necessary to evaluate its efficacy in an animal infection model. Typically, this is achieved using a mammalian model, but such experiments are costly, time consuming, and require full ethical consideration. Hence, cheaper and ethically more acceptable invertebrate models of infection have been introduced, including the larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. Invertebrates have an immune system that is functionally similar to the innate immune system of mammals, and often identical virulence and pathogenicity factors are used by human pathogenic microbes to infect wax moth larvae and mammals. Moreover, the virulence of many human pathogens is comparable in wax moth larvae and mammals. Using key examples from the literature, this chapter highlights the benefits of using the wax moth larva model to provide a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of new antimicrobial agents in vivo and prior to the use of more expensive mammalian models. This simple insect model can bridge the gap between in vitro studies and mammalian experimentation by screening out compounds with a low likelihood of success, while providing greater justification for further studies in mammalian systems. Thus, broader implementation of the wax moth larva model into anti-infective drug discovery and development programs could reduce the use of mammals during preclinical assessments and the overall cost of drug development. PMID:22305092

  16. Assessing the quality of mass-reared codling moths (Lepidoptera: tortricidae) by using field release-recapture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following small-scale field releases of sterile, mass-reared codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), in the spring of 1995, significantly higher numbers of adults originating from larvae that had been induced into diapause were recaptured in passive interception traps compared with standard (nondiapaused) colony moths reared under either constant or fluctuating temperatures. When releases were made in the summer, significantly more diapaused females were again recaptured and similar numbers of diapaused and fluctuating temperature-reared standard males were trapped. Our field data showed that both male and female codling moths dispersed farther as ambient temperatures increased. When standard and diapaused sterile codling moths were released into replicated 1-ha plots under large-scale Sterile Insect Release program conditions in the summer and fall of 1996 and the spring of 1997, the proportion of recaptured diapaused males was significantly higher than for standard (nondiapaused) moths. This was true for recapture of males with passive interception, pheromone-baited, and virgin female-baited traps

  17. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of most pome fruit (apple, pear and quince) and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. Efforts to control the codling moth have in the past mostly relied on the use of broad spectrum insecticide spra...

  18. Disease status and population origin effects on floral scent: potential consequences for oviposition and fruit predation in a complex interaction between a plant, fungus, and noctuid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dötterl, S.; Jürgens, A.; Wolfe, L.M.; Biere, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the Silene latifolia-Hadena bicruris nursery pollination system, the Hadena moth is both pollinator and seed predator of its host plant. Floral scent, which differs among S. latifolia individuals and populations, is important for adult Hadena to locate its host. However, the success of moth larva

  19. Circadian rhythms of sexual behavior and pheromone titers of two closely related moth species autographa gamma and Cornutiplusia circumflexa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Michal; Dunkelblum, Ezra

    2005-09-01

    Two closely related plusiinae moths, Autographa gamma Linnaeus and Cornutiplusia circumflexa Linnaeus, are sympatric in Israel. Both species use identical sex pheromone components but in different ratios, and do not attempt to mate with each other. In addition to the effective reproductive separation by their sex pheromones, the sexual behavior of both species was compared to determine whether the lack of selection pressure might create additional barriers to cross-attraction and cross-mating. We found the gamma moth to be sexually active almost equally throughout the scotophase, whereas the sexual activity of C. circumflexa was limited to a short period at the end of the scotophase when most of the gamma moths had already mated. Higher levels of calling were observed with older females. There was a close relationship between pheromone titer and calling activity in both species. PMID:16132217

  20. Integrating anti-reflection and superhydrophobicity of moth-eye-like surface morphology on a large-area flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) roll-to-roll (R2R) process with argon and oxygen (Ar–O2) plasma ashing and coating of a dilute perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) layer to fabricate the large-area moth-eye-like surface morphology on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. By using Maxwell-Garnett's effective medium theory, the optimal dimensions of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was designed and fabricated with UV-NIL R2R process to obtain maximum transmittance ratio. In addition, the base angle (θ = 30.1°) of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was modified with Ar–O2 plasma ashing and coated with a dilute FDTS layer to possess both superhydrophobic and air-retention properties. This increases both the transmittance ratio of 4% and contact angle to 153°. (paper)

  1. Consultants Group Meeting on Improvement of Codling Moth SIT to Facilitate Expansion of Field Application. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIT currently has only limited application in Lepidoptera control. Prospects for improvement of the technique however are good, and the species with the best immediate prospect is the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). Codling moth is the key pest of most apple and pear orchards in the world and the cause of intensive insecticide use during the whole fruiting season. As a result of increasing development of insecticide resistance in codling moth, the banning of essential insecticides, as well as public concerns about the environment and food safety, the Subprogramme continues to receive enquiries from a number of countries as to the applicability of SIT as a suppression method for this species. SIT is currently used as part of areawide codling moth control in British Columbia, Canada and in the border area with Washington State, USA. The SIT can be integrated with a number of other techniques, including mating disruption as in the trial in Washington State. The Canadian programme is co-funded by growers, local and national government. The programme is proving effective at controlling the moth in an environmental friendly way. Currently the programme is only financially attractive with government subsidy although in view of the replacement of insecticide use with SIT, growers will be able to access the rapidly growing and very lucrative market for organic fruit. A new CRP is proposed with the objective of improving the efficiency of all stages of the SIT for codling moth. This will cover reducing the cost of production, product and process quality control, genetic sexing, strain compatibility and field monitoring among others.

  2. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rozsypal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The codling moth (Cydia pomonella is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. CONCLUSION: Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer.

  3. Flying with the winds: differential migration strategies in relation to winds in moth and songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkesson, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The gamma Y moth selects to migrate in stronger winds compared to songbirds, enabling fast transport to distant breeding sites, but a lower precision in orientation as the moth allows itself to be drifted by the winds. Photo: Ian Woiwod. In Focus: Chapman, J.R., Nilsson, C., Lim, K.S., Bäckman, J., Reynolds, D.R. & Alerstam, T. (2015) Adaptive strategies in nocturnally migrating insects and songbirds: contrasting responses to winds. Journal of Animal Ecology, In press Insects and songbirds regularly migrate long distances across continents and seas. During these nocturnal migrations, they are exposed to a fluid medium, the air, in which they transport themselves by flight at similar speeds as the winds may carry them. It is crucial for an animal to select the most favourable flight conditions relative to winds to minimize the distance flown on a given amount of fuel and to avoid hazardous situations. Chapman et al. (2015a) showed contrasting strategies in how moths initiate migration predominantly under tailwind conditions, allowing themselves to drift to a larger extent and gain ground speed as compared to nocturnal songbird migrants. The songbirds use more variable flight strategies in relation to winds, where they sometimes allow themselves to drift, and at other occasions compensate for wind drift. This study shows how insects and birds have differentially adapted to migration in relation to winds, which is strongly dependent on their own flight capability, with higher flexibility enabling fine-tuned responses to keep a time programme and reach a goal in songbirds compared to in insects.

  4. Innate recognition of pheromone and food odors in moths: a common mechanism in the antennal lobe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Martin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The survival of an animal often depends on an innate response to a particular sensory stimulus. For an adult male moth, two categories of odors are innately attractive: pheromone released by conspecific females, and the floral scents of certain, often co-evolved, plants. These odors consist of multiple volatiles in characteristic mixtures. Here, we review evidence that both categories of odors are processed as sensory objects, and we suggest a mechanism in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL, that encodes the configuration of these mixtures and may underlie recognition of innately attractive odors. In the pheromone system, mixtures of two or three volatiles elicit upwind flight. Peripheral changes are associated with behavioral changes in speciation, and suggest the existence of a pattern recognition mechanism for pheromone mixtures in the AL. Moths are similarly innately attracted to certain floral scents. Though floral scents consist of multiple volatiles that activate a broad array of receptor neurons, only a smaller subset, numerically comparable to pheromone mixtures, is necessary and sufficient to elicit behavior. Both pheromone and floral scent mixtures that produce attraction to the odor source elicit synchronous action potentials in particular populations of output (projection neurons (PNs in the AL. We propose a model in which the synchronous output of a population of PNs encodes the configuration of an innately attractive mixture, and thus comprises an innate mechanism for releasing odor-tracking behavior. The particular example of olfaction in moths may inform the general question of how sensory objects trigger innate responses.

  5. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  6. Variation in courtship ultrasounds of three Ostrinia moths with different sex pheromones.

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    Takuma Takanashi

    Full Text Available Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian congeners, Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication in O. furnacalis; however, variations in ultrasounds in the three congeners have not been addressed to date. Here we investigated features of ultrasound production and hearing in O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, and compared them with those of O. furnacalis. As in O. furnacalis, males of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis produced ultrasounds during courtship by rubbing specialized scales on the wings against scales on the thorax. The covering of these scales with nail polish muffled the sounds and significantly reduced mating success in O. nubilalis, showing the importance of ultrasound signaling in mating. The ultrasounds produced by O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis were similar, consisting of long trains of pairs of pulses with a main energy at 40 kHz, but distinctly different from the ultrasound produced by O. furnacalis, consisting of groups of pulses peaking at 50 kHz and with substantially more energy up to 80 kHz. Despite overall similarities, temporal features and patterns of amplitude modulation differed significantly among the geographic populations of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, which differed in pheromone type. In contrast, no significant difference in hearing was found among the three species with regard to the most sensitive frequencies and hearing threshold levels. The patterns of variations in the songs and pheromones well reflected those of the phylogenetic relationships, implying that ultrasound and pheromone communications have diverged concordantly. Our

  7. Comprehensive molecular sampling yields a robust phylogeny for geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae.

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    Pasi Sihvonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The moth family Geometridae (inchworms or loopers, with approximately 23,000 described species, is the second most diverse family of the Lepidoptera. Apart from a few recent attempts based on morphology and molecular studies, the phylogeny of these moths has remained largely uninvestigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a rigorous and extensive molecular analysis of eight genes to examine the geometrid affinities in a global context, including a search for its potential sister-taxa. Our maximum likelihood analyses included 164 taxa distributed worldwide, of which 150 belong to the Geometridae. The selected taxa represent all previously recognized subfamilies and nearly 90% of recognized tribes, and originate from all over world. We found the Geometridae to be monophyletic with the Sematuridae+Epicopeiidae clade potentially being its sister-taxon. We found all previously recognized subfamilies to be monophyletic, with a few taxa misplaced, except the Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae complex that is a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa and the Orthostixinae, which was positioned within the Ennominae. The Sterrhinae and Larentiinae were found to be sister to the remaining taxa, followed by Archiearinae, the polyphyletic assemblage of Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae moths, Geometrinae and Ennominae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Geometridae in a global context. Our results generally agree with the other, more restricted studies, suggesting that the general phylogenetic patterns of the Geometridae are now well-established. Generally the subfamilies, many tribes, and assemblages of tribes were well supported but their interrelationships were often weakly supported by our data. The Eumeleini were particularly difficult to place in the current system, and several tribes were found to be para- or polyphyletic.

  8. High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Peng, Xiong; Liu, Gaoming; Pan, Hongyan; Dorn, Silvia; Chen, Maohua

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia) molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies. PMID:24265692

  9. High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zheng

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.

  10. Genetic patterns in European geometrid moths revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN system.

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    Axel Hausmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems, a method that supports automated, rapid species delineation and identification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study provides a DNA barcode library for 219 of the 249 European geometrid moth species (88% in five selected subfamilies. The data set includes COI sequences for 2130 specimens. Most species (93% were found to possess diagnostic barcode sequences at the European level while only three species pairs (3% were genetically indistinguishable in areas of sympatry. As a consequence, 97% of the European species we examined were unequivocally discriminated by barcodes within their natural areas of distribution. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BINs and traditionally recognized species for 67% of these species. Another 17% of the species (15 pairs, three triads shared BINs, while specimens from the remaining species (18% were divided among two or more BINs. Five of these species are mixtures, both sharing and splitting BINs. For 82% of the species with two or more BINs, the genetic splits involved allopatric populations, many of which have previously been hypothesized to represent distinct species or subspecies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and illustrates the potential of the BIN system to characterize formal genetic units independently of an existing classification. This suggests the system can be used to efficiently assess the biodiversity of large, poorly known assemblages of organisms. For the moths examined in this study, cases of discordance between traditionally recognized species and BINs arose from several causes including overlooked species, synonymy, and cases where DNA barcodes revealed

  11. Irradiation of the rice moth larvae, Corcyra Cephalonica (Staint) (lepidoptera - Pyralidae) : effects on development, sterility and larval midgut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some effects of gamma radiation (25-450 Gy) on the larval stag of Corcyra Cephalonica were studied. Larvae (30 days old) irradiated with 450 Gy did not transform into pupae and all died. when larvae were irradiated with 50 Gy or higher doses the number of emerging moths was reduced and that of deformed moths increased. Complete sterility was not achieved at 25 and 50 Gy as healthy adults were obtained. Histological damage to the larval midgut following irradiation was positively correlated with the dose used. The regenerative cells that renew the epithelial lining of the midgut were more sensitive to irradiation. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Suppression of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oriental fruit moth (OFM) is a major insect pest of peaches in Bulgaria. Its control usually requires several insecticide treatments per season. This, however, gives rise to serious toxic residue problems. A program for suppression of OFM populations involving the use of sterile-insect technique (SIT) has been developed as an alternative to the chemical methods for OFM. Relevant information regarding laboratory rearing, radiation and basic biology are presented here. Expected effects of some release programs are modelled using appropriate mathematical simulations. Results obtained in a small field experiment showed high efficacy of a program integrating F1 male sterility technique and classic SIT. (author)

  13. Identification and bioassay of sex pheromone components of carob moth,Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, T C; Francke, W; Millar, J G; Löfstedt, C; Hansson, B; Du, J W; Phelan, P L; Vetter, R S; Youngman, R; Todd, J L

    1991-10-01

    Three sex pheromone components of the carob moth were isolated and identified from the extract of female pheromone glands, using a variety of techniques including coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic recordings, coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis, microozonolysis, electroantennographic assays of monounsaturated standards, wind-tunnel bioassays, and field trials. The major component was identified as (Z,E)-9,11,13-tetradecatrienal, a novel lepidopterous pheromone component structure. Two minor components, either one of which improves the upwind flight response of males when blended with the major component, were identified as (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienal, and (Z)-9-tetra-decenal.

  14. Lethal dose of gamma radiation for eggs of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), rice moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this experiment was to observe the effects of gamma radiation on rice moth Corcyra cephalonica (STAINTON, 1865) eggs. The doses utilized in this experiment were 0; 25; 50; 75; 100; 125; 150; 175; 200 Gy. The experiment was carried out in a climatic room at 25 ± 20 C and 70 ± 10% R.H. It was observed that lethal dose LD50 and LD100 for eggs from adults reared by artificial diet were 16 and 75 Gy, respectively. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  15. Radiation induced sterility in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck. (Lepidoptera Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of studies on the sterilizing effects of gamma radiation, applied to oriental moth pupae or adults, are reported. The parameters of the induced sterility have been determined separately for individuals of both sexes. In males as well as in females the sterility is due chiefly to emergence of dominant lethal mutations in spermatozoa or oocytes which cause F1 egg mortality. Correspondingly, the frequency dynamics of these lethals is described by mixed types or sigmoid dose-response curves. The experimental data are interpreted in relation to sterile-insect release method for autocidal control of Gr. molesta. (author)

  16. Red Dog, Horses and Bogong Moths: The Memorialisation of Animals in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Searby

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine ways in which animals are memorialised in Australia. By examining the narratives surrounding horses in the Snowy Mountains of New South Wales, ceremonies for Bogong moths, and touching upon the stories of Red Dog, I show how the intangible can be considered a memorial and a memorial landscape conceived as one that is co-constructed by humans and animals. Understanding memorialisation as intangible facilitates a repositioning of animals in relation to humans and the creation of a new framework of reference for memorialising animals.

  17. Effect of early oviposition experience on host acceptance in Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and application of F1 sterility and T.principium to suppress the potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments with Trichogramma principium Sugonyaev and Sorokina females offered potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) eggs demonstrated that wasps rates of oviposition were highest the first day and decreased gradually thereafter. In addition, when T. principium females were sequentially offered eggs from 250-Gy irradiated parents or obtained from non-irradiated moths, the probability of host acceptance was not influenced by treatment of host eggs. In a concurrent laboratory study, a large cage test with combinant releases of T. principium and 250-Gy irradiated moths produced the greatest reduction in potato tuber moth F3-emerged progeny. Reductions obtained with irradiated moths alone, single release of irradiated moths with T. principium, and one or three releases of parasitoids were significantly higher than those in the control. From a pest management perspective, T. principium releases would synergistically complement the effects of F1 sterility against potato tuber moth infestation. (author)

  18. TÜRKİYE ÇİNGENELERİNİN POLİTİKLEŞMESİ VE ÖRGÜTLENME DENEYİMLERİ - THE POLITICIZATION OF THE GYPSIES IN TURKEY AND THEIR ORGANIZATION EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak AKGÜL

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Özet:Türkiye’de Avrupa Birliği’ne uyum sürecindegerçekleştirilen reformlarla birlikte, örgütlenme özgürlüğününyasal alanı genişlemiş ve farklı kimliklere yeni ifade alanlarıaçılmıştır. Gerek bu sürecin bir ürünü olarak gündeme gelenimkanlar, gerekse kentsel dönüşüm projeleriyle beraberÇingenelerin yaşam alanının daralması, Çingene kimliğietrafında şekillenen bir örgütlenmeyi teşvik etmiştir. Buçalışmada, Türkiye’de yerel dernekler üzerinden gerçekleşenÇingene örgütlenmesinin genel seyri incelenmektedir. Bubağlamda, Avrupa’daki Çingene örgütlerinin genel eğilimininÇingeneleri etnik bir grup olarak değerlendirmek yönündeolduğu ve bir azınlık kimliğine atıf yaptığı, Türkiye Çingeneörgütlerinin ise topluluğu “Türk ulusunun bir parçası” olaraktanımladığı ve bu çerçevede ulusal vatandaşlık haklarınıntalebi ekseninde şekillenen bir duruş ortaya koyduğu iddiaedilmektedir.Abstract:Due to the reforms which were implemented inTurkey during the integration period with the EuropeanUnion, the legal sphere of the freedom of association wasextended and the representation of various identities wereenabled. The organizations that are based on Gypsy identityare one of the results of this process. Furthermore, therestriction of the Gypsies’ living space as a consequence ofurban transformation projects was one of the dynamics thatfostered their organization. In this study, the general story ofthe Gypsy organization in Turkey which was performedthrough the local associations is scrutinized. In this regard, itis asserted that, the Gypsy organizations in Europe evaluatethe Gypsies as an ethnic group and refer to a minority identity;whereas the Gypsy organizations in Turkey consider thecommunity as “a constituent of Turkish nation” and take aposition which is shaped within the framework of nationalcitizenship rights.

  19. Impact of moth suppression/eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique or inherited sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous lepidopteran species have been investigated as candidates for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT) or inherited sterility (IS). However to date only two programmes are operational - the pink bollworm containment programme in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, and the codling moth suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada. Both of these programmes have been highly successful in controlling the pest populations, reducing insecticide use, and improving interactions between growers and the general public. However, other benefits, including the positive economic impacts of these programmes, have not been fully quantified. Methods to reduce the cost of lepidopteran programmes might include combining the SIT/IS with other pest control tactics such as mating disruption or the release of natural enemies, the development of genetic sexing strains, or the application of molecular technologies to develop genetic markers and genetic sterility. In future the greatest potential for impact of lepidopteran SIT/IS programmes may be in combating key invasive threats such as the eradication of an outbreak of the painted apple moth in New Zealand. (author)

  20. Cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-02-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape farms to evaluate cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens). At each farm, wild grapevines were cut in the woods adjacent to one vineyard for control of P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received no such cutting. Both vineyards received a standard broad-spectrum insecticide program for control of P. viteana and other vineyard insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between treatments in the total number of male moths trapped in both woods and vineyards. Egglaying by P. viteana was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation by P. viteana, no differences were observed between programs in the percent of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In all but one sample, survival of P. viteana larvae was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments, parasitism of P. viteana larvae within vineyards was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments on all sample dates, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two treatments throughout the study. The opportunities and benefits of cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control in grape integrated pest management programs in eastern North America are discussed.

  1. Phylogenetic origins of Lophocereus (Cactaceae) and the senita cactus-senita moth pollination mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Stefanie; Nason, John D; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2002-07-01

    Recent ecological research has revealed that the Sonoran Desert columnar cactus Lophocereus and the pyralid moth Upiga virescens form an obligate pollination mutualism, a rare but important case of coevolution. To investigate the phylogenetic origins of this unusual pollination system, we used molecular sequence data to reconstruct the phylogeny of the four taxa within the genus Lophocereus and to determine the phylogenetic position of Lophocereus within the North American columnar cacti (tribe Pachycereeae). Our analysis included Lophocereus, six Pachycereus species, Carnegiea gigantea, and Neobuxbaumia tetetzo within the subtribe Pachycereinae, and Stenocereus thurberi as an outgroup within the Stenocereinae. Extensive screening of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes failed to reveal sequence variation within Lophocereus. At a deeper phylogenetic level, however, we found strong support for the placement of Lophocereus within Pachycereus as sister group to the hummingbird-pollinated P. marginatus. We discuss possible hypotheses that may explain the transition from bat pollination (ancestral) to moth and hummingbird pollination in Lophocereus and P. marginatus, respectively. Additional phylogenetic analyses suggest that the genus Pachycereus should be expanded to include Lophocereus, Carnegiea, Neobuxbaumia, and perhaps other species, whereas P. hollianus may need to be excluded from this clade. Future study will be needed to test taxonomic distinctions within Lophocereus, to test for parallel cladogenesis between phylogroups within Lophocereus and Upiga, and to fully delineate the genus Pachycereus and relationships among genera in the Pachycereinae.

  2. Redescription of Thalassodes antithetica Herbulot, 1962, an endemic moth from Inner Seychelles (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotov, Ivan N; Matyot, Pat; Bippus, Maik; Spitsyn, Vitaly M; Kolosova, Yulia S; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    The Seychelles archipelago is characterized by an exceptionally high level of endemism in certain taxa, including at least 275 endemic species of Lepidoptera (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015). Despite the fact that endemics are the main objects of conservation efforts, information regarding endemic Seychelles Lepidoptera is very poor, because the majority of them are known from a single or a few specimens (Legrand 1966; Gerlach and Matyot 2006; Bolotov et al. 2014, 2015). The emerald moth specimens are lacking in extensive samples obtained by earlier collectors (Fletcher 1910; Scott 1910; Fryer 1912). Further, two emerald moth species in the genus Thalassodes Guenée, 1858 have been reported from Seychelles, i.e., the widespread T. quadraria Guenée, 1858 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015) and the endemic T. antithetica Herbulot, 1962. The latter species is known from eight specimens, collected between 1959 and 1963 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006). Herbulot (1962) provided a very short description of this species without any illustration. The protologue consists of a description of some external characters, i.e., antennae, palpi and legs, as well as the pattern of markings, but the male and female genitalia are not described. As the main diagnostic features, Herbulot (1962) noted two specific characters in the male morphology, namely the hind tibia with a single pair of spurs and an exceptional development of the lateral processes (octavals) on the posterior margin of the eighth sternite. PMID:27470792

  3. Studies on the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) response to different codlemone release rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, S; Miñarro, M; Bosch, M D; Primo, J; Navarro-Llopis, V

    2013-12-01

    The response of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)) to different emission values of its main pheromone component, 8E,10E-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), was investigated in three field trials conducted in plots without mating disruption treatments. Moth catches obtained in traps baited with pheromone dispensers were correlated with the corresponding codlemone release rates by multiple regression analysis. In a preliminary trial conducted in Lleida (NE Spain), a decreasing trend of captures was observed based on increasing pheromone levels. After this, the pheromone release profiles of the pheromone dispensers were studied, in parallel with the field trials, by residual codlemone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the trials carried out in Asturias (NW Spain), a correlation between trap catches and emission levels (within the range from 11 to 1,078 μg/d) was found and fitted a logarithmic model. Captures followed a decreasing linear trend in the range of emission rates from 11 to 134 μg/d. Given that release values comprised between 11 and 67 μg/d did not lead to significantly different catches in traps, this emission range could be considered to develop effective formulations for attraction purposes when mating disruption is not acting in the environment.

  4. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.D., E-mail: weliton.silva@usp.b [Department of Entomology and Acarology, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology and Insect Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, ' Luiz de Queiroz' College of Agriculture, Padua Dias Avenue, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba (Brazil); Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T. [Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Centenario Avenue 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD{sub 90} and LD{sub 99} were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  5. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD90 and LD99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  6. The peppered moth and industrial melanism: evolution of a natural selection case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L M; Saccheri, I J

    2013-03-01

    From the outset multiple causes have been suggested for changes in melanic gene frequency in the peppered moth Biston betularia and other industrial melanic moths. These have included higher intrinsic fitness of melanic forms and selective predation for camouflage. The possible existence and origin of heterozygote advantage has been debated. From the 1950s, as a result of experimental evidence, selective predation became the favoured explanation and is undoubtedly the major factor driving the frequency change. However, modelling and monitoring of declining melanic frequencies since the 1970s indicate either that migration rates are much higher than existing direct estimates suggested or else, or in addition, non-visual selection has a role. Recent molecular work on genetics has revealed that the melanic (carbonaria) allele had a single origin in Britain, and that the locus is orthologous to a major wing patterning locus in Heliconius butterflies. New methods of analysis should supply further information on the melanic system and on migration that will complete our understanding of this important example of rapid evolution. PMID:23211788

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males. - Highlights: • Effects of gamma irradiation on Lobesia botrana mature larvae are examined. • Results showed that a dose of 200 Gy was sufficient to prevent adult emergence from mature larvae. • This dose (200 Gy) is less than the suggested generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidopteran larvae. • The dose is also much lower than the maximum allowed dose for irradiation of fresh fruits and vegetables

  8. Radiation biology and inherited sterility in false codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    False codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), male and female mature pupae and newly emerged adults were treated with increasing doses of gamma radiation, and the moths were either inbred or out-crossed with fertile counterparts. For newly emerged adults, there was no significant relationship between dose of radiation and insect fecundity when untreated females were mated to treated males. However, fecundity of treated females mated to either untreated or treated males declined as the dose of radiation increased. A similar trend was observed when mature pupae were treated. The dose at which 100% sterility was achieved in treated females mated to untreated males for both adults and pupae was 200 Gy, while fertility in crosses involving treated males declined linearly with increasing doses of radiation. In newly emerged adults, 350 Gy treated males had a residual fertility of 5.2% when mated to untreated females while in pupal experiments the residual fertility in 350 Gy treated males was 3.3%. Inherited effects resulting from irradiation of parental (P1) males with selected doses of radiation were recorded for the F1 generation. Decreased F1 fecundity and fertility increased F1 mortality during development, and a significant shift in the F1 sex ratio in favour of males was observed when increasing doses of radiation were applied to the P1 males

  9. Effect of different mowing regimes on butterflies and diurnal moths on road verges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtonen, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In northern and central Europe road verges offer alternative habitats for declining plant and invertebrate species of semi-natural grasslands. The quality of road verges as habitats depends on several factors, of which the mowing regime is one of the easiest to modify. In this study we compared the Lepidoptera communities on road verges that underwent three different mowing regimes regarding the timing and intensity of mowing; mowing in mid-summer, mowing in late summer, and partial mowing (a narrow strip next to the road. A total of 12,174 individuals and 107 species of Lepidoptera were recorded. The mid-summer mown verges had lower species richness and abundance of butterflies and lower species richness and diversity of diurnal moths compared to the late summer and partially mown verges. By delaying the annual mowing until late summer or promoting mosaic-like mowing regimes, such as partial mowing, the quality of road verges as habitats for butterflies and diurnal moths can be improved.

  10. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Grethe Aarnes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata.

  11. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) caused by early block of virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asser-Kaiser, Sabine; Radtke, Pit; El-Salamouny, Said; Winstanley, Doreen; Jehle, Johannes A

    2011-02-20

    An up to 10,000-fold resistance against the biocontrol agent Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) was observed in field populations of codling moth, C. pomonella, in Europe. Following different experimental approaches, a modified peritrophic membrane, a modified midgut receptor, or a change of the innate immune response could be excluded as possible resistance mechanisms. When CpGV replication was traced by quantitative PCR in different tissues of susceptible and resistant insects after oral and intra-hemocoelic infection, no virus replication could be detected in any of the tissues of resistant insects, suggesting a systemic block prior to viral DNA replication. This conclusion was corroborated by fluorescence microscopy using a modified CpGV (bacCpGV(hsp-eGFP)) carrying enhanced green fluorescent gene (eGFP), which showed that infection in resistant insects did not spread. In conclusion, the different lines of evidence indicate that CpGV can enter but not replicate in the cells of resistant codling moth larvae. PMID:21190707

  12. Olfactory protocerebral pathways processing sex pheromone and plant odor information in the male moth Agrotis segetum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, H; Anton, S; Hansson, B S

    2001-04-01

    We investigated protocerebral processing of behaviorally relevant signals in the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. Single neurons were studied both physiologically and morphologically using intracellular recording techniques. In moth pheromone communication systems, the presence of the complete, female-produced pheromone blend is necessary for male attraction. We predicted that more protocerebral neurons, compared with AL, would display blend interactions. However, only a few protocerebral neurons responded differently to the blend than could be deduced from the response to single components. The majority of the pheromone-sensitive protocerebral neurons identified in this study responded to the major pheromone component. In coding time, most AL neurons can follow a 5-Hz odor stimulus, whereas most protocerebral neurons failed at higher frequencies than 1 Hz. The majority of neurons that responded to the odorants tested innervated one or both of the protocerebral lateral accessory lobes. If only one of these was innervated, then the innervation always displayed a varicose appearance, suggesting a presynaptic function. Thus, information seems to be transferred from other protocerebral areas to the lateral accessory lobes. Into these, descending neurons sent smooth, postsynaptic branches. A majority of the neurons innervating the superior medial protocerebrum were found to display single-component specificity. Few additional correlations between odor specificity and structural characteristics were apparent.

  13. CpSAT-1, a transcribed satellite sequence from the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Věchtová, Pavlína; Dalíková, Martina; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Žurovcová, Martina; Füssy, Zoltán; Zrzavá, Magda

    2016-08-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a non-coding component of eukaryotic genomes, located mainly in heterochromatic regions. Relevance of satDNA began to emerge with accumulating evidence of its potential yet hardly comprehensible role that it can play in the genome of many organisms. We isolated the first satDNA of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae, Lepidoptera), a species with holokinetic chromosomes and a single large heterochromatic element, the W chromosome in females. The satDNA, called CpSAT-1, is located on all chromosomes of the complement, although in different amounts. Surprisingly, the satellite is almost missing in the heterochromatic W chromosome. Additionally, we isolated mRNA from all developmental stages (1st-5th instar larva, pupa, adult), both sexes (adult male and female) and several tissues (Malpighian tubules, gut, heart, testes, and ovaries) of the codling moth and showed the CpSAT-1 sequence was transcribed in all tested samples. Using CpSAT-1 specific primers we amplified, cloned and sequenced 40 monomers from cDNA and gDNA, respectively. The sequence analysis revealed a high mutation rate and the presence of potentially functional motifs, mainly in non-conserved regions of the monomers. Both the chromosomal distribution and the sequence analysis suggest that CPSAT-1 has no function in the C. pomonella genome.

  14. The Effect of Long-Distance Transportation on the Fitness of Irradiated False Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for Use in a Sterile Insect Release Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepgen, E S; Hill, M P; Moore, S D

    2015-12-01

    The effect of cold immobilization and long-distance transport of irradiated Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) on the flight ability of male (♂) and female (♀) moths, the longevity of male and female moths, and the realized fecundity of mating pairs CIM (chilled irradiated moths) ♀ × CIM♂, CIM♀ × NIP (nonirradiated pupae) ♂, NIP♀ × CIM♂, and NIP♀ × NIP♂ was examined to improve application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Adult moths treated with 150 Gy of gamma radiation were immobilized with cold temperature between 4 and 6°C inside a polyurethane cooler box and transported for 12 h by road from Citrusdal, Western Cape Province, to Addo, Eastern Cape Province. Nonirradiated moths were transported as pupae inside a cardboard tray and removed by hand after which male and female pupae were separated and placed inside containers for eclosion. Male and female moths were individually placed inside petri dishes to determine longevity or paired with irradiated and nonirradiated counterparts to evaluate realized fecundity before incubation in 100% darkness at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Flight tests were conducted indoors at 25°C by release of individual moths per hand. A significant decrease in flight ability and longevity of irradiated false codling moth was found after handling, cold immobilization, and transport, although critically, realized fecundity was not affected. Because of the impact of long-distance transport on quality of the released insects as well as the efficacy of SIT, comprehensive protocols for this critical step in the process need to be developed for a pestiferous insect with phytosanitary status such as false codling moth. PMID:26318002

  15. Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Exhibits Oviposition and Larval Feeding Preferences Among Crops, Wild plants, and Ornamentals as Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, K; You, M; Vasseur, L

    2016-04-01

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an agricultural pest with high reproductive potential, widespread distribution, and high resistance to different types of insecticides. Although diamondback moth is a common research subject, questions remain regarding its spatial and temporal host plant usage patterns and preferences within agroecosystems. We examined the adult oviposition and larval feeding preferences of the diamondback moth to assess the potential of alternate host plants as either reservoirs or trap crops. Adult females and third and fourth instars were offered multiple plant species within the plant family Brassicaceae to examine contact preferences and larval ingestion rates. Adult oviposition and larval feeding preferences were identical, with garden cress (Lepidium sativum) (L.) highly preferred, followed by wintercress (Barbarea vulgaris) (L.) and black mustard (Brassica nigra) (L.). Ingestion rates varied among tested plants, with the lowest rate on black mustard and highest on aubretia (Aubretia deltoidea) (L.). Highly preferred plant species were determined to be unfavorable for larval growth and potentially lethal to neonates, suggesting their possible use as trap crops. Understanding ovipositional and larval feeding preferences of diamondback moth can also aid in the development of more accurate monitoring and control strategies for this pest. PMID:26834144

  16. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, specifically inactivates Mustard Trypsin Inhibitor 2 (MTI2) to overcome host plant defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, L.; Fang, Zhiyuan; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The mustard trypsin inhibitor family has so far only been described among cruciferous species which represent the host plants for the specialist diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. The performance of a Dutch and Chinese strain of DBM was assessed on transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Mustard

  17. Offspring from Sequential Matings between Bacillus thuringiensis-Resistant and Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptible Heliothis virescens Moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The moth, Heliothis virescens is an economically-important pest of the American Continent. The females of this species copulate multiples times during their lifetimes. The presence of sperm from multiple males inside a female could allow for a diversity of paternal genotypes in the offspring unless ...

  18. Methoprene and synergized pyrethrins as an aerosol treatment to control Plodia interpunctella (Hubner), the Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol insecticides (also known as ULV or fogging treatments) delivered through an ultra-low volume application system, are available commercially to control insect pests such as Plodia interpunctella Hübner, the Indianmeal moth. However, little is known about the susceptibility of eggs of P. inter...

  19. Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanost, Michael R; Arrese, Estela L; Cao, Xiaolong;

    2016-01-01

    Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its...

  20. Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermatt, Florian; Ebert, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared with populations of the same species from pristine dark-sky habitats. Using a common garden setting, we reared moths from 10 different populations from early-instar larvae and experimentally compared their flight-to-light behaviour under standardized conditions. Moths from urban populations had a significant reduction in the flight-to-light behaviour compared with pristine populations. The reduced attraction to light sources of 'city moths' may directly increase these individuals' survival and reproduction. We anticipate that it comes with a reduced mobility, which negatively affects foraging as well as colonization ability. As nocturnal insects are of eminent significance as pollinators and the primary food source of many vertebrates, an evolutionary change of the flight-to-light behaviour thereby potentially cascades across species interaction networks. PMID:27072407

  1. Identification of putative chemosensory receptor genes from yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) antennae transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xing; Zhang, Tiantao; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai; Bai, Shuxiong

    2016-01-01

    The yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, is an extremely important polyphagous insect in Asia. The chemosensory systems of moth play an important role in detecting food, oviposition sites and mate attraction. Several antennal chemosensory receptors are involved in odor detection. Our study aims to identify chemosensory receptor genes for potential applications in behavioral responses of yellow peach moth. By transcriptomic analysis of male and female antennae, 83 candidate chemosensory receptors, including 62 odorant receptors, 11 ionotropic receptors and 10 gustatory receptors were identified. Through Blast and sequence alignment, the highly conserved co-receptor Orco was annotated, eight unigenes clustered into pheromone receptors, and two clustered as sugar receptor. Among the IRs, one unigenes was similar with co-receptors IR25a. Expression levels of 50 odorant receptors were further evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR in antennae. All the ORs tested were detected in antennae and some of which were associated with sex-biased expression. The chemosensory receptors identified in C. punctiferalis provide a foundational resource for further analysis on olfaction for behavior. The expression profiles of ORs in antennae indicated variant functions in olfactory recognition, and our results provided the possibility for the potential application of semiochemical to control this pest moth. PMID:27659493

  2. Evidence for the non-pest status of codling moth on commercial fresh sweet cherries intended for export

    Science.gov (United States)

    To gain acceptance of a systems approach as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for U.S. fresh sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., exported to Japan, additional evidence was needed to show that sweet cherries are poor or non-hosts for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortri...

  3. Resistance Among Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Banded Sunflower Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five year field trial evaluated 71 oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 32 breeding lines, and 25 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in North Dak...

  4. Identification of Components of the Female Sex Pheromone of the Simao pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, X.B.; Sun, X.L.; Wang, H.B.; Zhang, Z.; Booij, C.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), is a pest of economic importance on pine in southwest China. Three active compounds were detected during analyses of solvent extracts and effluvia sampled by solid phase microextraction (SPME) from virgin female

  5. Preliminary study of the quarantine treatment by gamma rays for codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples and pears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After irradiation, important variations have been observed in the behaviour and metabolism of the moth larvae that are clearly attributable to the effects of gamma rays. The variation includes the loss of the characteristic pink colour, partial or total loss of appetite, loss of turgidity, etc. (author)

  6. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behavi

  7. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba leaf volatiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Tang

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: β-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and β-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and β-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by β-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol.

  8. Creating Point Sources for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Low-Volume Sprays of a Microencapsulated Sex Pheromone Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the depositioin of microcapsules and the attractiveness of treated apple leaves for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), following low volume concentrated sprays of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulation (CheckMate CM-F). Nearly 30% of leaves collected f...

  9. Do female life span and fecundity of small ermine moth increase with multiple mating and adult nutrition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Parker; P. Roessingh; S.B.J. Menken

    2012-01-01

    Several evolutionary explanations for multiple mating in insects have been proposed, and it has been suggested that Lepidoptera benefit from the energy contained in nuptial gifts. In two closely related species of small ermine moths, Yponomeuta cagnagellus (Hübner) and Yponomeuta padellus (L.), we e

  10. Noctuid moth diversity along a temperate elevational gradient: testing the role of environmental factors, MDE, and Rapoport's rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many factors, including climate, area, and habitat diversity likely influence spatial variation in species diversity along elevational gradients. In this study, we test the relative influence of energy availability, habitat diversity, mid-domain effects, and area on the diversity of noctuid moths i...

  11. Influence of Microsporidium on Female Silkworm Moth after Mating of the Female and Male Silkworm Moth%家蚕微孢子虫感染雄蛾交配对雌蛾的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世良; 高建华; 杨荣贵; 高翔; 张金祥; 朱峰

    2015-01-01

    微孢子虫是母蛾检疫的唯一对象,为探明家蚕微孢子虫感染雄蛾交配对雌蛾的影响,了解其对蚕种生产的危害性,用患微粒子病的家蚕雄蛾与未患病雌蛾(各50只)进行交配试验,并统计分析交配后的感染率。结果表明:患有家蚕微孢子虫的雄蛾,能通过雌雄蛾交配把微孢子虫传给雌蛾,雌蛾微孢子虫检出率为66%,其交配传染率达78.57%,增加了各级蚕种因母蛾检测有微孢子虫而淘汰的风险系数。因此,蚕种生产过程中防微病工作很重要,必须贯彻预防为主、综合防治的方针,切断幼虫期食下感染的途径,减少因雄蛾感病通过交配而传给雌蛾的概率,减少蚕种损失。%Micropsoridia is the only target on the quarantine of female silkworm moth.In order to clarify the influence of microsporidium on the female silkworm moth after mating of the female and male silkworm,and understand the harmfulness of silkworm egg production.The authors conducted mating test of infected male silkworm moth and uninfected female silkworm moth.And the infection rate was analyzed after mating.The result indicated that the microsporidian spores,N .bombycis,can be transmitted from infected male silkworm moth to uninfected female silkworm moth by mating.The detection rate and mating infection rate reached 66% and 78.57% respectively,and increased the elimination rate of silkworm eggs because of the Pebrine mother moth.So,the work of prevention to pebrine is very important in the process of the silkworm eggs production.The principle of prevention first,comprehensive control must be executed.In order to cut off the way of food transmission of infection,reduce the infective probability of female silkworm moth which was infected by mating with the infected male silkworm moth,and reduce the loss of silkworm eggs.

  12. Identification of the sex pheromone of the tree infesting Cossid Moth Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Marc Clement; Slippers, Bernard; Degefu, Dawit; Wingfield, Michael John; Lawson, Simon; Rohwer, Egmont Richard

    2015-01-01

    The cossid moth (Coryphodema tristis) has a broad range of native tree hosts in South Africa. The moth recently moved into non-native Eucalyptus plantations in South Africa, on which it now causes significant damage. Here we investigate the chemicals involved in pheromone communication between the sexes of this moth in order to better understand its ecology, and with a view to potentially develop management tools for it. In particular, we characterize female gland extracts and headspace samples through coupled gas chromatography electro-antennographic detection (GC-EAD) and two dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS). Tentative identities of the potential pheromone compounds were confirmed by comparing both retention time and mass spectra with authentic standards. Two electrophysiologically active pheromone compounds, tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc) and Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc) were identified from pheromone gland extracts, and an additional compound (Z9-14:OH) from headspace samples. We further determined dose response curves for the identified compounds and six other structurally similar compounds that are common to the order Cossidae. Male antennae showed superior sensitivity toward Z9-14:OAc, Z7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:OAc), E9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-14:OAc), Z9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH) and Z9-tetradecenal (Z9-14:Ald) when compared to female antennae. While we could show electrophysiological responses to single pheromone compounds, behavioral attraction of males was dependent on the synergistic effect of at least two of these compounds. Signal specificity is shown to be gained through pheromone blends. A field trial showed that a significant number of males were caught only in traps baited with a combination of Z9-14:OAc (circa 95% of the ratio) and Z9-14:OH. Addition of 14:OAc to this mixture also improved the number of males caught, although not significantly. This study represents a major step towards developing a useful

  13. Identification of the sex pheromone of the tree infesting Cossid Moth Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Clement Bouwer

    Full Text Available The cossid moth (Coryphodema tristis has a broad range of native tree hosts in South Africa. The moth recently moved into non-native Eucalyptus plantations in South Africa, on which it now causes significant damage. Here we investigate the chemicals involved in pheromone communication between the sexes of this moth in order to better understand its ecology, and with a view to potentially develop management tools for it. In particular, we characterize female gland extracts and headspace samples through coupled gas chromatography electro-antennographic detection (GC-EAD and two dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS. Tentative identities of the potential pheromone compounds were confirmed by comparing both retention time and mass spectra with authentic standards. Two electrophysiologically active pheromone compounds, tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc and Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc were identified from pheromone gland extracts, and an additional compound (Z9-14:OH from headspace samples. We further determined dose response curves for the identified compounds and six other structurally similar compounds that are common to the order Cossidae. Male antennae showed superior sensitivity toward Z9-14:OAc, Z7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:OAc, E9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-14:OAc, Z9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH and Z9-tetradecenal (Z9-14:Ald when compared to female antennae. While we could show electrophysiological responses to single pheromone compounds, behavioral attraction of males was dependent on the synergistic effect of at least two of these compounds. Signal specificity is shown to be gained through pheromone blends. A field trial showed that a significant number of males were caught only in traps baited with a combination of Z9-14:OAc (circa 95% of the ratio and Z9-14:OH. Addition of 14:OAc to this mixture also improved the number of males caught, although not significantly. This study represents a major step towards developing a

  14. Identification of a G protein-coupled receptor for pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from pheromone glands of the moth Helicoverpa zea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Fuerst, Emily-Jean; Rafaeli, Ada; Jurenka, Russell

    2003-01-01

    Pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN), a peptide produced by the subesophageal ganglion, is used by a variety of moths to regulate pheromone production. PBAN acts directly on pheromone gland cells by using calcium and cAMP as second messengers. We have identified a gene encoding a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) from pheromone glands of the female moth Helicoverpa zea. The gene was identified based on sequence identity to a group of GPCRs from Drosoph...

  15. A cuckoo-like parasitic moth leads African weaver ant colonies to their ruin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Orivel, Jérôme; Azémar, Frédéric; Hérault, Bruno; Corbara, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In myrmecophilous Lepidoptera, mostly lycaenids and riodinids, caterpillars trick ants into transporting them to the ant nest where they feed on the brood or, in the more derived "cuckoo strategy", trigger regurgitations (trophallaxis) from the ants and obtain trophic eggs. We show for the first time that the caterpillars of a moth (Eublemma albifascia; Noctuidae; Acontiinae) also use this strategy to obtain regurgitations and trophic eggs from ants (Oecophylla longinoda). Females short-circuit the adoption process by laying eggs directly on the ant nests, and workers carry just-hatched caterpillars inside. Parasitized colonies sheltered 44 to 359 caterpillars, each receiving more trophallaxis and trophic eggs than control queens. The thus-starved queens lose weight, stop laying eggs (which transport the pheromones that induce infertility in the workers) and die. Consequently, the workers lay male-destined eggs before and after the queen's death, allowing the colony to invest its remaining resources in male production before it vanishes. PMID:27021621

  16. Identification of the sex pheromone components secreted by female moths of Peridroma saucia (Noctuidae: Noctuinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Shin-ichi; Tsuchiya, Satoshi; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Saito, Osamu; Ando, Tetsu

    2002-11-01

    The variegated cutworm, Peridroma saucia Hübner, is a lepidopteran pest to a large number of crops in Canada, the United States, and Europe. It was probably naturalized in Japan in the 1970s. The pheromone glands of the female moth include two components with electroantennographic activity in a ratio of 3:1. GC-MS analyses of pheromone extracts untreated and treated with dimethyl disulfide revealed the major component to be (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the minor component to be (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate. The synthetic pheromone was used to attract a large number of males in a vegetable field in Tokyo, which suggests that this species has already become a harmful pest in Japan. PMID:12506988

  17. Moths produce extremely quiet ultrasonic courtship songs by rubbing specialized scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma;

    2008-01-01

    Insects have evolved a marked diversity of mechanisms to produce loud conspicuous sounds for efficient communication. However, the risk of eavesdropping by competitors and predators is high. Here, we describe a mechanism for producing extremely low-intensity ultrasonic songs (46 dB sound pressure...... level at 1 cm) adapted for private sexual communication in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis. During courtship, the male rubs specialized scales on the wing against those on the thorax to produce the songs, with the wing membrane underlying the scales possibly acting as a sound resonator....... The male's song suppresses the escape behavior of the female, thereby increasing his mating success. Our discovery of extremely low-intensity ultrasonic communication may point to a whole undiscovered world of private communication, using "quiet" ultrasound....

  18. Evolution of noctuid pheromone binding proteins: identification of PBP in the black cutworm moth, Agrotis ipsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picimbon, J F; Gadenne, C

    2002-08-01

    Male black cutworm moths (Agrotis ipsilon, Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Noctuidae), which are attracted by a three-component pheromone blend ((Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Z7-12:Ac; (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Z9-14:Ac; (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, Z11-16:Ac), express diverse antennal pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). Two PBP isoforms (Aips-1 and Aips-2) that show 46% identity were cloned from antennal cDNA of male A. ipsilon. The protein Aips-1 displays a high degree of identity (70-95%) with PBPs of other noctuiids, but shows only 42-65% identity with the PBPs of more phylogenetically distant species. The other protein, Aips-2, represents a distinct group of PBP that includes proteins from Sphingidae and Yponomeutidae. These differences observed suggest that each of the two PBPs may be tuned to a specific pheromone ligand. PMID:12110291

  19. The Adaptation of the Moth Pheromone Receptor Neuron to its Natural Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Lubomir; Lansky, Petr; Rospars, Jean-Pierre

    2008-07-01

    We analyze the first phase of information transduction in the model of the olfactory receptor neuron of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus. We predict such stimulus characteristics that enable the system to perform optimally, i.e., to transfer as much information as possible. Few a priori constraints on the nature of stimulus and stimulus-to-signal transduction are assumed. The results are given in terms of stimulus distributions and intermittency factors which makes direct comparison with experimental data possible. Optimal stimulus is approximatelly described by exponential or log-normal probability density function which is in agreement with experiment and the predicted intermittency factors fall within the lowest range of observed values. The results are discussed with respect to electroantennogram measurements and behavioral observations.

  20. Performance of "Moth Eye" Anti-Reflective Coatings for Solar Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.; Kane, M.; Jiang, P.

    2011-03-14

    An inexpensive, effective anti-reflective coating (ARC) has been developed at the University of Florida to significantly enhance the absorption of light by silicon in solar cells. This coating has nano-scale features, and its microstructure mimics that of various night active insects (e.g. a moth's eye). It is a square array of pillars, each about 700 nm high and having a diameter of about 300 nm. Samples of silicon having this coating were exposed either to various combinations of either elevated temperature and humidity or to gamma irradiation ({sup 60}Co) at the Savannah River National Laboratory, or to a broad spectrum ultraviolet light and to a 532 nm laser light at the University of Florida. The anti-reflective properties of the coatings were unaffected by any of these environmental stresses, and the microstructure of the coating was also unaffected. In fact, the reflectivity of the gamma irradiated ARC became lower (advantageous for solar cell applications) at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm. These results show that this coating is robust and should be tested in actual systems exposed to either weather or a space environment. Structural details of the ARCs were studied to optimize their performance. Square arrays performed better than hexagonal arrays - the natural moth-eye coating is indeed a square array. The optimal depth of the templated nanopillars in the ARC was investigated. A wet etching technology for ARC formation was developed that would be less expensive and much faster than dry etching. Theoretical modeling revealed that dimple arrays should perform better than nipple arrays. A method of fabricating both dimple and nipple arrays having the same length was developed, and the dimple arrays performed better than the nipple arrays, in agreement with the modeling. The commercial viability of the technology is quite feasible, since the technology is scalable and inexpensive. This technology is also compatible with current industrial

  1. Quantifying interspecific variation in dispersal ability of noctuid moths using an advanced tethered flight technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hayley B C; Lim, Ka S; Bell, James R; Hill, Jane K; Chapman, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Dispersal plays a crucial role in many aspects of species' life histories, yet is often difficult to measure directly. This is particularly true for many insects, especially nocturnal species (e.g. moths) that cannot be easily observed under natural field conditions. Consequently, over the past five decades, laboratory tethered flight techniques have been developed as a means of measuring insect flight duration and speed. However, these previous designs have tended to focus on single species (typically migrant pests), and here we describe an improved apparatus that allows the study of flight ability in a wide range of insect body sizes and types. Obtaining dispersal information from a range of species is crucial for understanding insect population dynamics and range shifts. Our new laboratory tethered flight apparatus automatically records flight duration, speed, and distance of individual insects. The rotational tethered flight mill has very low friction and the arm to which flying insects are attached is extremely lightweight while remaining rigid and strong, permitting both small and large insects to be studied. The apparatus is compact and thus allows many individuals to be studied simultaneously under controlled laboratory conditions. We demonstrate the performance of the apparatus by using the mills to assess the flight capability of 24 species of British noctuid moths, ranging in size from 12-27 mm forewing length (~40-660 mg body mass). We validate the new technique by comparing our tethered flight data with existing information on dispersal ability of noctuids from the published literature and expert opinion. Values for tethered flight variables were in agreement with existing knowledge of dispersal ability in these species, supporting the use of this method to quantify dispersal in insects. Importantly, this new technology opens up the potential to investigate genetic and environmental factors affecting insect dispersal among a wide range of species.

  2. An alpha-crystallin protein cognate in germ cells of the moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, P D; Zimowska, G

    1997-02-01

    Previously we had reported the production of an antiserum to an antigen found primarily in germ cells of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Zimowska et al., 1991). The antigen, molecular weight 25,000 kDa, and a related protein, molecular weight 21,000 kDa, co-purified with the follicular epithelium yolk protein. Antisera to the two proteins were raised, and they both reacted with the same four small polypeptides, which had molecular weights of 20,000, 21,000, 25,000 and 28,000 kDa, that were present in the eggs throughout embryogenesis. A 30 amino acid sequence of an internal fragment of the 25,000 kDa molecular weight polypeptide showed sequence similarity with the alpha-crystallin A chain polypeptides from the lenses of vertebrate eyes and, to a lesser extent, with small heat shock proteins. Based on the sequence similarity with the alpha-crystallins, we suggest that this family of polypeptides from the germ cells of this moth be considered as cognates of the alpha-crystallins, and the 25,000 molecular weight polypeptide described here be given the designation ac25. Using immuno-gold labeling with antiserum to ac25, the alpha-crystallins were shown to be distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of the oocyte and nurse cells, but not present within yolk spheres or other organelles of the oocyte or nurse cells. Immunofluorescent staining of males showed antigenic material in the sperm bundles within the testes. Oenocytes of the pupal and adult stages also contained cross-reactive material.

  3. Assessing species distribution using Google Street View: a pilot study with the Pine Processionary Moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselet, Jérôme; Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Dekri, Anissa; Garcia, Jacques; Goussard, Francis; Vincent, Bruno; Denux, Olivier; Robinet, Christelle; Dorkeld, Franck; Roques, Alain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google Street View could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google Street View. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google Street View were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records). Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records). We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google Street View network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant.

  4. Aerial application of pheromones for mating disruption of an invasive moth as a potential eradication tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckehard G Brockerhoff

    Full Text Available Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, 'false trail following' could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, 'sensory impairment' and 'masking of females' are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders.

  5. Circadian rhythm of glycoprotein secretion in the vas deferens of the moth, Spodoptera littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvakharia B

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive systems of male moths contain circadian clocks, which time the release of sperm bundles from the testis to the upper vas deferens (UVD and their subsequent transfer from the UVD to the seminal vesicles. Sperm bundles are released from the testis in the evening and are retained in the vas deferens lumen overnight before being transferred to the seminal vesicles. The biological significance of periodic sperm retention in the UVD lumen is not understood. In this study we asked whether there are circadian rhythms in the UVD that are correlated with sperm retention. Results We investigated the carbohydrate-rich material present in the UVD wall and lumen during the daily cycle of sperm release using the periodic acid-Shiff reaction (PAS. Males raised in 16:8 light-dark cycles (LD showed a clear rhythm in the levels of PAS-positive granules in the apical portion of the UVD epithelium. The peak of granule accumulation occurred in the middle of the night and coincided with the maximum presence of sperm bundles in the UVD lumen. These rhythms persisted in constant darkness (DD, indicating that they have circadian nature. They were abolished, however, in constant light (LL resulting in random patterns of PAS-positive material in the UVD wall. Gel-separation of the UVD homogenates from LD moths followed by detection of carbohydrates on blots revealed daily rhythms in the abundance of specific glycoproteins in the wall and lumen of the UVD. Conclusion Secretory activity of the vas deferens epithelium is regulated by the circadian clock. Daily rhythms in accumulation and secretion of several glycoproteins are co-ordinated with periodic retention of sperm in the vas deferens lumen.

  6. Biological control against the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in oases and in packing houses in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller is abundant in the Mediterranean countries. It attacks various dry fruit in cultures or in stored products, notably pomegranate, Punica granatum L.; date palm, Phoenis dactylifera L. plantations; citrus, Citrus spp., apricot, Prunus armeniaca L. and pistachios, Pistachio vera. We can find E. ceratoniae in the north as well as in the south of Tunisia, especially in central zones and Saharan areas where caterpillar infestations can reach 90% of pomegranate fruit and 20% of dates (Dhouibi 1991). To reduce this damage, several control methods have been experimented. Chemical control is the most effective means of control against pests. However, against this species, insecticides seem to be difficult and randomly used, due to the endophytic behaviour of the pyralid and the position of the fruit on the pomegranate tree. Moreover, this method has very ominous repercussions on biological cadence. Besides, it is necessary to look for other control means to allow the preservation of the ecosystem. In Tunisia, several efforts have been directed at biological control, by using local parasitoids and through usage of the bio-insecticides mainly Bacillus thuringiensis (Dhouibi 1992, 1994, Dhouibi and Jemmasi 1993). In order to substitute the chemical control and to strengthen the integrated control, other possibilities can be envisaged, for example, the genetic method or the autocidal control, that is, based on mass rearing and the substerile male releases into the natural population. For the purpose, it provokes the sterility to ulterior generations and evaluates the impact of irradiation on the different biological parameters of emerged adults from treated nymphs and their competitiveness. Dhouibi and Omran (1995) and Dhouibi and Tijani (1996) have studied the mass rearing of the carob moth pyralid on an artificial diet and the effect of different irradiation doses, especially a substerilising dose, on E. ceratoniae pupae

  7. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores.

  8. Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths

  9. Assessing species distribution using Google Street View: a pilot study with the Pine Processionary Moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Rousselet

    Full Text Available Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google Street View could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM Thaumetopoea pityocampa because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google Street View. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google Street View were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records. Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records. We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google Street View network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant.

  10. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  11. Optimal predator risk assessment by the sonar-jamming arctiine moth Bertholdia trigona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J Corcoran

    Full Text Available Nearly all animals face a tradeoff between seeking food and mates and avoiding predation. Optimal escape theory holds that an animal confronted with a predator should only flee when benefits of flight (increased survival outweigh the costs (energetic costs, lost foraging time, etc.. We propose a model for prey risk assessment based on the predator's stage of attack. Risk level should increase rapidly from when the predator detects the prey to when it commits to the attack. We tested this hypothesis using a predator--the echolocating bat--whose active biosonar reveals its stage of attack. We used a prey defense--clicking used for sonar jamming by the tiger moth Bertholdia trigona--that can be readily studied in the field and laboratory and is enacted simultaneously with evasive flight. We predicted that prey employ defenses soon after being detected and targeted, and that prey defensive thresholds discriminate between legitimate predatory threats and false threats where a nearby prey is attacked. Laboratory and field experiments using playbacks of ultrasound signals and naturally behaving bats, respectively, confirmed our predictions. Moths clicked soon after bats detected and targeted them. Also, B. trigona clicking thresholds closely matched predicted optimal thresholds for discriminating legitimate and false predator threats for bats using search and approach phase echolocation--the period when bats are searching for and assessing prey. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study to correlate the sensory stimuli that trigger defensive behaviors with measurements of signals provided by predators during natural attacks in the field. We propose theoretical models for explaining prey risk assessment depending on the availability of cues that reveal a predator's stage of attack.

  12. Semiochemical Strategies for Tortricid Moth Control in Apple Orchards and Vineyards in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    - This review summarizes work done in Italy in taking semiochemical-based management of orchard and vineyard pests from the research and development stage to successful commercial deployment. Mating disruption (MD) of codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM) was originally introduced into the Trentino-South Tyrol areas to address the development of CM resistance to insecticides, particularly insect growth regulators (IGRs), and to mitigate the conflict at the rural/urban interface related to the extensive use of insecticides. Although the mountainous terrain of the area was not optimal for the efficacy of MD, commitment and determination led to the rapid adoption of MD technology throughout the region. Grower cooperatives and their field consultants were strongly influential in convincing growers to accept MD technology. Public research institutions conducted extensive research and education, and provided credible assessments of various MD technologies. By 2016, the deployment of MD in effective area-wide strategies in apple (22,100 ha) and grapes (10,450 ha), has resulted in better control of tortricid moth pests and a substantial decrease in insecticide use. Collaboration between the research community and the pheromone industry has resulted in the development of increasingly effective single-species dispensers, as well as multi-species dispensers for the control of both target and secondary pests. Over the last 20 years, hand-applied reservoir dispensers have shown excellent efficacy in both apple and grapes. Recently, aerosol dispensing systems have been shown to be effective in apple orchards. Further research is needed on the efficacy of aerosols in vineyards before the technology can be widely adopted. The successful implementation of MD in apple and grape production in Trentino-South Tyrol is expediting adoption of the technology in other Italian fruit production regions. PMID:27417503

  13. Control of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) using the area-wide approach in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Management of codling moth (CM) is being conducted in southern Chile using an area-wide approach and integrating different tools such us Geographic Information System (GIS), classical biological control, inundative biological control and mating disruption. The total area covers 6,000 ha, and extends from the foothills of the Andes mountains and is bordered in the south and north by rivers. Vegetation cover is predominantly pastures, pine forests and berries, including six commercial apple orchards. Codling moth control in the commercial orchards is based on chemical insecticides, mating disruption or organic practices. Many alternative hosts for CM grow in this area, mainly as ornamentals, in abandoned orchards and in gardens for self-consumption. The most important species are noncommercial apple, pear, quince, walnut and apricot. Satellite images were obtained and every alternate host tree was georeferenced and drawn on these images. Pheromone traps are being used to identify main migrant sources and to quantify migration from sources to commercial orchards. Classical biological control includes importation and release of an egg/larval parasitoid (Ascogaster quadridentata) from USA to Chile. CM is reared on artificial diet and eggs are used to increase the A. quadridentata colony and allow field releases in the 2004-2005 growing season, especially in isolated and abandoned trees. Related to inundative biological control, several strains of entomopathogenic organisms have been collected and evaluated against CM, including the fungus (Beauveria bassiana) and nematodes. In addition, a Chilean species of trichogrammatid wasps, Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma caccociae, have been used under an inundative approach, especially in abandoned orchards. The Chilean species T. nerudai has shown similar or better preference and laboratory performance than introduced species such as T. bactrae, T. caccociae, T. dendrolimi and T. platneri. (author)

  14. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  15. Potential application of digital image-processing method and fitted logistic model to the control of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z G; Rong, E H; Li, S C; Zhang, L J; Zhang, Z W; Guo, Y Q; Ma, R Y

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck) is a prerequisite for its control. This study introduced a digital image-processing method and logistic model for the control of oriental fruit moths. First, five triangular sex pheromone traps were installed separately within each area of 667 m2 in a peach orchard to monitor oriental fruit moths consecutively for 3 years. Next, full view images of oriental fruit moths were collected via a digital camera and then subjected to graying, separation and morphological analysis for automatic counting using MATLAB software. Afterwards, the results of automatic counting were used for fitting a logistic model to forecast the control threshold and key control period. There was a high consistency between automatic counting and manual counting (0.99, P < 0.05). According to the logistic model, oriental fruit moths had four occurrence peaks during a year, with a time-lag of 15-18 days between adult occurrence peak and the larval damage peak. Additionally, the key control period was from 28 June to 3 July each year, when the wormy fruit rate reached up to 5% and the trapping volume was approximately 10.2 per day per trap. Additionally, the key control period for the overwintering generation was 25 April. This study provides an automatic counting method and fitted logistic model with a great potential for application to the control of oriental fruit moths. PMID:27087550

  16. Shifting phenology and abundance under experimental warming alters trophic relationships and plant reproductive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinzhan; Reich, Peter B; Li, Guoyong; Sun, Shucun

    2011-06-01

    Phenological mismatches due to climate change may have important ecological consequences. In a three-year study, phenological shifts due to experimental warming markedly altered trophic relationships between plants and insect herbivores, causing a dramatic decline of reproductive capacity for one of the plant species. In a Tibetan meadow, the gentian (Gentiana formosa) typically flowers after the peak larva density of a noctuid moth (Melanchra pisi) that primarily feeds on a dominant forb (anemone, Anemone trullifolia var. linearis). However, artificial warming of approximately 1.5 degrees C advanced gentian flower phenology and anemone vegetative phenology by a week, but delayed moth larvae emergence by two weeks. The warming increased larval density 10-fold, but decreased anemone density by 30%. The phenological and density shifts under warmed conditions resulted in the insect larvae feeding substantially on the gentian flowers and ovules; there was approximately 100-fold more damage in warmed than in unwarmed chambers. This radically increased trophic connection reduced gentian plant reproduction and likely contributed to its reduced abundance in the warmed chambers.

  17. Diversity and composition of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil: is the fauna more diverse in the grassland or in the forest?

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Gianluppi Ferro; Helena Piccoli Romanowski

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation, because its fauna and flora are highly endemic and suffer from loss of natural habitats. This study assessed the composition and diversity of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in two floristic formations of the southern Atlantic Forest (grassland and Araucaria forest) and in a transition zone (forest edge). The moths were attracted to UV light reflected onto a white sheet. A total of 3,574 tiger moths were collected...

  18. Review: KOUDELKA: GYPSIES%吉普赛人与共产主义的“城堡”——闲说新版的寇德卡摄影集《吉普赛人》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    般若兔

    2012-01-01

    2011年末,寇德卡的著名摄影集《吉普赛人》 (Gypsies)新版问世,不知他心情如何.1 975年,这本书在巴黎出第一版时,寇大叔心里很是不爽: "以前,这些照片只有我自己、朋友和选择过的人才能看到,现在你只要有钱,就随便看了.拿着这本书,我感觉就像和一个妓女在一起."

  19. Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Graillot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16, the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M.

  20. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J;

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...... the effects of OA and an OA receptor antagonist, mianserin, on behavioral and AL neuron responses of mature and immature males during stimulation with sex pheromone. Our results indicate that, although OA injections enhanced the behavioral pheromone response in mature males, OA had no significant effect...... not reveal any difference. To study the possible interactive effects of JH and OA, the behavioral pheromone response was analyzed in JH-deprived mature males injected with OA, and in immature males injected with fenoxycarb, a JH agonist, and mianserin. Results show that both JH and OA are necessary to elicit...

  1. Morphological effect of gamma radiation on the legs of potato tuber moth, phthorimaea operculella, zeller (lepidoptera-gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning electron microscope was used to investigate the structure of normal (non-irradiated) legs in adult female and male, phthorimaea operculella, and to compare them with those of adult female and male exposed to the sterilizing doses of gamma radiation at 5-day-old pupae (150 and 300 Gy, respectively). Moths had typical legs. The legs had a similar structure, but differred in size. There were three types of located sensilla; short trichoid, basiconic and chaetica ones. Generally, no sexual significant dimorphism was observed between the legs of adult moths, whether, normal or treated. The treated. The exception was only noticed in the claws of irradiated individuals particulary the middle ones (p<0.01), in addition to some malformations in the hind claws of treated adults

  2. Effects of X-Ray Irradiation on Male Navel Orangeworm Moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on Mating, Fecundity, Fertility, and Inherited Sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Douglas M; Ovchinnikova, Inna; Jackson, Eric S; Haff, Ronald P

    2015-10-01

    Male adult navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), were irradiated using a laboratory scale x-ray irradiation unit to determine the required dose for complete egg sterility of mated female moths and inherited sterility of F1 and F2 generations. Adult male A. transitella were irradiated in two separate experiments at 100-300 Gy and 50-175 Gy. Mating frequency, fecundity, and fertility of normal females crossed with irradiated parental males was compared with the mating of nonirradiated moths. Mating frequency was 100% for females crossed with nonirradiated control males. At male treatment doses of ≥150 Gy the percentage of females found unmated increased, while multiple-mated females decreased. Female fecundity was not affected while fertility was affected in a dose-dependent relationship to exposure of parental males to x-ray irradiation. Embryonic development of eggs to the prehatch stage and egg eclosion did not occur at radiation doses ≥125 Gy. Emergence of F1 adults was low and occurred only for progeny of parental males exposed to doses ≤100 Gy, with no emergence at ≥125 Gy. Though fecundity appeared similar for control and irradiated F1 females, no F2 eggs hatched for the test exposures of 50-100 Gy. Based on our results, a dose of ≥125 Gy had efficacy in inducing both primary parental sterility in treated male moths and inherited sterility in F1 male and female moths. Results suggest that A. transitella might be considered a candidate for the sterile insect technique using adults irradiated at these relatively low x-ray exposure doses. PMID:26453709

  3. Long-distance wind-borne dispersal of the moth Cornifrons ulceratalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Evergestinae) into the northern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Dantart, Jordi; Stefanescu, Constantí; Àvila i Castells, Anna; Alarcón Jordán, Marta,

    2009-01-01

    On October 2006, during an episode of abnormally warm weather, the African moth Cornifrons ulceratalis (Lederer, 1858) was captured simultaneously for the first time in several sites in north-eastern Spain, the Balearic Islands and southern France. A deep depression situated over the Atlantic at the time gave rise to warm south-westerly winds, accompanied by suspended dust, that blew towards the north-western Mediterranean Basin. Back trajectories of air masses at two different altitudinal le...

  4. Characterization of three transcripts encoding small heat shock proteins expressed in the codling moth, Cydia pomone//a (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen F. Garczynski; Thomas R. Unruh; Christelle Guédot; Lisa G. Neven

    2011-01-01

    Codling moth is a major pest of apples and pears worldwide. Increasing knowledge of how this insect responds to environmental stress will improve field and postharvest control measures used against it. The small heat shock proteins (sHsps) play a major role in cellular responses to environmental stressors. A degenerate oligonucleotide primer,designed against the conserved α-crystallin domain, was used in 3′ rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends reactions to amplify transcripts encoding sHsps expressed in the codling moth cell line, Cp169, subjected to heat shock. Three full-length cDNAs were cloned from Cp169 cells that contained open reading frames encoding sHsps.The cDNA for CpHsp 19.8 was 795 bp encoding 177 amino acids. The cDNA for CpHsp 19.9 was 749 bp encoding 175 amino acids. The cDNA for CpHsp22.2 was 737 bp encoding 192 amino acids. Analysis of the protein sequences of the three CpHsps indicated the presence of 83 amino acids with homology to the α-crystallin domain. For each of the CpHsps, the α-crystallin domain was surrounded by divergent N- and C-terminal regions, consistent with the conserved structural features of sHsps. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, used to determine the expression patterns of each of the sHsps in different developmental stages of codling moth revealed the presence of transcripts in all stages tested. Consistent with characteristics of other sHsps, expression of CpHsp transcripts were greatly enhanced when insects were subjected to heat shock. The results of this research can be used as a guide to study the roles of sHsps in codling moth control using various post-harvest treatments.

  5. Silk moths in Madagascar: Biology, uses and challenges related to Borocera cajani (Boisduval, 1833) (Lepidoptera – Lasiocampidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy; Rajoelison, Gabrielle; Ramamonjisoa, Bruno; Raminosoa,Noromalala; Poncelet, Marc; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    Borocera cajani (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae), also named Landibe, is main wild silk moth currently used to produce silk textiles in Madagascar. Silk production involve many member of the local population, from the wild silk harvesters, to the spinners, traders, dyers, weavers and the artisans who transform the silk into clothing, accessories and decorative items. Uapaca bojeri (Tapia) forests are the last remnants of highland primary forest, which are threatened by human destruction through b...

  6. Silk moths in Madagascar: A review of biology, uses and challenges related to Borocera cajani (Vinson, 1863) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Razafimanantsoa, TM; Rajoelison, G.; Ramamonjisoa, B.; Raminosoa, N.; Poncelet, M; Bogaert, J.; Haubruge, E.; Verheggen, FJ.

    2012-01-01

    Borocera cajani or "Landibe" (vernacular name) is the wild silk moth that is currently used to produce silk textiles in Madagascar. This species is endemic to Madagascar, and is distributed throughout the island, colonizing the Uapaca bojeri or "Tapia" forest of the central highlands. The forest provides food in the form of plants for B. cajani, including U. bojeri leaves. The species secretes silk at the onset of pupation and for making cocoons. Borocera cajani and its natural habitat are th...

  7. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology. PMID:27713702

  8. Mortality of Indian flour moth Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) by gamma radiation from cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the gamma radiation effects on the Indian flour moth Anagasta Kuehniella (Zeller, 1879), (lepidoptera, Pyralidae), at its larval phase. The doses utilized were: O (control), 50, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy. The experiment was carried out into a climatic chamber, a temperature of 25 ± 2 Centigrade, and a relative humidity between 65 and 75%. It was observed that the lethal doses LD-100 was 350 Gy. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on histology of the internal reproductive system of male false codling moth, cryptophlebia leucotreta (lepidoptera: tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male false codling moth pupae were exposed to an irradiation dose of 0,6 kGy gamma rays. A histological investigation showed that this irradiation dose caused a narrowing of the ductus ejaculatorius simplex 1 and zone 4 of the accessory glands. It did not appear to effect the testis, the process of spermatogenesis or other parts of the internal male reproductive system

  10. Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Altermatt, Florian; Ebert, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a signific...

  11. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J. Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variab...

  12. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Dave Grundy; Norman Lowe; George Davis; David Baker; Malcolm Bridge; Roger Freestone; David Gardner; Chris Gibson; Robin Hemming; Stephen Howarth; Steve Orridge; Mark Shaw; Tom Tams

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s...

  13. The significance of midsummer movements of Autographa gamma: Implications for a mechanistic understanding of orientation behavior in a migrant moth

    OpenAIRE

    Jason W. CHAPMAN, Ka S. LIM, Don R. REYNOLDS

    2013-01-01

    The silver Y moth Autographa gamma undertakes windborne spring and fall migrations between winter breeding regions around the Mediterranean and summer breeding regions in northern Europe. Flight behaviors facilitating these migrations include: (i) selection of seasonally-favorable tailwinds; (ii) flying at the altitude of the fastest winds; (iii) adopting flight headings that partially counteract crosswind drift; and (iv) seasonal reversal of preferred directions between spring and fall. In t...

  14. C. elegans germ cells show temperature and age-dependent expression of Cer1, a Gypsy/Ty3-related retrotransposon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Dennis

    Full Text Available Virus-like particles (VLPs have not been observed in Caenorhabditis germ cells, although nematode genomes contain low numbers of retrotransposon and retroviral sequences. We used electron microscopy to search for VLPs in various wild strains of Caenorhabditis, and observed very rare candidate VLPs in some strains, including the standard laboratory strain of C. elegans, N2. We identified the N2 VLPs as capsids produced by Cer1, a retrotransposon in the Gypsy/Ty3 family of retroviruses/retrotransposons. Cer1 expression is age and temperature dependent, with abundant expression at 15°C and no detectable expression at 25°C, explaining how VLPs escaped detection in previous studies. Similar age and temperature-dependent expression of Cer1 retrotransposons was observed for several other wild strains, indicating that these properties are common, if not integral, features of this retroelement. Retrotransposons, in contrast to DNA transposons, have a cytoplasmic stage in replication, and those that infect non-dividing cells must pass their genomic material through nuclear pores. In most C. elegans germ cells, nuclear pores are largely covered by germline-specific organelles called P granules. Our results suggest that Cer1 capsids target meiotic germ cells exiting pachytene, when free nuclear pores are added to the nuclear envelope and existing P granules begin to be removed. In pachytene germ cells, Cer1 capsids concentrate away from nuclei on a subset of microtubules that are exceptionally resistant to microtubule inhibitors; the capsids can aggregate these stable microtubules in older adults, which exhibit a temperature-dependent decrease in egg viability. When germ cells exit pachytene, the stable microtubules disappear and capsids redistribute close to nuclei that have P granule-free nuclear pores. This redistribution is microtubule dependent, suggesting that capsids that are released from stable microtubules transfer onto new, dynamic microtubules

  15. Diversity, distribution pattern and seasonal variation in moth assemblages along altitudinal gradient in Gangotri landscape area, Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sanyal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Field survey was conducted at different altitudes and land-use areas in the two protected areas, viz., Gangotri National Park and Govind National Park of Uttarkashi District, Uttarakhand, India. A total of 475 specimens of moth representing 436 morphospecies were collected using light trap method during the survey conducted between September 2008-May 2010. Preliminary findings show a decreasing diversity with increasing altitude. Subalpine areas were least diverse and subtropical areas had the highest diversity of moths. The greatest number of specimens were collected during the summer and post-monsoon period. The lunar phase had a significant effect on catch success with new moon days resulting in the largest catches and full moon days resulting in the least number of species as well as individuals. Of the thirty two species mentioned in Appendix 1, nine species are first time record from the state Uttarakhand. Four species are new record from Western Himalaya within Indian Territory, and also first time recorded from entire Himalayan landscape. As there was no previous comprehensive study on the moth diversity of Gangotri landscape area, all the 32 species described could be regarded as new record from these two protected areas.

  16. Using parasitoid wasps in Integrated Pest Management in museums against biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella cause much damage to museum objects. Some objects and materials are very attractive to these two pest species and objects are often re-infested after treatment. For some years parasitoid wasps have been used in biological pest control to treat and reduce infestations of stored product pests in food processing facilities. Their application in museums is still new and in a research stage. Results from five different museums in Germany and Austria and their application are presented. Lariophagus distinguendus wasps were released against Stegobium paniceum in the municipal library Augsburger Stadtarchiv (Germany, the Ethnological Museum in Berlin (Germany and the Picture Gallery in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (Austria. Trichogramma evanescens were released against Tineola bisselliella in the Technisches Museum in Vienna (Austria and in the Deutsches Museum Verkehrszentrum in Munich (Germany. Results show that for active biscuit beetle infestations good results can be expected using the Lariophagus distinguendus in museums. Active clothes moth infestations are harder to treat but with a very regular and long-term exposure to the wasps, the clothes moth population can be reduced over the years. We see the application of parasitoid wasps as part of an Integrated Pest Management concept that should be used besides regular insect monitoring and other preventive measures. Difficulties, limitations and research needs in the application of parasitoid wasps in museums are discussed.

  17. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species.

  18. Preliminary studies on inherited sterility for field management of diamondback moth (plutella xylostella) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) on crucifiers in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diamondback moth (DBM), plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) is the most destructive insect pest crucifiers in Ghana and the world over. It is estimated to cost about USD 1 billion to control annually worldwide. Reliance on chemicals as the sole control measure for diamondback moth has resulted in the development of a myriad of problems including resistance, high residue levels on produce, destruction of natural enemies and pest resurgence among others. Inherited sterility in Lepidoptera insects has a potential for suppressing DBM populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the use of the technique to manage the diamond back moth in Ghana. When 3 - 4 day old pupae were treated with 130 Gy and 150 Gy of gamma radiation, 47% and 46% respectively of the male pupae developed as normal adults while 40% and 17% respectively of the female pupae developed as normal adults. However, radiation-induced reductions in fecundity and egg viability were expressed in the parental and first filial (F1) generations. Sterility exceeded 66% in the treated parental male and 92% in the treated parental female in both treatments as compared with 78% and 95% in treated F1 male and female, respectively. The sex ratio was skewed in favour of males in the parental progeny. These results indicate the possibility of using inherited sterility for DBM control. (au)

  19. Effects of Various Degrees of Antennal Ablation on Mating and Oviposition Preferences of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xi-zhong; DENG Cai-ping; SUN Xue-jun; HAO Chi

    2014-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the distribution of the trichoid, basiconic, and coeloconic sensilla on the antennae of the diamondback moth (DBM;Plutella xylostella). The trichoid sensilla were the most abundant sensory organ, and the male moth antennae host signiifcantly more trichoid sensilla than female moth antennae. Conversely, basiconic and coeloconic sensilla were found more frequently on female than on male antennae. We performed experiments with various degrees of antennal ablation and demonstrated that DBM antennae played a key role in the control of mating and oviposition. We found that neither oviposition preference nor mating behaviors changed signiifcantly when less than 1/4 of both antennae were removed. However, there was a signiifcant behavioral change when the antennae were ablated by more than half. As the length of the antenna was shortened, the successful mating rate decreased and mating peak was delayed. An otherwise consistent host preference for oviposition was eliminated when both antennae were completely removed. Furthermore, we found that the number of trichoid sensilla was positively correlated with mating rate and oviposition preference. However, the numbers of basiconic and coeloconic sensilla were not correlated with mating rate and mating peak, but highly correlated with oviposition preference. Taken together, our results indicate that antennal sensory information plays a critical role in the mating and oviposition behaviors of this economically important pest.

  20. Feasibility of Mating Disruption for Agricultural Pest Eradication in an Urban Environment: Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-08-01

    Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P plot catches (P < 0.001). Eradication programs are following an upward trend with globalization and the spread of invasive arthropods, which are often first detected in urban areas. Eradication requires a major increase in the communication distance between individuals, but this can be achieved using sex pheromone-based mating disruption technology, which is very benign and suitable for sensitive environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications. PMID:26470337

  1. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  2. Effects of host heterogeneity on pathogen diversity and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming-Davies, Arietta E; Dukic, Vanja; Andreasen, Viggo;

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic variation is common in most pathogens, yet the mechanisms that maintain this diversity are still poorly understood. We asked whether continuous host variation in susceptibility helps maintain phenotypic variation, using experiments conducted with a baculovirus that infects gypsy moth...

  3. Radiation induced F1 sterility in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and tropical army worm, Spodoptera litura F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 300 Gy dose of gamma irradiation can be used as the sterilizing dose for the diamond-back moth (DBM). This caused 90% sterility of the moths. Releases of irradiated moths into the normal populations (nine irradiated to one normal) in laboratory cages, field cages and small field plots reduced the F1 population by 61, 55 and 42%, respectively. The effects of substerilizing doses of 175 and 200 Gy to the irradiated parents caused 26 and 36% sterilities, respectively. The dose of 175 Gy caused the levels of sterility of the male and female F1 progeny to be 54 and 74%, respectively, while the dose of 200 Gy caused 56% sterility of the F1 male and 71% of the F1 female. The sterility of the F2 population was nearly the same as that of the irradiated parents. At a radiation doses of 175 Gy the sterility of F2 males was about 11% and of females 37%. At a dose of 200 Gy the levels of sterility of the males and females were 9 and 14%, respectively. Gamma irradiation did not affect the fecundity of the irradiated parents or of the F1 and F2 progeny. The average number of eggs produced by one pair of DBM moths was 180. The viabilities of unirradiated pupae, irradiated parents, F1 and F2 at a dose of 200 Gy were 94, 89, 54 and 65%, respectively. The effect of releasing F1 sterile moths into untreated populations at a ratio of 45:1 could be a reduction in the population by 22%. Delta traps baited with the sex pheromone Sj showed the highest trapping efficiency. The highest population of DBMs in the dry season is in May and the lowest point is in July. The longevity of the tropical army worm was slightly affected by gamma irradiation. The dose of irradiation did not affect the viability of the pupae. A substerilizing dose of 100 Gy caused 43% parental sterility, 76% F1 sterility and 54% F2 sterility. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller), ranging in age from 1–24 to 73–96 h, were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation ranging from 25–600 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth eggs decreased with increasing age and increased with increasing radiation dose. Egg hatch in 1–24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 25 Gy and completely prevented at 100 Gy. At the age of 25–48 h, radiation sensitivity was only a little lower; egg hatch at 100 Gy was <1% and at 125 Gy no egg hatch was observed. Egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49–72 h age group; egg hatch was 66% at 100 Gy, and 500 Gy did not completely stop egg hatch (<1%). Eggs irradiated a few hours before egg hatch (73–96 h old) were the most resistant; 150 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 600 Gy over 33% of the eggs hatched. When pupation or adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effects of gamma radiation were very severe. In the most resistant age group (73–96 h old), 150 Gy completely prevented pupation and adult emergence and all larvae resulting from eggs irradiated <49 h old died before pupation. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males. - Highlights: ► Effects of gamma irradiation on Lobesia botrana eggs are examined. ► A dose of 150 Gy is sufficient to prevent adult emergence from treated eggs. ► This dose (150 Gy) has no adverse effects on the treated grapes. ► Gamma radiation is a possible phytosanitary treatment against L. botrana eggs. ► Results provide data to help develop a generic dose against Lepidopteran eggs.

  5. Identification and behavioral evaluation of sex pheromone components of the Chinese pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Bo Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai and Liu (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae is the most important defoliator of coniferous trees in northern China. Outbreaks occur over enormous areas and often lead to the death of forests during 2-3 successive years of defoliation. The sex pheromone of D. tabulaeformis was investigated to define its chemistry and behavioral activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sex pheromone was collected from calling female D. tabulaeformis by headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME and by solvent extraction of pheromone glands. Extracts were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD, using antennae from male moths. Five components from the extracts elicited antennal responses. These compounds were identified by a combination of retention indices, electron impact mass spectral matches, and derivatization as (Z-5-dodecenyl acetate (Z5-12:OAc, (Z-5-dodecenyl alcohol (Z5-12:OH, (5Z,7E-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,E7-12:OAc, (5Z,7E-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl propionate (Z5,E7-12:OPr, and (5Z,7E-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (Z5,E7-12:OH. Behavioral assays showed that male D. tabulaeformis strongly discriminated against incomplete and aberrant blend ratios. The correct ratio of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,E7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr was essential for optimal upwind flight and source contact. The two monoenes, Z5-12:OAc and Z5-12:OH, alone or binary mixtures, had no effect on behavioral responses when added to the optimal three-component blend. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The fact that deviations from the optimal ratio of 100:100:4.5 of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,EZ7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr resulted in marked decreases in male responses suggests that biosynthesis of the pheromone components is precisely controlled. The optimal blend of the sex pheromone components of D. tabulaeformis worked out in this study should find immediate use in monitoring

  6. Comparación entre los niños de etnia gitana e inmigrantes extranjeros ingresados en centros de protección por maltrato Comparison of Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant maltreated children admitted to protection centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Oliván-Gonzalvo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar las diferencias entre niños españoles de etnia gitana e inmigrantes extranjeros ingresados en centros de protección, respecto a las características del maltrato, los factores familiares y el estado de salud. Métodos: Se revisaron los expedientes sociosanitarios de 83 niños gitanos españoles y 105 niños inmigrantes que ingresaron desde enero de 1994 hasta diciembre de 2003 por maltratos en centros de protección del Instituto Aragonés de Servicios Sociales (IASS. El maltrato, sus tipos e indicadores se definieron y evaluaron según guías elaboradas por el IASS. Los factores familiares de riesgo sociosanitario asociados con el maltrato se determinaron según estudios nacionales. El estado de salud se evaluó según los protocolos elaborados por el IASS. Se realizó un estudio estadístico descriptivo y comparativo. Resultados: En los niños gitanos españoles predomina el grupo de edad de 0-5 años, mientras que en los inmigrantes es más frecuente el grupo de 12-17 años. En los niños gitanos españoles es también más frecuente la situación de negligencia física, emocional y/o abandono (p Objectives: To determine whether there are differences between Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers in the characteristics of the maltreatment, social and familial factors linked to maltreatment, and health status. Methods: The social and health reports of 83 Spanish gypsy and 105 foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers of the Aragonese Institute for Social Services (Instituto Aragonés de Servicios Sociales [IASS] because of maltreatment from January 1994 to December 2003 were reviewed. Maltreatment, its types, and warning signs were defined and assessed according to the guidelines drawn up by the IASS. The social and familial risk factors associated with maltreatment were determined according to national studies. Health status was assessed following protocols used by

  7. Costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for pest control and the sterile insect release programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-01-01

    Sterile insect release (SIR) is used to suppress insect pest populations in agro-ecosystems, but its success hinges on the performance of the released insects and prevailing environmental conditions. For example, low temperatures dramatically reduce SIR efficacy in cooler conditions. Here, we report on the costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for laboratory and field responses of codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Using a component of field fitness, we demonstrate that low temperature acclimated laboratory-reared moths are recaptured significantly more (∼2–4×) under cooler conditions in the wild relative to warm-acclimated or control moths. However, improvements in low temperature performance in cold-acclimated moths came at a cost to performance under warmer conditions. At high ambient temperatures, warm-acclimation improved field performance relative to control or cold-acclimated moths. Laboratory assessments of thermal activity and their limits matched the field results, indicating that these laboratory assays may be transferable to field performance. This study demonstrates clear costs and benefits of thermal acclimation on laboratory and field performance and the potential utility of thermal pretreatments for offsetting negative efficacy in SIR programmes under adverse thermal conditions. Consequently, the present work shows that evolutionary principles of phenotypic plasticity can be used to improve field performance and thus possibly enhance pest control programmes seeking increased efficacy. PMID:25568003

  8. Investigations on the use of the sterile male technique for the control of codling moth in an integrated pest control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diapause of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella L., was studied in relation to various altitudes of origin. Altitudes of 350 m and 1300 m above sea level showed that low-altitude moths had a longer diapause. Altitude appears to affect the duration of larval diapause. Biological control by virus-induced granulosis was investigated, using 3 to 4 applications of the virus per tree per season, at the rate of 2x1011 to 9x1011 virus capsules per application. Codling moth infestation was reduced by 74.2% to 88.2%. Trichomma enecator and Ascogaster quadridentatus Wesm., both parasites of the codling moth, were both colonized in the laboratory, and population dynamics are being studied. Copulatory behaviour in the males of A. quadridentatus is elicited primarily by pheromones produced by the female. Males emit some sounds which appear primarily intended to convey territorial rights to other males. The frequencies produced by males and by females differ. Codling moth odours stimulate females to oviposit. The effect of pesticides on parasitation is being studied. Details of a planned mass-rearing facility for lepidopteran and other pests are given

  9. Optimized broad band and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with moth-eye structures by low cost replica molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The reflection of only 0.2% has been obtained with silicon moth eyes. • Moth-eye nanostructures have been molded on both rigid glass slide and flexible PET film. • The average reflection of glass slide has achieved 0.4% and remained below 7.5% at 70° incidence from 500 to 1600 nm. - Abstract: Averaged over wavelength range from 500 to 1600 nm at normal incidence, the reflection losses of silicon wafer as master mold are reduced from original 35% to only 0.2% after integrating surface moth-eye structures, and glass slide suppresses the reflection from 7.5% to near 0.4% after incorporating polymer-based moth eyes on double side by replica molding that enables transferring moth eyes from master mold of silicon onto any substrate. An outstanding anti-reflective property out to large incident angles is realized with the average reflection below 0.5% until 50°, below 2.5% at 60° and below 7.5% at 70°, which holds promise for solar cell application

  10. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, over the Sea in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wu

    Full Text Available The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae.

  11. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  12. Bringing "The Moth" to Light: A Planet-Sculpting Scenario for the HD 61005 Debris Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Thomas M; Graham, James R; Kalas, Paul; Lee, Eve J; Chiang, Eugene; Duchene, Gaspard; Wang, Jason; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Nielsen, Eric; Ammons, S Mark; Bruzzone, Sebastian; De Rosa, Robert J; Draper, Zachary H; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Metchev, Stanimir A; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyro, Fredrik T; Vega, David; Wolff, Schuyler

    2016-01-01

    The HD 61005 debris disk ("The Moth") stands out from the growing collection of spatially resolved circumstellar disks by virtue of its unusual swept-back morphology, brightness asymmetries, and dust ring offset. Despite several suggestions for the physical mechanisms creating these features, no definitive answer has been found. In this work, we demonstrate the plausibility of a scenario in which the disk material is shaped dynamically by an eccentric, inclined planet. We present new Keck NIRC2 scattered-light angular differential imaging of the disk at 1.2-2.3 microns that further constrains its outer morphology (projected separations of 27-135 AU). We also present complementary Gemini Planet Imager 1.6-micron total intensity and polarized light detections that probe down to projected separations less than 10 AU. To test our planet-sculpting hypothesis, we employed secular perturbation theory to construct parent body and dust distributions that informed scattered-light models. We found that this method produ...

  13. Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se. PMID:27547326

  14. The "windows", scales, and bristles of the tropical moth Rothschildia lebeau (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Chavarría, Francisco; Hernández, Alejandro; Sittenfeld, Ana

    2004-12-01

    The common Spanish name of the moth Rothschildia lebeau (Saturniidae) is cuatro ventanas (four 'windows'), because it exhibits a transparent oval path in each wing. The scales of the colored areas and the bristles from the "window" were analyzed. We developed a simple device to measure transmittance across the "windows" with an spectrophotometer. A square section of "window" was mounted onto a flat black card and placed onto a clamp that hung in the path of the light - beam of the spectrophotometer. Absorbance was measured at 350 and 550 nm, with the "window" positioned perpendicular to the light beam (incidence of 90 degrees); then the measurements were repeated with the "window" moved at an angle of 45 degrees. Each measurement was replicated 5 times. Wing color spots were analyzed with a light dissection microscope (stereoscope) and with scanning electron microscopy. The scales have a minimum of 4 morphological types, 3 of them showed the typical appearance of unspecialized scales described for other butterflies; whereas the fourth has features particular to this species. On the "window" the scales are transformed in hair-like bristles that do not interfere with light, conferring the transparency that characterizes the "windows". However, if the wing is illuminated at an almost grazing-incidence, they reflect the light as a mirror. Two hypothetical functional explanation for the windows are mimicry and interspecies communication.

  15. Dietary effects of four phytoecdysteroids on growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayan, Fouad; Lafont, René

    2010-01-01

    Using pure phytoecdysteroids isolated from Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae), plants known for their high ecdysteroid content, a study was carried out on the effects of ingestion of four different phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, ponasterone A and makisterone A) on the growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae when added at a concentration of 200 ppm in their diet. The experiments clearly showed the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to phytoecdysteroid ingestion. The toxicity of phytoecdysteroids manifested itself by a decrease in larval weight, induction of cannibalism and an increase of mortality, together with disruption of development. The severity of the phytoecdysteroid effect on P. interpunctella depended on the structure of the molecule. The results demonstrate that the minimal structural differences existing between these four phytoecdysteroids significantly affected their toxicity toward P. interpunctella. Makisterone A was the most toxic of the four compounds towards P. interpunctella larvae. In conclusion, phytoecdysteroids ingestion evokes disruptive growth effects on P. interpunctella. This work supports a role for phytoecdysteroids in plant defence against phytophagous insects.

  16. [Sex pheromone secondary components of Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella in China. HU wenlil 2, DU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenli; Du, Jiawei

    2005-09-01

    Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is considered as an important insect pest infesting stored grains and other products in China. The major sex pheromone component of P. interpunctella, Z9, E12-14: OAc (TDA), has already been identified. Though the efficiency of male capture by using the bait with this component alone is quite good, the pheromone system is far from fully understood. The identification with capillary chromatographic analysis and GC-MS methods showed that there were four main components, i. e., Z9, E12-14: OAc(A), Z9, E12-14: OH (B), Z9, E12-14: Ald(C), and Z9-14: OAc(D), in the sex pheromone gland of female P. interpunctella, and the ratio of these four components was A: B: C:D= 100:22: 12:9. Wind tunnel experimental results suggested that the response of male P. interpunctella to a blend (A: B: C: D = 8:2:1:0.8) was not significantly different from that to female sex pheromone gland extracts.

  17. Sexual competitiveness of adult Indian meal moths irradiated as mature pupae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; Brower, J.H.; Tilton, E.W.

    1976-12-15

    When 7-day-old pupae of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner) were treated with 50 krad ..gamma.. irradiation, 94.5 percent of the resulting females mated with untreated males, but the few eggs laid were infertile. Also, resulting males were sterile when they were paired with untreated females. A ratio of 1:1:1 irradiated males, untreated males, and untreated females resulted in 28.5 percent infertile eggs. Ratios of irradiated to untreated males of 5:1, 15:1 or 25:1 produced 54.7, 61.6, and 91.8 percent infertile eggs, respectively. Thus, irradiated males were fully competitive only at a ratio of 25:1. When both irradiated males and females were placed with untreated males and females to give ratios of 1:1:1:1, 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1 or 15:15:1:1, the percentages of infertile eggs were 54.1, 95.7, 81.0, and 100 percent, respectively, and competitiveness was good at all but the lowest ratio. Irradiation of 7-day-old pupae of the Indian meal moth produced sexually competitive sterile adults when released at high flooding ratios, and results were better when both sexes were released together.

  18. Development time plasticity of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa populations under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Berardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae is a univoltine defoliator that is active over a wide range of latitudes and elevations, being largely influenced by temperature variations, especially during larval development across the winter. This work compares field development time with that observed in the laboratory rearing under controlled conditions, in four Th. pityocampa populations characterized by different life history phenology: two populations from the Italian Alps characterized by early and late adult emergence, and two populations from Portugal, the first characterized by winter feeding and late adult emergence, the second by a switch of the larval feeding from winter to summer. The rearing started from the egg stage and was maintained in the laboratory at 20-25°C under natural light in transparent boxes. In spite of the different geographic origins and asynchrony of the period of larval development, all populations maintained an annual life cycle under laboratory conditions, as well as a phenology similar to that of the field populations. Such an outcome was possible due to a trade-off in the duration of the larval and pupal stages, the latter being identified as the phase of development when an efficient regulatory mechanism is acting to maintain the univoltine life cycle.

  19. Ultrasonic courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma

    2006-06-01

    Although sex pheromone communication in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied intensively, acoustic communication in this genus has not been explored. In this study, we report that male-produced ultrasound serves as a courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, O. furnacalis. Upon landing close to a pheromone-releasing female, a male showed a series of courtship behaviors involving emission of ultrasound. The sounds were produced when the wings were vibrated quickly in an upright position. The male song was composed of chirps, i.e., groups of pulses (duration of a chirp = 58.9 ms, 8.8 pulses/chirp), with a broadband frequency of 25-100 kHz. In flight tunnel experiments, deaf and hearing females showed a significant difference in the incidence of three behavioral responses to courting males, i.e., immediate acceptance, acceptance after walking, and rejection. Deaf females showed more ‘rejection’ and less ‘acceptance after walking’ than hearing females, indicating that the detection of male-produced ultrasound plays an important role in the acceptance of a male. The findings are discussed in the context of exploitation of receiver bias and mate choice.

  20. New approaches for the management of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altindisli Ferhunde Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available European Grapevine Moth (EGVM, Lobesia botrana (Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the key pest of grape in Turkey. It damages grape berries directly and requires strict control measures producing 3 or 4 generations per year. Since the ‘80s, farmers often preferred chemical control with organophosphorus insecticides against the pest because it is wieldy, very effective and cheap. Tendency to use environmentally friendly pesticides began at the beginning of the nineties because chemicals sprayed next to grape harvest threaten environment and consumer health, causing residue problem in export. Consequently, a bioinsecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis Berl., was put into practice against the pest. Forecasting System timing according to the larvicides against EGVM was reviewed as a result of the registration of an ovicide at the end of nineties. Modifications have been made in standard biological efficacy test method and Forecasting System taking the biological stages of EGVM into account to get optimal results from ovicides. Mating disruption and auto-confusion techniques against EGVM were tested and put into practice for the first time in the Aegean Region to decrease insecticide applications. Since 2005, mating disruption has been gradually preferred by the growers and firms because it is very effective and easy to apply.

  1. Combined Effect of Gamma Irradiation with Protecto on Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma irradiation on certain biological aspects of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella was studied. Five day old pupae were irradiated with sub sterilizing dose (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 Gy). Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of bacterial commercial product of Bacillus thuringiensis (Protecto) on the newly hatched larvae of Ph. operculella at four concentrations (0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60 g/100 ml water). LC50 value was calculated for protecto, significant positive relationship between dose levels and the percentage of adult emergence was obtained. The number of egg per female and the percentage of egg hatch of emerged adults were significantly decreased by the increase of gamma rays. In addition, dose levels of 50 and 100 Gy were completely inhibited the larval development. The larval mortality percentages were increased with the increase of concentrations as well as the period after the treatment of Protecto. The percentage of survived larvae to adult stage was reduced as the irradiation dose and Protecto concentrations increased, while larval and pupal durations were relatively longer. The longevity of adults was decreased by increasing the dose of radiation and concentration of Protecto. The percentage of malformation among adults was increased by increasing gamma rays doses and concentration of the Protecto

  2. A Flight Sensory-Motor to Olfactory Processing Circuit in the Moth Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Samual P; Chapman, Phillip D; Lizbinski, Kristyn M; Daly, Kevin C; Dacks, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Neural circuits projecting information from motor to sensory pathways are common across sensory domains. These circuits typically modify sensory function as a result of motor pattern activation; this is particularly so in cases where the resultant behavior affects the sensory experience or its processing. However, such circuits have not been observed projecting to an olfactory pathway in any species despite well characterized active sampling behaviors that produce reafferent mechanical stimuli, such as sniffing in mammals and wing beating in the moth Manduca sexta. In this study we characterize a circuit that connects a flight sensory-motor center to an olfactory center in Manduca. This circuit consists of a single pair of histamine immunoreactive (HA-ir) neurons that project from the mesothoracic ganglion to innervate a subset of ventral antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli. Furthermore, within the AL we show that the M. sexta histamine B receptor (MsHisClB) is exclusively expressed by a subset of GABAergic and peptidergic LNs, which broadly project to all olfactory glomeruli. Finally, the HA-ir cell pair is present in fifth stage instar larvae; however, the absence of MsHisClB-ir in the larval antennal center indicates that the circuit is incomplete prior to metamorphosis and importantly prior to the expression of flight behavior. Although the functional consequences of this circuit remain unknown, these results provide the first detailed description of a circuit that interconnects an olfactory system with motor centers driving flight behaviors including odor-guided flight. PMID:26909026

  3. Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se.

  4. Form and nature of precopulatory sexual selection in both sexes of a moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Qiao

    2010-07-01

    Sexual selection is a process that operates through intrasexual competition and intersexual choice for reproduction in both sexes. Here, we report our work on a polygamous moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), aiming to infer the form and nature of precopulatory sexual selection in males and females. We show that, although a number of traits measured in each sex are correlated with mating success, the primary selection trait in females appears to be abdominal thickness and that in males is aedeagus length. As the female’s abdominal thickness is a reliable signal about the number and developmental stage of eggs, males who select females with thicker abdomens for mating will gain reproductive benefit, i.e., fertilizing more mature eggs. For females, earlier maturation of their eggs makes the females more likely to achieve mating earlier in an uncertain world where there is no guarantee that they will find more males in the future. Sexual selection appears to be the important force behind the evolution of fast egg maturation in females. We show that, under a male-biased sex ratio, more than 20% of mating fails within a few minutes after the aedeagus has penetrated into the female’s genitalia, suggesting that females can assess the features of the male aedeagus before allowing insemination to occur. Dissection and examination of both sexes suggest that a longer aedeagus enhances mating and fertilization efficiency in this species, supporting the notion that sexual selection is a primary force in the evolution of genital variance.

  5. The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Arjen E; Campagne, Pascal; Rigden, Daniel J; Yung, Carl J; Lingley, Jessica; Quail, Michael A; Hall, Neil; Darby, Alistair C; Saccheri, Ilik J

    2016-06-01

    Discovering the mutational events that fuel adaptation to environmental change remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. The classroom example of a visible evolutionary response is industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia): the replacement, during the Industrial Revolution, of the common pale typica form by a previously unknown black (carbonaria) form, driven by the interaction between bird predation and coal pollution. The carbonaria locus has been coarsely localized to a 200-kilobase region, but the specific identity and nature of the sequence difference controlling the carbonaria-typica polymorphism, and the gene it influences, are unknown. Here we show that the mutation event giving rise to industrial melanism in Britain was the insertion of a large, tandemly repeated, transposable element into the first intron of the gene cortex. Statistical inference based on the distribution of recombined carbonaria haplotypes indicates that this transposition event occurred around 1819, consistent with the historical record. We have begun to dissect the mode of action of the carbonaria transposable element by showing that it increases the abundance of a cortex transcript, the protein product of which plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, during early wing disc development. Our findings fill a substantial knowledge gap in the iconic example of microevolutionary change, adding a further layer of insight into the mechanism of adaptation in response to natural selection. The discovery that the mutation itself is a transposable element will stimulate further debate about the importance of 'jumping genes' as a source of major phenotypic novelty. PMID:27251284

  6. Origin of the hungry caterpillar: Evolution of fasting in slug moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Limacodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaspel, J M; Weller, S J; Epstein, M E

    2016-01-01

    Studies of caterpillar defense strategy evolution typically focus on aposematic coloration, gregarious behavior, and/or chemical defense. In the slug moth family Limacodidae, the evolution of chemical defense is coupled to the life history trait of first instar feeding behaviors. In nettle caterpillars, the first instars fast and molt into a second instar that feeds. In contrast, gelatines and monkey slug larval forms feed in the first instar. This study focused on whether the evolution of fasting associated with the nettle morphology was a derived trait of single or multiple origins. Twenty-nine species of Limacodidae (including one Chrysopolominae) representing 27 genera and four outgroup species with known first and final instar morphologies and behaviors were included. Four out-group species representing Megalopygidae (1 sp), Dalceridae (1 sp) and Aididae (2 sp) were included. These were sequenced for three molecular markers for a total of 4073 bp, mitochondrial COI (∼1500 bp), 18S (∼1900 bp) and the D2 region of 28S (approximately 670 bp). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were conducted. The resulting phylogeny and comparative analysis of feeding strategy revealed that the nettle caterpillar morphology and behavior of larval fasting may have a single origin. PMID:26432392

  7. Preserving and vouchering butterflies and moths for large-scale museum-based molecular research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Samantha W.; Mitter, Kim; Hamilton, Chris A.; Plotkin, David; Mitter, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) comprise significant portions of the world’s natural history collections, but a standardized tissue preservation protocol for molecular research is largely lacking. Lepidoptera have traditionally been spread on mounting boards to display wing patterns and colors, which are often important for species identification. Many molecular phylogenetic studies have used legs from pinned specimens as the primary source for DNA in order to preserve a morphological voucher, but the amount of available tissue is often limited. Preserving an entire specimen in a cryogenic freezer is ideal for DNA preservation, but without an easily accessible voucher it can make specimen identification, verification, and morphological work difficult. Here we present a procedure that creates accessible and easily visualized “wing vouchers” of individual Lepidoptera specimens, and preserves the remainder of the insect in a cryogenic freezer for molecular research. Wings are preserved in protective holders so that both dorsal and ventral patterns and colors can be easily viewed without further damage. Our wing vouchering system has been implemented at the University of Maryland (AToL Lep Collection) and the University of Florida (Florida Museum of Natural History, McGuire Center of Lepidoptera and Biodiversity), which are among two of the largest Lepidoptera molecular collections in the world. PMID:27366654

  8. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao-Yi; Duan, Xiao-Yu; Qiang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. This circular genome is 15 496 bp in size, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and one A + T-rich D-loop or control region. Most PCGs are initiated with the ATN codons, except for COX1 with the unusual CGA as its initiation codon. Four PCGs (COX1, COX2, ND3, and ND4) are terminated with incomplete codon T, ND4L uses TAG as its termination codon, while all the other eight PCGs employ the usual ATN codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (40.1% A, 40.9% T, 7.6% G, and 11.4% C) with an overall A + T content of 81.0%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining (NJ) method suggests that C. dominula is more phylogenetically related to its confamilial counterparts than to those from other families. PMID:26329289

  9. Heritable genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 induces anosmia in a crop pest moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumpa, Fotini A; Monsempes, Christelle; François, Marie-Christine; de Cian, Anne; Royer, Corinne; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Lepidoptera suffer critical lack of genetic tools and heritable genome edition has been achieved only in a few model species. Here we demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is highly efficient for genome editing in a non-model crop pest Lepidoptera, the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis. We knocked-out the olfactory receptor co-receptor Orco gene to investigate its function in Lepidoptera olfaction. We find that 89.6% of the injected individuals carried Orco mutations, 70% of which transmitted them to the next generation. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Orco knockout caused defects in plant odor and sex pheromone olfactory detection in homozygous individuals. Our work genetically defines Orco as an essential OR partner for both host and mate detection in Lepidoptera, and demonstrates that CRISPR/Cas9 is a simple and highly efficient genome editing technique in noctuid pests opening new routes for gene function analysis and the development of novel pest control strategies. PMID:27403935

  10. Manipulating the attractiveness and suitability of hosts for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2005-06-01

    Ovipositional preference and larval survival of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were compared among cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata; glossy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata in different treatments of planting density, host plant age, intercropping, and water stress in 2003 and 2004. P. xylostella laid nearly twice as many eggs per plant in the high planting densities of glossy collards and yellow rocket than in the standard planting densities. Ovipositional preference was positively correlated with plant age in cabbage, glossy collards, and yellow rocket. Larval survival on cabbage was 1.9 times higher on 6-wk than on 12-wk-old plants, whereas larval survival on collards was 12.1 times higher on the younger plants. No larvae survived on either 6- or 12-wk-old yellow rocket plants. Intercropping cabbage with either tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., or fava bean, Vicia fava L., did not reduce the number of eggs laid on cabbage. No significant differences in oviposition were found between water-stressed and well-irrigated host plants treatments. Yet, P. xylostella larval survival on water-stressed cabbage was 2.1 times lower than on well-irrigated cabbage plants. Based on our findings, the effectiveness of trap crops of glossy collards and yellow rocket could be enhanced by integrating the use of higher planting densities in the trap crop than in the main crop and seeding of the trap crop earlier than the main crop.

  11. Sublethal effects of hexaflumuron on development and reproduction of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Mahmoudvand; Habib Abbasipour; Aziz Sheikhi Garian; Ali Reza Bandani

    2011-01-01

    Effects of hexaflumuron at 10% lethal concentration (LC10) and LC25 on development and reproduction parameters of the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus,1753) (Lep.:Yponomeutidae) were investigated.Estimated LC50,LC10 and LC25 values of leaf dip bioassay of hexaflumuron on the third instar larvae of the P.xylostella were 1.48,0.59 and 0.91 mg/L,respectively.Hexaflumuron decreased pupal weight in the parent generation at sublethal concentrations but in the offspring generation,this effect was not observed.Sublethal concentrations increased egg,first and second larval instar and pupa developmental time and shortened life span of adults,but did not change the third and fourth larval instars and pre-pupa developmental period.Also fecundity of females reduced significantly but hatchability of treatments and control were similar.Survival rate of pre-adult stages declined significantly at LC25 concentration.Reproduction parameters such as reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase in sublethal concentrations were significantly lower compared with control,but gross reproduction rate (GRR) at the LC10 concentration was increased and it could be hormoligosis.Also hexaflumuron significantly increased doubling time (Dt).We conclude that the sublethal effects of hexaflumuron might exhibit significant effects on the population dynamics of P.xylostella.

  12. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  13. Host specialization involving attraction, avoidance and performance, in two phytophagous moth species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsucci, M; Audiot, P; Pommier, A; Raynaud, C; Ramora, B; Zanetto, A; Bourguet, D; Streiff, R

    2016-01-01

    Host specialization plays a key role in the extreme diversification of phytophagous insects. Whereas proximate mechanisms of specialization have been studied extensively, their consequences for species divergence remain unclear. Preference for, and performance on hosts are thought to be a major source of divergence in phytophagous insects. We assessed these major components of specialization in two moth species, the European corn borer (ECB) and the Adzuki bean borer (ABB), by testing their oviposition behaviour in different conditions (choice or no-choice set-ups) and their performances, by reciprocal transplant at the larval stage on the usual host and an alternative host plant. We demonstrated that both ABB and ECB have a strong preference for their host plants for oviposition, but that relative larval performances on the usual host and an alternative host differed according to the experiment and the trait considered (weight or survival). Finally, we show for the first time that the preference for maize in ECB conceals a strong avoidance of mugwort. The differences in performance, attraction and avoidance between ECB and ABB are discussed in the light of the underlying mechanisms and divergence process. PMID:26406269

  14. Sexual competitiveness of adult Indian meal moths irradiated as mature pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When 7-day-old pupae of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner) were treated with 50 krad γ irradiation, 94.5 percent of the resulting females mated with untreated males, but the few eggs laid were infertile. Also, resulting males were sterile when they were paired with untreated females. A ratio of 1:1:1 irradiated males, untreated males, and untreated females resulted in 28.5 percent infertile eggs. Ratios of irradiated to untreated males of 5:1, 15:1 or 25:1 produced 54.7, 61.6, and 91.8 percent infertile eggs, respectively. Thus, irradiated males were fully competitive only at a ratio of 25:1. When both irradiated males and females were placed with untreated males and females to give ratios of 1:1:1:1, 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1 or 15:15:1:1, the percentages of infertile eggs were 54.1, 95.7, 81.0, and 100 percent, respectively, and competitiveness was good at all but the lowest ratio. Irradiation of 7-day-old pupae of the Indian meal moth produced sexually competitive sterile adults when released at high flooding ratios, and results were better when both sexes were released together

  15. The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Arjen E; Campagne, Pascal; Rigden, Daniel J; Yung, Carl J; Lingley, Jessica; Quail, Michael A; Hall, Neil; Darby, Alistair C; Saccheri, Ilik J

    2016-06-01

    Discovering the mutational events that fuel adaptation to environmental change remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. The classroom example of a visible evolutionary response is industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia): the replacement, during the Industrial Revolution, of the common pale typica form by a previously unknown black (carbonaria) form, driven by the interaction between bird predation and coal pollution. The carbonaria locus has been coarsely localized to a 200-kilobase region, but the specific identity and nature of the sequence difference controlling the carbonaria-typica polymorphism, and the gene it influences, are unknown. Here we show that the mutation event giving rise to industrial melanism in Britain was the insertion of a large, tandemly repeated, transposable element into the first intron of the gene cortex. Statistical inference based on the distribution of recombined carbonaria haplotypes indicates that this transposition event occurred around 1819, consistent with the historical record. We have begun to dissect the mode of action of the carbonaria transposable element by showing that it increases the abundance of a cortex transcript, the protein product of which plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, during early wing disc development. Our findings fill a substantial knowledge gap in the iconic example of microevolutionary change, adding a further layer of insight into the mechanism of adaptation in response to natural selection. The discovery that the mutation itself is a transposable element will stimulate further debate about the importance of 'jumping genes' as a source of major phenotypic novelty.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-12-01

    The larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio, belongs to the lepidopteran family Sphingidae that has long been studied as a family of model insects in a diverse field. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of the species in terms of general genomic features and characteristic short repetitive sequences found in the A + T-rich region. The 15,299-bp-long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. The 316-bp-long A + T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) harbored the conserved sequence blocks that are typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A + T-rich region of S. morio contained three characteristic repeat sequences that are rarely found in Lepidoptera: two identical 12-bp repeat, three identical 5-bp-long tandem repeat, and six nearly identical 5-6 bp long repeat sequences. PMID:23452242

  17. Effects of immune challenge on the oviposition strategy of a noctuid moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, H; Menken, S B J; Groot, A T

    2015-08-01

    Infections can have detrimental effects on the fitness of an animal. Reproducing females may therefore be sensitive to cues of infection and be able to adaptively change their oviposition strategy in the face of infection. As one possibility, females could make a terminal investment and shift reproductive effort from future to current reproduction as life expectancy decreases. We hypothesized that females of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens make a terminal investment and adapt their oviposition timing as well as their oviposition site selectivity in response to an immune challenge. We indeed found that females that were challenged with the bacterial entomopathogen Serratia entomophila laid more eggs than control females one night after the challenge. Additionally, bacteria-challenged females were less discriminating between oviposition sites than control females. Whereas control females preferred undamaged over damaged plants, immune-challenged females did not differentiate between the two. These results indicate that terminal investment is part of the life history of H. virescens females. Moreover, our results suggest that the strategy of terminal investment in H. virescens oviposition represents a fitness trade-off for females: in the face of infection, an increase in oviposition rate enhances female fitness, whereas low oviposition site selectivity reduces female fitness. PMID:26086071

  18. Optimizing Aerosol Dispensers for Mating Disruption of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Peter S; Miller, James R; Thomson, Donald R; Gut, Larry J

    2016-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards to determine if improved efficiencies in pheromone delivery may be realized by using aerosol pheromone dispensers for codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., mating disruption. Specifically, we tested how reducing: pheromone concentration, period of dispenser operation, and frequency of pheromone emission from aerosol dispensers affected orientational disruption of male CM to pheromone-baited monitoring traps. Isomate® CM MIST formulated with 50 % less codlemone (3.5 mg/ emission) provided orientation disruption equal to the standard commercial formulation (7 mg / emission). Decreased periods of dispenser operation (3 and 6 h) and frequency of pheromone emission (30 and 60 min) provided a level of orientational disruption similar to the current standard protocol of releasing pheromone over a 12 h period on a 15 min cycle, respectively. These three modifications provide a means of substantially reducing the amount of pheromone necessary for CM disruption. The savings accompanying pheromone conservation could lead to increased adoption of CM mating disruption and, moreover, provide an opportunity for achieving higher levels of disruption by increasing dispenser densities. PMID:27369280

  19. Geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen in geometrid moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Sami M.; Välimäki, Panu; Carrasco, David; Mäenpää, Maarit I.; Mänttäri, Satu

    2012-08-01

    A resource allocation trade-off is expected when resources from a common pool are allocated to two or more traits. In holometabolous insects, resource allocation to different functions during metamorphosis relies completely on larval-derived resources. At adult eclosion, resource allocation to the abdomen at the expense of other body parts can be seen as a rough estimate of resource allocation to reproduction. Theory suggests geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen, but there are currently no empirical data on it. We measured resource allocation to the abdomen at adult eclosion in four geometrid moths along a latitudinal gradient. Resource (total dry material, carbon, nitrogen) allocation to the abdomen showed positive allometry with body size. We found geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen in each species, and this variation was independent of allometry in three species. Geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen was complex. Resource allocation to the abdomen was relatively high in partially bivoltine populations in two species, which fits theoretical predictions, but the overall support for theory is weak. This study indicates that the geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen is not an allometric consequence of geographic variation in resource acquisition (i.e., body size). Thus, there is a component of resource allocation that can evolve independently of resource acquisition. Our results also suggest that there may be intraspecific variation in the degree of capital versus income breeding.

  20. Candidate chemosensory genes in female antennae of the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Legeai, Fabrice; Montagné, Nicolas; Monsempes, Christelle; François, Marie-Christine; Poulain, Julie; Gavory, Frédéric; Walker, William B; Hansson, Bill S; Larsson, Mattias C

    2012-01-01

    Chemical senses are crucial for all organisms to detect various environmental information. Different protein families, expressed in chemosensory organs, are involved in the detection of this information, such as odorant-binding proteins, olfactory and gustatory receptors, and ionotropic receptors. We recently reported an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) approach on male antennae of the noctuid moth, Spodoptera littoralis, with which we could identify a large array of chemosensory genes in a species for which no genomic data are available.Here we describe a complementary EST project on female antennae in the same species. 18,342 ESTs were sequenced and their assembly with our previous male ESTs led to a total of 13,685 unigenes, greatly improving our description of the S. littoralis antennal transcriptome. Gene ontology comparison between male and female data suggested a similar complexity of antennae of both sexes. Focusing on chemosensation, we identified 26 odorant-binding proteins, 36 olfactory and 5 gustatory receptors, expressed in the antennae of S. littoralis. One of the newly identified gustatory receptors appeared as female-enriched. Together with its atypical tissue-distribution, this suggests a role in oviposition. The compilation of male and female antennal ESTs represents a valuable resource for exploring the mechanisms of olfaction in S. littoralis. PMID:22904672