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Sample records for alta verapaz guatemala

  1. Rural Electrification of Coban Municipality, Alta Verapaz Department (Guatemala) using Intigis Model; Electrificacion Rural en el Municipio de Coban, Departamento de Alta Verapaz (Guatemala) segun el Modelo Intigis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Bravo, J.; Pinedo Pascua, I.; Auger Campos, C.; Cedillo Heine, A.; Gil Garcia, M.

    2009-05-15

    The present project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energies and Environment Masters given by the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM). It has been developed in collaboration with the research centre CIEMAT, the NGO Energy without Borders (ESF) and the University UPM, with the purpose of analyzing in a real context the application of Geographic Information Systems in renewable energies regional integration. The final aim of our study is to provide the isolated communities, specifically 13 communities in Alta Verapaz (Department of Coban, Guatemala), with the necessary conditions of electrification. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the area. Through the analysis of the geographic, technical and economic information gathered, using the IntiGIS methodology we will identify which is the most suitable autonomous generating system to cover the basic needs of the rural population in these Guatemalan communities. (Author) 9 refs.

  2. Small mammals from the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Jason O.; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté; Woodman, Neal; Bulmer, Walter; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Hanson, J. Delton

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the small mammals of remnant mixed hardwood-coniferous cloud forest at elevations ranging from 2,100–2,300 m in the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Removal-trapping using a combination of live traps, snap traps, and pitfall traps for 6 days in January 2007 resulted in 175 captures of 15 species of marsupials, shrews, and rodents. This diversity of small mammals is the highest that we have recorded from a single locality of the 10 visited during eight field seasons in the highlands of Guatemala. Based on captures, the most abundant species in the community of small mammals is Peromyscus grandis (n = 50), followed by Handleyomys rhabdops (n = 27), Heteromys desmarestianus(n = 18), Reithrodontomys mexicanus (n = 17), Handleyomys saturatior (n = 16), Sorex veraepacis (n = 15), and Scotinomys teguina (n = 13). The remaining eight species were represented by one to five individuals.

  3. Water characterization and trophic state of Chichoj Lagoon, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichoj lagoon has lost 71.6 ha in last 45 years, equivalent to 65% of its area on 1946. At the present, lagoon shows a great invasion of vegetation, with a trend to disappear if this process continues. Physicochemical data evaluation indicated an evident lymnological stress over lagoon due to minimal natural and significant anthropogenic contributions. Temperature was defined by physical factors as sunlight irradiation periods and caloric exchange with wind, promoting the mixing of its water between december and january. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were typical of euthrophic lakes, with over saturation in surface waters an anoxia below few meters depth describing a non-dependent temperature trend. The main affluent river contributions were oxygen-d efficient. pH behavior was related with dissolved oxygen, due to narrow relation between acidity and redox mechanisms in euthrophic waters. Lagoon and affluent river conductivities showed ionic materials contributions from basin (due to its variation with climatic changes), anthropogenic contributions (observed in affluent river) and metabolic activity from sediments speeded up in last portion of lagoon, draining great amounts of ionic substances through effluent river. Redox potentials indicated the trend of reductive process instead of oxidative ones in the affluent river and below 7 m depth in lagoon. Surface and Profile data evaluation suggested the presence of a point-source of contaminants and nutrients, and evidenced the metabolic activity produced over them in lagoon, expressed as a visual euthrophic condition. Next paper will describe nutrients and other water quality parameters behaviors and their interrelation with the physicochemical parameters described in this paper. 1 map, 5 tabs.(Author)

  4. La articulación de saberes populares y bio-médicos entre las comadronas de Rabinal, Baja Verapaz, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera Saravia, María Teresa de Jesús

    2002-01-01

    La atención de los padecimientos y enfermedades por comadronas en Guatemala, se singulariza porque éstas utilizan saberes, prácticas y representaciones de raigambre maya-achí, adquiridos por medio de la tradición oral, pero también las comadronas utilizan los conocimientos y terapias de la bio-medicina adquiridos en los cursos de capacitación que imparte el Sector Salud Oficial.La conducta pluralística de la comadrona fue el objeto de estudio de la tesis. ¿Cómo la comadrona acudía a la esfera...

  5. Intervención educativa en adultos mayores con diabetes mellitus en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    José Manuel Contreras Tejeda; Arely Díaz Cifuentes; Mayda Díaz Pérez; Aurora Seara Cifuentes

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de intervención comunitaria, con el objetivo de incrementar los conocimientos en pacientes diabéticos adultos mayores, pertenecientes al Departamento Alta Verapaz, Cobán, Guatemala; en el período comprendido desde junio de 2011 hasta junio de 2012. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por los pacientes diabéticos dispensarizados por el médico y la enfermera en el área periférica, conformándose la muestra con 46 de ellos, a los cuales se les evaluó el grado de conoci...

  6. Suministro de agua domiciliar a tres comunidades indígenas, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Otazu, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Este proyecto fin de carrera se propone dotar a comunidades indígenas de Fray Bartolomé de las Casas, Departamento de Alta Verapaz (Guatemala), de un mínimo de condiciones higiénico sanitarias básicas, como es el disponer de agua corriente. Se ha tomado como modelo a seguir la ampliación de la red de abastecimiento existente en San Pablo Comunja, a las comunidades de Chimenja, Esperanza Seamay y Nuevo Secapur. Se ampliarán el número de manantiales de abastecimiento (localización, aforos...

  7. Interpretations about emphyteutic census redemption in Guatemala in late Nineteenth Century. The cases of Antigua Guatemala, San Felipe and San Mateo Milpas Altas Interpretaciones sobre la redención de censos enfitéuticos en Guatemala a finales del siglo XIX. Los casos de Antigua Guatemala, San Felipe y San Mateo Milpas Altas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles Omar Ávila Quijas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the interpretation that three city councils from the Department of Sacatepéquez, Guatemala (Antigua Guatemala, San Felipe and San Mateo Milpas Altas made of the emphyteutic census redemption decree from 1877. The objective is to demonstrate that the signification of private property was related to the community-authority relationship and the social cohesion derived from it, which gives the opportunity to question the historiographical hypothesis that underline that indigenous city councils were impoverished and their land stripped during the Liberal Regime. To accomplish this there are traced to analysis ways, the first one is about community and the second one is drawn through collective action and institutionalism. Finally, it can be seen that the non-indigenous city council, Antigua Guatemala, was impoverished sooner, while the other two maintained their social dynamic and the money flow even when their lands were privatize.En este artículo se analiza la manera en la que tres ayuntamientos del Departamento de Sacatepéquez, Guatemala (Antigua Guatemala, San Felipe y San Mateo Milpas Altas interpretaron el decreto de redención de censos enfitéuticos de 1877. El objetivo es demostrar que la significación de la propiedad privada estaba vinculada a la relación comunidad-autoridad y a la cohesión social que se generó a partir de la misma, con lo cual se cuestiona la hipótesis historiográfica de que los ayuntamientos indígenas fueron pauperizados y despojados de sus tierras en el Régimen Liberal. Se hace a través de dos vías de análisis: la primera en términos de lo comunitario y la segunda a través de la acción colectiva y el institucionalismo. Finalmente, se logra ver que fue el ayuntamiento no indígena, Antigua Guatemala, el que más rápidamente se pauperizó, mientras los otros dos lograron mantener la dinámica social y el flujo de ingresos aun cuando privatizaron sus tierras.

  8. Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Guatemala's area comprises 108,780 square km or 42,000 square miles. The population numbered 9 million in 1990. Ethnic groups include mixed Spanish-Indian races. Spanish and 23 Indian languages are used. Literacy is 52%, the infant mortality rate is 73/1000, and life expectancy is 60 years but only 44 years for Indians. The government is constitutional democratic republic. The total gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $10 billion in 1990. US economic assistance amounted to $118 million in FY 1990. Protestantism and traditional Indian religions make up 30% of practiced religion. Since the defeat of the flourishing Mayan civilization by the Spanish in 1523-24 the country's history has been turbulent with a series of dictatorships after independence in 1821. In its recent history Vinicio Cerezo won the 1985 election overwhelmingly, but renewed violence, a failing economy, strikes, corruption, and an inability to deal with infant mortality, illiteracy, and the low quality of health care marked its final years. In 1990 Jorge Serrano was elected in the 1st democratic transition. Negotiations were started with the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unit to end the violence and respect human rights. An agreement on dialogue was signed in Oslo with the hope of ending one of the oldest insurgencies in the world. The economy started to improve after 1986, and far-reaching reforms could induce rapid growth in coming years especially in agricultural exports. The private sector generates 90% of the GDP. Foreign development assistance has increased: the US has contributed $800 million since 1986. Impediments to faster economic growth are posed by illiteracy and low levels of education, insufficient capital market, and limitations of the infrastructure. PMID:12178033

  9. The Southern Yellowjacket, Vespula squamosa (Drury) (Hymenoptera: vespidae) in Guatemala, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern yellowjackets, Vespula squamosa (Drury) were collected at sites in Guatemala, in the Departments of Baja Verapaz, El Progresso, and Zacapa. Collection localities ranged in elevation from 500 to 1880 m. These locations were forested, or partially forested with some pasture land and coffee ...

  10. Intervención educativa en adultos mayores con diabetes mellitus en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Contreras Tejeda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención comunitaria, con el objetivo de incrementar los conocimientos en pacientes diabéticos adultos mayores, pertenecientes al Departamento Alta Verapaz, Cobán, Guatemala; en el período comprendido desde junio de 2011 hasta junio de 2012. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por los pacientes diabéticos dispensarizados por el médico y la enfermera en el área periférica, conformándose la muestra con 46 de ellos, a los cuales se les evaluó el grado de conocimientos previo y posterior a la aplicación de la intervención para modificar estilos de vida, empleando para ello técnicas participativas. Para obtener la información se revisaron las historias clínicas individuales, se realizaron entrevistas y se aplicaron cuestionarios a los pacientes, antes y después de aplicadas las técnicas educativas. Los resultados fueron procesados por métodos estadísticos. En la muestra predominaron los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo II. Después de la intervención hubo un incremento en las respuestas correctas en un 63.04%, haciéndose más marcado a medida que aumenta el nivel de escolaridad y en los que tienen más de diez años de evolución de la enfermedad. El estado nutricional se mejoró en un 50%. Se logró un mejor control de las complicaciones crónicas, así como del control metabólico en un 78.26%. Las charlas educativas en la comunidad resultaron efectivas para la incorporación de elementos educativos que incidieron en el mejor autocuidado de los pacientes diabéticos

  11. Can the Metamorphic Basement of Northwestern Guatemala be Correlated with the Chuacús Complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, N.; Martens, U.

    2007-05-01

    The Chuacús complex constitutes a northward concave metamorphic belt that stretches ca. 150 km south of the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic (CCP) fault system in central and central-eastern Guatemala. It represents the basement of the southern edge of the Maya block, being well exposed in the sierra de Chuacús and the sierra de Las Minas. It is composed of high-Al metapelites, amphibolites, quartzofeldspathic gneisses, and migmatites. In central Guatemala the Chuacús complex contains ubiquitous epidote-amphibolite mineral associations, and local relics of eclogite reveal a previous high-pressure metamorphic event. North of the CCP, in the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes area of western Guatemala, metamorphic rocks have been considered the equivalent of the Chuacús complex and hence been given the name Western Chuacús group, These rocks, which were intruded by granitic rocks and later mylonitized, include chloritic schist and gneiss, biotite-garnet schist, migmatites, and amphibolites. No eclogitic relics have been found within metamorphic rocks in northwestern Guatemala. Petrographic analyses of garnet-biotite schist reveal abundant retrogression and the formation of abundant zeolite-bearing veins associated with intrusion. Although metamorphic conditions in the greenschist and amphibolite facies are similar to those in the sierra de Chuacús, the association with deformed intrusive granites is unique for western Guatemala. Hence a correlation with metasediments intruded by the Rabinal granite in the San Gabriel area of Baja Verapaz seems more feasible than a correlation with the Chuacús complex. This idea is supported by reintegration of the Cenozoic left-lateral displacement along the CCP, which would place the metamorphic basement of western Guatemala north of Baja Verapaz, adjacent to metasediments intruded by granites in the San Gabriel-Rabinal area.

  12. The Augochlora-like Dialictus from Guatemala and Southern Mexico (Hymenoptera: Halictidae

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    Michael S. Engel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four remarkable bee species are described and illustrated from southern México and northern Guatemala, all of the genus Lasioglossum and in the diverse subgenus Dialictus, previously documented by 29 species throughout México (although many more occur in the country. Uncommon for most Dialictus, the species treated herein are brilliant metallic blue (hence the reason the first species was originally described in the genus Augochlora and coarsely and densely punctured, resembling to some extent parasitic bees or chrysidid wasps. Lasioglossum (Dialictus cyanorugosum sp. nov., L. (D. oaxacacola sp. nov., L. (D. verapaz sp. nov., and L. (D. aurora (Smith comb. nov., are described, illustrated, and compared with other Dialictus species. A key to the "aurora group" of species is provided.

  13. Patella Alta

    OpenAIRE

    Cakmak, Mehmet; Taser, Omer; Karamehmetoglu, Mahmut; Domanic, Unsal

    2004-01-01

    Patella alta is investigated with Insall-Salvati method in lateral X-rays obtained with the knee in 30 flexion in 26 cases with recurrent dislocation of the patella and in 16 cases diagnosed to have chondromalasia. Patella alta is identified in 12 cases with recurrent dislocation of patella and in 9 cases with chondromalasia. Patella alta, which is one of the significaint consative agents of patella femoral instrability, is reviewed under the literature data.

  14. 2010 Pacaya, Guatemala Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A television reporter was killed by a shower of burning rocks when he got too close to the volcano, about 15 miles (25 kilometers) south of Guatemala City. On 29...

  15. "Demokratiseerimine" Guatemala moodi / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2004-01-01

    Guatemala ajaloost, Ameerika Ühendriikide poolt Guatemalas toime pandud riigipööretest ja kodusõjas toimunud maia-indiaanlaste genotsiidist, mille eest vastutavaid isikuid on nüüd hakatud kohtu alla andma

  16. U/Pb Geochronology of the Maya Block, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, U.; Ratschbacher, L.; McWilliams, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Maya Block can be defined as Guatemala north of the Motagua transform fault, Belize, and part of southern Mexico. The absence of radiometric ages has hindered an understanding of the geologic evolution of the Maya Block and its connections with adjacent blocks in North America, South America and the Caribbean. We present an exploratory study of SHRIMP U/Pb ages from zircons collected in central and western Guatemala that shows ubiquitous Grenvillian inheritance, magmatism at ~ 1020 Ma, ~ 975 Ma and ~ 175 Ma, Devonian-Silurian and Triassic tectonomagmatic events, and Cretaceous metamorphism. Grenvillian orthogneisses were identified in the northern flank of the Sierra de Chuac'{u}s whose magmatic ages are 1020 ± 35 Ma and 975 ± 15 Ma with possible Pb-loss at ~ 420 Ma. Zircons of the Rabinal Granite show an important ~ 975 Ma inheritance and concordant ages in the 400-500 Ma range. We interpret the Devonian-Silurian ages as magmatic and correlate the peraluminous Rabinal Granite with similar intrusions in the Maya Mountains of Belize. Coeval events recorded in Chuac'{u}s orthogneisses and the Rabinal Granite suggest connections since Early Paleozoic time between the Chuac'{u}s complex and the Maya Block north of the Baja Verapaz shear zone that separates rocks of contrasting metamorphic grade. The magmatic age for deformed granites south of Sacapulas in central-western Guatemala is 174 ± 3 Ma. Migmatitic paragneisses collected south of Huehuetenango yield Triassic metamorphic ages at 223 ± 4 Ma, coeval with anatexis in the basement of Chiapas, Mexico. Medium to high-grade metasedimentary rocks on the southern flank of the Sierra de Chuac'{u}s do not record a Silurian-Devonian provenance. Instead, they yield clear Grenvillian and Triassic (240-210 Ma) components. Dating of zircon rims at 74 ± 1 Ma yields a precise age for the peak Cretaceous epidote-amphibolite metamorphic event in the Chuac'{u}s complex. Ductile structures exhibiting at least 4 tectonic

  17. Country programme review. Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Guatemala, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; radiation protection; industrial applications and hydrology; nuclear analytical techniques; nuclear instrumentation and nuclear information

  18. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerkamp, Yvonne; Paz, Ana Margarita; Guzmán, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species. PMID:27279440

  19. Radiation Protection in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tasks connected with radiation protection are allocated to the National Institute for Nuclear Energy in Guatemala. Regulatory measures are further needed to identify the responsibilities of various authorities to ensure that all radiation workers are provided with personal dosemeters. (author)

  20. Inflationary Dynamics in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. FULLERTON

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Short-run price dynamics for Guatemala are analyzedusing a linear transfer function methodology.  This approach has previously been employed for other national economies such as the United States, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Nigeria. The data for this study range from 1960 to 2010.  Inflation is measured using the consumer price index.  Explanatory variables include the monetary base, real output, interest rates, and the exchange rate. Allof the estimated coefficients exhibit the arithmetic signs hypothesized by the theoretical model. Almostall of the parameter estimates satisfy the 5-percent significance criterion and all exhibit economically plausible magnitudes. Estimation results indicate that although monetary policy effects begin to materialize within twelve months of implementation, the bulk of the impacts associated with the money supply do not occur until the second year after any monetary policy action is taken.Keywords. Inflation, Guatemala, Monetary Economics, Applied Econometrics.JEL. C22, E31, O54.

  1. "El feminicidio" i Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Anna Tabita Kjær

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the contemporary phenomenon feminicidio (feminicide in English) - the institutionalized killing of women. Feminicidio has been on the rise in Latin America the last decades, especially in Guatemala, which has an alarmingly high female murder rate. I explore the feminicidio from a gender- and intersectional perspective, as an extreme form of violence against women, looking at the murders of women in the context of wider power structures shaped by social, historical and e...

  2. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind... to firm transmission rights to the capacity of three transmission lines to be constructed by Alta...

  3. ITCB's Guatemala Communiqué

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The ITCB Council of Representatives,meeting at its 44th session from 16-19 April 2007 in Guatemala City,discussed important issues challenging global textile and clothing industry with topics on the agenda shown below:

  4. Guatemala : Investment Climate Assessment, Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Guatemala has achieved substantial progress in improving its investment climate since 2004. Despite these achievements, Guatemala continues to face significant challenges. Guatemala's overall ease of doing business ranking is still relatively low-114th out of 178 countries, and it falls well behind the rankings of comparator countries such as El Salvador (69), Nicaragua (93), and Panama (6...

  5. Bat rabies in Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Ellison

    Full Text Available Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%. Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus. RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S. The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation.

  6. Bat rabies in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, James A; Gilbert, Amy T; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard F; Mendonça, Mary T; Lindblade, Kim A; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  7. Guatemala como alternativa de desarrollo local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Elba Hernandez Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El área aledaña a la Reserva de la biósfera del Volcán Tacaná, en Chiapas México destaca por la producción de café, además de una alta diversidad de flora y fauna; sin embargo las comunidades rurales que habitan estos espacios están en constante búsqueda de alternativas productivas para mejorar sus medios de vida y cuidar el ambiente el cual está sufriendo deterioro. Ante esta situación se planteó como objetivo la integración de una red de fincas agroecoturísticas en los municipios de Cacahoatán, Tuxtla Chico, Unión Juárez en Chiapas, México y una comunidad en Guatemala. Para construir la propuesta se utilizó la metodología de modos de vida, se realizaron talleres participativos, recorridos en campo y se identificaron los productos turísticos. Se concluye, a partir del análisis de los modos de vida, que la región presenta características y oportunidades para desarrollar la red de agroecoturismo como una alternativa económica.

  8. The Jocotán Ophiolite: A new ophiolite along the Jocotán fault, eastern Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, G. E.; Flores-Reyes, K.; Sisson, V. B.; Nelson, C.; Cacao, A.

    2011-12-01

    The North American - Caribbean plate boundary traverses central Guatemala and northern Honduras, dispersed along three left lateral faults systems, which from north to south are the Chixoy-Polochic, the Motagua, and the Jocotán-Camelecón faults, with the Motagua as the present active strand. The Motagua Suture Zone (MSZ), which encompasses this area, consists of multiple paleo-convergent boundaries. It includes slices of ultramafic-mafic complexes including both antigorite (Atg) serpentinite mélanges containing high-pressure / low-temperature (HP/LT) blocks, and lizardite-chrysotile (Lzd-Ctl) serpentinites with associated pillow lavas, radiolarian chert, and marine sediments, typically labeled as ophiolites. Guatemala Suture Zone would be a preferable term to MSZ because the area extends over all three faults, not just the Motagua. The MSZ includes the Sierra de Santa Cruz ophiolite north of the east end of the Polochic fault, the Baja Verapaz ultramafic complex (considered an ophiolite in most of the literature) lies just south of the western portion of the Polochic fault and a series of Atg-serpentinite-dominant mélanges (with HP/LT blocks) that decorate both sides of the Motagua fault. In addition, there is the El Tambor Formation, south of the Motagua fault (but west of the known limit of the Jocotán fault), which contains mafic & sedimentary units and has been called an ophiolite. However, no mafic-ultramafic bodies appear on maps that cover the Jocotán fault in eastern Guatemala. Geologic mapping by one of the co-authors located a small suite of ultramafic rocks sandwiched between the Jocotán and Camotán faults in eastern Guatemala, a short distance from the town of Camotán. Outcrops exposed for 3 km along a road and in a small river consist of sheared Lzd-Ctl serpentinite, metagabbro, overturned altered pillow lavas, listwaenite and rodingite dikes, cherts and pelagic metasediments. These units represent fault slivers subparallel to the steeply

  9. Grassroots movement in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    A new report on the National Seminar on the Integrated Project (IP) established in 1988 in San Lucas Toliman, Solota State, Guatemala is summarized. Conference participants included area mayors, community leaders, health promoters, military personnel, health center workers, traditional birth attendants (TBAs), representatives from San Carlos University, Project staff, and members of a vocational sewing school operating under the IP. The seminar objective was to inform participants about project achievements and the success of integration of family planning (FP), maternal and child health (MCH), primary health care, environmental sanitation, and community development. The current target population is 70,000 people from the initial area of San Lucas Toliman and the neighboring areas of Godinez, Agua Escondida, San Antonio Palapo, Santa Catarina, San Andres Semetabaj, Patanatic, and Panajachel in Solola and Patulu in Suchitepequez State. Several projects were the primary focus: the MCH Handbook on FP, new equipment and facilities, a field trip to San Lucas Toliman, and parasite control and community participation. The MCH Handbook was developed based on the Japanese MCH Handbook and funded by the Japanese Ministry of Posts and Telecommunication's voluntary Deposit for International Aid (VDIA) scheme. the booklet is directed to illiterate Spanish-speaking populations through ample pictorial displays and literates. The focus on parasite control was the impetus for community participation and community funding of 1000 latrines. Personal hygiene habits have changed dramatically. Japanese technical assistance was given for refinement of technical skills in sewing and income generation through demonstrations of laboratory and field techniques and for promotion. A new IP laboratory in San Andres Sematabaj was also commemorated during the workshop period; a 3rd laboratory will be funded by the community. Both labs will be used for primary health care services and FP

  10. The alcohol fuels in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation shows the antecedents of the production of alcohol fuel in Guatemala as an alternative to imported gasoline, also presents current statistics of consumption, importation of liquid fossil fuels, production of alcohol fuel, consumption, and trends of consumption mixed with gasoline and yield data

  11. The Radiation Protection in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief account of the activities on radiation safety carried out by the General Directorate of Nuclear Energy of Guatemala in the period 1991-1992 is presented. The activities are reported under organization, activities on occupational radiation protection in medicine, industry and research, personnel monitoring, radiation metrology, regulations and international cooperation are described

  12. Clytini neotropicais II (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae Neotropical Clytini II (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies são descritas e figuradas: Megacyllene (M. nevermanni sp. nov. da Costa Rica (Limón; M. (M. punensis sp. nov. do Peru (Puno; Neoclytus fraterculus sp. nov. da Venezuela (Guárico; N. zonatus da Guatemala (Alta Verapaz; N. vitellinus sp. nov. da Costa Rica (Guanacaste; Mecometopus erratus sp. nov. da Colômbia (Boyacá; M. latithorax sp. nov. do Panamá (Panamá.New species described and figured: Megacyllene (M. nevermanni sp. nov. from Costa Rica (Limón; M. (M. punensis sp. nov. from Peru (Puno; Neoclytus fraterculus sp. nov. from Venezuela (Guárico; N. zonatus from Guatemala (Alta Verapaz; N. vitellinus sp. nov. from Costa Rica (Guanacaste; Mecometopus erratus sp. nov. from Colombia (Boyacá; M. latithorax sp. nov. from Panama (Panama.

  13. Guatemala: Country of small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the antecedents of the private electrification in Guatemala since approval of the General Law of Electricity in 1996 that promoted hydroelectric power generation. The current situation in generation, transmission, and distribution is described as well the rural electrification covering and the financing of projects in this sector. Incentives to private investment is discussed with the proposal of an energy information center, proposal of fiscal incentives and promotion of renewable energy sources

  14. Enterprise Surveys : Guatemala Country Profile 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Guatemala is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Guatemala income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an imp...

  15. Altas capacidades e interdisciplinariedad

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-García, María José

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo fin de grado trata de abordar la importancia de dar una respuesta educativa acorde a las necesidades del alumnado de altas capacidades. Para ello, primeramente, se ha visto necesario definir el término de altas capacidades, analizar sus características, matizar la importancia de su detección temprana, desbancar falsos mitos y conocer la legislación vigente al respecto, para posteriormente elaborar una propuesta de intervención, que se ha llevado a cabo en el Colegio Nelva,...

  16. Medfly eradication programme in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme on eradication of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Guatemala has successfully demonstrated that this pest can be eradicated from large areas with the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT), supplemented by a series of control measures. More than 60% of the country is now free of the medfly as a result of the measures taken in the last few years. In the coffee growing areas, the large wild fly populations have been reduced by a factor of more than 1000, in terms of fertile flies per trap per day, and many areas have been totally freed of the pest. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Guatemala: Experiencias de democracia directa

    OpenAIRE

    Donis, Julio

    2008-01-01

    La utilización de mecanismos de la democracia directa ha tenido una incidencia relativa en el desarrollo de la democracia, o de manera específica en el fortalecimiento de la legitimidad del sistema político. Su efecto en la gobernabilidad también es de un peso poco sostenido y no se podría adjudicar a uno de estos ejercicios como los únicos para desarrollar estabilidad en las relaciones de poder a nivel nacional. El balance de las experiencias de orden nacional en Guatemala, basándose e...

  18. Estonia's Alta buys Lauma lingerie

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Eesti investeeringute firma Alta Capital ostis 76,4 protsenti pesutootja Lauma aktsiatest. Tulevikus plaanitakse suunduda Ida- ja Lääne-Euroopa turgudele. Alta Capital omab 79 protsenti Klementi aktsiatest

  19. TulaSalud: An m-health system for maternal and infant mortality reduction in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, Andrés; Lobos-Medina, Isabel; Díaz-Molina, Cesar Augusto; Chen-Cruz, Moisés Faraón; Prieto-Egido, Ignacio

    2015-07-01

    The Guatemalan NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) TulaSalud has implemented an m-health project in the Department of Alta Verapaz. This Department has 1.2 million inhabitants (78% living in rural areas and 89% from indigenous communities) and in 2012, had a maternal mortality rate of 273 for every 100,000 live births. This m-health initiative is based on the provision of a cell phone to community facilitators (CFs). The CFs are volunteers in rural communities who perform health prevention, promotion and care. Thanks to the cell phone, the CFs have become tele-CFs who able to carry out consultations when they have questions; send full epidemiological and clinical information related to the cases they attend to; receive continuous training; and perform activities for the prevention and promotion of community health through distance learning sessions in the Q'eqchí and/or Poqomchi' languages. In this study, rural populations served by tele-CFs were selected as the intervention group while the control group was composed of the rural population served by CFs without Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools. As well as the achievement of important process results (116,275 medical consultations, monitoring of 6,783 pregnant women, and coordination of 2,014 emergency transfers), the project has demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in maternal mortality (p < 0.05) and in child mortality (p = 0.054) in the intervention group compared with rates in the control group. As a result of the telemedicine initiative, the intervention areas, which were selected for their high maternal and infant mortality rates, currently show maternal and child mortality indicators that are not only lower than the indicators in the control area, but also lower than the provincial average (which includes urban areas). PMID:25766857

  20. Sistema de salud de Guatemala The health system of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud y el sistema de salud de Guatemala, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, las actividades de rectoría que en él se desarrollan, así como las tareas de generación de información en salud e investigación. También se discuten los esfuerzos por ampliar la cobertura de servicios básicos, sobre todo a las comunidades rurales pobres. Destacan dentro de las innovaciones recientes del sistema guatemalteco de salud el Programa de Extensión de Cobertura de Servicios Básicos y el Programa de Accesibilidad de Medicamentos, así como los acuerdos del Ministerio de Salud con organizaciones de la sociedad civil para prestar servicios básicos en comunidades rurales.This paper describes the health conditions in Guatemala and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Guatemalan health system, including its structure en coverage, its financial sources, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Health, as well as the generation of health information and the development of research activities. It also discusses the recent efforts to extend coverage of essential health services, mostly to poor rural areas.The most recent innovations also discussed in this paper include the Program for the Expansion of Coverage of Essential Services, the Program to Expand Access to Essential Drugs and the agreements between the Ministry of Health and several non-governmental organizations to provide essential services in rural settings.

  1. ITCB’s Guatemala Communiqué

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The ITCB Council of Representatives,meeting at its 44th session from 16-19 April 2007 in Guatemala City,discussed important issues challenging global textile and clothing industry with topics on the agenda shown below:

  2. Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color infrared view of the Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border (17.0N, 92.0W) illustrates the usefulness of this type of film in determining vegetated vs non vegetated areas. As can be seen, most of this part of Guatemala remains in closed canopy woodland (dark red), while most of the Mexican land to the north has been cleared for pasture and farmland (pink). The pale green areas north of the river are bare soil or fallow fields.

  3. The Guatemala earthquake and Caribbean Plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plafker, G.

    1977-01-01

    The main fault along which the destructive Guatemala earthquake occurred was the Motagua fault. Ground breakage was observed in a continuous, well-defined line for 230 km. At its closest point, the fault is 25 km north of Guatemala City. Surface displacement across the fault was dominantly horizontal and sinistral (see back cover). The strike-slip component averaged 1.08m and was as high as 3.40m. 

  4. Evaluation of Environmental Radioactivity in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the data evaluation of measurements of gamma radiation in environmental samples in soils of Guatemala using high-purity Ge detectors, also measurements of background radiation using thermoluminiscent dosimeters based on LiF 700 (from Harshaw) were carried out in the points of higher population density. From data evaluation was found that precipitation of Cesium-137 from nuclear testing is present in soils of Guatemala, the results of background measured with TLD are normal

  5. Remittances, household expenditure and investment in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Richard H. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The author uses a large household data set from Guatemala to analyze how the receipt of internal remittances (from Guatemala) and international remittances (from the United States) affects the marginal spending behavior of households on various consumption and investment goods. Contrary to other studies, the author finds that households receiving remittances actually spend less at the margin on consumption-food and consumer goods and durables-than do households receiving no remittances. Inste...

  6. Uropatia Obstrutiva Alta

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Pinheiro, L; Matos Ferreira, A

    1999-01-01

    As lesões obstrutivas do aparelho urinário são muito frequentes. Apresenta-se uma revisão da etiologia e fisiopatologia da uropatia obstrutiva alta. Descreve-se pormenorizadamente a sua clínica e diagnóstico realçando-se os exames complementares mais adequados. Por fim apresentam-se as orientações terapêuticas e o prognóstico das diversas situações englobadas neste capítulo.

  7. de alta frecuencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gáquez Abab

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los mercados de consumo de alta frecuencia presentan rasgos particulares en cuanto a la diversidad de estrategias de precio, constantes promociones en precio, publicidad masiva o estrategias de marca que hacen que la identificación de segmentos sea especialmente interesante para la empresa. En el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo un análisis de segmentación sobre datos de panel que pretende identificar cuántos segmentos existen y describir cuál es su comportamiento en relación a variables como el precio o las promociones de ventas.

  8. Guatemala : Investment Climate Assessment, Volume 2. Background Notes on Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Guatemala has achieved substantial progress in improving its investment climate since 2004. Despite these achievements, Guatemala continues to face significant challenges. Guatemala's overall ease of doing business ranking is still relatively low-114th out of 178 countries, and it falls well behind the rankings of comparator countries such as El Salvador (69), Nicaragua (93), and Panama (6...

  9. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  10. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  11. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

  12. Environmental actual situation in Guatemala. Executive brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this brief prepared by the Consejo Permanente de Cambio y Variabilidad Climatica the climate in Guatemala is described including the current situation on variation of rainy season, air humidity, influence of the Nino current. This brief was prepared in order to plan a strategy to be adopted by all the institutions that are involved in environmental issues and in this way to deal with the climate change and the impact of the different energy sources in the environment

  13. An Ethnography of Brand Piracy in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Kedron

    2011-01-01

    An important dimension of contemporary capitalism is the global spread of intellectual property rights law, drawing new attention by governments and media to the unauthorized copying of fashion brands. In this dissertation, I draw on sixteen months of ethnographic research with small-scale, indigenous Maya garment manufacturers to examine the cultural and moral context of brand piracy in Guatemala. I analyze what practices of copying and imitation, some of which qualify as piracy under nation...

  14. Algunas piezas olmecas de Chiapas y Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se hace la descripción de algunas esculturas provenientes de Chiapas y Guatemala, con la intención de conocer algunos datos que permitan entender la dispersión de la cultura olmeca en Mesoamérica. Las esculturas que se describen presentan elementos artístico-simbolicos y la mayoría de ellas tienen la forma de serpiente. 

  15. Ethnic and Gender Wage Discrimination in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, William F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the influence of gender and ethnicity on wage discrimination in Guatemala using the 2000 Living Standards Measurement Survey. The sample of employees is divided into six ethnic-gender groups: males and females in three ethnic groups (i.e., non-indigenous, major and minor ethnic groups). Normalized regressions are used to estimate wage structures for each ethnic gender group including the inverse of Mill's ratio as a regressor to correct for potential selectivity. Then, the...

  16. The Guatemala Programme of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guatemala aims at ensuring safety of present and future generations as well as the environment, this is to be achieved by preventing the release of radioactive substances contained in radioactive wastes into the environment. The main activities that produce radioactive wastes in Guatemala are medical practices (radiodiagnostic and radiotherapy), wastes are also generated in industry and research, but to lesser extent. The most frequently used radioisotopes are cesium-137, cobalt-60, iodine-131, technetium-99m. Some spent sources are radium-226, cobalt-60 and contaminated material generated in medicine and research. The radioactive wastes generated are basically low and intermediate level wastes. The collection of the wastes is done periodically, the users must deliver them correctly packed and marked. When the radioactive wastes are short lived the user must manage them himself, as in the case of technetium-99m. Presently, Guatemala is trying to achieve by means of National Centre of Radioactive Wastes (CENDRA) the adequate practices in managing, storing and subsequent disposal of radioactive wastes. 3 figs

  17. Guatemala - Poverty assessment : good performance at low levels

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report is organized into three sections with seven chapters. The first section assesses poverty levels and changes over time within Guatemala and compares both the levels and changes to those of other countries. It summarizes the overall conditions and changes in Guatemala (chapter one); presents the country's poverty profile and analyzes the evolution of poverty over time and space u...

  18. Cetáceos del Pacífico de Guatemala: Cincuenta años de historia Guatemala's Pacific Cetaceans: Fifty Years of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. Cabrera Arreola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En Guatemala el estudio de los cetáceos inició en la década de los sesenta con los primeros registros de varamiento y captura incidental. Sin embargo, pocos trabajos científicos con datos de cetáceos han sido publicados. Con el objetivo de centralizar la información de cetáceos y obtener conocimiento biológico para el desarrollo de planes de manejo y conservación, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de cetáceos en Guatemala que recaba información de los últimos 50 años. Se obtuvo un total de 1,014 registros de avistamiento (1979-2011, 62 registros de captura incidental (1961/85 y 16 registros de varamientos (1975, 2007-2012, los cuales se analizaron en mapas batimétricos y en mapas de presiones antropogénicas. Se identificaron diecinueve especies pertenecientes a cinco familias de cetáceos, incluyendo Balaenopteridae, Delphinidae, Ziphiidae, Kogiidae y Physeteridae. El esfuerzo y área de muestreo varió durante 1961-2012. Se identificaron diferentes patrones de distribución especie-específicos. La mayoría de avistamientos se registraron cerca de zonas con topografía compleja. Aunque los eventos de captura incidental se registraron únicamente en alta mar, los resultados sugieren que especies de distribución costera se encuentran en zonas con mayor riesgo antropogénico. Se reportaron ocho especies de cetáceos varados, eventos ocurridos principalmente en el departamento de Escuintla desde el año 2007. Debido a la gran diversidad en los patrones de distribución, comportamiento y uso de hábitat de los cetáceos, combinado con los riesgos antropogénicos de la zona, es necesario que se considere un enfoque integral cuando se implementen planes de manejo y conservación marina en Guatemala.

  19. Mortalidad materna en Guatemala: diferencias entre muerte hospitalaria y no hospitalaria Maternal mortality in Guatemala: differences between hospital and non-hospital deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marina Tzul

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la asociación entre características obstétricas, sociodemográficas y factores de riesgo relacionados con la mortalidad materna hospitalaria y no hospitalaria en Guatemala durante el año 2000 MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal con 649 casos de muertes maternas (MM ocurridas en la República de Guatemala durante el año 2000, en el que se compararon las características de las muertes maternas hospitalarias y no hospitalarias RESULTADOS: De 649 MM registradas, 270 (41.6% se clasificaron como MM hospitalarias y 379 (58.4% como MM no hospitalarias. La mayor proporción de muertes ocurrió en mujeres mayores de 35 años de edad (29.28%, indígenas (65.49%, casadas o unidas (87.83%, con ocupación no remunerada (94.78%, sin educación (66.56%. El riesgo de MM no hospitalaria fue mayor en mujeres del grupo indígena (RM= 3.4; IC95% 2.8-5.3, con ocupación no remunerada (RM= 8.95; IC95% 1.7-46.4, bajo nivel escolar (RM= 1.96; IC95% 1.0-3.8, y hemorragia como causa básica de muerte (RM= 4.28; IC95% 2.3-7.9 CONCLUSIONES: De los 679 casos de MM ocurridas en Guatemala en el año 2000, 58% correspondió a MM no hospitalarias, lo que puede estar relacionado con el hecho de que una alta proporción de la población habita en áreas rurales o de alta marginalidad, además de aspectos culturales (mayoría indígena que dificultan la accesibilidad a los servicios de salud. Los resultados presentados pueden servir de orientación para determinar estrategias de intervención que prevengan la mortalidad materna en los ámbitos hospitalario y extrahospitalario, en Guatemala.OBJECTIVE:To estimate the association between obstetric and socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors related to intra- and extra-hospital maternal mortality in Guatemala during the year 2000 MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiologic study was carried out in 649 maternal mortality (MM cases that occurred in

  20. Women’s human agency and self-determination in Guatemalan tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Usher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is often identified as a strategy to ameliorate the wellbeing of poor communities and their most vulnerable members – women and their children. Women’s ability to get involved in and benefit from tourism is, however, conditioned by traditional gender roles and consequent education handicaps. Development programs often target women to mitigate these disparities. Thispaper examines whether an intervention by the Peace Corps resulted in improved human agency and self-determination among indigenous Q’eqchi’ women in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. The paper reports the accomplishments and shortcomings of the intervention and elaborates on the practical and theoretical implications of the findings.

  1. (Solar energy technology transfer, Guatemala City, Guatemala and Tegucigalpa, Honduras, August 20--August 30, 1989)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.B.

    1989-09-05

    I travelled to Guatemala City, Guatemala and to Tegucigalpa, Honduras to gather information regarding the possibility of transferring photovoltaic technology for rural household uses in each respective country. Meetings were held with US government officials in each country mission (USAID and the commercial attaches); with utility officials; cooperative managers; and PVO's. The overall response was very positive; two of the electric utilities interviewed would like to begin program design immediately. A coffee cooperative with 38,000 members also expressed a keen interest in putting into place a program similar to the photovoltaic household energy program established in the Dominican Republic. The purpose of the trip was to establish lines of communication with perspective project cooperators; that objective was accomplished.

  2. Peru and Guatemala Internal Midline Monitoring Assessment of Reading

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Save the Children is implementing Leer Juntos, a USAID-funded three-year project targeting rural, indigenous communities in Guatemala and Peru with the objective of...

  3. "L'emigrazione italiana in Guatemala attraverso la letteratura"

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Spinato Bruschi

    2009-01-01

    From different perspectives, the lecture means to focus on the peculiar experience and complications of Italian emigration in Guatemala, mostly at the beginning of the last century, and its literary reading. Contemporary writers have often approached the theme of desplacement and uprooting in America, but it's quite unusual to find a voice who tells stories about small communities of emigrants. This is the case of Italians in Guatemala, whose cultural identity has been represented in the late...

  4. El Presupuesto Participativo: ¿Es viable en Guatemala?

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez Miños, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This article analyzes the feasibility of implementing a participatory budget (PP) in Guatemala. It begins with a brief discussion on the meaning and potential of the PP in Brazil to establish a starting point for its implementation in Guatemala. The text briefly concludes with a list of challenges for local governments to undertake in order to demonstrate the necessary political will to duplicate this proposed development of public funds.

  5. Servidores web de altas prestaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Valdivieso, Pedro; Bernier Villamor, Jos?? Luis; Mora Garc??a, Antonio Miguel; Garc??a-S??nchez, Pablo; Garc??a Arenas, Mar??a Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Para crear un sitio web exitoso debemos ser cuidadosos con muchos detalles, ya que la arquitectura, la selecci??n del hardware, o la implementaci??n de las aplicaciones afectar??n al rendimiento del sistema completo. Es m??s, un sitio que no est?? preparado para dar servicio a un n??mero creciente de clientes o usuarios, a la larga puede llevar al fracaso a la empresa. En este trabajo, se presenta una visi??n general de la nueva asignatura Servidores Web de Altas Prestaciones, del nuevo plan...

  6. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  7. Current progress in the Medfly program Mexico-Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For twenty years, the Regional Medfly Program in southern Mexico and Guatemala, central America - which is financed by Mexico, Guatemala and USA - has successfully halted the Medfly (Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)) dispersion toward Mexico and USA. After the pest eradication in Chiapas, Mexico, in 1982 and some vain efforts to contain it in Guatemala, a strategy has been formed in the construction of a static barrier of containment. However, this has been criticised frequently by the border society which has suffered for a long time because detection and control action sometimes result in big emergency plans as the answer to strong explosions and pest dispersions which have in turn occurred from climatic phenomena, such as El Nino, in 1998. The Medfly eradication in Guatemala has not been accomplished because the suppression technology used before sterile insect technique (SIT) had been based on malathion aerial bait spray. The aerial bait spray has been prohibited in Guatemala since 1987, following strong complaints from ecological groups and the beekeeping sector, as well as because of financial constraints. The xanthene dye technology that replaced the use of malathion has given new hopes and possibilities to the old project of pest eradication in Guatemala and Central America. However, moving the barrier from north to south and from east to west is necessary to prevent re-infestations in Mexico and pest-free areas in Guatemala. The development of new detection and control tools has also strongly supported the project, with the use of more efficient traps, such as the OBDT trap, baited with ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine (phase IV traps), trimedlure (TML)-laced yellow panel traps and TML-baited Jackson traps. The use of the improved chilled adult release system, the aerial bait sprays which are guided by the GPS and SATLOC navigation systems, the augmentative release of parasitoids and the artificial biological isolation of the infested areas all

  8. Successful interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus, Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo J Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness through mass administration of ivermectin in the six countries in Latin America where it is endemic is considered feasible due to the relatively small size and geographic isolation of endemic foci. We evaluated whether transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted in the endemic focus of Escuintla-Guatemala in Guatemala, based on World Health Organization criteria for the certification of elimination of onchocerciasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted evaluations of ocular morbidity and past exposure to Onchocerca volvulus in the human population, while potential vectors (Simulium ochraceum were captured and tested for O. volvulus DNA; all of the evaluations were carried out in potentially endemic communities (PEC; those with a history of actual or suspected transmission or those currently under semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin within the focus. The prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 329 individuals (> or =7 years old, resident in the PEC for at least 5 years was 0% (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI] 0-0.9%. The prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen (Ov-16 in 6,432 school children (aged 6 to 12 years old was 0% (one-sided 95% IC 0-0.05%. Out of a total of 14,099 S. ochraceum tested for O. volvulus DNA, none was positive (95% CI 0-0.01%. The seasonal transmission potential was, therefore, 0 infective stage larvae per person per season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these evaluations, transmission of onchocerciasis in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus has been successfully interrupted. Although this is the second onchocerciasis focus in Latin America to have demonstrated interruption of transmission, it is the first focus with a well-documented history of intense transmission to have eliminated O. volvulus.

  9. TransAlta: More than a utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TransAlta Utilities Corporation is Canada's largest privately owned utility and is also a major coal mining company. In 1989, TransAlta produced 20.9% of all coal mined in Canada. A brief history of TransAlta is presented along with TransAlta's present coal operations and plans for the next three years. An overview is presented of how TransAlta Fuel Supply is organized to utilize contracted mining operation, engineering and environmental services and in-house capabilities. Recent strategic initiatives to improve organizational efficiency and the mining operations are discussed. These range from developing a common departmental vision to modifying major mining equipment. TransAlta's proactive role in clean coal combustion such as low NOx-SOx burner, integrated combined cycle gasification, and other energy research projects is reviewed. A summary is provided of recent participation of TransAlta in environmental management initiatives. Recent successes of TransAlta's unregulated subsidiary in the development of cogeneration facilities and the future of this area of business are discussed. 8 refs., 4 figs

  10. Alta peab tasuma Kalevile mais / Kersti Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Kersti

    2008-01-01

    Indrek Rahumaa juhitav Alta Capital peab tasuma Oliver Kruudale Kalevi tütarfirmade eest 660 miljonit krooni hiljemalt 30. maiks. Vt. samas: Investorid teavad tehingu hinda ja lõplikku tähtaega. Diagramm: Kalevi turuväärtus jääb Alta müügihinnale alla

  11. Sucesión y restauración ecológica en las partes altas de cuencas y la provisión de agua

    OpenAIRE

    José Vicente Martínez Arévalo

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta la descripción del proceso de sucesión ecológica alrededor de parches de bosque de pinabete (Abies guatemalensis) en la parte alta de San Marcos, Guatemala, y como a partir de esta se puede establecer un plan de restauración ecológica que permita mejorar los servicios ambientales de estos ecosistemas en especial en la provisión de agua de tal manera que contribuya a equilibrar el ciclo hidrológico permitiendo una escurrimiento más lento y mayor infiltración. El estudio muestra una...

  12. Determinants of optimal breast-feeding in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala Determinantes de la amamantación óptima en la zona periurbana de la ciudad de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk Dearden; Mekibib Altaye; Irma de Maza; Maritza de Oliva; Maryanne Stone-Jimenez; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Barton R. Burkhalte

    2002-01-01

    Objective. This survey was conducted to identify factors affecting early initiation of breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding among mothers in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala. Materials and Methods. In early November 1999 a census was begun in four communities of peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala, to identify all children < 6 months old as well as all pregnant women who were expected to deliver during the two-month data-gathering period. After the census was completed, a survey o...

  13. Educating girls: a model program from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, S A

    1992-01-01

    A consistent, positive association has been found between female education and socioeconomic development indicators such as infant and child mortality, family nutrition, and family planning acceptance. The World Bank has estimated that investments in female primary education yield a return of 20%. In Guatemala, where fewer than one in every eight girls who enrolls in first grade graduates from the sixth grade, government and business leaders have developed a national plan of action aimed at encouraging female school attendance. A National Commission on Girls' Education, formed in 1991, has formulated 40 projects that can be implemented by public and private institutions. These projects emerged from an analysis of specific obstacles to primary school completion and the identification of the most effective incentives for encouraging family and community support of female education. The Educate Girls Project, scheduled to be implemented in the 20 Guatemalan communities with the highest differentials between the school attendance and graduation rates of girls and boys, will include tutoring for girls, scholarships to help offset the costs to families of the loss of daughters' labor, teacher training on strategies for motivating girls, training for parent committees, and educational materials that feature female role models. Examples of other projects are mobile schools for families who migrate to the coast during the harvest and weekend schools for girls whose families are unable to release them from economic responsibilities during the school week. PMID:12288849

  14. Cesium 137 in oils and plants from Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990 the project of radioactive and environmental contamination started in Guatemala. Studies about the radioactive contamination levels are made within the framework of this project. Cesium-137 has been an interest radionuclide, because it is a fission product released to the environment by the use of nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants accidents. The sampling consisted in collection of soil and grass in 20 provinces of Guatemala, one point by province, and it was made in 1990. The cesium-137 concentration in the samples, was determined by gamma spectrometry, using an hyper pure germanium detector. The results show the presence of radioactive contamination in soil and grass due to cesium-137, at levels that might be considered as normal. The levels found are not harmful for human health, and its importance is the fact that can be used as reference levels for the environmental radioactivity monitoring in Guatemala

  15. L’emigrazione italiana in Guatemala attraverso la letteratura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Spinato Bruschi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From different perspectives, the lecture means to focus on the peculiar experience and complications of Italian emigration in Guatemala, mostly at the beginning of the last century, and its literary reading. Contemporary writers have often approached the theme of desplacement and uprooting in America, but it's quite unusual to find a voice who tells stories about small communities of emigrants. This is the case of Italians in Guatemala, whose cultural identity has been represented in the latest novel of Dante Liano. By analyzing his work, we try to speculate about the links among history, biography, exile and literary creation.

  16. Women caught in a culture of violence in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Randee

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women is prevalent around the world. In Guatemala it is pervasive. Living in a culture of violence oppresses women, children, the economy and society as a whole. It destroys families and can effect women emotionally and spiritually, as well as physically. Nurses have the power to intervene and influence change on a global level by taking action against abuse and oppression of women. By examining the pervasive nature of intimate partner violence and femicide in Guatemala, nurses can identify actions and interventions to combat violence on a global basis. PMID:25316543

  17. El consumo de drogas y su tratamiento desde la perspectiva de familiares y amigos de consumidores: Guatemala O consumo de drogas e seu tratamento sob a perspectiva de familiares e amigos de consumidores: Guatemala Drug consumption and treatment from a family and friends perspectives: Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bolívar Díaz C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente Guatemala cuenta con una población de 13.344.770 personas que tiene una elevada tasa de población migrante, tanto nacional como internacional. Relacionado con el abuso de drogas, el país presenta la más alta tasa de consumo de mariguana en Centroamérica, y el consumo de cocaína se reconoce como un serio problema, que afecta mayoritariamente a los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes (15-30 años. Este estudio cualitativo y cuantitativo, describe la perspectiva de familias y familiares sobre los adictos a drogas ilícitas en Guatemala. La información recolectada proviene de personas referidas por la Línea de Crisis para drogas 1545. El estudio describe a la mariguana, seguida de cocaína y benzodiacepinas como las drogas de mayor consumo. Se detectó a la familia como el factor de protección más importante. Por otro lado, la respuesta de los servicios de salud es insuficiente; no existe en el país disponibilidad de iniciativas preventivas. Se recomienda realizar, en el futuro, otros estudios cualitativos y cuantitativos sobre este tema.Na Guatemala, a maioria das pessoas dependentes, afetadas pelo problema, é composta por multiusuários. A cocaína e maconha, seguidas por benzodiazepínicos, são as drogas de maior abuso. Este estudo quantitativo e qualitativo descreve a perspectiva das famílias e dos membros das famílias dos dependentes sobre o uso de drogas ilegais, em sete países latino-americanos. Dos respondentes, 46% entende que o consumo de droga é questão de decisão pessoal. Também reconhecem a família como o fator mais importante para a proteção. Os amigos que usam drogas e a pressão dos pares foram identificados como os principais fatores de risco. A população reconhece que a resposta dos serviços de saúde é insuficiente, não há disponibilidade de iniciativas preventivas e as abordagens existentes são consideradas inadequadas. Esses resultados ressaltam a necessidade de mais estudos para atualizar o

  18. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  19. Guatemala : Elements of a Transport and Logistics Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu, Anca C.; Smith, Graham; Osborne, Theresa K.

    2015-01-01

    This document has been produced by the World Bank to support the Government of Guatemala as it improves its transport and logistics sector management in pursuit of enhanced country competitiveness. It identifies and defines elements of a National Transport and Logistics Strategy (NTLS) through the development of a methodology which analyzes bottlenecks and related costs along the main logi...

  20. Participatory Interpretive Training for Tikal National Park, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K.; Jurado, Magali

    1996-01-01

    Describes an interpretive training course for Tikal National Park, Guatemala to promote environmentally sound management of the region. Goals were to ensure that local knowledge and cultural norms were included in the design of interpretive materials, to introduce resource managers to park interpretation through course participation, and to train…

  1. Quality Assurance in Services that gives the SSDL of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief account of the activities on quality assurance carried out by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, General Directorate of Energy is presented. The activities are reported under facilities and equipment, audit and procedures. Also describes the facilites and equipment of the SSDL of Guatemala

  2. Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.

  3. Research Project: Assessment of Lead in Air of Guatemala City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report all the activities concerning to quality of air in the city of Guatemala are considered. By measurements of lead in filters of air sampling using voltametry, the quality of air is going to be compared with international standards

  4. Actual situation of radioactive waste management in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the actual radioactive waste management situation in Guatemala, as well as on the sources and facilities that have obtained the license, and the way to disposal them, when they are considered as radioactive waste. The Direccion General de Energia Nuclear is the entity responsible for the proper and normal performance of the regulatory activity in the country. (author). 3 refs

  5. Medfly female attractant trapping studies in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted from 1994 - 1998 to test the attractiveness of combinations of food-based chemicals for C. capitata (medfly) in Guatemala. Most studies were done in coffee. The 1995 studies, using the FA-2 attractants (ammonium acetate and putrescine) showed that this combination was attractive for females and had potential for use in conjunction with a SIT program. The 1996 studies at three elevations demonstrated that, in general, these attractants, when used in either the Open Bottom Dry Trap (OBDT), Closed Bottom Dry Trap (CBDT), or International Pheromone's McPhail Trap (IPMT) performed better than the Jumbo McPhail trap (JMT) baited with NuLure and borax (NU+B) for capture of feral females. At the high elevation (1400 m), the IPMT with FA-2 and OBDT with FA-2 were best; at the middle elevation (1100 m), the ORDT, IPMT, and CBDT with FA-2 were best; and at low elevations (659 m), the IPMT with FA-2, JMT with NU+B and ORDT with FA-2 were equal in performance. At the middle elevation, using sterile flies, the OBDT with FA-2 worked best. When experiments were carried out in pear, the traps using the FA-2 attractants captured more female flies than the JMT, NU+B, but not significantly more. During the 1997 trials, a third component, trimethylamine was added to the two component lure (FA-3). This attractant was tested in a number of locally produced traps using 2 I soft drink bottles with different color bottoms. The dry versions of the traps contained a yellow sticky insert. All study sites were at low elevation 600 - 650 m, in coffee, testing both sterile and feral flies. With the feral flies during the first phase of the study at finca San Carlos, there were no significant differences between treatments, at finca San Luis, the clear local trap with sticky insert and the green local trap with sticky insert were best, and at finca Valapraiso, the green local trap with yellow sticky insert and yellow local trap with sticky insert captured more flies

  6. Hyperspectral remote sensing of water quality in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Cordova, Africa Ixmucane

    Lake Atitlan in Guatemala is a vital source of drinking water. The deteriorating conditions of water quality in this lake threaten human and ecological health as well as the local and national economy. Given the sporadic and limited measurements available, it is impossible to determine the changing conditions of water quality. The goal of this thesis is to use Hyperion satellite images to measure water quality parameters in Lake Atitlan. For this purpose in situ measurements and satellite-derived reflectance data were analyzed to generate an algorithm that estimated Chlorophyll concentrations. This research provides for the first time a quantitative application of hyperspectral satellite remote sensing for water quality monitoring in Guatemala. This approach is readily transferable to other countries in Central America that face similar issues in the management of their water resources.

  7. Cultivation of edible and medicinal mushrooms in Guatemala, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. de León

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible wild mushrooms have been consumed in Guatemala since pre-Columbian times. However, mushroom cultivation started until the end of the 1950´s with Agaricus bisporus. This was established on a commercial scale during the 1970´s. The cultivation of Lentinula edodes began in 1979 using Quercus logs as substrate; the use of oak sawdust started in 1991. Guatemala currently produces about 68,504 kg of A. bisporus and A. bitorquis; 34,020 kg of L. edodes; and 29,580 kg of Pleurotus per year. Other mushrooms, such as Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, Agrocybe aegerita, Volvariella volvacea, and Pholiota nameko have also been produced experimentally since 1995.

  8. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations. PMID:27364268

  9. Contribution of the determinants of income inequality in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Alejos, Luis Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    This paper decomposes income inequality in Guatemala in factors related to human capital, ethnic and gender discrimination, the occupational structure, and non-labour income. The method proposed by Fields (2002) is used to carry out this decomposition. The empirical results show a significant variation in the contribution between the determinants at a national level, and those of each socio-economic group in which the sample is divided. It is found that the most heterogeneous group is that of...

  10. Experience on Wind Energy and other renewable energies in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a description of the eco-regions in Central America with high potential for development of renewable energies is described. Also the applications more usual and/or in terms of effective-cost. Aspects on energy demand and supply are presented in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua Costa Rica y Panama. Also options in terms of cost-effective for each renewable source like geothermal, solar, hydroelectric and wind power are discussed

  11. Quaternary seismo-tectonic activity of the Polochic Fault, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Authemayou, Christine; Brocard, Gilles; TEYSSIER, Christian; Suski, Barbara; Cosenza, Beatriz; Moran-Ical, Sergio; Gonzalez-Veliz, Claussen Walther; Aguilar-Hengstenberg, Miguel Angel; Holliger, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The Polochic-Motagua fault system is part of the sinistral transform boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates in Guatemala and the associated seismic activity poses a threat to ∼70% of the country's population. The aim of this study is to constrain the Late Quaternary activity of the Polochic fault by determining the active structure geometry and quantifying recent displacement rates as well as paleo-seismic events. Slip rates have been estimated from offsets of Quaternary vol...

  12. Alta Capital investeerib miljardeid kroone / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2006-01-01

    Investeerimisfirma Alta Capital nõukogu esimees Indrek Rahumaa annab ülevaate sellest, kuidas ettevõte on lühikese ajaga suutnud omandada osaluse mitmetes ettevõtetes ning suunanud neisse investeeringuid 150 miljoni euro väärtuses. Vt. samas: Osalused; Omanikud

  13. Deforestation Along the Maya Mountain Massif Belize-Guatemala Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S. D.; Omine, K.; Arevalo, B.; Ford, J. B.; Sugimura, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize's Maya Mountain Massif (MMM) have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize's protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were -1.04% and -6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  14. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  15. Characterization of the gamma radioactive content in soils of the south cost of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis results of measurements of 137Cs in soils of the south cost of Guatemala are presented. The technique used is gamma spectroscopy using Ge(Hi) detector. The results shows that cesium is the main radionuclide present in the cultivated soils of Guatemala

  16. Guatemala - The Role of Judicial Modernization in Post Conflict Reconstruction and Social Reconciliation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The Peace Accords of 1996 brought an end to 36 years of armed conflict in Guatemala, and signaled the beginning of a complex and challenging process of reconstruction and social reconciliation. A central plank of the consensus expressed in the Peace Accords was the overhauling of Guatemala's public institutions, which were seen to exacerbate the social and economic injustices that had cont...

  17. Equipament a la part alta de Tarragona

    OpenAIRE

    Padrós Tortares, Laura

    2010-01-01

    L'exercici proposa una solució de l'accessiblitat a nivell urbà del casc antic, al temps que l'edifici respon un equipament destinat a la població majoritaria resident de la part alta de tarragona. El projecte vol obrir i al mateix temps donar funcionalitat a una part de les runes del circ romà que se situen als baixos de l'edifici, incloent-los en l'equipament.

  18. Diffusione molecolare neLl' alta atmosfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. ARDUINI

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available Le perturbazioni indotte nell'alta atmosfera dall'emissione,
    a mezzo di razzi sonda, di nubi di vapori estranei sono un utile
    mezzo per lo studio simultaneo di alcune caratteristiche fisiche e dinamiche
    degli alti strati.
    La presente relazione illustra in breve i principi di alcune tecniche
    per la misura del coefficiente di diffusione binaria tra l'aria e il vapore
    della nube artificiale.

  19. TransAlta 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents financial information from TransAlta Corp., along with a review of its operations throughout 2003 and a summary of the how the electric utility has performed in terms of power generation, independent power producers, transmission and energy marketing. TransAlta is one of the largest non-regulated power generation and wholesale marketing companies in Canada. It's assets include coal-fired, gas-fired, hydro and renewable generation facilities in Canada, the United States, Mexico and Australia. Reported earnings in 2003 were $1.26 per share compared to $1.17 in 2002. The strong first quarter was followed by harsh market conditions, low water levels which affected hydro production, and pricing restrictions in Ontario that reduced contribution from the Sarnia plant. This report outlines the utility's progress in increasing revenue and producing more power. In 2003, unplanned outages were reduced by 7 per cent and injury frequency rate was reduced by 27 per cent. The installation of 114 wind turbines in Fort Macleod, Alberta, increased TransAlta's renewable energy capacity to 3.7 per cent in 2003. The wind farm produces 75 MW of electricity, enough to power more than 32,500 homes annually. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Guatemala 2008: la democracia en medio de un escenario complejo Guatemala 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENZO LAUTARO ROSAL

    2009-01-01

    of crime and violence in Guatemala, provoked to a large extent by juvenile gangs and, especially, by organized crime organizations headed by drug trafficking. It is true that such a situation doesn't call to optimism, but neither it is convenient to assume and attitude of defeat, given the country's potentials to recover and continue advancing.

  1. Microbiological Effectiveness of Disinfecting Water by Boiling in Rural Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Miller, Laura; Clasen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Boiling is the most common means of treating water in the home and the benchmark against which alternative point-of-use water treatment options must be compared. In a 5-week study in rural Guatemala among 45 households who claimed they always or almost always boiled their drinking water, boiling was associated with a 86.2% reduction in geometric mean thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) (N = 206, P < 0.0001). Despite consistent levels of fecal contamination in source water, 71.2% of stored water sa...

  2. Guatemala y los retos de las elecciones 2015*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo resaltar los retos que a criterio de su autora, son especialmente relevantes de cara al proceso electoral 2015 en Guatemala, en el cual se elegirán presidente, diputados y autoridades municipales. Se valoran las experiencias de 2007 y 2011, sus avances y dificultades con la finalidad de llamar la atención de los nuevos magistrados electos, sobre aquellos aspectos que requieren mayor atención en aras de salvaguardar la integridad del proceso, así como de mejorar la imagen del Tribunal Supremo Electoral.

  3. La Candelaria Neighborthood City of Guatemala, Forgotten Architectural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Alberto de la Roca Coronado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Guatemala de la Asunción, has been impacted by climate change, due to its geographical location, the tectonic plates and volcanic features of the soil, which causes that the country is always threatened by tragic events that occur suddenly and on a recurring basis, by natural events (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, hurricanes, storms, floods, landslides. Because the age of the District of La Candelaria, (since it is the second set in the Valle de la Ermita, after the transfer of the city in January 1776, likewise it was one of the areas damaged by the earthquake of February 4, 1976, has as a consequence that the architectural heritage of the District of La Candelaria is constantly at risk. In the 21st century, the problems of nationwide architectural heritage have additional components that make it more vulnerable to ruin, (social, economic and political deterioration, insecurity, which added to the poor state of physical buildings, referred to the lack of maintenance, little financial support and interest of the authorities to apply the laws for the protection of immovable cultural heritage assets. Within the Barrio of La Candelaria, there are homes and architectural remains, which could improve its current state. Guatemala needs to join the State and private institutions to ensure prevention and safeguarding of the heritage. 

  4. Comportamiento viscoso de lubricantes e altas presiones

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Méndez, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Esta Tesis Doctoral se centra en el estudio del comportamiento viscoso a alta presión de diferentes lubricantes de tipo mineral, vegetal y sintético. Cinco líquidos analizados a lo largo de este trabajo pueden ser usados como materiales de referencia para la calibración de viscosímetros a presión: di (2-etilhexil) sebacato, di (2-etilhexil) ftalato, diisodecilftalato, escualano y dipentaeritritol hexaisononanoato. Además se estudian cinco bases sintéticas para sistemas de refrigeración con di...

  5. Aprendizaje cooperativo con alumnos de altas capacidades

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Lara, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    El presente Trabajo Fin de Grado tiene como finalidad conocer e investigar la intervención educativa que se lleva a cabo con los alumnos de altas capacidades a través del aprendizaje cooperativo. Estos alumnos necesitan de la ayuda y colaboración de los otros para lograr verdaderos procesos de aprendizaje. Sin la colaboración de docentes, padres y demás organismos del centro educativo no sería posible ofrecer una respuesta válida y eficaz a las necesidades que presenta este colectivo. Tal com...

  6. Cambios de uso del suelo y crecimiento urbano. Estudio de caso en los municipios conurbados de la Mancomunidad Metrópoli de Los Altos, Quetzaltenango, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Obdulio Alvarado-Quiroa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Para la planificación estratégica territorial es indispensable elaborar diagnósticos territoriales que develen el comportamiento y las dinámicas, es decir, analizar las relaciones mutuas entre la vocación de uso de la tierra (capacidad de uso y su uso actual. El presente artículo hace un análisis de los cambios de uso y el crecimiento urbano que ha sufrido el territorio de los municipios conurbados de la Metrópoli de Los Altos, en el departamento de Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, como un indicador de la intensidad de uso de territorio. Para ello se determinó en primera instancia la capacidad de uso del suelo, utilizando la metodología del INAB (2000. Al determinar la capacidad de uso y contrastarlo con el uso dado para los años 1964, 1970, 1982, 1990, 2002 y 2006, se explica cómo a partir del año 1990 y hasta 2006 empieza a darse una alta conflictividad (intensidad en el uso del territorio. Con este estudio se demuestra la presión que ha ejercido la expansión urbana sobre los suelos con una alta vocación agrícola y sobre el medio natural, especialmente sobre las áreas protegidas y bosques, debido a la falta de una planificación estratégica territorial. Esto ha provocado un uso espontáneo del territorio y un crecimiento urbano descontrolado con graves repercusiones ambientales. En el estudio también se estima el escenario tendencial, dando como resultado la desaparición de toda el área con alta vocación agrícola para el año 2039.

  7. procesos de alta temperatura en pymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉS AMELL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda de tecnologías de calentamiento que reduzcan el consumo de combustible, disminuyan las emisiones contaminantes y mejoren la productividad de los procesos y calidad de los productos en procesos de alta temperatura, ha motivado la investigación y desarrollo tecnológico de sistemas térmicos. En este contexto el artículo presenta los resultados del proyecto “Desarrollo y Evaluación de un Sistema de Combustión Autoregenerativo y Radiante para Procesos de Alta Temperatura en Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas PyMES”, presentando la configuración, funcionamiento, caracterización, parámetros de operación y comportamiento de un prototipo desarrollado que opera con 28 kW de potencia térmica con base al poder calorífico inferior, factores de aireación de 1.05 y 1.20 y temperaturas de precalentamiento de aire hasta de 700ºC.

  8. Diversidad genética de poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Guatemala, definida por marcadores de ADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Uber Rosales-Longo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad genética de las poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Gua temala, definida por mar cado res de ADN. En Guatemala es escasa la in for ma ción sobre la diversidad genética de ajo. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: incidir en el mejoramiento de Allium sativum, so bre la base del conocimiento de su variabilidad genética, así mismo, establecer una colección in vi tro de la co lec ción de las poblaciones cultivadas en Guatemala. Los experimentos fueron realizados entre octubre de 2005 y marzo de 2006. La determinación de las variaciones de ADN se realizaron me dian te la téc ni ca de AFLP™. La información se analiza por medio de análisis de componentes principales, análisis de coordenadas principales y análisis de conglomerados. Mediante la inspección de los pro duc tos de AFLP™ y análi sis estadísticos, se detectó una alta variabilidad genética entre los materiales vegetales colectados. Las muestras clasificadas co mo del ti po “Chi leno”, correspondieron a los tipos “Criollo”. Nueve bien diferenciados grupos genéticos se conformaron en un dendrograma y se con fir mó que la diversidad genética descubierta es una función del lugar don de se cul ti van las po bla cio nes de ajo. Se identificó una mayor diversidad genética entre las mues tras de ajo del ti po “Crio llo” que las que se tienen en tre los ma te ria les del ti po “Chileno”, como producto de la mayor dispersión espacial de los primeros. Los materiales genéticos de ajo se encuentran actualmente preservados en un Banco de Germoplasma in vi tro en la Uni dad de Bio tec no lo gía del IC TA.

  9. Guatemala värvid ja kontrastid / Märt Peet, Elo Talvoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peet, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Guatemala vaatamisväärsustest ja kultuurist. Eesti noorte naiste ja meeste kristlike ühingute esindajate osalemisest rahvusvahelises noortejuhtide programmis Kesk- Ameerikas erinevate kultuuride tundmaõppimiseks

  10. Sulgmadu ja jaaguarijumal : Mehhiko ja Guatemala indiaani kultuur Tampere kunstimuuseumis / Livia Viitol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viitol, Livia, 1953-

    1998-01-01

    Kolumbuse-eelse mesoameerika indiaani kultuuride näitus. Eksponeeritud 350 Mehhiko, Guatemala ja Prantsuse muuseumidele kuuluvat eksponaati ajavahemikust 1500 a. e. kr.-1500 a. p. kr. Indiaani jumalatest

  11. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight in Guatemala is now becoming a public health concern. Child-oriented marketing contributes to increase children’s food preference, purchase and consumption. This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used in child-oriented snack food packages and to classify the snacks as “healthy” or “less-healthy”. Methods We purc...

  12. Effects of primary, secondary, and tertiary education on economic growth : evidence from Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Loening, Josef L.

    2005-01-01

    Loening investigates the impact of human capital on economic growth in Guatemala during 1951-2002 using an error-correction methodology. The results show a better-educated labor force having a positive and significant impact on economic growth. Consistent with microeconomic studies for Guatemala, primary and secondary education are most important for productivity growth. These findings are robust while changing the conditioning set of the variables, controlling for data issues and endogeneity...

  13. Circular Migration between Guatemala and Canada: Perspectives of Guatemalan Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Sana, Maya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the development outcomes of circular migration between Guatemala and Canada in the individual lives of migrant workers. This circular migration program is based on the needs of Canadian employers in the agricultural sector to recruit foreign low-skilled labor. Local residents are not willing to work under harsh conditions and for low wages often offered by the sector. Thus, Guatemalan farmers travel to Canada to work on a circular basis. In Guatemala the ...

  14. The political ecology of hydropower development in Guatemala: Actors, power and spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Cecilie Karina von

    2010-01-01

    In this study I analyse the human and environmental interactions in the hydropower sector in Guatemala, with en emphasis on actors, spaces and power relations, using a political ecology framework. The local and civil society agency and participation in decision making about hydropower development has been explored through the various invited, claimed, and transformed spaces. Guatemala is a relevant case because of its potential for hydropower development; it is also a country with a high perc...

  15. Violent crime in post-civil war Guatemala: causes and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Duilia Mora

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Guatemala is one of the most violent countries in Latin America, and thus the world. The primary purpose of this thesis is to answer the following question: what factors explain the rise of violent crime in post-civil war Guatemala? The secondary focus of this thesis is to identify the transnational implications of Guatemala’s violence for U.S. policy. Guatemala’s critical security environment requires the identification of causal rela...

  16. Opportunities and challenges for community involvement in public service provision in rural Guatemala:

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, Johanna; Vásquez, William F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research summarized in this paper is to provide policy-relevant knowledge on the governance of rural services in Guatemala and thus to contribute to improving the provision of services that are essential for agricultural and rural development. Based on quantitative and qualitative primary data, we examine how services are actually provided today and how community preferences and participation affect service provision in rural Guatemala. Our main finding is that the provisio...

  17. Intervention by Invitation? Shared Sovereignty in the Fight against Impunity in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Günther Maihold

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG), a joint hybrid commission to investigate impunity in the context of illegal security networks and organized crime. It was set up as an external governance intervention through an agreement between the UN and the State of Guatemala in 2006 to strengthen state institutions in the face of a worsening security situation. Based on a delegation of governance in the modality of shared sovereignty, CICIG has b...

  18. Of Maras and Mortal Doubt: Violence, Order, and Uncertainty in Guatemala City

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Anthony Wayne IV

    2015-01-01

    Everyday brutality in Guatemala City shocks and numbs a society that has suffered generations of war and bloodshed. Much of this violence is blamed on maras, gangs bearing transnational signs and symbols, that operate in prisons and poor urban communities. I will explore how the maras' evolution in post-war Guatemala has made them what they are today: victim-perpetrators of massive and horrifying violence, useful targets of societal rage, pivotal figures in a politics of death reigning over p...

  19. Tree-ring reconstructed dry season rainfall in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Leland, Caroline; Pons, Diego; Martin-Fernandez, Javier; Castellanos, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    Drought in Guatemala has negative consequences for agriculture and potable water supplies, particularly in regions of the country with highly seasonal rainfall. General circulation models suggest that a decrease in both winter and summer rainfall over Central America is likely and imminent as a consequence of anthropogenic influences on the climate system. However, precipitation observations over the last several decades are equivocal. Here, we use an Abies guatemalensis tree-ring chronology from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes to estimate January through March rainfall since the late seventeenth century. Our reconstruction shows that recent winter-spring rainfall from the region is not yet exceptional in the context of the last several centuries, has a significant yet variable decadal component, is associated with large-scale modes of ocean-atmosphere variability, and reveals evidence of past multiyear droughts.

  20. Cultivo de la Quina [Cínchona] en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popenoe Wilson

    1942-08-01

    Full Text Available A mediados del siglo pasado, el rápido incremento que tomó la destrucción de los bosques de quina (Cínchona de los Andes y el aumento del valor de la quinina para el tratamiento de la malaria, dió por resultado la introducción del cultivo de Cínchona en los dominios tropicales de la Gran Bretaña y Holanda. Respecto a estos cultivos el mundo recuerda con gratitud a hombres como Weddell y Markham, quienes estudiaron estos árboles en sus hogares nativos, habiendo insistido en la iniciación de tal empresa. El interés que promovió el cultivo de Cínchona por los años de 1850 y 1860 en adelante, parece que repercutió en muchas regiones, siendo Guatemala una de ellas.

  1. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  2. World Wide Web Search Engines: AltaVista and Yahoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the history, structure, and search capabilities of Internet search tools AltaVista and Yahoo. AltaVista provides relevance-ranked feedback on full-text searches. Yahoo indexes Web "citations" only but does organize information hierarchically into predefined categories. Yahoo has recently become a publicly held company and currently…

  3. MUSEOS TEXTILES EN CANADÁ, GUATEMALA Y MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los productos textiles no suelen ser protagónicos en las prácticas museográficas tradicionales; se les considera objetos decorativos, piezas de arte popular o elementos etnográficos, pero generalmente apoyan discursos de otras tipologías museales, más convencionales y establecidas. Por ello, este texto compara los fondos y los sistemas expositivos de tres instituciones dedicadas exclusivamente al objeto textil: el Textile Museum of Canada (fundado en Toronto en 1975; el Museo Ixchel del Traje Indígena (inaugurado en Guatemala en 1977; y el Museo Textil de Oaxaca (abierto al público en 2008. Se propone que los museos textiles son entidades híbridas y sugerentes, con frágiles acervos que requieren soluciones museográficas provenientes de la antropología, la historia del arte occidental “culta” y las artes populares. Si bien el discurso curatorial de los museos textiles ha sido relativamente periférico, también es polivalente: (reafirma identidades nacionales, pero construye nuevas visiones —más incluyentes— de diversidad cultural. Textile artifacts are not central devices in generalized curatorial practices: even if these objects might be considered simultaneously as decorative items, popular art pieces or ethnographical resources, they are certainly not independent from more traditionalist and established kinds of exhibits. For those reasons, this article will compare the collections and displays of three important institutions exclusively related to textile artifacts: the Textile Museum of Canada (inaugurated in Toronto in 1975; the Museum Ixchel of the Indigenous Garment (opened to the public in 1977 in Guatemala; and the Museum Textil of Oaxaca, Mexico (founded in 2008. Some institutional, architectonical and technical aspects of these three museums will be compared. The article will suggest some patrimonial possibilities latent in textile museums, according to their precise typological traits, with the main idea that

  4. Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monroy Carlota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4% out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus. The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.

  5. Cetáceos del Pacífico de Guatemala: Cincuenta años de historia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera Arreola, Andrea; Ortíz Wolford, Jenniffer S.; Corona Figueroa, Mildred Fabiola; Gudiel Corona, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Cetaceans have been studied in Guatemala since 1960s, but only a few scientific works based on the collected cetacean data were published. We reviewed literatures about cetaceans in Guatemala for the past fifty years to gain the biological knowledge for conservation and management plans. A total of

  6. Alta Capital venitab Kruudale tasumisega / Sten-Aleks Pihlak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlak, Sten-Aleks

    2008-01-01

    Alta Capital Partnersid pole veel maksnud Oliver Kruudale 2007. aasta septembris müüdud Tere ja Kalevi eest. Vt. samas: Rahasaamise venimine on lükanud Kalevi viimastel kuudel laenurallile. Kommenteerib Aivar Häelm

  7. Hydrogeochemical exploration of the Tecuamburro Volcano region, Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Truesdell, A.H.; Janik, C.J.; Adams, A.; Roldan-M, A.; Meeker, K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico; Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Approximately 100 thermal and nonthermal water samples and 20 gas samples from springs and fumaroles have been chemically and isotopically analyzed to help evaluate the geothermal potential of the Tecuamburro Volcano region, Guatemala. Thermal waters of the acid- sulfate, steam condensate, and neutral-chloride types generally occur in restricted hydrogeologic areas: Tecuamburro-Laguna Ixpaco (acid- sulfate); andesite highland north of Tecuamburro (steam-condensate); Rio Los Esclavos (neutral-chloride). One small area of neutral-chloride springs east of the village of Los Esclavos has no relation to the Tecuamburro geothermal system. Neutral-chloride springs on the Rio Los Esclavos east and southeast of Tecuamburro show mixing with various types of groundwaters and display a maximum oxygen-18 enrichment compared to the world meteoric line of only about 1.5 parts per thousand. Maximum estimated subsurface temperatures are {le}200{degree}C. In contrast, maximum estimated subsurface temperatures based on gas compositions in the Laguna Ixpaco area are about 300{degree}C. The relation of neutral-chloride waters to the overall Tecuamburro geothermal system is not entirely resolved but we have suggested two system models. Regardless of model, we believe that a first exploration drill hole should be sited within 0.5 km of Laguna Ixpaco to tap the main geothermal reservoir or its adjacent, main upflow zone. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before 1959 a private individual (Mr. Rene Abularach) is reported to have made an airborne radiometric survey of the Sierra de las Minas and Sierra Madre Ranges. Although many anomalies were detected by this survey, none were verified in the ground survey followup, despite apparently adequate flight control. In 1968 a United Nations Special Fund Mineral Survey Project completed over 1,000 km of carborne radiometric survey with geiger counter readings at 500 m intervals. No anomalies were detected, but background radioactivity for several formations and geologic environments was established. In 1969 the Guatemalan government solicited the IAEA for technical assistance In conducting a preliminary uranium favorability study designed to formulate recommendations for a national radioactive ore prospecting program. A carborne radiometric survey was made of environments theoretically favorable for uranium deposition, with spot geological and radiometric examinations being .conducted in the more favorable areas. All Important mining regions of Guatemala except the leterites and the ultrabasics were visited. No evidence of a uranium province was observed 1n these field investigations and the recommendation was made that the government not embark on a more detailed national prospecting program at that time. At the time of completion of the IAEA-Guatemalan government (GOG) reconnaissance program in 1971, no uranium reserves or resources were known. More recent information on uranium occurrences and resources 1n Guatemala does not appear to be available. Information on more recent uranium reconnaissance than that undertaken during 1971 IAEA-GOG study is lacking. However, in more recent years the country's mineral potential has been generally evaluated with the aid of the UN and ICAITI (Central American Research Institute for Industry). Except for quarry materials, the state owns all minerals. The state has priority on purchase of any mineral production needed for the country

  9. Quaternary seismo-tectonic activity of the Polochic Fault, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authemayou, Christine; Brocard, Gilles; Teyssier, Christian; Suski, Barbara; Cosenza, Beatriz; MoráN-Ical, Sergio; GonzáLez-VéLiz, Claussen Walther; Aguilar-Hengstenberg, Miguel Angel; Holliger, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    The Polochic-Motagua fault system is part of the sinistral transform boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates in Guatemala and the associated seismic activity poses a threat to ˜70% of the country's population. The aim of this study is to constrain the Late Quaternary activity of the Polochic fault by determining the active structure geometry and quantifying recent displacement rates as well as paleo-seismic events. Slip rates have been estimated from offsets of Quaternary volcanic markers and alluvial fan using in situ cosmogenic 36Cl exposure dating. Holocene left-lateral slip rate and Mid-Pleistocene vertical slip rate have been estimated to 4.8 ± 2.3 mm/y and 0.3 ± 0.06 mm/y, respectively, on the central part of the Polochic fault. The horizontal slip rate is within the range of longer-term geological slip rates and short-term GPS-based estimates. In addition, the non-negligible vertical motion participates in the uplift of the block north of the fault and seems to be a manifestation of the regional, far-field stress regime. We excavated the first trench for paleo-seismological study on the Polochic fault in which we distinguish four large paleo-seismic events since 17 ky during which the Polochic fault ruptured the ground surface.

  10. Knowledge and beliefs regarding agricultural pesticides in rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Roger; Andino, Karla; Bustamante, Mario; Hernandez, Beatriz; Rodas, Luis

    1996-03-01

    Throughout Central America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School support a Safe Pesticide Use program. In 1993, a study of results was carried out among farmers and housewives in eastern Guatemala. Aspects of the methodology included: (1) participation of extension workers in all aspects of the study; (2) small, region-focused samples (eight cells, 30 interviews per cell); (3) comparison to control groups of untrained farmers and housewives; (4) a traditional questionnaire for studying acquisition of specific knowledge; and (5) a flexible instrument for building a cognitive map of knowledge and beliefs regarding pesticides. The cognitive map is a step toward applying modern psychocultural scaling, an approach already well developed for medicine and public health, to environmental problems. Positive results detected include progress at learning the meaning of colors on containers that denote toxicity and where to store pesticides. Pesticide application problems detected were mention by farmers of highly toxic, restricted pesticides as appropriate for most pest problems and of insecticides as the correct solution to fungus problems, and the widespread belief that correct pesticide dosage depends on number of pests seen rather than on land or foliage surface. Health-related problems detected were admission by a vast majority of housewives that they apply highly toxic pesticides to combat children's head-lice; low awareness that pesticides cause health problems more serious than nausea, dizziness, and headaches; and a common belief that lemonade and coffee are effective medicines for pesticide poisoning.

  11. Petroleum geology and resources of southeastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Petroleum deposits in southeastern Mexico and Guatemala occur in two main basinal provinces: the Gulf Coast Tertiary basin area, which includes the Reforma and offshore Campeche Mesozoic fields, and the Peten basin of eastern Chiapas State (Mexico) and Guatemala. Major oil production, in order of importance, is from Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Jurassic carbonate reservoirs in the reforma and offshore Campeche area. Several small oil fields have been discovered in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in west-central Guatemala. Almost all important production is in salt structure traps or on domes and anticlines that may be related to deep-seated salt movement. Some minor oil production has occurred in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in a buried overthrust belt along the west flank of the Veracruz basin. Gas production is mainly from Tertiary sandstone reservoirs.

  12. Estrategia para el aprovechamiento del recurso hídrico subterráneo en una zona semiárida de Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rodolfo Herrera Ibáñez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El agua subterránea juega un papel crítico en el mantenimiento de una alta calidad de vida para la población dentro de la zona semiárida de Guatemala. El agua subterránea suple el agua para consumo humano, industrial, comercial y uso agrícola en las partes rurales del país. Por esto, los objetivos fueron determinar las principales áreas de recarga hídrica y proponer estrategias efectivas de manejo del agua. El agua subterránea está generalmente en rocas volcánicas fracturadas y forma un acuífero local y con confinamiento. En la cuenca existe una recarga hídrica de ocho millones de metros cúbicos por año. Esto indica que la extracción de agua con el desarrollo de pozos es factible, representando una estrategia de manejo de agua. Se recomienda hacer mejoras con asistencia técnica a las municipalidades y a los pequeños sistemas de agua para desarrollar e implementar programas locales de protección de aguas subterráneas.

  13. An exploration of violence, mental health and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Michael J.; Vassy, Jason L.; DiNardo, Andrew R.; Victor D. Puac Polanco; Branas, Charles C; Kent Bream

    2013-01-01

    Guatemala’s 36-year civil war officially ended in December 1996 after some 200,000 deaths and one million refugees. Despite the ceasefire, Guatemala continues to be a violent country with one of the highest homicide rates in the world. We investigated potential associations between violence, mental health, and substance abuse in post-conflictGuatemalausing a community-based survey of 86 respondents living in urban and ruralGuatemala. Overall, 17.4% of our respondents had at least one, direct...

  14. Debilidad regulatoria de los transgénicos en Guatemala; alternativas, riesgos, amenazas e intereses

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla Landaverry, Gesly Anibal

    2014-01-01

    La introducción en Guatemala de los Organismos Genéticamente Modificados (OGM), conocidos también como transgénicos, se ha dado en un marco jurídico e institucional con muchas debilidades y sin ninguna ley que los regule hasta el día de hoy. Los transgénicos ingresaron en Guatemala cuando algunas empresas iniciaron a experimentar con productos agrícolas en 1989, además se han introducido como ayuda alimentaria proveniente de Estados Unidos. En la actualidad sectores políticos, sociales y acad...

  15. Comportamiento de la enfermedad diarreica aguda en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Enrique Plá Acevedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la Enfermedad Diarreica Aguda (EDA en Tierra Blanca, Departamento Petén, Guatemala; en el período comprendido de enero a diciembre del año 2011. El universo de estudio lo formaron todos los individuos que fueron evaluados en el puesto de salud de Tierra Blanca con diagnóstico clínico de EDA. La muestra estuvo constituida por 529 pacientes. Se trabajó con el Sistema de Información Gerencial en Salud 18 (SIGSA, las fichas de salud individual de cada paciente, así como una entrevista estructurada que se le aplicó a los mismos, previo consentimiento informado; información con la cual se obtuvieron las variables relacionadas con los aspectos socio-demográficos, epidemiológicos y clínicos. Los meses donde más casos se reportaron fueron entre mayo y septiembre, coincidiendo esto con los meses de lluvias. Las edades más frecuentes fueron de uno a diez años y el sexo que predominó fue el masculino. El 40,3% consumían agua procedente de chorro intradomiciliario; las infecciones respiratorias agudas fueron las patologías que con más frecuencia se asociaron a las EDA y el 88,1% recibió tratamiento con sales de rehidratación oral.

  16. Wave field decomposition of volcanic tremor at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, F.; Waite, G. P.; Kenyon, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    A dense, small-aperture array of 12 short-period seismometers was deployed on the west flank of Pacaya volcano (Guatemala) and operated for 14 days in January 2011. The data were used to investigate the properties of the volcanic tremor wave field at the volcano. Volcanic tremor has been proven to be a powerful tool for eruption forecasting, therefore, identifying its source locations may shed new light on the dynamics of the volcano system. A preliminary spectral analysis highlights that most of the seismic energy is associated with six narrow spectral peaks between 1 and 6 Hz. After taking topography into account, we performed frequency-slowness analyses using the MUSIC algorithm and the semblance technique with the aim to define and locate the different components contributing to the wave field. Results show a complex wave field, with possibly multiple sources. We identify peaks at frequencies effects of array aliasing, and therefore have not been considered in this study. The dispersive properties of the wave field have been investigated using the Spatial Auto-Correlation Method (SPAC). The dispersion characteristics of Rayleigh waves have been then inverted to find a shallow velocity model beneath the array, which shows a range of velocities from about 0.3 km/s to 2 km/s, in agreement with slowness values of the frequency bands considered. In detail, apparent velocities of 1-2 km/s dominate at frequencies below 2 Hz, whereas lower apparent velocities of about 0.6 km/s are found to characterize the 3 Hz signal. We conclude that the sustained tremor at Pacaya seems to be linked to a shallow source both from the volcano, corresponding to the new vent opened on the SE flank of the volcano during the last explosive eruption in May 2010, and possibly from anthropogenic sources.

  17. Increased risk of miscarriage among women experiencing physical or sexual intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Guatemala City, Guatemala: cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch Jeffrey S; Samayoa Blanca E; Boivin Jean-François; Morales Rosa E; Johri Mira; Grazioso Carlos F; Barrios Matta Ingrid J; Sommen Cécile; Baide Diaz Eva L; Fong Hector R; Arathoon Eduardo G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Violence against women by their male intimate partners (IPV) during pregnancy may lead to negative pregnancy outcomes. We examined the role of IPV as a potential risk factor for miscarriage in Guatemala. Our objectives were: (1) To describe the magnitude and pattern of verbal, physical and sexual violence by male intimate partners in the last 12 months (IPV) in a sample of pregnant Guatemalans; (2) To evaluate the influence of physical or sexual IPV on miscarriage as a pre...

  18. Carriles para alta velocidad. Comportamiento en fatiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duart, J. M.

    2005-02-01

    -aire inducido. Los ensayos de fatiga de los carriles soldados se llevan a cabo por flexión en cuatro puntos en concordancia con la norma europea. El método Locati, descrito en esta nota, está basado en la Ley de Miner de daño acumulado y en las curvas de Wohler del material ensayado. Permite calcular, con precisión suficiente, las tensiones límites de fatiga al 50%. Así, los valores obtenidos, en ensayos a dos millones de ciclos, para carriles sin soldar (Sf = 353 MPa, carriles soldados con precalentamiento de oxipropano (Sf = 225 MPa y carriles soldados con precalentamiento de propano-aire inducido (Sf = 210 MPa son muy similares y aceptables a los estipulados por los métodos de determinación del límite de fatiga según norma europea. Debido a la comodidad, rapidez y bajo coste del método Locati resulta, en nuestra opinión, muy adecuado para el control de calidad de los procesos de soldadura aluminotérmica en vigor, de carriles de alta resistencia.

  19. La acción política de las viudas de pilotos en la Ciudad de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Camus

    2014-01-01

    The political action of the widows of bus drivers in the City of GuatemalaA wide range of violent acts is occurring within the context of a Guatemala caught in a post-conflictive problematic. Many urban transport drivers in Guatemala City have been executed by members of ‘pandillas’ or ‘maras’ (gangs) to force the payment of the extortion money, leaving their families devastated by the trama and the difficulties of survival. This paper centres on the difficulties that the widows of these driv...

  20. Whole genome sequencing identifies circulating Beijing-lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Guatemala and an associated urban outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Joseph W; Lau-Bonilla, Dalia; Moller, Anneliese; Medina, Narda; Guzmán, Brenda; Calderón, Maylena; Herrera, Raúl; Sisk, Dana M; Xet-Mull, Ana M; Stout, Jason E; Arathoon, Eduardo; Samayoa, Blanca; Tobin, David M

    2015-12-01

    Limited data are available regarding the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains circulating in Guatemala. Beijing-lineage Mtb strains have gained prevalence worldwide and are associated with increased virulence and drug resistance, but there have been only a few cases reported in Central America. Here we report the first whole genome sequencing of Central American Beijing-lineage strains of Mtb. We find that multiple Beijing-lineage strains, derived from independent founding events, are currently circulating in Guatemala, but overall still represent a relatively small proportion of disease burden. Finally, we identify a specific Beijing-lineage outbreak centered on a poor neighborhood in Guatemala City. PMID:26542222

  1. So That We Do Not Fall Again: History Education and Citizenship in "Postwar" Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Michelle J.

    2016-01-01

    This vertical case study applies a transitional justice approach to analyzing curricular reform, as intended, enacted, and experienced in the aftermath of Guatemala's civil war. Drawing on ethnographic data, I juxtapose the teaching and learning of historical injustice in one urban and one rural classroom, examining how particular depictions of…

  2. Estimated fumonisin exposure in Guatemala is greatest in consumers of lowland maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize samples (n=396) were collected from fields in Guatemala from 2000 to 2003. Maize from the lowlands (1200 m). Approximately 78% of the lowland samples collected at harvest in 2002 contained >0.3 ug/g of fumonisin B1, whereas, onl...

  3. Guatemala Project: The Traditional Laundering Place as a Non-Formal Health Education Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Royal D.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a nonformal adult education project designed to improve the health and nutrition of rural Guatemalan residents through the use of a traditional setting--the pila (an outdoor laundering place found throughout Guatemala), a modern medium (audio cassette and cassette player), and content which was a combination of modern and indigenous. (SH)

  4. A survey of geothermal process heat applications in Guatemala: An engineering survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altseimer, J.H.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1988-08-01

    This study investigates how process heat from Guatemala's geothermal energy resources can be developed to reduce Guatemala's costly importation of oil, create new employment by encouraging new industry, and reduce fuel costs for existing industry. This investigation was funded by the US Agency for International Development and carried out jointly by the Guatemalan Government and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two sites, Amatitlan and Zunil, are being developed geothermally. Amatitlan is in the better industrial area but Zunil's geothermal development is more advanced. The industry around Zunil is almost exclusively agricultural and the development of an agricultural processing plant (freezing, dehydration, and cold storage) using geothermal heat is recommended. Similar developments throughout the volcanic zones of Guatemala are possible. Later, when the field at Amatitlan has been further developed, an industrial park can be planned. Potential Amatitlan applications are the final stage of salt refining, a thermal power plant, hospital/hotel heating and cooling, steam curing of concrete blocks, production of alcohol from sugar cane, and production of polyethylene from ethanol. Other special developments such as water pumping for the city of Guatemala and the use of moderate-temperature geothermal fluids for localized power production are also possible. 12 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. The Process of Developing a New Curriculum for Lower Secondary Education in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asturias de Barrios, Linda; Arellano, Veronica Merida

    2007-01-01

    The intention of this article is to present the way in which a proposal was put forward for a national basic curriculum for the lower level of secondary education in Guatemala, within a general curricular reform of the education system. In this process, the International Bureau of Education and UNESCO's national office in the country provided…

  6. Community-based Flood Risk Assessment using GIS for the Town of San Sebastian, Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Guarin, G.; Westen, van C.J.; Montoya, L.

    2005-01-01

    The municipality of San Sebastián, considered one of the most prone to natural hazards in Guatemala, was selected as one of the pilot areas of the UNESCO program on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction”. The town is located within the Samalá basin, near the active channel of the river,

  7. A preliminary checklist of macrofungi of Guatemala, with notes on edibility and traditional knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Arzú R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its biological wealth, current knowledge on the macromycetes inhabiting Guatemala is scant, in part because of the prolonged civil war that has prevented exploration of many ecological niches. We provide a preliminary literature–based checklist of the macrofungi occuring in the various ecological regions of Guatemala, supplemented with original observations reported here for the first time. Three hundred and fifty species, 163 genera, and 20 orders in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota have been reported from Guatemala. Many of the entries pertain to ectomycorrhizal fungal species that live in symbiosis with the several Pinus and Quercus species that form the extensive pine and mixed forests of the highlands (up to 3600 m a.s.l.. As part of an ongoing study of the ethnomycology of the Maya populations in the Guatemalan highlands, we also report on the traditional knowledge about macrofungi and their uses among native people. These preliminary data confirm the impression that Guatemala hosts a macrofungal diversity that is by no means smaller than that recorded in better studied neighboring Mesoamerican areas, such as Mexico and Costa Rica.

  8. A new species of Histura Razowski (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Polyorthini) from Guatemala attacking avocados (Persea americana) Lauraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histura perseavora Brown, new species, is described and illustrated from Guatemala. It is compared with Histura curvata (Meyrick) (from Brazil) and Histurodes costaricana Razowski (from Costa Rica). All specimens of H. perseavora were reared from either fruit, fruit pedicels, or young green branches...

  9. Teotamachilizti: an analysis of the language in a Nahua sermon from colonial Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madajczak, Julia; Pharao Hansen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the document teotamachilizti, a sermon in a Nahuan language from colonial Guatemala. It concludes that the language is a Central Nahuan language closely related to "classical Nahuatl", but with some features of an Eastern Nahuan language closely related to Pipil Nawat. It is...

  10. Violence in a Post-Conflict Context : Urban Poor Perceptions from Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Caroline; McIlwaine, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    The study documents how people living in poor urban communities in Guatemala perceive violence. Specifically, it identifies the categories of violence affecting poor communities, the costs of different types of violence, the effects on violence on social capital, the interventions employed by people to deal with violence, and the causes and effects of social exclusion. The study develops a...

  11. Lessons Learned from the USAID Girls' Education Activity in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, Andrea; Brush, Lorelei

    The Girls' Education Activity (GEA) is a project of the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID's) Office of Women in Development (WID) in the Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade. This report summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from 12 project initiatives in the 3 participating countries (Guatemala,…

  12. Implementation of the recommendation given by Wamap to Guatemala with regard to management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear activity in Guatemala is restricted to the study and application of radioisotopes in the fields of medicine, industry, agriculture, and research. However, these activities have been increased ever the years, and the radioactive materials that are no longer useful have been converted into wastes that mission gave recommendations for the safe management of the radioactive wastes generated in our country

  13. Human Conservation in Central America, Summary of a Conference (Guatemala, Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is a resume consisting chiefly of extracts from papers that were presented at a conference on Human Conservation in Central America, held in Guatemala in 1965, as well as from discussions that took place during the conferences. With cooperation of numerous organizations and guidance from the Conservation Foundation, a discussion of…

  14. Intervention by Invitation? Shared Sovereignty in the Fight against Impunity in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Maihold

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG, a joint hybrid commission to investigate impunity in the context of illegal security networks and organized crime. It was set up as an external governance intervention through an agreement between the UN and the State of Guatemala in 2006 to strengthen state institutions in the face of a worsening security situation. Based on a delegation of governance in the modality of shared sovereignty, CICIG has been operating in the country since 2006, trying to generate support in the national realm and the judicial system of Guatemala while exposed to the critical junctures of the highly contested national debates on its existence. More specifically, the article analyses the patterns of appropriation and rejection of CICIG by different actor constellations. Through a critical discourse analysis, actor constellations are specified, various themes of appropriation and rejection are detected and specific aspects of CICIG’s mandate are investigated. Resumen: ¿Intervención por invitación? Soberanía compartida en la lucha contra la impunidad en Guatemala En el centro del texto se trata la Comisión Internacional contra la Impunidad en Guatemala (CICIG, una comisión híbrida conjunta que realiza averiguaciones sobre la impunidad en el contexto de las redes ilegales de seguridad y el crimen organizado. Esta entidad fue concebida como una intervención externa de gobernanza en base a un acuerdo entre las NN.UU. y el estado de Guatemala en 2006 con la intención de fortalecer las instituciones estatales ante una situación de seguridad empeorada. Fundamentada en la delegación de gobernanza como soberanía compartida, la CICG está operando desde hace ocho años en Guatemala y ha vivido las coyunturas de los debates nacionales altamente polarizados sobre su quehacer. El texto analiza los patrones de apropiación y rechazo de la CICIG por diferentes configuraciones

  15. Subverting Justice: Socio-Legal Determinants of Impunity for Violence against Women in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Menjívar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High levels of violence against women and impunity in Guatemala have reached crisis proportions and have received increased international attention in recent years. The phenomenon of feminicide (e.g., killings of women in the context of state impunity, is widespread in Latin America and particularly acute in Guatemala. Many (if not the majority are rooted in violence that becomes concentrated in the family. In this paper, we propose that both the structure and application of the laws in Guatemala contribute to widespread impunity. Police and judges use laws other than those created to address violence against women in order to justify lack of enforcement. For example, judges resist issuing restraining orders, and police refuse to apply them because this can violate perpetrators’ property rights. Judges also refuse to apply domestic violence laws because this violates the principle of equality under the law. Women refuse to use the legal system to seek justice because alimony laws will not be enforced and women are economically dependent. The discriminatory fashion in which these laws are applied leads to widespread impunity. Even though laws on the books could be applied otherwise, those who implement them privilege laws that conflict with violence against women laws. While much scholarship focuses on individual-level motives for violence, we instead analyze the socio-legal environment and existing legal codes that enable continued failure to respond adequately to violence against women. The legal framework and the legal code itself are deeply shaped by the context in which they are written—the structural, gender, symbolic, everyday and long arm of political violence that permeate all aspects of life in Guatemala and exacerbate women’s vulnerability, especially the poor. We argue that this broader legal context endangers the lives of women in Guatemala. We also extend the socio-legal scholarship to highlight failures for victim

  16. High intensity Discharge lighting; Alumbrado de alta intensidad de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J. [Manufacturera de Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper gets into contact with some fundamentals in the operation of high discharge intensity lamps. There are useful definitions, as well as the study of the operation of high pressure sodium lamps and of metallic additives operating at less than nominal power. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone al lector en contacto con algunos fundamentos de la operacion de las lamparas de alta intensidad de descarga (HID). Se encuentra con definiciones utiles, asi como el estudio de la operacion de las lamparas de sodio en alta presion y de aditivos metalicos operando a una potencia menor que la nominal.

  17. Enriquecimiento curricular para el alumnado con altas capacidades en primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Boldú Caballero, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    La finalidad de este documento es proporcionar al lector, primero, una rápida ojeada a la trayectoria histórica de la atención a las NEE (más concretamente de las altas capacidades); segundo, una conceptualización de las altas capacidades y sus necesidades educativas específicas tomando como punto de referencia algunos de lo más eminentes autores y corrientes psicopedagógicas actuales o del pasado reciente; y por último, facilitar ejemplos prácticos desde la perspectiva del doc...

  18. Cócs. Hallmark of the Terra Alta

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Del Loreto Meix

    2004-01-01

    This article looks at the traditional cake making in the Terra Alta (Catalonien) area linked to festivities, and in particular the pastries usually made. In this area the pastries are known as cócs, a word common to Terra Alta and the neighbouring districts of Ribera d'Ebre and the Priorat. Locally produced mistelle, sweet or rancid wine is served with the pastries. Nowadays, the bakeries and cake makers in the area's towns and villages also produce traditionally crafted products, tha...

  19. Actividad antioxidante de extractos de diez basidiomicetos comestibles en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Belloso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Los antioxidantes son esenciales en el cuerpo humano para prevenir el daño oxidativo. Estas substancias pueden obtenerse de diversas fuentes como frutas, plantas y hongos. En Guatemala, diversas especies de hongos comestibles son comercializadas y consumidas, sin embargo su actividad antioxidante no ha sido documentada en el país. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la actividad antioxidante de extractos acuosos y etanólicos obtenidos de diez especies de basidiomicetos comestibles (Agaricus aff. bisporus, Agaricus brunnescens, Armillariella polymyces, Amanita garabitoana, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus lateritius, Laccaria amethystina, Lactarius deliciosus, Neolentinus ponderosus y Pleurotus ostreatus. Se utilizó un método cualitativo por cromatografía en capa fina (CCF y tres ensayos macrométricos in vitro de cuantificación de fenoles totales, reducción del radical 1,1-difenil-2-pricrilhidrazilo (DPPH y decoloración del radical catiónico del reactivo ácido 2,2’-azinobis-(acido-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfónico (ABTS. Los extractos acuosos mostraron mayor actividad antioxidante que los extractos etanólicos en todas las técnicas cuantitativas realizadas. La especie que mostró mayor actividad antioxidante en ambos extractos fue B. edulis, cuyos resultados fueron: fenoles totales del extracto acuoso 93.46 ± 18.17 mg/g y 42.70 ± 3.48 mg/g, DPPH CI50 del extracto acuoso 0.93 mg/mL (IC95 0.65-1.28 y 2.75 mg/mL (IC95 2.46-3.07 del extracto etanólico; y en ABTS CI50 del extracto acuoso 0.96 mg/mL (IC95 0.63-1.35 y 4.13 mg/mL (IC95 2.67-5.88 del extracto etanólico. Por la actividad antioxidante de los extractos acuosos de algunas de las especies de basidiomicetos, pueden promoverse como alimentos funcionales.

  20. Enough food is not enough - Litigation as a strategy to secure the right to food in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Lene Christine Morvik

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the conditions for legal enforcement of the right to food in Guatemala. In recent years there has been an increase in the phenomenon of protecting social rights through the legal opportunity structures and public interest litigation. As the right to food is frequently being violated in Guatemala, the country has both national and international legal obligations concerning the right to food, and there has been litigation on other economic, social and cultural ri...

  1. Energy security and sustainable development implications for Guatemala of the Electricity Generation Expansion Plan 2014-2028

    OpenAIRE

    Ochaeta Paz, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Electricity consumption in Guatemala has been steadily increasing during the recent years, challenging the generation sector to keep up with the pace of electricity demand in the long term. To tackle this problem, the government of Guatemala has delineated the Electricity Generation Expansion Plan for the period 2014-2028, proposing several hypothetical future scenarios of the energy mix for electricity production. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate how the fulfillment of this plan would i...

  2. Características del alumnado con altas capcidades

    OpenAIRE

    Grau Rubio, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Se describen las características del alumnado con altas capacidades, la terminología más usual y la clasificación. Asimismo, se expone la teoría de la disincronía y los mitos relacionados con este alumnado.

  3. Investigación en materiales sometidos a altas presiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fallas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de materiales sometidos a altas presiones es un tema de profundo interés en el campo científico e ingenieril actual. Diferentes análisis experimentales permiten descubrir los efectos que esta condición genera en la estructura molecular de un determinado compuesto.La implementación de la celda de diamante para altas presiones ha revolucionado este tema en las últimas décadas, al ser una herramienta vital en el desarrollo de estas pruebas. Presiones superiores, inclusive a los 20 Gpa, pueden ser generadas con este artefacto.Adicionalmente, la posibilidad de caracterizar muestras bajo estos parámetros y la inclusión de otras variables, como altas temperaturas, ofrecen un ambiente propicio para la evaluación de materiales bajo condiciones extremas.Este artículo explica los fundamentos básicos de la ciencia de materiales a altas presiones. Aspectos relevantes acerca de la celda de diamante y de la ejecución de experimentos son tratados en diferentes apartados. Se quiere compartir los alcances que esta disciplina posee, así como diferentes resultados que se han logrado en varias aplicaciones.Investigaciones en materiales para el almacenamiento de hidrógeno y energía, así como la simulación de condiciones presentes a muy altas profundidades en la Tierra, son casos que se tomaron en cuenta para ejemplificar áreas donde existen aplicaciones sustanciales.

  4. Modelo matemático de flujo del sistema acuífero del valle aluvial de antigua Guatemala, Sacatepéquez, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Orozco & Orozco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio es un modelo matemático de flujo de aguas subterráneas para el sistema acuífero presente en el valle aluvial de la Antigua Guatemala, Sacatepéquez, Guatemala. En el valle destacan unidades de rocas andesíticas y depósitos de lapilli, sobreyacidos por aluviones mezclados con sedimentos de piroclastos. Se estima una recarga potencial por precipitación de 50 millones m3/año, representando un 24% de la precipitación en la zona. Las tansmisividades del sistema acuífero van de 50 a 300 m2/día para los sedimentos superiores y de 600 a más de 5 000 m2/día para las rocas fracturadas. Coeficiente de almacenamiento de 0,1 desde Antigua Guatemala hasta Ciudad vieja constituyendo un acuífero libre y desde aquí hasta Alotenango, es semiconfinado con un coeficiente de almacenamiento de 0,01. El modelo matemático generado, se considera de aplicabilidad únicamente en el valle aluvial. En la calibración del modelo en estado transitorio, se tiene un error medio de 0,266 m. y un error de 2,36%: Por lo tanto, el modelo puede ser útil para hacer proyecciones de manejo y explotación futura de los recursos hídricos subterráneos de la zona.

  5. Sucesión y restauración ecológica en las partes altas de cuencas y la provisión de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Martínez Arévalo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción del proceso de sucesión ecológica alrededor de parches de bosque de pinabete (Abies guatemalensis en la parte alta de San Marcos, Guatemala, y como a partir de esta se puede establecer un plan de restauración ecológica que permita mejorar los servicios ambientales de estos ecosistemas en especial en la provisión de agua de tal manera que contribuya a equilibrar el ciclo hidrológico permitiendo una escurrimiento más lento y mayor infiltración. El estudio muestra una riqueza de 85 especies clasificadas en estrato herbáceo inferior, estrato herbáceo superior, arbustos y árboles, en donde se muestra una dinámica de la vegetación a través de los cinco estadios sucesionales estudiados, sin haber una dominancia total de unas pocas especies. Se resaltar el papel ecológico de los musgos en la sucesión ecológica y en la retención de agua y humedad, en el estudio hay tres especies que se mantienencon altos valores de importancia a través de los cinco estadios sucesionales. Se identificaron arbustos como plantas nodrizas que juegan un papel importante en el cambio de la fisonomía de la vegetación ya que permiten el establecimiento de especies de árboles que llevan hacia lamadurez del ecosistema y contribuyen a la retención de la humedad en el suelo. Se enfatiza en la contribución que la vegetación tiene en la retención del agua y su mejoramiento en las partes altas de la cuenca, en donde el pinabete es uno de los ecosistemas de mayor importancia.

  6. Agro-ecological drivers of rural out-migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration necessarily precedes environmental change in the form of deforestation and soil degradation in tropical settlement frontiers. But what environmental factors may contribute to these migration streams in the first place? Identification of the environmental characteristics related to this process is crucial for understanding how environmental change and migration may form recurrent feedback loops. Further understanding of this process could be useful for developing policies to both reduce environmentally induced migration from origin areas and also palliate significant environmental change unleashed by settler deforestation in destination areas. Evidently, apprehension of this holistic process cannot be approached only from the destination since this ignores environmental and other antecedents to rural out-migration. This letter presents data from surveys conducted in areas of high out-migration to the agricultural frontier in northern Guatemala. The results suggest that land scarcity and degradation in origin communities are linked to out-migration in general and to the forest frontier of northern Guatemala in particular. (letter)

  7. Re-evaluation of the 1976 Guatemala earthquake taking into account the environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, Sabina; Esposito, Eliana; Spiga, Efisio; Sacchi, Marco; Molisso, Flavia; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Guatemala is one of the most seismically active countries in Central America.The largest earthquakes are produced by along the subduction zone of the Cocos and Caribbean plates in the Middle America Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Large earthquakes are also triggered along the boundary between the North American and the Caribbean plates, defined by a zone of large left lateral strike-slip faults that run through Guatemala from the Swan Fracture Zone in the Caribbean Sea. The earthquakes generated along these transcurrent faults, although less frequent, have a great importance to seismic hazard in Central America, more than the subduction-related earthquakes, because of their shallow ipocenters and the proximity of many cities and villages to these active structures. The most destructive event in this region was the earthquake occurred on 4, February 1976 in Guatemala, associated with the Motagua fault, causing 23 000 deaths, and 77 200 injuries. This study attempts at reconstructing the coseismic effects on the environment, to better assess the intensities according to the ESI scale 2007. For the Guatemala 1976 earthquake (M=7,5), the original scientific seismic, geological and macroseismic reports have been reviewed in order to highlight effects on natural environment. The maximum estimated intensity was IX MM in Gualan, in the Mixco area and in the centre of Guatemala City. Intensities value were underestimated despite there was a high level of damages, in fact several towns and villages were totally destroyed and although the earthquake triggered very large and spectacular primary and secondary ground effects. On the basis of all the gathered information has been possible to detect and to localize coseismic environmental effects, and classify them into six main types: surface faulting, slope movements, ground cracks, ground settlements, hydrological changes and tsunami. Primary effects was identified in the Motagua Valley and the mountainous area W of the valley, a

  8. Guatemala's green revolution: synthetic fertilizer, public health, and economic autonomy in the Mayan highland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite extensive literature both supporting and critiquing the Green Revolution, surprisingly little attention has been paid to synthetic fertilizers' health and environmental effects or indigenous farmers' perspectives. The introduction of agrochemicals in the mid-twentieth century was a watershed event for many Mayan farmers in Guatemala. While some Maya hailed synthetic fertilizers' immediate effectiveness as a relief from famines and migrant labor, other lamented the long-term deterioration of their public health, soil quality, and economic autonomy. Since the rising cost of agrochemicals compelled Maya to return to plantation labor in the 1970s, synthetic fertilizers simply shifted, rather than alleviated, Mayan dependency on the cash economy. By highlighting Mayan farmers' historical narratives and delineating the relationship between agricultural science and postwar geopolitics, the constraints on agriculturists' agency become clear. In the end, politics, more than technology or agricultural performance, influenced guatemala's shift toward the Green Revolution. PMID:19824230

  9. Alta Velocità e innovazioni tecnologiche e funzionali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Giovanna Trifiletti

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La realizzazione di linee e di stazioni dell’Alta Velocità, oltre ad influire sullo sviluppo urbanistico delle aree interessate, sta cambiando radicalmente le relazioni spazio-temporali fra i diversi centri urbani connessi dalla rete del trasporto su ferro. Da un lato sono mutate le funzioni assunte dai contenitori-stazione e dall’altro sta mutando la domanda di trasporto che promuove, per le tratte coperte dalle linee dell’Alta Velocità, il treno rispetto all’aereo e alla macchina. In Italia, sulla scia del modello francese, il Gruppo Ferrovie dello Stato RFI, al fine di rendere più confortevole ed efficiente il viaggio sui treni ad Alta Velocità, ha dotato i nuovi treni di numerose innovazioni tecnologiche. Per quanto riguarda l’utilizzo di nuove tecnologie lungo le linee dell’A.V., l’articolo individua la variazione delle abitudini degli utenti al mutare dell’offerta dei servizi predisposti dalle compagnie trasportistiche. La tecnologia utilizzata sui nuovi treni dell’Alta Velocità cambia dunque il concept del viaggio: il valore aggiunto della tecnologia Wi-Fi introdotta sui treni rende la scelta del trasporto su ferro più produttiva rispetto gli altri modi di trasporto quali la macchina o l’aereo. La finalità dell’articolo è da un lato individuare il ruolo urbano assunto delle stazioni dell’Alta Velocità e dall’altro evidenziare come al mutare dell’offerta di trasporto, in termini di servizi offerti ad alto contenuto tecnologico, muta contestualmente anche la domanda di trasporto sul territorio e come tutto questo incida dunque sul governo delle trasformazioni territoriali. Questo è il nuovo importante ruolo della pianificazione: alcune delle nostre più importanti città stanno radicalmente trasformandosi proprio inserendo nei loro cuori le stazioni dell’Alta Velocità come elementi-chiave di accessibilità, vitale per la competitività in tutti i settori economici. Allo stesso modo le stazioni

  10. Guatemala; Ex Post Evaluation of Exceptional Access Under the 2009 Stand-By Arrangement

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the deteriorating economy of Guatemala, authorities requested a Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) with access of SDR 630.6 million in April 2009, which aimed at safeguarding macroeconomic and financial stability and anchoring investor confidence. Executive Directors have agreed that the SBA is successful in mitigating the financial crisis. Directors have appreciated the authorities’ commitment in implementing policies focused on short-term macroeconomic and financial stability on time, an...

  11. 167 Allergen Sensitization in Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Rigalt, Ann Michelle; Maselli, Juan Pablo; Alvarado, Ninotchka; Carpio, Paola; Chur, Víctor; Mayén, Patricia; Morán, Edgar; Pinto, Mario; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no previous studies published reporting allergen sensitizations in the population of most Central American countries, including Guatemala. There are many types of climates in different regions, with variable altitude, humidity, etc. The purpose of this study was to determine the most common allergen sensitizations in children with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in 4 different regions. Methods The study was performed on 461 children aged 5 to 15 years, from 4 different regio...

  12. Transitions to peace effects on internal security forces in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Atha, Roberto J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines the effect of transitions to peace in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala on internal security forces. It reveals how the influence of the military affected the implementation of internal security reforms, influencing the professionalism and effectiveness of police forces in the fight against violence and gangs today. The research shows Sandinista influence allowed Nicaragua to maintain an experienced core of security personnel that has confronted the present challeng...

  13. Water and sustainable land use at the ancient tropical city of Tikal, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Scarborough, Vernon L.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Tankersley, Kenneth B.; Carr, Christopher; Weaver, Eric; Grazioso, Liwy; Lane, Brian; Jones, John G.; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Lentz, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The access to water and the engineered landscapes accommodating its collection and allocation are pivotal issues for assessing sustainability. Recent mapping, sediment coring, and formal excavation at Tikal, Guatemala, have markedly expanded our understanding of ancient Maya water and land use. Among the landscape and engineering feats identified are the largest ancient dam identified in the Maya area of Central America; the posited manner by which reservoir waters were released; construction...

  14. Banditismo giovanile e mercato della sicurezza in un barrio di Città del Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    È opinione comune ritenere che con la firma degli accordi di pace e lo smantellamento degli apparati militari in Guatemala sia venuto meno il monopolio dello Stato nella gestione della sicurezza pubblica. Nuovi spazi economici all’interno del mercato della sicurezza si sarebbero allora aperti; spazi presto occupati anche da attori armati e illegali quali narcotraf-ficanti e bande giovanili. L’autore analizza a questo proposito il processo di formazione delle prime maras (gang) e la fondazione...

  15. Abuse and discrimination towards indigenous people in public health care facilities: experiences from rural Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Cerón, Alejandro; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Sánchez, Silvia; Chew, Aiken S.; Díaz, Diego; Hernández, Alison; Flores, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Background Health inequalities disproportionally affect indigenous people in Guatemala. Previous studies have noted that the disadvantageous situation of indigenous people is the result of complex and structural elements such as social exclusion, racism and discrimination. These elements need to be addressed in order to tackle the social determinants of health. This research was part of a larger participatory collaboration between Centro de Estudios para la Equidad y Gobernanza en los Servici...

  16. Energy expenditure and socioeconomic status in Guatemala as measured by the doubly labelled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy expenditure of lower (group 1) and upper socioeconomic group females (group 2) from a marginal community in Guatemala City was determined by using the doubly labelled water method. Energy expenditure values were 1925 +/- 66 (mean, SEM) kcal/d (group 1) and 2253 +/- 145 kcal/d group 2 (p less than 0.03). About half of this difference can be attributed to size

  17. Geographies of Body Politics: Women Negotiating Machismo in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Fordal, Marte Irene

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a study of gender based violence (GBV) in Guatemala, and seeks to examine how male violence towards women can be seen as manifestations of machismo. Machismo  is recognized as a set of Latin American hegemonic masculinities and this thesis focuses on its Guatemalan form. Both manifestations of machismo and women’s negotiation of such manifestations are bodily experiences, and thus, the female body is at the core of this inquiry. Geographies of body politics is a contextualized ...

  18. Mayans in the news : a study of the formation of post-conflict identities in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Marginalization and unequal standing of indigenous groups have contributed significantly to the violent conflict, and are some of the biggest challenges facing present-day Guatemala. By providing a case study, this thesis examines how the national news media could provide another link in the complex causal chain of post-conflict conflict resolution. The thesis assumption is thereby based on Human Needs Theory, and the adressal of the cultural needs of identity and recognition.

  19. Water Resources Management in Guatemala and Nicaragua. Report From a Mission April/May 1993

    OpenAIRE

    Damhaug, T.; Ibrekk, H.O.

    1993-01-01

    Central-America is a region where Norwegian development assistance started in the mid 1980s. Few Norwegian scientists have experience from this part of the world. As part of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs scholarship program a mission was undertaken to a study water resources management in Guatemala and Nicaragua. The objective of the mission was to assess the water resources problems facing Central American and to assess the administrative and legal framework for water resources m...

  20. The MANGUA Project: A Population-Based HIV Cohort in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ignacio García; Blanca Samayoa; Meritxell Sabidó; Luis Alberto Prieto; Mikhail Nikiforov; Rodolfo Pinzón; Luis Roberto Santa Marina de León; José Fernando Ortiz; Ernesto Ponce; Carlos Rodolfo Mejía; Eduardo Arathoon; Jordi Casabona; The Mangua Cohort Study Group

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The MANGUA cohort is an ongoing multicenter, observational study of people living with HIV/AIDS in Guatemala. The cohort is based on the MANGUA application which is an electronic database to capture essential data from the medical records of HIV patients in care. Methods. The cohort enrolls HIV-positive adults ≥16 years of age. A predefined set of sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and laboratory data are registered at entry to the cohort study. Results. As of October 1st, ...

  1. A process evaluation of PRONTO simulation training for obstetric and neonatal emergency response teams in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Dilys M. Walker; Holme, Francesca; Zelek, Sarah T.; Olvera-García, Marisela; Montoya-Rodríguez, Airaín; Fritz, Jimena; Fahey, Jenifer; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Cohen, Susanna; Kestler, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite expanding access to institutional birth in Guatemala, maternal mortality remains largely unchanged over the last ten years. Enhancing the quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care is one important strategy to decrease mortality. An innovative, low-tech, simulation-based team training program (PRONTO) aims to optimize care provided during obstetric and neonatal emergencies in low-resource settings. Methods We conducted PRONTO simulation training between July 2012 and ...

  2. The marimba: musical and secret language of the political violence in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The author reflects the construction of national music while the arise of the nation State in Guatemala. This development begins formally while the first decades of the nineteenth century and has not finished yet. For the myth of the Nation state and those who use it for their project of domination it is crucial that national music can be distinguished externally from musics generated by other nations while it can be applied internally for the aim of national homogenisation. Since the middle ...

  3. El Salvador and Guatemala security sector reform and political party system effects on organized crime

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Since the signing of peace treaties in El Salvador and Guatemala in 1992 and 1996 respectively, both countries have experienced exploding levels of crime and violence as a result of gangs, drug trafficking organizations, and organized crime. Because both nations share many common traits, a general perception is that the causes and effects of criminal activity are similar in both countries. The patterns, causes, and effects of criminal ...

  4. The Politics and Semiotics of Sounds – Mayan Linguistics and Nation-Building in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    M. French, Brigittine

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development Mayan linguistics as an authoritative field of knowledge in Guatemala. In particular, it links missionary linguists’ and Maya linguists’ activities with shifting nationalist agendas from the 1920s in to the late 1980s. It is argued that during the historical and intellectual moment that linguistics becomes an authoritative epistemology, phonetic analysis functions as a creative index that constitutes »expert« knowledge for particular semioti...

  5. Active Management of Third Stage of Labour Saves Facility Costs in Guatemala and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Judith T Fullerton; Frick, Kevin D.; Fogarty, Linda A.; Fishel, Joy D.; Vivio, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    This study calculated the net benefit of using active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) rather than expectant management of the third stage of labour (EMTSL) for mothers in Guatemala and Zambia. Probabilities of events were derived from opinions of experts, publicly available data, and published literature. Costs of clinical events were calculated based on national price lists, observation of resources used in AMTSL and EMTSL, and expert estimates of resources used in managing p...

  6. Guatemala; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC)—Data Module

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) provides an assessment of Guatemala’s macroeconomic statistics against the General Data Dissemination System complemented by an assessment of data quality based on the IMF’s Data Quality Assessment Framework. The assessment reveals that the legal framework for statistical activity is broadly adequate, and institutions display a commitment to disseminate macroeconomic statistics, largely through the Internet. However, there is sco...

  7. Small forests owners and environmental sustainability in Guatemala: The potential of the Carbon Banking approach

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Barrios, Fernando; Bigsby, Hugh R.; Kerr, Geoffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Forest carbon is potentially an important income stream for small land owners in Guatemala that would help to cease deforestation and forest degradation pressures. However, the temporary nature of sequestered forest carbon, the risk of environmental disturbances releasing forest sequestered carbon, and the form of international carbon markets affect the ability of small forest owners to participate in carbon trading schemes. This paper reports the results of an investigation into the stabilit...

  8. Paleokarst Evaluation in the Upper Albian Calcareous Platforms in Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco-Velázquez B.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation in México, Guatemala and Honduras of theUpper Albian platform carbonate rocks that were exposed to subaerial conditions by the falling of the sea level, exposing the rocks to the physical, chemical and temperature phenomena allowing for some type of karst formation. There is a methodology for the identification of paleokarsts by the petrology, fabrics, geometry and stratigraphy of the breccias. Only at Dengandho in the Actopan Platform there are the evidence...

  9. From the parents’ perspective: a user-satisfaction survey of immunization services in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera, Lissette; Trumbo, Silas Pierson; Bravo-Alcántara, Pamela; Velandia-González, Martha; Danovaro-Holliday, M. Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunization coverage levels in Guatemala have increased over the last two decades, but national targets of ≥95% have yet to be reached. To determine factors related to undervaccination, Guatemala’s National Immunization Program conducted a user-satisfaction survey of parents and guardians of children aged 0–5 years. Variables evaluated included parental immunization attitudes, preferences, and practices; the impact of immunization campaigns and marketing strategies; and factors in...

  10. MODELLING THIRTY FIVE YEARS OF COFFEE PRICES IN BRAZIL, GUATEMALA AND INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Mohan; Bill Russell

    2008-01-01

    Over the past thirty five years coffee markets have been subject to market controls and regulations culminating in the liberalisation of coffee markets in the early 1990s. This paper models the relationship between the producers’ and world prices of coffee in Brazil, Guatemala and India allowing for the effects of changes in market structures. We find that liberalisation has benefited producers substantially in terms of higher real coffee prices and a higher share of the world price of coffee.

  11. Rich among the poor : church, firm, and household among small-scale entrepreneurs in Guatemala City

    OpenAIRE

    Gooren, H.P.P.

    2001-01-01

    The vast majority of people living in developing countries are deeply religious, which suggests that they devote a good deal of time and money to their church. In Latin America, traditionally a Roman Catholic stronghold, other Christian churches have grown explosively over the last two decades. In Guatemala, as much as a quarter of the population now considers itself Pentecostal, Mormon, Adventist, or Jehovah's Witness. Rich among the Poor explores possible social consequences of these religi...

  12. Deep structural setting of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary in eastern Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Giunta, G; M. Guzmán-Speziale; Menichetti, M.; E. Lodolo; Zanolla, C

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional inverse gravity modeling is presented to help determine the deep structural framework of the left-lateral Polochic-Motagua fault systems. They represent a major segment of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary. These seismically active tectonic lineaments, crossing broadly E-W Guatemala, are superimposed over a narrow suture where slices of ophiolitic assemblages crop out. Within the principal displacement zone of the fault systems, pull-apart basins and restraining zone...

  13. Child Sponsorship: The Approaches Adopted by Two NGOs in Response to Child Poverty in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Thomas Stanfield

    2014-01-01

    Child poverty is one of the fundamental issues currently confronting Guatemalan society. This study examines the efforts of two international NGOs to address child poverty in this country. Compassion Guatemala is a faith-based evangelical NGO which enables foreign donors to sponsor individual Guatemalan children by funding the costs of support services in areas of the child’s educational, health and spiritual development, from pre-school years through to secondary school completion and beyond...

  14. Glocalization and Transnationalization in (neo)-Mayanization Processes: Ethnographic Case Studies from Mexico and Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Manéli Farahmand

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the field of neo-Mayanity and its current transformations. She analyzes these transformations using a historico-ethnographic approach, which includes two phases. The first one consists in reconstructing the historical development of the “Mayan” category in two different social contexts. The second one focuses on current narrative and imageries produced around this category, stemming from ethnographic fieldwork in Mexico and Guatemala. Since the “2012 phe...

  15. Managing the threat of violence in Guatemala: Violence as part of women's everyday lives

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Anja Karin

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I explore the prevalence of violence against women in Guatemala. Violence is considered a part of everyday life because it has become normalized. By normal" I refer to both the frequency of the act and its perceived legitimacy. Due to this normalization, much violence is considered something women should simply endure. Although women suffer different types of violence, I argue that they must be seen within the same framework and I show how violence in public and private sphere...

  16. Subjective well-being and basic needs: Evidence from rural Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Guardiola, Jorge; Garc??a-Mu??oz, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the basic needs fulfilment interpreted in a subjective way. We first consider the theoretical implications that basic needs have, from the perception of the individuals, within the literature of subjective well being. Secondly, we estimate the influence of some characteristics into the reported basic needs from a sample in rural Guatemala. An ordinal regression indicates that some indicators such as education and certain livelihoods are related to perceived basic needs f...

  17. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duffield, W.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  18. Estabilidad y funcionalidad de sellantes dentales en altas temperaturas ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    Mishina, Anastasia; Mayelín Guerra, Rosa; Durán Ramos, Ivette; Juan D. Sabatier

    2000-01-01

    Los sellantes dentales son materiales que se emplean en estomatología para sellar las fosas y fisuras oclusales de los dientes y evitar la adherencia del estreptococus mutans agente que produce la caries dental. Estos materiales se suministran en dos partes que al mezclarse producen el endurecimiento de la resina. Sin embargo, estos productos presentan dificultades para su comercialización en los países tropicales, debido a que las altas temperaturas ambientales traen problemas en...

  19. Luces y sombras de la lectura en voz alta

    OpenAIRE

    Cassany, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    En el siguiente artículo aborda una práctica tan extendida en las aulas de todos los niveles educativos como es la lectura en voz alta. A partir de su experiencia personal y profesional, formula un análisis ameno, provocador y fundamentado, una constante en sus textos y conferencias, que suscitará en el lector docente nuevas perspectivas acerca de su trabajo.

  20. Cuaderno de Prácticas: Altas Capacidades

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, José Manuel; Vicent Juan, Maria; Gonzálvez Macià, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Este material, centrado en el estudio de las Altas Capacidades, pretende favorecer la adquisición de destrezas en el conocimiento e intervención en el ámbito de la educación especial para conocer de primera mano las diferentes formas que se tienen para actuar e intervenir ante niños con necesidades específicas de apoyo educativo.

  1. Los colosos del campo: tractores de alta potencia

    OpenAIRE

    Moya Gonzalez, Adolfo; Diezma Iglesias, Belen

    2014-01-01

    Revisión y descripción de las principales características de los tractores de alta potencia en el sector agrícola español. La agricultura profesional es una empresa compleja y la inversión en formación de los agentes implicados en el sector (agricultores e ingenieros) es la llave para conseguir aprovechar toda la tecnología disponible y optimizar los recursos usados.

  2. Cócs. Hallmark of the Terra Alta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Loreto Meix

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the traditional cake making in the Terra Alta (Catalonien area linked to festivities, and in particular the pastries usually made. In this area the pastries are known as cócs, a word common to Terra Alta and the neighbouring districts of Ribera d'Ebre and the Priorat. Locally produced mistelle, sweet or rancid wine is served with the pastries. Nowadays, the bakeries and cake makers in the area's towns and villages also produce traditionally crafted products, that used only to be homemade.The article, resulting from the final degree project produced by the author for her Humanities degree at the UOC, offers a privileged look at the richness of the Terra Alta in terms of its gastronomic history, customs and its high regard for its cakes. The author, who has previous experience in the field, places the specific aspects of Terra Alta cake making in the context of the Mediterranean cultures with common roots dating back to the ancient and medieval worlds and which still have an easily identifiable "family feel", whilst looking, from an ethnographic point of view, at what she calls the "world of wheat" in the area, (the dough for bread, the craft of the baker, the ovens and other tools, and the associated traditions, among other things. In short, she rescues a living part of the local day-to-day activities and places it under the microscope of food history, whilst providing information that may well be of interest for study from other points of view.

  3. Drivers of Sustainable Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction in Central America : Guatemala Case Study, Volume 2. Background Papers and Technical Appendices

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This regional study encompasses three Central American countries: Nicaragua, Guatemala and Honduras. The focus of this report is Guatemala. The study is motivated by several factors: First is the recognition that sub-national regions are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, and economically differentiated as part of ongoing processes of development and diversification, with some areas adva...

  4. Drivers of Sustainable Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction in Central America : Guatemala Case Study, Volume 1. Executive Summary and Main Text

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This regional study encompasses three Central American countries: Nicaragua, Guatemala and Honduras. The focus of this report is Guatemala. The study is motivated by several factors: First is the recognition that sub-national regions are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, and economically differentiated as part of ongoing processes of development and diversification, with some areas adva...

  5. Relaciones entre africanos e indígenas en Chiapas y Guatemala Relations between africans and indigenous peoples in Chiapas and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Peña Vicenteño

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia africana en la Audiencia de Guatemala en los siglos XVI y XVII ha sido poco estudiada. Por lo tanto, en este trabajo se analizarán los diferentes mecanismos que utilizó la corona española para el traslado de esclavos, como las licencias y el sistema de asientos. Asimismo, se estudiará la inserción de los africanos en la sociedad colonial y principalmente su interrelación con la población indígena nativa de la región. En los documentos coloniales referentes a matrimonios, podemos observar los procesos de "interculturalidad" en los cuales el esclavo africano intercambió elementos culturales que influyeron en la música. Tal fue el caso de la marimba, instrumento que dio identidad a la región de estudio. Por último, se pretende observar, a través del análisis de las narrativas indígenas originadas en la década de los 90' del siglo XX, cómo en la cosmovisión indígena aún continúa la presencia de los "negros".The presence of African population at the "Audiencia" of Guatemala between 16th and 17th centuries has been vaguely studied by historians and other social scientists. This paper emphasizes on several ways -as slave trade licenses and 'asientos'- that were used by the Spanish Crown for slave trade and transportation. In addition, this article analyses the integration of African slaves and their descendents in Colonial Mexican society, especially their mixture with indigenous population. In Colonial records, as marriages and baptisms files, it is possibly to regard a profound influence on inter-cultural processes between African people and the rest of the Colonial casts. As an example, the musical instrument 'marimba' that brought cultural identity to Guatemala 'Audiencia'. Finally, in this article we will analyze the indigenous literature of the last decade of the 20th century, in which is clear the evidence of "negro" agents in indigenous cosmology.

  6. Regiones y tendencias de integración económica fronteriza entre chiapas y Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez, César E.

    2013-01-01

    Note portant sur l'auteur NUEVAS ESPECIFICIDADES DE LA FRONTERA MÉXICO-GUATEMALA La frontera de México y Guatemala, como límite político, tiene una longitud de 963 kilómetros, de los que corresponden a Chiapas 655 kilómetros en tierra firme más el espacio de 200 millas de mar adentro en el océano Pacífico. El proceso que llevó a la delimitación política coincide con el de implementación del capitalismo primario exportador que se expresó en Chiapas y Guatemala en plantaciones cafetaleras de gr...

  7. Guatemala: An analysis of Obstacles to Universal Access: Hundreds of PLWA Fall Between the Cracks Each Month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stern

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of two articles that describe the situation of ARVT access in Guatemala. The second will focus on drug procurement processes, prices, and other related topics. The response to the HIV epidemic in Guatemala has grown considerably over the past five years. This is not just about national efforts, but also international assistance, particularly The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. The response during this period has increased both prevention efforts and medical attention to PLWA . Nonetheless, current data shows the response has yet to reach the required level for halting the spread of the epidemic, particularly in terms of delivering antiretrovirals and comprehensive health care. As reported in the last UNGASS country progress report (Dec. 2009, 10,362 PLWHA (768 children and 9594 adults were receiving ARVs in Guatemala.

  8. TransForm: TransAlta 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from TransAlta Corp. was presented along with a review of their operations throughout 2000 and a summary of the how the electric utility is doing in terms of power generation, independent power producers, transmission and energy marketing. The utility has changed from a regulated vertically integrated utility into one of Canada's largest non-regulated electric power generators. The utility sold its retail businesses in Alberta and New Zealand and now focuses on coal and hydro generation, gas generation, high-voltage transmission and energy marketing. The newly constructed Centralia, Washington generation facility was brought on line with 1,340 MW in May 2000, on time and on budget. This was the platform to diversify their generation into the United States. The utility reported a solid financial year with $177.9 million in earnings from continuing operations, an 83 per cent increase from 1999, driven mostly by the results of Centralia and power marketing and trading businesses. A financial loss was suffered when the Wabamum power plant in Alberta was shut down for several months to repair a boiler. The utility made excellent progress toward their goal of 15,000 megawatts by 2005 by starting with the construction of what will be one of Canada's largest cogeneration facilities at Sarnia, Ontario. TransAlta also commissioned a 360 MW cogeneration facility at Poplar Creek at Suncor's Fort McMurray oil sand facility. TransAlta also has an excellent track record in developing power generation projects internationally. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Intervenciones y opciones de políticas para combatir la desnutrición en Guatemala Title: Intervention and Policy Options for Combating Malnutrition in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo Martorell

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio es identificar las causas de la desnutrición en Guatemala que enfrenta una paradoja en términos de la salud de su población. Por un lado, la desnutrición crónica de sus infantes (49,8% en los niños entre 3 y 59 meses) que se sitúa por encima de los niveles de África y cuadruplica el indicador promedio de América Latina. Por otro lado, la obesidad y el sobrepeso afectan a la mitad de sus mujeres, entre las cuales también ha aumentado de forma alarmante la tasa ...

  10. Alta disponibilidad para componentes de fabricación

    OpenAIRE

    Maciá Pérez, Francisco; Marcos Jorquera, Diego; Gilart Iglesias, Virgilio

    2006-01-01

    A medida que las tecnologías de la información van calando en el tejido productivo industrial, tanto más compleja se vuelve su organización. Es imprescindible introducir sistemas de gestión proactivos y autogestionados que aseguren su funcionamiento continuado y, en consecuencia, la continuidad en el negocio. En este artículo se propone un sistema de regeneración de los elementos de producción industrial que traslada el concepto de alta disponibilidad a los niveles de fabricación de la organi...

  11. Comportamiento a alta temperatura de paneles de cemento de magnesio

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia García, Mario

    2015-01-01

    El objeto principal de este proyecto final de máster es analizar el comportamiento a altas temperaturas de paneles de cemento de magnesio. Para completar el estudio se realiza un comparativo con paneles de alma de yeso, utilizados habitualmente en construcción. Dado su alto contenido en Cloruro de Magnesio, se marca como objetivo paralelo determinar si la dosificación de los diferentes componentes condiciona la cantidad de HCl emitido. Por último, se investiga la existencia de normas de refer...

  12. Endoscopia digestiva alta :análise de 100 exames

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Sofia Isabel Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Aplicando as indicações da American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE), um dos objetivos deste estudo foi avaliar o uso apropriado da Endoscopia Digestiva Alta (EDA) e a sua relação com os achados endoscópicos. A taxa de complicações e do uso da anestesia, as principais dificuldades, a tolerância e satisfação dos doentes também foram alvo de análise neste estudo. Métodos: Para este estudo prospetivo foram obtidos dados de 100 casos através de um inquérit...

  13. MCU para multiconferencias en alta definición

    OpenAIRE

    López Rubio, Javier

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen todos los pasos seguidos para el desarrollo de una MCU (Multipoint Control Unit), capaz de gestionar videoconferencias de alta definición. En el se incluyen las especificaciones y el diseño tanto a nivel de arquitectura como a nivel de aplicación. La MCU resultante es el resultado de la investigación que la fundación i2Cat, encargó al grupo de investigación de banda ancha del departamento de ingeniería telemática. Este trabajo se encuentra inclui...

  14. Vulnerabilidad en la cuenca alta del rio Lerma

    OpenAIRE

    Cedeño Valdiviezo, Alberto; Torres Lima, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    La subcuenca Alta del Río Lerma en el Estado de México, importante abastecedor de agua para la Ciudad de México, ha estado expuesta a una fuerte contaminación en los últimos años, misma que ha tenido como consecuencia el Cambio Climático y los consecuentes problemas de salud pública que se están manifestando de diferentes maneras. No obstante, el Estado Mexicano insiste en seguir apoyando a empresas trasnacionales asociadas al cultivo de transgénicos, producción de plaguicidas, pesticidas y P...

  15. Sistemi di alimentazione della rete Alta Val Tiberina

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; D'Alema, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Frapiccini, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Marzorati, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Monachesi, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia

    2011-01-01

    Nell’ambito del progetto FIRB-Airplane [“Piattaforma di ricerca multidisciplinare su terremoti e vulcani”, fondi MIUR 2007-2011 responsabili: Cocco, Amato e Stucchi1] dalla seconda metà del 2009 è stata installata una rete densa di stazioni sismiche nell’area dell’Alta Val Tiberina (AVT, Figura 1), i cui dati in continuo vengono trasmessi alla sede di Ancona del CNT attraverso una dorsale Wi-Fi HYPERLAN [Monachesi e Cattaneo, 2010]. La rete è stata progettata cer...

  16. Matrices estructuradas y alta precisión relativa

    OpenAIRE

    Barreras Peral, Álvaro; Peña Ferrández, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Esta memoria se enmarca, dentro del Algebra Lineal Numérica, en el campo de estudio de métodos numéricos adaptados a clases de matrices con estructura especial, que es un campo que muestra una intensa y creciente actividad investigadora. Concretamente, considerará clases de matrices para las que se encontrarán métodos numéricos cuyo cálculo se podrá llevar a cabo con alta precisión relativa. Conseguir cálculos precisos es una propiedad muy deseable para cualquier método numérico. El ideal es ...

  17. Proyecto de Historia como respuesta educativa a las altas capacidades

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Yoldi, Yohanna

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una propuesta de intervención en el aula que responde a las necesidades educativas del alumnado con altas capacidades, desde una escuela inclusiva. Para realizarlo, nos hemos basado en dos autores: Roger J. Sternberg y Joseph S. Renzulli, que no sólo definen las características y necesidades educativas de este colectivo, sino que también proponen posibles respuestas que respondan a su forma de aprender. Desde el área de Ciencias Sociales, apostamos por el aprendizaje bas...

  18. Todos iguales, todos diferentes. Altas capacidades en el aula.

    OpenAIRE

    Soloaga Martín, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo se centra en el alumnado de altas capacidades y las posibilidades de atención en el marco del modelo de escuela inclusiva. Se comienza explicando las características de estos alumnos, los estereotipos que existen sobre ellos y las disincronías que es frecuente encontrar en su desarrollo. Se sigue la clasificación de varios autores para distinguir entre superdotación y talento viendo las diferencias significativas que existen entre ellos. De forma breve se ha...

  19. Increased risk of miscarriage among women experiencing physical or sexual intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Guatemala City, Guatemala: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoch Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against women by their male intimate partners (IPV during pregnancy may lead to negative pregnancy outcomes. We examined the role of IPV as a potential risk factor for miscarriage in Guatemala. Our objectives were: (1 To describe the magnitude and pattern of verbal, physical and sexual violence by male intimate partners in the last 12 months (IPV in a sample of pregnant Guatemalans; (2 To evaluate the influence of physical or sexual IPV on miscarriage as a pregnancy outcome. Methods All pregnant women reporting to the maternity of a major tertiary care public hospital in Guatemala City from June 1st to September 30th, 2006 were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. The admitting physician assessed occurrence of miscarriage, defined as involuntary pregnancy loss up to and including 28 weeks gestation. Data on IPV, social and demographic characteristics, risk behaviours, and medical history were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Laboratory testing was performed for HIV and syphilis. The relationship between IPV and miscarriage was assessed through multivariable logistic regression. Results IPV affected 18% of the 1897 pregnant Guatemalan women aged 15-47 in this sample. Verbal IPV was most common (16%, followed by physical (10% and sexual (3% victimisation. Different forms of IPV were often co-prevalent. Miscarriage was experienced by 10% of the sample (n = 190. After adjustment for potentially confounding factors, physical or sexual victimisation by a male intimate partner in the last 12 months was significantly associated with miscarriage (ORadj 1.1 to 2.8. Results were robust under a range of analytic assumptions. Conclusions Physical and sexual IPV is associated with miscarriage in this Guatemalan facility-based sample. Results cohere well with findings from population-based surveys. IPV should be recognised as a potential cause of miscarriage. Reproductive health services should

  20. Il cimitero la Verbena: cinquant’anni di violenza politica e sociale a Città del Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Grassi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the ethnography of a specific place of Guatemala City – the cemetery of the barrio “la Verbena” – the paper will reconstruct the correlations that link the recent history of this country (marked by a civil war finished in 1996, after thirty-six years of conflicts with the actual explosion of social violence, which levels are actually among the highest in the world. The political and social violence of Guatemala embrace connections that have not been sufficiently investigated. The analysis of these connections is fundamental to understand some of the contemporary social dynamics affecting not only that country.

  1. Gestión y organización de Casa Guatemala. Requisitos funcionales de un CRM

    OpenAIRE

    Gil de Avalle Muñoz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Detección de los problemas actuales importantes de Casa Guatemala que impiden tener una buena organización y que, junto a la crisis económica mundial que se vive, impiden su resolución. · Diseño de una nueva organización estructurada y una nueva manera de gestionar Casa Guatemala que aporte beneficios, solucione su crisis interna y ayude a la falta de recursos económicos que se obtienen actualmente. · Descripción de nuevos canales de comunicación entre diferentes agentes de ...

  2. Cetáceos del Pacífico de Guatemala: Cincuenta años de historia

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Arreola, Andrea; Ortíz Wolford, Jenniffer S.; Corona Figueroa, Mildred Fabiola; Gudiel Corona, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Cetaceans have been studied in Guatemala since 1960s, but only a few scientific works based on the collected cetacean data were published. We reviewed literatures about cetaceans in Guatemala for the past fifty years to gain the biological knowledge for conservation and management plans. A total of 1,014 sighting records (1979- 2011), 62 tuna fishery by-catch events (1961-1985) and 16 stranding records (1975, 2007-2012) were obtained and analyzed with bathymetric maps and plot against maps wi...

  3. A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera:Reduviidae)from Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae)in the semiarid region of Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Marroquín M; Silvia Bor A; M.Carlota Monroy E

    2004-01-01

    A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,Subfamily Cereoideae) was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas disease)in a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T.ryckmani .In comparison with other areas of Guatemala,T.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3).The insects were mainly foun...

  4. ¿Mayanización, indigeneidad o mestizaje? Clasificaciones étnicas y diversidad en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celigueta, Gemma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The last Guatemalan national census, the census of 2002, introduced new classifications in line with national and international changes on indigenous representation. These new classifications revealed an ethnic complexity that previous censuses had ignored. Based on an analysis of these data, dialogue with other authors and ethnographic data obtained in the western highlands of Guatemala, this article reflects on the changes, usages and meanings of concepts as important to the country as Indigenous, Mayan and Ladino. Could the data revealed by the 2002 census suggest a Mayanization or Indigenization of the country similar to other countries in Latin America? Or should we consider another category, absent from the census, such as Miscegenation?El último censo nacional de población de Guatemala, el censo de 2002, introdujo nuevas clasificaciones acordes a los cambios nacionales e internacionales ocurridos en la representación de lo indígena. Estas nuevas clasificaciones revelaron una complejidad étnica que los censos anteriores habían ignorado. A partir del análisis de estos datos, del diálogo con otros autores y de algunas apreciaciones etnográficas obtenidas en el altiplano occidental de Guatemala; este artículo reflexiona sobre las transformaciones, usos y significados, de conceptos tan centrales para este país como indígena, ladino y maya. ¿Los datos revelados por el censo del 2002 podrían sugerirnos cierta mayanización o indigenización del país de forma parecida a lo que ha ocurrido en otros países de América Latina o debemos acercarnos más bien a otra categoría, ausente en el censo, como la de mestizo?

  5. The marimba: musical and secret language of the political violence in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang DIETRICH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The author reflects the construction of national music while the arise of the nation State in Guatemala. This development begins formally while the first decades of the nineteenth century and has not finished yet. For the myth of the Nation state and those who use it for their project of domination it is crucial that national music can be distinguished externally from musics generated by other nations while it can be applied internally for the aim of national homogenisation. Since the middle of the nineteenth century the music is used in Guatemala for the dissemination of ideologies that help to construct this myth. The vernacular music of the Maya people does not follow this logic. Hence it is considered inferior or «incorrect». For the myth of the nation State only the totality of «the people» as an abstract concept can understand and appreciate the national music, but not the concrete or individual group. Assuming this the music is converted into an important tool of a repressive mechanism and deculturation. The marimba thus is the symbol of the nation State in Guatemala. The dictatorships of the army, who were the main responsible of the genocide of the Maya people, declared the chromatic marimba symbol of the nation. After a long history of violence the marimba desindianizada and therefore ladinizada reached the status of the national instrument. While the period of violence the chromatic marimba never ceased to sound in the nightclubs and the elegant restaurants of the Capital. In the meanwhile the Mayas of the highlands hided their K’ojomes in caves and cañons to protect them from the army. Therefore the anarchic and rebellious diversity of the k’ojom’s tuning continues to be the vernacular and secret language of groups and individuals who do not belong to the national reality of the chromatic marimba.

  6. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed. PMID:18767741

  7. Fiestas septembrinas, torneos de belleza y prensa en Guatemala, 1945-1957

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo Padilla, José Domingo

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudian las notas elaboradas a partir de crónicas periodísticas, referidas a concursos de belleza realizados durante las efemérides nacionales en Guatemala entre 1945 y 1954. Estas notas hacen énfasis en el tipo de belleza femenina que se impone y legitima año a año de acuerdo al calendario cívico nacional. La realización de certámenes de belleza es una tradición por medio de la cual se transmitía el modelo femenino, objeto del deseo nacional. Los concursos de belle...

  8. Risk of sexually transmitted infections among Mayan women in rural Guatemala whose partners are migrant workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, JM; Schaffer, JR; Ixcot, MLS; Page, K; Hearst, N

    2014-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) are of concern in Mayan districts of Guatemala in which labor migration is common. This study assessed whether the migration status of men is associated with reported STI symptoms among their female primary partners. In a multivariate analysis of survey data taken from a larger Mayan sexual health study, the odds of reporting STI symptoms were twofold higher among women who reported that their partner migrated (OR 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.16-3.71), compare...

  9. Nonpayment of water bills in Guatemala: Dissatisfaction or inability to pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, William F.

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates nonpayment behavior in Guatemala. Determinants of nonpayment behavior are identified through zero-inflated negative binomial regression models in order to take into account particular distributional characteristics of the amount of outstanding payments. Findings indicate that nonpayment behavior is a demonstration of consumer dissatisfaction with current water services. The amount of outstanding bill payments also responds to system unreliability. Results also suggest that nonpayment behaviors are more prominent in community-managed systems than in municipal systems. No evidence was found on a potential relationship between nonpayment behavior and household income. Policy implications are discussed.

  10. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Bernardo; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Bryant, Miranda F.; Desai, Sima S.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Johanns, Casey K.; McNellan, Claire R.; Palmisano, Erin B.; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State) and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama) and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico) women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001), 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001), and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women). Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44–2.61), compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18–1.81), primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24–1.68), informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21–1.63), and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04–1.79) also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05–1.26) and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02–1.19). Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care

  11. Quality Guarantee in the services that the LSCD of Guatemala lends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of supreme importance that the instruments used in the radiological protection, as well as those used in clinical dosimetry, maintain trazability to primary patterns; this way it is guaranteed that the used magnitudes are reproducible in the secondary laboratories. This premise is important, however, it is indispensable that the laboratories can establish the necessary procedures in writing to make the mensurations that are involved in the calibrations and the other services characteristic of a secondary laboratory. The present work demonstrates as all the lent services in the secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration of Guatemala are carried out by means of the procedures of quality demanded at international level

  12. Gli edifici religiosi di Santiago de Guatemala: archetipi e modelli interpretativi

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Merlo; Carla Giuseppina Romby; Filippo Fantini; Gaia Lavoratti; Andrea Aliperta; Jose Leonel López Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Terra di conquistadores, il Centro America vide gli ordini religiosi come una delle componenti più attive del processo di colonizzazione. All’interno delle città la loro presenza è ancora adesso testimoniata dal numero eccezionale di complessi ecclesiali che vennero innalzati tra il XVI ed il XVII secolo. L’antica capitale del Guatemala, ad esempio, mostra una chiesa – nella metà dei casi con annesso convento – nella quasi totalità dei 36 barrios che costituiscono l’ippodamea trama urbana. A ...

  13. Time series evidence on education and growth: the case of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef L. Loening

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the impact of education on economic growth in Guatemala for the 1951-2002 period.An error-correction model shows that a better-educated labor force has a positive and significant impact on economic growth.A growth-accounting framework demonstrates that human capital explains about 50 percent of output growth.The findings are robust to changes to the conditioning set of variable,while controlling for data issues and endogeneity.The results also compare favorably with the microeconomic evidence.

  14. The role of social participation in municipal-level health systems: the case of Palencia, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lorena Ruano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social participation has been recognized as an important public health policy since the declaration of Alma-Ata presented it as one of the pillars of primary health care in 1978. Since then, there have been many adaptations to the original policy but participation in health is still seen as a means to make the health system more responsive to local health needs and as a way to bring the health sector and the community closer together. Objective: To explore the role that social participation has in a municipal-level health system in Guatemala in order to inform future policies and programs. Design: Documentary analysis was used to study the context of participation in Guatemala. To do this, written records and accounts of Guatemalan history during the 20th century were reviewed. The fieldwork was carried out over 8 months and three field visits were conducted between early January of 2009 and late March of 2010. A total of 38 in-depth interviews with regional health authorities, district health authorities, community representatives, and community health workers (CHWs were conducted. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Guatemala's armed civil struggle was framed in the cold war and the fight against communism. Locally, the war was fed by the growing social, political, and ethnic inequalities that existed in the country. The process of reconstructing the country's social fabric started with the signing of the peace agreements of 1996, and continued with the passing of the 2002 legal framework designed to promote decentralization through social participation. Today, Guatemala is a post-war society that is trying to foster participation in a context full of challenges for the population and for the institutions that promote it. In the municipality of Palencia, there are three different spaces for participation in health: the municipal-level health commission, in community-level social development councils, and in the CHW

  15. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Guatemala 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Guatemala carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  16. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny V Colombara

    Full Text Available Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001, 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001, and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women. Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.44-2.61, compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81, primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68, informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63, and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79 also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26 and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19. Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and

  17. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Bryant, Miranda F; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Johanns, Casey K; McNellan, Claire R; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State) and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama) and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico) women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (Pindigenous Panamanian women). Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-2.61), compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81), primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68), informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63), and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79) also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26) and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19). Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and opportunities for higher-level education may increase institutional

  18. Alta parasitemia pelo Trypanosoma cruzi em paciente com lupus eritematoso sistêmico

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Neto Leopoldo Luiz dos; Polcheira Máira F.; Castro Cleudson; Lima Rodrigo Aires Corrêa; Simaan César Kozak; Corrêa-Lima Francisco Aires

    2003-01-01

    É descrito um caso de doença de Chagas com alta parasitemia pelo Trypanosoma cruzi em paciente com lupus eritematoso sistêmico. O xenodiagnóstico foi útil na identificação da parasitemia e o benznidazol foi capaz de reduzir a alta e incomum parasitemia. Em indivíduos com doenças auto-imunes e immunossuprimidos, o benznidazol pode ser uma alternativa no controle da alta parasitemia por Trypanosoma cruzi.

  19. Anticuerpos circulantes contra Influenza Aviar y Newcastle en zanates (Quiscalus mexicanus de la ciudad de Guatemala (Avian flu and Newcastle Antibodies in Great-tailed Grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus in Guatemala city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar, Luis E.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenAunque el zanate (Quiscalus mexicanus está distribuido en todaGuatemala y se encuentra estrechamente ligado a poblaciones humanas,se sabe muy poco acerca de su estado sanitario y su papel comoreservorio de enfermedades aviares de importancia. Esta investigacióngenera información sobre el papel del zanate en la epizootiología de la Influenza Aviar (IA; Orthomyxoviridae y de Newcastle (ENC;Paramixoviridae, midiendo los anticuerpos circulantes en zanates norelacionados a granjas avícolas. Se colectaron 71 muestras de suero dezanates urbanos asintomáticos del la ciudad de Guatemala entre abril yjulio de 2008 y se analizaron con la prueba de Inhibición de laHemoaglutinación.SummaryDespite the Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus is distributed in all Guatemala and it is so close to human populations, few is knownabout its sanitarian status and role as reservoir of important aviandiseases. This research provides information about the role of the Greattailed Grackle in the epizootiology of Avian Influenza (AI;Orthomyxoviridae and Newcastle Disease (NCD; Paramixoviridae,measuring the antibodies of Grackles non-related to avian farms. Wecollected 71 serum samples from urban Great-tailed Grackles without any symptoms in Guatemala City from April to June of 2008, and analyzed with hemagglutination Inhibition Test.

  20. Unearthing Truth: Forensic Anthropology, Translocal Memory, and “Provention” in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette G. Mazzucelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deliberately examines the search for truth after decades of conflict in Guatemala. Excavations of mass gravesites and the painstaking exhumation processes carried out by professional forensic anthropology teams continue to allow families to locate lost relatives—reclaiming truth and supporting calls for justice. For Guatemalans, the search for truth now transcends national borders, especially among migrant communities in the United States. The family remains the central unit through which the work of Guatemalan forensic anthropologists is undertaken. In an effort to engender deeper insights about these exhumation processes from a social science perspective, this analysis promotes the use of specific “tools” in Guatemalan forensic anthropology investigations. The first is an exhumations concept map, which yields important questions meant to stimulate meaningful analysis. The second, Story Maps, is a technology application with the potential to mediate digital access to the emerging Guatemalan translocal space. The research in this analysis suggests that these “tools” strengthen Burton’s notion of “provention” in Guatemala.

  1. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,phumidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza activity and should be incorporated into country-specific influenza transmission models

  2. Multiyear prospective study of intestinal parasitism in a cohort of Peace Corps volunteers in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwaldt, B L; de Arroyave, K R; Wahlquist, S P; de Merida, A M; Lopez, A S; Juranek, D D

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study in a cohort of 36 Peace Corps volunteers (PCVs) in Guatemala to study the incidence and natural history of intestinal parasitic infections during the PCVs' >2-year overseas stay. PCVs collected stool specimens at least monthly and when ill with gastrointestinal symptoms. Of the 1,168 specimens tested, 453 (38.8%) were positive for at least one parasite and 48 (4.1%) were positive for a pathogenic parasite. A median interval of 187 days (range, 14 to 752 days) elapsed before the first documented parasitic infection, and the median intervals from arrival until subsequent infections (e.g., second or third) were >300 days. The PCVs had 116 episodes of infection with 11 parasites, including up to 4 episodes per PCV with specific nonpathogens and Blastocystis hominis. The incidence, in episodes per 100 person-years, was highest for B. hominis (65), followed by Entamoeba coli (31), Cryptosporidium parvum (17), and Entamoeba hartmanni (17). The PCVs' B. hominis episodes lasted 6,809 person-days (28.7% of the 23,689 person-days in the study), the E. coli episodes lasted 2,055 person-days (8.7%), and each of the other types of episodes lasted 2-year stay in Guatemala suggests that PCVs repeatedly had fecal exposures and thus were at risk for infections with both parasitic and nonparasitic pathogens throughout their overseas service. PMID:11136744

  3. Weight-related stigma is a significant psychosocial stressor in developing countries: Evidence from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Joseph; Maupin, Jonathan; Brewis, Alexandra A

    2016-07-01

    Weight-related stigma is established as a major psychosocial stressor and correlate of depression among people living with obesity in high-income countries. Anti-fat beliefs are rapidly globalizing. The goal of the study is to (1) examine how weight-related stigma, enacted as teasing, is evident among women from a lower-income country and (2) test if such weight-related stigma contributes to depressive symptoms. Modeling data for 12,074 reproductive-age women collected in the 2008-2009 Guatemala National Maternal-Infant Health Survey, we demonstrate that weight-related teasing is (1) experienced by those both underweight and overweight, and (2) a significant psychosocial stressor. Effects are comparable to other factors known to influence women's depressive risk in lower-income countries, such as living in poverty, experiencing food insecurity, or suffering sexual/domestic violence. That women's failure to meet local body norms-whether they are overweight or underweight-serves as such a strong source of psychological distress is particularly concerning in settings like Guatemala where high levels of over- and under-nutrition intersect at the household and community level. Current obesity-centric models of weight-related stigma, developed from studies in high-income countries, fail to recognize that being underweight may create similar forms of psychosocial distress in low-income countries. PMID:27254116

  4. Cultural scripts surrounding young people's sexual and romantic relationships in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Robyn; Schroffel, Heidi; Findlay, Trinity; Winskell, Kate

    2016-09-01

    Guatemala has one of the world's highest teenage pregnancy rates and 92% of young people report not using contraception for first sex. We conducted narrative-based thematic analysis of a sample of narratives (n = 40; 15 male-authored, 25 female-authored) on HIV and sexuality, submitted to a 2013 scriptwriting competition by young people aged 15-19 years from Guatemala's Western Highlands. Our objective was to identify dominant cultural scripts and narratives that deviated positively from that norm with a view to informing the development of educational curricula and communication materials promoting youth sexual and reproductive health. The narratives are characterised by romantic themes and melodramatic plotlines: three in four had tragic endings. Rigid gender norms and ideologies of enduring love make female characters blind to the potential consequences of unprotected sex and vulnerable to betrayal and abandonment. Unprotected sex is the norm, with contraception and sexually transmitted infection protection mentioned rarely. In the four positively deviant narratives, female and male characters' interaction is based on mutual respect, dialogue and genuine affection. The narratives reveal opportunities for action to increase sexual health knowledge and access to services and to challenge harmful cultural scripts, potentially by leveraging the positive value attached to romantic love by authors of both sexes. PMID:26986072

  5. Climate drying and associated forest decline in the lowlands of northern Guatemala during the late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas D.; Islebe, Gerald A.; Hillesheim, Michael B.; Grzesik, Dustin A.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Ariztegui, Daniel; Brenner, Mark; Curtis, Jason H.; Hodell, David A.; Venz, Kathryn A.

    2009-03-01

    Palynological studies document forest disappearance during the late Holocene in the tropical Maya lowlands of northern Guatemala. The question remains as to whether this vegetation change was driven exclusively by anthropogenic deforestation, as previously suggested, or whether it was partly attributable to climate changes. We report multiple palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment proxies (pollen, geochemical, sedimentological) from sediment cores collected in Lake Petén Itzá, northern Guatemala. Our data indicate that the earliest phase of late Holocene tropical forest reduction in this area started at ˜ 4500 cal yr BP, simultaneous with the onset of a circum-Caribbean drying trend that lasted for ˜ 1500 yr. This forest decline preceded the appearance of anthropogenically associated Zea mays pollen. We conclude that vegetation changes in Petén during the period from ˜ 4500 to ˜ 3000 cal yr BP were largely a consequence of dry climate conditions. Furthermore, palaeoclimate data from low latitudes in North Africa point to teleconnective linkages of this drying trend on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Effect of tourism and trade on intestinal parasitic infections in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L A; Marlin, J W; Dyck, D D; Laubach, H E

    2009-04-01

    A survey was performed to determine if infection with gastrointestinal parasites differs between the rural and urban poor inhabitants of Guatemala. A total of 317 stool samples from children in two towns, one rural and one urban, were examined using the formalin-ether concentration method. The overall prevalence of parasites in infected children was 67%, 20%, 30%, and 22%, respectively for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica in the rural town of La Mano de Leon and 49%, 14%, 15%, and 21%, respectively in the urban town of Santa Maria de Jesus. Two sub-studies were carried out to determine the effects of (1) gender and (2) age on the rate of parasitic infections. Female children in the 1-to 6-year-olds age group in Santa Maria de Jesus had more infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura when compared to La Mano de Leon. A. lumbricoides was most prevalent in Santa Maria de Jesus. These results propose that accessibility to tourism and trade decreases the risk for the establishment of parasitic diseases in children of Guatemala possibly due to improvements in basic nutrition and availability of health care. PMID:18941875

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs. PMID:1795521

  8. The MANGUA Project: A Population-Based HIV Cohort in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan Ignacio; Samayoa, Blanca; Sabidó, Meritxell; Prieto, Luis Alberto; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Pinzón, Rodolfo; Santa Marina de León, Luis Roberto; Ortiz, José Fernando; Ponce, Ernesto; Mejía, Carlos Rodolfo; Arathoon, Eduardo; Casabona, Jordi; Study Group, The Mangua Cohort

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The MANGUA cohort is an ongoing multicenter, observational study of people living with HIV/AIDS in Guatemala. The cohort is based on the MANGUA application which is an electronic database to capture essential data from the medical records of HIV patients in care. Methods. The cohort enrolls HIV-positive adults ≥16 years of age. A predefined set of sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and laboratory data are registered at entry to the cohort study. Results. As of October 1st, 2012, 21 697 patients had been included in the MANGUA cohort (median age: 33 years, 40.3% female). At enrollment 74.1% had signs of advanced HIV infection and only 56.3% had baseline CD4 cell counts. In the first 12 months after starting antiretroviral treatment 26.9% (n = 3938) of the patients were lost to the program. Conclusions. The implementation of a cohort of HIV-positive patients in care in Guatemala is feasible and has provided national HIV indicators to monitor and evaluate the HIV epidemic. The identified percentages of late presenters and high rates of LTFU will help the Ministry to target their current efforts in improving access to diagnosis and care. PMID:26425365

  9. The Effect of El Niño on Agricultural Water Balances in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreros, D.; Michaelsen, J.; Carvalho, L. V.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    More than half the population of Guatemala lives in rural areas and depends on subsistence agriculture for their well being. This region is vulnerable to many climatic events, one of which is El Niño. This study looks at the effects of El Nino on rainfall patterns at regional scales and specifically quantifies the effects on agricultural water balances in Guatemala. Analysis is focused on maize crops during the Primera growing season (May - July). The study builds on rainfall and water balance modeling techniques developed by the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). The results corroborate previous work, showing that there is a negative relationship between El Niño and rainfall, primarily on the Pacific side of the region and mainly during the months of August and September. The study also found that the related rainfall variations influence long-term (May - October) maize growing areas and could affect the start of the short-term Postrera season (August - October) by extending the Canícula. Correlation between rainfall and the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) for the month of August in Central America.

  10. Environmental determinants of the distribution of Chagas disease vectors in south-eastern Guatemala

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    Dulce Maria Bustamante

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The associations between the presence of triatomines and environmental variables were studied using correlation analysis and logistic regression models for a sample of villages in the south-eastern provinces of Guatemala. Information on the presence of Triatoma dimidiata, T. nitida and Rhodnius prolixus came from entomological surveys carried out by the Ministry of Health of Guatemala as part of its vector control programme. Environmental information for each village was extracted from digital thematic maps developed by the Ministry of Agriculture. The presence of T. nitida was found to be significantly associated with the average minimum temperature. The odds of presence of T. nitida in a village decreased as the average minimum temperature increased. T. nitida exists at altitudes above 1000 m above sea level in temperate regions. The presence of R. prolixus showed a significant positive association with maximum absolute temperature and relative humidity. The logistic regression model for R. prolixus showed a good fit and predicted suitable habitats in the provinces of Chiquimula, Zacapa and Jalapa, which agrees with the known distribution of the species. Habitat partitioning between R. prolixus and T. dimidiata is suggested by their significant and opposite associations with maximum absolute temperature. Improved models to predict suitable habitats for T. dimidiata hold promise for spatial targeting of integrated vector management.

  11. Environmental determinants of the distribution of Chagas disease vectors in south-eastern Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Dulce Maria; Monroy, Maria Carlota; Rodas, Antonieta Guadalupe; Juarez, Jaime Abraham; Malone, John B

    2007-05-01

    The associations between the presence of triatomines and environmental variables were studied using correlation analysis and logistic regression models for a sample of villages in the south-eastern provinces of Guatemala. Information on the presence of Triatoma dimidiata, T. nitida and Rhodnius prolixus came from entomological surveys carried out by the Ministry of Health of Guatemala as part of its vector control programme. Environmental information for each village was extracted from digital thematic maps developed by the Ministry of Agriculture. The presence of T. nitida was found to be significantly associated with the average minimum temperature. The odds of presence of T. nitida in a village decreased as the average minimum temperature increased. T. nitida exists at altitudes above 1000 m above sea level in temperate regions. The presence of R. prolixus showed a significant positive association with maximum absolute temperature and relative humidity. The logistic regression model for R. prolixus showed a good fit and predicted suitable habitats in the provinces of Chiquimula, Zacapa and Jalapa, which agrees with the known distribution of the species. Habitat partitioning between R. prolixus and T. dimidiata is suggested by their significant and opposite associations with maximum absolute temperature. Improved models to predict suitable habitats for T. dimidiata hold promise for spatial targeting of integrated vector management. PMID:18686245

  12. The Dilemma Between Peace and Justice. Transitional Justice in Post-conflict Context: the Cases of Guatemala and El Salvador

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    Marcos NOVARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and explain the trade-off between justice and peace through the analysis of two post-conflict cases: Guatemala and El Salvador. Using the comparative methodology, we analyse the issues of truth, justice and reparation from the Peace Agreements until today.

  13. The Dilemma Between Peace and Justice. Transitional Justice in Post-conflict Context: the Cases of Guatemala and El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Novaro, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe and explain the trade-off between justice and peace through the analysis of two post-conflict cases: Guatemala and El Salvador. Using the comparative methodology, we analyse the issues of truth, justice and reparation from the Peace Agreements until today.

  14. Urinary fumonisin B1 and estimated fumonisin intake in women from high and low exposure communities in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Fumonisin (FB) intake can be high when maize is a dietary staple. We determined 1) urinary FB (UFB) in women consuming maize in high and low exposure communities in Guatemala, 2) the FB levels in maize, 3) the stoichiometric relationship between UFB and FB intake, and 4) the relative excreti...

  15. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  16. Sécurité et Développement Security and development. Actors of development and peasantry in Guatemala Seguridad y desarrollo. Actores de desarrollo y campesinado en Guatemala

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    Agnès Bergeret

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article décrit les transformations du contenu des politiques désignées par les termes croisés de la « sécurité » et du « développement », au Guatemala, depuis les années 1950. Ce pays est en effet exemplaire du passage de politiques développementistes mêlées à des stratégies militaires répressives se présentant comme des politiques sécuritaires, à une démocratie qui se voulait une rupture en introduisant une sécurité citoyenne intégrale et parie finalement sur un développement libéral. Hélas, celui-ci débouche sur de nouvelles et graves insécurités alimentaires, économiques et sociales. Notre analyse s’ancre dans l’étude d’un cas particulier – un municipe à majorité indigène, vivant de l’agriculture - afin de montrer comment les « mots » des politiques publiques sont traduits par les acteurs locaux, dans leur propre configuration des enjeux de pouvoirs : se révèlent alors les liens entre le recours à la violence, les évolutions juridiques, la monétarisation et la marchandisation de la propriété de la terre.This article describes the transformations of the content of the policies presented by the words “security” and “development”, in Guatemala, since the fifties. Indeed, this country is exemplary of the passage from developmentist policies mixed with repressive military strategies presented as security policies, to a democracy, presented as a rupture introducing a citizen security, which has betted on a liberal development. Alas, this type of development leads to real and serious food, economic and social insecurities. Our analysis is rooted in the study of a particular case – a municipality with a native and peasant majority – to show how the words of the public policies are traduced by the local actors in their configuration of the power struggle: Are revealed the links between violence, juridical evolution, monetarization and commoditization of the property of

  17. Material management providing best value to TransAlta Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials management functions at TransAlta Utilities were outlined in several overhead viewgraphs. The system includes purchasing, contracts, fleet management, inventory control and warehouses management. Various components of the system are depicted, including: (1) integrated information system, (2) materials management (MM) process flow, (3) key suppliers, (4) commodity categories, (5) performance evaluation process, (6) new ways of working with service suppliers, (7) location of staff in the field and head office, (8) contracts, (9) tracking key performance indicators, (10) blocked invoice performance, and (11) warehouse optimization and inventory control. Current initiatives are being reviewed with a view to reduce operations to a single service centre, based on the corporate objective to increase the value of MM by 20 per cent by the year 2000. 3 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Hinting en pantallas de alta resolución

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, D

    2012-01-01

    Las pantallas de alta resolución no son algo nuevo —hay prototipos documentados ya en los años ochenta— pero al parecer ha llegado el momento de implantar esta tecnología: en junio de 2010 Steve Jobs presentó el iPhone 4 con la pantalla Retina como principal novedad: una superfície de 3,5 pulgadas con una densidad de 336 píxeles por pulgada. El ojo humano es incapaz de distinguir los píxeles en una imagen de esa resolución, por lo que el equipo directivo de Apple decidió bautizarla como Retin...

  19. MICROTOMOGRAFIA DE ALTA RESOLUÇÃO NO SETOR MINERAL

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Uliana; Henrique Kahn; Renato Contessotto; Juliana Livi Antoniassi

    2014-01-01

    A técnica de microscopia por tomografia de raios X (MRX) oferece uma capacidade única para análise de associações, morfologia e liberação de múltiplas fases através da aquisição direta de imagens tridimensionais de alta resolução. Trata-se de uma técnica de análise 3D não invasiva atualmente utilizada no setor mineral para caracterização de carvão, minerais industriais e de base, além de metais preciosos, complementando técnicas de microscopia já existentes como MLA e QEMSCAN. A técnica já é ...

  20. Chemical characterization earthenware on the Alta California Frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout what was Alta California archaeological have found in Spanish and Mexican Period missions, presides, pueblos, and ranchos fragments of hand-modeled and wheel-thrown, unglazed, low fired earthenware's. the extraordinary visual similarities between earthenware's found hundreds of miles apart has been explained by some as the most of the ceramics were produced and used locally. The research presented in this paper is based on the use of neutron activation analysis to compositionally characterize the paste of a sample of these earthenware's. Samples from the missions sites of Dolores, Santa Clara, San Jose, Santa Cruz, San Antonio and San Juan Capistrano and the presiders of san Francisco, Monterey, and San Diego have been analyzed

  1. La acción política de las viudas de pilotos en la Ciudad de Guatemala

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    Manuela Camus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The political action of the widows of bus drivers in the City of GuatemalaA wide range of violent acts is occurring within the context of a Guatemala caught in a post-conflictive problematic. Many urban transport drivers in Guatemala City have been executed by members of ‘pandillas’ or ‘maras’ (gangs to force the payment of the extortion money, leaving their families devastated by the trama and the difficulties of survival. This paper centres on the difficulties that the widows of these drivers organized in AVITRANS (Association of Transport Widows are facing in their political struggle for government support and social recognition when they are seen as being delegitimized for being poor, mestiza and coming from the ‘grey zone’ areas of this metropolis. This case study attempts to analyse the consequences of the neoliberal model in practice.Resumen La Guatemala postconflicto se encuentra abrumada por una amplia gama de violencias. Muchos pilotos del transporte urbano de la ciudad de Guatemala son ejecutados por miembros de las pandillas o maras para forzar el pago de las extorsiones quedando sus familiares devastados por el trauma y las dificultades de la sobrevivencia. Este texto se centra en las dificultades que las viudas de estos pilotos organizadas en AVITRANS (Asociación de Viudas del Transporte enfrentan en su lucha política por el apoyo del gobierno y el reconocimiento social al verse deslegitimadas por ser pobres, mestizas y procedentes de la ‘zona gris’ de las colonias de esta metrópolis. El caso permite considerar las consecuencias del modelo neoliberal en la práctica.

  2. Perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work: a qualitative study in Guatemala

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    Scandlyn Jean

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year medical providers from wealthy countries participate in short-term medical volunteer work in resource-poor countries. Various authors have raised concern that such work has the potential to be harmful to recipient communities; however, the social science and medical literature contains little research into the perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work from the perspective of members of recipient communities. This exploratory study examines the perception of short-term medical volunteer work in Guatemala among groups of actors affected by or participating in these programs. Methods The researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 72 individuals, including Guatemalan healthcare providers and health authorities, foreign medical providers, non-medical personnel working on health projects, and Guatemalan parents of children treated by a short-term volunteer group. Detailed notes and summaries of these interviews were uploaded, coded and annotated using Atlas.ti (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin to identify recurrent themes from the interviews. Results Informants commonly identified a need for increased access to medical services in Guatemala, and many believed that short-term medical volunteers are in a position to offer improved access to medical care in the communities where they serve. Informants most frequently cited appropriate patient selection and attention to payment systems as the best means to avoid creating dependence on foreign aid. The most frequent suggestion to improve short-term medical volunteer work was coordination with and respect for local Guatemalan healthcare providers and their communities, as insufficient understanding of the country's existing healthcare resources and needs may result in perceived harm to the recipient community. Conclusion The perceived impact of short-term medical volunteer projects in Guatemala is highly variable and dependent upon the

  3. Mass rearing of the Medfly temperature sensitive lethal genetic sexing strain in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field tests have demonstrated the increased efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.), when only male Medflies are released (Robinson et al. 1986, Nitzan et al. 1993, McInnis et al. 1994, Rendon 1996). Genetic sexing strains (GSS) of Medflies, containing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) and white pupae colour (wp) mutations (Franz et al. 1994) developed by FAO/IAEA, allow the separation of male flies from female flies. GSS technology has reached a stage where it is being used in large-scale operational programmes, such as the Moscamed Program in Guatemala. GSS based on the wp/tsl have the advantages of: 1) not requiring sophisticated equipment for sex separation, 2) a high accuracy of separation (> 99.5% males) is possible and, 3) separation is achieved during egg development, which excludes the unnecessary rearing of females (Franz et al. 1996). It was shown by Franz et al. (1994) that tsl GSS are genetically stable for many generations under small-scale rearing conditions. However, under the large-scale rearing of operational programmes such as Moscamed (Hentze and Mata 1987), a gradual loss of the sex separation mechanism through recombination remains a problem, as has been demonstrated in Guatemala during 1994-1996. This in no way precludes the use of GSS technology, but it does mean that a management system must be used to control this gradual loss of stability; a strategy for colony management which maintains a stable and high level of accuracy of male-only production. The El Pino facility, which mass produces sterile flies for the Guatemala Medflies SIT Program, has introduced a filter rearing system (FRS) (Fisher and Caceres 1999), and has demonstrated in a Medfly tsl GSS known as VIENNA 4/Tol-94, that genetic stability can be maintained. We report the operation of the FRS and its impact upon genetic stability and male-only production. The concept of the FRS has the potential to improve the

  4. Comorbilidad entre el distrés psicológico y abuso/dependencia de drogas, ciudad de Guatemala - Guatemala

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    Miriam García Estrada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue investigar la prevalencia de distrés psicológico en pacientes atendidos en centros especializados en alcohol y drogas en la Ciudad de Guatemala. Es un estudio transversal con 91 pacientes mayores de 18 años atendidos en el Centro de Tratamiento de la Secretaria Ejecutiva de la Comisión contra las Adicciones y el Trafico Ilícito de Drogas, y en Casa Hogar Jireh. Se aplicó un cuestionario adaptado del formulario de la EULAC-CICAD para caracterizar a los participantes. La escala de Kessler-10 se aplico para detención de distrés psicológico. Los resultados muestran que 68% de la muestra total tenían entre 18 y 39 años, la edad promedio es 44. El 95.6% eran hombres. Refieren diagnostico previo (32.9%, relacionado con ansiedad en 2.4%, depresión en 3.3%, esquizofrenia en 4.4%, y trastorno bipolar en 4.4%. Presentan diagnostico actual de salud mental 17.58%. Conclui-se que El K-10 indica que 31.87% tienen niveles severos el 39.56% muy severo de distrés psicológico (71.43%. Datos sensibles a ansiedad y depresión, son similares a los reportados en otros estudios internacionales.

  5. La guerra contra las mujeres : El caso del feminicidio en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Karin

    2011-01-01

    En 2009 se encontraron 708 mujeres asesinadas en Guatemala, un número que se ha incrementado drásticamente en los últimos años. Una gran parte de estos asesinatos son brutales y presentan signos de violencia sexual y tortura, lo cual señala una conexión específica de violencia de género. El término feminicidio tiene su origen en el carácter de estos crímenes, el asesinato de mujeres por el hecho de ser mujeres y es la forma más extrema de la violencia de género contra la mujer. La impunidad r...

  6. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.;

    2012-01-01

    . For this study, samples of crude oil, seepage oil and potential source rocks were collected from both countries and were investigated by organic geochemical analyses and microscopy. The oil samples consisted of non-biodegraded crude oils and slightly to severely biodegraded seepage oils, both of which were...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...... 2 oils comprise crudes from the South Petén Basin. They have characteristics typical of carbonate-sourced oils, but these characteristics are less pronounced than those of Group 1 oils. A mixed marine/lacustrine source facies deposited under strongly reducing conditions in a local kitchen area...

  7. Educational Reform in Administrative Systems with Pre-modern Characteristics: the Case of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Ruano y Ruano

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This article contains an analysis of specific instances of educational-reform failure in contemporary Guatemala. The purpose is to throw into relief those aspects which should be confronted in designing and implementing processes of educational reform in the context of weak nations with pre-modern features. One of these fundamental aspects is the need to study carefully the administrative and power structures within the government, with the aim of locating the channels of real and nominal decision-making. It is also argued that the principle of parallel liberty allows an understanding of the formation and reinforcement of parallel power structures, and that these are found outside the official bureaucratic channels. It is further argued that the administration and formulation of educational policies cannot be summed up in simple modernization schemes that do not take into account the particular sociohistorical conditions in which the educational systems originated.

  8. Water and sustainable land use at the ancient tropical city of Tikal, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Vernon L; Dunning, Nicholas P; Tankersley, Kenneth B; Carr, Christopher; Weaver, Eric; Grazioso, Liwy; Lane, Brian; Jones, John G; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Lentz, David L

    2012-07-31

    The access to water and the engineered landscapes accommodating its collection and allocation are pivotal issues for assessing sustainability. Recent mapping, sediment coring, and formal excavation at Tikal, Guatemala, have markedly expanded our understanding of ancient Maya water and land use. Among the landscape and engineering feats identified are the largest ancient dam identified in the Maya area of Central America; the posited manner by which reservoir waters were released; construction of a cofferdam for dredging the largest reservoir at Tikal; the presence of ancient springs linked to the initial colonization of Tikal; the use of sand filtration to cleanse water entering reservoirs; a switching station that facilitated seasonal filling and release; and the deepest rock-cut canal segment in the Maya Lowlands. These engineering achievements were integrated into a system that sustained the urban complex through deep time, and they have implications for sustainable construction and use of water management systems in tropical forest settings worldwide. PMID:22802627

  9. Los cultivos transgénicos como tema emergente en Guatemala y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Silvia; Pardo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    En los últimos años el tema de los cultivos transgénicos ha sido ampliamente tratado; la bibliografía y publicaciones difundidas así lo demuestran. Con base en la revisión de fuentes hemerográficas y el posterior análisis de la información, el objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer los actores que han intervenido, en Venezuela y Guatemala, en el debate público sobre los cultivos transgénicos, y en función de su posición y particular forma de participación, identificar el nivel de polémica y los...

  10. Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, A; Menéndez, H; Méndez, E; Cohobón, E; Samayoa, B E; Jauregui, E; Peralta, E; Carrillo, G

    1995-10-01

    Plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of gonorrhoea were macerated in 50% alcohol and the tincture tested for in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae using strains isolated from symptomatic patients and confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. From 46 plants investigated, 13 (28.3%) showed evident inhibition zones (> 9 mm), seven (15.2%) showed small activity (6.1-8.9 mm) and 26 (56.5%) showed no activity; nine of these plants inhibited five strains of N. gonorrhoea freshly isolated. The most active plants of American origin were: bark of Bixa orellana fruits of Parmentiera edulis, leaf of Diphysa robinioides, Eupatorium odoratum, Gliricidia sepium, Physalis angulata, Piper aduncum and Prosopis juliflora, root of Casimiroa edulis, and whole Clematis dioica. PMID:8583798

  11. The influence of Mayan education on middle school students in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni; de Baessa, Yetilú

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Mayan education on the academic achievement of Indian and Ladino middle school students (N = 353) in Guatemala. This study also examined changes in ethnic identity achievement and the effects of changes in ethnic identity achievement on gains in self-esteem and other-group attitudes. Superior gains in academic skills for both Ladino and Indian students attending Mayan schools were found. The results also suggested that those students who increased their ethnic identity scores during their first year of middle school also increased their other-group attitudes. These results are discussed in terms of the benefits of Mayan education and ethnic identity achievement for both Indian and Ladino students. PMID:17087522

  12. Use of 15N and 13C for human nutrition research in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of stable non-radioactive isotopes have had an increased use in human nutrition research. Their application is particularly suited for those nutritional problems prevalent in the less-developed world. According to the contract, during the first year it is proposed to set up in Guatemala the necessary technology and to create the essential skills for the appropriate use and analysis of 15N. International and working standards have been analyzed using emission spectrometry (NOI 5E). Results from this work are reported to the IAEA. Clinical trials will be performed during the second half of the contract according to available resources. Changes in protein turn-over as measured by 15N-glycine in children with severe protein malnutrition will be assessed before and after recovery in order to determine metabolic adaptations. Results will be compared with normal controls. 21 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Ethnic conflict and the psychology of liberation in Guatemala, Peru, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Di-az, L; Lykes, M B; Alarco-n, R D

    1998-07-01

    Ethnic identity and conflict in Guatemala, Peru, and Puerto Rico are complexly embedded within dynamic systems of class- and race-based geopolitics. Whereas overt violence and terror have permeated both Guatemalan and Peruvian societies, overt conflict has undermined Puerto Rican nationhood. Despite similarities among these 3 countries of Hispano-America, there are important particularities that inform psychological theory and practice. This article explores selected contributions of a psychology of liberation informed by indigenous psychologies and reflexive praxis. The challenges these conflicts and their consequences pose to psychologists seeking to work with populations most deeply affected by these social inequalities are analyzed. It concludes with suggestions of how psychology can move toward the development of community-based responses to psychosocial oppression that foster enhanced individual and collective development in a context of social change. PMID:9735060

  14. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Guatemala, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $3 million of Agency support received, Guatemala ranks 46th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. Almost three quarters of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (72%), followed by training (15%) and expert services (13%). Seventy-eight per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, the rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (21%) and assistance in kind (1%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear physics and chemistry (37%), agriculture (28%), nuclear medicine (16%) and hydrology (8%). The remaining 11% were shared by general atomic energy development, nuclear raw materials, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear safety

  15. Guatemala strives for environmental and economic sustainability in the Rio Dulce region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions in Guatemala's Rio Dulce National Park (RDNP) present an immediate decision-making challenge concerning the reversal of current destructive environmental trends, and in establishing policies for restoration, protection, and sustainable use. This article summarises results of environmental assessment activities undertaken at three levels: an environmental impact assessment (EIA) of a proposed industrial forestry activity, an environmental assessment of management options for the Rio Dulce National Park, and water management planning for the Rio Dulce/Lago Izabal watershed. A key result of the EIA was to prohibit construction of a barge terminal within the boundaries of the park because it could set a precedent for future development. Management options for the park focused on establishing land-use controls, dealing with river transport more effectively, and identifying funding mechanisms to implement solutions. At the watershed scale, a strategic approach was recommended to identify priority issues for initiating change toward sustainability in the region. (author)

  16. Informal transborder trade between México and Guatemala from permissive border perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ernesto Ruiz Juárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes processes of interaction, tension, conflict and economic interests in one of the major border areas between Mexico and Guatemala. Informal transborder trade involves several actors who have been building these processes pursuant to agency initiatives. Among these actors, Guatemalan transborder traders who come to buy goods from their Mexican counterparts (retail and wholesale shop owners play a prominent role, as do the camareros who transport the traders and their merchandise across the Suchiate River on rafts and other actors such as moneychangers and rickshaw drivers who participate in economic and social interaction in the region. From a conceptual perspective, supported by the dialectical relationship between the notions of a border the behavior of transborder actors, it is concluded that in the study area, an informal border-trade integration process has developed and its actors transcend the border, rendering that border permissive.

  17. Glocalization and Transnationalization in (neo-Mayanization Processes: Ethnographic Case Studies from Mexico and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manéli Farahmand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author focuses on the field of neo-Mayanity and its current transformations. She analyzes these transformations using a historico-ethnographic approach, which includes two phases. The first one consists in reconstructing the historical development of the “Mayan” category in two different social contexts. The second one focuses on current narrative and imageries produced around this category, stemming from ethnographic fieldwork in Mexico and Guatemala. Since the “2012 phenomenon”, in both countries, the accelerating transnationalization of the religious leaders has triggered a resignification of contents through various logics of rearrangement, innovation, cohabitation and glocalization. Finally, she demonstrates that the variations in the different ethnographies are linked with the religious leaders’ biographies and the modes of signification of the “Mayan” category—influenced by the socio-historical contexts of production.

  18. Assessment of gamma radionuclides in sediments from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study consisted in the assesment of radioactivity levels in marine sediments of Guatemala due to gamma radionuclides. The samples were taken from 5 selected places, the activity of each sediment was measured by gamma spectrometry using an GE High-Purity detector. The methodology used consisted in to measure the efficiency of the Ge detector, then the calibration for Pb-210 was made. The radioactivity ranges from 1.69 Bq/Kg to 8.68 Bq/Kg for Cs-137, 356.99 Bq/Kg to 431.18 Bq/Kg for K-40, 48.71 Bq/Kg to 59.94 Bq/Kg for Ra-226 and 151.283 Bq/Kg to 224.47 Bq/Kg for Pb-210

  19. Eliciting health care priorities in developing countries: experimental evidence from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Joan Costa; Forns, Joan Rovira; Sato, Azusa

    2016-02-01

    Although some methods for eliciting preferences to assist participatory priority setting in health care in developed countries are available, the same is not true for poor communities in developing countries whose preferences are neglected in health policy making. Existing methods grounded on self-interested, monetary valuations that may be inappropriate for developing country settings where community care is provided through 'social allocation' mechanisms. This paper proposes and examines an alternative methodology for eliciting preferences for health care programmes specifically catered for rural and less literate populations but which is still applicable in urban communities. Specifically, the method simulates a realistic collective budget allocation experiment, to be implemented in both rural and urban communities in Guatemala. We report evidence revealing that participatory budget-like experiments are incentive compatible mechanisms suitable for revealing collective preferences, while simultaneously having the advantage of involving communities in health care reform processes. PMID:25841770

  20. Secondary level organisations and the democratisation of forest governance: Case studies from Nepal and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naya Sharma Paudel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the emerging role of secondary level organisations in the democratisation of forest governance by analysing two cases of forest-based collective action in Nepal and Guatemala. It explores the conditions surrounding the emergence and growth of these secondary level organisations, and examines the nature of their organisational approaches, strategic actions, and the resulting outcomes in terms of democratising forest governance. The organisations discussed in this paper are products of broader decentralisation processes and represent organised and empowered forest people. They are capable of shifting the balance of power in favour of community level institutions, and can compel state agencies to become more accountable to the needs of forest-dependent citizens. As a result, by leading collective action beyond the community to a secondary level, these organisations have influenced forest governance by making it more democratic, equitable and productive.

  1. The Zipf's law and the effects of free trade: The case of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Orellana Aragón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the impacts of trade policy changes on the order of the size of cities and economic growth of Guatemala between 1921 and 2002. The Pareto coefficient was estimated and an index was used to measure the degree of urban concentration. Finally, a model of the impact of trade liberalization on economic growth was estimated. The main results obtained showed a slight growth in inequality and divergence, although the urban concentration index showed a gradual decline since 1964 (the golden age of the CACM by the year 2002. It was found that the urban concentration has an inverse relationship with the commercial opening and positive economic growth during the period from 1921 to 1964. It was concluded that major cities reduced their growth and that small and medium-sized cities grew at a faster rate than big cities, driven by the growth of international trade.

  2. The Diffusion of Labour Standards: The Case of the US and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda van Roozendaal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of free trade agreements (FTAs concluded by the United States of America (US has grown vastly over the past two decades. While FTAs contribute to increased global competition and as such may also contribute to socially-undesirable practices in the area of working conditions and the environment, the proliferation in FTAs has paradoxically also augmented the potential for making free trade more fair as some of these agreements now include labour provisions. However, the question is whether these trade agreements have also actually diffused internationally recognised labour standards. This article studies the FTA the US signed in 2004 with a number of Central American countries and which, at a later stage, also included the Dominican Republic. This FTA is commonly referred to as CAFTA-DR and includes a chapter on labour standards. The article argues that the effects of the inclusion of labour standards in CAFTA-DR have been limited and therefore should be viewed as an unsuccessful attempt at policy transfer. This is illustrated by the case of Guatemala, a country known for its lack of respect for labour standards and which is currently the subject of a complaints procedure under the CAFTA-DR. It is maintained that this lack of effectiveness is the result of many factors. Among these is the weakness of the labour chapter of CAFTA-DR resulting from the fact that the chapter is the outcome of bargaining processes both within the US and between the US and Guatemala, where symbolic results were valued more highly than actual substance.

  3. DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE MARACUYÁ EN GUATEMALA REVELADA POR MARCADORES AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Melina Ponciano-Samayoa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad genética de maracuyá en Guatemala revelada por marcadores AFLP. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron caracterizar con AFLP nueve genotipos colectados en Guatemala y determinar la diversidad genética existente. En el Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Agrícolas (ICTA, en el período julio 2010/mayo 2011, se realizó este análisis preliminar amplifi cando diez combinaciones selectivas con las que se detectaron 106 polimorfi smos. Las combinaciones selectivas E+ACG/M+CAG, E+ACA/M+CTA, E+ACT/M+CTG y E+AAC/M+CTT dieron el mayor grado de información. En promedio se visualizaron diez loci por amplifi cación selectiva. El análisis de similaridad reveló que los genotipos no están duplicados. Los análisis de correspondencia y conglomerados identifi caron dos grupos bien defi nidos. El primero incluyó a los materiales de P. edulis f. edulis Sims y el segundo a los materiales de P. edulis f. fl avicarpa Degener. La diversidad genética de Nei para la colección fue 0,3160. La diferenciación genética (Gst fue 0,2542. El 25,42% de la diversidad se expresó entre grupos mientras que el 74,58% dentro de estos. Los resultados dan evidencia de la cercanía evolutiva de los tipos amarilla y morada de P. edulis Sims. El fl ujo genético fue alto (Nm=1,4670 como se esperaba en una especie alógama en la que se favorece el intercambio inter e intraespecífi co.

  4. An exploration of violence, mental health and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Harvey

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Guatemala’s 36-year civil war officially ended in December 1996 after some 200,000 deaths and one million refugees. Despite the ceasefire, Guatemala continues to be a violent country with one of the highest homicide rates in the world. We investigated potential associations between violence, mental health, and substance abuse in post-conflictGuatemalausing a community-based survey of 86 respondents living in urban and ruralGuatemala. Overall, 17.4% of our respondents had at least one, direct violent experience during the civil war. In the post-conflict period, 90.7% of respondents reported being afraid that they might be hurt by violence, 40.7% screened positive for depression, 50.0% screened positive for PTSD, and 23.3% screened positive for alcohol dependence. Potential associations between prior violent experiences during the war and indicators of PTSD and aspects of alcohol dependence were found in regression-adjusted models (p pulations we studied. Higher than expected rates of depression, PTSD, and substance abuse in our cohort may be related to the ongoing violence, injury and fear that have persisted since the end of the civil war. These, in turn, have implications for the growing medical and surgical resources needed to address the continuing traumatic and post-traumatic complications in the post-conflict era. Limitations of the current study are discussed. These findings are useful in beginning to understand the downstream effects of the Guatemalan civil war, although a much larger, randomly sampled survey is now needed.

  5. NGOs in community health insurance schemes: examples from Guatemala and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, A

    1999-04-01

    In poor rural communities, access to basic health care is often severely limited by inadequate supply as well as financial barriers to seeking care. National policies may introduce social health insurance, but these are likely to begin with the salaried public and private sector workers while the informal sector population may be the last to be covered. Community initiatives to generate health care financing require a complex development process. This paper covers attempts to develop such schemes in rural populations in Guatemala and the Philippines through non-government organizations and notes the major factors which have contributed to unequal progress in the two schemes. The scheme of the Association por Salud de Barillas (ASSABA) in Guatemala was not sufficiently established as an administrative body at the conceptual stage and there was no clear national policy on health care financing. By the time the necessary action was taken, local conflicts hindered progress. In the Philippines, the ORT Health Plus Scheme (OHPS) was implemented during the period of legislation of a national health insurance act. The appraisal after three years of operation shows that OPHS has made health care affordable and accessible to the target population, composed mainly of low and often unstable income families in rural areas. The major success factors are probably the administrative structure provided by a cooperative and controls in the delivery system and in expenditures, through the salaried primary health care team, referral process and the capitation agreement for hospital-based services. The proliferation of such schemes could benefit from national guidelines, a formal accreditation process and an umbrella organization to provide assistance in design, training and information services, involving government, non-government and academic institutions as an integral part of the development process. PMID:10192560

  6. International Collaboration on Building Local Technical Capacities for Monitoring Volcanic Activity at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Wolf, R. P.; Chigna, G.; Morales, H.; Waite, G. P.; Oommen, T.; Lechner, H. N.

    2015-12-01

    Pacaya volcano is a frequently active and potentially dangerous volcano situated in the Guatemalan volcanic arc. It is also a National Park and a major touristic attraction, constituting an important economic resource for local municipality and the nearby communities. Recent eruptions have caused fatalities and extensive damage to nearby communities, highlighting the need for risk management and loss reduction from the volcanic activity. Volcanic monitoring at Pacaya is done by the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), instrumentally through one short period seismic station, and visually by the Parque Nacional Volcan de Pacaya y Laguna de Calderas (PNVPLC) personnel. We carry out a project to increase the local technical capacities for monitoring volcanic activity at Pacaya. Funding for the project comes from the Society of Exploration Geophysicists through the Geoscientists Without Borders program. Three seismic and continuous GPS stations will be installed at locations within 5 km from the main vent at Pacaya, and one webcam will aid in the visual monitoring tasks. Local educational and outreach components of the project include technical workshops on data monitoring use, and short thesis projects with the San Carlos University in Guatemala. A small permanent exhibit at the PNVPLC museum or visitor center, focusing on the volcano's history, hazards and resources, will also be established as part of the project. The strategy to involve a diverse group of local collaborators in Guatemala aims to increase the chances for long term sustainability of the project, and relies not only on transferring technology but also the "know-how" to make that technology useful. Although not a primary research project, it builds on a relationship of years of joint research projects at Pacaya between the participants, and could be a model of how to increase the broader impacts of such long term collaboration partnerships.

  7. Salmonella on Raw Poultry in Retail Markets in Guatemala: Levels, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Serovar Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquin, Claudia; Alvarez, Danilo; Morales, Oneida; Morales, Ana Judith; López, Beatriz; Donado, Pilar; Valencia, Maria F; Arévalo, Alejandra; Muñoz, Fredy; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella numbers on retail raw chicken carcasses in Guatemala and to phenotypically characterize the isolates (serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility). In total, 300 chicken carcasses were collected from seven departments in Guatemala. Salmonella numbers were determined using the most-probable-number method following the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service protocol. In total, 103 isolates were obtained, all of which were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, whereas 46 isolates were serotyped. Overall, Salmonella prevalence and mean number (mean log most probable number per carcass) was 34.3% and 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 2.5), respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence were found by storage condition (refrigerated or ambient temperature), market type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent poultry stores), chicken production system (integrated or nonintegrated production company), and chicken skin color (white or yellow). Chickens produced by integrated companies had lower Salmonella numbers (P < 0.05) than nonintegrated companies, and white-skin carcasses had lower numbers (P < 0.05) than yellow-skin carcasses. Among 13 different Salmonella serovars identified, Paratyphi B (34.8%) was most prevalent, followed by Heidelberg (16.3%) and Derby (11.6%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 59.2% were resistant to one to three antibiotics and 13.6% to four or more antibiotics. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B and Heidelberg were the most resistant to the antibiotics tested. Salmonella levels and antibiotic resistant profiles among isolates from raw poultry at the retail market level were high relative to other reports from North and South America. These data can be used by Guatemalan stakeholders to develop risk assessment models and support further research opportunities to control transmission of Salmonella spp. and

  8. Clinical preventive services in Guatemala: a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E Corral

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is currently undergoing an epidemiologic transition. Preventive services are key to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases, and smoking counseling and cessation are among the most cost-effective and wide-reaching strategies. Internal medicine physicians are fundamental to providing such services, and their knowledge is a cornerstone of non-communicable disease control. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 to evaluate knowledge of clinical preventive services for non-communicable diseases. Interns, residents, and attending physicians of the internal medicine departments of all teaching hospitals in Guatemala completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants' responses were contrasted with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MoH prevention guidelines and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommendations. Analysis compared knowledge of recommendations within and between hospitals. RESULTS: In response to simulated patient scenarios, all services were recommended by more than half of physicians regardless of MoH or USPSTF recommendations. Prioritization was adequate according to the MoH guidelines but not including other potentially effective services (e.g. colorectal cancer and lipid disorder screenings. With the exception of colorectal and prostate cancer screening, less frequently recommended by interns, there was no difference in recommendation rates by level. CONCLUSION: Guatemalan internal medicine physicians' knowledge on preventive services recommendations for non-communicable diseases is limited, and prioritization did not reflect cost-effectiveness. Based on these data we recommend that preventive medicine training be strengthened and development of evidence-based guidelines for low-middle income countries be a priority.

  9. TransAlta Corporation 1996 annual report : new directions, new opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TransAlta Corp. is an energy management company that operates through two subsidiaries: (1) TransAlta Utilities Corp. which owns and operates electricity generation, transmission and distribution assets in Alberta, and (2) TransAlta Energy Corp. which is in the business of electric and thermal energy supply, gas and electricity distribution, energy services and energy marketing in regions of Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Argentina and the United States. This report presents a summary of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements and common share information for 1996. During the year the corporation advanced three significant initiatives (1) operational effectiveness, as shown by impressive productivity increases, and major investments in three independent power projects, (2) improved strategic direction through a review of plans and options, resulting in a clearer, more focused vision of the future, and (3) realignment of the organizational structure by centralizing marketing and sales functions, and establishing a corporate business development group. Details of operational and financial results were provided for both subsidiaries, i. e. TransAlta Utilities and TransAlta Energy. Sales of electric energy for TransAlta Utilities amounted to 27.8 billion kWh; 4.6 billion kWh for TransAlta Energy. Return on equity was 11.4 per cent, down from 11.8 per cent in 1995. Net earnings per common share were $1.14 per share (including one-time items), the same as in 1995. tabs., figs

  10. Sistema de monitorización continua de descargas parciales para trasformadores de alta potencia

    OpenAIRE

    Lastra Rodríguez, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    La monitorización de transformadores de alta potencia se presenta como una tarea crucial dentro del mantenimiento de las subestaciones eléctricas. Además de pérdidas de suministro, los fallos en los transformadores de alta potencia llevan asociados una serie de costes que en ocasiones pueden llegar a dispararse. Mientras se encuentra en servicio, un transformador de alta potencia proporciona gran variedad de información entre la que podemos destacar la facilitada por las descargas parciales p...

  11. Hemorragia digestiva alta em idosos e não idosos

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Tiago José Felizardo

    2012-01-01

    A Hemorragia Digestiva Alta tem vindo apresentar um crescimento significativo em idosos, contribuindo com 35 a 45% dos casos de Hemorragia Digestiva Alta. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal, com o objetivo de identificar quais as características epidemiológicas das Hemorragias Digestivas Altas em idosos e não idosos admitidos na Unidade de Endoscopia Digestiva do Centro Hospitalar Cova da Beira, na Região da Cova da Beira – Portugal, no período de 1...

  12. Estudio de capas delgadas de dieléctricos de alta permitividad depositadas por ALD

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Díaz, Lissa María

    2014-01-01

    El impulso acelerado de la industria microelectrónica ha conducido al empleo de dieléctricos de alta permitividad (K) como una alternativa para continuar el escalado. Tanto en aplicaciones espaciales, médicas, como de física de alta energía los transistores son sometidos a ambientes de fuertes irradiaciones provocando una degradación progresiva de los dispositivos. La respuesta de la fiabilidad de los dieléctricos de alta K frente la irradiación determinará su viabilidad e inco...

  13. Altas Capacidades en Educación Infantil en Guipúzcoa

    OpenAIRE

    Omaetxebarria-Aldarono, Ainara

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo fin de grado que se presenta a continuación aporta información acerca de las altas capacidades en Educación Infantil y su relación con las inteligencias múltiples. Se propone una perspectiva de la realidad actual del tema en el contexto de la provincia de Guipúzcoa. Las altas capacidades se proponen aludiendo a varios aspectos, entre ellos, se define el término, se aportan características de los alumnos con altas capacidades, se señalan alternativas de intervención en las aulas y s...

  14. Altas capacidades intelectuales. Diagnóstico y seguimiento de una NEE.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-i-Martra, Pep

    2013-01-01

    Según la OMS, el 2,3% de la población mundial tiene altas capacidades intelectuales, es decir, en la vida académica de un profesor, éste tendría que descubrir una media de 40 alumnos con capacidades superiores a la media. Saber en qué consisten las altas capacidades y hacer un pre diagnóstico de las mismas será, en muchas ocasiones, trabajo del profesor de secundaria. Pero, ¿tiene éste conocimientos para percatarse de la presencia en clase de un alumno con altas capacidades? ¿Y una vez estudi...

  15. El alumnado con altas capacidades intelectuales: programas de intervención.

    OpenAIRE

    González Arranz, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    El presente Trabajo de Fin de Grado se centra en alumnos considerados de Educación Especial, concretamente en aquellos que poseen Altas Capacidades Intelectuales y las posibilidades de respuesta educativa que se les puede ofrecer dentro del modelo de aula ordinaria. En la primera parte, se afronta el estudio de alumnos con altas capacidades intelectuales en educación primaria. Los temas que se tratan son: conceptualización y definiciones, fundamentación teórica de alumnos con altas capaci...

  16. Sistemas de producción de fresa de altas densidades.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Gómez, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    En México se produce fresa con alta tecnología pero existe escasa investigación sobre la productividad de la fresa en sistemas hidropónicos con altas densidades. El presente estudio se realizó con la finalidad de evaluar la fisiología, rendimiento, calidad y rentabilidad de la fresa de altas densidades en cuatro sistemas hidropónicos. Los tratamientos estudiados fueron: bolsas individuales (BI), vertical con tres tubos (V3T), vertical con cuatro tubos (V4T) y vertical con macetas hidropónicas...

  17. Tectonic lineaments in the cenozoic volcanics of southern Guatemala: Evidence for a broad continental plate boundary zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltuck, M.; Dixon, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    The northern Caribbean plate boundary has been undergoing left lateral strike slip motion since middle Tertiary time. The western part of the boundary occurs in a complex tectonic zone in the continental crust of Guatemala and southernmost Mexico, along the Chixoy-Polochic, Motogua and possibly Jocotan-Chamelecon faults. Prominent lineaments visible in radar imagery in the Neogene volcanic belt of southern Guatemala and western El Salvador were mapped and interpreted to suggest southwest extensions of this already broad plate boundary zone. Because these extensions can be traced beneath Quaternary volcanic cover, it is thought that this newly mapped fault zone is active and is accommodating some of the strain related to motion between the North American and Caribbean plates. Onshore exposures of the Motoqua-Polochic fault systems are characterized by abundant, tectonically emplaced ultramafic rocks. A similar mode of emplacement for these off shore ultramafics, is suggested.

  18. Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages from Mexico (Tequila, Mezcal, Bacanora, Sotol and Guatemala (Cuxa: Market Survey and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl carbamate (EC is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110, and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16 were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (<0.15 mg/L. Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico.

  19. La marimba: lenguaje musical y secreto de la violencia política en Guatemala The marimba: musical and secret language of the political violence in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang DIETRICH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    El autor refleja la construcción de la música nacional en el proceso del devenir del Estado nacional guatemalteco. Este proceso comienza formalmente a principios del siglo XIX, pero no ha concluido aún. Para el mito del Estado nación y para aquellos que lo utilizan para su proyecto de dominación, es de importancia decisiva que la música nacional se distinga externamente de las músicas expresadas por otras naciones, y para usos internos sirva al proceso de homogeneización nacional. Desde los mediados del siglo XIX la música en Guatemala se utiliza para transmitir ideologías que sirven a la construcción de tal mito. La música vernácula de los pueblos mayas no sigue esta lógica, por lo tanto está considerada inferior o «incorrecta». Para el mito del Estado nación sólo el pueblo como concepto abstracto en su conjunto, y no el grupo concreto e individual, podría entender y valorar la música nacional. Suponiendo esto, la música nacional se convirtió en una herramienta elemental y efectiva del mecanismo represivo de la deculturación.

     

    La marimba entonces funciona como símbolo del Estado nación guatemalteco. Las dictaduras militares, siendo ellas las principales responsables del genocidio contra los mayas, declararon la marimba cromática instrumento nacional. Tras un largo camino de violencia la marimba desindianizada y por lo tanto ladinizada, se convirtió en instrumento nacional. En el período de la violencia, la marimba cromática no cesó de sonar en los sitios nocturnos y en los restaurantes elegantes de la capital

  20. Genomic insights on the ethno-history of the Maya and the ‘Ladinos’ from Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Söchtig, Jens; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Salas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Guatemala is a multiethnic and multilingual country located in Central America. The main population groups separate ‘Ladinos’ (mixed Native American-African-Spanish), and Native indigenous people of Maya descent. Among the present-day Guatemalan Maya, there are more than 20 different ethnic groups separated by different languages and cultures. Genetic variation of these communities still remains largely unexplored. The principal aim of this study is to explore the genetic variabili...

  1. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Sihuincha Moisés; Darling Samuel T; Moore Sarah J; Padilla Norma; Devine Gregor J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD) and lemongrass oil (LG). Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Pe...

  2. Empresarios antioqueños en la historia del café en Guatemala, 1863-1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Gallini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo reconstruye la experiencia de las familias antioqueñas Vásquez Calley Ospina Rodríguez en la Guatemala del despegue cafetero en los años sesentay setenta del siglo xix. Gracias a su hábil inserción en el entramado político yeconómico del país

  3. Self-rated health among Mayan women participating in a randomised intervention trial reducing indoor air pollution in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Kirk R; Díaz Anaité; Pope Dan; Bruce Nigel; Díaz Esperanza; Smith-Sivertsen Tone

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Indoor air pollution (IAP) from solid fuels is a serious health problem in low-income countries that can be alleviated using improved stoves. Although women are the principal users, few studies have investigated the self-assessed impact of the stoves on their health and lives. Methods This study was conducted in rural highland Guatemala, involving 89 intervention and 80 control Mayan Indian young women (mean 27.8 years, SD 7.2). Outcomes were assessed after approximately 1...

  4. Self-rated health among Mayan women participating in a randomised intervention trial reducing indoor air pollution in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Esperanza; Bruce, Nigel; Pope, Dan; Díaz, Anaité; Kirk R Smith; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone

    2008-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) from solid fuels is a serious health problem in low-income countries that can be alleviated using improved stoves. Although women are the principal users, few studies have investigated the self-assessed impact of the stoves on their health and lives. Methods: This study was conducted in rural highland Guatemala, involving 89 intervention and 80 control Mayan Indian young women (mean 27.8 years, SD 7.2). Outcomes were assessed after approximatel...

  5. Understanding Social and Sexual Networks of Sexual Minority Men and Transgender Women in Guatemala City to Improve HIV Prevention Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in G...

  6. Pre-hospital Barriers to Emergency Obstetric Care : Studies of Maternal Mortality and Near-miss in Bolivia and Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Rööst, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    Maternal mortality is a global health concern but inequalities in utilization of maternal health care are not clearly understood. Severe morbidity (near-miss) is receiving increased attention due to methodological difficulties in maternal mortality studies. The present thesis seeks to increase understanding of factors that impede utilization of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in Bolivia and Guatemala. Studies I and IV employed qualitative interviews to explore the role of traditional birth at...

  7. A Combined Ecological and Epidemiologic Investigation of Metals Exposure amongst Indigenous Peoples Near the Marlin Mine in Western Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Niladri; Abare, Marce; Buchanan, Susan; Cryderman, Diana; Nam, Dong-Ha; Sirkin, Susannah; Schmitt, Stefan; Hu, Howard

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009 a combined epidemiological and ecological pilot study was conducted to investigate allegations of human rights abuses in the form of exposures to toxic metals experienced by mine workers and Indigenous Mam Mayan near the Marlin Mine in Guatemala. In the human study there were no differences in blood and urine metals when comparing five mine workers with eighteen non-mine workers, and there were no discernible relationships between metals exposures and self-reported health measu...

  8. Whole genome sequencing identifies circulating Beijing-lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Guatemala and an associated urban outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Saelens, Joseph W.; Lau-Bonilla, Dalia; Moller, Anneliese; Medina, Narda; Guzmán, Brenda; Calderón, Maylena; Herrera, Raúl; Sisk, Dana M.; Ana M Xet-Mull; Stout, Jason E.; Arathoon, Eduardo; Samayoa, Blanca; Tobin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Limited data are available regarding the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains circulating in Guatemala. Beijing-lineage Mtb strains have gained prevalence worldwide and are associated with increased virulence and drug resistance, but there have been only a few cases reported in Central America. Here we report the first whole genome sequencing of Central American Beijing-lineage strains of Mtb. We find that multiple Beijing-lineage strains, derived from in...

  9. Confirmed Zika virus infection in a Belgian traveler returning from Guatemala, and the diagnostic challenges of imported cases into Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Birgit; Van den Bossche, Dorien; van de Werve, Charlotte; Mairesse, Jacques; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Michiels, Jo; Ariën, Kevin K; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Cnops, Lieselotte

    2016-07-01

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a Belgian traveler after a three week holiday in Guatemala, December 2015. This case along with other imported cases into Europe emphases once again the need for accurate diagnostic tools for this rapidly emerging virus. The challenge is to diagnose patients in the acute phase, which appears short, as serological testing is complicated by cross-reactivity, vaccination status and scarce availability of specific ZIKV tests. PMID:27128355

  10. Too poor to be green consumers? A field experiment on revealed preferences for firewood in rural Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on a field experiment that investigates whether households in Guatemala are willing to surrender a small material gain in order to buy legal rather than illegal firewood. Given the ineffectiveness of command-and-control policies to curb the problem of illegal logging in Guatemala, the experiment assesses the potential viability of market-oriented solutions. Local consumers in developing countries are generally believed to be too poor to pay a premium for green/ethical products. Therefore, little information has been gathered on willingness-to-pay (WTP) for such products and its determinants in non-affluent consumer markets. While our experiment on firewood consumption in central Guatemala only implies a weak and indirect test of WTP for green products, the results indicate that it is premature, if not unwarranted, to assume that the poor are not ready to make pro-ethical choices in the marketplace. Moreover, we find that information on the legal procedures for firewood extraction significantly affects consumer choice between legal and illegal firewood. (author)

  11. Audiitor kaebas Alta Capitali arve pärast Läti kohtusse / Henrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Päevalehe andmetel kaebas rahvusvaheline audiitorfirma Ernst & Young Lätis kohtusse investeerimisfirma Alta Capital, kuna firma ei ole maksnud esitatud arvet. Nõude suuruseks on 4,69 miljonit krooni

  12. Fault kinematics in northern Central America and coupling along the subduction interface of the Cocos Plate, from GPS data in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Kostoglodov, V.; Molina, E.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Monterosso, D.; Robles, V.; Figueroa, C.; Amaya, W.; Barrier, E.; Chiquin, L.; Moran, S.; Flores, O.; Romero, J.; Santiago, J. A.; Manea, M.; Manea, V. C.

    2012-06-01

    New GPS measurements in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador are used to constrain the fault kinematics in the North America (NA), Caribbean (CA) and Cocos (CO) plates triple junction area. The regional GPS velocity field is first analysed in terms of strain partitioning across the major volcano-tectonic structures, using elastic half-space modelling, then inverted through a block model. We show the dominant role of the Motagua Fault with respect to the Polochic Fault in the accommodation of the present-day deformation associated with the NA and CA relative motion. The NA/CA motion decreases from 18-22 mm yr-1 in eastern Guatemala to 14-20 mm yr-1 in central Guatemala (assuming a uniform locking depth of 14-28 km), down to a few millimetres per year in western Guatemala. As a consequence, the western tip of the CA Plate deforms internally, with ≃9 mm yr-1 of east-west extension (≃5 mm yr-1 across the Guatemala city graben alone). Up to 15 mm yr-1 of dextral motion can be accommodated across the volcanic arc in El Salvador and southeastern Guatemala. The arc seems to mark the northern boundary of an independent forearc sliver (AR), pinned to the NA plate. The inversion of the velocity field shows that a four-block (NA, CA, CO and AR) model, that combines relative block rotations with elastic deformation at the block boundaries, can account for most of the GPS observations and constrain the overall kinematics of the active structures. This regional modelling also evidences lateral variations of coupling at the CO subduction interface, with a fairly high-coupling (≃0.6) offshore Chiapas and low-coupling (≃0.25) offshore Guatemala and El Salvador.

  13. Il programma italiano di ricerche nella alta atmosfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    l. BROGLIO

    1962-06-01

    Full Text Available La Commissione per le Ricerche Spaziali, nominata dal ConsiglioNazionale delle Ricerche diciotto mesi fa, ha intrapreso un programmadi studio dell'alta atmosfera a mezzo di razzi sonda. Questa ricerca,che nella attuale prima fase di lavoro e sviluppo deve essere consideratauna delle attività basilari della Commissione, aveva ed ha un duplicescopo: uno scopo diretto, immediato, che consiste nell'acquisizione didati scientifici, in maggior copia possibile, tali da ampliare ed approfondirele attuali conoscenze sulla struttura e sulla dinamica della altaatmosfera.Il secondo scopo è, se così si può dire, proiettato nel futuro. L'organizzazionepredisposta, sia in uomini che in attrezzature ed installazioni,per questa ricerca può considerarsi infatti come il nocciolo di unapiù ampia organizzazione che potrà operare negli anni successivi permaggiori e più impegnativi compiti.I fondi necessari per lo sviluppo del programma di ricerche nell'altaatmosfera sono stati forniti alla Commissione delle Ricerche Spazialiin base ad un accordo fra il C.N.R. e il Comitato Razzi e Missili delMinistero della Difesa, secondo il quale i due Enti si impegnavano acontribuire alle spese necessarie su base paritetica.II C.N.R. stipulò anche un accordo di natura scientifica con l'Entespaziale statunitense N.A.S.A., sia per ottenere dalla Commissione delleRicerche Spaziali un appoggio tecnico, sia per altre finalità di cui siparlerà più diffusamente in seguito.

  14. Determinación indirecta de la capacidad de retención de humedad en suelos de la subcuenca del río Torjá, Chiquimula, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Augusto Chicas Soto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tiene como objetivo determinar modelos estadísticos que permitan estimar de forma indirecta la capacidad de campo y el punto de marchitez permanente para conocer la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo con fines agrícolas en una región semiárida ubicada en la subcuenca del río Torja, en el departamento de Chiquimula, Guatemala. Fueron tomadas como base las unidades fisiográficas de la subcuenca identificándose cincuenta y siete sitios, donde se realizaron muestreos de suelos. Se definieron como variables dependientes la capacidad de campo (CC y el punto de marchitez permanente (PMP y como variables independientes el porcentaje de arcilla, porcentaje de limo, porcentaje de arena, densidad aparente (Da, conductividad eléctrica (CE y la materia orgánica (MO. Fueron establecidas relaciones ent re estas variables mediante regresión lineal múltiple generándose los modelos: CC = 67,31– (33,77·Da – (0,23·porcentaje de arena, R 2 0,59 y PMP = 55,05 – (28,.97·Da – (0,23 porcentaje de arena, R 2 0,69. Los modelos se validaron tomando diez muestras al azar en el área obteniendo una alta correlación de Pearson entre valores observados y valores estimados a partir de la densidad aparente y porcentaje de arena, siendo de 0,84 para el modelo de capacidad de campo y 0,85 para el de punto de marchitez permanente.

  15. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  16. La ciencia política en Guatemala: el reto de la consolidación como disciplina independiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah Azpuru

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La ciencia política surgió en Guatemala a finales de los años 60 y durante más de una década, tuvo que desarrollarse con las limitaciones impuestas por los regímenes autoritarios de turno. No obstante, desde su surgimiento las escuelas de ciencia política promovieron activamente la democratización del país. Al iniciarse el proceso democratizador a mediados de los 80, se abrió el espectro de los temas de estudio e investigación. Algo similar ocurrió con el proceso de paz en los años 90. A lo largo de tres décadas la disciplina ha contribuido en forma importante a la construcción de la democracia y la paz en Guatemala. Como disciplina, sin embargo, se ha visto limitada por los fuertes vínculos que ha mantenido con otras ciencias sociales y con el derecho. Durante 35 años los centros académicos que dan formación en ciencia política han enfrentado disyuntivas en cuanto al tipo de programas que deben ofrecerse a los estudiantes (grados técnicos, licenciatura o maestría, el perfil de los profesionales que egresan de los mismos vis-à-vis el mercado laboral y el énfasis en el estudio de la problemática guatemalteca vis-à-vis una perspectiva más global.Abstract The study of political science began in Guatemala in the late 1960s and for over a decade it had to develop with limitations imposed by the authoritarian regimes that governed the country. However, from the beginning the political science schools actively promoted democratization. When the democratization process began in the mid 1980s, the possibilities for research of different issues expanded. Something similar occurred with the peace process in the 1990s. Throughout three decades of existence, political science has significantly contributed to democracy-building and peace-building in Guatemala. However, as an academic discipline, it has been limited by the strong links that it has maintained with other social sciences and law. During 35 years the academic

  17. Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy; Greenberg, Lauren; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo; Alvarado, Marlon; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Vampire bat rabies is a public and animal health concern throughout Latin America. As part of an ecological study of vampire bat depredation on cattle in southern Guatemala, we conducted a vaccine seroconversion study among three dairy farms. The main objectives of this cross sectional and cohort study were to understand factors associated with bat bites among cattle, to determine whether unvaccinated cattle had evidence of rabies virus exposure and evaluate whether exposure was related to bat bite prevalence, and to assess whether cattle demonstrate adequate seroconversion to two commercial vaccines used in Guatemala. In 2012, baseline blood samples were collected immediately prior to intramuscular inoculation of cattle with one of two modified live rabies vaccines. Post vaccination blood samples were collected 13 and 393 days later. Sera were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Across two years of study, 36% (254/702) of inspected cattle presented gross evidence of vampire bat bites. Individual cattle with a bat bite in 2012 were more likely have a bat bite in 2013. Prior to vaccination, 12% (42/350) of cattle sera demonstrated rVNA, but bite status in 2012 was not associated with presence of rVNA. Vaccine brand was the only factor associated with adequate rVNA response of cattle by day 13. However, vaccine brand and rVNA status at day 13 were associated with an adequate rVNA titer on day 393, with animals demonstrating an adequate titer at day 13 more likely to have an adequate titer at day 393. Our findings support stable levels of vampire bat depredation and evidence of rVNA in unvaccinated cattle. Brand of vaccine may be an important consideration impacting adequate rVNA response and long-term maintenance of rVNA in cattle. Further, the results demonstrate that initial response to vaccination is associated with rVNA status over one year following vaccination. PMID:25466762

  18. SMS text message reminders to improve infant vaccination coverage in Guatemala: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domek, Gretchen J.; Contreras-Roldan, Ingrid L.; O’Leary, Sean T.; Bull, Sheana; Furniss, Anna; Kempe, Allison; Asturias, Edwin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient reminder systems are an evidence-based way to improve childhood vaccination rates but are difficult to implement in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Short Message Service (SMS) texts may offer a potential low-cost solution, especially in LMICs where mobile phones are becoming more ubiquitous. Objective To determine if an SMS-based vaccination reminder system aimed at improving completion of the infant primary immunization series is feasible and acceptable in Guatemala. Methods A pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted at two public health clinics in Guatemala City. Infants aged 8–14 weeks presenting for the first dose of the primary immunization series were enrolled in March–April 2013. Participants randomized into the intervention received three SMS reminders one week before the second and third dose. A follow-up acceptability survey was administered to both groups. Results The participation rate was 86.8% (321/370); 8 did not own a cell phone and 12 could not use SMS. 96.9% of intervention parents were sent at least one SMS reminder prior to visit 2 and 96.3% prior to visit 3. Both intervention and usual care participants had high rates of vaccine and visit completion, with a non-statistically significant higher percentage of children in the intervention completing both visit 2 (95.0% vs. 90.1%, p = .12) and visit 3 (84.4% vs. 80.7%, p = .69). More intervention vs. usual care parents agreed that SMS reminders would be helpful for remembering appointments (p < .0001), agreed to being interested in receiving future SMS reminders (p < .0001), and said that they would be willing to pay for future SMS reminders (p = .01). Conclusion This proof of concept evaluation showed that a new application of SMS technology is feasible to implement in a LMIC with high user satisfaction. Larger studies with modifications in the SMS system are needed to determine effectiveness (Clinical Trial Registry NCT01663636). PMID:27026145

  19. ÍNDICE DE DIVERSIDAD BIOLÓGICA URBANA DE LA CIUDAD DE LA ANTIGUA GUATEMALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José García Polo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La urbanización es un fenómeno global de tendencia creciente, cuyo pronóstico prevé, para el 2050, que aproximadamente el 70% de la población mundial será urbana. Las administraciones municipales deben de contemplar este componente para la planificación y desempeño ambiental de sus ciudades y áreas urbanas. Dada la importancia de esta tendencia,  el Convenio para la Diversidad Biológica (CDB ha planteado una nueva herramienta para estimar la diversidad biológica en ciudades: el Índice de Diversidad Biológica Urbana. En este proyecto se evaluó el índice para la ciudad de La Antigua Guatemala en su línea base y se aportan elementos para la planificación y gestión ambiental,  midiendose dieciocho indicadores de biodiversidad urbana. De un máximo de 72 puntos, el resultado para la ciudad de La Antigua Guatemala fue de 33 puntos. Los registros para la línea base de la biodiversidad son: 99 especies de aves, 148 especies de plantas vasculares, 46 especies de mariposas y 11 especies de murciélagos. Las recomendaciones para tener un mejor desempeño en el tema de diversidad biológica están relacionadas con la urgente necesidad que la ciudad, previo a la próxima evaluación del índice, elabore la estrategia local de diversidad biológica y su plan de acción (LBSAP – por sus siglas en inglés. Se recomienda, además,  planificar e implementar proyectos de gestión ambiental y continuar utilizando el índice de diversidad biológica urbana para el monitoreo y evaluación del desempeño ambiental de la ciudad a largo plazo.

  20. La importancia de los Derechos Humanos en la Consolidación de la Paz en Guatemala

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    María José TORRES MACHO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Hasta 1996 se firmaron en Guatemala doce Acuerdos de Paz, de los cuales tres versan sobre derechos humanos: El Acuerdo Global sobre Derechos Humanos, el Acuerdo sobre el Establecimiento de la Comisión de Esclarecimiento Histórico y el Acuerdo sobre Identidad y Derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas. La totalidad de los Acuerdos constituye el pilar para conseguir la desmovilización y reinserción de los guerrilleros, el desmonte de grupos paramilitares, el desarrollo humano integral, el desarrollo humano sostenible y el fortalecimiento y la modernización del Estado democrático, además de establecer el marco de acción de la Misión de las Naciones Unidas para Guatemala con el fin de verificar el cumplimiento de estos Acuerdos y promover la construcción de la paz después del conflicto. El proceso de paz en Guatemala duró 8 años, con la firma de los Acuerdos de Paz se puso fin al conflicto más antiguo de Centroamérica, sin embargo, los notables avances conseguidos hasta ahora se enfrentan a los intereses partidarios surgidos por la proximidad de las elecciones presidenciales. Aún así, la forma de negociación de los Acuerdos de Paz ha permitido la implementación de otras modalidades de participación política, el fortalecimiento de la sociedad civil y el reconocimiento de la mayoritaria población indígena del país.ABSTRACT: Until 1996, 12 peace agreements were agreed upon in Guatemala. Three of them deal with human rights: the global agreement on human rights, the agreement on the establishement of a committee for the "Esclarecimiento Historico" and the agreement on the identity and the rights of the indigenous peoples. All these agreements constitute the basis for the demobilization and reintegration into civic life of the guerrilla members, the elimination of paramilitary groupings, global human develepment, sustained development and for the strengthening and modernization of the democratic state. They also establish the

  1. y alta de la subcuenca Cohatán, Chiapas

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    M. Grajales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio consistió en un diagnóstico biofísico (fisiográfico, hidrográfico, uso actual del suelo, cobertura vegetal y socioeconómico (infraestructura social y productiva con actividades en la subcuenca Cohatán, localizado en las estribaciones de la Sierra del Soconusco Chiapas, para saber la situación que guarda y generar acciones de rehabilitación, a mediano y largo plazo. Esta subcuenca se extiende desde 350 a los 4,080 msnm, con 42 comunidades, que abarcan los municipios de Tapachula, Motozintla y Cacahotán, Chiapas; tiene una densidad de 1.2 hab/ha, con suelo de origen volcánico formado del Cenozoico terciario de unidad acrisol húmico. El 80% de la superficie presenta clima tropical húmedo y subhúmedo, con relieve de ladera fuerte hasta de 60%, con una erosión hídrica severa de 250 t/ ha/año en 42% de la superficie; tiene 25% de selva, medias altas y perennifolias. La principal actividad económica es la explotación del cultivo de café, desde el área marginal 350 hasta 2,660 msnm. A lo largo del río Cohatán el tipo de desarrollo se sustenta en el uso intensivo de los recursos naturales, originan —a su vez— fuerte deterioro neceambiental, al cambio de vegetación de la selva original por introducción de especies de sombra del café con chalum (Inga spp; en este ecosistema se observa un deficiente uso de tecnología de producción que se refleja en el bajo rendimiento del café, de 8 quintales/ha. El nivel socioeconómico de desarrollo es bajo, con nivel de educación, salud, vivienda y servicios deficientes, así como falta de apoyo social, con carente gestión ambiental

  2. MICROTOMOGRAFIA DE ALTA RESOLUÇÃO NO SETOR MINERAL

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    Daniel Uliana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de microscopia por tomografia de raios X (MRX oferece uma capacidade única para análise de associações, morfologia e liberação de múltiplas fases através da aquisição direta de imagens tridimensionais de alta resolução. Trata-se de uma técnica de análise 3D não invasiva atualmente utilizada no setor mineral para caracterização de carvão, minerais industriais e de base, além de metais preciosos, complementando técnicas de microscopia já existentes como MLA e QEMSCAN. A técnica já é empregada há algum tempo na indústria do petróleo para a caracterização de tamanho e distribuição de poros, permitindo simular o fluxo de óleo em rochas reservatório. Além disso, a caracterização de poros em 3D permite a simulação de fluxo em processos de lixiviação. Requerendo pouca ou nenhuma preparação da amostra, comparativamente às técnicas de microscopia bi ou unidimensionais proporciona vantagens como a preparação muito mais ágil da amostra, aquisição direta de dados volumétricos, análise quantitativa em 3D e menor tempo de análise aliado a maior representatividade do material analisado. Particularmente em estudos de metais preciosos, tem-se um significativo aumento na probabilidade de detecção dos minerais de interesse. Recentes avanços com o emprego de dupla magnificação – projeção cônica aliada à utilização de lentes ópticas - possibilitam a aquisição de imagens com resolução submicrométrica com sensível melhoria no contraste entre as fases.

  3. GUATEMALA: DANZANDO CON LAS CRISIS ECONÓMICA Y POLÍTICA Guatemala: Dancing with the Economic and  Politic Crisis

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    KARIN ERBSEN DE MALDONADO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los guatemaltecos sobrevivieron con dificultad el 2009. Sus ya precarias condiciones de desarrollo humano y gobernabilidad se agravaron como resultado de mayores niveles de violencia, inseguridad e impunidad, así como por el incremento del crimen organizado, los efectos de la crisis financiera internacional y el impacto del calentamiento global. En mayo estalló una crisis política, provocada por un hecho insólito en el que (indebidamente, como se aclaró posteriormente fueron involucrados el Presidente Colom y cercanos colaboradores del mismo, lo cual afectó la estabilidad del gobierno y la credibilidad del mandatario. Entre los hechos positivos destacan un acuerdo de Estado para el avance de la seguridad y la justicia, la aprobación de la Ley de Comisiones de Postulación y la elección más transparente de los magistrados de la Corte Suprema de Justicia, así como un notorio empoderamiento de organizaciones sociales pro justicia y transparencia, a lo que se suma el activo desempeño de la Comisión Internacional Contra la Impunidad en Guatemala (CICIG.Guatemalans struggled to survive year 2009. Their already precarious conditions on human development and governance became worse because of higher levels of violence, insecurity and impunity, together with an increase in organized crime, the effects of the international financial crisis and the impact of global warming. In May, a political crisis erupted because of an unusual event in which (mistakenly, as it was later clarified President Colom and some of his close collaborators were involved, affected the stability of the government and the President s credibility On the positive side stands out a state agreement for the advancement of security and justice, the enactment of the law for the Nominating Commissions and a more transparent election of Supreme Court Magistrates. In addition, social organizations in favor of justice and transparency were notoriously empowered, and an active

  4. Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas en edades pediátricas. Guatemala, 2011

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    Mario Enrique Pla Acevedo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de la Intoxicación Aguda por plaguicidas en edades pediátricas en Guatemala, que abarcó el  período de enero hasta diciembre del 2011. La muestra estuvo comprendida por 457 pacientes en edades pediátricas. Se analizaron las variables: edad y sexo, actividad que realizaba en el momento de la intoxicación, tipo de plaguicida, severidad, utilización de equipos de protección y lugar de asistencia médica. Las variables para el análisis de los indicadores fueron obtenidas por el Centro Nacional de Epidemiología. Como resultados fundamentales se observó que la Intoxicación Aguda por plaguicidas afectó principalmente al grupo de edades entre 17 y 19 años. El sexo masculino fue el más perjudicado, el mayor porciento de afectados, según causa, fue accidente de trabajo, con un 68% del total de casos; el tipo de plaguicida más utilizado que provocó intoxicación fue el paraquat; predominó la forma severa en los que no usaron medios de protección y el  lugar de atención médica y de notificación correspondió al hospital.

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns in civil violence: Guatemala, 1977-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulden, Timothy R

    2002-03-01

    Civil violence is a complex and often horrific phenomenon whose characteristics have varied by era, setting, and circumstance. Its objective analysis has rarely been feasible at spatial and temporal scales great enough and resolutions fine enough to reveal patterns useful in prevention, intervention, or adjudication. An extraordinary data set simultaneously meeting scale and resolution criteria was collected during conflict in Guatemala from 1977 through 1986. Reported here is its spatial-temporal analysis; reported as well is a putatively novel method for estimating power-law exponents from aggregate data. Analysis showed that the relationship between ethnic mix and killing was smooth yet highly nonlinear, that the temporal texture of killings was rough, and that the distribution of killing-event sizes was dichotomous, with nongenocidal and genocidal conflict periods displaying Zipf and non-Zipf distributions, respectively. These results add statistical support to claims that the Guatemalan military operated under at least two directives with respect to killing and that one of these effected a genocidal campaign against an indigenous people, the Mayans. Implications for group-behavioral modeling, conflict prevention, peace-keeping intervention, human-rights monitoring, and transitional justice are noted. PMID:16859341

  6. ASSESSING THE NATURAL REGENERATION OF THREE SPECIES CONIFER NATURAL RANGE IN THE WESTERN HIGHLANDS OF GUATEMALA

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    Sergio Miguel Godínez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coniferous forests of the western highlands of Guatemala have been disturbed by human intervention and natural phenomena, which has allowed the occurrence of the phenomenon of natural regeneration. In this scenario the density of natural regeneration of conifers three species evaluated (Pinus oocarpa Schiede, P. pseudostrobus Lindl. and P. tecunumanii Eguiluz & Perry in 60 sites distributed in space and clear edge. The variables evaluated were the source of disturbance that caused its establishment, density variation of the source of seed and distance estimation range scattering adequate regeneration, using sampling units of 25 m2 for natural regeneration and 500 m2 seed source trees. Disturbance sources identified were logging 55%, 24% forest fires, pests 8%, agriculture, avalanche 5% each and hurricane 3%. The variation of the density of natural regeneration on the seed source, corresponds to the inverted J models for edges, and to clear variable subpopulations. Dispersal distances of natural regeneration was established for P.oocarpa 65 m in edges, and 160 m in the clears; P. pseudostrobus 75 m in edges, and 175 m in the clears; and P. tecunumanii was 70 m in edges, and 170 m in the clears. Dispersal distances with acceptable densities according National Forestry Institute-Regional Forestry Programme for Central American, for the three species vary from 65-175 m

  7. Movilidad, accidentalidad por tránsito y sus factores asociados en estudiantes universitarios de Guatemala

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    Sandra Rodríguez-Guzmán

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue identificar y cuantificar la asociación entre la intensidad de exposición (km/año recorridos, la accidentalidad y sus factores asociados en universitarios de Guatemala. Se realizó un estudio trasversal durante el curso 2010-2011, sobre una muestra de 1.016 conductores, quienes cumplimentaron un cuestionario autoadministrado que valoraba: patrones de movilidad, uso de dispositivos de seguridad, estilos de conducción y accidentalidad. Se obtuvieron asociaciones positivas entre la intensidad de exposición y la mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante (coeficiente de regresión ajustado de 3,25, IC95%: 2,23-4,27, para las mayores exposiciones. Tanto una mayor implicación en tales circunstancias, como una mayor edad, fueron las variables más fuertemente asociadas con la mayor accidentalidad. Pese a que la intensidad de exposición se asocia positivamente con una mayor accidentalidad, se constató que la mayor parte de dicha asociación está mediada por una mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante.

  8. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala geothermal gradient core hole drilling, operations, and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Duffield, W. (Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (USA)); Martinelli, L.; Aycinena, S. (Swissboring Overseas Corp. Ltd., Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Castaneda, O. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1990-01-01

    A geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to a depth of 700+ m at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala during February and March, 1990. The core hole is located low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. Preliminary analysis of cores (>98% core recovery) indicates that the hydrothermal system may be centered in the 4-km-diameter Chupadero Crater, which has been proposed as the source of pyroxene pumice deposits in the Tecuamburro area. TCB-1 is located 300 m south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco; the core hole penetrates the thin edge of a tuff ring surrounding Ixpaco and zones of hydrothermal brecciation within the upper 150 m may be related to the phreatic blast, dated at 2,910 {sup 14}C years. At the time of this writing, the unequilibrated temperature at a depth of 570m was 180{degree}C. Data on fracturing, permeability, hydrothermal alteration, and temperature will be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Huehuetenango Focus of Guatemala

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    Nancy Cruz-Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, onchocerciasis is targeted for elimination by 2012 through twice-yearly mass treatment of the eligible population with ivermectin. In Guatemala, two of the four historical endemic foci have demonstrated elimination of transmission, following World Health Organization guidelines. Using established guidelines ophthalmological, serological, and entomological evaluations were conducted in 2007-8 to determine the transmission status of onchocerciasis in the Huehuetenango focus. The prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 365 residents was 0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0–0.8%, the prevalence of infection of O. volvulus in Simulium ochraceum among 8252 flies collected between November 2007 and April 2008 was 0% (95% CI 0–0.02%, and the prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen in 3118 school age children was 0% (95% CI 0–0.1%. These results showed transmission interruption; thus, in 2009 mass treatment was halted and posttreatment surveillance began. To verify for potential recrudescence an entomological evaluation (from December 2010 to April 2011 was conducted during the 2nd and 3rd year of posttreatment surveillance. A total of 4587 S. ochraceum were collected, and the prevalence of infection of O. volvulus was 0% (95% CI 0–0.04%. Transmission of onchocerciasis in the Huehuetenango focus has been eliminated.

  10. Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Huehuetenango Focus of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ortiz, Nancy; Gonzalez, Rodrigo J; Lindblade, Kim A; Richards, Frank O; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Dominguez, Alfredo; Oliva, Orlando; Catú, Eduardo; Rizzo, Nidia

    2012-01-01

    In Latin America, onchocerciasis is targeted for elimination by 2012 through twice-yearly mass treatment of the eligible population with ivermectin. In Guatemala, two of the four historical endemic foci have demonstrated elimination of transmission, following World Health Organization guidelines. Using established guidelines ophthalmological, serological, and entomological evaluations were conducted in 2007-8 to determine the transmission status of onchocerciasis in the Huehuetenango focus. The prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 365 residents was 0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0-0.8%), the prevalence of infection of O. volvulus in Simulium ochraceum among 8252 flies collected between November 2007 and April 2008 was 0% (95% CI 0-0.02%), and the prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen in 3118 school age children was 0% (95% CI 0-0.1%). These results showed transmission interruption; thus, in 2009 mass treatment was halted and posttreatment surveillance began. To verify for potential recrudescence an entomological evaluation (from December 2010 to April 2011) was conducted during the 2nd and 3rd year of posttreatment surveillance. A total of 4587 S. ochraceum were collected, and the prevalence of infection of O. volvulus was 0% (95% CI 0-0.04%). Transmission of onchocerciasis in the Huehuetenango focus has been eliminated. PMID:22970346

  11. Shallow landslide susceptibility assessment in a data-poor region of Guatemala (Comitancillo municipality

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    Federico Preti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although landslides are frequent natural phenomena in mountainous regions, the lack of data in emerging countries is a significant issue in the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility. A key factor in risk-mitigation strategies is the evaluation of deterministic physical models for hazard assessment in these data-poor regions. Given the lack of physical information, input parameters to these data-intensive deterministic models have to be estimated, which has a negative impact on the reliability of the assessment. To address this problem, we examined shallow landslide hazard in Comitancillo municipality, Guatemala. Shallow landslides are here defined as small (less than two or three metre-deep rotational or translational slides or earth flows. We based our hazard simulation on the stability index mapping model. The model’s input parameters were estimated from a statistical analysis of factors affecting landslides in the municipality obtained from a geodatabase. The outputs from the model were analysed and compared to an inventory of small-scale landslides. The results of the comparison show the effectiveness of the method developed to estimate input parameters for a deterministic model, in regions where physical data related to the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility is lacking.

  12. The costs of adolescent childbearing: evidence from Chile, Barbados, Guatemala, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvinic, M

    1998-06-01

    Findings from Chile, Barbados, Guatemala, and Mexico are reviewed in this article to shed light on the consequences of adolescent childbearing for mothers' economic and social opportunities and the well-being of their first-born children. The studies include retrospective information and a comparison group of adult childbearers to account for the effects of background factors (poverty) and the timing of observations. The findings show that early childbearing is associated with negative economic rather than social effects, occurring for poor rather than for all mothers. Among the poor, adolescent childbearing is associated with lower monthly earnings for mothers and lower child nutritional status. Also, among this group of women only, improvements in the child's well-being are associated with mother's education and her contribution to household income. These findings suggest that social policy that expands the educational and income-earning opportunities of poor women could help to contain the intergenerational poverty associated with early childbearing among the poor. PMID:9664632

  13. High flux rates of ignimbrite and stratocone growth at Atitlan Caldera, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, H. S.; Jicha, B.; Singer, B. S.

    2010-12-01

    To understand the factors that govern the development of different volcanic edifices, recent studies have quantified eruptive volume, repose interval and crustal thickness among other parameters. Atitlan Caldera, Guatemala provides a compelling locality to contrast the age, volume and repose of several ignimbrite eruptions over the past 160 kyr including the 300 km3 Los Chocoyos ignimbrite, as well as, prolific mafic volcanism from three intracaldera stratocones. Since the caldera-forming eruption 84 kyr, 117 km3 of basaltic andesitic to dacitic lavas have been erupted from stratocones San Pedro, Toliman and Atitlan, resulting in a combined eruption rate of 1.46km3/kyr. These eruption rates are considered minimum values as preliminary 40Ar/39Ar age data suggest the cones are much younger than 84 kyr. Inclusion of the Los Chocoyos eruption increases eruption rates to 4.77 km3/kyr. Average eruption rates of the Atitlan system are an order of magnitude greater than most frontal arc complexes that are commonly characterized by cone growth due to large punctuated silicic eruptions. Although a minor proportion (marked by large punctuated ignimbrite eruptions, but rather by continual profuse outpouring of both rhyolitic and basaltic products.

  14. Population Fluctuation of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a Function of Altitude in Eastern Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, S; Montoya, P; Ruiz-Montoya, L; Villaseñor, A; Valle, A; Enkerlin, W; Liedo, P

    2016-08-01

    Population fluctuations of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were evaluated over a period of 12 mo in four altitudinal strata (400-750, 750-1,100, 1,100-1,450, and 1,450-1,800 meters above sea level, masl) in Eastern Guatemala. Within each altitudinal range, sampling plots were established in coffee plantations and adjacent areas, in which Jackson traps were set and baited with Trimedlure. Coffee berries and other host fruits were collected. Population density was lowest at the 400-750 masl stratum and highest at 1,450-1,800 masl. At every altitudinal range, the fluctuations of the pest were associated mainly with the availability of ripe coffee berries as a primary host. From 750-1,450 masl, the pest was also associated with the availability of sweet orange and mandarins in commercial and backyard orchards. The highest densities of the pest were recorded in the dry season. Citrus were the main alternate host where ripe coffee berries were not available. This knowledge on population dynamics of C. capitata will contribute to develop more effective area-wide pest management strategies including the use of sterile insects, natural enemies, and bait sprays. PMID:27247307

  15. Influenza a viruses from wild birds in Guatemala belong to the North American lineage.

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    Ana S González-Reiche

    Full Text Available The role wild bird species play in the transmission and ecology of avian influenza virus (AIV is well established; however, there are significant gaps in our understanding of the worldwide distribution of these viruses, specifically about the prevalence and/or significance of AIV in Central and South America. As part of an assessment of the ecology of AIV in Guatemala, we conducted active surveillance in wild birds on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. Cloacal and tracheal swab samples taken from resident and migratory wild birds were collected from February 2007 to January 2010.1913 samples were collected and virus was detected by real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR in 28 swab samples from ducks (Anas discors. Virus isolation was attempted for these positive samples, and 15 isolates were obtained from the migratory duck species Blue-winged teal. The subtypes identified included H7N9, H11N2, H3N8, H5N3, H8N4, and H5N4. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral sequences revealed that AIV isolates are highly similar to viruses from the North American lineage suggesting that bird migration dictates the ecology of these viruses in the Guatemalan bird population.

  16. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-06-01

    A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass. PMID:18613567

  17. Determination of pesticides in surface and ground water used for human consumption in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 15 month sampling and analysis programme was carried out to monitor concentrations of 37 targeted organochlorine, organophosphorus and organopyrethroid pesticides in surface and ground water in Guatemala. The 80 sampling points included 4 points in a lake, one point in each of the four lagoons, 10 municipal water systems of major towns, and 62 points along 52 rivers, most of which are located in the southern coast along borders with Mexico and El Salvador, and are one of the most productive areas in the country. The sampling used provided only preliminary information on the pattern of pesticide contamination of surface and ground water. It showed contamination of surface water in Los Esclavos watershed, Motagua river watershed as well as Villalobos, lake Amatitlan and Michatoya river watershed. Cypermethrin was the ubiquitous pesticides in some areas present in concentrations exceeding toxic levels for fish and other aquatic organisms. Several of the other targeted organophosphorus and ECD detectable pesticides were also detected in surface water. Some municipal water samples also had low levels of pesticides. (author)

  18. Códigos de conducta y derechos laborales en maquilas de México y Guatemala

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    César A. Rodríguez Garavito

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se han creado sistemas de monitoreo para verificar el cumplimiento de los códigos empresariales de conducta en relación con las condiciones de trabajo. En este trabajo se sitúan los códigos en el contexto de los debates más amplios sobre la gobernanza global y defiende un enfoque participativo de los estándares laborales internacionales que otorgue una mayor conciencia a los trabajadores de su poder y sus derechos. A partir de una investigación etnográfica en fábricas del vestido en México y Guatemala, el autor explora el efecto que ha tenido la supervisión de los códigos en el empoderamiento de los trabajadores y en las condiciones laborales de las factorías globales y destaca las estrategias políticas e institucionales que contribuyen a la protección de los derechos laborales.

  19. Results of geothermal gradient core hole TCB-1, Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site, Guatemala, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, A.I.; Chipera, S.; Counce, D.; Gardner, J.; Goff, S.; Goff, F.; Heiken, G.; Laughlin, A.W.; Musgrave, J.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Aycinena, S.; Martinelli, L. (Swissboring Overseas Corp. Ltd., Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Castaneda, O.; Revolorio, M.; Roldan, A. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion); D

    1992-02-01

    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site in Guatemala indicated that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, hydrothermal alteration, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro volcano Complex, 300 km south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2,910 years. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 250--300{degrees}C. The temperature versus depth curve from TCB-1 does not show isothermal conditions and the calculated thermal gradients from 500--800 m is 230{degrees}C/km. Bottom hole temperature is 238{degrees}C. Calculated heat flow values are nearly 9 heat flow units (HFU). The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for containing a commercial geothermal resource.

  20. Un Programa de Educación bilingüe en Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Shaclan.

    Full Text Available Guatemala es un país con variedad geográfica, cuya extensión territorial es de 108.889 Kms. Se le ubica en el área Centro_americana, compartiendo fronteras con México, al norte y occidente; con Honduras y el Salvador, al oriente; con el Océano Atlántico, al nor-oriente y, con el Océano Pacifico, al sur. Otros rasgos distintivos de este país son la   diversidad lingüística, cultural y social, como también la composición étnica y distribución espacia1 de la población. Así, de los ocho millones de habitantes del país, el 60% reside en las áreas rurales, y de éstos. el 90% es de origen maya. En efecto, el territorio guatemalteco es compartido por dos grandes grupos culturales: ladinos e indígenas. (Se utiliza el término ladino para designar a los mestizos.

  1. On the synonymy of Stictocephala alta (Walker and Thelia constans Walker (Hemiptera: Membracidae Sobre a sinonímia de Stictocephala alta (Walker e Thelia constans Walker (Hemiptera: Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Simões de Andrade

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the synonymy of Ceresa alta Walker, 1851, now Stictocephala alta, and its junior synonym, Thelia constans Walker, 1851. Notes on Stictocephala bisonia Kopp & Yonke, 1977 are also presented.São abordadas a sinonímia de Ceresa alta Walker, 1851, atualmente Stictocephala alta, e de Thelia constans Walker, 1851, como seu sinônimo júnior. Comentários sobre Stictocephala bisonia Kopp & Yonke, 1977 são apresentados também.

  2. Niche conservatism of Eulophia alta, a trans-Atlantic orchid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kolanowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eulophia embraces over 230 species distributed through the tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia, Australia and the Americas. In Neotropics it is represented by a sole species – E. alta. The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the difference between ecological niches occupied by American and African populations of this species based on the ecological niche modeling. The similarity between the glacial and present niches occupied by E. alta was calculated and the factors limiting the species occurrence were identified. Areas of seasonal tropical forest, tropical savanna and woodland served as refugia for the studied species during last glacial maximum and they were more widespread in Neotropics than in Africa. No significant niche shift after last glacial maximum was observed. The distribution of E. alta in its whole range is restricted mainly by temperature seasonality. The differences in the niches occupied by African and Neotropical populations of E. alta suggest preglacial disjunction of the species range and independent adaptation of both groups. Despite the significant range disjunction of E. alta the species is characterized by relatively high degree of niche conservatism.

  3. Proyecto de atención integral a víctimas de violencia sexual en el departamento de Escuintla, Guatemala Comprehensive care program for sexual violence victims in Escuintla, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Agustí; Meritxell Sabidó; Karla Guzmán; María Isabel Pedroza; Jordi Casabona

    2012-01-01

    Se implementó un proyecto de atención integral a las víctimas de violencia sexual en seis municipios del departamento de Escuintla, Guatemala. Estas víctimas recibieron atención médica y psicológica. Se recogió información clínico-epidemiológica y del suceso de violencia sexual. Se tomaron muestras para determinar infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y prueba de embarazo. En 2 años se atendieron 164 víctimas de violencia sexual, 111 (67,6%) menor...

  4. Suppression of Mediterranean fruit fly populations over mountainous areas through aerial phloxine B - protein bait sprays: Regional Medfly programme in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was discovered in southern Mexico sometime in 1977 near Tapachula, Mexico. Farmers in Texas and other states of the United States became concerned that the Mediterranean fruit fly would spread northward through Mexico and into the US. In response to this threat to US agriculture, funds were appropriated by Congress to be used by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit flies from Mexico and establish a barrier zone in Guatemala to keep the Mediterranean fruit flies from spreading northward into Mexico. In Mexico and Guatemala, the organisation called MOSCAMED was created to support the programme. Aerially applied malathion bait sprays were used in the suppression programme beginning in Mexico in 1982 and beginning in Guatemala in 1985. Mexico has been free of the Mediterranean fruit fly since 1982, except for outbreaks in the southernmost state of Chiapas, adjacent to Guatemala. The spraying of malathion was banned by the government of Guatemala in early 1996 because of concern regarding possible adverse effects on honey bees. By this time, research had been started to evaluate the use of xanthene dyes as a potential alternative to malathion in protein bait sprays for the suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Liquido et al. 1995). Light-activated toxicity of xanthene dyes has been documented for more than two dozen insect species overall (Heitz 1997). Field trials of xanthene dyes, as a safer alternative to malathion in bait sprays targeting the Mediterranean fruit fly, were begun in Hawaii in 1994 and in Guatemala in 1996 and proved to be promising. By the end of 1996, xanthene dyes were registered as a substitute for malathion to suppress/eradicate Mediterranean fruit flies in the barrier zone. In January, 1997, MOSCAMED-Guatemala began a spray programme with xanthene dyes as the toxicant in a protein bait

  5. ESCENARIOS DE FRAGILIDAD POLÍTICA, BALANCE POLÍTICO: GUATEMALA 2010-2011 Scenarios of political fragility, political balance: Guatemala 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENZO LAUTARO ROSAL

    2012-01-01

    hampered governance. Both years accounted for the second part of the Government headed by the engineer Álvaro Colom. The initial expectation of alleged Government guidance became its rapid weakening. Social programs, the initial strategy of his management, led to a patronage. The interest of the presidents Colom ex wife in participating in elections in late 2011 and the subsequent "presidential divorce" meant a greater degree of wear and loss of credibility of the Government. The advancement of the electoral process, the weakness of the Supreme Electoral Court (Tribunal Supremo Electoral, the continuity of thefragile system, ofpolitical parties, excessive and opaque private campaign financing linked to organized crime, sparked a paradigmatic electoral process. Political Parties choices represented a reduced spectrum, conservative and dominated by authoritarian options. In a economic level, although the country was not affected by the effects of the global economic crisis, the weakening in the management of public finances, the increase in the public debt to levels never before known and the consequences of the series of natural disasters that occurred annually as a result of climate change, generated a complex scenario with serious consequences to the following Governments. Levels ofcrime and violence remained high in Guatemala, just below Honduras and El Salvador. The presence oforganized crime and in particular drug trafficking networks was even throughout the country. The 2011 were held in a climate ofweak electoral institutions, high levels ofelectoral violence and a struggle between cartels for territorial control, highlighting the advance of los Zeta organized crime group.

  6. The role of ethnic and rural discrimination in the relationship between income inequality and health in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; He, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to understand in the ways in which income inequality can affect children's health (z-score of stunting) in Guatemala. We postulate that there are several transmission channels through which income inequality can affect health and that the children's ethnic and rural origins influence the size and direction of this effect. The methodology employed is systems of simultaneous equations (three-stage least squares and generalized method of moments). Our results highlight the importance of rural and indigenous characteristics in the relationship between income inequality and child health and indicate that the most important transmission channels are household income levels and maternal education. PMID:25813502

  7. Assesment of Plutonium 238 and Plutonium 239+240 in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report an assesment and measurement of PLUTONIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, and PLUTONIUM 240 are made. Samples of cultivated soils in 15 provinces of Guatemala were taken. To separate plutonium isotopes a radiochemical method was made using extraction, precipitation and ionic interchange. By electrodeposition the plutonium was measured using an alpha spectroscopy by PIPS method. The radioactivity ranges from 2.84 mBq/Kg to 36.38 mBq/Kg for plutonium 238, and 8.46 mBq/Kg to 26.61 mBq/Kg for plutonium 239+240

  8. CONTRIBUTION OF PRODUCER ORGANIZATIONS TO THE SUTAINABITLITY OF THEIR TERRITORIES, GUAYA’B (GUATEMALA) Y MAYA VINIC (CHIAPAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Remy Vandame; Eduardo Bello-Baltazar; Claudia Brunel-Manse; Yliana Delfín-Fuentes

    2011-01-01

    The present work aims at identifying and assesment the contribution of honey and coffee producers to the sustainability of their territories, by using a qualitative approach. For this purpose, two economically oriented organizations, which emerged in the context of strong social conflicts, are studied: “Unión de Productores Maya Vinic, Soc. Coop.” in Los Altos de Chiapas, México and “Guaya’b A.C.” in Huehuetenango, Guatemala. We identify eight categories of analysis, shaped thought the approa...

  9. Determination of 238Pu and 239+240Pu in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study allowed to determine the concentration of radioactivity alpha, due to contamination for plutonium in cultivated soils of different regions of Guatemala. They were carried out samplings for convenience in cultivated soils of 15 departments of the republic, determined in each soils sample, the activity concentration for plutonium 238Plutonium and 239+240Plutonium expressed in mili-becquerel by kilogram (mBq/Kg), which has been caused from all over the world by the different provoked liberations or accidents of radioactive particles to the atmosphere

  10. Impact of integrating HIV and TB care and treatment in a regional tuberculosis hospital in rural Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, JM; López Tellez, CA; Hudes, ES; Page, K; J. EVANS; Racancoj, O; Hearst, N

    2014-01-01

    Resource-limited settings have made slow progress in integrating TB and HIV care for co-infected patients. We examined the impact of integrated TB/HIV care on clinical and survival outcomes in rural western Guatemala. Prospective data from 254 newly diagnosed TB/HIV patients (99 enrolled in the pre-integrated program from August 2005 to July 2006, and 155 enrolled in the integrated program from February 2008 to January 2009) showed no significant baseline differences between clients in the tw...

  11. Educación sexual para estudiantes indígenas de una comunidad rural en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia R Calvillo Paz

    2014-01-01

    La educación sobre salud sexual es muy importante y de urgente necesidad para Guatemala, si se toman en consideración indicadores existentes sobre embarazos, enfermedades de transmisión sexual y mortalidad materna en adolescentes. El objetivo del trabajo es exponer valoraciones sobre las vías y temáticas para el abordaje de la educación sexual de los estudiantes del Instituto Rural Básico de Santa Cruz Chinautla. Cómo método se usó un cuestionario autoaplicado a estudiantes, se realizó un gru...

  12. Post-Eruption Deformation Processes Measured Using ALOS-1 and UAVSAR InSAR at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren N. Schaefer; Zhong Lu; Thomas Oommen

    2016-01-01

    Pacaya volcano is a persistently active basaltic cone complex located in the Central American Volcanic Arc in Guatemala. In May of 2010, violent Volcanic Explosivity Index-3 (VEI-3) eruptions caused significant topographic changes to the edifice, including a linear collapse feature 600 m long originating from the summit, the dispersion of ~20 cm of tephra and ash on the cone, the emplacement of a 5.4 km long lava flow, and ~3 m of co-eruptive movement of the southwest flank. For this study, I...

  13. Valoración Económica de un Ecosistema Bosque Tropical Petén, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Sención

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this is study is to set an economic value to the characteristics of a tropical forest, in terms of its attributes, functions and goods. The forest is located within a zone defined as of Multiple Use in the ‘Biósfera Maya’ Reserve (RBM) in Guatemala, known as El Petén. A partial evaluation was done using both previous research results and direct research in the area during one year. The methodology used was similar to the one used in Petexbatún Wetlands (Sención et al, 1992) in whic...

  14. Provenance and family variation of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis from Guatemala and Honduras, grown in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Vicente Pongitory Gifoni; Dvorak William Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénécl) Barr. & Golf. is a tropical pine that naturally occurs in lowland areas of Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and eastern Mexico. It has been one of the most studied tropical pines and the one with the most commercial importance in Brazil. The objective of this work was to select the best provenances for plantations and best trees in families for the establishment of seed orchards. For that a trial with five provenances and 47 open-po...

  15. Consumo energético de sistemas de computación de altas prestaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Balladini, Javier; Morán, Marina; Rozas, Claudia; De Giusti, Armando Eduardo; Suppi, Remo; Rexachs del Rosario, Dolores; Luque, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    En la última década, el consumo energético ha dirigido el diseño de todos los sistemas de cómputo, desde dispositivos móviles a los cuales cada vez se le piden más prestaciones que deben ser soportadas por una pequeña batería, hasta los sistemas de Cómputo de Altas Prestaciones (HPC, de High Performance Computing), objeto de nuestro interés, los cuales consumen enormes cantidades de energía. Esta alta demanda energ ética tiene serias consecuencias financieras, medioambientales, y en muchos c...

  16. Papel de la enfermería en las hemorragias digestivas altas en urgencias y emergencias

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez García, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    La hemorragia digestiva alta es la complicación gastroenterológica más importante. Está delimitada por el esfínter esofágico superior y el ángulo de Treitz, es decir, es aquella que se produce en esófago, estómago o duodeno. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es conocer cuál es el papel que ejerce la enfermería ante una hemorragia digestiva alta en las emergencias extrahospitalarias y urgencias hospitalarias. Se diferencian dos tipos de hemorragias según la causa que las produzc...

  17. Estudo da miscibilidade das misturas de PHB e PLA, com um PHB de alta polidispersividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Mauricio Pachekoski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi estudada a miscibilidade de misturas de um PHB constituído de frações de alta e baixa massa molar com um PLA de alta massa molar. Os materiais extrudados foram analisados pelas técnicas de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC, espectroscopia dielétrica (DE e análises dinâmico-mecânicas (DMA. A partir dos resultados observou-se o distinto comportamento cristalino das frações de PHB, assim como a miscibilidade parcial do PLA com o PHB de baixa massa molar.

  18. Estudo da miscibilidade das misturas de PHB e PLA, com um PHB de alta polidispersividade

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner Mauricio Pachekoski; Carla Dalmolin; José Augusto Marcondes Agnelli

    2015-01-01

    Neste trabalho, foi estudada a miscibilidade de misturas de um PHB constituído de frações de alta e baixa massa molar com um PLA de alta massa molar. Os materiais extrudados foram analisados pelas técnicas de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC), espectroscopia dielétrica (DE) e análises dinâmico-mecânicas (DMA). A partir dos resultados observou-se o distinto comportamento cristalino das frações de PHB, assim como a miscibilidade parcial do PLA com o PHB de baixa massa molar.

  19. Computación de altas prestaciones: problemáticas y aplicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Balladini, Javier; Morán, Marina; Rozas, Claudia; Frati, Fernando Emmanuel; De Giusti, Armando Eduardo; Suppi, Remo; Rexachs del Rosario, Dolores; Luque, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Nuestra investigación está centrada en dos lí- neas. Por un lado, el estudio del consumo energé- tico de los sistemas de Cómputo de Altas Prestaciones (HPC, de High Performance Computing) cuya alta demanda energética tiene serias consecuencias nancieras, medioambientales, y en muchos casos también sociales. El aumento de la e ciencia energética de los sistemas de HPC no solo proviene de las nuevas arquitecturas hardware, también está involucrado el software, quien debe gestionar y con gurar ...

  20. ALTAS CAPACIDADES: COMPARATIVA ENTRE EL MODELO ESPAÑOL Y BRITÁNICO

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, María

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación exploratoria reflexiona sobre el concepto de alumno con altas capacidades y propone una comparación legislativa entre el modelo de atención a los alumnos con altas capacidades británico y español y cómo ese modelo afecta al sistema educativo general, ya que aunque tienen puntos en común entre ambos países, pero se trata dos formas de enfocar completamente distintas. Además también pretende recoger información sobre iniciativas y proyectos que reflejen l...

  1. Altas capacidades: Proyecto educativo para el aula de Educación Primaria

    OpenAIRE

    López-Presedo, Iria Flavia

    2015-01-01

    El presente TFG tiene como principal finalidad dar una respuesta educativa, eminentemente práctica, al alumnado de altas capacidades dentro del grupo-clase. En primer lugar, se han revisado las teorías de varios autores sobre las altas capacidades, los métodos de detección e intervención con este tipo de alumnado y, finalmente, se ha elaborado un proyecto en forma de programa de enriquecimiento curricular. Este proyecto se inscribe dentro de la Teoría de las inteligencias múltiples de Gard...

  2. Altas capacidades intelectuales : investigación y propuesta desde las inteligencias múltiples

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido Vinuesa, Salomé

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata sobre las altas capacidades, investigando sobre ello acerca de su historia y evolución, los diversos tipos existentes, sus características, su identificación, su evaluación, sus metodologías, entre otros. Además, se ha realizado un resumen de cómo es tratada esta necesidad educativa por las leyes, antiguas y en vigor. De igual modo, se trata la educación inclusiva, ya que es un tema que afecta a alumnos/as con altas capacidades. El programa de intervención en rel...

  3. Procesos de fractura dinámica en hormigón de alta resistencia

    OpenAIRE

    Tarifa Crespo, Manuel Agustín

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente tesis se centra en el estudio de los procesos de fractura en régimen dinámico, de un material tan importante en grandes obras de ingeniería civil como es el hormigón de alta resistencia. Muchas son las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha sobre el comportamiento dinámico en fractura del hormigón convencional, pero muy pocas las llevadas a cabo sobre el hormigón de alta resistencia. En esta tesis se desarrolla un programa experimental dirigido a estudiar l...

  4. 50 años de alta velocidad en Japón

    OpenAIRE

    Pigem Cameselle, Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    Al inaugurar los 515 kilómetros de línea de alta velocidad entre Tokio y Osaka en octubre de 1964, Japón alcanzó un logro todavía mayor que el de impulsar su propia economía. Abrió una era del transporte completamente nueva con un innovador sistema ferroviario. Con ello prestó un innegable servicio al mundo ferroviario, desencadenando un auge global de la alta velocidad e inyectando aire fresco a una industriar que estaba en claro declive. Casi 50 años más tarde, los 210 km/h inic...

  5. Respostas lactacidêmicas de ratos ao treinamento intermitente de alta intensidade

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Panveloski-Costa; Marcelo Papoti; Rafael Junges Moreira; Patricia Monteiro Seraphim

    2012-01-01

    Durante contrações musculares de alta intensidade intervaladas por curtos períodos de tempo há importante participação do metabolismo glicolítico e, consequentemente, aumento das concentrações de lactato sanguíneo. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as respostas lactacidêmicas agudas e crônicas de ratos Wistar submetidos a um treinamento intermitente de alta intensidade (salto tipo jump squat) de três sessões semanais, a cada 24h, três séries de 12 repetições com intervalos de 60s entre cada um...

  6. Neurociências, altas habilidades e implicações no currículo

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Betini Bartoszeck

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1984686X14284O presente estudo inicialmente define e descreve as sub-disciplinas que compõem as neurociências com potenciais aplicações educacionais para crianças e adultos  identificados com altas habilidades. Objetiva-se com uma breve introdução morfofuncional ao sistema nervoso que serve de pano de fundo para auxiliar o entendimento da ponte teórico-experimental da relação de neurociências e altas habilidades. São salientados aspectos da base evolucionista e bioló...

  7. Holocene climate variability and anthropogenic impacts from Lago Paixban, a perennial wetland in Peten, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David; Hansen, Richard D.; Byrne, Roger; Anderson, Lysanna; Schreiner, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Analyses of an ~ 6 m sediment core from Lago Paixban in Peten, Guatemala, document the complex evolution of a perennial wetland over the last 10,300 years. The basal sediment is comprised of alluvial/colluvial fill deposited in the early Holocene. The absence of pollen and gastropods in the basal sediments suggests intermittently dry conditions until ~ 9000 cal yr. BP (henceforth BP) when the basin began to hold water perennially. Lowland tropical forest taxa dominated the local vegetation at this time. A distinct band of carbonate dating to ~ 8200 BP suggests regionally dry conditions, possibly associated with the 8.2 ka event. Wetter conditions during the Holocene Thermal Maximum are indicated by evidence of a raised water level and an open water lake. The timing of this interval coincides with strengthening of the Central American Monsoon. An abrupt change at 5500 BP involved the development of a sawgrass marsh and onset of peat deposition. The lowest recorded water levels date to 5500-4500 BP. Pollen, isotope, geochemical, and sedimentological data indicate that the coring site was near the edge of the marsh during this period. A rise in the water table after 4500 BP persisted until around 3500 BP. Clay marl deposition from 3500 to 210 BP corresponds to the period of Maya settlement. An increase in δ13C, the presence of Zea pollen, and a reduction in the percentage of forest taxa pollen indicate agricultural activity at this time. In contrast to several nearby paleoenvironmental studies, proxy evidence from Lago Paixban indicates human presence through the Classic/Postclassic period transition (~ 1000 BP) and persisting until the arrival of Europeans. Cessation of human activity around 210 BP resulted in local afforestation and the re-establishment of the current sawgrass marsh at Lago Paixban.

  8. Strengths amidst vulnerabilities: the paradox of resistance in a mining-affected community in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caxaj, C Susana; Berman, Helene; Ray, Susan L; Restoule, Jean-Paul; Varcoe, Coleen

    2014-11-01

    The influence of large-scale mining on the psychosocial wellbeing and mental health of diverse Indigenous communities has attracted increased attention. In previous reports, we have discussed the influence of a gold mining operation on the health of a community in the Western highlands of Guatemala. Here, we discuss the community strengths, and acts of resistance of this community, that is, community processes that promoted mental health amidst this context. Using an anti-colonial narrative methodology that incorporated participatory action research principles, we developed a research design in collaboration with community leaders and participants. Data collection involved focus groups, individual interviews and photo-sharing with 54 men and women between the ages of 18 and 67. Data analysis was guided by iterative and ongoing conversations with participants and McCormack's narrative lenses. Study findings revealed key mechanisms and sources of resistance, including a shared cultural identity, a spiritual knowing and being, 'defending our rights, defending our territory,' and, speaking truth to power. These overlapping strengths were identified by participants as key protective factors in facing challenges and adversity. Yet ultimately, these same strengths were often the most eroded or endangered due the influence of large-scale mining operations in the region. These community strengths and acts of resistance reveal important priorities for promoting mental health and wellbeing for populations impacted by large-scale mining operations. Mental health practitioners must attend to both the strengths and parallel vulnerabilities that may be occasioned by large-scale projects of this nature. PMID:25353295

  9. Satellites images, digitized topography, and the recognition of the Xela Caldera, Quezaltenango Valley, Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D. (Pacific Lutheran Univ., Tacoma, WA (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences); McEwen, A.; Duffield, W. (Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States)); Heiken, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The authors propose, based on reconnaissance geology studies and interpretation of landforms as depicted by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images combined with digitized topography, that the Quezaltenango basin of Guatemala is part of a caldera. The Quezaltenango basin is an elliptical depression, about 12 by 25 km and about 500 m deep. The proposed Xela Caldera extends beyond the basin more than 10 km to the north. The geomorphological features of the area that are typical of a geologically young large-scale caldera include bounding walls that have steep interior and gentle exterior slopes; broad flat areas at the base of the walls; at least one large block, about 3 by 12 km, that only partly floundered as the caldera collapsed; resurgence of a younger volcanic dome, flow and small-scale caldera complex (last active in 1818); younger volcanoes located along the structural margin of the major caldera (one of which is currently active) lobate features on the caldera margins that may indicate a multiple sequence of eruptions; and an active, high-temperature geothermal system. The valley is coincident with a gravity low. Extensive ash-flow tuff sheets that have no identified source are located north of the caldera, and may be the outflow deposits. The Xela caldera is similar in size to the Atitlan caldera, which lies about 50 km southeast of Quezaltenango. The Xela Caldera, if confirmed by future studies, may contain undiscovered geothermal resources, may present a significant geologic hazard to the more than 400,000 people who occupy the Quezaltenango valley, and may be a new member of the list of magmatic systems that have the capability to change global climate for several years.

  10. Development to Unite Us: Autonomy and Multicultural Coexistence in Chiapas and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Nash

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Development was the buzz word in United States policy when I began my first field work as a student in Cantel, Guatemala, in 1953. The people of that much beleaguered country were still enjoying the “springtime of democracy” brought by the 1944 revolution that introduced land reform and education to the western highlands indigenous towns. I witnessed the U.S. instigated coup of 1954 that toppled the government of Arbenz and installed the puppet government of Colonel Castillo Armas. Thousands of union leaders and political activists were imprisoned or exiled, cattle owners released their herds into the lands taken over by peasants, a new order was installed in power claiming to bring prosperity and trade in the coming years. I went on to work in Chiapas in 1957 where the Mexican government was just beginning to introduce National Indigenist Institute programs for the integration of highland Mayas into the nation. These experiences shaped my understanding of what development from above meant in two countries that bridged the territory of the Mayan civilization. In this article I sum up the results of these two dominant patterns of development, one culminating in genocide and the other in ethnocide of the indigenous populations. The opening up of trade and enterprise with both countries has spawned new development programs such as the Plan Pueblo Panama embracing central American countries and southern Mexico in megaprojects to facilitate free trade agreements with the U.S. and Canada. These neoliberal policies aggravate the outpouring of resources that now include human labour power. I contrast this development with local initiatives now proposed by Mayas on both sides of the border.

  11. Acceptance of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist among surgical personnel in hospitals in Guatemala city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Juan J

    2012-06-01

    in hospitals in Guatemala City. Efforts should aim to universal awareness and complete knowledge on why and how the checklist should be used.

  12. Seismic properties of lawsonite eclogites from the southern Motagua fault zone, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeyeong; Wallis, Simon; Endo, Shunsuke; Ree, Jin-Han

    2016-05-01

    We present new data on the crystal preferred orientation (CPO) and seismic properties of omphacite and lawsonite in extremely fresh eclogite from the southern Motagua fault zone, Guatemala, to discuss the seismic anisotropy of subducting oceanic crust. The CPO of omphacite is characterized by (010)[001], and it shows P-wave seismic anisotropies (AVP) of 1.4%-3.2% and S-wave seismic anisotropies (AVS) of 1.4%-2.7%. Lawsonite exhibits (001) planes parallel to the foliation and [010] axes parallel to the lineation, and seismic anisotropies of 1.7%-6.6% AVP and 3.4%-14.7% AVS. The seismic anisotropy of a rock mass consisting solely of omphacite and lawsonite is 1.2%-4.1% AVP and 1.8%-6.8% AVS. For events that propagate more or less parallel to the maximum extension direction, X, the fast S-wave velocity (VS) polarization is parallel to the Z in the Y-Z section (rotated from the X-Z section), causing trench-normal seismic anisotropy for orthogonal subduction. Based on the high modal abundance and strong fabric of lawsonite, the AVS of eclogites is estimated as ~ 11.7% in the case that lawsonite makes up ~ 75% of the rock mass. On this basis, we suggest that lawsonite in both blueschist and eclogite may play important roles in the formation of complex pattern of seismic anisotropy observed in NE Japan: weak trench-parallel anisotropy in the forearc basin domains and trench-normal anisotropy in the backarc region.

  13. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanteres, Fotis [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Rehm, Juergen [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 3 M7 (Canada); Institute for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, TU Dresden, Chemnitzer Strasse 46, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Lachenmeier, Dirk W., E-mail: Lachenmeier@web.de [Chemisches und Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices

  14. Holocene climate variability and anthropogenic impacts from Lago Paixban, a perennial wetland in Peten, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David B.; Hansen, Richard D.; Byrne, Roger; Anderson, Lysanna; Schreiner, T.

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of an ~ 6 m sediment core from Lago Paixban in Peten, Guatemala, document the complex evolution of a perennial wetland over the last 10,300 years. The basal sediment is comprised of alluvial/colluvial fill deposited in the early Holocene. The absence of pollen and gastropods in the basal sediments suggests intermittently dry conditions until ~ 9000 cal yr. BP (henceforth BP) when the basin began to hold water perennially. Lowland tropical forest taxa dominated the local vegetation at this time. A distinct band of carbonate dating to ~ 8200 BP suggests regionally dry conditions, possibly associated with the 8.2 ka event. Wetter conditions during the Holocene Thermal Maximum are indicated by evidence of a raised water level and an open water lake. The timing of this interval coincides with strengthening of the Central American Monsoon. An abrupt change at 5500 BP involved the development of a sawgrass marsh and onset of peat deposition. The lowest recorded water levels date to 5500–4500 BP. Pollen, isotope, geochemical, and sedimentological data indicate that the coring site was near the edge of the marsh during this period. A rise in the water table after 4500 BP persisted until around 3500 BP. Clay marl deposition from 3500 to 210 BP corresponds to the period of Maya settlement. An increase in δ13C, the presence of Zea pollen, and a reduction in the percentage of forest taxa pollen indicate agricultural activity at this time. In contrast to several nearby paleoenvironmental studies, proxy evidence from Lago Paixban indicates human presence through the Classic/Postclassic period transition (~ 1000 BP) and persisting until the arrival of Europeans. Cessation of human activity around 210 BP resulted in local afforestation and the re-establishment of the current sawgrass marsh at Lago Paixban.

  15. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices, as well

  16. Diagnóstico de los sistemas de abastecimiento de semillas en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vides A. Luis A.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The diagnostic had as objetive to determine the development degree of the Guatemala's Seeds National System. The Traditional, no Conventional and Conventional seeds systems, have limitations that can overcome, These systems cover different specific market segments and adapted to the diverses agronomical-social-economics and environmental conditions of the country. This can see remarked ,in the results and development that the National Agricultural System has achieved during the last years, and the strong support that gave the POGETTAPS project (research and transfer improved technologies in the main agricultural regions of the country. However, the system that shows the results of greater impact in the short run is the no Conventional system, though it is the most recent (1987. This system use local resources to adapt methodologies, equipment and uses trade and distribution strategies that are versatil and easy to adopt.

    Los sistemas tradicional, no convencional y convencional de semillas tienen limitantes que se pueden superar. Estos sistemas están atendiendo segmentos de mercado muy distintos, específicos y adaptados a las diversas condiciones agrosocioeconómicas y climáticas del país. Esto se ve reflejado en los resultados que se están obteniendo en el Sistema Agrícola Nacional en los últimos años, y al fuerte apoyo que brindó el proyecto PROGETTAPS (investigación y transferencia de tecnologías mejoradas en las principales regiones agrícolas del país. Sin embargo, el sistema que presenta resultados de mayor impacto en corto tiempo, es el Sistema no Convencional, aunque es el más reciente (1987. Utiliza recursos locales, adapta metodologías, equipos y utiliza estrategias de comercialización y distribución que son versátiles y fáciles de incorporar.

  17. Post-partum ovarian activity in adult and first-calf dual purpose cows in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progesterone (P4) levels in skin milk were determined in two groups of dual purpose cows from farms in the Department of Escuintla on the south coast of Guatemala. Fifteen adult cows (crosses of Criollo with Zebu and Brown Swiss) were selected on the first farm and ten first-calf heifers (crosses of Criollo with Zebu and Holstein) on the second; both groups were considered to be representative of dual purpose livestock (milk and meat producers) in the country. To study the resumption of ovarian activity post-partum, milk samples were taken once a week from 10 days after calving until the first natural service; thereafter, sampling continued twice-weekly for 60 more days when the animals were rectally palpated for pregnancy diagnosis. On farm 1, the mean interval from calving to first rise in P4 levels indicative of ovarian function was 42±16.7 days; all the study cows were at third calving and resumed cyclicity. On farm 2, only 30% of the study heifers resumed cyclicity and these had an interval from calving to first rise in P4 of 80±28.9 days; all were at first calving. On farm 1, 73% of cows were served during first oestrus, 13% at second oestrus and 13% at the third. On farm 2, only 30% (3/10) of cows were served at first oestrus; the other 70% did not show signs of ovarian activity during the trial period which lasted until day 129 post-partum. Palpation of the cows 60 days post-service showed that all cows had conceived on farm 1 but only 20% on farm 2. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  18. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihuincha Moisés

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD and lemongrass oil (LG. Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. Results In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p 46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p Conclusion In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.

  19. Barriers to accessing and using contraception in highland Guatemala: the development of a family planning self-efficacy scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson E

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emma Richardson,1 Kenneth R Allison,1,2 Dionne Gesink,1 Albert Berry3 1Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 2Public Health Ontario, 3Department of Economics, Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Understanding the persistent inequalities in the prevalence rates of family planning and unmet need for family planning between indigenous and nonindigenous women in Guatemala requires localized explorations of the specific barriers faced by indigenous women. Based on social cognitive theory, elicitation interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of 16 young women, aged 20–24 years, married or in union, from the rural districts of Patzún, Chimaltenango, Guatemala. Content analysis was carried out using the constant-comparison method to identify the major themes. Based on this qualitative study, the following barriers are incorporated into the development of a self-efficacy scale: lack of knowledge about and availability of methods, fear of side effects and infertility, husbands being against family planning (and related fears of marital problems and abandonment, pressure from in-laws and the community, and the belief that using contraception is a sin. This is the first evidence-informed self-efficacy scale developed with young adult, indigenous women that addresses the issue of family planning in Latin America. Keywords: indigenous, marginalized populations, elicitation interviews, social cognitive theory

  20. Prevalence and Diversity of Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Guatemala, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana S; Müller, Maria L; Ortiz, Lucía; Cordón-Rosales, Celia; Perez, Daniel R

    2016-05-01

    Waterfowl species are known to harbor the greatest diversity of low pathogenicity influenza A virus (LPAIV) subtypes and are recognized as their main natural reservoir. In Guatemala there is evidence of circulation of LPAIV in wild ducks; however, the bird species contributing to viral diversity during the winter migration in Central America are unknown. In this study, samples obtained from 1250 hunter-killed birds from 22 different species were collected on the Pacific coast of Guatemala during three winter migration seasons between 2010 and 2013. Prevalence of LPAIV detected by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was 38.2%, 23.5%, and 24.7% in the 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13 seasons, respectively. The highest virus prevalence was detected in the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), followed by the blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The majority of positive samples and viral isolates were obtained from the blue-winged teal. Analysis of LPAIV prevalence over time in this species indicated a decreasing trend in monthly prevalence within a migration season. Sixty-eight viruses were isolated, and nine HA and seven NA subtypes were identified in 19 subtype combinations. In 2012-13 the most prevalent subtype was H14, a subtype identified for the first time in the Western Hemisphere in 2010. The results from this study represent the most detailed description available to date of LPAIV circulation in Central America. PMID:27309080

  1. Los riesgos de cruzar. La migración centroamericana en la frontera México-Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Marrujo Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La migración internacional en el espacio fronterizo México-Guatemala se ha vuelto en los últimos años de alto riesgo. En este artículo presentamos algunos resultados preliminares de un proyecto de investigación que tiene como objetivo documentar y analizar la situación de riesgo en la ruta principal que han utilizado los migrantes centroamericanos (en este caso, indocumentados de paso en la costa chiapaneca, conocida como el Soconusco, en la frontera México-Guatemala. El análisis presenta los resultados del rastreo de registros en instituciones que tienen contacto con los migrantes, de las entrevistas en profundidad y de la observación participante. Se describen algunas de estas situaciones señalándolas en los mapas de riesgo, para elaborar un registro espacial de los peligros que permita explorar de qué manera el espacio refleja la situación de riesgo que viven los migrantes y cómo contribuye al fenómeno

  2. INTERACTIVE WORKSHOPS TO PROMOTE GENDER EQUITY AND FAMILY PLANNING IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF GUATEMALA: RESULTS OF A COMMUNITY RANDOMIZED STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Nanda, Geeta; Ramírez, Luis F; Chen, Mario

    2015-09-01

    In Guatemala, especially in rural areas, gender norms contribute to high fertility and closely spaced births by discouraging contraceptive use and constraining women from making decisions regarding the timing of their pregnancies and the size of their families. Community workshops for men, women and couples were conducted in 30 rural communities in Guatemala to test the hypothesis that the promotion of gender equity in the context of reproductive health will contribute to gender-equitable attitudes and strengthen the practice of family planning. Communities were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Pre/post surveys were conducted. Odds ratios estimated with mixed effect models to account for community-level randomization and repeated measures per participant were compared. The analyses showed statistically significant effects of the intervention on two of the three outcomes examined: gender attitudes and contraceptive knowledge. Findings regarding contraceptive use were suggestive but not significant. The results suggest that it is possible to influence both inequitable gender norms and reproductive health knowledge and, potentially, behaviours in a short span of time using appropriately designed communications interventions that engage communities in re-thinking the inequitable gender norms that act as barriers to health. PMID:25690416

  3. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 1. Screening of 84 plants against enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, A; Cano, O; Samayoa, B; Aguilar, L

    1990-08-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are important causes of morbidity in developing countries. Natural healing is the traditional way of treating these diseases in Guatemala. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews showed that 385 plants from 95 families are used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The activity of 84 of the most commonly used plants was screened in vitro against five enterobacteria pathogenic to man (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri). Results indicate that 34 (40.48%) plants inhibit one or more of the enterobacteria tested. The most commonly inhibited bacterium was S. typhi (33.73%) and the most resistant was E. coli (7.35%). The plants of American origin which exhibited the best antibacterial activity were: Byrsonima crassifolia, Diphysa robinioides, Gnaphalium stramineum, Guazuma ulmifolia, Psidium guajava, Sambucus mexicana, Simarouba glauca, Smilax lundelii, Spondias purpurea and Tagetes lucida. These results indicate a scientific basis for use of these medicinal plants for attacking enterobacterial infections in man. PMID:2214824

  4. FERTILITY, CHILD LABOUR AND MIGRATION OF AGRICULTURAL DAY LABORERS (AS OF COFFEE IN THECROSS-BORDER SPACE MEXICO-GUATEMALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austreberta Nazar-Beutelspacher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chiapas as the border departments of Guatemala is characterized as an area of socio-economic backwardness. Since the twentieth century a significant flow of undocumented Guatemalan migrant families are temporarily employed in Mexican coffee plantations in the Soconusco region, mostly from the poorest and most marginalized rural sectors from the border Guatemalan departments. This paper estimates the marital Total Fertility Rate and explores the reproductive characteristics of Guatemalan agricultural laborers families. The Global marital fertility rate is high (5.65 children per woman on average at the end of their reproductive life with an increasing trend. It is argued that a high number of children in these families are functional for them, since they require the family labor for their survival. In this cross-border area are articulated by child labor, high fertility of Guatemalan rural migrants, due to the political and socioeconomic conditions of Guatemala, and the development needs of the agricultural export capital coffee in Mexico, permanently driven by the Mexican government.

  5. 77 FR 35669 - AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC application for...

  6. 77 FR 23712 - Alta Wind VII, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind VII, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Alta Wind VII, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. Premières données sur la pharmacopée traditionnelle des Maya K'iche (Guatemala)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas, J. P.; Saravia, A.; Delelis, A.

    1996-01-01

    First data of traditional pharmacopoeias from the Maya K'iché (Guatemala). Practice of traditional medicine/ethnopharmacological investigation on #Tagetes lucida$ Cav. Ic., #Psidium guajava$ L., #Plantago major$ L., #Chenopodium ambrosioides$ L. and #Aloe vera$ L. Mains indications about the traditional pharmacopoeias : the diarrhoeas, acute breathing difficulties, parasites transmitted diseases, dermatological aliments. (Résumé d'auteur)

  8. Sistema de cómputo reconfigurable de alta performance (proyecto HPRC)

    OpenAIRE

    Kunysz, Eduardo; Rapallini, José Antonio; Osio, Jorge R.

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de las nuevas tendencias en cómputo paralelo con la finalidad de mejorar el rendimiento de cálculo. Cómo una alternativa interesante para optimizar la relación costo-prestaciones, se exploran tecnologías de computadoras de alta performance reconfigurable (HPCR).

  9. Grounding the past : the praxis of participatory archaeology in the Mixteca Alta, Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurds, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    "Grounding the Past" addresses archaeological field praxis and its role in the political present of Santiago Tilantongo and Santiago Apoala, two communities in the Mixteca Alta region of Oaxaca, Mexico. Efforts to involve local stakeholder communities in archaeology have become an important issue wo

  10. La evaluación psicopedagógica del alumnado con altas capacidades

    OpenAIRE

    Grau Rubio, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Se describen los instrumentos de evaluación psicopedagógica aplicables al alumnado con altas capacidades. Instrumentos referidos al alumno, al contexto escolar, a las variables socio-familiares y la determinación de las necesidades educativas especiales.

  11. Respostas lactacidêmicas de ratos ao treinamento intermitente de alta intensidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Panveloski-Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante contrações musculares de alta intensidade intervaladas por curtos períodos de tempo há importante participação do metabolismo glicolítico e, consequentemente, aumento das concentrações de lactato sanguíneo. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as respostas lactacidêmicas agudas e crônicas de ratos Wistar submetidos a um treinamento intermitente de alta intensidade (salto tipo jump squat de três sessões semanais, a cada 24h, três séries de 12 repetições com intervalos de 60s entre cada uma. Houve aumento das concentrações de lactato sanguíneo durante a sessão aguda do treinamento (lactacidemia basal vs. lactacidemia após último esforço, P < 0,001. Contrariamente, após seis semanas de treinamento, ocorreu redução de 49% na resposta lactacidêmica ao exercício em relação à primeira sessão, P = 0,0002. O exercício intermitente de alta intensidade intervalado favorece a participação do sistema glicolítico; no entanto, o treinamento intermitente de alta intensidade promove redução das respostas lactacidêmicas, sugerindo melhora da capacidade de ressíntese de fosfocreatina e da biogênese mitocondrial.

  12. INFLUENCIA DE LA ALTA TEMPERATURA EN LOS TEJIDOS RADICULARES DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Sam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios cualitativos en los tejidos radiculares, como consecuencia de la alta temperatura empleada en este trabajo (38oC durante 1.5 horas, fueron estudiados en plántulas de dos variedades de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., con diferentes grados de tolerancia a altas temperaturas. A los siete días de puestas a germinar las semillas de arroz, se aplicó el tratamiento de alta temperatura a las radículas de cada variedad, que fueron puestas en recipientes con agua, por separado, y colocadas en la estufa durante 1.5 h a 380C y el tratamiento control consistió en dejar al otro grupo de radículas en las condiciones del laboratorio durante la aplicación de la alta temperatura; a continuación se tomaron las muestras de radículas, que fueron procesadas para microscopía de luz, incluidas en resina epon y se realizaron cortes de 2 ¿m de grosor, los que fueron teñidos con azul de toluidina, observados y fotografiados en un microscopio con cámara digital acoplada. En las secciones longitudinales de las radículas, se pudo apreciar que la alta temperatura provocó aumento en el tamaño de las vacuolas y dilatación de las paredes celulares, entre otras alteraciones; estos cambios se hicieron más evidentes en la variedad considerada como tolerante a ese estrés.

  13. The Movement, the Mine and the Lake: New Forms of Maya Activism in Neoliberal Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Way

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the social, economic, cultural and political issues bound up in two matters relating to the environment in the Sololá and Lake Atitlán region of the Guatemalan Mayan highlands in 2004–2005: the violent breakup of an anti-mine protest and the various reactions to a tropical storm that threatened the lake ecosystem. It views these events as part of a historical conjuncture and centers them in a larger discussion of Maya political activism, environmentalism and neoliberal development in Guatemala from the 1990s–mid-2010s. It begins with the transition from war to peace in the 1990s, charting how Maya participation in municipal politics soared even as the official Mayan movement waned as the state turned to neoliberalism. Zooming in on municipal development and politics in Sololá in the early 2000s, it then traces at the ground level how a decentralizing, “multicultural” state promoted political participation while at the same time undermining the possibility for that participation to bring about substantive change. The center of the article delves deeper into the conjuncture of the first decade of the new millennium. By mapping events in Sololá against development, agrarian transformation and rural urbanization, it argues that resilient Maya community structures, although unable to stop the exploitative tide, continued to provide local cohesion and advocacy. Activists and everyday citizens became more globally attuned in the 2000s. The article’s final section analyzes municipal plans made between 2007 and 2012, arguing that creating and controlling community structures became increasingly important to the state in a time when Guatemala’s “outward” global turn was accompanied by an “inward” turn as people confronted spiraling violence in their communities. Critics called young people apolitical, but in 2015, massive demonstrations led to the imprisonment of the nation’s president and vice

  14. Observing changes at Santiaguito Volcano, Guatemala with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Aulock, Felix W.; Lavallée, Yan; Hornby, Adrian J.; Lamb, Oliver D.; Andrews, Benjamin J.; Kendrick, Jackie E.

    2016-04-01

    Santiaguito Volcano (Guatemala) is one of the most active volcanoes in Central America, producing several ash venting explosions per day for almost 100 years. Lahars, lava flows and dome and flank collapses that produce major pyroclastic density currents also present a major hazard to nearby farms and communities. Optical observations of both the vent as well as the lava flow fronts can provide scientists and local monitoring staff with important information on the current state of volcanic activity and hazard. Due to the strong activity, and difficult terrain, unmanned aerial vehicles can help to provide valuable data on the activities of the volcano at a safe distance. We collected a series of images and video footage of A.) The active vent of Caliente and B.) The flow front of the active lava flow and its associated lahar channels, both in May 2015 and in December 2015- January 2016. Images of the crater and the lava flows were used for the reconstruction of 3D terrain models using structure-from-motion. These were supported by still frames from the video recording. Video footage of the summit crater (during two separate ash venting episodes) and the lava flow fronts indicate the following differences in activity during those two field campaigns: A.) - A new breach opened on the east side of the crater rim, possibly during the collapse in November 2015. - The active lava dome is now almost completely covered with ash, only leaving the largest blocks and faults exposed in times without gas venting - A recorded explosive event in December 2015 initiates at subparallel linear faults near the centre of the dome, rather than arcuate or ring faults, with a later, separate, and more ash-laden burst occurring from an off-centre fracture, however, other explosions during the observation period were seen to persist along the ring fault system observed on the lava dome since at least 2007 - suggesting a diversification of explosive activity. B.) - The lava flow fronts did

  15. Alteration minerals on the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Santa María volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J. L.; Calder, E. S.; Giese, R.

    2010-12-01

    Santiaguito is a relatively young complex of four lava domes located at the foot of the Santa María volcano in Guatemala. The domes have been erupting intermittently since 1922, and have shown various degrees of hydrothermal activity throughout their development. Hydrothermal systems in older volcanic edifices (Casita in Nicaragua, La Soufriere of Guadeloupe) are known to weaken rock and promote collapses, but their effects and development in young lava domes is less well constrained. Santiaguito has experienced several relatively small dome collapses (≦ 3 million m3) in the past, but it is unclear what role hydrothermal processes have played in these collapses. Currently, low-temperature active fumaroles are present on the domes, indicating the presence of a hydrothermal system. Samples of unconsolidated ash and sediment and rock chips were collected from the interior of fumaroles on the El Brujo lava dome to determine if hydrothermal alteration minerals were present. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to identify the presence of clay minerals in the powdered samples. Additional semi-quantitative identification was obtained using backscattered electron images (BSE) collected with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Both analyses were performed at the University at Buffalo. Preliminary XRD analyses were unable to conclusively detect alteration minerals in powdered samples; however, BSE images of the same samples appeared to show alteration minerals (montmorillonite, saponite) adhering to individual ash grains. Further SEM analyses are being conducted on thin sections of the rock chips to determine if alteration minerals are present in dome rock as well as in the unconsolidated material. Development of alteration minerals on the relatively young (~50-90 year old) Santiaguito lava domes may indicate an increased risk for alteration-driven instabilities and collapses. Altered volcanic rocks are less competent, have lower shear strength and are more susceptible to

  16. Implementación de un protocolo de alta precoz en pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta y bajo riesgo de resangrado (1996-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Vila, Begoña de

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN:La hemorragia digestiva alta (HDA) es una urgencia médica frecuente. El pronóstico de los pacientes con HDA, así como la duración de la estancia hospitalaria, vienen determinados en gran medida por la persistencia o recidiva de la hemorragia. En los últimos años, varios autores han desarrollado una serie de sistemas de puntuación, basados en criterios clínicos y endoscópicos, para tratar de predecir el riesgo de resangrado o persistencia. Basándonos en el algoritmo propuesto por ...

  17. Implementación de un protocolo de alta precoz en pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta y bajo riesgo de resangrado (1996-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Vila, Begoña de

    2004-01-01

    [spa] INTRODUCCIÓN: La hemorragia digestiva alta (HDA) es una urgencia médica frecuente. El pronóstico de los pacientes con HDA, así como la duración de la estancia hospitalaria, vienen determinados en gran medida por la persistencia o recidiva de la hemorragia. En los últimos años, varios autores han desarrollado una serie de sistemas de puntuación, basados en criterios clínicos y endoscópicos, para tratar de predecir el riesgo de resangrado o persistencia. Basándonos en el algoritmo propues...

  18. Percepção de cuidadores familiares sobre um programa de alta hospitalar Percepciones de los cuidadores familiares sobre el programa de preparo de alta hospitalar Family caregivers' perception about a program of hospital discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Alesssandra Mendonça Cesar; Beatriz Regina Lara dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    O preparo de alta hospitalar, enquanto uma estratégia de Educação em Saúde, pode contribuir para a família dar continuidade aos cuidados no contexto domiciliar, após a alta hospitalar. Este estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa objetiva analisar a percepção do cuidador familiar de idosos com Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) em relação a um programa de preparo de alta em um hospital universitário, para isso 12 cuidadores familiares foram entrevistados. Os dados foram analisados conforme ...

  19. Aceptabilidad de una intervención basada en Salud Móvil para modificar estilos de vida en prehipertensos de Argentina, Guatemala y Perú: un estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Beratarrechea

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la aceptabilidad y factibilidad de una intervención basada en salud móvil, para la adopción de estilos de vida saludables en personas prehipertensas que viven en zonas urbanas de bajos recursos en Argentina, Guatemala y Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se reclutaron prehipertensos entre 30 a 60 años para un estudio piloto. La intervención incluyó dos llamadas de consejería realizadas por una nutricionista, seguidas de un mensaje de texto customizado semanal. Una plataforma basada en Internet ofreció el soporte para la implementación de la intervención. Utilizando entrevistas semiestructuradas se evaluó el alcance y la aceptabilidad de esta intervención en los participantes, y la facilidad de uso en las nutricionistas. Resultados. Se logró contactar a 43 de los 45 participantes (95%. El número promedio de llamadas para contactar a un sujeto fue de dos, con un rango de 1-9 llamadas. Dos participantes pudieron ser contactados en su teléfono celular y cinco no recibieron una exposición completa a la intervención. Basados en las entrevistas semiestructuradas, los resultados mostraron una buena aceptabilidad a la intervención en los participantes. Las nutricionistas percibieron a la plataforma como amigable y de fácil manejo. Las barreras para ofrecer esta intervención se relacionaron con dificultades para obtener una señal de telefonía celular adecuada. Conclusiones. Dada la alta penetración de la telefonía celular en países en desarrollo, se concluye que una intervención basada en salud móvil es factible y aceptable para ofrecer una intervención orientada a la modificación del estilo de vida en prehipertensos o personas de alto riesgo de enfermedades crónicas.

  20. Aceptabilidad de una intervención basada en Salud Móvil para modificar estilos de vida en prehipertensos de Argentina, Guatemala y Perú: un estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Beratarrechea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la aceptabilidad y factibilidad de una intervención basada en salud móvil, para la adopción de estilos de vida saludables en personas prehipertensas que viven en zonas urbanas de bajos recursos en Argentina, Guatemala y Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se reclutaron prehipertensos entre 30 a 60 años para un estudio piloto. La intervención incluyó dos llamadas de consejería realizadas por una nutricionista, seguidas de un mensaje de texto customizado semanal. Una plataforma basada en Internet ofreció el soporte para la implementación de la intervención. Utilizando entrevistas semiestructuradas se evaluó el alcance y la aceptabilidad de esta intervención en los participantes, y la facilidad de uso en las nutricionistas. Resultados. Se logró contactar a 43 de los 45 participantes (95%. El número promedio de llamadas para contactar a un sujeto fue de dos, con un rango de 1-9 llamadas. Dos participantes pudieron ser contactados en su teléfono celular y cinco no recibieron una exposición completa a la intervención. Basados en las entrevistas semiestructuradas, los resultados mostraron una buena aceptabilidad a la intervención en los participantes. Las nutricionistas percibieron a la plataforma como amigable y de fácil manejo. Las barreras para ofrecer esta intervención se relacionaron con dificultades para obtener una señal de telefonía celular adecuada. Conclusiones. Dada la alta penetración de la telefonía celular en países en desarrollo, se concluye que una intervención basada en salud móvil es factible y aceptable para ofrecer una intervención orientada a la modificación del estilo de vida en prehipertensos o personas de alto riesgo de enfermedades crónicas.

  1. Las barreras de acceso a los servicios de salud en la población indígena de Rabinal en Guatemala Barriers to accessing health care services for the indigenous population in Rabinal, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeve Hautecoeur

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar y documentar las barreras de acceso a los servicios de salud en la población indígena de Rabinal en Guatemala. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se privilegió el análisis cualitativo y la recopilación de datos se realizó en Rabinal durante dos meses (Guatemala. Se realizaron quince entrevistas semi dirigidas a indígenas achís y cinco entrevistas a profesionales de la salud. Un grupo de discusión fue formado para validar la información recogida durante las entrevistas individuales; la retranscripción de éstas y la compilación de los datos permitieron hacer el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las barreras de acceso están interrelacionadas y las barreras geográficas están relacionadas con la distancia y con la escasez de transporte; las barreras económicas son los precios de las consultas y de los medicamentos, además, entre las barreras culturales, la lengua española es un obstáculo. Los indígenas tienen otra concepción de la medicina y de los tratamientos y se quejan en ocasiones de trato abusivo por parte de los profesionales sanitarios. A su vez, los profesionales de la salud reconocen que el trauma de la guerra está presente y critican las malas condiciones de vida y la falta de recursos. CONCLUSIONES: Los servicios de salud no son adecuados ni suficientes para responder a las necesidades de la población local.OBJECTIVE: To identify and document access barriers to health care services for the indigenous population in Rabinal, Guatemala. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative analysis was used. Over a period of two months, 20 semi-directional interviews were conducted in Rabinal, Guatemala: 15 with Achis indigenous people and five with health professionals. A focus group was done to verify the information collected during the individual interviews. The qualitative analysis was based on the transcription of interviews and the compilation of the data. RESULTS: Barriers to access are inter-relational. Geographic

  2. Direitos de propriedade e cidadania em sociedades pós-conflito: uma comparação entre Guatemala e África do Sul Property rights and citizenship in post-conflict societies: Guatemala and South Africa compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Everingham

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo mostra como as disputas de terra dificultaram a solução de conflitos e limitaram a cidadania democrática na Guatemala pós-guerra e na África do Sul pós-apartheid. A agenda de pesquisa fundamenta-se historicamente nos legados da dominação colonial e da ditadura racial. A convergência de regra autoritária e discriminação racial resultou em atos deliberados de expropriação de terras comunais e forçou a remoção e o deslocamento de comunidades nativas. A erradicação de povoados inteiros, a migração de refugiados e a situação de populações transitórias acarretaram um notório abuso do Estado e o enriquecimento das elites. No entanto, o apoio da comunidade internacional à resolução do conflito e à reconciliação negligenciou a importância da terra para a estabilidade democrática e a paz social.This study compares how land disputes hampered conflict resolution and limited democratic citizenship in post-bellum Guatemala and post-apartheid South Africa. The research agenda is grounded historically in the legacies of colonial domination and racial dictatorship. The convergence of authoritarian rule and ethnic discrimination resulted in deliberate acts of dispossession of communal lands and forced removals and dislocation of indigenous communities. The uprooting of entire villages, and the migration of refugees, and the plight of transient populations entailed egregious state abuse and elite self-enrichment. Yet, the international community's support for conflict resolution and reconciliation neglected the significance of land for democratic stability and social peace.

  3. Incorporating gender perspective in small environmental projects. The experience of El Almanario in ten indigenous communities in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONI ARISTIZÁBAL, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Almanario is a project management methodology created by Small Grants Programme in Guatemalawhich operates following United Nations Global Environment Fund premises. The main goal of ourresearch is to show the results of fourth compulsory gender measures included in the Almanario approachin ten indigenous communities in Western Guatemala. The research reveals women participation has beenincreased and had allowed them to manage project resources. Two measures (the Promotora role and mixedAdvisory Board are preliminary steps to visualize women leadership but more time is needed in orderto consolidate and increase women participation. Nursemaids are perceived by women as a good measureto increase participation and really appropriate in a patriarchal context. Gender and self-esteem trainingshave increased women self-esteem and awareness on women rights.

  4. Pueblos indígenas, democracia y representación: los casos de Bolivia y Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Iguanzo, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Este trabajo descriptivo estudia la representación de los intereses de los indígenas en la Cámara Baja en Bolivia (2006) y Guatemala (2008) a través de la distinción de actitudes y comportamiento, entre los que se consideran indígenas y no indígenas. El texto se sostiene en el análisis de las encuestas realizadas por Barómetro de las Américas del Proyecto de Opinión publica de América Latina (LAPOP) y las entrevistas a legisladores del Proyecto Elites Parlamentarias en América Latina. La...

  5. Assessment of 238Pu and 239+240Pu, in marine sediments of the oceans Atlantic and Pacific of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation samples of marine sediments were taken from 14 places representatives of the oceans coast of Guatemala. For the assesment of 238Pu and 239+240Pu in sediments a radiochemical method was used to mineralize sediments and by ionic interchange it was separated from other elements, after that an electrodeposition of plutonium was made in metallic discs. The radioactivity of plutonium was measured by alpha spectrometry system and the alpha spectrums were obtained. The levels of plutonium are not higher than other countries that shown contamination. The contamination of isotope of 239+240Pu is higher than 238Pu and the contamination by two isotopes of plutonium is higher in the Atlantic than the Pacific ocean

  6. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, A; Alvarez, A V; Ovando, A E; Samayoa, B E

    1991-02-01

    Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:2023428

  7. Characterization of moderate ash-and-gas explosions at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, from infrasound waveform inversion and thermal infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, S. De; Lamb, O. D.; Lamur, A.; Hornby, A. J.; Aulock, F. W.; Chigna, G.; Lavallée, Y.; Rietbrock, A.

    2016-06-01

    The rapid discharge of gas and rock fragments during volcanic eruptions generates acoustic infrasound. Here we present results from the inversion of infrasound signals associated with small and moderate gas-and-ash explosions at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, to retrieve the time history of mass eruption rate at the vent. Acoustic waveform inversion is complemented by analyses of thermal infrared imagery to constrain the volume and rise dynamics of the eruption plume. Finally, we combine results from the two methods in order to assess the bulk density of the erupted mixture, constrain the timing of the transition from a momentum-driven jet to a buoyant plume, and to evaluate the relative volume fractions of ash and gas during the initial thrust phase. Our results demonstrate that eruptive plumes associated with small-to-moderate size explosions at Santiaguito only carry minor fractions of ash, suggesting that these events may not involve extensive magma fragmentation in the conduit.

  8. Recomendaciones europeas para el empleo de tornillos de alta resistencia en las estructuras de acero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batanero, J.

    1962-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el enlace de los perfiles de acero por medio de tornillos de alta resistencia, pretensados, se ha introducido en la construcción metálica un nuevo tipo de uniones, que resisten por rozamiento. Los tomillos de alta resistencia (exceptuados los calibrados deberán quedar en el agujero con una cierta holgura; y, mediante apretadura de la tuerca o de la cabeza, tensarse en forma que las superficies de contacto de las piezas unidas quedan fuertemente presionadas, una contra otra, muy especialmente en las proximidades del agujero. Con ello el esfuerzo que actúa perpendicularmente al eje del tomillo es resistido por el rozamiento estático entre las superficies unidas; en tanto que, como consecuencia, la espiga del tomillo queda sometida a una tracción axil y a una torsión.

  9. 5) Review of the Biology and Ecology of Adult Blackflies in Relation to the Transmission of Onchocerciasis in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on the biology and ecology of adult blackflies in relation to the transmission of human onchocerciasis in Guatemala are reviewed. First, earlier studies on the transmission of the disease since its discovery by Dr. R. Robles in 1915 are outlined. Second, eleven blackfly species caught on humans are evaluated for vector status on the basis of their natural and experimental infections with third-stage larvae of Onchocerca volvulus, and Simulium ochraceum,* S. metallicum* and S. callidum are confirmed as natural vectors of the disease in Guatemala in descending order of importance, whereas S. gonzalezi, S. haematopotum, S. veracruzanum and S. horacioi are potential vectors. Third, the migration and fate of O. volvulus microfilariae ingested by female blackflies are highlighted on the basis of the findings of the cibarial armature of S. ochraceum and physiological incompatibility of S. metallicum as main barriers against microfilariae, both of which greatly decrease the number of ingested O. volvulus microfilariae developing to the third-stage larvae per female. Fourth, among many ecological factors of female blackfly populations, geographical and altitudinal distributions, habits of blood feeding, host preferences for blood feeding, preference for human body parts, parous rates, daily and seasonal fluctuations of biting activities, in particular, of parous females, gonotrophic cycle, longevity, flight range, and annual transmission potential are reviewed, and their influences on the transmission dynamics of the disease agents are considered. Fifth, effects of air temperatures on the O. volvulus-S. ochraceum complex are examined, with a special reference to the characteristic altitudinal distributions of the disease. The importance of reliable identification of both the vector blackfly species and filarial larvae found in female blackflies is emphasized to understand the transmission of the disease. [*It is now known that these two species are actually

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus clade

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    The genome of a new bipartite begomovirus Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala (MCLCuV-GT) was cloned and the genome sequence was determined. The virus causes distinct symptoms on melons that were not previously observed in melon crops in Guatemala or elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of MCLCuV-GT and begomoviruses infecting cucurbits and other host plant species indicated that its closest relative was MCLCuV from Costa Rica (MCLCuV-CR). The DNA-A components of two isolates shared 88.8% nucleotide identity, making them strains of the same species. Further, both MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR grouped with other Western Hemisphere cucurbit-infecting species in the SLCV-clade making them the most southerly cucurbit-infecting members of the clade to date. Although the common region of the cognate components of MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR, shared similar to 96.3% nucleotide identity. While DNA-A and DNA-B components of MCLCuV-GT were less than 86% nucleotide identity with the respective DNAA and DNA-B common regions of MCLCuV-CR. The late viral genes of the two strains shared the least nt identity (<88%) while their early genes shared the highest nt identity (>90%). The collective evidence suggests that these two strains of MCLCuV are evolutionarily divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Studio di approfondimento sullo stato di salute nei Comuni dell'Alta Val di Cecina

    OpenAIRE

    Romanelli, Anna Maria; Bartolacci, Simone; Capocchi, Rachele; Mariani, Silvia; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Protti, Maria Angela; Salvadori, Patrizia; Tacconi, Giorgia; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Uno studio preliminare sull'Alta Val di Cecina, AVC, (Pisa) aveva evidenziato che tra le cause di morte, 1970-2004, alcune avevano un impatto pi? elevato o in controtendenza rispetto alla media regionale toscana; l'area presenta un sottosuolo geologicamente attivo, industrie chimiche, di produzione di energia, estrattive, documentate contaminazioni di acqua e suolo da metalli pesanti. Si segnalano eccessi di mortalit? e/o di ospedalizzazione per alcune patologie per le quali in letteratura ri...

  12. Inbreeding incidence on biological fitness in an isolated Mediterranean population: La Alta Alpujarra Oriental (Southeastern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Francisco; Valls, A.; Fernández Santander, Ana

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of parental inbreeding on biological fitness was analysed in a sample of the Alpujarrenian population. Fitness was estimated as the fertility and offspring viability from conception to reproductive age. The analysed sample represents about 45% of the population from the Alta Alpujarra Oriental in southeastern Spain, and includes 847 families and 2916 pregnancies. The results showed slightly higher reproduction in consanguineous marriages, but the differences observed were not st...

  13. Procesos de automatización cognitiva en alumnado con altas capacidades intelectuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Montero-Linares

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Proponemos desde el enfoque del procesamiento de la información, el estudio de características cognitivas que faciliten la identificación de las altas capacidades. A tal fin, elaboramos una tarea de habilidad de segmentación silábica que, a partir del modelo propuesto por Baddeley sobre la memoria de trabajo y la distinción entre procesos automáticos y controlados, nos permitiese comprobar las diferencias en cuanto a la capacidad de automatización de la información y si los indicadores propuestos en la misma, tenían suficiente poder clasificatorio o predictivo en la identificación de la alta capacidad intelectual. Participaron 480 niños y niñas de primero a cuarto de Educación Primaria. Se clasificaron, en función de su CI, en dos grupos: alumnado de altas capacidades y alumnado de capacidades medias. Se les administró una batería de pruebas entre las que se encontraba el test de habilidad de segmentación silábica, lo que permitió realizar su estandarización. Los resultados mostraron que los alumnos con CI superior a 130 fueron capaces de automatizar la segmentación de forma más eficiente que los de inteligencia media. La medición de los procesos automáticos a través del test de habilidad de segmentación silábica, permitió diferenciar a los participantes de altas capacidades de los que no lo eran.

  14. Neurossífilis resistente a altas doses de penicilina: registro de um caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Nitrini

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available É relatado caso de paciente com neurossífilis que apresentou deterioração clínica e persistência de alterações do líquido cefalorraqueano após repetidas tentativas terapêuticas com altas doses de penicilina. Tratamento com cloranfenicol resultou em estabilização do quadro clínico e melhora laboratorial.

  15. Vital Signs – Presión arterial alta (High Blood Pressure)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    En los EE. UU. casi un tercio de la población adulta tiene presión arterial alta, el principal factor de riesgo de enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares, dos de las principales causas de muerte en el país.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  16. Encounters with History: Dealing with the ‘Present Past’ in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Oettler

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade the truth commission has  risen to prominence as a key instrument of transitional justice. In this article, the Guatemalan  ‘Commission for Historical Clarification’ (CEH  and the Catholic ‘Project for the Recovery of  Historical Memory’ (REMHI are taken as examples in demonstrating the limitations as well as the  benefits of this political instrument that customarily must serve a variety of aims. The importance  of the official CEH must be seen within the context of its support for the fragile peace and reform process. Moreover, the CEH presented a historical  narrative corresponding to the concomitant need  for a multicultural national project. Threatened by  still existing local structures of repression,  REMHI used methods aimed at facilitating a social process of memory work with a fairly longterm perspective. The influence that CEH and  REMHI had or could have had on communicative  and cultural memory is described, and the politics  of reparation and persistent structures of impunity  are dealt with as well.  Resumen: Encuentros con la historia: Tratando con el ‘pasado presente’ en GuatemalaEn la última década, la comisión de la verdad ha  alcanzado una posición de prominencia como  instrumento clave de una justicia transicional. En  la demostración, en este artículo, de las limitaciones y ventajas de este instrumento político,  que sirve habitualmente a una variedad de objetivos, utilizaremos como ejemplos a la ‘Comisión para el Esclarecimiento Histórico’ (CEH  guatemalteca y el ‘Proyecto para la Recuperación  de la Memoria Histórica’ (REMHI católico. La importancia del CEH oficial debe ser vista en el  contexto de su apoyo a los frágiles procesos de  paz y reformas. Además, la CEH presentó una  narrativa histórica que corresponde con la concomitante necesidad de un proyecto multicultural nacional. Amenazado por estructuras locales de  represión todav

  17. Anestesia espinal alta para mastoplastia reductora. Experiencia de tres años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Parets Correa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la aplicación de anestesia neuroaxial espinal alta en las intervenciones quirúrgicas resulta un tema controversial. Objetivo: describir los resultados de la aplicación de anestesia neuroaxial espinal alta en intervenciones quirúrgicas para mastoplastia reductora. Métodos: estudio descriptivo realizado en el Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, de Cienfuegos, desde junio de 2006 hasta junio de 2009, que incluyó 90 pacientes operadas, en las cuales se empleó anestesia neuroaxial espinal alta. Se analizaron las variables: edad, índice de masa corporal, saturación de HBO2, tensión arterial, frecuencia cardiaca, uso de analgesia preventiva, comportamiento de la  analgesia posoperatoria, estado de satisfacción, presencia de complicaciones, técnica quirúrgica, duración del acto quirúrgico y de la anestesia. Resultados: el 50 % tenía  entre 35 y 44 años; 46, 7 % estaban sobrepeso; el 80 % se operó de hipertrofia mamaria; en el 97, 8 % se utilizó la mastopalstia reductora; ninguna presentó cifras altas de tensión arterial antes ni después de la aplicación de la anestesia, el 41,1 % presentó cifras bajas de tensión arterial después de la anestesia; la frecuencia cardiaca estuvo baja en el 31, 1 % después de aplicada la anestesia y alta en el 4, 4 %. La analgesia posoperatoria fue buena en el 87, 8 % de las pacientes; no hubo compromiso ventilatorio en ningún caso y el 100 % mostró satisfacción con la técnica anestésica. Conclusiones: la aplicación de la técnica anestésica permite desarrollar exitosamente las intervenciones quirúrgicas con un mínimo de riesgos y complicaciones para las pacientes.

  18. El recibimiento del Sello Real de Carlos IV en la Audiencia de Guatemala (1792: epítome y epígono de una tradición secular (The Reception of the Royal Seal of Charles IV of Spain in the Chancery Court of Guatemala, 1792: Epitome and Epigone of a Secular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Bernal, J. Jaime

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo analiza el recibimiento del Sello Real de Carlos IV en la ciudad de Guatemala en las postrimerías del Antiguo Régimen. Nos hemos basado en la Breve Relación (1793 que compuso el fraile dominico Carlos Cadena de la que examinamos sus códigos retóricos e ideológicos. Y en la documentación expedida por la Audiencia de Guatemala que se conserva en el Archivo General de Centroamérica. En primer lugar estudiamos los antecedentes de esta ceremonia en otras ciudades americanas a partir de las descripciones publicadas hasta ahora. En la segunda parte, nos detenemos en el estudio del programa decorativo de la entrada del sello en Guatemala. Posteriormente examinamos las funciones de ingreso, manifestación pública y juramento de la insignia real. Abstract: This article studies the reception of the Royal Seal of Carlos IV in the city of Guatemala in the late eighteenth century. It is based on the Breve Relación written by Dominican father Carlos Cadena (1793. We explore the rhetorical and ideological keys of this original text. We also have used the inform send by the district court of Guatemala that has been kept on the General Archive of Central America. The paper distinguished three phases. In the first part, we explore the forgoing records of this ceremony in others American cities starting from the sixteenth century. In the second part, we focus on the study of the ephemeral decorative program. Finally we emphasized the ceremony of the entry, public exhibition and civic oath of the Royal sign.

  19. Le pèlerinage des indiens tojolabal (Chiapas-Mexique) à San Mateo Ixtatan (Guatemala), rite agricole et relations interethniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarochette, Carine

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes a transborder pilgrimage, annually carried out by Tojolabal Maya populations of Mexico to Guatemala. Beyond the veneration of a god of the rain and an agricultural rite necessary to the survival of these populations of farmers, this group built or rather rebuilt its identity on the basis of migration. These pilgrims join temporarily another group of metis farmers before returning in contact with another Guatemalan Maya group, the Chuj. The course carried out and the vene...

  20. Comparison of users of an HIV/syphilis screening community-based mobile van and traditional voluntary counselling and testing sites in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Lahuerta, Maria; Sabidó, Meritxell; Giardina, Federica; Hernández, Gabriela; Palacios, Juan Fernando; Ortiz, Rudy; Fernández, Victor Hugo; Casabona, Jordi; Project, The UALE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Mobile van (MV) for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) screening is effective in reaching at-risk populations. We aimed to compare behaviour characteristics and HIV and syphilis prevalence between subjects tested at a mobile van offering voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) versus those tested at 3 STI clinics in Guatemala. Methods: Over 28 months, female sex workers (FSWs), men who have sex with men/transgenders (MSM/TG), and people no...

  1. Alta miopia

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Ana Raquel Borges

    2012-01-01

    O presente conjunto de apontamentos surge no âmbito de um estágio observacional realizado na Clínica Leite & Leite, em Lisboa, no decorrer do 2º ano do Mestrado em Optometria em Ciências da Visão. Neste relatório é relatada uma descrição do local onde se realizou o estágio, na qual constam todas as informações do percurso que qualquer paciente terá dentro da clínica em questão. De referir que, durante o tempo de estágio, foram observados 179 pacientes com diversas patologias, dados que pos...

  2. Identification of microorganisms of Phytophthora genre associated to Quercus sp. and Pinus sp. species in the provinces of Guatemala and Sacatepéquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Calderón Díaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mean purpose of this research was to identify microorganism belonging to Phytophthora genera which are affecting mixed natural forests and nurseries of Pinus sp. and Quercus sp. These species have economic and social impact in provinces such as Guatemala and Sacatepéquez. Soil and vegetal tissue were used to isolate Phytophthora from natural forest of Guatemala, 45 Pinus sp. and 10 Quercus sp. were sampled and from nurseries 88 Pinus sp. and 11 Quercus sp. From Sacatepéquez province, from natural forest system were sampled 48 Pinus sp. and 15 Quercus sp. From nurseries were sampled 58 Pinus sp. and 25 Quercus sp. After processing the samples from soil and roots 13 were found positive to Phytophthora sp. in Pinus maximinoi, 10 from Guatemala and three from Sacatepéquez provinces. The culture of Phytophthora sp. on PDA produced two colonies without define form and five stoloniferous, five semipetaloid, one stelade type colonies. VP16 isolate was inoculated in five species of pine for pathogenicity test, causing high percentages of incidence and severity on Pinus caribaea, P. oocarpa, P. pseudostrobus and P. maximinoi and low rates of incidence and severity on Pinus tecunumanii.

  3. Perspectivas para mejorar la salud sexual de las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence; Sun, Christina J.; Andrade, Mario; Villatoro, Guillermo; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala son afectadas de manera desproporcionada por el VIH y otras infecciones transmitidas sexualmente (ITS). Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los factores que contribuyen al riesgo de infección en estas minorías. Investigadores de Estados Unidos y Guatemala quisimos informarnos sobre las necesidades de salud sexual e identificar características de programas de prevención de VIH/ITS para estas minorías. Llevamos a cabo 8 grupos focales con hombres gay, bisexuales y personas transgénero y entrevistas en profundidad con líderes comunitarios. Utilizamos el Método Comparativo Constante para analizar las transcripciones. Identificamos 24 factores que influyen en la salud sexual y 16 características de programas para reducir el riesgo de VIH/ITS en estas poblaciones. La identificación de factores de conductas sexuales de riesgo y de características de programas potencialmente efectivos ofrece gran potencial para desarrollar intervenciones que contribuyan a reducir el riesgo de infección por VIH/ITS en estas minorías en Guatemala. PMID:27494000

  4. Renegotiating «law and order»: judicial reform and citizen responses in post-war Guatemala Renegociando «la ley y el orden»: reforma judicial y respuesta ciudadana en la Guatemala de posguerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel SIEDER

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines reforms aimed at strengthening the rule of law in Guatemala implemented since the signing of the Peace Accords in December 1996. Despite nearly $200 millions in foreign aid to the justice sector, impunity remains the rule, the judicial process is subverted by military and criminal networks, citizen confidence in the judicial system remains low and recourse to non-judicial measures –the «privatisation of justice»– is on the increase. It is argued that the institutionally-focused approach to rule of law reform currently predominating in donor thinking ignores the historical context within which understandings of «law», «justice» and «rights» are shaped. Institutions do matter, but only by understanding the role of law in long­run processes of State formation and the dynamic, inter-subjective nature of legal interactions can we begin to understand the specificities of socio-legal change. Este artículo examina las reformas al fortalecimiento del Estado de Derecho en Guatemala implementadas desde la firma de los Acuerdos de Paz de 1996. Pese a los casi 200 millones de dólares en ayuda externa al sector judicial, la impunidad sigue siendo la norma; los procesos judiciales son socavados por redes militares y criminales; la confianza ciudadana en el sistema judicial se mantiene baja y la recurrencia a medidas fuera del sistema –«la privatización de la justicia»– va en aumento. Se cree que los enfoques que se centran en reformar las instituciones legales que actualmente predominan entre los donantes ignoran el contexto histórico específico en el que se formaron los conceptos de «ley», «justicia» y «derecho». Si bien las instituciones son importantes, solamente cuando se entienda el papel del derecho en los procesos de largo plazo de formación del Estado, así como la naturaleza dinámica de las interacciones legales, podremos comenzar a comprender las particularidades del cambio sociolegal.

  5. Risk factors for intradomiciliary infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiatain Jutiapa, Guatemala Factores de riesgo para la infestación intradomiciliaria por el vector de la enfermedad de Chagas, Triatoma dimidiata, en Jutiapa, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Bustamante

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen variables were evaluated as possible risk factors for the intradomiciliary infestation with Triatoma dimidiata in 644 houses in Jutiapa, Guatemala. During 2004 the houses were assessed for vector presence and evaluated for hygiene, cluttering, material comfort, construction conditions and number of inhabitants, among other factors. Chi-square analysis detected significant associations between vector presence and eight variables related to domestic sanitary and construction conditions. Log-linear models showed that regardless of the age of the house, the odds of vector presence were 4.3 and 10 times lower in houses with a good socioeconomic status compared with poor and very poor houses respectively. Log-linear models also pointed to a greater chance of vector presence when walls lacked plastering (3.85 times or walls had low quality-incomplete plastering (4.56 times, compared with walls that were completely plastered. Control strategies against T. dimidiata should include the introduction of better-quality but inexpensive plastering formulations and better sanitation practices should also be promoted among the population. Such control strategies should not only reduce or eliminate infestation, but also prevent vector reinfestation.Seiscientas cuarenta y cuatro casas en Jutiapa, Guatemala fueron encuestadas en el año 2004 para buscar el vector de la enfermedad de Chagas Triatoma dimidiata. Diecisiete variables relacionadas con las condiciones estructurales y de higiene de las casas fueron registradas y evaluadas como factores de riesgo para la infestación intradomiciliar con T. dimidiata. Análisis chi-cuadrado detectaron asociaciones significativas entre la presencia del vector y 8 de estas variables. En modelos log-lineares se detectó, que sin importar la antigüedad de la casa, las posibilidades de presencia del vector fueron 4,3 y 10 veces más bajas en casas con un buen estado socioeconómico que en casas pobres o muy pobres

  6. Recent SO2 camera and OP-FTIR field measurements in Mexico and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Salerno, Giuseppe; Burton, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Between 22 and 30 November 2012 a field campaign was carried out at Mexico and Guatemala with the objectives of state the volcanic gas composition and flux fingerprints of Popocatepetl, Santiaguito, Fuego and Pacaya by exploiting simultaneously UV-camera and FTIR measurements. Gases were measured remotely using instruments sensitive to ultraviolet and infrared radiation (UV spectrometer, SO2-camera and OP-FTIR). Data collection depended on the requirements of the methodology, weather condition and eruptive stage of the volcanoes. OP-FTIR measurements were carried out using the MIDAC interferometer with 0.5 cm-1 resolution. Spectra were collected in solar occultation mode in which the Sun acts as an infrared source and the volcanic plume is interposed between the Sun and the spectrometer. At Santiaguito spectra were also collected in passive mode using the lava flow as a radiation source. The SO2-camera used for this study was a dual camera system consisting of two QS Imaging 640s cameras. Each of the two cameras was outfitted with two quartz 25mm lens, coupled with two band-pass filters centred at 310nm and at 330nm. The imaging system was managed by a custom-made software developed in LabView. The UV-camera system was coupled with a USB2000+ spectrometer connected to a QP1000-2-SR 1000 micron optical fiber with a 74-UV collimating lens. For calibration of plume imagery, images of five quartz cells containing known concentration path-lengths of SO2 were taken at the end of each sampling. Between 22 and 23 November 2012 UV-camera and FTIR observations were carried out at Popocatepetl. During the time of our observation, the volcano was characterised by pulsing degassing from the summit crater forming a whitish plume that dispersed rapidly in the atmosphere according to wind direction and speed. Data were collected from the Observatorio Atmosférico Altzomoni (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) at 4000 metre a.s.l. and at a distance of ~12 km from the volcano

  7. Recent SO2 camera and OP-FTIR field measurements in Mexico and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Salerno, Giuseppe; Burton, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Between 22 and 30 November 2012 a field campaign was carried out at Mexico and Guatemala with the objectives of state the volcanic gas composition and flux fingerprints of Popocatepetl, Santiaguito, Fuego and Pacaya by exploiting simultaneously UV-camera and FTIR measurements. Gases were measured remotely using instruments sensitive to ultraviolet and infrared radiation (UV spectrometer, SO2-camera and OP-FTIR). Data collection depended on the requirements of the methodology, weather condition and eruptive stage of the volcanoes. OP-FTIR measurements were carried out using the MIDAC interferometer with 0.5 cm-1 resolution. Spectra were collected in solar occultation mode in which the Sun acts as an infrared source and the volcanic plume is interposed between the Sun and the spectrometer. At Santiaguito spectra were also collected in passive mode using the lava flow as a radiation source. The SO2-camera used for this study was a dual camera system consisting of two QS Imaging 640s cameras. Each of the two cameras was outfitted with two quartz 25mm lens, coupled with two band-pass filters centred at 310nm and at 330nm. The imaging system was managed by a custom-made software developed in LabView. The UV-camera system was coupled with a USB2000+ spectrometer connected to a QP1000-2-SR 1000 micron optical fiber with a 74-UV collimating lens. For calibration of plume imagery, images of five quartz cells containing known concentration path-lengths of SO2 were taken at the end of each sampling. Between 22 and 23 November 2012 UV-camera and FTIR observations were carried out at Popocatepetl. During the time of our observation, the volcano was characterised by pulsing degassing from the summit crater forming a whitish plume that dispersed rapidly in the atmosphere according to wind direction and speed. Data were collected from the Observatorio Atmosférico Altzomoni (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) at 4000 metre a.s.l. and at a distance of ~12 km from the volcano

  8. Plan de alta para personas con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Céspedes Salgado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El plan de alta busca asegurar unos cuidados acordes con las necesidades y los requerimientos de la persona una vez egresa de la institución de salud, y debe constituirse en una guía básica en especial para la atención de aquéllos con patologías crónicas, como es la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, que por su complejidad demanda múltiples cuidados para asegurar una intervención integral con miras al logro de una mejor adaptación, a identificar posibles complicaciones y a mejorar su calidad de vida. La experiencia de haber asumido el rol de hija y enfermera de un padre con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC, y la alta incidencia de esta enfermedad, motivaron la elaboración de este plan de alta; fueron muchos los cuidados y muchas las necesidades y los cuestionamientos que se daban día a día, desde asegurar una adecuada comunicación hasta un conocimiento de los signos y síntomas de urgencia que indicaban una exacerbación, del uso adecuado de los medicamentos, de la importancia de la oxigenoterapia a largo plazo, de proporcionarle una dieta acorde con las recomendaciones y un ambiente favorable para sus condiciones de salud para, en últimas, alcanzar un entorno armónico, físico, familiar y espiritual.

  9. Recubrimientos depositados por cvd-fbr para protección a alta temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Luddey Marulanda-Arevalo; Saul Castañeda-Quintana; Aduljay Remolina-Millan

    2013-01-01

    La deposición química de vapor por lecho fl uidizado (CVD-FBR) es una variante de la técnica de deposición química de vapor; que combina las ventajas de la activación térmica por calentamiento y el lecho fl uidizado. Los recubrimientos mediante CVD-FBR son ampliamente investigados y usados debido a la necesidad de proteger superfi cialmente los componentes que operan a altas temperaturas, el cual ha aumentado perceptiblemente. Además, tiene la ventaja de ser una técnica de bajo costo, puede c...

  10. Anticorpos policlonais em dietas com alta inclusão de concentrado para bovinos confinados

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Domingues Millen; João Ricardo Ronchesel; Fernando Salvador Parra; Rodrigo Dias Lauritano Pacheco; Cyntia Ludovico Martins; Mário de Beni Arrigoni

    2013-01-01

    Dentre as alternativas para substituir o uso de ionóforos classificados como antibiótico por alguns comitês, a utilização de anticorpos policlonais classificados como promotores de crescimento naturais tem se mostrado alternativa interessante e economicamente eficiente. Recentes estudos demonstraram pontos positivos na utilização desse aditivo em dietas com alta inclusão de ingredientes concentrados para bovinos confinados, traduzido por melhora de desempenho e saúde ruminal, em alguns casos,...

  11. Contabilidad Financiera y Social de la Alta Velocidad en España

    OpenAIRE

    Ofelia Betancor; Gerard Llobet

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo estudia la rentabilidad financiera y social de la alta velocidad ferroviaria en España. El análisis se realiza para los cuatro corredores en funcionamiento a finales de 2013. Ambos análisis son contrafactuales, es decir, toman como punto de referencia lo que habría sucedido en caso de no acometer estas inversiones. Asimismo ambos se realizan para un horizonte temporal de 50 años que nos lleva a utilizar como criterios de decisión el VAN financiero y social en términos de valor es...

  12. El entrenamiento interválico de alta intensidad para el rendimiento deportivo

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Fernández, Iker

    2014-01-01

    El entrenamiento interválico de alta intensidad (HIIT) ha sido una parte más de los programas de entrenamiento para mejorar el rendimiento deportivo, pero su efecto puntual en los entrenamientos de deportistas altamente entrenados no se conoce en su totalidad, a pesar de ser un elemento importante de la preparación deportiva. En esta revisión veremos cómo diversas investigaciones demuestran los diferentes efectos y adaptaciones que provoca el HIIT en estos deportistas con el fin de la mejora ...

  13. USO DE IMÁGENES SATELITALES DE ALTA RESOLUCIÓN PARA GENERAR CARTOGRAFÍA

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Zavala; Carlos Zavala

    2002-01-01

    Se presenta la metodología aplicada en la ciudad de Arica, Norte de Chile, para generar cartografía de altura de construcciones, mediante el análisis digital de una imagen satelital de alta resolución. Para ello, nos basamos en el cálculo de la longitud de las sombras que se derivan de distintas edificaciones, y del azimut solar de una imagen IRS 1C, que fue remuestreada mediante convolución cúbica a 5 metros. Este trabajo está basado fundamentalmente en los logros alcanzados en el desarrollo...

  14. Ampliación de un generador de impulsos de alta tensión

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Anguita, Iker

    2011-01-01

    El primer objetivo de este proyecto fin de carrera será hallar el valor de la capacidad del objeto de ensayo, en este caso un transformador de corriente de alta tensión con el bobinado secundario cortocircuitado a tierra. Se realizara la medición por distintos métodos para contrastar los resultados. Este valor de capacidad será necesario para el dimensionado de las resistencias de descarga del generador. Una vez obtenido el valor de la capacidad se procederá a la construcción de los nuevos el...

  15. La identificación de alumnos con altas habilidades: enfoques y dimensiones actuales

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo Martínez, Angela

    1996-01-01

    La tesis ha quedado estructurada en dos partes. En la primera, se desarrolla y fundamenta el marco teórico de este trabajo de investigación, desde el que se presentan los principales planteamientos conceptuales que han ayudado y están contribuyendo a definir la alta habilidad intelectual, haciendo especial hincapié en enfoques amplios y variados, que permitan que la identificación de esos sujetos se realice considerando junto a su potencial intelectual otras muchas y diferentes variables. Y l...

  16. CARCINOMA BRONQUÍOLO-ALVEOLAR: ASPECTOS NA TOMOGRAFIA COMPUTADORIZADA DE ALTA RESOLUÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Luiza Beatriz Melo; Marchiori Edson; Melo Alessandro Severo Alves de; Magnago Marcelo; Muniz Maria Angélica Soares; Irion Klaus

    2002-01-01

    O carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar é um tipo de carcinoma broncogênico de crescimento insidioso, que surge nas paredes das vias aéreas distais e se dissemina utilizando o septo alveolar como um estroma, preservando a arquitetura pulmonar. Neste trabalho foram analisadas as tomografias computadorizadas de alta resolução de 17 pacientes com carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar. Ao contrário do relatado na literatura, foram observados predomínio no sexo masculino (71%) e maior freqüência da associação das...

  17. Factores de riesgo que incrementan la morbimortalidad en pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Hernández, Iyemai

    2011-01-01

    La Hemorragia digestiva alta (HDA) es una emergencia médico quirúrgica frecuente que presenta una elevada morbimortalidad, constituyendo la principal urgencia en gastroenterología. El cuidado de enfermería, como el conjunto de funciones fundamentadas en la relación interpersonal y en el dominio de lo técnico-científico orientada a comprender al otro en el entorno en el que se desenvuelve, interviene en una forma importante en la prevención, la curación y la rehabilitación de la persona en el ...

  18. Efeito de alta pressão no processo de demolha de bacalhau

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, Ângelo Miguel Correia

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho experimental teve como objectivo recorrer à tecnologia de alta pressão hidrostática com o intuito de acelerar o processo de demolha de bacalhau, em termos de saída de sal e entrada de água. Inicialmente tentou-se desenvolver uma metodologia rápida para quantificação do NaCl mediante condutivimetria. Contudo, como se verificaram diferenças entre os resultados obtidos por este método e o método químico usado neste trabalho, a quantificação do sal por condutivimet...

  19. Estudio del comportamiento en flexocompresión de los hormigones de alta resistencia

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas de Pablo, Juan José; Gutiérrez Martín, Germán; Vicente Cabrera, Miguel Ángel; González Cabrera, Dorys Carmen

    2004-01-01

    RESUMEN. Este artículo describe la máquina de ensayo desarrollada en el Laboratorio de Estructuras de la Universidad de Cantabria para obtener experimentalmente la distribución de tensiones en hormigones de diferentes resistencias, desde hormigones convencionales hasta hormigones de alta resistencia. Utilizando la máquina de ensayo anteriormente mencionada han sido ensayadas 240 probetas bajo carga creciente y excéntrica hasta rotura. Las variables de ensayo han sido la forma de la probeta, e...

  20. Determinación de aminas aromaticas por cromatografia liquida de alta resolución.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Bouzán, Mª Carmen; Crespi Rosell, Martin

    1989-01-01

    Este trabajo consiste en la puesta a punto del metodo analítico para la determinación por cromatografia liquida de alta resolución (HPLC) de las aminas aromáticas empleadas más frecuentemente en la fabricación de colorantes sulfurosos: m-tolilendiamina, p-fenilendiamina, o-toluidina, p-toluidina, anilina, p-aminofenol, difenilamina, y p-hidroxidifenilamina. La longitud de onda de detección es de 260 nm. El principal objetivo del presente estudio es la consecución de un método de análisis p...

  1. Estudio del feedback docente de los entrenadores de tenis de alta competición

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes García, Juan Pedro; García González, Luis; Sanz Rivas, David; Moreno Arroyo, M. Perla; Villar Álvarez, Fernando del

    2005-01-01

    El presente artículo trata de analizar la aplicación del feedback durante las sesiones de entrenamiento, en relación a las siguientes variables: recursos didácticos empleados en la corrección de la ejecución, tipo de feedback empleado en función de la intención del entrenador, recursos didácticos empleados para mejorar la conducta de corrección. Para llevarlo a cabo, se utilizó un cuestionario de autocumplimentación sobre una muestra compuesta por 20 entrenadores españoles de alta competi...

  2. Factores de riesgo, asociados a intento de suicidio, comparando factores de alta y baja letalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Rabago, Horacio; Sahagun Flores, Jose Ernesto; Ruiz Gomez, Alfonso; Sanchez Ureña, Gustavo Manuel; Tirado Vargas, Juan Carlos; Gonzalez Gamez, Jaime Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo El propósito del estudio fue Identificar los factores de riesgo más frecuentes asociados a intento de suicidio para determinar si existen diferencias entre los factores de riesgo presentes en pacientes con tentativa de baja letalidad y los de alta letalidad. Método Se entrevistaron 106 pacientes de ambos sexos, con diagnóstico de intento de suicidio, hospitalizados en una unidad psiquiátrica, divididos en dos grupos: uno pacientes con tentativa suicida de baja letalidad y otro con te...

  3. Resultados del relevamiento de HI en el Cielo Austral: 3. Relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morras, R.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Los resultados del relevamiento de HI del Hemisferio Austral fueron reprocesados con el fin de incrementar su sensibilidad. Así, se utilizó esta nueva base de datos con el fin de obtener un nuevo relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad en el cielo austral. El ruido r.m.s. alcanzado es de 0.015-0.020 K, con una resolución espectral de 8 km/seg. El cubrimiento espacial del relevamiento mejora en un factor 16 al realizado por Bajaja et al (1985).

  4. Contribución al modelado unidimensional en motores de dos tiempos de altas prestaciones

    OpenAIRE

    JIMENEZ MACEDO, VICTOR DANIEL

    2013-01-01

    Un modelo de simulación presenta muchas ventajas en el campo del desarrollo de motores de combustión interna alternativos. Su utilidad es doble. Por un lado, para entender la naturaleza de los fenómenos físicos que suceden en el interior del motor, y por otro, con el fin de optimizar el diseño de los sistemas que integran el mismo. El principal objetivo de esta tesis es desarrollar un modelo de un motor de dos tiempos de 125 cc de altas prestaciones para caracterizar la fluidodinámica interna...

  5. Diseño de sistemas WIFI en trenes de alta velocidad

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Barbero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    En este Trabajo Fin de Grado se realiza el diseño de un sistema que proporcione acceso a internet a los usuarios en un tren de alta velocidad. Se busca conseguir un sistema inalámbrico (WIFI) que permita un gran número de conexiones simultáneas con un ancho de banda suficiente para todas ellas. En este proyecto se buscará una tecnología capaz de cumplir estos requisitos, realizando un estudio de las tecnologías disponibles actualmente (WiMAX, satélite, 3G/4G). Las diferentes tecnologías pr...

  6. Simulación de altas prestaciones para modelos orientados al individuo

    OpenAIRE

    Mostaccio, Diego Javier

    2007-01-01

    Existen diversos campos de la biología que necesitan realizar experimentos para estudiar el modelo de comportamiento de diferentes especies. En la presente tesis, se analizan las diferentes posibilidades de análisis en base a sistemas de simulación de altas prestaciones donde se ha desarrollado un laboratorio virtual que permite a los científicos experimentar con sus modelos y realizar pruebas mediante métodos de simulación distribuida. El modelo utilizado es un Modelo Orientado al Individuo ...

  7. ESTUDIO DE ALUMNOS DE EDUCACIÓN SECUNDARIA OBLIGATORIA CON ALTAS CAPACIDADES INTELECTUALES

    OpenAIRE

    Anda-Moreno, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    El presente Trabajo de Fin de Máster realizado para la obtención del título del Máster en Formación de Profesorado de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, Bachillerato, Formación Profesional y Enseñanza de Idiomas, Especialidad en Física y Química, de la Universidad Internacional de La Rioja trata del estudio de Alumnos con Altas Capacidades Intelectuales de la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria del sistema educativo español. En el entorno escolar, siempre se han presentado casos de niños...

  8. Herramientas TIC para la intervención educativa en estudiantes con altas capacidades

    OpenAIRE

    Tárraga Mínguez, Raúl; Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Pastor Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández Andrés, María Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Los estudiantes con altas capacidades procesan la información de manera distinta, ya que estos poseen una elevada creatividad e implicación en la tarea. Este hecho implica la necesidad de llevar acabo una intervención educativa específica. Algunos modelos teóricos han demostrado la efectividad del uso de las TICs en la intervención de este tipo de alumnado, por lo que en el presente artículo se incluyen diferentes herramientas TIC que pueden ser de gran utilidad para los docentes. Entre estas...

  9. Altas capacidades. Propuesta de intervención para el aprendizaje de la historia

    OpenAIRE

    Gárriz Forné, Javier

    2013-01-01

    El presente estudio de carácter teórico, es una aproximación al conocimiento de las necesidades educativas del alumnado con altas capacidades intelectuales y pretende desarrollar una propuesta educativa que responda a esas necesidades, desde las ciencias sociales, concretamente desde la historia. Partiendo de la legislación vigente y teniendo en cuenta el planteamiento de algunos autores que abordan esta problemática, primero, comenzaré perfilando las características de este alumnado; pos...

  10. Alumnado con altas capacidades intelectuales: Programa de intervención

    OpenAIRE

    Arranz Melado, Luis Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se hace un breve resumen conceptual de la literatura científica sobre las altas capacidades intelectuales. Se hace referencia a conceptos, teorías y modelos. Luego se analiza algunas de las características del alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales. Seguidamente, se hace referencia a los procedimientos y técnicas de evaluación de los estudiantes con necesidades educativas especiales. Se hace mención de las diferentes modalidades de respuesta educativa aplica...

  11. Procesos de automatización cognitiva en alumnado con altas capacidades intelectuales

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Montero-Linares; José I. Navarro-Guzmán; Manuel Aguilar-Villagrán

    2013-01-01

    Proponemos desde el enfoque del procesamiento de la información, el estudio de características cognitivas que faciliten la identificación de las altas capacidades. A tal fin, elaboramos una tarea de habilidad de segmentación silábica que, a partir del modelo propuesto por Baddeley sobre la memoria de trabajo y la distinción entre procesos automáticos y controlados, nos permitiese comprobar las diferencias en cuanto a la capacidad de automatización de la información y si los indicadores propue...

  12. Alumnos con altas capacidades intelectuales: Propuesta de Intervención

    OpenAIRE

    Cano-Aguirre, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica acerca de las características de los alumnos de altas capacidades intelectuales, su funcionamiento cerebral y los proyectos que se aplican en la actualidad. En la segunda parte se ha realizado una investigación con un enfoque cualitativo en la cual se proporcionó un cuestionario a un grupo de profesionales que participan en proyectos dirigidos a este tipo de alumnado con el fin de detectar la situación actual en la que se encuentran. ...

  13. Género, adolescencia y altas capacidades : un acercamiento a la afectividad

    OpenAIRE

    González González, Leybiz

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio fue realizado en un grupo de chicas y chicos adolescentes pertenecientes a la Asociación Onubense de Altas Capacidades ARETÉ. Sus propósitos consistieron en analizar el aspecto afectivo-relacional a través de una perspectiva de género, en la que fueron identificadas las vivencias y áreas de conflictos psicológicos, las preocupaciones, temores, satisfacciones e insatisfacciones presentes. Asimismo, se pretendió develar algunos elementos de la conformación de ...

  14. La evaluación psicopedagógica del alumnado con altas capacidades intelectuales

    OpenAIRE

    Moliner García, Odet; Comes Nolla, Gabriel; Luque, Antonio; Díaz Pareja, Elena María

    2008-01-01

    Tras un análisis de la normativa estatal y autonómica sobre la evaluación psicopedagógica del alumnado con altas capacidades intelectuales, se presentan los aspectos más relevantes que toda evaluación psicopedagógica debe contemplar para que resulte lo más eficaz posible, y permita ofrecer una respuesta educativa adecuada a dicho alumnado e identifique los recursos y apoyos que pueda precisar. Tales decisiones se concretan en el informe psicopedagógico y este artículo recoge...

  15. Alumnos con indicios de altas capacidades en Educación Infantil

    OpenAIRE

    López-Gómez, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    En las aulas se encuentran niños de altas capacidades que no han sido diagnosticados y por lo tanto no se está atendiendo a sus necesidades como se debiera. Mediante este trabajo de fin de grado se ha pretendido señalar las características principales que permiten al tutor del aula reconocer a estos alumnos y poderles derivar a los orientadores que señalarán las pautas necesarias para conseguir que el alumno se desarrolle en plenitud y se sienta integrado en el aula. Para ello se van a exp...

  16. SAÓ, sistema de ayuda ortoépica para la lectura en voz alta del valenciano

    OpenAIRE

    Forcada, Mikel L.; Beltran i Calvo, Vicent; Segura i Llopes, Carles; Colomina i Castanyer, Jordi

    2003-01-01

    Este proyecto se propone elaborar un programa informático que ayudará a los locutores de radio y televisión y, en general, a cualquier persona, a leer el valenciano correctamente en voz alta. El sistema resultante, denominado SAÓ (sistema de ayuda ortoépica), anotará automáticamente el texto con marcas sencillas que indicarán la pronunciación correcta en algunos casos difíciles, usando un ordenador de sobremesa común. En particular, podrá ser usado para enseñar l...

  17. Alta hospitalar do recém-nascido prematuro: experiência do pai

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna de Souza Lima Marski; Natália Custodio; Flávia Corrêa Porto de Abreu; Débora Falleiros de Melo; Monika Wernet

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: descrever a experiência do pai frente à alta do filho prematuro da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal e apontar intervenções para a promoção dessa experiência. Método: pesquisa qualitativa com oito pais que adotou o Interacionismo Simbólico como referencial teórico e a pesquisa de narrativa temática como referencial metodológico. Resultados: a análise dos dados permitiu descrever a experiência do pai a partir de três unidades temáticas: 'limites para a paternidade', 'al...

  18. The Alta Stock, Utah: An Exemplar Rock Suite for Learning Metamorphic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, C.; Haileab, B.

    2003-12-01

    Using rock suites in a discovery-based setting is a terrific way to learn important petrologic processes and concepts such as the role of fluids during metamorphism, phase equilibrium, and metastability to name just a few. A particularly effective rock suite we use in our petrology course is from the contact aureole of the Tertiary Alta stock in Utah. The intrusion of the Alta stock into Paleozoic dolostone containing chert nodules produced a well-defined contact metamorphic aureole that includes talc-, tremolite-, forsterite-, and periclase-in field isograds (Cook and Bowman, 2000). Students work in free-form groups with collaboration between groups to define the mineral assemblages using hand samples and thin sections from throughout the areole and then work out what they think are the important petrologic processes that worked together to form what they see. The main goals of the exercise include: 1) learning to identify mineral assemblages common to metamorphosed siliceous dolostones; 2) learning to infer metamorphic reactions from progressive changes in mineral assemblages; 3) being able to identify balanced metamorphic reactions responsible for isograds mapped in the field; 4) begin to develop an understanding of how bulk composition and fluid composition controls mineral assemblages; and 5) learning how to infer the temperature and fluid composition evolution of the Alta stock aureole based on published T-X(CO2)diagrams. This suite is particularly effective because all the important minerals the students observe in thin section can be defined by the easy to plot and understand CaO-MgO-SiO2 system. This offers the opportunity to introduce (or reinforce) the concept of plotting minerals in composition space, using the phase rule to define the variance of your system, using tie lines to define stable mineral assemblages, and the flipping of tie lines to produce univariant reactions. In addition, the students work out the topology of these reactions in P-T space

  19. Impacto de la regulación ambiental en las actividades de la alta gerencia corporativa

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Tigrera Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    El presente ensayo tiene por finalidad exponer algunas consideraciones y reflexiones acerca del impacto que ha generado la regulación ambiental en las actividades de la alta gerencia corporativa. Para tal fin, fue necesario realizar una revisión documental de las distintas bibliografías, documentos y escritos especializados en el área, tanto en el ámbito nacional como latinoamericano; la cual, permitió llegar a las siguientes conclusiones: la introducción de las distintas regulaciones de índo...

  20. Computación de altas prestaciones ecológica

    OpenAIRE

    González, Lucía; Uribe, Federico; Balladini, Javier; Sánchez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    La computación de altas prestaciones ha tenido, por décadas, el único objetivo de incrementar la velocidad de procesamiento de las aplicaciones computacionalmente complejas. Dado el tamaño actual de las supercomputadoras, el consumo energético de las mismas es tan elevado que producen un tremendo impacto económico. Además, la falta de explotaci ón de las energías renovables y limpias hacen que la producción energética afecte signi- cativamente en lo ecológico y social. Estos factores nos ...

  1. Sincronização em sistemas integrados a alta velocidade

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Mónica Jorge Carvalho de

    2012-01-01

    A distribui ção de um sinal relógio, com elevada precisão espacial (baixo skew) e temporal (baixo jitter ), em sistemas sí ncronos de alta velocidade tem-se revelado uma tarefa cada vez mais demorada e complexa devido ao escalonamento da tecnologia. Com a diminuição das dimensões dos dispositivos e a integração crescente de mais funcionalidades nos Circuitos Integrados (CIs), a precisão associada as transições do sinal de relógio tem sido cada vez mais afectada por varia ções de proce...

  2. Cultivo de cachama blanca en altas densidades y en dos sistemas cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Poleo; José Vicente Aranbarrio; Lismen Mendoza; Oneida Romero

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de la cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus, a cultivos en altas densidades en sistemas cerrados. Novecientos alevines de 44,3±26 g de peso, se distribuyeron en seis tanques de concreto, con 4,8 m³ de agua. Tres tanques presentaron cero recambio de agua (SCR), y en otros tres, el agua se hizo circular a través de un bioclarificador (SRA). Ambos tratamientos presentaron fuerte aireación para mantener los sólidos en suspensión y suministrar ...

  3. Neurodesarrollo en egresados de la terapia intensiva neonatal a los 6 meses del alta hospitalaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dayami Armas-Guerra; Tania Mejías-Martín; Ana Nastia Tamayo-Ortiz; María Caridad Jardines-Carballosa

    2012-01-01

    Se abordó estudio descriptivo longitudinal de 16 recién nacidos egresados del servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico de Holguín, desde febrero a junio del 2009. Se les evaluó desde el punto de vista neurológico a los seis meses del alta hospitalaria. Un 25% presentaron anormalidad del examen neurológico. Las alteraciones leves y moderadas se comportaron igual. El sexo femenino fue el más afectado, la menor edad gestacional y el peso menor de 1500 gramos predispusieron a la aparición...

  4. Managing Mortgage Credit Risk: What Went Wrong With the Subprime and Alt-A Markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Man Cho

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: first, to explain the demise of subprime and Alt-A mortgage markets in the U.S. from the viewpoint of measuring and managing mortgage credit risk; and secondly, to discuss several policy lessons that can be learned from the market meltdown. To that end, three tiers of mortgage credit models are elaborated, including the scoring (or risk rank-ordering), risk-based pricing, and ¡§sizing¡¨ (or the analytics used in determining subordination levels of credit...

  5. TASA DE DESEMPLEO ALTA DURANTE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE PLENO EMPLEO EN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso León Guillén Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Se obtiene la tasa de desempleo de pleno empleo que, aunque, remonte el PIB potencial se mantiene elevada, se verifica su consistencia mediante su asimilación con la tasa natural de desempleo y se encuentra que es debido al fracaso de la intervención estatal en la economía para bajar la crónica tasa alta de desempleo. Este fracaso proviene de aplicar las acciones que son posibles desde el monetarismo, que resulta una teoría falsa, por desconocer la falla del mercado laboral, que consiste en q...

  6. Unraveling the polymetamorphic history of garnet-bearing metabasites: Insights from the North Motagua Mélange (Guatemala Suture Zone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, G.; Flores, K. E.; Martin, C.; Harlow, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Guatemala Suture Zone is the fault-bound region in central Guatemala that contains the present North American-Caribbean plate boundary. This major composite geotectonic unit contains a variety of ophiolites, serpentinite mélanges, and metavolcano-sedimentary sequences along with high-grade schists, gneisses, low-grade metasediments and metagranites thrusted north and south of the active Motagua fault system (MFS). The North Motagua Mélange (NMM) outcrops north of the MFS and testifies the emplacement of exhumed subduction assemblages along a collisional tectonic setting. The NMM is composed of a serpentinite-matrix mélange that contains blocks of metabasites (subgreenschist facies metabasalt, grt-blueschist, eclogite, grt-amphibolite), vein-related rocks (jadeitite, omphacitite, albitite, mica-rock), and metatrondhjemites. Our new detailed petrographic and thermobarometric study on the garnet-bearing metabasites reveals a complex polymetamorphic history with multiple tectonic events. Eclogites show a classical clockwise PT path composed of (a) prograde blueschist/eclogite facies within garnet cores, (b) eclogite facies metamorphic peak at ~1.7 GPa and 620°C, (c) post-peak blueschist facies, (d) amphibolite facies overprint, and (e) late stage greenschist facies. Two types of garnet amphibolite blocks can be found, the first consist of (a) a relict eclogite facies peak at ~1.3 GPa and 550°C only preserved within anhedral garnet cores, and (b) surrounded by a post-peak amphibolite facies. In contrast, the second type displays a prograde amphibolite facies at 0.6-1.1 GPa and 400-650°C. The eclogites metamorphic peak suggests formation in a normal subduction zone at ~60 km depth, a subsequent exhumation to the middle section of the subduction channel (~35 km), and a later metamorphic reworking at lower P and higher T before its final exhumation. The first type of garnet amphibolite shows a similar trajectory as the eclogites but at warmer conditions. In

  7. Museo Nacional y museos privados en Guatemala: patrimonio y patrimonialización. Un siglo de intentos y frustraciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casaús Arzú, Marta Elena

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th century most Latin American countries promoted the foundation of national museums (containing their own archeology, anthropology, and ethnology as a means of fostering state building and laying the foundations for the homogenization of the nation. Such institutions sought to promote the civic education of the citizenry, the recovery of memory and the construction of a common past allowing for the formation of a national identity. The case of Guatemala, however, stands out for its uniqueness and its tendency to go in the opposite direction: to deny the Maya past, not to accept the principle of a homogeneous nation, and to leave the foundation of the first National Musem, in the 19th century, in the hands of the Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País. The construction of archeological museums was later left to private initiative, thereby generating a process of patrimonalization of culture and, at the same time, a privatization of the national patrimony.

    A lo largo del siglo XIX la mayoría de los países de América Latina impulsaron la creación de museos nacionales (que incluían la propia arqueología, antropología y etnología como uno de los vehículos para promover la construcción de los estados nacionales y para sentar las bases de la homogenización de la nación, entendiendo esas instituciones como lugares destinados a la educación cívica de los ciudadanos, la recuperación de la memoria y la construcción de un pasado común que permitieran la formación de una identidad nacional. El caso de Guatemala, sin embargo, destaca por su singularidad y su tendencia a ir en dirección inversa: negar el pasado histórico maya, no aceptar el principio de nación homogénea y dejar en manos de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, en el siglo XIX, la construcción del primer Museo Nacional y, posteriormente, en manos de la iniciativa privada la construcción de los museos de arqueología, generándose con ello un

  8. Knowledge of HIV transmission and condom use among HIV-positive heterosexual men and women in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Hurtado Juan J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Guatemala among the general population is 0.79%, and 94% of transmission is directly related to sexual contact. Studies have been conducted on high- prevalence HIV-positive populations (men who have sex with men, commercial sex workers and prisoners. Heterosexual transmission has gained importance in the epidemic in Central America. To our knowledge, no study addressing knowledge of mechanisms of HIV transmission and condom use has been done on HIV-positive heterosexual men and women. Methods A closed-ended structured interview that addressed knowledge of mechanisms of HIV transmission and condom use was conducted on 283 heterosexual HIV-positive men (54.8% and women (45.2% outpatients who attend the Roosevelt Hospital's Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Guatemala City. Differences between selected characteristics were examined for significance using the Chi-square test. A multiple logistic regression was done to determine socio-demographic variables associated with inconsistent condom use. Results Of the interviewed persons, 68.5% were either living with a partner or married, and 94.3% were currently using antiretroviral therapy. Most respondents knew the mechanisms of transmission of HIV. 81.7% and 87.3% reported always using a condom with their regular and casual sexual partner in the past year, respectively. There was no statistically difference in condom use according to the patient's formal education, gender, type of partner (regular or casualor number of sexual partners. According to the interviewees, 72% of sexual partners in the past year were either HIV negative or of an unknown serostatus. Potentially, these HIV-negative persons are at risk of contracting the virus. Among the main reasons given for not using a condom were: "my partner did not want to use a condom"; and "the condom irritates or makes my partner uncomfortable". Conclusions Since no socio-demographic or sexual behavior

  9. Circolazione troposferica e stratosferica media mensile e stagionale per l'analisi co .... ente della circolazione dell' alta stratosfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MONTALTO

    1962-06-01

    Full Text Available La scarsità di dati a livelli superiori a 100 mb rende finora praticamenteimpossibile l'analisi sinottica della circolazione nell'alta stratosfera,a meno di sostituire i dati mancanti con altri estrapolati. Lo studio preliminaredelle circolazioni mensili e stagionali nella troposfera, nella bassa emedia stratosfera e nell'alta stratosfera ha rivelato che esse sono in certomodo interdipendenti. Ciò è posto qualitativamente in evidenza, ad esempio,dalla corrispondenza dei cunei e delle saceature delle configurazionibariclie dell'alta stratosfera con le aree oceaniche e continentali dell'EmisferoNord. Considerandole correnti a getto come sintesi delle grandi perturbazionidell'alta troposfera atte ad influire sulla struttura e circolazionedell'alta stratosfera, le conclusioni precedenti mi hanno indotto a programmareuna classificazione della struttura e della circolazione osservate, suciascuna delle stazioni aerologiche Mediterranee, in relazione alla loro posizionerispetto alle correnti a getto, onde reperire sperimentalmente le formuleche consentano una logica estrapolazione delle osservazioni correnti ai livellidesiderati.

  10. Autocuidado do cuidador familiar de adultos ou idosos dependentes após a alta hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibely Rabaça Dias da Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma compreensão sobre o autocuidado do cuidador familiar segundo a teoria de Dorothea Orem. Resulta de uma pesquisa qualitativa com aporte da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados, utilizando-se das técnicas de visita domiciliar, registro de notas de campo e entrevista semiestruturada com 11 cuidadores, após a internação de familiar em um Hospital Universitário de Minas Gerais. Foram obtidas quatro categorias, destacando uma categoria central, em torno da qual se analisaram as facilidades, dificuldades e estratégias para o autocuidado do cuidador. Entre as dificuldades, foram evidenciadas: tempo insuficiente para os cuidados com a saúde e, entre as facilidades, o apoio de outros familiares. As principais estratégias foram: apoio na fé; revezamento nos cuidados e recursos na comunidade. Concluiu-se que orientações no momento da alta e o acompanhamento de enfermagem após a alta contribuem para o autocuidado do cuidador, atuando sobre suas dificuldades e estimulando suas potencialidades.

  11. Biological Control of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Guatemala by Means of Augmentative Releases of Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project initiated four years ago (in 1993) due to interest manifested by local program managers for developing new strategies in the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied) 'medfly'. Two species of fruit fly parasitoids were studied, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmed) and Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Decameron). Work plans for this project concentrated on: 1) rearing of parasitoids, 2) shipping of parasitized pupae, 3) packing and handling of parasitized pupae, 4) handling and feeding of adult parasitoids, 5) releasing of adult parasitoids, 6) monitoring of medfly population (trapping and fruit sampling, 7) training of personnel at all levels. All field work in this project was conducted in the coffee area of Guatemala, near the Mexican border. The first part of the project allowed to determine that Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Decameron), was the more suitable candidate for fruit fly control under the local conditions. Second part of the project confirmed the efficacy of Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Decameron) as a control agent against the medfly in the coffee area in this part of the country. Current activities in this project include: 1) colony maintenance for Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and Diachasmimorpha tryoni, 2) colony introduction/establishment of three new species of parasitoids, for each of the three vulnerable stages (ie. egg, larvae and pupae). Small scale rearing for these parasitoids has been carried out under quarantine conditions. (author)

  12. Do grandparents compete with or support their grandchildren? In Guatemala, paternal grandmothers may compete, and maternal grandmothers may cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paula; Sear, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that the presence of grandparents, particularly grandmothers, is often positively associated with child survival. Little research has explored the potential mechanisms driving these associations. We use data from rural Guatemala to test whether contact with and direct investment (advice and financial) from grandparents is associated with child health, proxied by height. Our results demonstrate the complexity of family relationships and their influence on child health, suggesting that both cooperative and competitive relationships exist within the family. The clearest evidence we find for grandparental influence is that having a living paternal grandmother tends to be negatively associated with child height. By contrast, contact with maternal kin appears broadly to be beneficial for child height, although these relationships are weaker. These patterns are mirrored in maternal body mass index, suggesting grandparental influence acts partly through maternal health. These findings support the hypotheses that, under conditions of limited resources, family relationships may be competitive within the family lineage which shares the same resource base, but cooperative when there are few costs to cooperation. Finally, financial assistance from maternal grandfathers is positively correlated with infant length but negatively with the height of older children, perhaps because the receipt of financial support is an indication of need. The provision of advice shows no associations with child height. PMID:27152221

  13. Do grandparents compete with or support their grandchildren? In Guatemala, paternal grandmothers may compete, and maternal grandmothers may cooperate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paula; Sear, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has found that the presence of grandparents, particularly grandmothers, is often positively associated with child survival. Little research has explored the potential mechanisms driving these associations. We use data from rural Guatemala to test whether contact with and direct investment (advice and financial) from grandparents is associated with child health, proxied by height. Our results demonstrate the complexity of family relationships and their influence on child health, suggesting that both cooperative and competitive relationships exist within the family. The clearest evidence we find for grandparental influence is that having a living paternal grandmother tends to be negatively associated with child height. By contrast, contact with maternal kin appears broadly to be beneficial for child height, although these relationships are weaker. These patterns are mirrored in maternal body mass index, suggesting grandparental influence acts partly through maternal health. These findings support the hypotheses that, under conditions of limited resources, family relationships may be competitive within the family lineage which shares the same resource base, but cooperative when there are few costs to cooperation. Finally, financial assistance from maternal grandfathers is positively correlated with infant length but negatively with the height of older children, perhaps because the receipt of financial support is an indication of need. The provision of advice shows no associations with child height. PMID:27152221

  14. An assessment of hydrothermal alteration in the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala: implications for dome collapse hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jessica L.; Calder, Eliza S.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Bernstein, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    A combination of field mapping, geochemistry, and remote sensing methods has been employed to determine the extent of hydrothermal alteration and assess the potential for failure at the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala. The 90-year-old complex of four lava domes has only experienced relatively small and infrequent dome collapses in the past, which were associated with lava extrusion. However, existing evidence of an active hydrothermal system coupled with intense seasonal precipitation also presents ideal conditions for instability related to weakened clay-rich edifice rocks. Mapping of the Santiaguito dome complex identified structural features related to dome growth dynamics, potential areas of weakness related to erosion, and locations of fumarole fields. X-ray diffraction and backscattered electron images taken with scanning electron microscopy of dacite and ash samples collected from around fumaroles revealed only minor clay films, and little evidence of alteration. Mineral mapping using ASTER and Hyperion satellite images, however, suggest low-temperature (hydrothermal alteration on the dome complex appears to be restricted to surficial deposits of hydrous silica, but the study has highlighted, importantly, that the 1902 eruption crater headwall of Santa María does show more advanced argillic alteration. We also cannot rule out the possibility of advanced alteration within the dome complex interior that is not accessible to the methods used here. It may therefore be prudent to employ geophysical methods to make further assessments in the future.

  15. Two Holocene paleofire records from Peten, Guatemala: Implications for natural fire regime and prehispanic Maya land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lysanna; Wahl, David

    2016-03-01

    Although fire was arguably the primary tool used by the Maya to alter the landscape and extract resources, little attention has been paid to biomass burning in paleoenvironmental reconstructions from the Maya lowlands. Here we report two new well-dated, high-resolution records of biomass burning based on analysis of macroscopic fossil charcoal recovered from lacustrine sediment cores. The records extend from the early Holocene, through the full arc of Maya prehistory, the Colonial, and post-Colonial periods (~ 9000 cal yr BP to the present). (Hereafter BP) The study sites, Lago Paixban and Lago Puerto Arturo, are located in northern Peten, Guatemala. Results provide the first quantitative analysis from the region demonstrating that frequent fires have occurred in the closed canopy forests since at least the early Holocene (~ 9000 BP), prior to occupation by sedentary agriculturalists. Following the arrival of agriculture around 4600 BP, the system transitioned from climate controlled to anthropogenic control. During the Maya period, changes in fire regime are muted and do not appear to be driven by changes in climate conditions. Low charcoal influx and fire frequency in the Earliest Preclassic period suggest that land use strategies may have included intensive agriculture much earlier than previously thought. Preliminary results showing concentrations of soot/black-carbon during the middle and late Preclassic periods are lower than modern background values, providing intriguing implications regarding the efficiency of Maya fuel consumption.

  16. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey Conducted Three Years after Halting Ivermectin Mass Treatment for Onchocerciasis in Guatemala.

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    Frank O Richards

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA with ivermectin for onchocerciasis was provided in Guatemala's Central Endemic Zone (CEZ over a 24 year period (1988-2011. Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission was declared in 2015 after a three year post MDA surveillance period (2012-2014 showed no evidence of recrudescence. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP towards onchocerciasis and ivermectin among residents in the post endemic CEZ. A major interest in this study was to determine what community residents thought about the end of the ivermectin MDA program.A total of 148 interviews were conducted in November 2014 in four formerly hyperendemic communities using a standard questionnaire on smart phones. The majority (69% of respondents knew that the MDA program had ended because the disease was no longer present in their communities, but a slight majority (53% was personally unsure that onchocerciasis had really been eliminated. Sixty-three percent wanted to continue to receive ivermectin because of this uncertainty, or because ivermectin is effective against intestinal worms. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that they would seek medical attention immediately if a family member had symptoms of onchocerciasis (especially the presence of a nodule, which is a finding very important for ongoing surveillance.Many respondents wanted to continue receive ivermectin and more than half did not believe onchocerciasis had been eliminated. The ministry of health outreach services should be prepared to address ongoing concerns about onchocerciasis in the post endemic CEZ.

  17. Self-rated health among Mayan women participating in a randomised intervention trial reducing indoor air pollution in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Kirk R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor air pollution (IAP from solid fuels is a serious health problem in low-income countries that can be alleviated using improved stoves. Although women are the principal users, few studies have investigated the self-assessed impact of the stoves on their health and lives. Methods This study was conducted in rural highland Guatemala, involving 89 intervention and 80 control Mayan Indian young women (mean 27.8 years, SD 7.2. Outcomes were assessed after approximately 18 months use of the new stove. Our objectives were to compare self-rated health and change in health among women participating in a randomised control trial comparing a chimney stove with an open fire, to describe impacts on women's daily lives and their perceptions of how reduced kitchen smoke affects their own and their children's health. Results On intention-to-treat analysis, 52.8% of intervention women reported improvement in health, compared to 23.8% of control women (p Conclusion Women's perception of their health was improved, but although smoke reduction was valued, this was linked mainly with alleviation of non-respiratory symptoms like eye discomfort and headache. More focus on such symptoms may help in promoting demand for improved stoves and cleaner fuels, but education about more severe consequences of IAP exposure is also required.

  18. Availability, prices and affordability of the World Health Organization’s essential medicines for children in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Several World Health Organization (WHO) initiatives aim to improve the accessibility of safe and effective medicines for children. A first step in achieving this goal is to obtain a baseline measure of access to essential medicines. The objective of this project was to measure the availability, prices, and affordability of children’s medicines in Guatemala. Methods An adaption of the standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International (HAI) was used to conduct a cross sectional survey to collect data on availability and final patient prices of medicines in public and private sector medicine outlets during April and May of 2010. Results A subset of the public sector, Programa de Accesibilidad a los Medicamentos (PROAM), had the lowest average availability (25%) compared to the private sector (35%). In the private sector, highest and lowest priced medicines were 22.7 and 10.7 times more expensive than their international reference price comparison. Treatments were generally unaffordable, costing as much as 15 days wages for a course of ceftriaxone. Conclusions Analysis of the procurement, supply and distribution of specific medicines is needed to determine reasons for lack of availability. Improvements to accessibility could be made by developing an essential medicines list for children and including these medicines in national purchasing lists. PMID:22747646

  19. Historical and modern medicinal plant uses--the example of the Ch'orti' Maya and Ladinos in Eastern Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufer, Johanna; Förther, Harald; Pöll, Elfriede; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. Particularly in developing countries such remedies still are an indispensable resource for everyday health care. They form the basis for numerous studies on drugs from natural sources. Like other indigenous groups across the world, the Ch'orti' Maya in Eastern Guatemala are currently experiencing a phase of dramatic cultural change, with their traditional knowledge about plants being in great danger of disappearing. During 17 months of fieldwork, medicinal plant uses were documented using a semi-quantitative approach and analysed using ethnopharmacological methods. The most important groups of illnesses treated with plants were gastrointestinal complaints and illnesses associated with pain and fever. Field data were compared with mostly unpublished historical data collected in the 1930s by the anthropologist Charles Wisdom. This comparison showed that medicinal plant uses that are more consistent over time are also shared by a larger number of people. A literature search on the most frequently mentioned medicinal plants showed that, even for widely used medicinal species, phytochemical and pharmacological data are insufficient for fully understanding their therapeutic profile. Whereas a few examples of potentially dangerous practices were encountered, the limited amount of information available mostly supports local medicinal plant usage. PMID:16105234

  20. Integrating science and education during an international, multi-parametric investigation of volcanic activity at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Johnson, Jeffrey; Andrews, Benjamin; Wolf, Rudiger; Rose, William; Chigna, Gustavo; Pineda, Armand

    2016-04-01

    In January 2016, we held the first scientific/educational Workshops on Volcanoes (WoV). The workshop took place at Santiaguito volcano - the most active volcano in Guatemala. 69 international scientists of all ages participated in this intensive, multi-parametric investigation of the volcanic activity, which included the deployment of seismometers, tiltmeters, infrasound microphones and mini-DOAS as well as optical, thermographic, UV and FTIR cameras around the active vent. These instruments recorded volcanic activity in concert over a period of 3 to 9 days. Here we review the research activities and present some of the spectacular observations made through this interdisciplinary efforts. Observations range from high-resolution drone and IR footage of explosions, monitoring of rock falls and quantification of the erupted mass of different gases and ash, as well as morphological changes in the dome caused by recurring explosions (amongst many other volcanic processes). We will discuss the success of such integrative ventures in furthering science frontiers and developing the next generation of geoscientists.

  1. Does consumption of processed foods explain disparities in the body weight of individuals? The case of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay

    2011-02-01

    Overweight/obesity, caused by the 'nutrition transition', is identified as one of the leading risk factors for non-communicable mortality. The nutrition transition in developing countries is associated with a major shift from the consumption of staple crops and whole grains to highly and partially processed foods. This study examines the contribution of processed foods consumption to the prevalence of overweight/obesity in Guatemala using generalized methods of moments (GMM) regression. The results show that all other things remaining constant, a 10% point increase in the share of partially processed foods from the total household food expenditure increases the BMI of family members (aged 10 years and above) by 3.95%. The impact of highly processed foods is much stronger. A 10% point increase in the share of highly processed food items increases the BMI of individuals by 4.25%, ceteris paribus. The results are robust when body weight is measured by overweight/obesity indicators. These findings suggest that increasing shares of partially and highly processed foods from the total consumption expenditure could be one of the major risk factors for the high prevalence of overweight/obesity in the country. PMID:20029821

  2. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, A; Lopez, B R; Giron, M A; Logemann, H

    1991-03-01

    Skin infections are common diseases in developing countries, of which dermatophytoses are of particular concern in the tropics, especially in infants. Through ethnobotanical surveys and literature review 100 plants were detected as being used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytoses. Of these, 44 plants were screened for in vitro activity against the most common dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum). Results showed that aqueous extracts from 22 of the plants tested inhibit one or more of the dermatophytes. The most commonly inhibited dermatophytes were E. floccosum (43.2%), T. rubrum (36.0%), and T. mentagrophytes (31.8%); the less inhibited were M. canis (22.7%) and M. gypseum (24.0%). Plants of American origin which exhibited anti-dermatophyte activity were: Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Cassia occidentalis, Diphysa carthagenensis, Gliricidia sepium, Piscidia piscipula, Sambucus mexicana, Smilax regelii, Solanum americanum and Solanum nigrescens. Fungicidal and fungistatic activities as well as the minimal inhibitory concentration were demonstrated. These results provide a scientific basis for the use of these plants for the treatment of dermatophyte infections in man. PMID:2056755

  3. Impacto del tratamiento por pulsos eléctricos de alta intensidad y altas presiones hidrostáticas sobre la calidad y seguridad microbiológica de un alimento mezcla de zumo de naranja y leche

    OpenAIRE

    Sampedro Parra, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    [Español]: La creciente demanda de alimentos con características lo más parecidas al producto fresco, está impulsando el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías "no térmicas" de conservación. Dentro de las más prometedoras se encuentran el tratamiento por Pulsos Eléctricos de Alta Intensidad (PEF) y la tecnología de Altas Presiones Hidrostáticas (HHP). Estas tecnologías permiten conservar, en mayor medida que los tratamientos térmicos, la calidad (sabor, aroma, color y vitaminas) de determinados ali...

  4. Luxómetro medidor de enfoque para señal alta de lámpara de ferrocarril

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez García, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Ante la complejidad para la correcta instalación y verificación de las Señales Altas de Lámpara para Ferrocarril. Nace un proyecto cuyo objetivo es medir la Iluminancia de los focos de las Señales Altas y calcular el enfoque correcto de la señal. Para ello se estudio el mejor sistema para determinar la verificación de un foco de Señal Alta. Se ha logrado diseñar y construir un Luxómetro capaz de medir el enfoque de la señal. Para llevar a cabo este fin, se ha diseña...

  5. EL COLAPSO DEL CLÁSICO TARDÍO ENTRE LOS MAYAS DE UAXACTÚN (GUATEMALA Y BARTON RAMIE (BELICE SEGÚN EL REGISTRO FUNERARIO (The Late Classic Collapse among the Maya of Uaxactun, Guatemala and Barton Ramie, Belize according to the Mortuary Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación del método de valoración contextual al análisis del registro funerario de Uaxactún (Guatemala y Barton Ramie (Belice aporta evidencias irrefutables sobre la huella material del colapso clásico en las ofrendas de los entierros mayas. Esto confirma lo que ya se había anticipado al estudiar la cuenca del río Balsas en México (2014. ENGLISH: Application of the contextual valuation method to the mortuary analysis of Uaxactun, Guatemala and Barton Ramie, Belize provides irrefutable evidence on the Classic Maya collapse recorded in the grave goods of these burials. This confirms what was already anticipated by studying the Balsas River basin in Mexico.

  6. Mejoramiento genético para tolerancia a altas temperaturas y resistencia a mosaico dorado en frijol común

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Rosas; Aracely Castro; James S. Beaver; Carlos A. P\\u00E9rez; Adri\\u00E1n Morales; Rogelio Lepiz

    2000-01-01

    Mejoramiento genético para tolerancia a altas temperaturas y resistencia a mosaico dorado en frijol común. Entre 1994-95 se identificaron fuentes de frijol tolerantes a altas temperaturas mediante la evaluación de germoplasma y líneas mejoradas en Choluteca y Nacaome (≤ 50 msnm), en la región Sur de Honduras. La tolerancia al calor de los mejores genotipos fue confirmada en Geneva, Nueva York, EE.UU., bajo condiciones de invernadero con temperatura controlada (35...

  7. Factores de riesgo de la Hemorragia Gastrointestinal Alta. Un estudio multicéntrico de casos y controles

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado Barreira, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: La hemorragia gastrointestinal alta (HGIA) es una causa común de hospitalización con alta morbilidad, mortalidad y costes. Se considera una patología multicausal en la que pueden intervenir diferentes factores en su aparición. En este trabajo se ha evaluado el riesgo de HGIA asociado a diferentes factores de riesgo y sus interacciones. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en cuatro hospitales españoles. Incluyendo como casos los sujetos con HGIA diagnosticada p...

  8. Desempenho genotípico de linhagens de arroz de terras altas utilizando metodologia de modelos mistos

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderley Borges; Antonio Alves Soares; Moizés Souza Reis; Marcos Deon Vilela de Resende; Vanda Maria Oliveira Cornélio; Natália Alves Leite; Antonio Rodrigues Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Avaliou-se o desempenho de genótipos de arroz de terras altas utilizando metodologia de modelos mistos. Foram utilizados dados de produtividade de grãos dos ensaios de valor de cultivo e uso (VCU) do programa cooperativo de melhoramento de arroz de terras altas, desenvolvido em Minas Gerais, no período de 1997/1998 a 2007/2008. Realizou-se análise de deviance para verificar a significância dos efeitos de genótipos e suas interações com locais e anos, obtendo-se a estabilidade e a adaptabilida...

  9. Malária pulmonar: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução - relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Rosana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é relatado o caso de paciente do sexo masculino, de 38 anos de idade, que desenvolveu quadro de malária com comprometimento pulmonar. A tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução evidenciou espessamento de septos interlobulares e de bainhas peribroncovasculares, com áreas esparsas de atenuação em vidro fosco e de consolidações, além de derrame pleural bilateral, aspectos compatíveis com edema pulmonar. O paciente recebeu tratamento específico, evoluindo bem e tendo alta 11 dias após a internação.

  10. Malária pulmonar: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução - relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Rosana; Marchiori Edson; Souza Daniel Andrade Tinoco de

    2004-01-01

    Neste trabalho é relatado o caso de paciente do sexo masculino, de 38 anos de idade, que desenvolveu quadro de malária com comprometimento pulmonar. A tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução evidenciou espessamento de septos interlobulares e de bainhas peribroncovasculares, com áreas esparsas de atenuação em vidro fosco e de consolidações, além de derrame pleural bilateral, aspectos compatíveis com edema pulmonar. O paciente recebeu tratamento específico, evoluindo bem e tendo alta 11 di...

  11. Diseño de un programa de intervención con alumnos de altas capacidades: Optimismo

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez San José, Bárbara

    2015-01-01

    Este documento presenta un proyecto de intervención para favorecer el optimismo en alumnos con altas capacidades en edades comprendidas entre 12 y 16 años. En un primer momento se han expuesto los objetivos a conseguir con este trabajo. Seguidamente, se han definido con los conceptos de altas capacidades y de optimismo y sentido positivo. Así mismo, se ha explicado en qué contexto y que objetivos tendrá el programa de intervención de optimismo en sí, y se ha desarrollado con diversas activida...

  12. Perfil y necesidades de alumnos universitarios con altas capacidades en la Universidad de Málaga. Datos iniciales

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Molina, Milagros

    2016-01-01

    La investigación sobre la presencia en las Universidad de alumnos con altas capacidades intelectuales es muy escasa, constituyendo un tema de estudio de importante proyección. Apenas hay publicaciones o informes sobre el acceso a los estudios superiores del alumnado con alta capacidad, el perfil personal e intelectual que presenta, las necesidades que tiene durante su trayectoria universitaria, la tasa de abandonos o de éxito en los estudios universitarios que elige, etc. En este trabajo se p...

  13. Diseño y estudio de viabilidad de una planta depuradora mediante lagunas de alta carga

    OpenAIRE

    Fructuoso Martín, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Diseño y es tudio de viabilidad de planta depuradora Marc Fructuoso Martín mediante lagunas de alta carga Curso 2014 - 2015 1 Resumen La s lagunas de alta carga (HRAP) son una versión mejorada del sistema de depuración de aguas con lagunaje tradicional. A caballo entre las propiedades de las lagunas tradicionales y las estaciones depuradoras de agua residual (EDARs) convencionales, las HRAP ofrecen una depuración igual de eficiente que tratamien...

  14. The effects of land use change on mercury distribution in soils of Alta Floresta, Southern Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the spatial distribution, degree of contamination and storage capacity of Hg in surface forest and pasture soils from Alta Floresta, Southern Amazon, a significant gold mining site from 1980 to 1996. During that period, average annual gold production was about 6.5 tons, with an estimated Hg annual emission to the environment of about 8.8 tons, 60-80% of it being emitted to the atmosphere. Mercury sources to the region are mining sites and gold-dealer shops at the city of Alta Floresta, where gold is smelted and commercialized. Mercury concentrations in forest soils (15-248 ng g-1, average=61.9 ng g-1) were 1.5-3.0 times higher than in pasture soils (10-74 ng g-1, average=33.8 ng g-1), suggesting strong re-mobilization after deforestation. Highest Hg concentrations were found within a distance of 20-30 km from mining sites in both soil types. The influence of the refining operations within the city of Alta Floresta, however, was less clear. Somewhat higher concentrations were observed only within a 5 km radius from the city center where gold-dealer shops are located. Wind direction controls the spatial distribution of Hg. Background concentrations (15-50 ng g-1) were generally found at the outer perimeter of the sampling grid, about 40 km from sources. This suggests that Hg released from mining and refining activities undergoes rapid deposition. Estimated cumulative Hg burdens for the first 10 cm of soil averaged 8.3 mg m-2 and 4.9 mg m-2, for forest and pasture soils respectively and compare well with ultisols and hydromorphic oxisols, but were lower than those found in yellow-red and yellow latosols and podsols from other Amazonian areas. Our results show that changing land use in the Amazon is a strong re-mobilizing agent of Hg deposited on soils from the atmosphere. - Land use change is a strong re-mobilizing agent of Hg distribution in Amazon soils

  15. Determining adult type 2 diabetes-related health care needs in an indigenous population from rural Guatemala: a mixed-methods preliminary study

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    Chary Anita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Guatemala, diabetes is an emerging public health concern. Guatemala has one of the largest indigenous populations in Latin America, and this population frequently does not access the formal health care system. Therefore, knowledge about the emergence of diabetes in this population is limited. Methods Interview participants (n=23 were recruited from a convenience sample of indigenous adults with type 2 diabetes at one rural diabetes clinic in Guatemala. A structured interview was used to assess knowledge about diabetes and its complications; access to diabetes-related health care and treatment; dietary and lifestyle changes; and family and social supports for individuals living with diabetes. Interviews were supplemented with two group interviews with community leaders and health care providers. Thematic analysis was used to produce insights into diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and practices. In addition, a chart review of the clinic’s electronic medical record identified all adult patients (n=80 presenting in one calendar year for a first-time diabetic consultation. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were extracted and summarized from these records. Results Salient demographic factors in both the structured interview and chart review samples included low educational levels and high indigenous language preference. In the interview sample, major gaps in biomedical knowledge about diabetes included understanding the causes, chronicity, and long-term end-organ complications of diabetes. Medication costs, medical pluralism, and limited social supports for dietary and lifestyles changes were major practical barriers to disease management. Quantitative data from medical records review revealed high rates of poor glycemic control, overweight and obesity, and medication prescription. Conclusions This study provides a preliminary sketch of type 2 diabetes in an indigenous Guatemalan population. Combined qualitative and

  16. Erupción del Volcán Fuego (Guatemala, 1974): ¿Evidencia de una Fragmentación Terciaria?

    OpenAIRE

    José Brenes-André

    2014-01-01

    Los valores de moda y dispersión obtenidos a partir de la SFT para la erupción del volcán Fuego (Guatemala, 1974) fueron analizados con ayuda del modelo SFT (Sequential Fragmentation/Transport). Los resultados del análisis muestran que las ideas inicialmente desarrolladas para el Irazú, pueden aplicarse también al volcán Fuego. Así mismo, se encontró evidencia experimental que corrobora la existencia de fragmentaciones terciarias (definidas en el texto).

  17. Territorios indígenas en frontera: Los Chuj en el período liberal (1871-1944) en la frontera Guatemala-México

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Piedrasanta Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Se presenta el caso del pueblo maya chuj y su territorio, localizados en la frontera México-Guatemala, centrándose en el período liberal guatemalteco (1871-1944). Durante el mismo se produce una reconformación espacial regional que para los Chuj supondrá la pérdida de tierras y derechos a partir de varios procesos impulsados desde el Estado guatemalteco. A ello se suma el control del poder local municipal a partir del rol jugado por la población ladina (mestizos de recursos bajos o medios), q...

  18. Expandiendo la reforma en la capacitación de docentes en Guatemala: El rol de los procesos de pensamiento de los maestros.

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo J. Artiles; Margaret D. Clark

    1996-01-01

    El gobierno de Guatemala se ha embarcado en un ambicioso proyecto de reforma educativa que incluye la descentralización del sistema educativo y la adecuación curricular. El análisis de dicha reforma, en particular la relacionada con la capacitación de docentes, indica que la definición y roles del docente deben ampliar su foco conceptual y ubicarse dentro de un marco constructivista y evolutivo. Para ilustrar nuestra tesis, presentamos una revisión de la literatura en el área de proc...

  19. Nomenclatural notes and identification of small-eared shrews (Mammalia: genus Cryptotis) from Cobán, Guatemala, in The Natural History Museum, London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    A small series of shrews collected in Guatemala and registered in the British Museum between 1843 and 1907 includes parts of type series for three species: Corsira tropicalis Gray (1843), Sorex micrurus Tomes (1862), and Blarina tropicalis Merriam (1895). These three names are now considered equivalent, but my recent review of the specimens comprising the series indicates that they include three distinct species: Cryptotis merriami Choate (1970), Cryptotis oreoryctes Woodman (2011), and Cryptotis tropicalis (Merriam 1895). I review the taxonomic history of these specimens, provide current identifications tied directly to museum register numbers, describe how to distinguish the three species, and provide revised synonymies for these species.

  20. Intervención educativa de hipertensión gestacional en mujeres de edad fértil. Guatemala, febrero – abril 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Niurka Pérez González; Mario Enrique Pla Acebedo; Cristina Vázquez Alvarado; Nirma Albuerne Aguilera; Noelia Escobar Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de intervención comunitaria en 45 pacientes escogidas por muestreo aleatorio simple, en el municipio de Joyabaj, perteneciente al departamento de Quiche en Guatemala, durante el período comprendido entre febrero y abril de 2008, con el propósito de modificar los conocimientos de estas pacientes con relación al nivel de conocimientos que las mismas poseían sobre hipertensión gestacional. Se aplicaron dos encuestas, una al inicio y otra al final de la intervención, a travé...