WorldWideScience

Sample records for alps

  1. ALP - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003470.htm ALP - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. ...

  2. Trans-Alps neutrinos

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "A beam of neutrinos manufactured at CERN shot through the Alps for the first time on 18 August. The beam will feed two neutrino oscillation experiments 730km away at the Gran Sasso National Laobratory near Rome, Italy." (1 page)

  3. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paget's disease or other bone conditions, such as vitamin D deficiency. If ALP results are increased but ... be seen temporarily after blood transfusions or heart bypass surgery. A deficiency in zinc may cause decreased ...

  4. Hot Alps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, F.; Minelli, L.; Pignatelli, A.; Gilardi, M.

    2013-12-01

    Although it is frequently assumed that crust of Alpine orogens is hot due to the occurrence of thick and young (hence radiogenic) crust, evidence on the thermal ranking of orogens is contradictory. Heat flow measurements from shallow wells (depth ≤ 1 km) in the Alps yield a relatively cold thermal regime of 50-80 mW/m2, but data are likely biased by meteoric cold-water circulation. Here we report on the spectral analysis of the aeromagnetic residuals of northern Italy to derive the Curie point depth (CPD), assumed to represent the 600°C isotherm depth. Airborne magnetics were acquired on whole Italy during the 1970s by the national oil company AGIP (now Eni). Data were gathered by several surveys carried out at 1000-13,300 feet (300-4000 m) altitude, with flight line spacing of 2-10 km. Surveys of the Alps and Po Plain (northern Italy) were obtained both with a line spacing of 5 km (and 5 km tie lines), at an altitude of 4000-5000 and 13,300 feet, respectively. To evaluate CPDs we used the centroid method (routinely adopted in recent CPD studies on East Asia and central-southern Europe) on 72 square windows of 100-110 km edge, with a 50% degree of superposition. CPDs vary between 16 and 38 km (22 km on average) in the Po Plain, located south of the Alps and representing the Adriatic-African foreland area. Conversely, the Alps yield very shallow CPDs, ranging between 6 and 15 km (10 km on average). CPDs fall systematically above local Moho depths, implying that magnetic source bottoms documented in this study do not represent a lithological boundary over non-magnetic peridotitic mantle, but can be safely associated with CPDs and the 600°C isotherm. CPDs from the Po Plain are in rough agreement with reported heat flow values of 25-60 mW/m2, and imply and average thermal conductivity (k) of the Po Plain crust of 1.5 W/m°K, at the lower bound of k values measured and inferred for the crust. Conversely, the average 10 km CPD documented in the Alps translates into

  5. ALPS: Advanced Learning Packages, 1978-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan Unified School District, Carmichael, CA.

    The document describes the ALPS (Advanced Learning Packages) program for teaching gifted students. Introductory materials provide information on teacher requirements, school requirements, ALPS teacher orientation responsibilities, orientation week, field trip procedures, gifted money available, ALPS costs, ALPS evaluations, the Structure of…

  6. Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Robert

    The Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS) aims to reach eight and a half million adults between ages 25 and 44 and teach them reading and math skills they can use at home and on the job. ALPS proposes to reach those who have never finished high school but do have at least a sixth-grade reading level. They could use their new skills to prepare for…

  7. Any Light Particle Search (ALPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Aaron; Any Light Particle Search (ALPS) Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    High power laser fields enabled by technologies developed for ground-based gravitational-wave observatories open up new opportunities for fundamental physics studies. One of these options is the search for axions and axion-like particles in a pure laboratory experiment. The axion is a solution to the strong CP-problem and a potential dark matter candidate. The axion has also been proposed as an additional channel to cool stars as well as a potential explanation for the TeV transparency problem. The German-US ALPS collaboration is setting up a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment at DESY. LSW experiments are based on the simple idea that a high power laser field traversing a static magnetic field will transform partly into a relativistic axion field. This axion field will travel through an opaque wall into a second static magnetic field region where it turns partly back into an electromagnetic wave field with the same frequency as the laser. The ALPS collaboration is working towards a large scale LSW experiment at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. I will report on the status of the ALPS experiment. This work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, PRISMA, the Helmholtz Association, the National Science Foundation and the Heising-Simons Foundation.

  8. ALPES: an advanced logic programming environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruggieri

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a software programming environment for an extended Prolog language, called ALPES. The purpose of ALPES is to enable a logic programming paradigm to become a software engineering tool to design, develop and prototype traditional software systems, as well as artificial intelligence applications. The key structuring concepts for programs, as well as for the system architecture as a whole are those of contexts, processes and communication. The software design and development methodologies induced by the use of the Alpes-Prolog language have been incrementally used to develop the environment itself. This research was conducted under the Esprit projects P973 (ALPES.

  9. Status of the ALPS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus

    2008-12-19

    The ALPS experiment at DESY searches for light particles which are coupling very weakly to photons. Primary physics goal is the search for axion like particles in a photon regeneration experiment. Central part of the experimental setup is a five Tesla strong superconducting HERA dipole magnet. During two operation periods in the years 2007 and 2008 we have collected first data and explored the sensitivity of the setup. A Fabry Perot laser cavity is being set up in order to increase the sensitivity by more than one order of magnitude. (orig.)

  10. 13 CFR 120.840 - Accredited Lenders Program (ALP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accredited Lenders Program (ALP... Development Company Loan Program (504) Accredited Lenders Program (alp) § 120.840 Accredited Lenders Program (ALP). (a) General. Under the ALP program, SBA designates qualified CDCs as ALP CDCs, gives...

  11. Updated Understanding of Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Huang, Ping; Yang, Ye; Hao, Mu; Peng, Hongwei; Li, Fei

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), a disorder characterized by immune dysregulation due to disrupted lymphocyte homeostasis, is mainly resulted from the mutations in FAS-mediated apoptotic pathway. In addition, other mutations of the genes such as Fas-ligand (FASLG), Caspase 10 (CASP10) and Caspase 8 (CASP8), NRAS and KRAS have also been observed in a small number of patients with ALPS or ALPS-related disorders. However, approximately 20-30% of patients with ALPS have unidentified defect. Its clinical manifestations observed in multiple family members include unexplained lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune cytopenias such as thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia due to excessive production of antibodies by lymphocytes, elevated number of double-negative T (DNT) cells, and increased risk of lymphoma. As a very rare disease, ALPS was first characterized in the early 1990s. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have been reported till now; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years. ALPS has historically considered as a primary immune defect presenting in early childhood, however, recent studies have shown that it may be more common than previous thought because adult onset presentation is increasingly becoming recognized and more adult ALPS patients are diagnosed. The new genetic and biological insights have improved the understanding of ALPS and a number of targeted therapeutic strategies such as mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, and pentostatin have been successfully applied in ALPS patients with promising treatment efficacy. This article comprehensively reviews the clinical and laboratory manifestations, new research advances in the molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatments of this disorder.

  12. 13 CFR 120.841 - Qualifications for the ALP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications for the ALP. 120... Development Company Loan Program (504) Accredited Lenders Program (alp) § 120.841 Qualifications for the ALP. An applicant for ALP status must show that it substantially meets the following criteria: (a)...

  13. 78 FR 29787 - ALPS ETF Trust, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... COMMISSION ALPS ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application May 14, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. APPLICANTS: ALPS ETF Trust (``Trust''), ALPS Advisors, Inc. (``Adviser''), and ALPS Distributors, Inc. (the ``Distributor''). SUMMARY: Summary of Application:...

  14. The Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) 2000-01: Student Participation and Effectiveness. ALP Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Nancy; Yaman, Kimberly; Lindblad, Mark

    The Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) is the major initiative that the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina, is using to help all students reach grade level performance in reading and mathematics. This report focuses on student participation rates and the impact of the ALP program. Data are from a variety of sources. In the…

  15. Updated Core Libraries of the ALPS Project

    CERN Document Server

    Gaenko, A; Carcassi, G; Chen, T; Chen, X; Dong, Q; Gamper, L; Gukelberger, J; Igarashi, R; Iskakov, S; Könz, M; LeBlanc, J P F; Levy, R; Ma, P N; Paki, J E; Shinaoka, H; Todo, S; Troyer, M; Gull, E

    2016-01-01

    The open source ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project provides a collection of physics libraries and applications, with a focus on simulations of lattice models and strongly correlated systems. The libraries provide a convenient set of well-documented and reusable components for developing condensed matter physics simulation code, and the applications strive to make commonly used and proven computational algorithms available to a non-expert community. In this paper we present an updated and refactored version of the core ALPS libraries geared at the computational physics software development community, rewritten with focus on documentation, ease of installation, and software maintainability.

  16. ALPS II technical overview and status report

    CERN Document Server

    Spector, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    The Any Light Particle Search II (ALPS II) is an experiment that utilizes the concept of resonant enhancement to improve on the sensitivity of traditional light shining through a wall style experiments. These experiments attempt to detect photons passing through an opaque wall by converting to relativistic weakly interacting sub-eV particles and then reconverting back to photons. ALPS II at DESY in Hamburg, Germany will use dually resonant optical cavities before and after the wall to increase the probability of this interaction occurring. This paper gives a technical overview and status report of the experiment.

  17. Clinical refinement of the automatic lung parameter estimator (ALPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Lars P; Karbing, Dan S; Smith, Bram W; Murley, David; Weinreich, Ulla M; Kjærgaard, Søren; Toft, Egon; Thorgaard, Per; Andreassen, Steen; Rees, Stephen E

    2013-06-01

    The automatic lung parameter estimator (ALPE) method was developed in 2002 for bedside estimation of pulmonary gas exchange using step changes in inspired oxygen fraction (FIO₂). Since then a number of studies have been conducted indicating the potential for clinical application and necessitating systems evolution to match clinical application. This paper describes and evaluates the evolution of the ALPE method from a research implementation (ALPE1) to two commercial implementations (ALPE2 and ALPE3). A need for dedicated implementations of the ALPE method was identified: one for spontaneously breathing (non-mechanically ventilated) patients (ALPE2) and one for mechanically ventilated patients (ALPE3). For these two implementations, design issues relating to usability and automation are described including the mixing of gasses to achieve FIO₂ levels, and the automatic selection of FIO₂. For ALPE2, these improvements are evaluated against patients studied using the system. The major result is the evolution of the ALPE method into two dedicated implementations, namely ALPE2 and ALPE3. For ALPE2, the usability and automation of FIO₂ selection has been evaluated in spontaneously breathing patients showing that variability of gas delivery is 0.3 % (standard deviation) in 1,332 breaths from 20 patients. Also for ALPE2, the automated FIO2 selection method was successfully applied in 287 patient cases, taking 7.2 ± 2.4 min and was shown to be safe with only one patient having SpO₂ < 86 % when the clinician disabled the alarms. The ALPE method has evolved into two practical, usable systems targeted at clinical application, namely ALPE2 for spontaneously breathing patients and ALPE3 for mechanically ventilated patients. These systems may promote the exploration of the use of more detailed descriptions of pulmonary gas exchange in clinical practice.

  18. European dimension of teaching about Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the basic elements of "Municipality network - connection in the Alps". It was a pilot project in 1997. Kranjska Gora was also included in the project according to the sustainable development and Alpine landscape protection guidelines. The results were some concrete projects.

  19. How to transfer knowledge across the Alps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pfefferkorn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CIPRA’s Future in the Alps Project aims at showcasing examples of successful implementation and successful projects in the Alps, and making available to others the extensive pool of experience and practical knowledge that lies in these projects. But how to transfer knowledge in an area of some 14 million inhabitants with several linguistic and cultural regions in which thousands of projects are carried out each year, that all kinds of players who work and life in completely different contexts are able to learn and benefit from one another? How do you go about something like that?Le projet « Avenir dans les Alpes » de la CIPRA (Commission Internationale pour la Protection des Alpes a pour objectif de présenter des exemples de réalisations et de projets réussis dans les Alpes, et de mettre à disposition du public l’ensemble de l’expérience et des connaissances pratiques acquises dans le cadre de ces projets. Cependant, comment transférer les savoirs dans une zone comptant quelque 14 millions d’habitants, composée de plusieurs régions linguistiques et culturelles dans lesquelles des milliers de projets sont menés à bien chaque année, et dont tous les acteurs, qui travaillent et vivent dans des contextes complètement différents, sont capables d’apprendre et de tirer profit les uns des autres ? Comment aborder ce genre de cas ?

  20. SALMON-TRINITY ALPS WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Preston E.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness in the Klamath Mountains province occupies an area of about 648 sq mi in parts of Trinity, Siskiyou, and Humboldt Counties, northwestern California. As a result of field studies it was determined that the Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness has an area with substantiated potential for gold resources in known lode deposits. Small amounts of quicksilver have been produced from one mine but there is little promise for the discovery of additional mercury resources. Geochemical sampling showed that anomalously high amounts of several other metals occur in a few places, but there is little promise for the discovery of energy or mineral resources other than mercury and gold.

  1. ALPASS: Teleseismic Tomography of the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckl, E.; Mitterbauer, U.; Lippitsch, R.; Behm, M.; ALPASS Working Group

    2007-12-01

    The Eastern Alps were formed by the north-south directed collision of the Adriatic (African) and European plates and a subsequent tectonic escape of crustal fragments to the unconstrained margin in the east, represented by the Pannonian Basin. Recent controlled source seismic experiments (TRANSALP, CELEBRATION 2000, and ALP 2002) revealed significant internal structures of the crust and the Moho topography. However, deeper plate tectonic structures (e.g. subducting slab) are still under debate. ALPASS is a passive seismic monitoring project aiming to reveal lower lithosphere and upper mantle beneath the wider Eastern Alpine region, and to contribute to a better understanding of the geodynamic processes at work. By cooperation of Austria, Croatia, Finland, Hungary, Poland, and USA 57 temporary seismic recording stations were deployed from May 2005 until May 2006. The layout was designed to extend the efforts of earlier experiments (e.g. TRANSALP) and to support two other passive seismic experiments (BOHEMA, Carpathian Basin Project), which are overlapping in the investigation area. Additionally, data from permanent networks was collected to improve coverage of the investigation area. 144 events (50% with M > 5.6) from epicentre distances between 30° and 100° were selected for teleseismic inversion. Travel time picking of P-wave arrivals has been done by a semi-automatic correlation technique. Crustal corrections benefit from the high resolution velocity model of the crust and the new Moho map derived from CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 data. First results of teleseismic inversion will be presented and discussed with respect to crustal structures revealed by the controlled source experiments, tomographic models generated during earlier studies, and their consequences for the conception of plate tectonics in the Eastern Alps.

  2. Holocene Glacier Fluctuations In The Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauser, H.

    The reconstruction of preindustrial glacier fluctuations in the Swiss Alps reveals the natural range of Holocene climate variability against which the present-day climatic situation can be judged. The results of very recent research on the Great Aletsch and Gorner Glaciers (Valaisian Alps), the Lower Grindelwald Glacier (Bernese Alps) shed light on the glacier fluctuations during the last 3200 years. These glaciers have, at max- imum extensions, penetrated below the timberline and have even reached inhabited areas resulting in sometimes massive destruction. Losses of buildings, woods and pas- tures are the conditions governing the methods used for the reconstruction of glacier length fluctuation through time. The main methods are: historical - the interpretation of pictorial and written historical records, glazio-archaeology - the search for anthro- pogenic traces that are directly related to changes in glacier size/length and scientific - the radiocarbon dating of fossil soils (palaeosols) and wood found in glacier fore- fields. Numerous samples of palaeosols and fossil wood (tree trunks, roots and macro- remains) found in the glacier forefield were radiocarbon dated. Owing to the good condition of several fossil tree trunks, dendrochronological analyses were also con- ducted. The dendrochronological analysis of fossil trees has supplied much reliable evidence of glacier fluctuations through its proven exactness (a single year resolution) which is impossible to obtain with the radiocarbon method alone.

  3. Structure of Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) Efforts, 2000-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Nancy; Yaman, Kimberly

    This report focuses on the structure of instructional assistance available through the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) to students who show low achievement in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina. Context information is also provided on other programs available to these students. Reports on ALP student participation,…

  4. Steady-State ALPS for Real-Valued Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    The two objectives of this paper are to describe a steady-state version of the Age-Layered Population Structure (ALPS) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and to compare it against other GAs on real-valued problems. Motivation for this work comes from our previous success in demonstrating that a generational version of ALPS greatly improves search performance on a Genetic Programming problem. In making steady-state ALPS some modifications were made to the method for calculating age and the method for moving individuals up layers. To demonstrate that ALPS works well on real-valued problems we compare it against CMA-ES and Differential Evolution (DE) on five challenging, real-valued functions and on one real-world problem. While CMA-ES and DE outperform ALPS on the two unimodal test functions, ALPS is much better on the three multimodal test problems and on the real-world problem. Further examination shows that, unlike the other GAs, ALPS maintains a genotypically diverse population throughout the entire search process. These findings strongly suggest that the ALPS paradigm is better able to avoid premature convergence then the other GAs.

  5. Lynx distribution in the French Alps (1995-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Stahl

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1995 to 1999, 69 data were recorded on lynx presence in the French Alps, in an area of 3,636 km². Lynx presence was recorded in the major forested regions of the pré-Alpes (Chablais, Glière/Aravis, Bauges, Chartreuse, Vercors, Diois/Beauchène, in the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys and the Briançon region, but no large continuous area of presence was shown. Lynx have probably been permanently present in certain locations during the past years, but the presence of a large lynx population in the Alps is improbable in the northern French Alps. In the future, we recommend that habitat suitability for lynx in the northern French-Alps should be assessed, together with possibilities of connection between alpine regions and possible bias in the monitoring system.

  6. Cultures et politiques dans les Alpes contemporaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Debarbieux

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plus que jamais, l’espace alpin est marqué par le déploiement de flux toujours plus variés, toujours plus puissants, et symétriquement par la multiplication d’initiatives destinées à conforter ou à régénérer l’idée de localité. Quelles spatialités et quelles territorialités travaillent les populations alpines aujourd’hui ? Quelles sont les figures contemporaines de la circulation et des flux, et les figures complémentaires de l’ancrage et de la refondation territoriale ? Voici les questions que cet essai se propose de développer. Ce texte reprend le contenu d’une conférence donnée dans le cadre de la célébration du centenaire de l’Institut de Géographie Alpine. Cette conférence, comme les autres données à cette occasion, avait adopté une forme libre dressant un bilan et des perspectives de la situation alpine. La trace écrite adoptée ici prend alors logiquement la forme d’un essai.More than ever before, the Alps are affected by increasingly varied and powerful flows and equally by the multiplication of initiatives designed to strengthen or regenerate the idea of “locality” (place. What spatialities and what territorialities activate the populations of the Alps today? What are the contemporary figures relating to circulation and flows and the complementary figures concerning spatial “anchoring” or fixity and new territorial foundations? These are the questions that this essay, proposes to develop. This text takes another look at the subject of a lecture given as part of celebrations to mark the centenary of the Institut de Géographie Alpine. This lecture, like the others given on this occasion, adopted a free format, presenting a report on the current situation in the Alps and prospects for the future. The written format adopted here logically takes the form of an essay. Readers looking for detailed illustrations and references are referred to three scientific articles published by the same

  7. Autochthonous Linguistic Minorities in the Italian Alps:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Steinicke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available More than any other area in Western Europe, the Alps, especially the Italian Alps, are home to great ethno-cultural diversity: there, no less than seven autochthonous linguistic minorities coexist side by side with the respective official majority. Now being considered an important cultural heritage by the state as well as by the regions, new legislation offers protection to all ‘linguistic-historic minorities’ in Italy. Our study shows, however, that it is quite difficult to maintain such groups, since it is largely unknown where exactly the minority areas are situated. Based on that, local actor groups in various communities take advantage of this lack of knowledge and declare themselves minority territories although they show no linguistic varieties. An important objective of this project is therefore to present a cartographic representation of this linguistic diversity. Subsequently, the contribution discusses case studies of distinct ethno-linguistic self-awareness. Even though with Law No. 482 a first important step was taken to preserve the linguistic minorities, their progressive decline by territorial and numerical criteria cannot be denied. Today, besides unfavorable bio-demographic factors and “diffuse ethnicity,” other causes are current demographic processes. In this framework the amenity migrants, those new immigrants who have discovered the mountains as a new, desirable settlement space, play a decisive role by reinforcing the assimilation process.Les Alpes, plus précisément les Alpes italiennes, plus que toute autre région d'Europe Occidentale, sont un lieu de grande diversité ethnoculturelle : pas moins de sept minorités linguistiques autochtones y coexistent, côte à côte avec la majorité officielle correspondante. Maintenant considérées comme un héritage culturel important par les états ainsi que par les régions, une nouvelle législation offre une protection à toutes les « minorités linguistiques

  8. Galaxy Clusters as Tele-ALP-scopes

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Axion-like particles have good theoretical motivation and are characterized by conversion to photons in astrophysical magnetic fields. Galaxy clusters are the most efficient convertors of axion-like particles to photons in the universe. I discuss the physics and phenomenology of ALPs, and describe their astrophysical implications, with particular reference to the recently observed 3.5 keV X-ray line that is a candidate for a dark matter decay line. I discuss interpretations of this line in terms of dark matter decaying to an axion-like particle, that then converts to a photon in cluster magnetic fields, and describe the compatibility of this scenario with data and the different phenomenology for cool-core and non-cool-core clusters.

  9. HP metamorphic belt of the western Alps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoCompagnoni

    2003-01-01

    The understanding of the subduction-related processes benefited by the studies of the high-pressure (HP) meta-morphic rocks from the western Alps. The most stimu-lating information was obtained from the inner part of the western Alpine belt, where most tectonic units show an early Alpine eclogite-facies recrystallisation. This is especially true for the Austroalpine Sesia Zone and the Penninic Dora-Maira massif. From the Sesia zone,which consists of a wide spectrum of continental crust lithologies recrystallised to quartz-eclogite-facies min-eral assemblages, the first finding of a jadeite-bearingmeta-granitoid has been described, supporting evidencethat even continental crust may subduct into the mantle.From the Dora-Maira massif the first occurrence of regional metamorphic coesite has been reported, open-ing the new fertile field of the ultrahigh-pressure meta-morphism (UHPM), which is now becoming the rule in the collisional orogenic belts.

  10. Rapamycin improves lymphoproliferative disease in murine autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachey, David T; Obzut, Dana A; Axsom, Kelly; Choi, John K; Goldsmith, Kelly C; Hall, Junior; Hulitt, Jessica; Manno, Catherine S; Maris, John M; Rhodin, Nicholas; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Brown, Valerie I; Grupp, Stephan A

    2006-09-15

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis, leading to lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and an increased number of double-negative T cells (DNTs). Treatment options for patients with ALPS are limited. Rapamycin has been shown to induce apoptosis in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Since ALPS is caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis, we hypothesized that rapamycin would be effective in treating ALPS. We tested this hypothesis using rapamycin in murine models of ALPS. We followed treatment response with serial assessment of DNTs by flow cytometry in blood and lymphoid tissue, by serial monitoring of lymph node and spleen size with ultrasonography, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies. Three-dimensional ultrasound measurements in the mice correlated to actual tissue measurements at death (r = .9648). We found a dramatic and statistically significant decrease in DNTs, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoantibodies after only 4 weeks when comparing rapamycin-treated mice with controls. Rapamycin induced apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. We compared rapamycin to mycophenolate mofetil, a second-line agent used to treat ALPS, and found rapamycin's control of lymphoproliferation was superior. We conclude that rapamycin is an effective treatment for murine ALPS and should be explored as treatment for affected humans.

  11. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) in a Boy with Massive Lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Khalesi, Maryam; Farid, Reza; Badiee, Zahra; Rastin, Maryam; Ahanchian, Hamid

    2010-09-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an uncommon nonmalignant lymphoproliferative disease which is characterized by chronic, persistent or recurrent lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, immune cytopenia , hypergammaglobinemia and increased risk of lymphoma. We report a 2-year old boy with hepatosplenomegaly as first presentation. Petechial and purpuric rashes with massive cervical lymphadenopathies developed 10 months later.In laboratory tests anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypergammaglobinemia were observed. According to flocytometry increased double negative T cells and by apoptosis assay decrease apoptosis of lymphocytes accompanied clinical manifestations, thus diagnosis of ALPS was established. In conclusion; in all patients with massive lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegay; especially with cytopenia; ALPS should be considered.

  12. Paleotopography of the Miocene European Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campani, M.; Mulch, A.; Kempf, O.; Schlunegger, F.; Mancktelow, N.

    2011-12-01

    Reconstructing the surface elevation, surface uplift, and relief evolution histories is fundamental to understanding the growth of mountain ranges, to explore their topographic limits, and relate these to geodynamic and Earth surface processes. Recent geologic and geodynamic models for the Central European Alps propose that the bulk of topography was built through the Pliocene, mainly based on the observation of a strong increase in sedimentation and erosion rates during the last 5-6 Ma, suggesting that the Alps never attained elevations as high as today. Here, we aim to quantify the Miocene (20-14 Ma) paleoelevation of the Central Alps through stable isotope paleoaltimetry. The novelty of the approach presented here, which renders it rather insensitive to past climate change, is to analyze stable isotope proxies of identical age, both from high internal parts of the Alpine orogen and from the adjacent foreland basin that was at or near sea level. We first exploit the hydrogen isotopic ratio in phyllosilicates (mica and chlorite) that interacted with meteoric water during activity of the Simplon detachment, a major normal fault that developed during orogen-parallel extension in high elevation regions. We then contrast the resulting meteoric water compositions with those recorded in carbonate-bearing paleosols of the North-Alpine foreland basin to provide an estimate of relative elevation differences. In the North-Alpine foreland basin, we present oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of pedogenic mudstones and carbonate concretions. These terrestrial paleosols, dated with ca. 100 ka precision, serve as our point of reference for stable isotope paleoaltimetry, since they formed at or near sea level. Here, δ18O and δ13C values vary between +19 to +25% (SMOW) and -7 to +1% respectively and show close correspondence to global climate change during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum. In the Simplon fault zone, detachment-related muscovite (-126%) and chlorite (-135

  13. Extragalactic photon-ALP conversion at CTA energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartavtsev, A.; Raffelt, G.; Vogel, H.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fields in extragalactic space between galaxy clusters may induce conversions between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs), thereby shielding the photons from absorption on the extragalactic background light. For TeV gamma rays, the oscillation length (losc) of the photon-ALP system becomes inevitably of the same order as the coherence length of the magnetic field l and the length over which the field changes significantly (transition length lt) due to refraction on background photons. We derive exact statistical evolution equations for the mean and variance of the photon and ALP transfer functions in the non-adiabatic regime (losc ~ l gg lt). We also make analytical predictions for the transfer functions in the quasi-adiabatic regime (losc ll l, lt). Our results are important in light of the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), and may also be applied to models with non-zero ALP masses.

  14. The lynx in the Italian South-Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Molinari

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1986 to May 1995 I collected records of signs of lynx presence in the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. A series of regularly checked trail transects, explorative excursions, and the collection of second-hand observations led to a total of 150 records. They confirm lynx presence and allow an assessment of the situation. The first lynx are believed to have immigrated to the northern part of the study area from Austria. An increase and the distribution in the signs of presence show a south-westerly expansion. The trend in the Julian Alps and Pre-Alps is also increasing. Some interpretations of the status of this new population are made. The study area is in the far south-eastern Alps. This area is important as a corridor between the Alps and the Balkans, where a reintroduced lynx population exists which would be able to support the Alpine lynx population through dispersing lynx.

  15. Crustal structure of the Eastern Alps and their foreland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grad, M.; Brückl, E.; Majdanski, M.

    2009-01-01

    ) and are also characterized by variations in apparent velocity and amplitude. The Moho reflections are usually strong and well correlated, while Pn arrivals are only fragmentarily recorded. Detailed 2-D forward modelling of all refracted, post-critical and reflected phases, identified in the correlation process......) are distinct up to 60-90 km offset and are characterized by large variations in apparent velocity and amplitude. The contact between the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps represents a barrier for seismic waves. Mid-crustal reflections (Pc) are usually recorded at short distance intervals (20-50 km......The subject of this paper concerns the seismic modelling of the crustal structure in the transition zone from the Bohemian Massif, across the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps to the Southern Alps, mainly on the territory of Austria. The CEL10/Alp04 profile crosses the triple point of the European...

  16. Western Italian Alps Monthly Snowfall and Snow Cover Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...

  17. Overview of rock glacier kinematics research in the Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Delaloye, R.; Lambiel, C; I. Gärtner-Roer

    2010-01-01

    The acceleration of rock glacier surface velocities over the two last decades and the destabilization of several landforms show that permafrost creep conditions are changing in the Alps. This article summarizes and presents current understanding of creep behaviour of rock glaciers in the Swiss Alps and emphasises changes that have occurred over the last years and decades. The almost homogeneous interannual behaviour of rock glaciers despite different geometry and activ...

  18. Constraining ALP-photon coupling using galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Schlederer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new approach to constrain the coupling of axion-like particles (ALPs) to photons. One intriguing property of these ALPs is their mixing with photons within magnetic fields. This mixing allows photons propagating in magnetic fields to convert into ALPs and \\textit{vice versa}. Plasma effects can lead to resonant conversion, further enhancing the conversion probability. For suitable ALP masses, this resonant conversion can occur for cosmic microwave background photons transversing galaxy clusters which would distort the CMB spectrum in the direction of galaxy clusters. We compare the predicted distortion with recent measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich Compton parameter to obtain upper limits on the coupling between photons and ALPs. The constraints apply to the mass range of approximately $2\\cdot 10^{-14}$ eV $ \\lesssim m_\\phi \\lesssim 3\\cdot 10^{-12}$ eV in which resonant photon-ALP conversions can occur. Using simple galaxy cluster models, we obtain new limits for this ma...

  19. Searching for axions and ALPs from string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-09-15

    We review searches for closed string axions and axion-like particles (ALPs) in IIB string flux compactifications. For natural values of the background fluxes and TeV scale gravitino mass, the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario predicts the existence of a QCD axion candidate with intermediate scale decay constant, f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 9/12} GeV, associated with the small cycles wrapped by the branes hosting the visible sector, plus a nearly massless and nearly decoupled ALP associated with the LARGE cycle. In setups where the visible sector branes are wrapping more than the minimum number of two intersecting cycles, there are more ALPs which have approximately the same decay constant and coupling to the photon as the QCD axion candidate, but which are exponentially lighter. There are exciting phenomenological opportunities to search for these axions and ALPs in the near future. For f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 11/12} GeV, the QCD axion can be the dominant part of dark matter and be detected in haloscopes exploiting microwave cavities. For f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 9/10} GeV, the additional ALPs could explain astrophysical anomalies and be searched for in the upcoming generation of helioscopes and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.

  20. Status and distribution of the lynx in the German Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kaczensky

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lynx (Lynx lynx had been eradicated in the German Alps by the middle of the 19th century. Since the early 1970s there have been several attempts to initiate the re-introduction of lynx into the German Alps, but none of the projects could be carried out because of the still very controversial attitudes towards the species, and because of competition between institutions. Natural re-colonization of the German Alps by lynx can be expected sooner or later from Switzerland or Austria. Although lynx are already present in some parts of Germany outside the Alps, neither an organized monitoring system nor compensation regulations for losses of livestock exist. For a successful comeback of lynx into Germany, including the German Alps, more efforts than a year-round protection by the federal hunting law is needed. Initiative management actions and intensive public education are necessary to obtain and secure public acceptance of the lynx.

  1. Advances in the management and understanding of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachey, David T; Seif, Alix E; Grupp, Stephan A

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of T cell dysregulation caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis. Patients with ALPS can develop a myriad of clinical manifestations including lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmunity and increased rates of malignancy. ALPS may be more common that originally thought, and testing for ALPS should be considered in patients with unexplained lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or autoimmunity. As the pathophysiology of ALPS is better characterized, a number of targeted therapies are in preclinical development and clinical trials with promising early results. This review describes the clinical and laboratory manifestations found in ALPS patients, as well as the molecular basis for the disease and new advances in treatment.

  2. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Aaron D.; Põld, Jan H.; Bähre, Robin; Lindner, Axel; Willke, Benno

    2016-12-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20 m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  3. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Spector, Aaron D; Bähre, Robin; Lindner, Axel; Willke, Benno

    2016-01-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20 m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  4. A new observation of ALPs-photon coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    One of the fundamental results used in observational cosmology is the distance duality relation (DDR), which relates the luminosity distance, $D_L$, with angular diameter distance, $D_A$, at a given redshift $z$. We suggest to employ the observed limits of this relation to constrain the coupling of axion like particles (ALPs) with photons. With available data we are able to provide improved mixing limit. The method can provide very stringent constraint on ALPs mixing with future improved DDR observations. Also any deviation in DDR can be conventionally explained as photons decaying to axions or vice-versa.

  5. Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Porter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition By Deidre Slattery. Clayton South, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2015. xvii + 302 pp. AU$ 45.00, US$ 35.95. ISBN 978-1-486-30171-3.

  6. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-05-23

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  7. Searching for axions and ALPs from string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We review searches for closed string axions and axion-like particles (ALPs) in IIB string flux compactifications. For natural values of the background fluxes and TeV scale gravitino mass, the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario predicts the existence of a QCD axion candidate with intermediate scale decay constant, f_a ~ 10^9 ... 10^12 GeV, associated with the small cycles wrapped by the branes hosting the visible sector, plus a nearly massless and nearly decoupled ALP associated with the LARGE cycle. In setups where the visible sector branes are wrapping more than the minimum number of two intersecting cycles, there are more ALPs which have approximately the same decay constant and coupling to the photon as the QCD axion candidate, but which are exponentially lighter. There are exciting phenomenological opportunities to search for these axions and ALPs in the near future. For f_a ~ 10^11 ... 10^12 GeV, the QCD axion can be the dominant part of dark matter and be detected in haloscopes ...

  8. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. from the southwestern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Nel, Jacques; Fournier, François

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. is described from the southwestern Alps (France, Italy). It is closely related to M. nomadella (Zeller, 1868), with which it was hitherto confused. Literature records of M. nomadella from France and northwestern Italy refer to M. bronzella sp. n. The two speci...

  9. Bergsteigen in den Alpen (Mountain Climbing in the Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrysz, Ilse; Budzinski, Elisabeth

    German second language instructional materials contain a short text in German on mountain climbing in the Alps, a vocabulary list with translation, a simple German climbing song, a recipe for goulash soup in English, and a short text in English on mountain climbing. (MSE)

  10. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS): a rare cause of immune cytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M Joseph; Rajasekhar, Reena; Mathews, Vikram

    2008-02-01

    Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an inherited disorder manifesting with autoimmune cytopenia, lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. The differential diagnosis includes infections, autoimmune disorders or malignancies. The disease is characterized by accumulation of double negative (CD3+ CD4- CD8-) T cells (DNT) in the peripheral blood. We describe a case and review the literature.

  11. Green light for neutrino beam to pass below the Alps

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    1999-01-01

    CERN council have approved a plan to send a beam of muon neutrinos under the Alps from Geneva to the Gran Sasso laboratories near Rome. INFN is organising two experiments - OPERA and ICANOE, to study the neutrino oscillations as they travel (1/2 pg)

  12. Constraining ALP-photon coupling using galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlederer, Martin; Sigl, Günter [II. Institut für theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-21

    We study photon-ALP conversion by resonance effects in the magnetized plasma of galaxy clusters and compare the predicted distortion of the cosmic microwave background spectrum in the direction of such objects to measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Using galaxy cluster models based on current knowledge, we obtain upper limits on the photon-ALP coupling constant g of ≲O(10{sup −11} GeV{sup −1}). The constraints apply to the mass range of 2⋅10{sup −14} eV ≲m{sub ALP}≲3⋅10{sup −12} eV in which resonant photon-ALP conversions can occur. These limits are slightly stronger than current limits, and furthermore provide an independent constraint. We find that a next generation PRISM-like experiment would allow limits down to g≈O(10{sup −14} GeV{sup −1}), two orders of magnitude stronger than the currently strongest limits in this mass range.

  13. Military-geographic evaluation of the Julian Alps area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Bratun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Julian Alps have been of military significance since Roman times in a military geographic sense because of its valleys, mountain passes and lines of defence on mountain ridges. They became especially important in the 19th and 20th century. The largest mountain front in World War I was located there,and evidence of that front is still visible today. The border between Italy and Yugoslavia in the heart of the Julian Alps was clearly a line of demarcation along the Soča and Sava watersheds and was reinforced with fortification, obstacles and trenches. During the Cold War, there was an ideological line of demarcation along the western edge of the Julian Alps as well. Military strategy in that area included the use of military geographic approaches in both westerly and easterly directions. After the geopolitical changes of 1991, the Julian Alps no longer had same military geographic significance in terms of Slovenian national security. Today other military activities are more important: training under mountains conditions for NATO soldiers, non-commissioned and commissioned officers takes place in the Pokljuka region and on the Triglav mountain chain. Military facilities have been taken on significance in the terms of tourism as well.

  14. Extragalactic photon-ALP conversion at CTA energies

    CERN Document Server

    Kartavtsev, A; Vogel, H

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields in extragalactic space between galaxy clusters may induce conversions between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs), thereby shielding the photons from absorption on the extragalactic background light. For TeV gamma rays, the oscillation length ($l_{\\rm osc}$) of the photon-ALP system becomes inevitably of the same order as the coherence length of the magnetic field ($l$) and the length over which the field changes significantly (transition length $l_{\\rm t}$) due to refraction on background photons. We derive exact statistical evolution equations for the mean and variance of the photon and ALP transfer functions in the non-adiabatic regime ($l_{\\rm osc} \\sim l \\gg l_{\\rm t}$). We also make analytical predictions for the transfer functions in the quasi-adiabatic regime ($l_{\\rm osc} \\ll l, l_{\\rm t}$). Our results are important in light of the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), and may also be applied to models with non-zero ALP masses.

  15. Accelerated Learning Program (ALP): Grade 3-8 Evaluation, 2001-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Nancy; Yaman, Kimberly; Lindblad, Mark

    The Wake County Public Schools, North Carolina (WCPSS), initiated the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) in 1999-2000 as the major new intervention to help all students reach grade-level performance in reading and mathematics. The ALP program was funded through local and state funds, and in 2001-220, 7,285 students received services through ALP.…

  16. Comment diffuser les savoirs à travers les Alpes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pfefferkorn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CIPRA’s Future in the Alps Project aims at showcasing examples of successful implementation and successful projects in the Alps, and making available to others the extensive pool of experience and practical knowledge that lies in these projects. But how to transfer knowledge in an area of some 14 million inhabitants with several linguistic and cultural regions in which thousands of projects are carried out each year, that all kinds of players who work and life in completely different contexts are able to learn and benefit from one another? How do you go about something like that?Le projet « Avenir dans les Alpes » de la CIPRA (Commission Internationale pour la Protection des Alpes a pour objectif de présenter des exemples de réalisations et de projets réussis dans les Alpes, et de mettre à disposition du public l’ensemble de l’expérience et des connaissances pratiques acquises dans le cadre de ces projets. Cependant, comment transférer les savoirs dans une zone comptant quelque 14 millions d’habitants, composée de plusieurs régions linguistiques et culturelles dans lesquelles des milliers de projets sont menés à bien chaque année, et dont tous les acteurs, qui travaillent et vivent dans des contextes complètement différents, sont capables d’apprendre et de tirer profit les uns des autres ? Comment aborder ce genre de cas ?

  17. Regional Ambient Noise Tomography in the Eastern Alps of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Michael; Nakata, Nori; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-08-01

    We present results from ambient noise tomography applied to temporary seismological stations in the easternmost part of the Alps and their transition to the adjacent tectonic provinces (Vienna Basin, Bohemian Massif, Southern Alps, Dinarides). By turning each station into a virtual source, we recover surface waves in the frequency range between 0.1 and 0.6 Hz, which are sensitive to depths of approximately 2-15 km. The utilization of horizontal components allows for the analysis of both Rayleigh and Love waves with comparable signal-to-noise ratio. Measured group wave dispersion curves between stations are mapped to local cells by means of a simultaneous inverse reconstruction technique. The spatial reconstruction for Love-wave velocities fails in the central part of the investigated area, and we speculate that a heterogeneous noise source distribution is the cause for the failure. Otherwise, the obtained group velocity maps correlate well with surface geology. Inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocities for shear-wave velocities along a vertical N-S section stretching from the Bohemian Massif through the Central Alps to the Southern Alps and Dinarides reveals a mid-crustal low-velocity anomaly at the contact between the Bohemian Massif and the Alps, which shows a spatial correlation with the P-wave velocity structure and the low-frequency component of the magnetic anomaly map. Our study is validated by the analysis of resolution and accuracy, and we further compare the result to shear-wave velocity models estimated from other active and passive experiments in the area.

  18. Late-orogenic vertical movements within the arc of the SW Alps and Ligurian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, G.; Mosca, P.

    2009-09-01

    Mainly on the basis of seismic data, we reconstruct magnitude and timing of Miocene to Present vertical movements in the region of the Savigliano basin, an up to 4 km thick succession of Neogene to Quaternary sediments accumulated inside the Alpine arc at the western termination of the Po Plain. We focus, in particular, on the margins of the basin which are the link between the mountain range and the subsiding basin. Seismic data from these regions allow for the definition of upward and downward vertical movements (uplift-exhumation and subsidence) with a spatial and temporal resolution which cannot be attained by other methods. The eastern, southern and western margins of the Savigliano basin display very different geometries of the sedimentary bodies and, therefore, document different vertical movements during Miocene to Present times. The eastern part of the Savigliano basin, and the regions to the E, experienced subsidence followed by exhumation. The southern margin of the basin, in the Cuneo area, was much more stable with Miocene to present formations all pinching-out close to the present day outcropping position of the basement-sedimentary cover contact. In the W, seismic sections record a stage of tilting until the Burdigalian, followed by generalized subsidence which affected also the adjacent regions of the SW Alps. The overall pattern of vertical movements is essentially controlled by the NW-ward migration of a syncline-anticline couple with the synclinal axis presently located in the center of the Savigliano basin. The width of the folds is in the order of 30-60 km (1/2 wavelength). In map view, the trace of the fold axes changes from N-S in the Savigliano basin to E-W in the Alessandria basin.

  19. Ozone measurements along vertical transects in the Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, H. [Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung; Kirchner, M. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologie; Welzl, G. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Biometrie und Biomathematik; Hangartner, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Ergonomics and Hygiene

    1999-07-01

    To investigate the vertical profiles of air pollutants in the boundary layer, aircraft and balloon-born measurements and measurements using a cable car as an instrument platform have been performed in different parts of the Alps. This on-line monitoring of atmospheric pollutants requires expensive and sophisticated techniques. In order to control ambient air quality in remote regions, where no infrastructure like power supply is available, simple instruments are required. The objective of this study, which was coordinated and evaluated by the GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit was first, to investigate the vertical distribution of ozone in different parts of the Alps and secondly, in addition to continuous analyser measurements, to test monitoring by means of two types of passive samplers. The selection of these samples - one for one week use and another one for two week application - was based on a passive sampler intercomparison done in a preliminary study one year earlier.

  20. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Case report and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, F; Ferster, A; Rieux-Laucat, F; Biwer, A; Dicato, M

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disease caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis and is characterized by non-malignant lymphoproliferation, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune manifestations and increased risk of both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most forms of the disease are due to germ line mutations of the FAS gene and manifest during the first years of life with fluctuating lymphadenopathies, hemolysis, immune thrombocytopenia. During the second decade of life disease manifestations improve spontaneously but autoimmune problems still occur and there is an increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy. We describe a typical case of ALPS in a now 44 year old man, followed since the age of 2 for disease manifestations that were unclear at the beginning.

  1. Ozone measurements along vertical transects in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, H; Kirchner, M; Welzl, G; Hangartner, M

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the vertical profiles of air pollutants in the boundary layer, aircraft and balloon-born measurements and measurements using a cable car as an instrument platform have been performed in different parts of the Alps. This on-line monitoring of atmospheric pollutants requires expensive and sophisticated techniques. In order to control ambient air quality in remote regions, where no infrastructure like power supply is available, simple instruments are required. The objective of this study, which was coordinated and evaluated by the GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit was first, to investigate the vertical distribution of ozone in different parts of the Alps and secondly, in addition to continuous analyser measurements, to test monitoring by means of two types of passive samplers. The selection of these samplers - one for one week use and another one for two week application - was based on a passive sampler intercomparison done in a preliminary study one year earlier.

  2. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.;

    2010-01-01

    fragment (PA), was interpreted and a triple junction was inferred. The goal of this study has been to relate these deep crustal structures to active tectonics. We used elastic plate modeling to reconsider the Moho fragmentation. We interpret subduction of EU below AD and PA from north to south...... and underthusting of AD mantle below PA from southwest to northeast. The Moho fragmentation correlates well with major upper crustal structures and is supported by gravity, seismic, and geodetic data. An analysis of crustal thickening suggests that active convergence is associated with continued thrusting...... and lateral extrusion in the central Eastern Alps and thickening of the Adriatic indenter under the Southern Alps. According to the velocity relations at the triple junction, PA moves relative to EU and AD along ENE and SE striking faults, mainly by strike slip. An eastward directed extensional component...

  3. What's new in ALPS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette; Collaboration: ALPS-II collaboration

    2013-09-15

    This proceedings contribution gives a brief experimental update of the 'Any light particle search (ALPS) -II' at DESY which will be sensitive to sub-eV, very weakly coupled particles beyond the Standard Model. First data on hidden sector photon parameter space through photon-hidden photon oscillations in vacuum is expected in 2014. Axion-like particle search (implying the installation of superconducting HERA magnets) could be realized in 2017.

  4. The onset of alpine pastoral systems in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Festi, Daniela; Putzer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of the Neolithic glacier mummy "Ötzi" in the nival belt of the main Alpine ridge, the onset of alpine pasture is matter of a highly controversial debate both in archaeology and in palaeo-ecology of the Eastern Alps. The implication is that his sojourn in the high-altitudes of the Alps is considered to be connected with pastoral nomadism. Regrettably any archaeological evidence for the existence of such Neolithic alpine pastoral systems is missing up to now and the assumption is based on palynological data only. However, also the palynological record is ambiguous, because pasture indicators in the alpine regions react positive on grazing as well as on fertilization induced by a higher runoff of precipitation. Thus alpine pasture indicators reflect both grazing pressure and climatic change. Anyhow, alpine pastoral systems are a common practice in Alpine animal husbandry, but from an economic point of view such a seasonal vertical transhumance is costly. There are three main reasons for its practice: i) climatic, ii) economic (mainly in connection with population pressure or mining activities), and iii) cultural ideology. In this study we tested the above mentioned reasons in an interdisciplinary study on the beginning of pastoral activities in high altitudes in the central part of the Eastern Alps. This is conducted by palynological analyses of peat deposits situated in the vicinity of the timberline (1600 - 2400 m a.s.l.) combined with archaeological surveys. The investigated sites are located in traditional Alpine transhumance regions and aligned on a transect through the central part of the Eastern Alps. The studies reveal that grazing pressure is reflected since the Bronze Age, which is corroborated by archaeological findings in the vicinity of the investigated sites.

  5. ALPtraum. ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments such as SHiP.

  6. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Döbrich, Babette; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2016-01-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments su...

  7. Role of the Helicobacter pylori outer-membrane proteins AlpA and AlpB in colonization of the guinea pig stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Jonge (Robert); Z. Durrani; S.G. Rijpkema; E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud); J.G. Kusters (Johannes)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori expresses several putative outer-membrane proteins (OMPs), but the role of individual OMPs in colonization of the stomach by H. pylori is still poorly understood. The role of four such OMPs (AlpA, AlpB, OipA and HopZ) in a

  8. Swiss AlpArray: deployment of the Swiss AlpArray temporary broad-band stations and their noise characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Irene; Kissling, Edi; Clinton, John; Hetényi, György; Šipka, Vesna; Stipćević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Solarino, Stefano; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Electronics Lab, SED

    2016-04-01

    One of the main actions of the AlpArray European initiative is the deployment of a dense seismic broad-band network, that complements the existing permanent stations. This will ensure a spatially homogeneous seismic coverage of the greater Alpine area for at least two years, allowing a great number of innovative scientific works to be carried out. Our contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network consists in the deployment of 24 temporary broad-band stations: three in Switzerland, twelve in Italy, three in Croatia, three in Bosnia and Herzegovina and three in Hungary. This deployment is lead by ETH Zurich and founded by the Swiss-AlpArray Sinergia programme by SNSF, and is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five research institutes. Stations were installed between Autumn and Winter 2015. Our installations are both free field and in-house and consist of 21 STS-2 and 3 Trillium Compact sensors equipped with Taurus digitizers and 3G telemetry sending data in real time to the ETH EIDA node. In this work, we present sites and stations setting and we discuss in details the characteristics in terms of site effects and noise level of each station. In particular we analyse the power spectral density estimates investigating the major source of noise and the background noise related to seasons, time of the day, human activities and type of installation. In addition we will show examples of data usage - i.e. earthquake locations, noise cross correlations, measures of surface wave dispersion curves. We thanks the Swiss AlpArray Field Team: Blanchard A., Erlanger E. D., Jarić D., Herak D., M. Herak, Hermann M., Koelemeijer P. J., Markušić S., Obermann A., Sager K., Šikman S., Singer J., Winterberg S. SED Electronic Lab: Barman S., Graf P., Hansemann R., Haslinger F., Hiemer S., Racine R., Tanner R., Weber F.

  9. Isotopic composition of sulfate accumulations, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Halas, Stanislaw; Bojar, Hans-Peter; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Alps are characterised by the presence of three main tectonic units, such as the Lower, Middle and Upper Austroalpine, which overlie the Penninicum (Tollmann, 1977). The Upper Austroalpine unit consists of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) overlying the Greywacke zone and corresponding to the Graz Paleozoic, Murau Paleozoic and the Gurktal Nappe. Evaporitic rocks are lacking in the later ones. The Northern Calcareous Alps are a detached fold and thrust belt. The sedimentation started in the Late Carboniferous or Early Permian, the age of the youngest sediments being Eocene. The NCA are divided into the Bajuvaric, Tirolic and Juvavic nappe complexes. The evaporitic Haselgebirge Formation occurs in connection with the Juvavic nappe complex at the base of the Tirolic units (Leitner et al., 2013). The Haselgebirge Formation consists mainly of salt, shales, gypsum and anhydrite and includes the oldest sediments of the NCA. The age of the Haselgebirge Formation, established by using spors and geochronological data, is Permian to Lower Triassic. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, the mineralogy of sulphate accumulations consists mainly of gypsum and anhydrite and subordonates of carbonates. The carbonates as magnesite, dolomite and calcite can be found either as singular crystals or as small accumulations within the hosting gypsum. Sulfides (sphalerite, galena, pyrite), sulfarsenides (enargite, baumhauerite) and native sulphur enrichments are known from several deposits (Kirchner, 1987; Postl, 1990). The investigated samples were selected from various gypsum and halite rich deposits of the Northern Calcareous Alps. A total of over 20 samples were investigated, and both oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition were determined for anhydrite, gyps, polyhalite, blödite and langbeinite. The sulfur isotopic values vary between 10.1 to 14 ‰ (CDT), with three values higher than 14 ‰. The Oxygen isotopic values show a range from 9 to 23 ‰ (SMOW). The sulfur

  10. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for monitoring lymphadenopathy in the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V Koneti; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Dale, Janet K; Bacharach, Stephen L; Whatley, Millie; Dugan, Faith; Tretler, Jean; Fleisher, Thomas; Puck, Jennifer M; Wilson, Wyndham; Jaffe, Elaine S; Avila, Nilo; Chen, Clara C; Straus, Stephen E

    2006-02-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is associated with mutations that impair the activity of lymphocyte apoptosis proteins, leading to chronic lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmunity, and an increased risk of lymphoma. We investigated the utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in discriminating benign from malignant lymphadenopathy in ALPS. We report that FDG avidity of benign lymph nodes in ALPS can be high and, hence, by itself does not imply presence of lymphoma; but FDG-PET can help guide the decision for selecting which of many enlarged nodes in ALPS patients to biopsy when lymphoma is suspected.

  11. New ALPS results on hidden-sector lightweights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hildebrandt, Matthias [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kracht, Dietmar [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Lindner, Axel, E-mail: axel.lindner@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Meier, Tobias [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2010-05-31

    The ALPS Collaboration runs a 'Light Shining through a Wall' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into 'Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles' (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a fewx10{sup -25}. These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles.

  12. New ALPS Results on Hidden-Sector Lightweights

    CERN Document Server

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Hildebrandt, Matthias; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Kracht, Dietmar; Lindner, Axel; List, Jenny; Meier, Tobias; Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Günter; Willke, Benno

    2010-01-01

    The ALPS collaboration runs a "Light Shining through a Wall" (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into "Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles" (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a few 10^{-25}. These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles.

  13. Precipitation and snow cover variability in the french alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Eric; Durand, Yves

    The distribution of winter precipitation as analysed by the meteorological analysis system SAFRAN is validated using data from two test sites. This system, applied to the French Alps, shows that the frequency of high precipitation events is not necessarily linked to mean precipitation. Using a downscaling procedure, the system was run with General Circulation Model (GCM) outputs. The corresponding snow cover is derived with the snow model CROCUS. The results are very sensitive to the quality of the GCM run. The analyses of two future climate scenarios show that drastic changes in precipitation distribution may occur in the future.

  14. ALPS: the Dark Matter Generator (coming in 2019)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barke, Simon; Bush, Zachary; Baum, Claire; Hollis, Hal; Mueller, Guido; Tanner, David

    2017-01-01

    Very promising dark matter candidates are axion-like particles: sub-eV particles that are expected to (weakly) interact with photons in the presence of a static electric or magnetic field. This interaction can turn photons into axions and back into photons. Hence, in order to generate axions, we will set up a 100 meter long Fabry-Perot cavity that can hold a 150,000 watt laser field and have a 5.3 tesla magnetic field along the entire length. If the theory holds up, a fraction of the photons should transform into relativistic axions. These axions would then propagate through any optical barrier and enter a matched cavity that is situated within an identical magnetic field. Here, some of the axions should turn back into photons of equal energy. Thus these photons resonate in the otherwise empty cavity where they can be detected. It is unknown if axion-like particles exist in the targeted mass range. However, the ALPS detection principle is very convenient because we will know the exact energy of the regenerated photons beforehand thus making a detection much easier.The final stage of the ALPS experiment will be completed by 2019 at the German Electron Synchrotron (DESY) site in Hamburg, Germany. This work is supported by grants from the Heising-Simons Foundation and the National Science Foundation.

  15. Characterization of the ALP1 gene locus of Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhathena, Anahita; Gaedigk, Roger; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M

    2005-11-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is the primary etiologic agent of fungal infections in the pediatric population. Establishing techniques that facilitate strain discrimination offer the opportunity to investigate the relationship between fungal genotype, biochemical phenotype and disease presentation in the host. In the process of expanding efforts to elucidate intra-specific genetic variability in T. tonsurans, we have identified 2 genetic polymorphisms in the ALP1 gene: a fragment length polymorphism in the 5'UTR and a single SNP (G-->A) within the 3'UTR. Full sequence data revealed that the length polymorphism was constituted by a 16 bp repeat element, present in tandem from 3 to 6 times depending on the strain. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated a clear association between the length polymorphism and ALP1 mRNA transcript levels. Not only do the sequence variations identified in this study increase our ability to discriminate T. tonsurans strains, but they also reveal the presence of a genetic variation with functional consequences at the transcript level that may play a role in regulating disease severity.

  16. Rhône-Alpes renforce sa coopération avec le CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Gruzelle, F

    2001-01-01

    La région Rhône-Alpes finance, à hauteur de 26 millions sur 7 ans, le "programme Rhône-Alpes-CERN", tandis que les départements de l'Ain et de la Haute-Savoie ont respectivement subventionné une partie des bâtiments et certaines innovations (1 page).

  17. ALP: Alternate Learning Project; Overview of a Model High School in Providence, Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Charles B.

    The Alternate Learning Project (ALP) is a community based public high school in Providence, Rhode Island. The ALP student population participates in a program offering individualized basic skills instruction, college preparatory courses, career exploration activities, and a broad arts curriculum. Throughout, the emphasis is on continuous…

  18. Unmasking Evans syndrome: T-cell phenotype and apoptotic response reveal autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachey, David T; Manno, Catherine S; Axsom, Kelly M; Andrews, Timothy; Choi, John K; Greenbaum, Barbara H; McMann, Joseph M; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Travis, Susan F; Grupp, Stephan A

    2005-03-15

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disorder of disrupted lymphocyte homeostasis. Clinical manifestations of ALPS vary but typically include autoimmune cytopenias, organomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and increased risk of malignancies. A similar spectrum of symptoms may be seen in some patients with Evans syndrome (ES), a hematologic disorder defined by autoimmune destruction of at least 2 hematologic cell types. We hypothesized that a subset of patients diagnosed with ES may have ALPS. We screened 12 children with ES by flow cytometric analysis for CD4-/CD8- (double negative) T cells (DNTs) and with the definitive test for ALPS, defective in vitro Fas-mediated apoptosis. Six of the patients had elevated DNTs, suggestive of ALPS and also had defective Fas-mediated apoptosis. The other 6 patients displayed normal T-cell apoptosis; 5 of whom had normal DNTs, and 1 had a borderline result. Thus, 7 (58%) of 12 patients with ES had elevated DNTs suggestive of ALPS, with functional confirmation in 6 of 7. This suggests that analysis of DNTs may be a sensitive first-line screening test, serving as a marker of patients who should undergo definitive testing for ALPS. Our data further suggest that a number of patients with ES may have ALPS, a novel finding with important therapeutic implications.

  19. Germline FAS gene mutation in a case of ALPS and NLP Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anke; Maggio, Ewerton; Diepstra, A; de Jong, Doetje; van Krieken, J; Poppema, S

    2002-01-01

    FAS germline mutations have been associated with the development of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Occurrence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has been reported in 2 families with ALPS. In both families an uncle of the index patient developed HL. A 15-year-old boy with autoommune thrombopen

  20. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the western Alps (Italy, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the Alps. The huge bryophyte collection made during 1997 in the Western Alps is presented. A total of 152 bryophyte species were recorded, including 113 mosses and 39 hepatics.

  1. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the western Alps (Italy, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Sabovljević M.

    2006-01-01

    The study is a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the Alps. The huge bryophyte collection made during 1997 in the Western Alps is presented. A total of 152 bryophyte species were recorded, including 113 mosses and 39 hepatics.

  2. Results and prospects of axion searches with the OSQAR and ALPS II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, Matthias; Weinsheimer, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Axion and axion-like particles (ALPs) are well motivated hypothetical Spin-0 bosons, naturally arising in many extensions of the Standard Model. At first introduced to solve the strong-CP problem by breaking an additional U(1) Pecci-Quinn symmetry, meanwhile several astrophysical observations hint to the ALPs sector as well. In so called Light-Shining-through-Wall (LSW) experiments the effective diphoton vertex inherent to Axions and ALPs is exploited for direct searches. High power laser beams traversing strong magnetic fields are used to create and annihilate ALPs making them accessible in laboratory setups. In this talk the latest results of the of the OSQAR experiment (CERN) are presented as well as prospects of near future enhancements by the ALPS II (DESY) experiment aiming for an improved sensitivity of 3 orders of magnitude.

  3. 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Stoffel, Markus; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Beniston, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Alps are particularly sensitive to global warming and warmed twice as much as the global average in the recent past. In addition, the Alps and its surroundings are a densly populated areas where society is affected by climate change in many ways, which calls for reliable estimates of future climate change. However, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in future climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. It will be demonstrated that considerable and accelerating changes are not only to be expected with regard to temperature, but also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be effected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will most probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity. More intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential are particularly expected in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500 - 2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic variables and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. Acknowledgements: This study has been initiated and is partly funded by

  4. Cultures and politics in the present-day Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Debarbieux

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plus que jamais, l’espace alpin est marqué par le déploiement de flux toujours plus variés, toujours plus puissants, et symétriquement par la multiplication d’initiatives destinées à conforter ou à régénérer l’idée de localité. Quelles spatialités et quelles territorialités travaillent les populations alpines aujourd’hui ? Quelles sont les figures contemporaines de la circulation et des flux, et les figures complémentaires de l’ancrage et de la refondation territoriale ? Voici les questions que cet essai se propose de développer. Ce texte reprend le contenu d’une conférence donnée dans le cadre de la célébration du centenaire de l’Institut de Géographie Alpine. Cette conférence, comme les autres données à cette occasion, avait adopté une forme libre dressant un bilan et des perspectives de la situation alpine. La trace écrite adoptée ici prend alors logiquement la forme d’un essai.More than ever before, the Alps are affected by increasingly varied and powerful flows and equally by the multiplication of initiatives designed to strengthen or regenerate the idea of “locality” (place. What spatialities and what territorialities activate the populations of the Alps today? What are the contemporary figures relating to circulation and flows and the complementary figures concerning spatial “anchoring” or fixity and new territorial foundations? These are the questions that this essay, proposes to develop. This text takes another look at the subject of a lecture given as part of celebrations to mark the centenary of the Institut de Géographie Alpine. This lecture, like the others given on this occasion, adopted a free format, presenting a report on the current situation in the Alps and prospects for the future. The written format adopted here logically takes the form of an essay. Readers looking for detailed illustrations and references are referred to three scientific articles published by the same

  5. Risk assessment of mountain infrastructure destabilization in the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvillard, Pierre-Allain; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In the current context of imbalance of geosystems in connection with the rising air temperature for several decades, high mountain environments are especially affected by the shrinkage of glaciers and the permafrost degradation which can trigger slope movements in the rock slopes (rockfall, rock avalanches) or in superficial deposits (slides, rock glacier rupture, thermokarst). These processes generate a risk of direct destabilization for high mountain infrastructure (huts, cable-cars...) in addition to indirect risks for people and infrastructure located on the path of moving rock masses. We here focus on the direct risk of infrastructure destabilization due to permafrost degradation and/or glacier shrinkage in the French Alps. To help preventing these risks, an inventory of all the infrastructure was carried out with a GIS using different data layers among which the Alpine Permafrost Index Map and inventories of the French Alps glaciers in 2006-2009, 1967-1971 and at the end of the Little Ice Age. 1769 infrastructures have been identified in areas likely characterized by permafrost and/or possibly affected by glacier shrinkage. An index of risk of destabilization has been built to identify and to rank infrastructure at risk. This theoretical risk index includes a characterization of hazards and a diagnosis of the vulnerability. The value of hazard is dependent on passive factors (topography, lithology, geomorphological context...) and on so-considered active factors (thermal state of the permafrost, and changing constraints on slopes related to glacier shrinkage). The diagnosis of vulnerability has meanwhile been established by combining the level of potential damage to the exposed elements with their operational and financial values. The combination of hazard and vulnerability determines a degree of risk of infrastructure destabilization (from low to very high). Field work and several inventories of infrastructure damages were used to validate it. The

  6. AlpArray-Italy: Site description and noise characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Aladino; Bonatto, Luciana; Capello, Marco; Cavaliere, Adriano; Chiarabba, Claudio; D'Alema, Ezio; Danesi, Stefania; Lovati, Sara; Margheriti, Lucia; Massa, Marco; Mazza, Salvatore; Mazzarini, Francesco; Monna, Stephen; Moretti, Milena; Nardi, Anna; Piccinini, Davide; Piromallo, Claudia; Pondrelli, Silvia; Salimbeni, Simone; Serpelloni, Enrico; Solarino, Stefano; Vallocchia, Massimiliano; Santulin, Marco; AlpArray Working Group

    2017-03-01

    Within the framework of the European collaborative research initiative AlpArray (http://www.alparray.ethz.ch), the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanolgia (INGV) deployed overall 20 broad-band seismic stations in Northern Italy and on two islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Capraia and Montecristo) during Fall-Winter 2015. The temporary deployment (16 stations) will run for two to three years and 4 INGV National Seismic Network accelerometric sites are now equipped with additional permanent broad-band sensors. The 16 temporary stations are equipped with REF TEK 130 digitizers and Nanometrics Trillium Compact 120 s sensors, a couple have Nanometrics Trillium 120P sensors and one a Streckeisen STS2. For each site we describe the settings and discuss the noise levels, the site effects and the preliminary sensitivity analysis.

  7. New ALPS results on hidden-sector lightweights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (DE)] (and others)

    2010-04-08

    The ALPS collaboration runs a ''Light Shining through a Wall'' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into ''Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles'' (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a few x 10{sup -25}. These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  8. Climate change and geomorphological hazards in the eastern European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Margreth; Knight, Jasper; Harrison, Stephan

    2010-05-28

    Climate and environmental changes associated with anthropogenic global warming are being increasingly identified in the European Alps, as seen by changes in long-term high-alpine temperature, precipitation, glacier cover and permafrost. In turn, these changes impact on land-surface stability, and lead to increased frequency and magnitude of natural mountain hazards, including rock falls, debris flows, landslides, avalanches and floods. These hazards also impact on infrastructure, and socio-economic and cultural activities in mountain regions. This paper presents two case studies (2003 heatwave, 2005 floods) that demonstrate some of the interlinkages between physical processes and human activity in climatically sensitive alpine regions that are responding to ongoing climate change. Based on this evidence, we outline future implications of climate change on mountain environments and its impact on hazards and hazard management in paraglacial mountain systems.

  9. Brooks Range and eastern Alps: a tectonic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helwig, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    A comparison of the tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range (BR) and the Eastern Alps (EA) reveals a remarkable parallelism. Both of these Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts are underlain by sialic crust formed in an earlier Paleozoic orogenic cycle. The old basement is revealed in major tectonic windows: the Tauern Fenster (EA) and the Doonerak Window-Schwatka Mountains (BR) - which are unconformably overlapped by transgressive, neritic marine clastic to carbonate successions - the Permo-Triassic through Hochstegenkalk sequence (EA), and the Kekiktuk-Kayak-Lisburne sequence (BR). These successions are passive-margin sequences that pass southward, in palinspastically restored cross sections, to synchronous deep-water facies deposited on ophiolitic basement - Bunderschiefer on Triassic-Jurassic ophiolites (EA) and Kuna facies or Etivluk sequence on upper Paleozoic ophiolites (BR). Onset of subduction-collision is marked by olistostromal facies - Cretaceous wildflysch (EA) and Jura-Cretaceous Okpikruak Formation (BR) - and the development of major flysch-molasse successions in the foreland basins of the collisional fold and thrust belts. Important major contrasts between these two mountain ranges reside in their colliding blocks and their post-orogenic histories. Alpine orogenesis was driven by continent-continent collision, closing out a young, narrow ocean, whereas Brooks Range deformation appears to have originated by arc-continent collision, closing out an older, broad (.)ocean. Younger Cenozoic deformation is extensional and strike-slip in the Eastern Alps, producing disjunctive basins, but Cenozoic deformation in the Brooks Range is diverse and includes compression in the east and extension in the far west.

  10. Diagnosis value of serum ALP and osteocalcin in early prostate cancer bone metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Yong Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the role and significance of the joint detection of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin in prostate cancer bone metastases.Methods:A total of 87 cases of prostate cancer patients were diagnosed by radionuclide bone imaging, and 51 cases of them were included in the bone metastases group, while the other 36 cases were selected as the non-metastases group. Serum levels of ALP and osteocalcin of all patients were detected. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, likelihood ratio and the predictive value of patients in the two groups were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of the combined detection of ALP and osteocalcin and their expression levels in different bone metastases degrees were analyzed.Results:Serum ALP and osteocalcin levels of patients in metastases group were higher than those in non-metastases group and normal control group. In non-metastases group, the ALP level was higher than that in normal control group, while its osteocalcin level was lower than that in control group (P<0.05); The sensitivities of ALP and osteocalcin were 77.2% and 70.6%, respectively, and their specificities were 61.1% and 54.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity became 93.3% and 82.33% in combined detection of ALP and osteocalcin, which was significantly higher than the single detection (P<0.05). The expression levels of ALP and osteocalcin increased with the increase of the metastases degrees (P<0.05). Conclusions:Combined detection of ALP and osteocalcin can be used in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer with improved diagnostic efficiency.

  11. The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, A.G.; Nishi, C.C. [Univ. Federal do ABC - UFABC, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Machado, A.C.B. [Teorica-Univ. Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Excellence Cluster Universe

    2014-03-15

    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 10{sup 13} GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 10{sup 9} GeV and 10{sup 13} GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occuring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. We show some models that can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for γ-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale.

  12. The 8.2 ka event in the northern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetscher, M.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Müller, W.; Spötl, C.

    2012-04-01

    The 8.2 ka event has been identified as a widespread climate excursion affecting most of the Northern Hemisphere. High-resolution records from ice cores and speleothems constrain the chronology of this event to between 8.21±0.02 and 8.08±0.03 ka BP (Vinther et al. 2006, Cheng et al. 2009). A distinctive asymmetrical pattern in d18O is consistent with modelling results suggesting rapid input of freshwater into the northern Atlantic due to catastrophic drainage of ice-marginal lakes (LeGrande et al., 2008). Despite an increasing amount of data, the regional expression of this event is still poorly understood. Here, we present a new speleothem record from Gasselhöhle in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. The 205 mm-long GAS19 stalagmite was analysed at high resolution for stable isotopes (100 µm) and trace elements (~10-15 µm; continuous LA-ICPMS profiles). Twelve individual MC-ICP-MS U/Th ages underline an annual growth rate of ca. 60 µm during the Early Holocene. The d18O averages -8.9‰, only slightly more depleted than modern carbonate precipitates from the same cave chamber. The 8.2 ka event is marked in GAS19 by a ca. 1‰ excursion with a minimum value of -9.9‰. Largely invariant trace element concentrations (e.g. Mg, U, Sr, Ba) indicate essentially no changes in the local hydrological regime and therefore support the hypothesis of a temperature-dominated signal. The proximity to the lacustrine isotope record from Mondsee (eg. Lauterbach et al. 2011) opens new perspectives for the interpretation of the oxygen isotope signal using two archives at different elevations. Moreover, several coeval speleothem records are available across the Eastern Alps fostering a spatial comparison of the proxy signals associated with this event. Cheng, H. et al. (2009), Geology, 37, 1007-1010 Lauterbach, S. et al. (2011), JQS, 26, 253-267 LeGrande, A.N., Schmidt, G.A. (2008), Paleoceanography, 23, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001610 Vinther, B. et al. (2006), JGR, 111, D13103

  13. Dendroclimatic trend and glacial fluctuations in the Central Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfini, M.; Santilli, M.; D Agata, C.; Diolaiuti, G.; Smiraglia, C.

    2003-04-01

    In the Alpine environment, one of the main limiting factors for tree growth is the thermal conditions of the vegetative season. The conifers at high altitude, if not subject to others disturbs, such as geomorphological processes or biological interferences, undergo a development, from which the width of annual rings depends. Five chronologies few centuries long, obtained for the species Larix decidua Mill. and Pinus cembra L. from different valleys of the Central Italian Alps (Alpisella, Valfurva, Gavia and Solda) in proximity of timberline (2000-2550 m of altitude), were analysed and their climatic signal gained; this last one was then related to the recent glacial fluctuations. The chronologies are the averages of many dendrochronological indicized curves obtained from dominant trees with regular growth and extended from 13th-17th century up to the present. The time intervals of the chronologies are the following ones: Pinus cembra: 1752-1999 for Valfurva; 1607-1999 for Gavia; 1593-1999 for Val Solda. With regard to Larix decidua: 1252-1998 for Val Solda; 1784-2001 for Alpisella. The good correspondence between the various chronologies allows to consider them representative of the climatic regional signal. In order to evidence climatic evolution, linear trends based on running mean with period of 11 years have been constructed. Those curves have been compared between them and then overlapped and mediated in order to obtain a climatic signal of regional value that excludes eventual local anomalies. Finally, the growth variations in the chronologies have been compared to known alpine climatic variations and glacial fluctuations. In particular time-distance curves (curves of cumulated frontal variations) of some glaciers from the Ortles-Cevedale Group were utilized. The periods of tree rings growth rate reduction appear well correlated to glacial advancing phases of the Little Ice Age and of the following phases. In particular, growth rate reductions are observable

  14. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  15. Epigondolella abneptis and E. spatulata in the Lower Norian in the central Kamnik Alps, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ramovš

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigondolella abneptis (Huckriede, 1958 and E. spatulata (Hayashi, 1968from the Lower Norian (Upper Triassic deeper marine micritic limestones with chert nodules and lenses in the locality Sleme, central Kamnik Alps, are presented.

  16. Detecting an infrared photon within an hour. Transition-edge detector at ALPS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Horns, Dieter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Collaboration: ALPS-II collaboration

    2013-09-15

    An essential design requirement of the ALPS-II experiment is the efficient detection of single photons with a very low instrumental background of 10 {mu}Hz. In 2011 the ALPS collaboration started to set up a TES detector (Transition-Edge Sensor) for ALPS-II, the second phase of the experiment. Since mid of 2013 the setup is ready for characterization in the ALPS laboratory: an ADR cryostat (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator) as millikelvin environment, a low noise SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) with electronics for read-out and a fiber-coupled high-efficient TES for near-infrared photons as sensor. First measurements have shown a good discrimination between noise and 1064 nm signals.

  17. Diterpenoid alkaloid toxicosis in cattle in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Birgit; Booth, Marcia C; Tor, Elizabeth R; Odermatt, Arnold

    2002-02-01

    Between 1995 and 1999, several cattle of a group of 80 heifers died acutely on a pasture in the Swiss Alps. The animals were Found dead between July 9th and 15th eachyear. Only 1 animal was examined on post-mortem, and no significant lesions were found. Aconitum vulpera, A napellus, and Delphinium elatum were identified in the pasture. The presence of diterpenoid alkaloid-containing plants in the pasture, the rapid death of the animals, and the lack of pathologic lesions suggested diterpenoid alkaloid toxicosis as a cause of death. A multiresidue alkaloid screen using gas chromatography with a mass spectrometric detector was employed on rumen, abomasal, small intestine, and cecal contents from the I heifer. Deltaline, deltamine, and lycoctonine were identified. Aconitine was found in all gastrointestinal samples using a sensitive and highly specific liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology for aconitine analysis. The findings ofditerpenoid alkaloids in the gastrointestinal contents confirmed exposure to Delphinium and Aconitum spp, possibly resulting in sudden death.

  18. Infrasound monitoring of snow avalanches in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripepe, Maurizio; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Marchetti, Emanuele; Chiambretti, Igor; Segor, Valerio; Pitet, Luca

    2010-05-01

    Risk assessment of snow avalanches is mostly related to weather conditions and snow cover. However a robust risk validation requires to identify all avalanches occurring, in order to compare predictions to real effects. For this purpose on December 2009 we installed a temporary 4-element, small aperture (100 m), infrasound array in the Alps. The array has been deployed south of Mt. Rosa, at an elevation of 2000 m a.s.l. in the valley of Gressoney, where natural avalanches are expected and triggered ones are regularly programmed. The array consists into 4 absolute pressure transducers with a sensitivity of 0.01 Pa in the 0.1-50 Hz frequency band and a 7 channel Guralp CMG-DM24 A/D converter, sampling at 100 Hz. Timing is achieved with a GPS receiver. The array is completely buried in snow. Gel cell batteries and 200 W solar panels provide the array power requirements (~3 W) and should allow a continuous operation during the winter season. A multi-channel semblance is carried out on the continuous data set as a function of slowness, back-azimuth and frequency of recorded infrasound in order to detect all avalanches occurring from the back-ground signal, strongly affected by microbarom and mountain induced gravity waves. This pilot experiment in Italy will allow to verify the efficiency of the system, and might represent an important validation to modeled avalanches activity during this winter season.

  19. A Proposal for an ALPs-Chameleon Experiments Station

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, James R; Baker, Oliver Keith; Shinn, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that certain astronomical and cosmological observations can be explained by invoking the concepts of Dark Matter and Dark Energy (DM/DE). Applying straightforward extensions of the Standard Model to DM/DE, results in scalar fi?elds and predictions of particles generation via photo-magnetic coupling . Under the right conditions, these particles should be observable in earth-bound laboratory settings. Although many attempts have been made to observe these particles, none have succeeded. Heretofore, most searches have focused on detecting multi-GeV Dark Matter WIMPS. Recently, however, searches have been conducted in the lighter dark matter, sub-eV, WISP mass range. By comparison, little has been done to search for dark energy particles. The ALPs-Chameleon Experiments Stations (ACES) program, described herein, proposes a compact station that would search for both dark sector particles. Finally, it is noted that both "species" of particles - dark energy and dark matter - could be generate...

  20. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  1. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Molinari-Jobin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the population trend of lynx in the Swiss Alps, we analysed the spatial and numerical development of signs of presence found from 1995 to 1999 and compared them with previous years. Three sources of information on the presence of lynx are available: (1 reports of lynx killed or found dead; (2 records of livestock killed by lynx; (3 records of wild prey remains, tracks, scats, sightings, and vocalisations. We distinguished three levels of reliability: Quality 1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed or found dead, photographs of lynx as well as young orphaned lynx caught in the wild and taken into captivity. Quality 2 include all records of livestock killed, wild prey remains, tracks and scats reported by people who have attended special courses, e.g. mainly game wardens. Quality 3 are all wild prey remains and tracks reported by the general public as well as all sightings, scats and vocalisations, e.g. signs that cannot be verified. More than 1600 signs of presence were recorded in the Swiss Alps in this 5-year-period. A high number of quality 1 and 2 records showed that (1 the lynx population in the north-western Swiss Alps increased from 1994 to 1999, that (2 there is a moderate presence of the species in the central and south-western parts and (3 none or hardly any lynx are found in the eastern Alps of Switzerland. Based on a radio-telemetry study and the number of quality 2 data, we were able to estimate the number of lynx in the Swiss Alps at 70 individuals. To counterpart the uneven distribution of lynx in Switzerland, lynx are being translocated from the north-western Alps to the eastern Swiss Alps, as the expansion of the Swiss lynx population is crucial for the conservation of the lynx in the whole Alps.

  2. [Assessment of cancer RCP meetings in Rhône-Alpes: a survey on the ground].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descotes, J-L; Guillem, P; Bondil, P; Colombel, M; Chabloz, C

    2010-10-01

    The results of a local survey sent to urologists, oncologists and radiotherapeutists working in Rhône-Alpes have been reported to assess the value of multidisciplinary oncological meetings (RCP) in Urology. The results of this short study have been analyzed and compared to the national results published by the Inspection Générale des Affaires Sociales report. Meanwhile, we have created a professional electronic directory collecting all RCP of Rhône-Alpes, which will be accessible soon.

  3. Configurational effects of collagen/ALP coatings on enzyme immobilization and surface mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, R.; Leeuwenburgh, S. C. G.; Jansen, J. A.; van den Beucken, J. J. J. P.

    2014-08-01

    The ultimate goal for surface modifications in bone implants is to achieve biologically active surface able to control and trigger specific tissue response. In this study was evaluated the effects of organic compound, derived from extracellular matrix, involved in tissue mineralization. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) plays a fundamental role in bone mineralization concurrently with collagen, the main organic components of bones. Electrospray deposition (ESD) was used to coat titanium disks with ALP and collagen at room temperature. To verify the synergistic role of ALP and collagen different conformations of coatings (mixed and layered) were obtained and their mineralization capacity was tested in vitro. The mineralization tests indicated the fundamental role of collagen to increase ALP coating retention. Analyses indicated that the coating conformation has a role; in fact the mixed group showed improved ALP retention, enzymatic activity and unique mineralized surface morphology. ESD demonstrated to be a successful method to deposit organic molecules preserving their properties as indicated by the in vitro results. These findings proved the synergistic effect of ALP and collagen in inducing mineralization offering an intriguing coating constituent for medical device that aim to trigger surface mineralization such as bone implants.

  4. The Quest for an Intermediate-Scale Accidental Axion and Further ALPs

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, A G; Nishi, C C; Ringwald, A; Vaudrevange, P

    2014-01-01

    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above $10^{13}$ GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between $10^9$ GeV and $10^{13}$ GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral $U(1)$ (Peccei-Quinn ...

  5. IL-17 protects T cells from apoptosis and contributes to development of ALPS-like phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, Elena; Clemente, Nausicaa; Mondino, Anna; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Gigliotti, Casimiro L; Toth, Erika; Ramenghi, Ugo; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2014-02-20

    In autoimmune/lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), defective Fas death receptor function causes lymphadenomegaly/splenomegaly, the expansion of T-cell receptor αβ(+) CD4/CD8 double-negative T cells, and frequent development of hematologic autoimmunity. Dianzani autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease (DALD) has a similar phenotype but lacks the expansion of double-negative T cells. This work shows that patients with ALPS and DALD have high serum levels of interleukin 17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, and IL-17AF, which are involved in several autoimmune diseases, and that their T cells show increased secretion of these cytokines upon activation in vitro. The following data indicate that these cytokines may contribute to ALPS and DALD: (1) recombinant IL-17A and IL-17F significantly inhibit Fas-induced cell death in Fas-sensitive T cells from healthy donors; (2) this inhibitory effect is also induced by the patients' serum and is reversed by anti-IL-17A antibodies; (3) IL-17A neutralization substantially increases Fas-induced cell death in T cells from ALPS and DALD patients in vitro; and (4) treatment with anti-IL-17A antibodies ameliorates the autoimmune manifestations and, at a lesser extent, the lymphoproliferative phenotype and prolongs survival in MRLlpr/lpr mice, which are an animal model of ALPS. These data suggest that IL-17A and IL-17F could be targeted therapeutically to improve Fas function in ALPS and DALD.

  6. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) caused by Fas (CD95) mutation mimicking sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllauer, Leonhard; Emhofer, Josef; Wohlfart, Sabine; Pichlhöfer, Bettina; Stary, Susanne; Ebetsberger, Georg; Mannhalter, Christine; Chott, Andreas

    2008-02-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an inherited disorder associated with defects in apoptosis, characterized by childhood onset of lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and autoimmune disease. ALPS is most frequently associated with a mutation in the cell death receptor Fas (CD95). Very rarely a mutation in caspase 10 is present. An increase of CD4/CD8 double negative T cells in the peripheral blood and lymph nodes is a feature characteristic of ALPS. Additionally, histiocytic proliferations resembling sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) were reported recently in patients with ALPS. In the rare cases with a caspase 10 mutation an accumulation of dendritic cells in lymphoid organs was noted. We describe a different, sarcoidosislike, histiocytic infiltration of lymph nodes that persisted for years in a girl, that was initially supposed to suffer from sarcoidosis, but was eventually diagnosed as ALPS, associated with a missense mutation in the intracellular death domain of Fas. This sarcoidosislike histologic picture extends the spectrum of histiocytic lymph node alterations observed in ALPS and alerts of a potential diagnostic pitfall.

  7. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The formation of lakes is one of the consequences of glacier retreat due to climate change in mountain areas. Numerous lakes have formed in the past few decades in many mountain regions around the globe. Some of these lakes came into focus due to catastrophic hazard events especially in the Himalayas and the Andes. Glacial lake development and lifetime is controlled by the complex interplay of glacier dynamics, geomorphological process activity and geological boundary conditions. Besides the hazard potential new lakes in formerly glaciated areas will significantly contribute to a new landscape setting and to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at higher alpine altitudes. We present an inventory of high alpine lakes in the Austrian Alps located above an altitude of 1700 m asl. Most of these lakes are assumed to be of glacial origin, but other causes for development, like mass movements are considered as well. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at modelling the potential development of glacial lakes in Austria (we refer to the presentation by Helfricht et al. during the conference for more details on the modelling part). Lake inventory data will serve as one basis for model validation since modelling is performed on different time steps using glacier inventory data. The purpose of the lake inventory is to get new insights into boundary conditions for lake formation and evolution by analysing existing lake settings. Based on these information the project seeks to establish a model of lake sedimentation after glacier retreat in order to assess the potential lifetime of the new lakes in Austria. Lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m² were mapped using multiple aerial imagery sources. The dataset contains information on location, geometry, dam type, and status of sedimentation for each lake. Additionally, various geologic, geomorphic and morphometric parameters describe the lake catchments. Lake data is related to

  8. Fallout Radionuclides as Tracers in Southern Alps Sediment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, A. E.; Karanovic, Z.; Dibb, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    The primary geologic processes shaping the landscape are physical and chemical weathering and the transport of solids by erosion. As part of our studies on the coupling between physical erosion and chemical weathering, we have determined depositional and erosional processes in New Zealand's tectonically active, rapidly uplifting Southern Alps, specifically focusing on the Hokitika River watershed. The South Island watersheds we are studying are subject to extreme orographic precipitation (as high as 7-12 m annually) and high landslide frequency, but have modest topography due to the rapid erosion. In concert with our studies of chemical weathering and physical erosion, we have used the atmospherically-delivered radionuclides of 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pbexcess to determine the relative magnitude of particle residence time in the high elevation Cropp and Whitcombe subwatersheds and the rates of sedimentation. One- and two-box modeling with 7Be and 210Pbexcess was used to determine soil and sediment residence times. Residence time of fine suspended particles is short and particles can travel the length of the river during a single storm, probably due to the short duration, high-intensity rainfalls which produce rapidly moving, steep flood waves. The readily detected peak of 137Cs activity in Cropp terrace and Hokitika gorge soils yielded sedimentation rates of 0.06-0.12 cm yr-1. At the Cropp terrace, inventory models of 210Pbexcess yield soil accumulation rates significantly less than those determined using the 137Cs activity peak. We attribute the differences to overestimation of 210Pbexcess in surface soils and to contrasting fallout fluxes, geochemical behavior and radionuclide contents of sedimenting materials. Total inventories of 210Pbexcess in soils greatly exceed the expected direct atmospheric deposition, suggesting that lateral transport of this nuclide occurs within the watershed. At the Hokitika gorge, all nuclides studied yielded similar sedimentation rates

  9. Infrasonic monitoring of snow avalanches in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, E.; Ulivieri, G.; Ripepe, M.; Chiambretti, I.; Segor, V.

    2012-04-01

    Risk assessment of snow avalanches is mostly related to weather conditions and snow cover. However a robust risk validation requires to identify all avalanches occurring, in order to compare predictions to real effects. For this purpose on December 2010 we installed a permanent 4-element, small aperture (100 m), infrasound array in the Alps, after a pilot experiment carried out in Gressonay during the 2009-2010 winter season. The array has been deployed in the Ayas Valley, at an elevation of 2000 m a.s.l., where natural avalanches are expected and controlled events are regularly performed. The array consists into 4 Optimic 2180 infrasonic microphones, with a sensitivity of 10-3 Pa in the 0.5-50 Hz frequency band and a 4 channel Guralp CMG-DM24 A/D converter, sampling at 100 Hz. Timing is achieved with a GPS receiver. Data are transmitted to the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Firenze, where data is recorded and processed in real-time. A multi-channel semblance is carried out on the continuous data set as a function of slowness, back-azimuth and frequency of recorded infrasound in order to detect all avalanches occurring from the back-ground signal, strongly affected by microbarom and mountain induced gravity waves. This permanent installation in Italy will allow to verify the efficiency of the system in short-to-medium range (2-8 km) avalanche detection, and might represent an important validation to model avalanches activity during this winter season. Moreover, the real-time processing of infrasonic array data, might strongly contribute to avalanche risk assessments providing an up-to-description of ongoing events.

  10. Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Silvana; Tartarotti, Paola; Meyzen, Chrstine; Benciolini, Luca; Toffolo, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps Martin S.**, Tartarotti P.*, Meyzen C. **, Benciolini L.***, Toffolo L. ** *Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano ** Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università di Padova *** Dipartimento di Chimica, Fisica e Ambiente, Università di Udine In the Urtier valley (southern Aosta Valley, Italy), the Piemonte metaophiolites mainly consist of serpentinized peridotites including pods and boudinaged layers of Fe-metagabbro and trondhjemite transposed in the main eclogitic foliation. The contact between serpentinized peridotites and Fe-metagabbro/trondhjemite is locally lined by chloriteschist and rodingite. The high pressure parageneses in the Fe-metagabbro are omphacite-garnet-rutile-glaucophane-phengite, and in the metatrondhjemite plagioclase-quartz-phengite-clinozoisite-epidote-garnet, respectively. Bulk-rock major and trace elements in addition to O isotope analyses were performed in both rock types. Fe-metagabbros are characterized by MgO wt% ranging between 6.11 and 9.63%, ∑REE= 20-101 ppm, (La/Yb)N = 0.22-0.91; trondhjemites have SiO2 43%, Al2O3 ranging between 21 and 24%, CaO ranging between 17 and 20%, ∑REE = 172 - 272 ppm, (La/Yb)N ranging between 7.78 and 13.70. The δ18O is 5.9 ‰ in a Fe-metagabbro sample and 7.4 ‰ in a trondhjemite sample, suggesting that these rocks have been affected by a weak oceanic low temperature alteration. The high CaO content may indicate a metasomatic process which could have occurred during the oceanic stage or at high pressure conditions.

  11. Hydrological Impact of Climate Change Scenarios for the Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, S.; Barontini, S.; Grossi, G.; Ranzi, R.; Quaglia, G.

    2005-12-01

    Starting from results of Global Circulation Models, IPCC-based scenarios for the XXI century were selected and the expected time series for surface temperature and precipitation were extracted together with model results for the second half of the XX century for two regions of the southern Alps, in Italy. Both monthly and daily data were analysed. Monthly data were used to describe the variability of climatic data in terms of trend, and characteristic frequencies were singled out. Comparisons were made among results of different models and, for past data, experimental records collected in meteorological stations located in Northern Italy. The aim was to derive the expected trends in two watersheds where hydropower is well developed. From daily data, statistics on rainy events were derived and they were compared to experimental data, for model's verification. These results were used in a hydrological model in order to assess the expected changes of runoff regimes in the two watersheds. The model, of the semi-distributed and conceptual type, assumes the projected meteorological data as forcing for the XXI century. It also assumes that land use changes (snow and forest cover) will adapt to climate changes. In the area, in fact, an increase of the timberline altitude is already being observed, since the end of the Little Ice Age. Using detailed knowledge of characteristics of the hydropower plants and their past operation rules, and of irrigation uses downstream, the influence of climate change on hydropower production and water resources availability for irrigation and human use was extrapolated for the 21st century in these two representative basins.

  12. Examining innovation in the Alps at the local scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bourdeau

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pays des Ecrins, which hosted the 2008 Alpine Week, is an emblematic mountain region of the French Alps that has to adapt in the face of numerous endogenous and exogenous crises and changes. Questions relating to creativity and innovation are thus raised in a structural manner and can be seen both as an injunction and a means to developing resources. Based on a review of the path taken by this region over the past twenty years, this paper examines the geo-historical and geo-cultural underpinnings of innovation in a context of local heritage and tourism development.Lieu d’accueil de la semaine alpine 2008, le Pays des Ecrins constitue un cas emblématique de territoire de montagne confronté à un impératif de mouvement face à de multiples facteurs de crise et de recomposition endogènes et exogènes. Les questions de la créativité et de l’innovation se voient alors posées de manière structurelle, à la fois comme ressource et injonction. A partir d’une relecture de la trajectoire de ce territoire à l’échelle des vingt dernières années, ce texte examine les conditions et les dynamiques géohistoriques et géoculturelles dans lesquelles la problématique de l’innovation peut être replacée dans un contexte de développement local patrimonial et touristique.

  13. A statistical permafrost distribution model for the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Boeckli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost distribution modeling in densely populated mountain regions is an important task to support the construction of infrastructure and for the assessment of climate change effects on permafrost and related natural systems. In order to analyze permafrost distribution and evolution on an Alpine-wide scale, one consistent model for the entire domain is needed.

    We present a statistical permafrost model for the entire Alps based on rock glacier inventories and rock surface temperatures. Starting from an integrated model framework, two different sub-models were developed, one for debris covered areas (debris model and one for steep rock faces (rock model. For the debris model a generalized linear mixed-effect model (GLMM was used to predict the probability of a rock glacier being intact as opposed to relict. The model is based on the explanatory variables mean annual air temperature (MAAT, potential incoming solar radiation (PISR and the mean annual sum of precipitation (PRECIP, and achieves an excellent discrimination (area under the receiver-operating characteristic, AUROC = 0.91. Surprisingly, the probability of a rock glacier being intact is positively associated with increasing PRECIP for given MAAT and PISR conditions. The rock model was calibrated with mean annual rock surface temperatures (MARST and is based on MAAT and PISR. The linear regression achieves a root mean square error (RMSE of 1.6 °C. The final model combines the two sub-models and accounts for the different scales used for model calibration. Further steps to transfer this model into a map-based product are outlined.

  14. A multidisciplinary methodology for the characterization of a large rock spread in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzner, Sandra; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Moser, Michael; Motschka, Klaus; Lotter, Michael; Mandl, Gerhard Walter; Rohn, Joachim; Otter, Juergen; Wimmer-Frey, Ingeborg

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Calcareous Alps are characterized by complex lithological and tectonic settings, which are a consequence of the multiphase Alpine orogeny. Several tectonic events caused a varying structural anisotropy with a high susceptibility towards certain types of gravitational mass movement. Mt. Plassen is situated west of the Hallstatt village (Upper Austria). It is composed of Jurassic limestone, which overlies Permotriassic fine-grained clastic rocks and evaporites (mainly part of the so-called Haselgebirge). This geotechnical predisposition causes rock spreading of the more hard and rigid limestone on the weak, mainly clayey rocks. Associated to this large slope instability are secondary rockfall and sliding processes. Further common process chains include rockfall triggering slides and/or earth flows by undrained loading of the ductile clay material. Thus, such fast moving flows/slides may endanger the houses and infrastructures in the Salzberg high valley and Hallstatt village. Recent rockfall activity at Mt. Plassen provide evidences for greater, perhaps accelerating displacement rates of the rock spread. A multidisciplinary assessment strategy was chosen to analyse the ground conditions, to characterize the potential failure mechanisms in more detail and to evaluate the hazard potential of future events. Methods include field mapping (geologic, engineering geologic and geomorphologic), sampling and determination of soil parameters in active process areas, geophysical surveys (airborne geophysics and geoelectric measurements) and kinematic measurements (tape dilatometer and geodetic measurements over a period of 50 years). Results of this multidisciplinary approach form the basis for further decision making such as the installation of a monitoring system or other preventive measures.

  15. Nuclear translocation of the cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, upon induction of skeletal muscle differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambier, Linda [CNRS UMR5237, Universite Montpellier 1, Universite Montpellier 2, Centre de Recherche en Biochimie Macromoleculaire, Montpellier (France); Pomies, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.pomies@crbm.cnrs.fr [CNRS UMR5237, Universite Montpellier 1, Universite Montpellier 2, Centre de Recherche en Biochimie Macromoleculaire, Montpellier (France)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} The cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, is expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle. {yields} smALP is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts upon induction of myogenesis. {yields} The differentiation-dependent nuclear translocation of smALP occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. {yields} The LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear accumulation of the protein. {yields} smALP might act in the nucleus to control some critical aspect of the muscle differentiation process. -- Abstract: The skALP isoform has been shown to play a critical role in actin organization and anchorage within the Z-discs of skeletal muscles, but no data is available on the function of the smALP isoform in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that upon induction of differentiation a nuclear translocation of smALP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts, concomitant to an up-regulation of the protein expression, occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear translocation of the protein.

  16. Younger Dryas equilibrium line altitudes and precipitation patterns in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschner, Hanns; Moran, Andrew; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Moraine systems of the "Egesen Stadial" are widespread and easily identifiable features in the Alps. Absolute dating with terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclides shows that the maximum extent was reached during the early Younger Dryas (YD), probably as a reaction to the intense climatic downturn subsequent to Lateglacial Interstadial. In recent years, several new studies and the availability of high-quality laser-scan hillshades and orthophotos allowed a significant extension of the database of YD glaciers as "palaeoprecipitation gauges" to large hitherto unmapped regions in the Austrian and Swiss Alps. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the glaciers and its lowering relative to the Little Ice Age ELA (dELA) shows a distinct and systematic spatial pattern. Along the northern slope of the Alps, dELAs are usually large (around 400 m and perhaps even more), while dELAs range around 200 m in the well sheltered areas of the central Alps, e.g. in the Engadine and in western Tyrol. Both stochastic glacier-climate models (e.g. Ohmura et al. 1992) and the heat- and mass balance equation (Kuhn 1981) allow the reconstruction of precipitation change under the assumption of a spatially constant summer temperature depression, which in turn can be estimated from biological proxies. This allows to draw the spatial pattern of precipitation change with considerable detail. Precipitation change is clearly controlled by the local relief like high mountain chains, deeply incised and long valleys and mountain passes. Generally the contrast between the northern fringe of the Alps and the interior was more pronounced than today. Climate in the Northern and and Northwestern Alps was rather wet with precipitation totals eventually exceeding modern annual sums. The central Alps received 20 - 30% less precipitation than today, mainly due to reduced winter precipitation. In the southern Alps, still scarce spatial information points to precipitation sums which were approximately similar to

  17. Expression of Helicobacter pylori AlpA protein and its immunogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xue; Yang Bai; Ye Chen; Ji-De Wang; Zhao-Shan Zhang; Ya-Li Zhang; Dian-Yuan Zhou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To construct a recombinant strain which expresses adhesin AlpA of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) and to study the immunogenicity of adhesin AlpA.METHODS: Gene Ab, which was amplified from H pylori chromosomal DNA by PCR technique, was sequenced and the biological information was analyzed, and inserted into the Nco Ⅰ and NotⅠ restriction fragments of the expression vector pET-22b(+) using T4 DNA ligase. The resulting plasmid pET-AlpA was transformed into competent E.coli BL21(DE3) cells using ampicillin resistance for selection.Recombinant strains were incubated in 5 mL LB with 100 μg/mL ampicillin overnight at 37 ℃. Sonication of BL21(DE3)pET-22b(+)/AlpA was analyzed by Western blot to detect AlpA immunogenicity.RESULTS: The gene encoding AlpA protein was amplified by PCR with chromosomal DNA of H pylori Sydney strain (SS1) as templates. It revealed that AlpA DNA fragment amplified by PCR had approximately 1 500 nucleotides,compatible with the previous reports. The recombinant plasmid pET-22b(+)/AB was successfully constructed. DNA sequencing showed one open reading frame with the length of 588 bp. It encoded seven conservative regions that showed good antigenicity and hydrophobicity by Parker and Welling method. Furthermore, INTERNET EXPASY,NNPREDICT and ISREC predicted that it was a porin-like structure consisting of β-pleated sheets that were embedded in the outer membrane. BLAST analyzed 836 767 protein sequences and found that the similar sequences were all belonging to H pylori OMP sequences. SDS-PAGE and scan analysis showed that the molecular weight of AB was 22.5 ku and recombinant protein amounted to 29% of the total bacterial protein, among which dissolved expression amounted to 21.9% of sonicated supernatant. The rAB purity amounted to 96% through affinity chromatography.Western blot analysis of rAB confirmed that it could be specially recognized by serum form rabbit immunized with AlpA and H pylori infected.CONCLUSION: Adhesin Alp

  18. Assessing Glacier Hazards At Ghiacciaio Del Belvedere, Macugnaga, Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, W.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Mazza, A.

    The uppermost section of the Valle Anzasca behind and above the community of Macugnaga in the Italian Alps is one of the most spectacular high-mountain land- scapes in Europe, with gigantic rock walls and numerous steep hanging glaciers. Its main glacier, Ghiacciaio del Belvedere at the foot of the huge Monte Rosa east face, is a heavily debris-covered glacier flowing on a thick sediment bed. Problems with floods, avalanches and debris flows from this ice body have been known for extended time periods. Most recently, however, the evolution of this highly dynamic environ- ment has become more dramatic. An outburst of Lago delle Locce, an ice-dammed lake at the confluenec of the tributary Ghiacciaio delle Locce with Ghiacciaio del Belvedere, caused heavy damage in 1979 and necessitated site investigation and con- struction work to be done for flood protection. The intermittent glacier growth ten- dency in the 1970es induced strong bulging of the glacier surface and, in places, caused the glacier tongue to override historical morains and to destroy newly-grown forest stands. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte- Rosa east face during summer 2000, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Ghiacciaio del Belvedere and extreme bulging of its orographic right margin. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002: the ice now started overriding the LIA moraine near Rifugio Zamboni of the CAI. In addition but rather independently, a most active detachment zone for rock falls and debris flows developed for several years now in the east face of Monte Rosa, somewhat more to the south of the accelerated glacier movement and at an altitude where relatively warm permafrost must be expected. Besides the scientific interest in these phenomena, the growing hazard potential to the local infrastructure must be considered seriously. Es- pecially potentials for the destabilization of large rock and ice masses in the

  19. Natural gas seeps in the French Alps: Sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Blessing, Michaela; Proust, Eric; Gal, Frédéric; Bentivegna, Gaetan; Henry, Benoit; Defossez, Pierrick; Catherine, Lerouge; Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Millot, Romain; Gaucher, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas emanations are part of the geochemical baseline to take into account when assessing global greenhouse gas emissions and potential impacts of conventional and unconventional gas exploration and exploitation on groundwater. Examples of such natural gas macro-seeps are known in several parts of the world (Etiope et al., 2009). Only a limited number of them have been characterized for their gas and isotopic compositions. Such analyses can provide essential information for baseline studies, providing insight in the sources (biogenic vs. thermogenic or modified thermogenic) and pathways of such seeps and may allow for distinction of natural seeps from stray gas leakage associated with human activities. Here, we report gas concentrations and multi-isotope data (δ13C and δ2H of methane and ethane, δ13C and δ18O of CO2, 3He/4He ratio) of two gas seeps in the French subalpine chains, both in a similar geological and structural position within Middle Jurassic claystones along the eastern border of the large synclinal structures of the Vercors and the Chartreuse massifs (Moss, 1992). The "ardent fountain" (fontaine ardente) of Le Gua, 30 km south of Grenoble has most likely the longest continuous written record of existence of any individual natural gas seep, mentioned explicitly as early as the first quarter of the 5th century (Augustin of Hippo (St. Augustin), approx. 426) This natural seep was described in the past as a "wet seep" associated with a spring, whereas the second investigated seep, Rochasson near Meylan north of Grenoble, is a dry seep. Both seeps contain methane and ethane with thermogenic C and H isotope signatures, comparable with a seep in the Northern Swiss Alps at Giswil (Etiope et al., 2010) but with a higher dryness (C1/(C2+C3)>1000) for the Le Gua seep, possibly due to molecular fractionation upon advective fluid+gas migration (Etiope et al., 2009). Maturity (R0) of the reservoir rocks deduced from δ13C(CH4), δ13C(C2H6) is similar to

  20. Defective anti-polysaccharide response and splenic marginal zone disorganization in ALPS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Bénédicte; Bruneau, Julie; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Meyts, Isabelle; Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Moens, Leen; Lanzarotti, Nina; Weller, Sandra; Amiranoff, Denise; Florkin, Benoit; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Leverger, Guy; Ferster, Alice; Chantrain, Christophe; Blanche, Stéphane; Picard, Capucine; Molina, Thierry Jo; Brousse, Nicole; Durandy, Anne; Rizzi, Marta; Bossuyt, Xavier; Fischer, Alain; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic

    2014-09-04

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) caused by impaired FAS-mediated apoptosis of lymphocytes is characterized by lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity, but also an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection, notably following splenectomy. We surveyed a cohort of 100 ALPS patients (including 33 splenectomized) and found that 12 (10 splenectomized) had experienced 23 invasive bacterial infections mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This vulnerability was associated with evidence of defective B-cell function characterized by low serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M, low IgM antibody production in response to S pneumoniae following nonconjugated immunization, and low blood memory B-cells counts (including marginal zone [MZ] B-cell counts). This immunodeficiency strongly correlated with intensity of lymphoproliferation. Spleen sections from 9 ALPS patients revealed double-negative T-cell (DN-T) infiltration of the MZ, which was depleted of B cells. MZ in ALPS patients contained an abnormally thick layer of MAdCAM-1((+)) stromal cells and an excess of DN-Ts. DN-Ts were shown to express MAdCAM-1 ligand, the α4β7 integrin. These observations suggest that accumulating DN-Ts are trapped within stromal cell meshwork and interfere with correct localization of MZ B cells. Similar observations were made in spleens of fas-deficient mice. Our data revealed an unexpected mechanism by which ALPS results in anti-polysaccharide IgM antibody production-specific defect. Splenectomy should be avoided.

  1. Hydrological and meteorological aspects of floods in the Alps: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassare Bacchi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This introductory paper presents and summarises recent research on meteorological and hydrological aspects of floods in the Alps. The research activities were part of the international research project RAPHAEL (Runoff and Atmospheric Processes for flood HAzard forEcasting and controL together with experiments within the Special Observing Period-SOP conducted in autumn 1999 for the Mesoscale Alpine Programme —MAP. The investigations were based on both field experiments and numerical simulations, using meteorological and hydrological models, of ten major floods that occurred in the past decade in the European Alps. The two basins investigated were the Ticino (6599 km2 at the Lago Maggiore outlet on the southern side of the Alps and the Ammer catchment (709 km2 in the Bavarian Alps. These catchments and their sub-catchments cover an appropriate range of spatial scales with which to investigate and test in an operational context the potential of both mesoscale meteorological and distributed hydrological models for flood forecasting. From the data analyses and model simulations described in this Special Issue, the major sources of uncertainties for flood forecasts in mid-size mountain basins are outlined and the accuracy flood forecasts is assessed. Keywords: floods, mountain hydrology, meteorological models, Alps

  2. Non-perturbative over-production of axion-like-particles (ALPs) via derivative interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    Axion like particles (ALPs) are quite generic in many scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model, they are pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone bosons, and appear once any global $U(1)$ symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ALPs can gain mass from various non-perturbative quantum effects, such as anomalies or instantons. ALPs can couple to the matter sector incluidng a scalar condensate such as inflaton or moduli field via derivative interactions, which are suppressed by the axion {\\it decay constant}, $f_\\chi$ . Although weakly interacting, the ALPs can be produced abundantly from the coherent oscillations of a homogeneous condensate. In this paper we will study such a scenario where the ALPs can be produced abundantly, and in some cases can even overclose the Universe via odd and even dimensional operators, as long as $f_\\chi/\\Phi_{\\rm I} \\ll 1$, where $\\Phi_{\\rm I}$ denotes the initial amplitude of the coherent oscillations of the scalar condensate, $\\phi$. We will briefly mention how such dangerous overprodu...

  3. New data on the progradation of the Dachstein carbonate platform (Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Celarc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Upper Triassic basin-platform succession in the Kamnik-Savinja Alps (N-central Slovenia is similar to the succession known from the Julian Alps (Martuljek Mountain Group. It was part of the same Late Triassic depositional edifice, with the progradation of the Dachstein Platform in the SW-NE direction (recent orientation from Julian Alps toward the Kamnik-Savinja Alps. Tectonic blocks with the same/similar stratigraphic record, were displaced as a consequence of the Alpine and later tectonic displacements. In the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, the upper part of the Martuljek platy limestone was dated with the conodonts as Late Carnian – Early Norian in the Mt. Ko~na. In the Mt. Skuta area, Limestone with chert is positioned above Martuljek platy limestone and under the Dachstein carbonate platform. Uppermost part of the Limestone with chert is Late Norian. Mutual vertical and lateral relationship, age of the lithological units, especially upper part of the deeper-water limestone, points to the progradation of the Dachstein carbonate platform in the Early Norian and possible aggradation in the part of the Middle and in the Late Norian.

  4. Adjacent Lone Pair (ALP) Effect: A Computational Approach for Its Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Wu, Wei; Ahmed, Basil M; Mezei, Gellert; Mo, Yirong

    2016-05-23

    The adjacent lone pair (ALP) effect is an experimental phenomenon in certain nitrogenous heterocyclic systems exhibiting the preference of the products with lone pairs separated over other isomers with lone pairs adjacent. A theoretical elucidation of the ALP effect requires the decomposition of intramolecular energy terms and the isolation of lone pair-lone pair interactions. Here we used the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method within the ab initio valence bond (VB) theory to derive the strictly localized orbitals which are used to accommodate one-atom centered lone pairs and two-atom centered σ or π bonds. As such, interactions among electron pairs can be directly derived. Two-electron integrals between adjacent lone pairs do not support the view that the lone pair-lone pair repulsion is responsible for the ALP effect. Instead, the disabling of π conjugation greatly diminishes the ALP effect, indicating that the reduction of π conjugation in deprotonated forms with two σ lone pairs adjacent is one of the major causes for the ALP effect. Further electrostatic potential analysis and intramolecular energy decomposition confirm that the other key factor is the favorable electrostatic attraction within the isomers with lone pairs separated.

  5. Morphostructural study of the Belledonne faults system (French Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billant, Jérémy; Bellier, Olivier; Hippolyte, Jean-Claude; Godard, Vincent; Manchuel, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    The NE trending Belledonne faults system, located in the Alps, is a potentially active faults system that extends from the Aiguilles Rouges and Mont Blanc massifs in the NE to the Vercors massif in the SW (subalpine massifs). It includes the Belledonne border fault (BBF), defined by an alignment of micro earthquakes (ML≤3.5) along the eastern part of the Grésivaudan valley (Thouvenot et al., 2003). Focal mechanisms and their respective depths tend to confirm a dextral strike-slip faulting at crustal scale. In the scope of the Sigma project (http://projet-sigma.com/index.html, EDF), this study aims at better constraining the geometry, kinematic and seismogenic potential of the constitutive faults of the Belledonne fault system, by using a multidisciplinary approach that includes tectonics, geomorphology and geophysics. Fault kinematic analysis along the BBF (Billant et al., 2015) and the Jasneuf fault allows the determination of a strike-slip tectonic regime characterised by an ENE trending σ1 stress axes, which is consistent with stress state deduced from the focal mechanisms. Although no morphological anomalies could be related to recent faulting along the BBF, new clues of potential Quaternary deformations were observed along the other faults of the system: -right lateral offset of morphologic markers (talwegs...) along the NE trending Arcalod fault located at the north-eastern terminations of the BBF; -left lateral offset of the valley formed by the Isère glacier along the NW trending Brion fault which is consistent with its left-lateral slip inferred from the focal mechanisms; -fault scarps and right lateral offsets of cliffs bordering a calcareous plateau and talwegs along the four fault segments of the NE trending Jasneuf fault located at the south-western termination of the BBF in the Vercors massif. Some offsets were measured using a new method that does not require the identification of piercing points and take advantage of the high resolution

  6. The geology of the Vicentinian Alps (NE-Italy) : (with special reference to their paleomagnetic history)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J. de

    1963-01-01

    This geological study on the Vicentinian Alps is mainly an analysis of the tectonic and paleomagnetic data, collected by the author in the years 1959, 1960, and 1961. The stratigraphy is based for the greater part on data published in the first decenniums of this century. In the westtern part of the

  7. The geology of the Vicentinian Alps (NE-Italy) : with special reference to their paleomagnetic history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Jelle de

    1963-01-01

    This geological study on the Vicentinian Alps is mainly an analysis of the tectonic and paleomagnetic data, collected by the author in the years 1959, 1960, and 1961. The stratigraphy is based for the greater part on data published in the first decenniums of this century. In the westtern part of the

  8. IFLA's Core Programme for the Advancement of Librarianship in the Third World--ALP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This brochure provides information on the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) core program for the Advancement of Librarianship in the Third World (ALP), which was launched in 1984 to further the library profession, library institutions, and library and information services in less developed countries. Program objectives are…

  9. Thermal evolution of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Alps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    There are two major and currently unresolved issues in Alpine geology concerning the metamorphic evolution of the rocks in the internal zones of the Alps. First, rocks showing evidence for geologically young, high-pressure to very high-pressure metamorphism are now exposed at the Earth's surface, im

  10. Ecological characterisation of supina bluegrass (Poa supina Schrad.) germplasm from the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supina bluegrass (Poa supina Schrad.) is a potential turfgrass species for cool, northern type climates, yet few genetic resources for research and development are very limited. As a result, a field exploration for P. supina was conduction in the Italian Alps in 2008. Altogether, 55 populations of...

  11. Keeping on: How ALP Brings Disaffected Youth Back to School in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hahmann, Gail; Tengbeh, Josephine F. D.

    2008-01-01

    Moses is entering 7th grade this semester. He is a graduate of the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP), a Liberian government initiative to assist over-age students to complete six grades of primary school in three years. He has all the interests of a typical 15-year old--fixing generators, playing football, earning money to buy a school uniform.…

  12. Evropska dimenzija poučevanja o Alpah = European dimension of teaching about Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Resnik-Planninc

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Situated in several European states, Alps can be an extraordinary factor of connection and mutual study in the whole school vertical. With joint projects of the schools of Alpine countries many goals, written in the Green Paper on the European Dimension of Education, could be fulfilled. The article presents such possibilities of cooperation in the field of geography.

  13. Demodicosis in Chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) in the Italian Alps, 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Claudia; Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Papini, Roberto A; Poli, Alessandro

    2016-04-28

    We report demodicosis in five alpine chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) from the Italian Alps that showed moderate crusts on the head and dorsal aspect of the trunk. We detected intramural folliculitis, moderate dermatitis, and T-lymphocytes and macrophages associated with Demodex spp. in follicles and sebaceous glands.

  14. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Matyssek, Rainer; Luzian, Roland; Zwerger, Peter; Pindur, Peter; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O(3)) and rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics.Presently, ambient ground-level O(3) concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult conifers at the timberline of the Central European Alps. In response to elevated atmospheric CO(2)Larix decidua showed growth increase, whereas no such response was found in Pinus uncinata. Overall climate warming appears as the factor responsible for the observed growth stimulation of timberline trees.Increased seedling re-establishment in the Central European Alps however, resulted from invasion into potential habitats rather than upward migration due to climate change, although seedlings will only reach tree size upon successful coupling with the atmosphere and thus loosing the beneficial microclimate of low stature vegetation.In conclusion, future climate extremes are more likely than the gradual temperature increase to control treeline dynamics in the Central European Alps.

  15. Biodiversity governance and social-ecological system dynamics: transformation in the Australian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lockwood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation continues to be a challenging task for societies worldwide. We undertook a resilience assessment to address the following question: What are the ramifications of social-ecological system dynamics for biodiversity governance of a nationally significant landscape? Resilience assessment offers promise for guiding response strategies, potentially enabling consideration of ecological, social, economic, and governance influences on biodiversity-related activities. Most resilience assessments have, however, struggled to effectively incorporate governance influences. We applied a modified version of the Resilience Alliance workbook approach to explicitly address governance influences at each stage of an assessment of internationally significant biodiversity features in protected areas of the Australian Alps. The vulnerability of the Alps system to climate change suggests that it is moving into a release stage, with subsequent transformation hypothesized. Network governance is argued as enabling flexible, adaptive management and comprehensive engagement of stakeholders, both of which are critical to shaping how this transformation of the Alps as a valued focal system will occur. The Australian Alps Liaison Committee provides a promising governance structure for collaboration and comanagement across multiple jurisdictions. Our contribution was to demonstrate how a resilience assessment that explicitly embeds governance influences in social-ecological system dynamics can point to pathways for governance reform in the context of system transformation.

  16. Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts in the south-eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Renato R.; Boccali, Chiara; Žebre, Manja; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts are characteristic landforms of the periglacial domain often used as markers of the permafrost occurrence in mountain terrains. Therefore, relict rock glaciers can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions. We present here the first rock glacier inventory of south-eastern Alps (including the northeasternmost region of Italy and Slovenia) obtained through the use of high resolution orthophotos and high resolution digital terrain model interpolated from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). We mapped 53 rock glaciers covering a total area of 3.45 km2. The majority of rock glaciers are classified as relict and distributed between 1,708 and 1,846 m a.s.l. with slope range between 19° and 27°. Their altitudinal range is the lowest for the southern Alps and comparable with what has been found for relict rock glaciers in the Northern Alps of Austria (1,798 m) and in the Austrian Niedere Tauern Range (1,823-1,850 m). Besides rock glaciers we also observed 66 protalus (pronival) ramparts covering 0.48 km2. They are predominantly located in the Carnic Alps, Julian Alps and Karavanke (80% of the total); the majority is distributed between 1,697 m and 2,007 m a.s.l. Protalus (pronival) ramparts situated in the Carnic Alps and Prealps (47% of the total) generally follow the same geographical distribution of rock glaciers, whereas more than half of the inventoried protalus (pronival) ramparts are located in the more maritime area of the Alps where there is the higher precipitation. The analysis also highlighted 9 pronival ramparts located in front of permanent snow/firn bodies and small glacierets. These ridges produce a damming effect for avalanches which enhance accumulation of winter snow, a significant impact to the local mass balance. Using paleoclimate reconstruction based on the existing 1981-2010 climatology of the area, we infer that the rock glaciers possibly formed during one of the dry and cold periods of the late Pleistocene (12.8±0

  17. Low temperature thermochronology in the Eastern Alps: Implications for structural and topographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfler, Andreas; Stüwe, Kurt; Danišík, Martin; Evans, Noreen J.

    2012-01-01

    According to new apatite fission track, zircon- and apatite (U–Th)/He data, we constrain the near-surface history of the southeastern Tauern Window and adjacent Austrolapine units. The multi-system thermochronological data demonstrate that age-elevation correlations may lead to false implications about exhumation and cooling in the upper crust. We suggest that isothermal warping in the Penninic units that are in the position of a footwall, is due to uplift, erosion and the buildup of topography. Additionally we propose that exhumation rates in the Penninic units did not increase during the Middle Miocene, thus during the time of lateral extrusion. In contrast, exhumation rates of the Austroalpine hangingwall did increase from the Paleogene to the Neogene and the isotherms in this unit were not warped. The new zircon (U–Th)/He ages as well as zircon fission track ages from the literature document a Middle Miocene exhumation pulse which correlates with a period of enhanced sediment accumulation during that time. However, enhanced sedimentation- and exhumation rates at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, as observed in the Western- and Central Alps, cannot be observed in the Eastern Alps. This contradicts a climatic trigger for surface uplift, and makes a tectonic trigger and/or deep-seated mechanism more obvious to explain surface uplift in the Eastern Alps. In combination with already published geochronological ages, our new data demonstrate Oligocene to Late Miocene fault activity along the Möll valley fault that constitutes a major shear zone in the Eastern Alps. In this context we suggest a geometrical and temporal relationship of the Katschberg-, Polinik–Möll valley- and Mur–Mürz faults that define the extruding wedge in the eastern part of the Eastern Alps. Equal deformation- and fission track cooling ages along the Katschberg–Brenner- and Simplon normal faults demonstrate overall Middle Miocene extension in the whole alpine arc. PMID:27065501

  18. Ice cap melting and low viscosity crustal root explain narrow geodetic uplift of the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chery, Jean; Genti, Manon; Vernant, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    More than 10 years of geodetic measurements demonstrate an uplift rate of 1-3 mm/yr of the high topography region of the Western Alps. By contrast, no significant horizontal motion has been detected. Three uplift mechanisms have been proposed so far: (1) the isostatic response to denudation. However this process is responsible for only a fraction of the observed uplift and (2) the rebound induced by the Wurmian ice cap melting. This process leads to a broader uplifting region than the one evidenced by geodetic observations. (3) a deep source motion associated with slab motion or some deep isostatic unbalance. Using a numerical model accounting for crustal and mantle rheology of the Alps and its foreland, we model the response to Wurmian ice cap melting. We show that a crustal viscosity contrast between the foreland and the central part of the Alps, the later being weaker with a viscosity of 1021 Pa.s, is needed to produce a narrow uplift. The vertical rates are enhanced if the strong uppermost mantle beneath the Moho is interrupted across the Alps, therefore allowing a weak vertical rheological anomaly thanks to the continuity between the low viscosity parts of the crust and mantle. References: Champagnac, J.-D., F. Schlunegger, K. Norton, F. von Blanckenburg, L. M. Abbühl, and M. Schwab (2009), Erosion-driven uplift of the modern Central Alps, Tectonophysics, 474(1-2), 236-249. Vernant, P., F. Hivert, J. Chéry, P. Steer, R. Cattin, and A. Rigo (2013), Erosion-induced isostatic rebound triggers extension in low convergent mountain ranges, geology, 41(4), 467-470.

  19. Quantification of glacial erosion in the Alps using OSL-thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, F.; Champagnac, J.-D.; Rhodes, E. J.; Jaiswal, M.; Chen, Y.-G.; Schwenninger, J.-L.

    2009-04-01

    The impact of glaciations on the topography of the Alps is still unclear: Long-term denudation rate determined by low-T thermochronology are in the range of 0.2 to 1 mm/yr, and increased during the Plio-Quaternary by ~3 fold (Vernon et al., 2008). Such an increase is also documented by peri-alpine sediment budget (Kuhleman, 2000), with a two to three fold increase in sediment yields since 5-3 Ma. This increase was considered as evidence of a climatically-driven surface process change, a large component of which was attributed to increased precipitation (Cederbom et al., 2004) and erosion by glacial processes (Champagnac et al., 2007). The transition from full fluvial to glaciated landscape must have involved major changes in topography and erosion rates, in particular given the changes in sediment yield (Kuhlemann, 2000; Mutoni et al 2003). However, the timing of the onset of intense glacial erosion as well as its rates are still ambiguous. The glacial erosion seems to have accelerated around 0.9 Ma as suggested by the ten fold increase of incision rates of a valley in the Central Alps (Häuselmann et al., 2007), and by information about vegetation and sedimentologic changes (Muttoni et al., 2003; Scardia et al., 2006). There is however no direct quantification of topographic change during the Plio-Quaternary. We present here how we use OSL-thermochronology, a new thermochronometer of exceptionally low closure temperature (about 30-400 C) (Herman et al subm.) and a glacial erosion model (Herman and Braun 2008) to estimate topographic changes in the Alps in response to glaciations. Because of its low closure temperature, OSL-thermochronology enables quantification of events of less than 1 Ma at very small wavelength of the topography. We collected two vertical profiles, one in the Zermatt Valley (Valais) and one in Maurienne Valley (Savoy). We infer from these results changes in topography, date and quantify relief creation under glacial - interglacial cycles

  20. QUANTIFICATION OF GLACIAL EROSION IN THE ALPS USING VERY LOW-TEMPERATURE THERMOCHRONOLOGY (OSL & AHe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagnac, J.; Herman, F.; Rhodes, E. J.; Fellin, M.; Jaiswal, M.; Schwenninger, J.; Reverman, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    The impact of glaciations on the topography of the Alps is still unclear: Long-term denudation rate determined by low-T thermochronology are in the range of 0.2 to 1 mm/yr, and increased during the Plio-Quaternary by 3 fold (Vernon et al., 2008). Such an increase is also documented by peri-alpine sediment budget (Kuhleman, 2000), with a similar increase in sediment yields since 5-3 Ma. This increase was considered as evidence of a climatically-driven surface process change, attributed to increased precipitation (Cederbom et al., 2004) and erosion by glacial processes (Champagnac et al., 2007). The timing of the onset of intense glacial erosion as well as its rates are still ambiguous. The glacial erosion seems to have accelerated around 0.9 Ma as suggested by the ten fold increase of incision rates of a valley in the Central Alps (Häuselmann et al., 2007), and by information about vegetation and sedimentologic changes (Muttoni et al., 2003). There is however no direct quantification of topographic change during the Plio-Quaternary. We present here how we use OSL-thermochronology, a new thermochronometer of exceptionally low closure temperature (about 30°-40°C) (Herman et al subm.), new {U-Th}/He on apatites data, and a glacial erosion model (Herman and Braun 2008) to estimate topographic changes in the Alps in response to glaciations. Because of their low closure temperature, OSL and AHe thermochronology enables quantification of events of less than 1 Ma at very small wavelength of the topography. We collected two vertical profiles, one in the Zermatt Valley (Valais) and one in Maurienne Valley (Savoy). We infer from these results changes in topography, date and quantify relief creation under glacial-interglacial cycles. Cederbom, C.E, et al., Climate induced rebound and exhumation of the European Alps. Geology 32, 709-712 (2000). Champagnac, J.-D., et al., Quaternary erosion-induced isostatic rebound in the western Alps. Geology 35, 195-198 (2007). Ha

  1. Does global warming favour the occurrence of extreme floods in European Alps? First evidences from a NW Alps proglacial lake sediment record

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, B.; ARNAUD, Fabien; Enters, D.; Allignol, F.; Legaz, Aurelie; Magand, Olivier; Revillon, Sidonie; Giguet-Covex, C.; Malet, E.

    2012-01-01

    Flood hazard is expected to increase in the context of global warming. However, long time-series of climate and gauge data at high-elevation are too sparse to assess reliably the rate of recurrence of such events in mountain areas. Here paleolimnological techniques were used to assess the evolution of frequency and magnitude of flash flood events in the North-western European Alps since the Little Ice Age (LIA). The aim was to document a possible effect of the post-19(th) century global warmi...

  2. End of the "Little Ice Age" in the Alps not forced by industrial black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, Michael; Osmont, Dimtri; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Schwikowski, Margit

    2016-04-01

    Light absorbing aerosols present in the atmosphere and cryosphere play an important role in the climate system. Their presence in ambient air and snow changes radiative properties of these media, thus contributing to increased atmospheric warming and snowmelt. High spatio-temporal variability of aerosol concentrations in these media and a shortage of long-term observations contribute to large uncertainties in properly assigning the climate effects of these aerosols through time. Glaciers in the European Alps began to retreat abruptly from their mid-19th century maximum, marking what appeared to be the end of the Little Ice Age. Radiative forcing by increasing deposition of industrial black carbon to snow has been suggested as the main driver of the abrupt glacier retreats in the Alps (Painter et al. 2012). Basis for this hypothesis were model simulations using ice-core measurements of elemental carbon at low temporal resolution from two ice cores in the Alps. Here we present sub-annually resolved, well replicated ice-core measurements of refractory black carbon (rBC; using a SP2 soot photometer), mineral dust (Fe, Ca), biomass burning (NH4, K) and distinctive industrial pollution tracers (Bi, Pb, SO4) from an ice core in the Alps covering the past 250 years. These reconstructions allow to precisely compare the timing of observed acceleration of glacier melt in the mid-19th century with that of the increase of soot deposition on ice-sheets caused by the industrialization of Western Europe. Our study suggests that at the time when European rBC emission rates started to significantly increase Alpine glaciers have already experienced more than 70% of their total 19th century length reduction. Industrial BC emissions can therefore not been considered as the primary forcing of the rapid deglaciation at the end of the Little Ice Age in the Alps. References: Painter, T. H., M. G. Flanner, G. Kaser, B. Marzeion, R. A. VanCuren, and W. Abdalati (2013), End of the Little Ice

  3. A new species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Western Alps (Insecta: Trichoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Wolfram; Vitecek, Simon

    2016-03-03

    A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorumsp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorumsp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe - a supposedly well-explored region.

  4. 24th International Conference on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume includes the Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region, RAAD 2015, which was held in Bucharest, Romania, on May 27-29, 2015. The Conference brought together academic and industry researchers in robotics from the 11 countries affiliated to the Alpe-Adria-Danube space: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia, and their worldwide partners. According to its tradition, RAAD 2015 covered all important areas of research, development and innovation in robotics, including new trends such as: bio-inspired and cognitive robots, visual servoing of robot motion, human-robot interaction, and personal robots for ambient assisted living. The accepted papers have been grouped in nine sessions: Robot integration in industrial applications; Grasping analysis, dexterous grippers and component design; Advanced robot motion control; Robot vision and sensory control; Human-robot interaction and collaboration;...

  5. Physical modelling of baroclinic development in the lee of the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ferrero

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available When baroclinic development is triggered by an obstacle, like an extended mountain range, the so-called lee, or secondary cyclogenesis can develop. The presence of the obstacle exerts a blocking effect on the lower layers of the impinging airflow, forcing them to go round its borders and reach the lee region with a delay. Blocking and delay are both responsible for the initial pressure decrease downwind of the mountain and for the subsequent proper downstream baroclinic development. According to this rather simple scheme, a cyclogenesis episode in the lee of the Alps was simulated in a hydraulic turntable. The results of these experiments showed a good agreement, both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view, with the analysis of an episode of lee cyclogenesis coupled to a cold outbreak in the Mediterranean, which actually occured in Southern Europe downstream of the Alps.

  6. A new species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Western Alps (Insecta: Trichoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorum sp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorum sp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe – a supposedly well-explored region. PMID:27069351

  7. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the German Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Wölfl

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The period 1995 to 1999 did not yield any confirmed lynx data in the German part of the Alpine Arc. Only from the area of Berchtesgaden, 6 Q3-data exist. Outside of the Alpine arc Germany hosts some areas with lynx evidence. For a better understanding of the real situation in the Alps it would be necessary to have a few skilled persons who could check any lynx signs quickly and/or interview people that suspect lynx presence. Because of possible lynx immigrations, especially from eastern Switzerland, and its central location, it would be important that Germany starts to play a more active role in lynx conservation in the Alps. Conservation strategies and possible actions need to be assessed in the near future.

  8. Swiss-AlpArray temporary broadband seismic stations deployment and noise characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Irene; Clinton, John; Kissling, Edi; Hetényi, György; Giardini, Domenico; Stipčević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Herak, Marijan; Šipka, Vesna; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Solarino, Stefano; Swiss-AlpArray Field Team; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-10-01

    AlpArray is a large collaborative seismological project in Europe that includes more than 50 research institutes and seismological observatories. At the heart of the project is the collection of top-quality seismological data from a dense network of broadband temporary seismic stations, in compliment to the existing permanent networks, that ensures a homogeneous station coverage of the greater Alpine region. This Alp Array Seismic Network (AASN) began operation in January 2016 and will have a duration of at least 2 years. In this work we report the Swiss contribution to the AASN, we concentrate on the site selection process, our methods for stations installation, data quality and data management. We deployed 27 temporary broadband stations equipped with STS-2 and Trillium Compact 120 s sensors. The deployment and maintenance of the temporary stations across 5 countries is managed by ETH Zurich and it is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five institutes in Europe.

  9. Characterization of a Transition-Edge Sensor for the ALPS II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bastidon, Noemie; Lindner, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The ALPS II experiment, Any Light Particle Search II at DESY in Hamburg, will look for light (m< 10-4 eV) new fundamental bosons (e.g., axion-like particles, hidden photons and other WISPs) in the next years by the mean of a light-shining-through-the-wall setup. The ALPS II photosensor is a Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) optimized for lambda = 1064 nm photons. The detector is routinely operated at 80 mK, allowing single infrared photon detections as well as non-dispersive spectroscopy with very low background rates. The demonstrated quantum efficiency for such TES is up to 95% at lambda =1064 nm. For 1064 nm photons, the measured background rate is < 10-2 sec-1 and the intrinsic dark count rate in a dark environment was found to be of 1,0.10-4 sec-1. Latest characterization results are discussed.

  10. Description of the larva of Protanypus sp. A (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rossaro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the larva of Protanypus sp. A from the Italian Alps. All the larval characteristics fit the diagnosis of the genus, but it is impossible to assign the specimens examined to one of the known species. The low number of labral scales (12-14 and the serrated median lamellae of the medioventral appendix of the prementum exclude the identity of the species with P. morio or with the East Palaearctic P. pseudomorio. The antennal ratio (2.3 excludes the identity with P. caudatus or P. forcipatus, which are the other two Protanypus species known from the Alpine region. In Sæther’s key (1975 the larva fits with the Nearctic P. ramosus, but identification of the species needs to be supported by pupal and adult material. In the Southern Alps, the genus is restricted to cold lakes at high altitude and is confirmed as an indicator of oligotrophic lakes.

  11. Total mercury and methylmercury in high altitude surface snow from the French Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusczak, Nicolas; Larose, Catherine; Dommergue, Aurélien; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Lean, David; Nedjai, Rachid; Ferrari, Christophe

    2011-09-01

    Surface snow samples were collected weekly from the 31st of December 2008 to the 21st of June 2009 from Lake Bramant in the French Alps. Total mercury (THg), total dissolved mercury (THgD), methylmercury (MeHg) and particle distributions in surface snow were analyzed. Results showed that THg concentrations, MeHg concentrations and particle load increased with snow surface temperature, which is an indicator of rising temperatures as the season progresses. Significant correlations between MeHg and snow surface temperature and MeHg and total particles greater than 10 μm were observed. This suggests that the MeHg found in the snow originates from atmospheric deposition processes rather than in situ snowpack sources. This study suggests that an important post-winter atmospheric deposition of MeHg and THg occurs on summital zones of the French Alps and it is likely that this contamination originates from the surrounding valleys.

  12. Sattleria revisited: unexpected cryptic diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in the south-eastern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Peter; Timossi, Giovanni

    2014-03-21

    The taxonomy of Sattleria Povolný from the high mountain systems on the Balkan Peninsula and the adjacent parts of the Alps (south-eastern Alps, Dinaric Alps, Rila Mountains) is revised based on recently collected material and re-examined museum vouchers. Adult morphology and molecular data of the COI barcode region support the existence of six strictly allopatric species in this area, including four new species: Sattleria sophiae Timossi, sp. nov. (Parco Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino, Dolomites, Prov. Trento, Italy), Sattleria dolomitica Huemer, sp. nov. (Eastern Dolomites, Prov. South Tyrol, Italy), Sattleria dinarica Huemer, sp. nov. (Durmitor NP, Dinaric Alps, Montenegro) and Sattleria haemusi Huemer, sp. nov. (Rila Mts., Bulgaria; Šar Planina, Macedonia). 

  13. The high alpine bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apoidea of the Zillertal Alps, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Bossert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bees from the Zemmgrund area in the Zillertal Alps (Austria, Tyrol were collected and determined to investigate the species composition of the area. A total of 61 specimens were collected over a two year period; they represent 24 species from 8 genera. Building on these records, the first commented checklist for the area is presented, with notes on habitats and visited flowers.

  14. Seismic Tomography Around the Eastern Edge of the Alps From Ambient-Noise-Based Rayleigh Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigone, Dimitri; Fuchs, Florian; Kolinsky, Petr; Gröschl, Gidera; Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; Qorbani, Ehsan; Schippkus, Sven; Löberich, Eric; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-04-01

    Inspecting ambient noise Green's functions is an excellent tool for monitoring the quality of seismic data, and for swiftly detecting changes in the configuration of a seismological station. Those Green's functions readily provide stable information about structural variations near the Earth's surface. We apply the technique to a network consisting of about 40 broadband stations in the area of the Easternmost Alps, in particular those operated by the University of Vienna (AlpArrayAustria) and the Vienna University of Technology. Those data are used to estimate Green's functions between station pairs; the Green's function consist mainly of surface waves, and we use them to investigate crustal structure near the Eastern edge of the Alps. To obtain better signal-to-noise ratios in the noise correlation functions, we adopt a procedure using short time windows (2 hr). Energy tests are performed on the data to remove effects of transient sources and instrumental problems. The resulting 9-component correlation tensor is used to make travel time measurements on the vertical, radial and transverse components. Those measurements can be used to evaluate dispersion using frequency-time analysis for periods between 5-30 seconds. After rejecting paths without sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, we invert the velocity measurements using the Barmin et al. (2001) approach on a 10 km grid size. The obtained group velocity maps reveal complex structures with clear velocity contrasts between sedimentary basins and crystalline rocks. The Bohemian Massif and the Northern Calcareous Alps are associated with fast-velocity bodies. By contrast, the Vienna Basin presents clear low-velocity zones with group velocities down to 2 km/s at period of 7 s. The group velocities are then inverted to 3D images of shear wave speeds using the linear inversion method of Herrmann (2013). The results highlight the complex crustal structure and complement earthquake tomography studies in the region. Updated

  15. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O3) and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics.Presently, ambient ground-level O3 concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult con...

  16. Paleogeographic significance of Upper Triassic basinal succession of the Tamar Valley, northern Julian Alps (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale Luka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Julian Alps (western Slovenia structurally belong to the eastern Southern Alps. The Upper Triassic succession mostly consists of shallow water platform carbonates of the Dolomia Principale-Dachstein Limestone system and a deep water succession of the Slovenian Basin outcropping in the southern foothills of the Julian Alps. In addition to the Slovenian Basin, a few other intraplatform basins were present, but they remain poorly researched and virtually ignored in the existing paleogeographic reconstructions of the eastern Southern Alps. Herein, we describe a deepening-upward succession from the Tamar Valley (north-western Slovenia, belonging to the Upper Triassic Tarvisio Basin. The lower, Julian-Tuvalian part of the section comprises peritidal to shallow subtidal carbonates (Conzen Dolomite and Portella Dolomite, and an intermediate carbonate-siliciclastic unit, reflecting increased terrigenous input and storm-influenced deposition (Julian-lowermost Tuvalian shallow-water marlstone and marly limestone of the Tor Formation. Above the drowning unconformity at the top of the Portella Dolomite, Tuvalian well-bedded dolomite with claystone intercalations follows (Carnitza Formation. The latter gradually passes into the uppermost Tuvalian–lowermost Rhaetian bedded dolomite with chert and slump breccias, deposited on a slope and/or at the toe-of-slope (Bača Dolomite. Finally, basinal thin-bedded bituminous limestone and marlstone of Rhaetian age follow (Frauenkogel Formation. The upper part of the Frauenkogel Formation contains meter-scale platform-derived limestone blocks, which are signs of platform progradation. The Tarvisio Basin may have extended as far as the present Santo Stefano di Cadore area, representing a notable paleogeographic unit at the western Neotethys margin.

  17. Vegetation changes and timberline fluctuations in the Central Alps as indicators of holocene climatic oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, L.; Tinner, W. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Pollen and plant-macrofossil data are presented for two lakes near the timberline in the Italian (Lago Basso, 2250 m) and Swiss Central Alps (Gouille Rion, 2343 m). The reforestation at both sites started at 9700-9500 BP with Pinus cembra, Larix decidua, and Betula. The timberline reached its highest elevation between 8700 and 5000 BP and retreated after 5000 BP, due to a mid-Holocene climatic change and increasing human impact since about 3500 BP (Bronze Age). The expansion of Picea abies at Lago Basso between ca. 7500 and 6200 BP was probably favored by cold phases accompanied by increased oceanicity, whereas in the area of Gouille Rion, where spruce expanded rather late (between 4500 and 3500 BP), human influence equality might have been important. The mass expansion of Alnus viridis between ca. 5000 and 3500 BP probably can be related to both climatic change and human activity at timberline. During the early and middle Holocene a series of timberline fluctuations is recorded as declines in pollen and macrofossil concentrations of the major tree species, and as increases in nonarboreal pollen in the pollen percentage diagram of Gouille Rion. Most of the periods of low timberline can be correlated by radiocarbon dating the climatic changes in the Alps as indicated by glacier advances in combination with palynological records, solifluction, and dendroclimatical data. Lago Basso and Gouille Rion are the only sites in the Alps showing complete palaeobotanical records of cold phases between 10,000 and 2000 BP with very good time control. The altitudinal range of the Holocene treeline fluctuations caused by climate most likely was not more than 100 to 150 m. A possible correlation of a cold period at ca. 7500-6500 BP (Misox oscillation) in the Alps is made with paleoecological data from North American and Scandinavia and a climate signal in the GRIP ice core from central Greenland 8200 yr ago (ca. 7400 yr uncal. BP).

  18. Glacier ice in rock glaciers: a case study in the Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps

    OpenAIRE

    S. Monnier; C. Camerlynck; F. Rejiba; Kinnard, C.; Galibert, P.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the Sachette rock glacier, Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps, using former equilibrium line altitude reconstruction from glacial deposits, aerial photograph analysis, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The rock glacier is a young (probably 0.15–0.16 m ns−1) and reflectors having a dipping-syncline structure, typical of true glaciers. Consequently, the rock glacier structure is described as being constituted of ...

  19. Dielectric function and critical points of AlP determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.Y.; Kim, T.J.; Jung, Y.W.; Barange, N.S.; Park, H.G.; Kim, J.Y.; Kang, Y.R. [Nano-Optical Property Laboratory and Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.D., E-mail: ydkim@khu.ac.kr [Nano-Optical Property Laboratory and Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, S.H.; Song, J.D. [Center for Opto-Electronic Convergence Systems, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Liang, C.-T.; Chang, Y.-C. [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • We report the dielectric function ε of AlP from 0.74 to 6.54 eV. • The critical points (CPs) in the E{sub 2} spectral range are important for band-structure analysis. • We extract ε of AlP, using the multilayer parametric model. • The CP energies are obtained from numerically calculated second-energy-derivatives. • We identify these CPs from the linear augmented Slater-type orbital method. -- Abstract: We report the room-temperature dielectric function ε of AlP from 0.74 to 6.54 eV obtained by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Measurements were done on a 1.2 μm thick film grown on (0 0 1) GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy, with ε extracted using a multilayer parametric model. Critical point energies of features in the ε spectra were obtained from numerically calculated second-energy-derivatives, and their Brillouin-zone origins identified by band-structure calculations done using the linear augmented Slater-type orbital method.

  20. Onset of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) in humans as a consequence of genetic defect accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Neven, Bénédicte; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Daussy, Cécile; Arkwright, Peter D; Lanzarotti, Nina; Schaffner, Catherine; Cluet-Dennetiere, Sophie; Haerynck, Filomeen; Michel, Gérard; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Zarhrate, Mohammed; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Romana, Serge P; Picard, Capucine; Fischer, Alain; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases develop in approximately 5% of humans. They can arise when self-tolerance checkpoints of the immune system are bypassed as a consequence of inherited mutations of key genes involved in lymphocyte activation, survival, or death. For example, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) results from defects in self-tolerance checkpoints as a consequence of mutations in the death receptor-encoding gene TNF receptor superfamily, member 6 (TNFRSF6; also known as FAS). However, some mutation carriers remain asymptomatic throughout life. We have now demonstrated in 7 ALPS patients that the disease develops as a consequence of an inherited TNFRSF6 heterozygous mutation combined with a somatic genetic event in the second TNFRSF6 allele. Analysis of the patients' CD4(-)CD8(-) (double negative) T cells--accumulation of which is a hallmark of ALPS--revealed that in these cells, 3 patients had somatic mutations in their second TNFRSF6 allele, while 4 patients had loss of heterozygosity by telomeric uniparental disomy of chromosome 10. This observation provides the molecular bases of a nonmalignant autoimmune disease development in humans and may shed light on the mechanism underlying the occurrence of other autoimmune diseases.

  1. The AlpArray Seismic Network: current status and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, György; Molinari, Irene; Clinton, John; Kissling, Edi

    2016-04-01

    The AlpArray initiative (http://www.alparray.ethz.ch) is a large-scale European collaboration to study the entire Alpine orogen at high resolution and in 3D with a large variety of geoscientific methods. The core element of the initiative is an extensive and dense broadband seismological network, the AlpArray Seismic Network (AASN), which complements the permanent seismological stations to ensure homogeneous coverage of the greater Alpine area. The some 260 temporary stations of the AlpArray Seismic Network are operated as a joint effort by a number of institutions from Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Slovakia and Switzerland. The first stations were installed in Spring 2015 and the full AASN is planned to be operational by early Summer 2016. In this poster we present the actual status of the deployment, the effort undertaken by the contributing groups, station performance, typical noise levels, best practices in installation as well as in data management, often encountered challenges, and planned next steps including the deployment of ocean bottom seismometers in the Ligurian Sea.

  2. Seismic signature of the Alpine indentation, evidence from the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, I.; Bokelmann, G.

    2014-12-01

    The type of collision between the European and the Adriatic plates in the easternmost Alps is one of the most interesting questions regarding the Alpine evolution. Tectonic processes such as compression, escape and uplift are interconnected and shape this area. We can understand these ongoing processes better, if we look for signs of the deformation within the Earth's deep crust of the region. By collecting records from permanent and temporary seismic networks, we assemble a receiver function dataset, and analyze it with the aim of giving new insights on the structure of the lower crust and of the shallow portion of the upper mantle, which are inaccessible to direct observation. Imaging is accomplished by performing common conversion depth stacks along three profiles that crosscut the Eastern Alpine orogen, and allow isolating features consistently persistent in the area. The study shows a moderately flat Moho underlying a seismically anisotropic middle-lower crust from the Southern Alps to the Austroalpine nappes. The spatial progression of anisotropic axes reflects the orientation of the relative motion and of the stress field detected at the surface. These observations suggest that distributed deformation is due to the effect of the Alpine indentation. In the shallow upper mantle right below the Moho interface, a further anisotropic layer is recognized, extended from the Bohemian Massif to the Northern Calcareous Alps.

  3. Encounters between Alpine ibex, Alpine chamois and domestic sheep in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Information regarding spatio-temporal relationships and encounters of sympatric domestic sheep, Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra in the Swiss Alps were systematically registered to evaluate the possibility of an interspecific transmission of infectious agents on pastures. Observations were performed in alpine regions of four Swiss cantons during the 1997 and 1998 mountain summer grazing season. In the main study area, Val Chamuera (canton of Grisons, a consistent reduction in the number of ibexes was observed after the arrival of sheep on the pasture. Some ibexes remained for a longer time in the area, but in general, ibexes and sheep did not use the same compartments of the area simultaneously. However, a salt lick for sheep attracted the ibexes, and several encounters were recorded in the compartments close to this salt lick. Several encounters registered in other areas of the Swiss Alps also occurred in the neighbourhood of a salt lick; however, in other cases different species were attracted by rich pastures. The study indicates that encounters (0-50 m between free-ranging individuals of different Caprinae species, domestic and wild, are not uncommon events in the Alps. Therefore, encounters can be considered to be a predisposing factor for interspecific transmission of infectious agents such as Mycoplasma conjunctivae, causing keratoconjunctivitis in chamois, ibex, domestic sheep and goats.

  4. [Ragweed in France and the Rhône-Alpes region (Lyon, Bourgoin, Grenoble, Roussillon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaudon, M; Lachasse, C; Finet, F

    2003-03-01

    Ragweed in France is a rather recent pollen which causes strong allergies on the populations concerned. This pollen, mainly located in the area Rhone-Alpes, extend more and more on totality of France. Indeed, the pollinic data highlight the presence of ragweed on all the territory with very low, as for Brittany, to several hundreds grains in the area of Rhone-Alpes. So four towns of this area have followed closely the extend of this pollen during the year 2002 through five pollen-traps (2 for the town of Lyon). The trap of Lyon I (Gerland) made it possible to follow temporal the extend of ragweed from 1987 to 2002 and the increase of the number of grains as that of the number of days with a significant allergic risk. The study shows also the differences in quantity of pollens, the differences between the daily allergic risks of the five sites, as well as the differences, between the cities, of the number of days when the allergic risk is significant. It is necessary that pollen of ragweed can be followed closely because of its strong allergenic capacity, in the area of Rhone-Alpes, where the plant prevails mainly, but also on the totality of the own territory, this to supervise its evolution and the speed of proliferation of the plant.

  5. THE GEN. COMELICANIA FRECH, 1901 (BRACHIOPODA FROM THE SOUTHERN ALPS: MORPHOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO POSENATO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the internal characters, especially the cardinalia and brachidium, of the brachiopod Comelicania Frech from the Southern Alps, confirmed the attribution of this genus to the Superfam. Athyridoidea Davidson and provided a more complete taxonomic description of the Fam. Comelicaniidae Merla. This family includes two genera which differ in the morphology of their cardinalia, i.e. Gruntallina Waterhouse & Gupta, type-species Gruntallina triangularis (Grunt from the lower Dorashamian of Transcaucasia and Comelicania, type-species Comelicania megalotis (Stache from the uppermost Bellerophon Fm. of the Southern Alps. The study of a collection composed of more than a hundred specimens highlighted a broad variability of the morphological characters and a pattern of ontogenetic development which demonstrates that classification at the species level is possible only when using mature specimens. Taxonomic revision at the specific level reduced the eleven species of Comelicania from the Southern Alps, described by previous authors, to: C. megalotis (Stache and C. haueri (Stache. In addition a new species, C. merlai, which characterises the upper Comelicania beds, is proposed. 

  6. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-04-28

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP 'patch' dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption.

  7. Visit of Mme Anne-Marie Comparini, President of the Rhône-Alpes regional authority.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 11: Signature of the Guests Book by Mr Jean Pépin, Président du Conseil général de l'Ain, on the occasion of the visit of Mrs Anne-Marie Comparini, Présidente du Conseil régional de Rhones-Alpes and Mr Ernest Nycollin, Président du Conseil général de la Haute-Savoie, at SM18. Here with Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director General. Photo 18: Technicians and engineers of the Rhone-Alpes/CERN programme(PRAC) at SM18 on the occasion of the visit of Mrs Anne-Marie Comparini, Présidente du Conseil régional de Rhones-Alpes. From l. to r.:Prof. Luciano Maiani, Directeur General, CERN; Mr Ernest Nycollin, Président du Conseil général de la Haute-Savoie; Mrs Anne-Marie Comparini, Présidente du Conseil régional de Rhones-Alpes; Mr Jean Pépin, Président du Conseil général de l'Ain. Photo 20 : Mrs Anne-Marie Comparini, Présidente du Conseil régional de Rhones-Alpes during her visit at SM18 with technicians and engineers of the Rhone-Alpes/CERN programme (PRAC).

  8. Characterization of the interaction between Actinin-Associated LIM Protein (ALP and the rod domain of α-actinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permi Perttu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PDZ-LIM proteins are a family of signalling adaptors that interact with the actin cross-linking protein, α-actinin, via their PDZ domains or via internal regions between the PDZ and LIM domains. Three of the PDZ-LIM proteins have a conserved 26-residue ZM motif in the internal region, but the structure of the internal region is unknown. Results In this study, using circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, we showed that the ALP internal region (residues 107–273 was largely unfolded in solution, but was able to interact with the α-actinin rod domain in vitro, and to co-localize with α-actinin on stress fibres in vivo. NMR analysis revealed that the titration of ALP with the α-actinin rod domain induces stabilization of ALP. A synthetic peptide (residues 175–196 that contained the N-terminal half of the ZM motif was found to interact directly with the α-actinin rod domain in surface plasmon resonance (SPR measurements. Short deletions at or before the ZM motif abrogated the localization of ALP to actin stress fibres. Conclusion The internal region of ALP appeared to be largely unstructured but functional. The ZM motif defined part of the interaction surface between ALP and the α-actinin rod domain.

  9. Investigation of the Sultan Alp Arslan tomb with geophysical methods, in the historical Merv city (Turkestan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Sultan Alp Arslan (1029-1072) was the second Sultan of the Seljuq Empire and great-grandson of Seljuq the eponymous founder of the dynasty. Sultan Alp Arslan's victories changed the balance in near Asia completely in favour of the Seljuq Turks and Sunni Muslims. His victory at Manzikert (26 August 1071) is often cited as the beginning of the end of Byzantine power in Anatolia, and the beginning of Turkish identity in Anatolia. Sultan Alp Arslan eliminated theobstacles to the conquest of Anatolia and played a major role in making this territory a homeland for the Seljuqs. By taking the Emperor captive, Sultan Alp Arslan gained great fame but in 1072, on an expedition to Western Turkestan, he met with death in an unexpected way and at a relatively early age, in his 42nd year. There have been found different stories of the death of this great Turkish Sultan in certain sources. Unfortunately, there has not been found The Sultan's resting place until now. This paper is concerned with the investigation of the Sultan Alp Arslan Tomb in the historical Merv (Marv) city in Turkestan, by using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and gradiometer methods. The GPR and gradiometer surveys have been realized in Gavur Fortress, Sultan Fortress, Er Fortress districts and between two big Fortresses in old Merv city in selected nine study areas. We also gathered data in and around Sultan Sancar Tomb. GPR surveys were performed during January 2014 employing Ramac CU-II system equipped with a 250 MHz shielded antenna, on one meter spaced profiles. Similarly a Geoscan system was used to take magnetic data. The results of all these investigation revealed that there were possible traces for the buried tomb of the Sultan Alparslan in Gavur Kale around Cuma Mosque and around Sultan Sancar Tomb in the study region. However, the project team was changed after our study, and the new team did not excavated our determined areas. Acknowledgement This project has been supported by Republic of Turkey

  10. Palaeoclimate from glaciers: Examples from the Eastern Alps during the Alpine Lateglacial and early Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschner, Hanns; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2008-01-01

    10Be dating of prominent glacier advances (stadials) in the Alps supports the correlation of the Gschnitz stadial (> 15.4 ka) with the Heinrich 1 ice rafting event (Greenland Stadial 2a), the Egesen-maximum advance (˜ 12.3-12.4 ka) with the early Younger Dryas (Greenland Stadial 1), the Kartell advance (˜ 10.8 ka) with the Preboreal Oscillation and the Kromer advance (˜ 8.4 ka) with the Central European cold phase 3. The interpretation of the glacial record with glacier-climate models in terms of summer temperature change (ΔTs) and precipitation change (Δ P) shows that climate during the Gschnitz stadial was ˜ 10 K colder than at present and precipitation was reduced to ˜ 25% of modern annual sums with a possible tendency towards slightly more humid conditions in the southeastern Alps. During the early Younger Dryas, Δ P depends on the estimated ΔTs. For a ΔTs of - 3.5 K, Δ P along the northern fringe of the Eastern Alps was about 0 to + 15%, in the central valleys Δ P was in the order of - 20 to - 30%. A scenario with a ΔTs of - 5 K leads to generally drier conditions (˜ - 15% vs. ˜ - 50% Δ P) but the spatial pattern of precipitation change remains the same. The Kromer advance was possibly characterised by more humid conditions than today along the northern fringe of the Eastern Alps. In the valleys of the Central Alps, precipitation seems to have been similar to modern values. Methodologically, simple empirical relationships between summer temperature and precipitation at the equilibrium line altitude yield similar results as an analytical glacial-meteorological model. However, the analytical model allows a more detailed analysis of the climatic parameters influencing glacier behaviour. In the case of the Egesen-maximum and Kromer advances, the accuracy of Δ P depends on the reliability of ΔTs, which is derived from timberline depression and on the dating control. In the case of the Gschnitz stadial, the accuracy of ΔTs depends mainly on the

  11. Statistical downscaling of regional climate scenarios for the French Alps : Impacts on snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselot, M.; Durand, Y.; Giraud, G.; Mérindol, L.; Déqué, M.; Sanchez, E.; Pagé, C.; Hasan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Mountain areas are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Owing to the complexity of mountain terrain, climate research at scales relevant for impacts studies and decisive for stakeholders is challenging. A possible way to bridge the gap between these fine scales and those of the general circulation models (GCMs) consists of combining high-resolution simulations of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to statistical downscaling methods. The present work is based on such an approach. It aims at investigating the impacts of climate change on snow cover in the French Alps for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 under several IPCC hypotheses. An analogue method based on high resolution atmospheric fields from various RCMs and climate reanalyses is used to simulate local climate scenarios. These scenarios, which provide meteorological parameters relevant for snowpack evolution, subsequently feed the CROCUS snow model. In these simulations, various sources of uncertainties are thus considered (several greenhouse gases emission scenarios and RCMs). Results are obtained for different regions of the French Alps at various altitudes. For all scenarios, temperature increase is relatively uniform over the Alps. This regional warming is larger than that generally modeled at the global scale (IPCC, 2007), and particularly strong in summer. Annual precipitation amounts seem to decrease, mainly as a result of decreasing precipitation trends in summer and fall. As a result of these climatic evolutions, there is a general decrease of the mean winter snow depth and seasonal snow duration for all massifs. Winter snow depths are particularly reduced in the Northern Alps. However, the impact on seasonal snow duration is more significant in the Southern and Extreme Southern Alps, since these regions are already characterized by small winter snow depths at low elevations. Reference : IPCC (2007a). Climate change 2007 : The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the

  12. What do we learn from extensional tectonics in the Western Alps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, C.; Champagnac, J.-D.

    2009-04-01

    The Western Alps' active tectonics are characterized by ongoing widespread extension in the highest parts of the belt and transpressive/compressive tectonics along its borders (Sue et al., 1999; Delacou et al., 2004). We examine these contrasting tectonic regimes, as well as the role of erosional processes, using a multidisciplinary approach including seismotectonics, numerical modelling, GPS, morphotectonics, fieldwork, and brittle deformation analysis. Extension appears to be the dominant process in the present-day tectonic activity in the Western Alps, affecting its internal areas all along the arc. Shortening, in contrast, is limited to small areas located along at the outer borders of the chain. Strike-slip is observed throughout the Alpine realm and in the foreland. The stress-orientation pattern is radial for σ3 in the inner, extensional zones, and for σ1 in the outer, transcurrent/tranpressional ones. Extensional areas can be correlated with the parts of the belt with the thickest crust. Quantification of seismic strain in tectonically homogeneous areas shows that only 10 to 20% of the geodesy-documented deformation can be explained by the Alpine seismicity. We show that Alpine active tectonics are ruled by buoyancy forces rather than ongoing shortening along the Alpine Europe/Adria collision zone. Numerical modeling corroborates this interpretation. The Neogene extensional structures in the Alps formed under increasingly brittle conditions. A synthesis of paleostress tensors for the internal parts of the West-Alpine arc documents major orogen-parallel extension with a continuous change in σ3 directions from ENE-WSW in the Simplon area, to N-S in the Vanoise area and to NNW-SSE in the Briançon area (Champagnac et al., 2006). Minor orogen-perpendicular extension increases from N to S. This second signal correlates with present-day geodynamics as revealed by focal-plane mechanisms analysis. The orogen-parallel extension could be related to the opening of

  13. The half metallic property and electronic structure of the Ti doped AlP systems investigated by first principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Pei, E-mail: plianghust@gmail.com [College of Optical and Electronic Technology, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Liu, Yang [College of Optical and Electronic Technology, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Hu, Xing-Hua [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Le; Dong, Qian-min; Jing, Xu-feng [College of Optical and Electronic Technology, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2014-04-15

    We present numerically the ferromagnetic and spin-resolved electronic properties of Ti-doped AlP system by using first principle based on spin density functional theory. It is found that Ti impurities are spin-polarized, and it suggests a 100% polarization of the conduction carriers from the calculated band structures. Besides, the net magnetic moment of about 1 μ{sub B} per Ti is demonstrated. The ferromagnetic state of 115.7 meV per Ti atom, lower than the anti-ferromagnetic state, is obtained by total energy calculation for both GGA and GGA+U method. And the Curie temperature, higher than 599 K, in Ti-doped AlP is predicted using mean-field approximation (MFA) theory. Both double-exchange and p–d hybridization mechanism contribute to the ferromagnetic ground state of Ti-doped AlP, but the former is dominant. Therefore, it is expected that Ti-doped AlP would be a promising dilute magnetic semiconductor for the applications in the field of Spintronics. - Highlights: • It is found that Ti impurities are spin-polarized, and it suggests a 100% polarization of the conduction carriers for Ti doped AlP. • The Curie temperature, higher than 599 K in Ti-doped AlP is predicted using mean-field approximation (MFA) theory and first principles method combinational with Monte Carlo method. • The double-exchange and p–d hybridization mechanism are also used to explain the ferromagnetic ground state of Ti-doped AlP.

  14. Fission track ages and Exhumation mechanisms of the Tauern Window, Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Audrey; Rosenberg, Claudio; Garcia, Sebastian

    2010-05-01

    The Tauern Window (TW) is a thermal and structural dome which exposes Penninic basement, its cover units as well as parts of the overlying Austroalpine basement in the central part of the Eastern Alps. The peak of metamorphism was attained approximately at 30Ma (Selverstone et .al, 1992), followed by cooling and exhumation throughout Miocene time. Most of the tertiary exhumation of the Eastern Alps was localized in the TW, from Early Oligocene to late Miocene time. A current debate centers on the exhumation mechanisms of Penninic rocks in the core of the TW, namely to assess whether orogen-parallel extension (e.g., Selverstone, 1988) or a combination of folding and erosion (eg., Rosenberg et al., 2004) with subordinate extension were the controlling processes. E-W extension is well documented at the western (Brenner Fault) and eastern (Katschberg Fault) margins of the window (e.g., Behrmann, 1988; Selverstone, 1988; Genser and Neubauer, 1989). In contrast, upright folding dominates the internal structure of the dome, and in particular along its western part, where fold amplitudes, mostly eroded during folding, attained up to 10 km. This study attempts to assess the relative importance of folding and erosion and of orogen-parallel extension during exhumation by analyzing the spatial and temporal cooling patterns of apatite and zircon fission track ages. The compilation of published apatite and zircon fission track ages indicates a concentric younging of both the apatite and zircon ages toward the core of the TW. The concentric isochrones follow the map trace of the axial planes of the upright folds of the western and eastern TW. This cooling pattern is in contrast to the one expected by a process of extensional unroofing, which in map view would results in isochrons parallel to the extensional faults and progressively younging towards them (e.g., Foster et al., 2001). We therefore propose that folding and erosion were primarily responsible for exhuming the Penninic

  15. Relationship between rainfall and shallow landslides in the southern Apuan Alps (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giannecchini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Apuan Alps region is one of the rainiest areas in Italy (more than 3000 mm/year, in which frequently heavy and concentrated rainfall occurs. This is particularly due to its geographical position and conformation: the Apuan chain is located along the northern Tuscan coast, close to the Ligurian Sea, and the main peaks reach almost 2000 m. In several cases, the storms that hit the area have triggered many shallow landslides (soil slip-debris flows, which exposed the population to serious risks (during the 19 June 1996 rainstorm about 1000 landslides were triggered and 14 people died. The assessment of the rainfall thresholds is very important in order to prepare efficient alarm systems in a region particularly dedicated to tourism and marble activities. With the aim of contributing to the landslide hazard evaluation of the southern Apuan Alps territory (upper Versilia area, a detailed analysis of the main pluviometric events was carried out. The data recorded at the main rain gauge of the area from 1975 to 2002 were analysed and compared with the occurrence of soil slips, in order to examine the relationship between soil slip initiation and rainfall. The most important rainstorms which triggered shallow landslides occurred in 1984, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000. Many attempts were made to obtain a possible correlation between rainfall parameters and the occurrence of soil slip phenomena and to identify the local rainfall threshold for triggering shallow landslides. A threshold for soil slip activity in terms of mean intensity, duration and mean annual precipitation (MAP was defined for the study area. The thresholds obtained for the southern Apuan Alps were also compared with those proposed by other authors for several regions in the world. This emphasized the high value of the rain threshold for shallow landslide activity in the Apuan area. The high threshold is probably also linked to the high mean annual precipitation and to the high

  16. Peak metamorphic temperature and thermal history of the Southern Alps (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyssac, O.; Cox, S. C.; Vry, J.; Herman, F.

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Alps orogen of New Zealand results from late Cenozoic convergence between the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates and is one of the most active mountain belts in the world. Metamorphic rocks carrying a polymetamorphic legacy, ranging from low-greenschist to high-grade amphibolites, are exhumed in the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. On a regional scale, the metamorphic grade has previously been described in terms of metamorphic zones and mineral isograds; application of quantitative petrology being severely limited owing to unfavorable quartzofeldspathic lithologies. This study quantifies peak metamorphic temperatures (T) in a 300 × 20 km area, based on samples forming 13 transects along-strike from Haast in the south to Hokitika in the north, using thermometry based on Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM). Peak metamorphic T decreases across each transect from ≥ 640 °C locally in the direct vicinity of the Alpine Fault to less than 330 °C at the drainage divide 15-20 km southeast of the fault. Thermal field gradients exhibit a degree of similarity from the southernmost to the northernmost transects, are greater in low-grade semischist than high-grade schist, are affected by folding or discontinuous juxtaposition of metamorphic zones, and contain limited information on crustal-scale geothermal gradients. Temperatures derived by RSCM thermometry are slightly (≤ 50 °C) higher than those derived by traditional quantitative petrology using garnet-biotite thermometry and THERMOCALC modeling. The age of RSCM T appears to be mostly pre-Cenozoic over most of the area except in central Southern Alps (Franz Josef-Fox area), where the amphibolite facies schists have T of likely Cenozoic age. The RSCM T data place some constraints on the mode of exhumation along the Alpine Fault and have implications for models of Southern Alps tectonics.

  17. Postcollisional cooling history of the Eastern and Southern Alps and its linkage to Adria indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Reverman, Rebecca Lee; Fellin, Maria Giuditta; Neubauer, Franz; Dunkl, István; Zattin, Massimiliano; Seward, Diane; Genser, Johann; Brack, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Indentation of rigid blocks into rheologically weak orogens is generally associated with spatiotemporally variable vertical and lateral block extrusion. The European Eastern and Southern Alps are a prime example of microplate indentation, where most of the deformation was accommodated north of the crustal indenter within the Tauern Window. However, outside of this window only the broad late-stage exhumation pattern of the indented units as well as of the indenter itself is known. In this study we refine the exhumational pattern with new (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track thermochronology data on apatite from the Karawanken Mountains adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic fault and from the central-eastern Southern Alps. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages from the Karawanken Mountains range between 12 and 5 Ma and indicate an episode of fault-related exhumation leading to the formation of a positive flower structure and an associated peripheral foreland basin. In the Southern Alps, apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data combined with previous data also indicate a pulse of mainly Late Miocene exhumation, which was maximized along thrust systems, with highly differential amounts of displacement along individual structures. Our data contribute to mounting evidence for widespread Late Miocene tectonic activity, which followed a phase of major exhumation during strain localization in the Tauern Window. We attribute this exhumational phase and more distributed deformation during Adriatic indentation to a major change in boundary conditions operating on the orogen, likely due to a shift from a decoupled to a coupled system, possibly enhanced by a shift in convergence direction.

  18. Cooling and changing seasonality in the Southern Alps, New Zealand during the Antarctic Cold Reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Vandergoes, M.J.; A. C. Dieffenbacher-Krall; Newnham, R.M.; Denton, G.H.; Blaauw, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensively 14C AMS dated pollen and chironomid record from Boundary Stream Tarn provides the first chironomid-derived temperature reconstruction to quantify temperature change during Lateglacial times (17,500–10,000 cal yr BP) in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. The records indicate a ca 1000-year disruption to the Lateglacial warming trend and an overall cooling consistent with the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR). The main interval of chironomid-inferred summer temperature depression (2–...

  19. Stars in the Silurian sky: Echinoderm holdfasts from the Carnic Alps, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, A.; Ausich, W.I.; Corradini, C.; Corriga, M.G.; Schoenlaub, H.P.

    2016-07-01

    A small collection of echinoderm holdfasts from the Ludlow Cardiola Formation of the Carnic Alps (Austria) contains a wide range of morphologies as a response of environmental adaptation. In general, the holdfasts have a globous and massive dome-like profile with several processes arranged in a sub-radial disposition, so to create a sort of ‘star-like’ outline. A small central depression is common but not present on all specimens. The distinctive holdfasts are preserved in an iron-rich phase, documenting a substitution that has also affected other non-echinoderm calcareous material. (Author)

  20. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps inferred from the stratigraphic evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2016-04-01

    The stratigraphic development of foreland basins have been related to orogenic processes, where continent- continent collision resulted in the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been used to explain the Oligocene to Miocene evolution of the Molasse basin, situated on the northern side of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5-10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models. In particular, the use of empirical relationships between the spacing of alluvial megafans, orogen width and morphometric properties of stream channels feeding the fans imply a general trend towards an increasing total fluvial relief until 1,900±1,000 m at ca. 20 Ma, followed by a prolonged period of time during which this variable has remained nearly constant. Accordingly, larger topographic loads cannot be invoked to explain the continuous deflection of the foreland plate. Alternatively, a scenario where horizontal forces cause a downward dragging of the foreland plate would offer a valuable explanation for the decoupling between basin depth and topographic loads. However, such a scenario would be associated with the occurrence of compressional forces within the foreland plate, which is not in agreement with observations in the Molasse Basin, at least for the present, where focal mechanisms of current seismic events imply the occurrence of extensional forces at work. We suggest that rollback orogeny, driven by the gravitational pull of the European slab, provides a mechanism to explain the increasing deflection of the foreland in the absence of larger topographic forcing, and it agrees with the geologic record that the subducting European plate did not

  1. Possible environmental effects on the evolution of the Alps-Molasse basin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlunegger, F.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Ramseyer, K

    2007-12-15

    We propose three partly unrelated stages in the geodynamic evolution of the Alps and the sedimentary response of the Molasse Basin. The first stage comprises the time interval between ca. 35 and 20 Ma and is characterized by a high ratio between rates of crustal accretion and surface erosion. The response of the Molasse Basin was a change from the stage of basin underfill (UMM) to overfill (USM). Because the response time of erosional processes to crustal accretion and surface uplift lasts several millions of years, the orogen first experienced a net growth until the end of the Oligocene. As a result, the Molasse basin subsided at high rates causing the topographic axis to shift to the proximal basin border and alluvial fans to establish at the thrust front. During the Aquitanian, however, ongoing erosion and downcutting in the hinterland caused sediment discharge to the basin to increase and the ratio between the rates of crustal accretion and surface erosion to decrease. The result was a progradation of the dispersal systems, and a shift of the topographic axis towards the distal basin border. The second stage started at ca. 20 Ma at a time when palaeoclimate became more continental, and when the crystalline core became exposed in the orogen. The effect was a decrease in the erosional efficiency of the Swiss Alps and hence a reduction of sediment discharge to the Molasse Basin. We propose that this decrease in sediment flux caused the Burdigalian transgression of the OMM. We also speculate that this reduction of surface erosion initiated the modification of Alpine deformation from vertically- to mainly horizontally directed extrusion (deformation of the Southern Alps, and the Jura Mountains some Ma later). The third stage in the geodynamic development was initiated at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. At that time, palaeoclimate possibly became wetter, which, in turn, caused surface erosion to increase relative to crustal accretion. This change caused the Alps to

  2. Cyclostratigraphic calibration of cretaceous magnetic polarity events (Cismon, Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, H.

    1994-01-01

    In an introductory section the problems of constructing a geologic time scale and the role of magnetic reversals and Milankovitch cycles in geochronology are outlined. Results of a detailed cyclostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic study of the Valanginian/Hauterivian part of the pelagic limestone section at Cismon in the Southern Alps are presented and used in conjunction to estimate the duration of magnetic subchrons between CM10N and CM8. The new estimates are shorter than in most published time scales by a factor of two to three. More research along these lines may make a revision of the Early Cretaceous time scale necessary. ?? 1994 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. Soil mapping and classification in the Alps: Current state and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruck, Jasmin; Gruber, Fabian; Geitner, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    Soil is an essential, non-renewable resource, which fundamentally needs sustainable management. Soils in mountain regions like the Alps have a diverse small-scale distribution and they are characterized by a slow soil development and multilayer profiles. This is mainly caused by high process dynamics and harsh climate conditions. Therefore, soils are particularly vulnerable and require a sustainable management approach. Furthermore, the global change, especially the climate and land use change, leads to new demands on the soil. Thus, high-resolution spatial informations on soil properties are required to protect this resource and to consider its properties in spatial planning and decision making. In the Alpine region soil maps are mostly confined to small (mostly agriculture) areas. Especially, in higher altitudes of the Alps pedologic research and data collection are lacking. However, nowadays and in the future systematic soil mapping works are and will be no longer applied. Another methodical problem arises because each Alpine country has its own national soil mapping and classification system which are not adapted to Alpine areas. Therefore, appropriate methods of working practices for the Alpine region are mostly missing. The central aim of the research project "ReBo - Terrain Classification based on airborne laser scanning data to support soil mapping in the Alps", founded by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol, is to develop and verify a concept, which allows the collection of soil data through an optimized interaction of soil mapping and geomorphometric analysis. The test sites are located in South Tyrol (Italy). The workflow shall minimise the required pedologic field work and shall provide a reliable strategy for transferring punctual soil informations into spatial soil maps. However, for a detailed analysis a systematic pedologic field work is still indispensable. As in the Alps reliable soil mapping and classification standards are lacking

  4. The development of Sn-Li coolant/breeding material for APEX/ALPS applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, D.-K.

    1999-07-08

    A Sn-Li alloy has been identified to be a coolant/breeding material for D-T fusion applications. The key feature of this material is its very low vapor pressure, which will be very useful for free surface concepts employed in APEX, ALPS and inertial confinement fission. The vapor is dominated by lithium, which has very low Z. Initial assessment of the material indicates acceptable tritium breeding capability, high thermal conductivity, expected low tritium volubility, and expected low chemical reactivities with water and air. Some key concerns are the high activation and material compatibility issues. The initial assessment of this material, for fission applications, is presented in this paper.

  5. COMPARISON OF SERUM YST/ASAT, ALAT AND ALP LEVELS IN HEPATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. M ZAHRAIE

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine a simple and sensitive test for clinical diagnosis of various hepatic diseases. Therefore y-glutamyltranspeptidase (Y** GT, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, alanine aminotr¬ansferase (ALAT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels were measured in 29 healthy adults and 88 sera with various liver diseases. Table I represents the results, according to which y-GT activity increases in all of studied patients, especially in alcoholic liver disease and hepatobiliary dysfunction (13, 5, 3,10, 4."nThe data suggest that in liver disease it is better to estimate y-GT level in serum prior to other related enzymes.

  6. AlpArray in Austria and Slovakia: technical realization, site description and noise characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Florian; Kolínský, Petr; Gröschl, Gidera; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-10-01

    We report the technical realization and performance of thirty temporary seismic broadband deployments for the AlpArray project in eastern Austria and western Slovakia. Reftek 151 60s sensors and Reftek 130/130S digitizers form the core instrumentation of our seismic stations; these are mostly installed inside abandoned or occasionally used basements or cellars in small buildings or huts. We describe our type of installation and briefly introduce the site conditions for each of the thirty installations. We present a probabilistic power spectral density analysis to assess the noise conditions at all sites and potential relations to the installation design.

  7. Ecology of some mire and bog plant communities in the Western Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio BUFFA

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available During a mire vegetation study, conducted mainly in the subalpine-alpine sector of the Western Italian Alps, the ecology of several plant communities and numerous moss species of this kind of vegetation was evaluated. The study area covered the Piedmontese sector of the Graian Alps, the eastern sector of the Aosta Valley as well as certain localities of the Pennine Alps, the Canavese district and the Maritime Alps. They have a rocky substratum representative of the various regional lithologies and include the main sectors characterised by the highest precipitation. Three hundred and twenty two relevées were made using the phytosociological method and the pH and the conductivity of the water table and its depth were measured directly. Cluster Analysis allowed a classification of the samples and the identification of various groups of plant communities. Ordination performed by DCA and CCA allowed us to identify the ecological features of the various plant communities by using the values of the main environmental parameters, measured directly in the field, and certain climatic parameters (altitude and mean annual precipitation available. The use of climatic parameters is an important result for identifying communities which show greater oceanicity, something that is underlined also by the presence of indicator species such as Sphagnum papillosum and S. subnitens. Furthermore the communities are arranged in a "poor-rich" gradient, and are also profoundly influenced by depth to water table which is inversely correlated to the pH. Therefore we find certain kinds of communities all with a very low water table and which are little affected by its chemistry. Other groups share the fact that the water table is outcropping or near the surface and are distinguishable for their pH values and conductivity. We discuss the different response of the bryophytes and vascular plants of these communities to the environmental parameters considered, in light of their

  8. Revised diagnostic criteria and classification for the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS): report from the 2009 NIH International Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joao B; Bleesing, Jack J; Dianzani, Umberto; Fleisher, Thomas A; Jaffe, Elaine S; Lenardo, Michael J; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic; Siegel, Richard M; Su, Helen C; Teachey, David T; Rao, V Koneti

    2010-10-07

    Lymphadenopathy in children for which no infectious or malignant cause can be ascertained constitutes a challenging diagnostic dilemma. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a human genetic disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis resulting in an accumulation of lymphocytes and childhood onset chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, multilineage cytopenias, and an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. In 1999, investigators at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) suggested criteria to establish the diagnosis of ALPS. Since then, with approximately 500 patients with ALPS studied worldwide, significant advances in our understanding of the disease have prompted the need for revisions to the existing diagnostic criteria and classification scheme. The rationale and recommendations outlined here stem from an international workshop held at NIH on September 21 and 22, 2009, attended by investigators from the United States, Europe, and Australia engaged in clinical and basic science research on ALPS and related disorders. It is hoped that harmonizing the diagnosis and classification of ALPS will foster collaborative research and better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune cytopenias and B-cell lymphomas.

  9. Phytosociological analysis of alpine swards and heathlands (pioneer patches on ridges and peaks in the Julian Alps (NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakskobler Igor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a phytosociological analysis of more than 250 relevés in the Julian Alps and compared them with similar communities elsewhere in the Alps and in the Dinaric Alps to describe the following new syntaxa of alpine swards and heathlands from the alliance Caricion firmae (class Elyno-Seslerietea: Saxifrago squarrosae-Caricetum mucronatae, Saussureo pygmaeae-Caricetum rupestris, Seslerio sphaerocephalae-Dryadetum octopetalae, Homogyno discoloris-Vaccinietum gaultherioidis, Saxifrago paniculatae-Caricetum fuliginosae and Homogyno discoloris-Loiseleurietum caricetosum firmae, the new association Achilleo clavennae-Elynetum myosuroidis from the alliance Oxytropido-Elynion and two new syntaxa from the alliance Loiseleurio-Vaccinion (class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea: Homogyno alpinae-Vaccinietum gaultherioidis and Empetro-Vaccinietum gaultherioidis rhododendretosum hirsuti. Many species that are rare, of conservation concern or protected in Slovenia occur in the newly described communities.

  10. A new, isolated and endangered relict population of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra) in the northwestern Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcaillet, Christopher; Fauvart, Nicolas; Roiron, Paul; Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Ali, Adam A

    2009-05-01

    Dwarf pines were discovered in 2004 during a paleoecological survey in the Mont Cenis massif (Savoy, France). These dwarf pines are the sole natural and spontaneous population in the NW French Alps of Pinus mugo Turra, ssp. mughus (Scop.) O. Schwarz. The population, fragile in light of the individual numbers, is currently isolated, but likely results from populations that would have covered larger areas during the Lateglacial or the early-Holocene, from the SW Alps (France) toward the Mont Cenis, throughout the Susa valley (Italy). With a fragmented distribution area of dwarf pine, the future of the Mont Cenis population seems altered due to important necroses observed on the topmost part of pine crowns, except for individuals that do not grow in the local ski station area. We stress the need for a conservation program to preserve this natural population, the sole known in the NW French Alps.

  11. United modification of Al-24Si alloy by Al-P and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延峰; 刘相法; 王海梅; 王振卿; 边秀房; 张均艳

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of a new type of Al-P master alloy on Al-24Si alloys was investigated. It is foundthat excellent modification effect can be obtained by the addition of this new type of A1-P master alloy into Al-24Simelt and the average primary Si grain size is decreased below 47 μm from original 225 μm. It is also found that theTiC particles in the melt coming from Al8Ti2C can improve the modification effect of the Al-P master alloy. Whenthe content of TiC particles in the Al-24Si melt is 0.03 %, the improvement reaches the maximum and keeps steadywith increasing content of TiC particles. Modification effect occurs at 50 min after the addition of the Al-P master al-loy and TiC particles, and keeps stable with prolonging holding time.

  12. A key to larvae of species belonging to the genus Diamesa from Alps and Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rossaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A key to species belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Alps and Apennines (Italy is presented using characters observable in the fourth-instar larva. The larvae are separated on the basis of qualitative and quantitative characters. At present fifteen species from the Italian Alps are described in all three life stages, but only twelve species groups can be separated as larvae. The separation is based on the length and thickness of anal setae, antennal ratio, head capsule color and few other characters of the labrum and mentum. The shape of mental and mandibular teeth is still a valid taxonomic character, but unfortunately these characters can be rarely used because teeth are often excessively worn in samples collected in the field. Quantitative characters show variability within each species, differing according to the duration of larval development and must be used with caution. The species groups which can be separated in the larval stage are: the dampfi group, which includes D. dampfi and D. permacra, the latitarsis group including D. modesta and D. latitarsis, the zernyi group including D. zernyi and D. vaillanti. The species within each of these groups at present cannot be separated. D. starmachi, D. steinboecki, D. goetghebueri, D. bertrami, D. aberrata, D. incallida, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. insignipes can be separated from all the other known species in larval stage.

  13. Two new pioneer communities of Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus aria in the southern Julian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakskobler Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the southern Julian Alps we described two communities whose tree layer is dominated by species from the genus Sorbus and noted two successional stages in the overgrowing of abandoned agricultural land (pastures, hay meadows. In the secondary succession on former subalpine pastures above the alp Planina Razor und under the Breginjski Stol ridge, where potential natural vegetation consists of subalpine beech forest, dwarf pine has been overgrown with mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia whose stands are classified into the new association Rhododendro hirsuti-Sorbetum aucupariae. Whitebeam (Sorbus aria has established itself on steep former hay meadows in the belt of altimontane beech forests under Mts. Jalovnik and Krikov Vrh, on gullied slopes on mixed geological bedrock dominated by chert, and these stands are classified into the association Calamagrostio arundinaceae-Sorbetum ariae. While occupying only small areas these two pioneer stages, as the sites of some rare or protected species, are nevertheless important biotopes and play a vital role in protection against avalanches.

  14. Common climatic signal from glaciers in the European Alps over the last 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, C.; Fischer, A.; Mayer, C.; Bauder, A.; Galos, S. P.; Funk, M.; Thibert, E.; Six, D.; Braun, L.; Huss, M.

    2017-02-01

    Conventional glacier-wide mass balances are commonly used to study the effect of climate forcing on glacier melt. Unfortunately, the glacier-wide mass balances are also influenced by the glacier's dynamic response. Investigations on the effects of climate forcing on glaciers can be largely improved by analyzing point mass balances. Using a statistical model, we have found that 52% of the year-to-year deviations in the point mass balances of six glaciers distributed across the entire European Alps can be attributed to a common variability. Point mass balance changes reveal remarkable regional consistencies reaching 80% for glaciers less than 10 km apart. Compared to the steady state conditions of the 1962-1982 period, the surface mass balance changes are -0.85 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1 for 1983-2002 and -1.63 m w.e. a-1 for 2003-2013. This indicates a clear and regionally consistent acceleration of mass loss over recent decades over the entire European Alps.

  15. EOCENE LARGER FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE SOUTHERNMOST DAUPHINOIS DOMAIN (MARITIME ALPS, FRANCE-ITALY BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIO VARRONE

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Trucco Formation and the Nummulitic Limestone (Dauphinois Domain, Maritime Alps are characterized by abundant larger foraminifera, specifically nummulitids, orthophragminids and encrusting foraminifera. In the Maritime Alps, previous studies suggest a late Lutetian age for the Trucco Formation and a late Lutetian-Priabonian age for the Nummulitic Limestone.Biostratigraphic analysis of the nummulitids, in 11 stratigraphic sections, allowed us to distinguish 3 biozones:MALF1 Zone: defined by the presence of Nummulites brongniarti d’Archiac & Haime, N. puschi d’Archiac, N. perforatus de Montfort, N. striatus (Bruguière, N. cf. dufrenoyi d’Archiac & Haime, N. variolarius/incrassatus and Operculina schwageri Silvestri.MALF2 Zone: defined by the presence of Nummulites perforatus de Montfort, N. striatus (Bruguière, N. cf. dufrenoyi d’Archiac & Haime, N. variolarius/incrassatus and Operculina schwageri Silvestri.MALF 3 Zone: defined by the presence of gr. Nummulites variolarius/incrassatus, N. striatus (Bruguière and Operculina schwageri Silvestri.According to current larger foraminiferal biozonal schemes, the age of these local biozones corresponds to the Bartonian p.p.Moreover, the comparison with biostratigraphic schemes established for the Dauphinois Domain and for the Tethyan area evidences that several typical nummulitid species of the late Bartonian are lacking in the southern Dauphinois Domain, probably due to a paleogeographic control. 

  16. Vulnerability from a co-evolutionary perspective: valuating natural hazards management in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    In past decades, we observed a change in natural hazard management from a structural, security-based policy towards an integrated, risk-based management system. Therefore, the concept of vulnerability has become central in the policy debate. In order to assess vulnerability, we need a broader understanding of the term to manage natural hazards and to reduce damages and losses from future events. This paper adopts a co-evolutionary perspective to provide a critical assessment of vulnerability in natural hazard management, taking the Eastern Alps as an example. We discuss the structural, social and institutional vulnerability and governance from an integrated point of view to understand and to analyse the interdependences and interactions between human and physical systems. The aim is to consider the dynamic interactions between multiple conceptualised vulnerabilities in evaluating natural hazard management systems. A co-evolutionary framework widens the explanatory of multiple interactions in vulnerability to provide useful information and concepts to improve risk management. Keywords: vulnerability; co-evolution; natural hazards; Eastern Alps

  17. Diatom community biodiversity in an Alpine protected area: a study in the Maritime Alps Natural Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca BONA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the "All Taxa Biodiversity Inventories" (ATBIs coordinated by the European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy (EDIT, we analysed diatom communities colonizing different habitats of the Valasco Valley (Maritime Alps Natural Park. The aim of this research was to shed light on the diatom richness in an Alpine context through i the collection of data concerning diatom communities inhabiting an unexplored watershed of the Maritime Alps Natural Park, including all of the most important aquatic habitats (comparison among river, springs and peat bogs and assemblages (epilithic and epiphytic diatom communities; ii analysis of the main environmental factors driving the development of diatom communities in different habitats. We completed a list of 174 diatom taxa. In general, river samples were poorer in terms of species richness than spring and peat bog ones, probably due to the selective role of the fast flow, while springs sheltered the highest biodiversity of the Valasco Valley. Peat bog communities were mainly composed of acidophilous taxa, sometimes planktonic and forming colonies. Epilithic and epiphytic samples did not show significant differences in terms of composition and biodiversity, even though it was statistically possible to identify indicator species for each assemblage. The study also highlighted the presence of several taxa included in the German Red List as endangered or decreasing, especially in the epiphytic samples. Since the water nutrient level and substrate geology were similar among habitats, the main environmental factors shaping Valasco diatom communities were water velocity and pH.

  18. A regional reconstruction of debris-flow activity in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Emily; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Stoffel, Markus; Neumann, Mathias

    2011-09-01

    Dendrogeomorphic dating of historical debris-flow events is a highly valuable tool for improving historical records in the field of natural hazard management. Previous dendrogeomorphic investigations generally have focused on case studies of single torrents; however, regional investigations may offer a more accurate reconstruction of regional patterns of activity and therefore may have an advantage over individual cases. The aim of the study is to provide a regional reconstruction of debris-flow events for a site in the Northern Calcareous Alps of western Austria (Gamperdonatal, Vorarlberg) and to document spatial and temporal morphological changes in individual and neighboring torrents. Analysis of 442 trees (268 Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, 164 Picea abies, and 10 Abies alba) allowed identification of 579 growth disturbances corresponding to 63 debris-flow events since A.D. 1839. The majority of growth disturbances were in the form of growth suppression or release (76%) owing to the nature of both the deposited material and the process characteristics. Regional patterns of event frequency indicated a paucity of activity in the early to mid-twentieth century and increased activity since A.D. 1948, whereby large events were followed by subsequent years of continued activity of smaller magnitude. Patterns of frequency could be attributed primarily to spatiotemporal changes in channel morphology, but may also be reflective of changes in transport conditions within the valley. This study provides the first regional investigation in the Austrian Alps and contributes to the documentation of tree responses to geomorphic disturbances in calcareous material.

  19. Natural Hazard Management from a Coevolutionary Perspective: Exposure and Policy Response in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Röthlisberger, Veronika; Thaler, Thomas; Zischg, Andreas; Keiler, Margreth

    2017-01-01

    A coevolutionary perspective is adopted to understand the dynamics of exposure to mountain hazards in the European Alps. A spatially explicit, object-based temporal assessment of elements at risk to mountain hazards (river floods, torrential floods, and debris flows) in Austria and Switzerland is presented for the period from 1919 to 2012. The assessment is based on two different data sets: (1) hazard information adhering to legally binding land use planning restrictions and (2) information on building types combined from different national-level spatial data. We discuss these transdisciplinary dynamics and focus on economic, social, and institutional interdependencies and interactions between human and physical systems. Exposure changes in response to multiple drivers, including population growth and land use conflicts. The results show that whereas some regional assets are associated with a strong increase in exposure to hazards, others are characterized by a below-average level of exposure. The spatiotemporal results indicate relatively stable hot spots in the European Alps. These results coincide with the topography of the countries and with the respective range of economic activities and political settings. Furthermore, the differences between management approaches as a result of multiple institutional settings are discussed. A coevolutionary framework widens the explanatory power of multiple drivers to changes in exposure and risk and supports a shift from structural, security-based policies toward an integrated, risk-based natural hazard management system.

  20. Procedures for the documentation of historical debris flows: application to the Chieppena Torrent (Italian alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco

    2007-09-01

    The reconstruction of triggering conditions, geomorphic effects, and damage produced by historical floods and debris flows significantly contributes to hazard assessment, allowing improved risk mitigation measures to be defined. Methods for the analysis of historical floods and debris flows vary greatly according to the type and quality of available data, which in turn are influenced by the time the events occurred. For floods and debris flows occurring in the Alps a few decades ago (between about 1950 and 1980), the documentation is usually better than for previous periods but, unlike events of most recent years, quantitative data are usually scanty and the description of the events does not aim to identify processes according to current terminology and classifications. The potential, and also the limitations of historical information available for the reconstruction of historical debris flows in the Alps have been explored by analyzing a high-magnitude debris flow that occurred on November 4, 1966 in the Chieppena Torrent (northeastern Italy). Reconstruction of the event was based on the use of written documentation, terrestrial and aerial photographs, and geomorphological maps. The analysis aimed to define the temporal development of phenomena, recognizing the type of flow processes and assessing some basic flow variables, such as volume, channel-debris yield rate, erosion depth, total distance traveled, and runout distance on the alluvial fan. The historical development of torrent hydraulic works, both before and after the debris flow of November 1966, was also analyzed with regard to the technical solutions adopted and their performance.

  1. The crossing of the Alps of Gerbert of Aurillac during the 984 AD: climatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    In a letter to Miró Bonfill (Bishop of Girona) sent in march-april 984, Gerbert d'Aurillac wrote that "if you want to write something to us, please address your correspondence to Reims until the first of November or to Rome from December 25". This envisages a journey from Reims to Rome in the period 1th November - 25 December (Sigismondi, 2009). In those times the road normally used to reach Rome from Reims was the Via Francigena which crosses the Alps at the Great St Bernard pass. This pass is a privileged transit point through the Alps since ancient times as stated by the old name "Col de Mons Joux" that remembers the Jupiter's Pennino temple built along the old Roman road. The crossing point is at 2437 m asl, which from autumn to spring gives a significant risk of crossing failures due to snowfalls. The trip of Gerbert of Aurillac leads us to the general topic of the documentary sources of the crossings of the Alpine passes. The trust of Gerbert of Aurillac in the respect of the predefined travel time testifies a low perception of the risk of the transit of the Great St Bernard. This reinforces the evidence of an unusual mildness of Medieval period in Europe coming from many other documentary sources.

  2. Rock glaciers, protalus ramparts and pronival ramparts in the south-eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, R. R.; Boccali, C.; Žebre, M.; Guglielmin, M.

    2016-09-01

    Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts are characteristic landforms of the periglacial domain often used as markers for the occurrence of permafrost in mountain terrains. As such, relict rock glaciers can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions. We present here the first previously unreported rock glacier inventory of the south-eastern Alps (including the north-eastern-most region of Italy and Slovenia), interpreted from high resolution orthophotos and a high resolution digital terrain model interpolated from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). We mapped 53 rock glaciers covering a total area of 3.45 km2. The majority of rock glaciers are classified as relict and distributed between 1708 and 1846 m a.s.l. with slope ranging between 19° and 27°. In addition to rock glaciers we observed 66 protalus (pronival) ramparts, having median elevation of 1913 m a.s.l. and covering 0.48 km2. More than half of the inventoried protalus ramparts are located in the more maritime area of the Alps with higher precipitation compared to the location of rock glaciers. Using paleoclimate reconstruction based on the 1981-2010 climatological record of the area, we infer that the rock glaciers formed during one of the dry and cold periods of the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Possible evolution of the active pronival forms observed in the most maritime area of this alpine sector is also discussed.

  3. Atmospheric CO2 Consumption in Uplifting Mountain Ranges: New Insight From the New Zealand Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. D.; Blum, J. D.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2004-12-01

    Rates of physical erosion and chemical weathering in uplifting mountain ranges are generally higher than the rates observed in tectonically stable regions. This observation has led to the hypothesis that orogenic events lead to global cooling over geologic time scales by accelerating the rate of atmospheric CO2 drawdown from silicate weathering. However, recent studies of rivers draining the rapidly uplifting Himalaya Mountains have demonstrated that much of the chemical weathering flux is dominated by carbonate dissolution, which does not influence long-term atmospheric CO2 levels. To examine if carbonate weathering dominates in other orogenic environments, we have undertaken investigations of rivers draining the New Zealand Southern Alps, which present a largely unexplored setting for systematically examining tectonic controls on the carbon cycle. In particular, we quantified rates of physical erosion and both silicate and carbonate weathering across a gradient of variable uplift rates but constant bedrock composition. We also compared the findings to global mean values as well as to data for major world rivers in other tectonic and climatic settings. Rapid uplift in the western Southern Alps elevates mechanical erosion rates by a factor of ~13 relative to those on the tectonically stable eastern side. Similarly, the average chemical weathering rate is ~5 times higher on the western compared to eastern side of the mountain range. However, because the proportion of stream-water Ca2+ and Mg2+ from the weathering of trace hydrothermal calcite increases as the rate of mechanical erosion increases, the long-term atmospheric CO2 consumption rate on the western side is only ~2 times higher than that on the eastern side and only ~1.5 times higher than the global mean value. These data demonstrate that tectonic uplift in the New Zealand Southern Alps accelerates physical erosion and chemical weathering rates but does not greatly enhance the rate of long-term atmospheric

  4. Subduction of European continental crust to 70 km depth imaged in the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anne; Zhao, Liang; Guillot, Stéphane; Solarino, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The first conclusive evidence in support of the burial (and exhumation) of continental crust to depths larger than 90 km was provided by the discovery of coesite-bearing metamorphic rocks in the Dora Maira massif of the Western Alps (Chopin, 1984). Since then, even though similar outcrops of exhumed HP/UHP rocks have been recognized in a number of collisional belts, direct seismic evidences for subduction of continental crust in the mantle of the upper plate remain rare. In the Western Alps, the greatest depth ever recorded for the European Moho is 55 km by wide-angle seismic reflection (ECORS-CROP DSS Group, 1989). In an effort to image the European Moho at greater depth, and unravel the very complex lithospheric structure of the W-Alps, we have installed the CIFALPS temporary seismic array across the Southwestern Alps for 14 months (2012-2013). The almost linear array runs from the Rhône valley (France) to the Po plain (Italy) across the Dora Maira massif where exhumed HP/UHP metamorphic rocks of continental origin were first discovered. We used the receiver function processing technique that enhances P-to-S converted waves at velocity boundaries beneath the array. The receiver function records were migrated to depth using 4 different 1-D velocity models to account for the strongest structural changes along the profile. They were then stacked using the classical common-conversion point technique. Beneath the Southeast basin and the external zones, the obtained seismic section displays a clear converted phase on the European Moho, dipping gently to the ENE from ~35 km at the western end of the profile, to ~40 km beneath the Frontal Penninic thrust (FPT). The Moho dip then noticeably increases beneath the internal zones, while the amplitude of the converted phase weakens. The weak European Moho signal may be traced to 70-75 km depth beneath the eastern Dora Maira massif and the westernmost Po plain. At shallower level (20-40 km), we observe a set of strong

  5. Use of Sirolimus (Rapamycin) for Treatment of Cytopenias and Lymphoproliferation Linked to Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS). Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrol, Julie; Garrido Colino, Carmen

    2017-02-23

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis. Children present with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and autoimmune cytopenias. Recent advances show efficacy of treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. Sirolimus, an mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, improves autoimmune cytopenias and lymphoproliferation, with a safe profile. We present 2 patients, a 5-year-old girl and 15-year-old boy, diagnosed with ALPS with initial partial response to steroid treatment. Autoimmune cytopenias and lymphoproliferation then became refractory to treatment, with recurrence of symptoms. In both cases, treatment with sirolimus was started, with a rapid response, complete remission of cytopenias, and resolution of lymphoproliferation, with no significant adverse effects.

  6. Industrial applications of solar energy: deserts, seas, the Alps; Les applications industrielles de l'energie solaire: du desert aux Alpes en passant par la mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allani, Y.

    2008-07-01

    In this set of presentation slides, after a review of worldwide energy resources the author presents his innovative technical solution aimed at contributing to future energy supply. An extra-flat solar concentrator was developed to produce industrial steam in the temperature range 150 to 300 {sup o}C. A prototype was operated on the site of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland, for power generation at 12 kW{sub el}. In Ras al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, the concept of the so-called Solar Island is to be tested. Construction work is underway. A floating circular platform will be equipped with parallel rows of extra-flat solar concentrators. The platform will rotate to follow the sun apparent movement and enhance the power output of the concentrators. A second project is presented that should be realised in the Swiss Alps. In this case the extra-flat concentrators will be mounted on existing steel constructions that prevent snow avalanches on steep grounds. The basic technical data of the two projects are given.

  7. The not trivial subdivision of nappes in the Lower Pennine domain of the Central Alps (Riviera and Verzasca Valleys, Swiss Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Ambrosi, Christian; Scapozza, Cristian; Castelletti, Claudio; Maino, Matteo; Gouffon, Yves

    2016-04-01

    We present new data of the geological map of the Osogna sheet in the Southern Swiss Alps (Swiss National Map no. 1293) that extends N-S from Biasca to Claro and W-E from Lavertezzo to the Pizzo di Claro, respectively. The area mapped at the 1:10'000 scale is located in the Lepontine dome and includes, from core-to-carapace, the gneissic nappes of the Leventina, Simano, Adula/Cima-Lunga and Maggia. These nappes derive from the same post-Variscan gneissic basement complicating their lithological distinction and making difficult to recognize their boundaries. In particular, the boundary between the Leventina and the Simano gneisses is difficult to recognize. In previous work, this boundary was traced within leucogneisses by joining a carbonate lens with quartzite, amphibolite or paragneiss lenses. Nevertheless, quartzites are absent in the mapped area and amphibolite and paragneiss lenses are vertically distributed in the tectonostratigraphy and do not form a single folded horizon. Furthermore, no significant strain gradient related to top-to-the-foreland shearing has been observed between these two units, also when paragneisses and amphibolites were present. Therefore, we present evidence that the top-to-the-foreland deformation between the Leventina and the Simano units was more distributed that commonly assumed, questioning the allochthonous character of the Simano unit.

  8. New Evidence of Success for Community College Remedial English Students: Tracking the Outcomes of Students in the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP). CCRC Working Paper No. 53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Woo; Kopko, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Davis; Jaggars, Shanna Smith

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a follow-up quantitative analysis of the Community College of Baltimore County's Accelerated Learning Program (ALP). The results suggest that among students who enroll in the highest level developmental writing course, participation in ALP is associated with substantially better outcomes in terms of English…

  9. Purification of barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) from beer and their impact on beer foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Kazuhiro; Ogushi, Kensuke

    2015-04-01

    Foam stability is a key factor of beer quality for consumers and brewers. Recent beer proteome analyses have suggested that barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) derived from barley are important for beer foam stability. In this study, BDAI-1 and ALP were purified from a Japanese commercial beer sample using salt precipitation and column chromatography. The purification level was verified using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and database searches. Purified BDAI-1 and ALP were added to a beer sample to compare the foam stability to that of a control beer sample. As a result, beer foam stability was significantly improved by BDAI-1 but not by ALP, thereby suggesting that BDAI-1 affects beer foam stability whereas ALP does not.

  10. Inventory of large landslides and rock avalanches in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Agliardi, Federico

    2013-04-01

    Large deep-seated landslides include a broad range of instability phenomena (e.g. rockslide, rock slump, lateral spread, rock mass creep and sackung, rock avalanche) which in some cases can be found as combined or sequential processes, representing the progressive evolution of a complex slope instability. Complementing the orogen-scale inventory of DSGSD that has been recently presented for the European Alps (Crosta et al 2008, Agliardi et al 2012), we created an orogen scale inventory of large landslides (mainly rockslides) and rock avalanches. The inventory includes 1701 large landslides ranging in area between 0.1 and 17 km2, and 81 rock avalanches ranging between 0.09 and 15.5 km2. The inventory covers an area of about 110,000 km2 extending over the alpine territories of Italy, France, Switzerland, and Austria, and was prepared by using available satellite imagery (multi-temporal, Google Earth, Google, Inc.) and topographic data at different resolutions (DEMs from 1 m x 1m up to 20 m x 20 m for different areas). The inventory was validated against local or regional landslide inventories already available at different scales prepared by different subjects and using different means.. Geometrical features and geomorphological parameters have been collected and related to the different phenomena and local settings. The frequency-area relationship for the mapped features is presented. The inventory shows that large landslides are widespread in the Alps. Their spatial distribution has been analysed though bivariate and multivariate analysis (mainly Principal Component Analysis and Discriminant Analysis) against a variety of factors, including: lithology, proximity to tectonic structures, seismicity, uplift and exhumation rates, position within the mountain belt and along main and tributary valleys, slope morphometry (e.g. relief, elevation, gradient, etc.), ice thickness of glaciers during LGM, and mean annual rainfall. The analysis allowed a preliminary assessment

  11. A regional inventory of rock glaciers and protalus ramparts in the central Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Brardinoni, Francesco; Alberti, Stefano; Frattini, Paolo; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2013-03-01

    We present a regional inventory of rock glaciers (n = 1514) and protalus ramparts (228) for the Lombardy region, central Italian Alps. To identify and classify the landforms we inspect three sequential air-orthophoto mosaics and a 2 m-DSM, and conduct confirmatory field work. The inventory forms an empirical basis to analyze: (i) the relative contribution of hillslope (i.e., talus slopes) and glacial (i.e., moraines) sediment stores to rock glacier sediment supply; (ii) linkages between the landforms inventoried and local topographic attributes; (iii) the spatial variability of periglacial activity in relation to a parsimonious set of environmental variables (i.e., elevation, precipitation, and lithology); and (iv) the effects of the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition on the distribution of intact and relict landforms. This analysis reveals that the elevation of rock glacier termini can vary over 200 m as a function of slope aspect. In turn, the distribution of rock glaciers among aspect categories is controlled by the structure of the valley network that promotes NW and SE exposures. Talus rock glaciers prevail numerically over the glacier-related typology, even though the latter population appears to have increased during the Holocene. Relict and intact rock glaciers have distinct spatial patterns in that the former display, on average, a 400-m elevation drop and a less clustered distribution towards northern aspects, suggesting that they have developed in more "permafrost-prone" climatic conditions. Analyzing the study region through a 27.5 km-grid has been instrumental for showing that the rock glacier specific area and terminus elevation are: (i) positively correlated with terrain elevation; and (ii) negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation. As a consequence, in relation to Holocene generalized atmospheric temperature rise, intact rock glaciers have progressively disappeared from the wetter and milder portions of the central Italian Alps

  12. Upper Mantle Structure of the transition between Alps and Apennines Revealed by Shear Wave Splitting from the CIFALPS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Salimbeni; Liang, Zhao; Marco, Malusà G.; Silvia, Pondrelli; Lucia, Margheriti; Anne, Paul; Xiaobing, Xu; Stefano, Solarino; Stéphane, Guillot; Stéphane, Schwartz; Thierry, Dumont; Coralie, Aubert; Qingchen, Wang; Rixiang, Zhu; Tianyu, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Northern Apennines, Alps and surrounding regions are often studied separately. The structure of their upper mantle has been studied repeatedly in the past and some studies reported on the seismic anisotropic properties in the litho-asthenosphere. However, a joint interpretation of the Alps-Apennines transition zone is still lacking, mainly at depth. The China-Italy-France Alps seismic survey (CIFALPS, 2012) provided an improved image of the crust and upper mantle beneath the southwestern Alps and the transition to the Apennines. Here we show the SKS shear wave splitting results obtained from the analysis of teleseismic data recorded by 55 temporary seismic stations along the CIFALPS profile and by some other permanent stations. The strain-induced lattice preferred orientation of olivine minerals within the upper mantle, expressed by the analysis, confirms the NW trending fast polarization directions parallel to the strike of the orogen, in good agreement with the results of previous studies all along the Alpine chain. On the contrary, in the Po Plain, new shear wave splitting measurements show a scattered distribution; the coexistence of both NNE-SSW and E-W directions provides new insights on upper mantle deformation in the complex transition zone between the Alpine and Apenninic subductions. The comparison of this new dataset with recent tomographic studies and geological improvement should compose a more complete picture of the mantle structure and deformation of this puzzling region.

  13. Angelo Sismonda (1807–1878), pioneer of geological mapping in the Alps of Savoy and the Piedmont: a bibliography

    CERN Document Server

    Hollier, John; Basaglia, Tullio; Hollier, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Angelo Sismonda (Ange Sismonda) was an Italian mineralogist and geologist based in Turin during the Risorgimento who produced pioneering maps of the Alps in the Kingdom of Sardinia. Well known during his lifetime, he is now mentioned only in passing by historians and no comprehensive bibliography of his work exists. To render his work more accessible, we present a short biography and a bibliography.

  14. Jasrouxite, a new Pb-Ag-As-Sb member of the lillianite homologous series from Jas Roux, Hautes Alpes, France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Makovicky, Emil; Favreau, Georges

    2013-01-01

    The thallium-rich sulfosalt deposit of Jas Roux, situated in the Pelvoux Massif (Hautes-Alpes de´partement, France), occurs in a Triassic sedimentary series. Jasrouxite belongs to the early lead-containing stages of the Tl–As–Sb period of mineralization. It occurs in a silicified gangue, along wi...

  15. Anomalous directional behaviour of the real parts of the induction arrows in the Eastern Alps: tectonic and palaeogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Schnegg

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic induction pattern in the Eastern Alps is characterised by a (continuous large-scale zone on which the real parts of the induction arrows show anomalous directional behaviour. This zone extends from the Penninic Domain of Eastern Switzerland (Graubünden probably into the Carpathian ranges. A coarse mesh of a Magnetotelluric (MT and Geomagnetic Deep Sounding (GDS station in the Alps of Graubünden and Valais (Western Switzerland indicates that this electromagnetic anomaly is restricted to the Mesozoic sediments of the North Penninic Bündnerschiefer-facies that begins in Eastern Switzerland and extends towards the east beneath Austroalpine, South Penninic and Southalpine units. Striking similarities in position and arrangement between this zone and the magnetic signature in the Eastern Alps are found. The analysis of the GDS data with the method of the Hypothetical Event Analysis (HEA shows that current channelling affects the electromagnetic fields in this zone and causes the anomalous direction of induction arrows. Based on the combined interpretation of GDS data from the Eastern Alps and West Hungary together with our recent data from Switzerland, the following geological implications are discussed: i a spatial decoupling of induction processes from the upper to the lower crust; ii a lower crustal conductive structure caused by the indentation of the Northern Adriatic promontory or terrane; iii the eastward continuation of the Bündnerschiefer-facies at least to the tectonic window of Rechnitz.

  16. The 50 most important questions relating to the maintenance and restoration of an ecological continuum in the European Alps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Walzer

    Full Text Available The European Alps harbour a unique and species-rich biodiversity, which is increasingly impacted by habitat fragmentation through land-use changes, urbanization and expanding transport infrastructure. In this study, we identified the 50 most important questions relating to the maintenance and restoration of an ecological continuum - the connectedness of ecological processes across many scales including trophic relationship and disturbance processes and hydro-ecological flows in the European Alps. We initiated and implemented a trans-national priority setting exercise, inviting 48 institutions including researchers, conservation practitioners, NGOs, policymakers and administrators from the Alpine region. The exercise was composed of an initial call for pertinent questions, a first online evaluation of the received questions and a final discussion and selection process during a joint workshop. The participating institutions generated 484 initial questions, which were condensed to the 50 most important questions by 16 workshop participants. We suggest new approaches in tackling the issue of an ecological continuum in the Alps by analysing and classifying the characteristics of the resulting questions in a non-prioritized form as well as in a visual conceptualisation of the inter-dependencies among these questions. This priority setting exercise will support research and funding institutions in channelling their capacities and resources towards questions that need to be urgently addressed in order to facilitate significant progress in biodiversity conservation in the European Alps.

  17. A FOSSIL WHIP-SCORPION (ARACHNIDA: THELYPHONIDA FROM THE UPPER CARBONIFEROUS OF THE CARNIC ALPS (FRIULI, NE ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL A. SELDEN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new and well-preserved fossil whip scorpion (Arachnida: Uropygi: Thelyphonida is described from the Late Carboniferous of the Carnic Alps, Friuli, Italy. It is referred to Parageralinura marsiglioi n. sp. The new specimen is the first Carboniferous arachnid to be described from mainland Italy and is possibly the youngest Palaeozoic thelyphonid.

  18. Physico-chemical control on the REE minerals in chloritoid-grade metasediments from a single outcrop (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janots, Emilie; Berger, Alfons; Engi, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of fluid, whole-rock composition and oxygen fugacity, on the texture and composition of monazite, allanite, and xenotime. For this purpose, these were investigated in 13 monometamorphic metasediments from a single locality of the Central Alps (Switzerland), which...

  19. Rapid soil production and weathering in the Southern Alps, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Isaac J; Almond, Peter C; Eger, Andre; Stone, John O; Montgomery, David R; Malcolm, Brendon

    2014-02-07

    Evaluating conflicting theories about the influence of mountains on carbon dioxide cycling and climate requires understanding weathering fluxes from tectonically uplifting landscapes. The lack of soil production and weathering rate measurements in Earth's most rapidly uplifting mountains has made it difficult to determine whether weathering rates increase or decline in response to rapid erosion. Beryllium-10 concentrations in soils from the western Southern Alps, New Zealand, demonstrate that soil is produced from bedrock more rapidly than previously recognized, at rates up to 2.5 millimeters per year. Weathering intensity data further indicate that soil chemical denudation rates increase proportionally with erosion rates. These high weathering rates support the view that mountains play a key role in global-scale chemical weathering and thus have potentially important implications for the global carbon cycle.

  20. Preliminary comparative study of middle Anisian vertebrate ichnoassociation from South-Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiserri, D.; Todesco, R.; Avanzini, M.

    2009-04-01

    Anisian vertebrate tracks from the south-eastern Alps are known since the first decades of 1900s (Abel, 1926). The sedimentary units yielding footprints are characterized by the alternation of limestone influenced by terrigenous supply with mere marine and volcanic layers allowing a precise dating. In this study, we compare four different ichnoassociations from three different outcrops in the South-Eastern Alps correlating them chronologically and sedimentologically. They were found to be subsequent in time from Lower Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill-Voltago Conglomerate; Todesco, 2007) through middle Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill- Giovo Formation) (Valdiserri et al., 2006) and basal Illyrian (Piz da Peres- Richthofen Conglomerate; Todesco et al., 2008) to the middle Illyrian (Val Duron-Morbiac Limestone; Avanzini et al., 2007). In all these ichno-associations, Rhynchosauroides, an ichno-genus referable to a lizard - like trackmaker well known in the European Anisian, is dominant. Within this group at least four different morphotypes are known, probably reflecting both intraspecific variation (i.e. sexual dimorphism) and different ichnospecies. Although the Chirotheridae group, referred to Archosaurian trackmakers Synaptichnium is represented in both Pelsonian ichnoassociation of the Bad Gfrill outcrop, while Chirotherium , Isochirotherium and Brachichirotherium are recognized both in Pelsonian and in Illyrian ichnosites with a incremental presence in the Illyrian The ichofamiliae Rotodactylidae und Procolophonidae seem well represented in the Pelsonian strata but absent in the Illyrian ones. The preliminarly comparative analysis of these four correlated ichnosites and the comparision with the yet known ones (Avanzini and Mietto 2008) pointed out the expected predominance of the Lepidosaurian-Archosaurian association typical for the middle Triassic ichnofauna. The incremental presence of the Chirotherian track in Illyrian and the presence of the Procolophonichium just in the

  1. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS - a "light-shining-through-walls" experiment -

    CERN Document Server

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Hildebrandt, Matthias; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Kracht, Dietmar; Lindner, Axel; List, Jenny; Meier, Tobias; Meyer, Niels; Notz, D; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Günter; Willke, Benno

    2009-01-01

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into "weakly interacting sub-eV particles" (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run.

  2. Minorités linguistiques autochtones des Alpes italiennes 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Steinicke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Les Alpes, plus précisément les Alpes italiennes, plus que toute autre région d'Europe Occidentale, sont un lieu de grande diversité ethnoculturelle : pas moins de sept minorités linguistiques autochtones y coexistent, côte à côte avec la majorité officielle correspondante. Maintenant considérées comme un héritage culturel important par les états ainsi que par les régions, une nouvelle législation offre une protection à toutes les « minorités linguistiques historiques » en Italie. Notre étude montre, cependant, qu'il est très difficile de maintenir de tels groupes, car on ne sait pas vraiment où se situent exactement les zones de ces minorités. Partant de là, des groupes d'acteurs locaux, dans de nombreuses communautés, tirent partie de ce manque de connaissance et se déclarent territoires de minorité bien qu'ils ne présentent aucune variante linguistique. Un des objectifs importants de ce projet est, donc, d'établir une représentation cartographique de cette diversité linguistique. Ce document, par conséquent, traite d'études de cas de conscience ethnolinguistique distincte. Même si la Loi n° 482 a été un premier pas important pour la préservation des minorités linguistiques, leur déclin progressif, selon les critères territoriaux et numériques, ne peut pas être nié. Aujourd'hui, outre des facteurs biodémographiques défavorables et une « ethnicité diffuse », les processus démographiques en cours constituent d'autres causes. Dans ce cadre, les migrants d'agrément, ces nouveaux immigrants qui ont découvert les montagnes comme un nouvel espace d'installation recherché, jouent un rôle décisif en renforçant le processus d'assimilation.More than any other area in Western Europe, the Alps, especially the Italian Alps, are home to great ethno-cultural diversity: there, no less than seven autochthonous linguistic minorities coexist side by side with the respective official majority. Now being

  3. A new rock glacier inventory of the Lombardy, Central Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, R.; Brardinoni, F.; Alberti, S.; Frattini, P.; Crosta, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    The Lombardy Alps, with a surface of 2148 km2 above 2000 m a.s.l. (9% of the total) represents an important portion of the southern side of the orogen. For encompassing a variety of tectonic and climatic regimes, they represent an interesting area to examine environmental controls on periglacial processes. Today, technological developments in remote sensing techniques allow us to study periglacial landforms with increasing detail. We present a new inventory for the whole Lombardy Alps in which we identify and classify rock glaciers and protalus ramparts. The inventory has been conducted by combining a number of remotely-sensed images with field traverses. Specifically, the interpretation of high-resolution (0.5 x 0.5 m) digital aerial photos (2000, 2003, 2007) and a 2 m*2 m Digital Surface Model that cover the whole region has allowed inventorying a greater number of relevant landforms when compared to prior regional efforts. Measurements and photographs taken during fieldwork provided critical ground control for the validation of data extracted from remotely-based analysis. Rock glaciers have been mapped in GIS polygons. The inventory follows the specifics detailed by Scapozza and Mari (2010), with some additional information adapted from the PermaNET evidences guidelines (Cremonese et al., 2011). Landform attributes include, geographic coordinates, mountain sector, type, activity, area, elevation (min, max and mean), slope gradient, slope aspect, dominant lithology, vegetation at the front, and upstream presence/absence of a glacier. In total, we identify 1734 periglacial landforms covering a surface of 81,5 km2 (0,34% of the region). In terms of activity, the inventory includes 673 (39%) intact classified and 1061 (61%) relict landforms. The most common landform typology is the talus-lobate (931, 54%) followed by talus tongue-shaped (436, 25%) and protalus ramparts (232, 13%). Minimum elevation, often considered a good approximation of discontinuous permafrost

  4. 25th Conference on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region

    CERN Document Server

    Borangiu, Theodor

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region, RAAD 2016 held in Belgrade, Serbia, on June 30th–July 2nd, 2016. In keeping with the tradition of the event, RAAD 2016 covered all the important areas of research and innovation in new robot designs and intelligent robot control, with papers including Intelligent robot motion control; Robot vision and sensory processing; Novel design of robot manipulators and grippers; Robot applications in manufacturing and services; Autonomous systems, humanoid and walking robots; Human–robot interaction and collaboration; Cognitive robots and emotional intelligence; Medical, human-assistive robots and prosthetic design; Robots in construction and arts, and Evolution, education, legal and social issues of robotics. For the first time in RAAD history, the themes cloud robots, legal and ethical issues in robotics as well as robots in arts were included in the technical program. The book is a valuable resource f...

  5. A NEW DAONELLA FROM THE LADINIAN PLATFORM OF THE ESINO LIMESTONE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve Daonella Mojsisovics, 1874 is very common in the Middle Triassic pelagic facies, whereas the record of this genus from shallow water limestones is rare. In the present paper a new species of Daonella, named D. pseudograbensis, is described from the Esino Limestone, a Ladinian (Middle Triassic carbonate platform in the central Southern Alps. The species is described from Brembana Valley, where the Esino Limestone is rather rich in bioclastic lenses yielding faunas with bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, corals and calcareous algae. Daonella pseudograbensis n. sp. is based on very well preserved specimens, which are often articulated and closed, all coming from the same locality. The new species shows a narrow range of intraspecific and ontogenetic morphologic variations. It is easy distinguishable from the other species of the genus for the outline and ornamentation; it therefore differs from D. grabensis Kittl, 1912, the most similar species, for the longer anterior dorsal margin.Pdf

  6. Mississippi State Axion Search: A Light Shining though a Wall ALP Search

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal; Formaggio, Joseph; Fowler, Nicholas; Gaerlan, Mikhail; Jiang, Yipeng; Madsen, John; Oblath, Noah; Powers, Adam; Ray, Amy; Riehle, Robertson

    2015-01-01

    The elegant solutions to the strong CP problem predict the existence of a particle called axion. Thus, the search for axion like particles (ALP) has been an ongoing endeavor. The possibility that these axion like particles couple to photons in presence of magnetic field gives rise to a technique of detecting these particles known as light shining through a wall (LSW). Mississippi State Axion Search (MASS) is an experiment employing the LSW technique in search for axion like particles. The apparatus consists of two radio frequency (RF) cavities, both under the influence of strong magnetic field and separated by a lead wall. While one of the cavities houses a strong RF generator, the other cavity houses the detector systems. The MASS apparatus looks for excesses in RF photons that tunnel through the wall as a signature of candidate axion-like particles. The concept behind the experiment as well as the projected sensitivities are presented here.

  7. Extreme Historical Droughts in the South-Eastern Alps - Analyses Based on Standardised Precipitation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenčič Mihael

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are natural phenomena affecting the environment and human activities. There are various drought definitions and quantitative indices; among them is the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI. In the drought investigations, historical events are poorly characterised and little data are available. To decipher past drought appearances in the southeastern Alps with a focus on Slovenia, precipitation data from HISTALP data repository were taken to identify extreme drought events (SPI ≤ -2.00 from the second half of the 19th century to the present day. Several long-term extreme drought crises were identified in the region (between the years 1888 and 1896; after World War I, during and after World War II. After 1968, drought patterns detected with SPI changed: shorter, extreme droughts with different time patterns appeared. SPI indices of different time spans showed correlated structures in space and between each other, indicating structured relations.

  8. Extreme Historical Droughts in the South-Eastern Alps — Analyses Based on Standardised Precipitation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-10-01

    Droughts are natural phenomena affecting the environment and human activities. There are various drought definitions and quantitative indices; among them is the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). In the drought investigations, historical events are poorly characterised and little data are available. To decipher past drought appearances in the southeastern Alps with a focus on Slovenia, precipitation data from HISTALP data repository were taken to identify extreme drought events (SPI ≤ -2.00) from the second half of the 19th century to the present day. Several long-term extreme drought crises were identified in the region (between the years 1888 and 1896; after World War I, during and after World War II). After 1968, drought patterns detected with SPI changed: shorter, extreme droughts with different time patterns appeared. SPI indices of different time spans showed correlated structures in space and between each other, indicating structured relations.

  9. THE CISMON APTICORE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY: A "REFERENCE SECTION " FOR THE LOWER CRETACEOUS AT LOW LATITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISABETTA ERBA

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available APTICORE at the Cismon Valley (Belluno Basin, Southern Alps penetrated 131.8 m of limestones, marlstones and "black shales". The cored interval extends from the Upper Aptian down to the lower Upper Hauterivian (about 117-130 Ma and can be considered a "reference section" for low latitudes. The hole was continuously cored with essentially 100% recovery of excellent quality material and completely logged with state-of-the art logging tools. Freshly cored material and logs from the Cismon drill site provide the most informative records for documenting and understanding global changes in the paleoenvironment, biota, geochemistry, paleotemperature of Early Cretaceous oceans. The following is a "site report" containing descriptions of the geologic setting, field operations, basic lithology and age information, and the logging tools and techniques. 

  10. Geochemical changes at the Permian–Triassic transition in Southern Alps and adjacent area: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymon Baud

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI. A great attention has been given to the negative δ13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1 and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE data are reported and show a marked enrichment in alkaline metals and REE of some levels of the boundary interval. But recent studies show that the low Iridium anomalies and the Osmium and Helium isotopes anomalies lack the characteristics of a large extraterrestrial impact.

  11. European springtime temperature synchronises ibex horn growth across the eastern Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Liebhold, Andrew; Jenny, Hannes; Mysterud, Atle; Egli, Simon; Nievergelt, Daniel; Stenseth, Nils C; Bollmann, Kurt

    2014-03-01

    Direct effects of climate change on animal physiology, and indirect impacts from disruption of seasonal synchrony and breakdown of trophic interactions are particularly severe in Arctic and Alpine ecosystems. Unravelling biotic from abiotic drivers, however, remains challenging because high-resolution animal population data are often limited in space and time. Here, we show that variation in annual horn growth (an indirect proxy for individual performance) of 8043 male Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) over the past four decades is well synchronised among eight disjunct colonies in the eastern Swiss Alps. Elevated March to May temperatures, causing premature melting of Alpine snowcover, earlier plant phenology and subsequent improvement of ibex food resources, fuelled annual horn growth. These results reveal dependency of local trophic interactions on large-scale climate dynamics, and provide evidence that declining herbivore performance is not a universal response to global warming even for high-altitude populations that are also harvested.

  12. Molecular characterization of an endolithic microbial community in dolomite rock in the central Alps (Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horath, Thomas; Bachofen, Reinhard

    2009-08-01

    Endolithic microorganisms colonize the pores in exposed dolomite rocks in the Piora Valley in the Swiss Alps. They appear as distinct grayish-green bands about 1-8 mm below the rock surface. Based on environmental small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, a diverse community driven by photosynthesis has been found. Cyanobacteria (57 clones), especially the genus Leptolyngbya, form the functional basis for an endolithic community which contains a wide spectrum of so far not characterized species of chemotrophic Bacteria (64 clones) with mainly Actinobacteria, Alpha-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria, as well as a cluster within the Chloroflexaceae. Furthermore, a cluster within the Crenarchaeotes (40 clones) has been detected. Although the eukaryotic diversity was outside the scope of the study, an amoeba (39 clones), and several green algae (51 clones) have been observed. We conclude that the bacterial diversity in this endolithic habitat, especially of chemotrophic, nonpigmented organisms, is considerable and that Archaea are present as well.

  13. FEASIBILITY OF THE AEROSOL-TO-LIQUID PARTICLE EXTRACTION SYSTEM (ALPES) FOR COLLECTION OF VIABLE FRANCISELLA SP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitkamp, M

    2006-08-07

    Several Biowatch monitoring sites in the Houston area have tested positive for Francisella tularensis and there is a need to determine whether natural occurring Francisella-related microorganism(s) may be responsible for these observed positive reactions. The collection, culturing and characterization of Francisella-related natural microorganisms will provide the knowledge base to improve the future selectivity of Biowatch monitoring for Francisella. The aerosol-to-liquid particle extraction system (ALPES) is a high-efficiency, dual mechanism collection system that utilizes a liquid collection medium for capture of airborne microorganisms. Since the viability of microorganisms is preserved better in liquid medium than on air filters, this project was undertaken to determine whether Francisella philomiragia and Francisella tularensis LVS maintain acceptable viability in the continuous liquid recirculation, high direct current voltage and residual ozone concentrations which occur during ALPES operation. Throughout a series of preliminary trial runs with representative gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms, several design modifications and improvements to the ALPES optimized liquid handling, electrical stability, sampling and overall performance for biological sampling. Initial testing with Francisella philomiragia showed viability was preserved better in PBS buffer than HBSS buffer. Trial runs at starting cell concentrations of 1.8 x 10{sup 6} and 2.5 x 10{sup 4} CFU/L showed less than a 1-log decrease in viability for F. philomiragia after 24 h in the ALPES. Francisella tularensis LVS (live vaccine strain) was used as a surrogate for virulent F. tularensis in ALPES trial runs conducted at starting cell concentrations of 10{sup 4}, 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/L. F. tularensis LVS was slow-growing and required highly selective growth media to prevent overgrowth by collected airborne microorganisms. In addition, one ALPES unit intake was HEPA filtered during

  14. Present status and distribution of the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx in the Italian Alps

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    Paolo Molinari

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To analyse the status and distribution of lynx in the Italian Alps from 1995 to 1999, all signs of lynx presence found were pooled, evaluated and interpreted with the same method. We distinguished three levels of reliability in accordance with the SCALP guidelines and the possibility to verify the collected data: Quality 1 (Q1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed, found dead or photographs and videos of lynx. Quality 2 (Q2 include all records of wild prey remains, livestock killed, tracks and scats confirmed by people who attended special courses, e.g. mainly game and forest wardens. Quality 3 (Q3 are all signs of presence reported by the general public as well as all sightings and vocalisations, e.g. mainly signs that cannot be verified. A total of 261 signs of lynx presence were recorded in the Italian Alps, of which 85 were Q2, the remaining were Q3 as no Q1 data was reported. The Q2 data was confined to four different areas whereas the Q3 data showed a scattered distribution in all the Alps. The dynamics in the Italian Alps during the past pentad was characterised by four main events: (1 the positive trend that had been observed in the north-east of Friuli V.G. (the Tarvisiano up until 1995 decreased, but (2 at the same time an increased number of data was reported from north-east of the Veneto (Province of Belluno. Consequently, in the south-eastern Alps more data were collected over a bigger area than in the previous pentad. (3 The lynx occurrence of unknown origin in the Trentino has gone extinct again. And (4 the suspected presence of lynx in the Val d'Aosta and in the northernmost Piemonte (Val d'Ossola was confirmed by Q2 data. In Italy, lynx still have not established a vital population even though suitable habitat is available from the south-western through to the eastern Alps. With the exception of the new occurrence in the province of Belluno, lynx occur only in areas bordering with

  15. Rock-type control on erosion-induced uplift, eastern Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korup, Oliver; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2009-02-01

    There is growing evidence that Quaternary rock uplift in parts of the European Alps is a consequence of climate- and erosion-driven isostatic rebound. Contemporary rates of rock uplift U in the Swiss Alps show two distinctive dome-like peak regions that attain ~ 1.6 mm yr - 1 . We focus on the Alpenrhein catchment and its surroundings, where one of these peak regions spatially coincides with widely exposed Cretaceous Bündner schist and lower Tertiary flysch. Field assessments and analyses of hillslope gradient distributions quantitatively demonstrate the low rock-mass strength and high erodibility of these rocks. This is reflected in mean postglacial catchment erosion rates D ~ 4 mm yr - 1 , as opposed to 0.7 mm yr - 1 in more resistant crystalline rocks. Though largely inferred from landslide- and debris-flow prone tributary catchments export, from the region. We further find that the steepness of bedrock rivers, the density of large landslides, and D correlate with the highest values of U. Our observations highlight the possibility that erosion of mechanically weak Bündner schist and flysch enhanced by large landslides may have contributed to regional crustal unloading, and concomitant rock uplift. Irrespective of whether this is betraying a coupling between long-term uplift and erosion modulated by rock type, our findings indicate that long-term (10 3 to 10 4 yr) geomorphic signals contained in bedrock-river steepness, spatial density of large landslides, and postglacial erosion rates strikingly correlate with regional gradients of historic (10 1 yr) rock uplift rates.

  16. Assessing the Sensitivity of Mountain Forests to Site Degradation in the Northern Limestone Alps, Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Reger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of some land-use practices (such as overstocking with wild ungulates, historical clear-cuts for mining, and locally persisting forest pasture, protective forests in the montane vegetation belt of the Northern Limestone Alps are now frequently overaged and poorly structured over large areas. Windthrow and bark beetle infestations have generated disturbance areas in which forests have lost their protective functions. Where unfavorable site conditions hamper regeneration for decades, severe soil loss may ensue. To help prioritize management interventions, we developed a geographic information system-based model for assessing sensitivity to site degradation and applied it to 4 test areas in the Northern Limestone Alps of Austria and Bavaria. The model consists of (1 analysis of site conditions and forest stand structures that could increase sensitivity to degradation, (2 evaluation of the sensitivity of sites and stands, and (3 evaluation and mapping of mountain forests' sensitivity to degradation. Site conditions were modeled using regression algorithms with data on site parameters from pointwise soil and vegetation surveys as responses and areawide geodata on climate, relief, and substrate as predictors. The resulting predictor–response relationships were applied to test areas. Stand structure was detected from airborne laser scanning data. Site and stand parameters were evaluated according to their sensitivity to site degradation. Sensitivities of sites and stands were summarized in intermediate-scale sensitivity maps. High sensitivity was identified in 3 test areas with pure limestone and dolomite as the prevailing sensitivity level. Moderately sensitive forests dominate in the final test area, Grünstein, where the bedrock in some strata contains larger amounts of siliceous components (marl, mudstone, and moraines; degraded and slightly sensitive forests were rare or nonexistent in all 4 test areas. Providing a comprehensive overview

  17. Atmospheric deposition chemistry in a subalpine area of the Julian Alps, NW Slovenia

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    Gregor Muri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wet-only precipitation was collected in Rateče, a remote village in the outskirts of the Julian Alps (Nort-West Slovenia during 2003-2011, in order to characterise atmospheric deposition chemistry. The samples were collected on a daily basis and combined into weekly samples that were analysed for pH, conductivity and major anions and cations. Ammonium, nitrate and sulphate were the most abundant ions, exhibiting volume-weighted mean values (2003-2011 of 22, 17 and 17 µeq L–1, respectively. Furthermore, the trends of the major parameters in the precipitation were assessed using a simple linear regression. A significant downward trend of both nitrate and sulphate was observed, explained by evident reductions in NOx and SOx emissions in the region. The decline of nitrate and sulphate was also reflected in a significant and downward trend of conductivity. While the trend of ammonium could also be downward, the trends of other major ions were not significant. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition, representing inorganic forms of nitrogen (i.e., ammonium and nitrate, was calculated to examine potential threats that the deposition of nitrogen may cause on lake ecosystems. Nitrogen deposition in Rateče ranged from 5.5 to 9.5 kg N ha–1 yr–1. Although this was below the critical threshold that might cause an impact on surface waters, nitrogen deposition in the nearby Julian Alps, where sensitive mountain lakes are situated, might be higher and its impact on the ecosystem greater. In fact, several studies performed on water chemistry, sedimentary organic matter and stable isotopes in Slovenian mountain lakes have shown progressive changes in their water columns and sediments that can be attributed to nitrogen deposition.

  18. Fluid-rock reactions in an evaporitic melange, Permian Haselgebirge, Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotl, C.; Longstaffe, F.J.; Ramseyer, K.; Kunk, M.J.; Wiesheu, R.

    1998-01-01

    Tectonically isolated blocks of carbonate rocks present within the anhydritic Haselgebirge melange of the Northern Calcareous Alps record a complex history of deformation and associated deep-burial diagenetic to very low-grade metamorphic reactions. Fluids were hot (up to ~ 250 ??C) and reducing brines charged with carbon dioxide. Individual carbonate outcrops within the melange record different regimes of brine-rock reactions, ranging from pervasive dolomite recrystallization to dedolomitization. Early diagenetic features in these carbonates were almost entirely obliterated. Matrix dolomite alteration was related to thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) recognized by the replacement of anhydrite by calcite + pyrite ?? native sulphur. Pyrite associated with TSR is coarsely crystalline and characterized by a small sulphur isotope fractionation relative to the precursor Permian anhydrite. Carbonates associated with TSR show low Fe/Mn ratios reflecting rapid reaction of ferrous iron during sulphide precipitation. As a result, TSR-related dolomite and calcite typically show bright Mn(II)-activated cathodoluminescence in contrast to the dull cathodoluminescence of many (ferroan) carbonate cements in other deep-burial settings. In addition to carbonates and sulphides, silicates formed closely related to TSR, including quartz, K-feldspar, albite and K-mica. 40Ar/39Ar analysis of authigenic K-feldspar yielded mostly disturbed step-heating spectra which suggest variable cooling through the argon retention interval for microcline during the Late Jurassic. This timing coincides with the recently recognized subduction and closure of the Meliata-Hallstatt ocean to the south of the Northern Calcareous Alps and strongly suggests that the observed deep-burial fluid-rock reactions were related to Jurassic deformation and melange formation of these Permian evaporites.

  19. From après-ski to après-tourism: the Alps in transition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bourdeau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter sports occupy a prominent place in European tourism, not only because of their economic importance in mountainous areas but also due to their major symbolic significance in the "leisure civilisation". Yet the world of winter tourism is full of uncertainties connected with climate change and also with evolutions and structural breaks that call into question the development model on which it is based. This context of profound change gives us the opportunity to question the limits of the industrial model that has governed the development of the Alps for the practice of skiing and to examine alternative future scenarios to "all-out skiing" and even "all-out tourism".Les sports d’hiver occupent une place de premier plan dans le tourisme européen, non seulement du fait de leur poids économique dans les régions de montagne, mais aussi par leur forte dimension symbolique dans la « civilisation des loisirs ». Pourtant l’univers du tourisme hivernal est parcouru par de nombreuses incertitudes liées au changement climatique, mais aussi à des évolutions et des ruptures structurelles qui remettent en question le modèle de développement sur lequel il repose. Ce contexte de mutation permet d’interroger les limites du modèle industriel qui a présidé à l’aménagement des Alpes pour la pratique du ski et d’examiner des figures d’avenir alternatives au « tout ski » et même au « tout tourisme ».

  20. Climate change impacts on mass movements--case studies from the European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, M; Tiranti, D; Huggel, C

    2014-09-15

    This paper addresses the current knowledge on climate change impacts on mass movement activity in mountain environments by illustrating characteristic cases of debris flows, rock slope failures and landslides from the French, Italian, and Swiss Alps. It is expected that events are likely to occur less frequently during summer, whereas the anticipated increase of rainfall in spring and fall could likely alter debris-flow activity during the shoulder seasons (March, April, November, and December). The magnitude of debris flows could become larger due to larger amounts of sediment delivered to the channels and as a result of the predicted increase in heavy precipitation events. At the same time, however, debris-flow volumes in high-mountain areas will depend chiefly on the stability and/or movement rates of permafrost bodies, and destabilized rock glaciers could lead to debris flows without historic precedents in the future. The frequency of rock slope failures is likely to increase, as excessively warm air temperatures, glacier shrinkage, as well as permafrost warming and thawing will affect and reduce rock slope stability in the direction that adversely affects rock slope stability. Changes in landslide activity in the French and Western Italian Alps will likely depend on differences in elevation. Above 1500 m asl, the projected decrease in snow season duration in future winters and springs will likely affect the frequency, number and seasonality of landslide reactivations. In Piemonte, for instance, 21st century landslides have been demonstrated to occur more frequently in early spring and to be triggered by moderate rainfalls, but also to occur in smaller numbers. On the contrary, and in line with recent observations, events in autumn, characterized by a large spatial density of landslide occurrences might become more scarce in the Piemonte region.

  1. Hydrogeomorphic processes and torrent control works on a large alluvial fan in the eastern Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial fans are often present at the outlet of small drainage basins in alpine valleys; their formation is due to sediment transport associated with flash floods and debris flows. Alluvial fans are preferred sites for human settlements and are frequently crossed by transport routes. In order to reduce the risk for economic activities located on or near the fan and prevent loss of lives due to floods and debris flows, torrent control works have been extensively carried out on many alpine alluvial fans. Hazard management on alluvial fans in alpine regions is dependent upon reliable procedures to evaluate variations in the frequency and severity of hydrogeomorphic processes and the long-term performance of the torrent training works. An integrated approach to the analysis of hydrogeomorphic processes and their interactions with torrent control works has been applied to a large alluvial fan in the southern Carnic Alps (northeastern Italy. Study methods encompass field observations, interpretation of aerial photographs, analysis of historical documents, and numerical modelling of debris flows. The overall performance of control works implemented in the early decades of 20th century was satisfactory, and a reduction of hazardous events was recognised from features observed in the field and in aerial photographs, as well as from the analysis of historical records. The 2-D simulation of debris flows confirms these findings, indicating that debris flow deposition would not affect urban areas or main roads, even in the case of a high-magnitude event. Present issues in the management of the studied alluvial fan are representative of situations frequently found in the European Alps and deal with the need for maintenance of the control structures and the pressures for land use changes aimed at the economic exploitation of the fan surface.

  2. From the Western Alps across Central Europe: Postglacial recolonisation of the tufa stream specialist Rhyacophila pubescens (Insecta, Trichoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the decision to leave a habitat patch in favour of another, and connectivity of occupied habitat. Thus, dispersal of species that are highly specialised to a certain habitat is limited by habitat availability. Species inhabiting very stable environments may also adopt a sedentary life-style. Both factors should lead to strong genetic differentiation in highly specialised species inhabiting stable environments. These two factors apply to our model species Rhyacophila pubescens a highly specialised freshwater insect that occurs in tufa springs, a very stable habitat. Results We examined the genetic population structure and phylogeography using range-wide mtCOI sequence and AFLP data from 333 individuals of R. pubescens. We inferred the location of Pleistocene refugia and postglacial colonisation routes of R. pubescens, and examined ongoing local differentiation. Our results indicate intraregional differentiation with a high number of locally endemic haplotypes, that we attributed to habitat specificity and low dispersal rates of R. pubescens. We observed high levels of genetic diversity south of the Alps and genetic impoverishment north of the Alps. Estimates of migrants placed the refugium and the source of the colonisation in the Dauphiné Alps (SW Alps. Conclusions This is the first example of an aquatic insect with a colonisation route along the western margin of the Alps to the Central European highlands. The study also shows that specialisation to a stable environment may have promoted a behavioural shift to decreased dispersal rates, leading to stronger local population differentiation than in less specialised aquatic insects. Alternatively, the occurrence of highly specialised tufa spring habitats may have been more

  3. Cross-sections of responses sup 2 sup 7 Al(p, spall) sup 7 Be, sup 2 sup 7 Al(p, 3p3n) sup 2 sup 2 Na and sup 2 sup 7 Al(p, 3pn) sup 2 sup 4 Na in a range of energies of protons 37 MeV - 70 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Krupnyj, G I; Yanovich, A A

    2000-01-01

    The cross sections for the sup 7 Be, sup 2 sup 2 Na and 2 sup 4 Na production in reactions on aluminium target were measured in the range of proton energy from 37 MeV up to 70 GeV on the accelerate system. On the injector the measurement of the sup 2 sup 7 Al(p, spall) sup 7 Be, sup 2 sup 7 Al(p, 3p3n) sup 2 sup 2 Na and sup 2 sup 7 Al(p, 3pn) sup 2 sup 4 Na cross sections were taken on the disposed from the accelerate by the 350, 420, 800, 1000, 1320 MeV proton beam with the spread of energy no more than 1 % and error no more than +- 5 %. On the accelerator the cross sections of the same reactions were measured in the regime of slow spread of protons from the accelerator. The numerical values of the measured cross sections and their errors, as well as ratios of cross sections of the sup 7 Be and sup 2 sup 2 Na production on aluminium to cross section of the sup 2 sup 7 Al(p, 3pn) sup 2 sup 4 Na reaction are demonstrated

  4. Avalanche risk assessment for mountain roads - a comparison of case studies from Iceland and the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastl, M.; Stötter, J.

    2009-04-01

    While the management of alpine natural hazards in settlements follows highly developed operational standardised procedures in many countries, there are very few approaches for a systematic survey and assessment of these natural hazard processes and the related risks and for a sustainable planning of measures for roads. This is even more surprising against the background of the ongoing increase of traffic in Europe and its economic importance. This contribution compares the results of a regional scale assessment of the avalanche risk on mountain roads for case studies from Austria, Italy and Iceland. It provides the first assessment of the natural hazard situation for roads outside closed settlements in Iceland and discusses the applicability of regional scale risk based approaches developed in the Alps to the specific natural, economic and social situation. It also compares the role of risk in the assessment and management of natural hazards in these countries. The assessment of the risk by natural hazard processes for roads follows approaches developed by Wilhelm (1997, 1998, 1999) and Borter (1999a, 1999b) in the Alps adapted to comply with the data availability of the regional scale. These approaches distinguish between the individual risk on the one hand and the collective risk for the society on the other hand for each process area as well as the cumulative risk for the investigated road section. As the spatial and temporal distribution of avalanches is relatively well documented in some of the Alpine countries practical approaches have been developed for the assessment of this natural hazard process. These have been successfully applied e.g. to roads in inner Oetz and inner Stubai Valley, Tyrol, Austria by Huttenlau (2004) and Gufler (2007) and Sulden road, Ortles Alps, Southern Tyrol, Italy by Zischg et al. (2004). On the basis of these investigations the individual, collective and cumulative death risk for avalanches was determined for Siglufjar

  5. XPS Depth Study on the Liquid Oxidation of Sn-Bi-Zn-X(Al/P) Alloy and the Effect of Al/P on the Film

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X. J.; Liu, N.; Shi, S.; Chen, Y. X.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the properties of liquid oxidation of Sn-Bi-Zn (SBZ) solder alloys and the effect of Al/P on the oxide film. The results showed that the oxidation film on SBZ surface was in high concentration of both oxygen and zinc. Adding trace amount of Al/P to SBZ alloys (SBZA/ABZP) decreased the ratio of O/M (M could be Sn, Bi, and Al/P) and changed the film compositions. Layers near the free surface of oxidation film mostly contained Zn2+ and Al3...

  6. Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The Grassi Detachment Fault is located in the Orobic Alps east of Lake Como and was described by Froitzheim et al. (2008) as an Early Permian extensional structure. Many issues still remained unclear, like the exact timing of faulting and the extension from the well-exposed part of the detachment towards west. The Grassi Detachment Fault separates the Variscan Basement in its footwall from the volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Early Permian Collio Formation within its hanging wall, marked by a mylonitic and cataclastic layer whose textures indicate top-to-the-southeast displacement. The footwall basement is formed by the Variscan Morbegno Gneiss and two granitic intrusions, the Val Biandino Quarz Diorite (VBQD) and the Valle Biagio Granite (VBG). The former is syntectonic with respect to the detachment, whereas for the latter, the relation to the detachment is unknown. The age of the VBQD is poorly defined as 312 Ma ± 48 Ma (Thöni et al. 1992); the VBG has not been dated. Volcanic rocks of the Collio Formation in the hanging wall may represent the extrusive part of the magmatic system. In our study area west of Val Biandino, several faults and shear zones are exposed: (1) The Grassi Detachment Fault is represented by mylonites and cataclasites with top-SE shear sense, between basement rocks and the Collio Volcanics. Towards NW, it is truncated by the unconformably overlying Late Permian Verrucano Lombardo. This may reflect the eroded culmination of a Permian metamorphic core complex. (2) A steeply NW-dipping, brittle normal fault is found further west in the footwall between VBQD and VBG. It is sealed by the basal unconformity of the Verrucano Lombardo and therefore should also be of Early Permian age (Sciunnach, 2001). It may represent an antithetic fault with respect to the detachment, accommodating the uplift of the magmatically inflated core complex. (3) The Biandino Fault is a steeply SE-dipping reverse fault, affecting also the Late Permian Verrucano

  7. Alpe Arami garnet peridotite from depth >300 km: revisited in 15 years (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzhinetskaya, L.; Lesher, C. E.; Bozhilov, K. N.; Green, H. W.

    2009-12-01

    In the mid-1990s we recognized that collisional orogenic belts with UHP metamorphic rocks of crustal affinities, might contain mantle peridotites uplifted from depths of >300km (Dobrzhinetsklaya et al., 1996). We proposed that ilmenite rods + chromite flakes in olivine are the result of exsolution, and that they imply high solubility of TiO2 in Ol at high P-T. The conclusion that the Alpe Arami peridotite massif originates from great depth remains controversial despite the subsequent discovery of Cpx inclusions in Grt containing exsolution lamellae of clinoenstatite displaying antiphase domains. The latter observation requires that the originally precipitated pyroxene had a high-pressure C2/c space group structure consistent with an origin from >8 GPa (~250 km) (Bozhilov et al., 1999). We used confocal laser scanning microscopy to obtain quantitative 3D measurements of Ilm abundance in Ol. We find that Ilm rods can reach >1 vol. % in Ol supporting our contention that Ilm rods exsolved from olivine at 9-12 GPa, e.g. >300 km (Bozhilov et al., 2003). Arguments that Ilm rods hosted by Ol are reaction products from the breakdown of Ti-clinohumite (Risold et al., 2003) are unconvincing given that Ti-clinohumite breakdown does not produce Ilm + chromite that are characteristic of Alpe Arami olivine. Likewise, we have confirmed the high solubility of Ti in olivine at high P-T conditions in multianvil experiments (Dobrzhinetskaya et al., 2000) - findings that are strengthened by the experiments of Tinker & Lesher (2001). Using Focused Ion Beam we prepared TEM foils of the later experiments and confirm that the concentration of TiO2 in Ol increases with pressure under nearly isothermal conditions. Two reactions are proposed to account for these observations. If Ti enters the octahedral site of olivine, either an oxide phase must be formed or a phase richer in SiO2 than olivine must be consumed, leading to reaction 1: 6MgSiO3 + 2FeTiO3 = 2Ti△SiO4 + 3Mg2SiO4 + Fe2SiO4 [1

  8. Temperature reconstruction from the length fluctuations of small glaciers in the eastern Alps (northeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecchetto, Stefano; Serandrei-Barbero, Rossana; Donnici, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a linear model computing the air temperature fluctuations from the measured glacier snout fluctuations has been applied, for the first time, to three small glaciers in the western Tauern Alps (eastern Alps) in the period 1929-2011. The considered glaciers, with areas between 0.2 and 1.3 km^2 , are characterized by relevant time variations of their morphology, length and slope. The model requires the knowledge of two parameters: the glacier climate sensitivity C_s and the glacier response time τ both depending on the glacier morphological characteristics and on the precipitation. Applied to the glaciers assuming C_s and τ as in the original formulation, it underestimates the temperature increase of {≈ } 1.8° C derived over the whole period from the in situ data. Given the characteristics of these small glaciers, these parameters have been recalibrated by means of a non-linear least-square regression using an independent set of glaciers. Their mean value is of about 210 m/K and 3.8 years respectively. With the recalibrated values of the new glacier climate sensitivity C^*_s and response time τ ^* , the temperature fluctuations derived by the model reproduce well those obtained from the observed temperatures computed over the hydrological year, with linear correlations between 0.8 and 0.9. The increase of the modeled mean temperature over the whole period fits in with that derived from observed temperature. Considering that the length fluctuations of these small glaciers affect significantly their slope and length, we tested the impact in the model of a time dependent formulation of C_s and τ : the results indicate slight improvements both in the values of the correlation between the reconstructed and the observed temperature fluctuations and in the global temperature increase. Given the above value of climate sensitivity, the large retreat of the small alpine glaciers threatens their survival within a few decades, but the morphological changes

  9. Solar forcing and atmospheric control of paleoflood dynamics in the Bernese Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Burjachs, Francesc; Carvalho, Filipe; Llorca, Jaime; Julià, Ramon; Lomax, Johanna; Schmidt, Thomas; Rubio, Patricio; Losada, Justino; Veit, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    A multidisciplinary approach provides data from natural, historical, and instrumental time series, for the study of potential effects of climatic changes on alpine floods outside the known range of extreme events. The research focuses on the densely populated Bernese Alps, which are a true "hot spot" of hydrological risk. For the reconstruction of climate variability and floods, interdecadal-resolution alluvial delta plain records were examined. The multi-proxy approach affords insight into alpine flood dynamics of mid-scale catchments during the last three millennia. Spectral analysis of the geochemical and pollen time series records and climate proxies (δ14C, δ18O isotopes from the Greenland ice, NAO) evidence similar periodicities of 60, 85, 105 and 200 yrs. Thus, the mechanisms of the flood processes are strongly influenced by the North Atlantic dynamics and solar activity. The proxies indicate that cooler climate pulses and transitions from cool to warm climate pulses were an important external driving force of floods. This hypothesis is supported by the reconstructed floods of the Aare and Lütschine rivers from local documentary sources during the last 500 yrs. Flood periods inferred from sedimentary archives (flood layers, geochemical proxies and shifts of river channel) were calibrated by local documentary flood records and compared with the pattern of settlement on flood prone landforms. The generated data series shows also a good correlation with climate proxies, such as the annual temperatures of Europe (Luterbacher et al., 2004), tree ring based summer temperatures of Central Europe (Büntgen et al., 2011) and total solar irradiance according to the model of Steinhilber et al. (2009). With regard to the last two centuries flood magnitude and frequencies (exact dating) as well as driving mechanisms were reconstructed with more precision. Furthermore, a summer flood index of Switzerland (INU) based on damages recorded from 1800 to 2008 AD was performed

  10. Calculation and visualisation of future glacier extent in the Swiss Alps by means of hypsographic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, F.; Maisch, M.; Rothenbühler, C.; Hoelzle, M.; Haeberli, W.

    2007-02-01

    The observed rapid glacier wastage in the European Alps during the past 20 years already has strong impacts on the natural environment (rock fall, lake formation) as well as on human activities (tourism, hydro-power production, etc.) and poses several new challenges also for glacier monitoring. With a further increase of global mean temperature in the future, it is likely that Alpine glaciers and the high-mountain environment as an entire system will further develop into a state of imbalance. Hence, the assessment of future glacier geometries is a valuable prerequisite for various impact studies. In order to calculate and visualize in a consistent manner future glacier extent for a large number of individual glaciers (> 100) according to a given climate change scenario, we have developed an automated and simple but robust approach that is based on an empirical relationship between glacier size and the steady-state accumulation area ratio (AAR 0) in the Alps. The model requires digital glacier outlines and a digital elevation model (DEM) only and calculates new glacier geometries from a given shift of the steady-state equilibrium line altitude (ELA 0) by means of hypsographic modelling. We have calculated changes in number, area and volume for 3062 individual glacier units in Switzerland and applied six step changes in ELA 0 (from + 100 to + 600 m) combined with four different values of the AAR 0 (0.5, 0.6, 0.67, 0.75). For an AAR 0 of 0.6 and an ELA 0 rise of 200 m (400 m) we calculate a total area loss of - 54% (- 80%) and a corresponding volume loss of - 50% (- 78%) compared to the 1973 glacier extent. In combination with a geocoded satellite image, the future glacier outlines are also used for automated rendering of perspective visualisations. This is a very attractive tool for communicating research results to the general public. Our study is illustrated for a test site in the Upper Engadine (Switzerland), where landscape changes above timberline play an

  11. Earthquakes in Barcelonnette (western French Alps, 2003-2015): where are the faults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Edouard; Larroque, Christophe; Lebourg, Thomas; Jomard, Hervé; Flamand, Aurélie; Courboulex, Françoise; Vidal, Maurin; Robert, Pierre-Louis

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive description of the instrumental seismicity in the Western Alps highlights several hundred of low to moderate magnitude earthquakes each year. The seismicity is diffuse and rarely related to known faults. The distribution of the epicenters follows the arcuate shape of the belt and the focal depths are shallow (3.5-events attest to mainly normal faulting along NW-SE to N-S fault planes. Therefore this region appears clearly as an anomaly in comparison to the seismic pattern of the western Alps. In terms of seismic hazard, determining the origin of these swarms is of major concern and one of the main questions is to determine if higher magnitude events are possible along the faults activated during these swarms. We try to answer two questions: are regional faults identifiable from subsurface geophysics and did some of these faults produced large earthquakes during the Quaternary? We focus our attention on the 2012-2014 epicentral area. This area is characterized by a gentle slope extending from 1400m of elevation at the Parpaillon River up to 2900m on the surrounding summits. The slope displays creeping landforms developed during the late glacial period and the little ice age, overlying upper-cretaceous deposits (calcareous sandstone, so-called "flyschs à Helminthoides"). A 2150m-long Electrical Resistivity Tomography Profile was performed to image the first hundreds meters depth. To do so, we used 4 electrical lines of 72 electrodes (10m spacing). We did the acquisitions using 2 array types: dipole-dipole and pole-dipole. Both arrays are sensitive to vertical structures and are well suitable for faults detection at depth. Our objective is to detect if faults extends through the epicentral area and if faults scarps, possibly resulting of a postglacial activity are hidden by the recent periglacial deposits and colluviums. From a preliminary analysis, the ERT imagery of the shallow 200m help us to identify: (1) the geometry of the surficial glacial and

  12. Analysis of ERT data of geoelectrical permafrost monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick (Austrian Central Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Stefan; Schöner, Wolfgang; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Ottowitz, David; Jochum, Birgit; Kim, Jung-Ho; Hoyer, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Heinrich, Georg

    2016-04-01

    In the Alps infrastructure facilities such as roads, routes or buildings are affected by the changes of permafrost, which often cause enormous reparation costs. Investigation on degradation of Alpine Permafrost in the last decade has increased, however, the understanding of the permafrost changes inducing its atmospheric forcing processes is still insufficient. Within the project ATMOperm the application of the geoelectrical method to estimate thawing layer thickness for mountain permafrost is investigated near the highest meteorological observatory of Austria on the Hoher Sonnblick. Therefore, it is necessary to further optimize the transformation of ERT data to thermal changes in the subsurface. Based on an innovative time lapse inversion routine for ERT data (Kim J.-H. et al 2013) a newly developed data analysis software tool developed by Kim Jung-Ho (KIGAM) in cooperation with the Geophysics group of the Geological Survey of Austria allows the statistical analysis of the entire sample set of each and every data point measured by the geoelectrical monitoring instrument. This gives on the one hand of course an enhanced opportunity to separate between „good" and „bad" data points in order to assess the quality of measurements. On the other hand, the results of the statistical analysis define the impact of every single data point on the inversion routine. The interpretation of the inversion results will be supplemented by temperature logs from selected boreholes along the ERT profile as well as climatic parameters. KIM J.-H., SUPPER R., TSOURLOS P. and YI M.-J.: Four-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data through Lp norm minimizations. - Geophysical Journal International, 195(3), 1640-1656, 2013. Doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt324. (No OA) Acknowledgments: The geoelectrical monitoring on Hoher Sonnblick has been installed and is operated in the frame of the project ATMOperm (Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme

  13. Subduction / exhumation dynamics: Petrochronology in the Glacier-Rafray slice (Western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Marco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Petrochronology is the combination of in situ age-dating, geothermobarometry and structural geology and aims to unravel Pressure-Temperature-deformation-time (P-T-ɛ-t) paths. To link P-T conditions to deformation stages is daily business for metamorphic petrologists, but recent micro-mapping techniques (XMapTools program) provide an additional tool to achieve this goal. Absolute age is often difficult to assess in metamorphic rocks, as it is challenging to link specific P-T conditions to most of the mineral chronometers. Allanite is a common accessory phase in high-P metamorphic rocks and is a potential target to determine Th(-U)/Pb ages. Allanite from a leucocratic gneiss of the Glacier-Rafray slice in the western Alps consists of several chemically different zones: one major zone can be linked to a first high-P phengite generation. To determine the age of this high-P growth zone we used La-ICP-MS in situ techniques, which allowed us to date an appropriate growth rim per grain. Even so particular care was required when evaluating the isotope signals laser ablation leads to the excavation of a volume, which potentially can be chemically and/or age-zoned. We have developed a new method to track changes in the plasma during the ablation. This method aims to identify discrete age zones. La-ICP-MS spectra have been modeled so as to reproduce the shape of the spectra measured. These results indicate that high-P allanite first grew in equilibrium with phengite at 84 ± 4 Ma, whereas a second growth event occurred at ~40 Ma. A final epidotic rim grew at greenschist facies conditions, but this stage could not be dated. These findings have implications for our interpretation of several units in the Western Alps: In the Sesia Zone (former Adriatic margin), the earliest high-P metamorphism occurred at 85 Ma (Regis et al., 2014), precisely as the first high-P peak we discovered in the Glacier-Rafray slice. Austroalpine klippen such as this are commonly seen as extensional

  14. Strong lateral variations of S-wave velocity in the upper mantle across the western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Chao; Pedersen, Helle; Paul, Anne; Zhao, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Absolute S-wave velocity gives more insight into temperature and mineralogy than relative P-wave velocity variations (ΔV p/ V p) imaged by teleseismic traveltime tomography. Moreover, teleseismic P-wave tomography has poor vertical but good horizontal resolution. By contrast, the inversion of surface waves dispersion data gives absolute S-wave velocity with a good vertical but relatively poor horizontal resolution. However, the horizontal resolution of surface wave imaging can be improved by using closely spaced stations in mini-arrays. In this work, we use Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion data to measure absolute S-wave velocities beneath the CIFALPS profile across the French-Italian western Alps. We apply the array processing technique proposed by Pedersen et al. (2003) to derive Rayleigh wave phase dispersion curves between 20 s and 100 s period in 15 mini-arrays along the CIFALPS line. We estimate a 1-D S-wave velocity model at depth 50-150 km beneath each mini-array by inverting the dispersion curves jointly with receiver functions. The joint inversion helps separating the crustal and mantle contributions in the inversion of dispersion curves. Distinct lithospheric structures and marked lateral variations are revealed beneath the study region, correlating well with regional geological and tectonic features. The average S-wave velocity from 50 to 150 km depth beneath the CIFALPS area is ˜4.48km/s, almost the same as in model AK135, indicating a normal upper mantle structure in average. Lateral variations are dominated by relatively low velocities (˜4.4km/s) in the mantle of the European plate, very low velocities (4.0km/s, i.e. approximately 12% lower than AK135) beneath the Dora Maira internal crystalline massif and high velocities (˜ 5.0km/s, i.e. 12% higher than AK135) beneath the Po plain. The lateral variations of S-wave velocity perturbation show the same features as the P wave tomography (Zhao et al., submitted), but with different amplitudes

  15. Climate change in the Alps: impacts and natural risks. ONERC's Technical Report N.1; Changement climatiques dans les Alpes: Impacts et risques naturels. Rapport Technique N.1 de l'ONERC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Mountain ranges are very sensitive to climatic variations. The impacts of climate change on theses territories can be various, from the modification of the biodiversity to the permafrost melting and the evolution of natural hazards. The assessment of temperature rise and its impacts on mountains constitutes an important issue considering the strong uncertainties and the specific sensitivity linked to these areas. The territorial manager - policy makers and technicians - have to deal with this questioning for the implementation of short term actions as well as for strategic choices in terms of land planning and spatial development. This is why 22 public institutions from seven Alpine countries were involved in the European ClimChAlp project. The ONERC participated actively to this project in collaboration with the Rhone-Alpes Region and the Pole Grenoblois Risques Naturels. This report is based on the synthesis realised by the French partners to propose a common base of knowledge about climate change and its impacts in the Alps. (authors)

  16. Downscaling of general circulation model outputs: simulation of the snow climatology of the French Alps and sensitivity to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, E. [Centre Nat. de Recherches Meteorologiques Centre d`Etudes de la Neige, St. Martin d`Heres (France). Meteo-France; Timbal, B. [Groupe de Meteorologie a Grande Echelle et Climat, Toulouse (France); Brun, E. [Centre Nat. de Recherches Meteorologiques Centre d`Etudes de la Neige, St. Martin d`Heres (France). Meteo-France

    1996-12-01

    A downscaling method was developed to simulate the seasonal snow cover of the French Alps from general circulation model outputs under various scenarios. It consists of an analogue procedure, which associates a real meteorological situation to a model output. It is based on the comparison between simulated upper air fields and meteorological analyses from the European Centre for medium-range weather forecasts. The selection uses a nearest neighbour method at a daily time-step. In a second phase, the snow cover is simulated by the snow model CROCUS at several elevations and in the different regions of the French Alps by using data from the real meteorological situations. The method is tested with real data and applied to various ARPEGE/climate simulations: the present climate and two climate change scenarios. (orig.). With 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Downscaling of general circulation model outputs: simulation of the snow climatology of the French Alps and sensitivity to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Timbal, B.; Brun, E.

    1996-12-01

    A downscaling method was developed to simulate the seasonal snow cover of the French Alps from general circulation model outputs under various scenarios. It consists of an analogue procedure, which associates a real meteorological situation to a model output. It is based on the comparison between simulated upper air fields and meteorological analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The selection uses a nearest neighbour method at a daily time-step. In a second phase, the snow cover is simulated by the snow model CROCUS at several elevations and in the different regions of the French Alps by using data from the real meteorological situations. The method is tested with real data and applied to various ARPEGE/Climat simulations: the present climate and two climate change scenarios.

  18. XPS Depth Study on the Liquid Oxidation of Sn-Bi-Zn-X(Al/P Alloy and the Effect of Al/P on the Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was used to study the properties of liquid oxidation of Sn-Bi-Zn (SBZ solder alloys and the effect of Al/P on the oxide film. The results showed that the oxidation film on SBZ surface was in high concentration of both oxygen and zinc. Adding trace amount of Al/P to SBZ alloys (SBZA/ABZP decreased the ratio of O/M (M could be Sn, Bi, and Al/P and changed the film compositions. Layers near the free surface of oxidation film mostly contained Zn2+ and Al3+ oxides for SBZA. From the half quantitative analysis result, the aluminum had a surface enrichment behavior in liquid solder, so did phosphorus and zinc. Therefore, the Al/P addition changed their stoichiometry such as the ratio of O/M near film surface.

  19. A first estimate of mountain permafrost distribution in the Mount Cook region of New Zealand’s southern alps

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, S; Owens, I.; Huggel, C

    2008-01-01

    The heavily glaciated Mount Cook Region of New Zealand has experienced several recent large rock instabilities, but permafrost conditions related to these events remain unknown. This work presents the first systematic approach for investigating the distribution of mountain permafrost in New Zealand. At this level of the investigation, a firstorder estimate is based upon the adaptation of established topo-climatic relationships from the European Alps. In the southeast of the study region...

  20. Recent changes in avalanche activity in the French Alps and their links with climatic drivers: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, N.; Lavigne, A.; Castebrunet, H.; Giraud, G.; Naaim, M.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper synthetizes our ongoing work on relations between natural avalanche activity and climate change in the French Alps and subregions. Firm results mainly concern occurrences, runout altitudes and high return period avalanches on long time scales (averages over “full” winters and winter-spring sub-seasons) since ~1950. Work in progress concerns extrapolation under future climate, shorter time scales (avalanche cycles), and more generally risk assessment under un...

  1. Kinematics, seismotectonics and seismic potential of the eastern sector of the European Alps from GPS and seismic deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpelloni, E.; Vannucci, G.; Anderlini, L.; Bennett, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    We present a first synoptic view of the seismotectonics and kinematics of the eastern sector of the European Alps using geodetic and seismological data. The study area marks the boundary between the Adriatic and the Eurasian plates, through a wide zone of deformation including a variety of tectonic styles within a complex network of crustal and lithospheric faults. A new dense GPS velocity field, new focal mechanisms and seismic catalogues, with uniformly re-calibrated magnitudes (from 1005), are used to estimate geodetic and seismic deformation rates and to develop interseismic kinematic and fault locking models. Kinematic indicators from seismological and geodetic data are remarkably consistent at different spatial scales. In addition to large-scale surface motion, GPS velocities highlight more localized deformation features revealing a complex configuration of interacting tectonic blocks, for which new constraints are provided in this work accounting for elastic strain build up at faults bonding rotating blocks. The geodetic and seismological data highlight two belts of higher deformation rates running WSW-ENE along the Eastern Southern Alps (ESA) in Italy and E-W in Slovenia, where deformation is more distributed. The highest geodetic strain-rates are observed in the Montello-Cansiglio segment of the ESA thrust front, for which the higher density of the GPS network provides indications of limited interseismic locking. Most of the dextral shear between the Eastern Southern Alps and the Eastern Alps blocks is accommodated along the Fella-Sava fault rather than the Periadriatic fault. In northern Croatia and Slovenia geodetic and seismological data allow constraining the kinematics of the active structures bounding the triangular-shaped region encompassing the Sava folds, which plays a major role in accommodating the transition from Adria- to Pannonian-like motion trends. The analysis of the seismic and geodetic moment rates provides new insights into the seismic

  2. Contrasting styles of (U)HP rock exhumation along the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary (Western Alps, Calabria, Corsica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusà, Marco G.; Faccenna, Claudio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Rossetti, Federico; Balestrieri, Maria Laura; Danišík, Martin; Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Piromallo, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Since the first discovery of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks 30 years ago in the Western Alps, the mechanisms for exhumation of (U)HP terranes worldwide are still debated. In the western Mediterranean, the presently accepted model of synconvergent exhumation (e.g., the channel-flow model) is in conflict with parts of the geologic record. We synthesize regional geologic data and present alternative exhumation mechanisms that consider the role of divergence within subduction zones. These mechanisms, i.e., (i) the motion of the upper plate away from the trench and (ii) the rollback of the lower plate, are discussed in detail with particular reference to the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary, and along three different transects (Western Alps, Calabria-Sardinia, and Corsica-Northern Apennines). In the Western Alps, (U)HP rocks were exhumed from the greatest depth at the rear of the accretionary wedge during motion of the upper plate away from the trench. Exhumation was extremely fast, and associated with very low geothermal gradients. In Calabria, HP rocks were exhumed from shallower depths and at lower rates during rollback of the Adriatic plate, with repeated exhumation pulses progressively younging toward the foreland. Both mechanisms were active to create boundary divergence along the Corsica-Northern Apennines transect, where European southeastward subduction was progressively replaced along strike by Adriatic northwestward subduction. The tectonic scenario depicted for the Western Alps trench during Eocene exhumation of (U)HP rocks correlates well with present-day eastern Papua New Guinea, which is presented as a modern analog of the Paleogene Adria-Europe plate boundary.

  3. Morphology and ecology of Daphnia middendorffiana, Fisher 1851 (Crustacea, Daphniidae from four new populations in the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco TIBERTI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia middendorffiana has an arctic, circumpolar distribution, with some isolated southerly populations restricted to mountainous areas, including the Alps. In this paper, new records of Daphnia middendorffiana on the Alps are reported. The species was regularly recorded in several samples collected from 2006 to 2009 in four high altitude lakes in the Gran Paradiso National Park (GPNP during the ice free period. This is the third finding for the Alps and the described populations are the largest. Chemical and morphometric features of the lakes are provided, the morphology of the Daphnia middendorffiana from GPNP is described as well as some aspects concerning its ecology. The studied lakes are small, oligotrophic (total phosphorus ranged from 0 to 7 μg L-1 and well preserved from acidification risk (pH ranged from 6.45 to 8.14. D. middendorffiana is the largest zooplanktonic crustacean inhabiting the Alpine lakes in GPNP reaching 3.43 mm in length; the morphological analysis noted some differences within the studied populations; however there is a clear resemblance to the only Alpine population previously described (from Central Alps, Bognanco Valley, Lake Campo IV and to the arctic populations. D. middendorffiana in GPNP lives at low density levels, reaching higher densities in late August and early September. No males have been found during the sample campaign confirming its ability to produce asexual viable diapauses eggs. This study confirms the attitude of this species for cold and oligotrophic waters and increases the current knowledge on the geographical distribution, morphology and ecology of this species in Alpine environments. The finding of D. middendordorffiana in the GPNP poses interesting issues concerning the phylogeography of Alpine Daphnia middendorffiana, as well as raising need for conservation efforts aimed at keeping the populations safe from several global and local threats, such as climate warming and the ecological

  4. Impacts of more frequent droughts on a relict low-altitude Pinus uncinata stand in the French Alps

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cold microclimatic conditions provide exceptional microhabitats to Pinus uncinata stands occurring at abnormally low altitudes in seven paleorefugia of the northern French Alps. Here, P. uncinata is located at the lower bounds of its ecological limits and therefore expected to provide a sensitive indicator of climate change processes. We used dendrochronological analysis to study the growth patterns of closely spaced chronologies across an elevational transect and compare a relict low-altitud...

  5. EVIDENCE OF A "MID-CARNIAN" TRANSGRESSION IN THE WESTERN SOUTHERN ALPS (LOMBARDY, ITALY: STRATIGRAPHIC AND PALEOGEOGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRIZIO BERRA

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A "mid-Carnian" transgressive succession, developed between the Breno carbonate platform and the semiarid coastal carbonates-sabkhas facies of the S. Giovanni Bianco Fm., is recorded in the northern Bergamasc Alps. This episode is characterized by the presence of two stratigraphic markers:  a Dark grey shales and siltstones ("Black Pelites", considered previously as the northern closure of the Gorno-Lower S. Giovanni Bianco Fms., but re-interpreted as the western pinch-out of the Lozio Shale depositional system. The Early Carnian Lozio Shale was deposited first in the Valle di Scalve-Lozio trough and later covered the carbonate platform (Breno Fm..b Fossiliferous, open subtidal limestones, marls and burrowed marly limestones ("Bioclastic Horizon" of the northern Bergamasc Alps. The spreading of shales and siltstones represents the first transgressive stage of the last Carnian sequence in Lombardy, after the "mid- Carnian" (Julian substage regional carbonate platform crisis (top of the Valcamonica Breno Fm.. The "Bioclastic Horizon" records the mfs represented by normal, open marine facies, identified and correlated throughout the Bergamasc Alps. Different petrographic and chemical characters between the Lozio Shale - "Black Pelites" and the Gorno-San Giovanni Bianco Fms. suggest different source areas: the former units are characterized by clasts derived from a metamorphic-intrusive area (placed northward and westward, whereas the latter units are characterized by prevailing volcaniclastic material. A climatic change (from arid to relatively humid conditions may be invoked to explain the crisis of the "mid-Carnian" carbonate platforms in the western Southern Alps and the regional spreading of fine-grained terrigenous material. 

  6. Assessing the rock glacier kinematics on three different timescales: a case study from the southern Swiss Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Scapozza, Cristian; Lambiel, Christophe; Bozzini, Claudio; Mari, Stefano; Conedera, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Surface temperature increases since the 1990s have often been associated with an increase in the speed of rock glaciers. Evidence of similar links on the centennial to millennial scale are, however, still lacking due to less focus to date on the medium- and long-term kinematics of these landforms. In order to assess (palaeo)climatic variations in rock glacier kinematics, we analysed the movements of the Stabbio di Largario rock glacier in the southern Swiss Alps using three different timescal...

  7. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early–middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing) in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652ma.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes durin...

  8. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes that where reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake-levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and E...

  9. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early-middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing) in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and la...

  10. A new glacier model resolving ice dynamics applied to the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maussion, Fabien; Marzeion, Ben

    2016-04-01

    Most regional and global glacier models rely on empirical scaling laws to account for glacier area and volume change with time. These scaling methods are computationally cheap and are statistically robust when applied to many glaciers, but their accuracy considerably lowers at the glacier or catchment scale. The nearest alternative in terms of complexity - glacier flowline modelling - requires significantly more information about the glacier geometry. Here we present a new open source glacier model applicable at regional to global scale implementing i) the determination of glacier centerlines, ii) the inversion of glacier bed topography, and iii) a multi-branch flowline model handling glacier tributaries. Using the HISTALP dataset as climatological input we apply the model in the Alps for 1800 to present and present new estimations of present-day and past glacier volume. The relatively large number of independent data available for validation in this region allow a critical discussion of the added value of our new approach. In particular, we will focus our discussion on two contradictory aspects inherent to any geoscientific model development: while our model clearly opens wide-ranging possibilities to better resolve the glacier processes, this new playground is associated with an increase in complexity, the number of calibration parameters, and…uncertainty?

  11. Scenario analysis for biodiversity conservation: a social-ecological system approach in the Australian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Lockwood, Michael; Moore, Susan A; Clement, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Current policy interventions are having limited success in addressing the ongoing decline in global biodiversity. In part, this is attributable to insufficient attention being paid to the social and governance processes that drive decisions and can undermine their implementation. Scenario planning that draws on social-ecological systems (SES) analysis provides a useful means to systematically explore and anticipate future uncertainties regarding the interaction between humans and biodiversity outcomes. However, the effective application of SES models has been limited by the insufficient attention given to governance influences. Understanding the influence governance attributes have on the future trajectory of SES is likely to assist choice of effective interventions, as well as needs and opportunities for governance reform. In a case study in the Australian Alps, we explore the potential of joint SES and scenario analyses to identify how governance influences landscape-scale biodiversity outcomes. Novel aspects of our application of these methods were the specification of the focal system's governance attributes according to requirements for adaptive capacity, and constraining scenarios according to the current governance settings while varying key social and biophysical drivers. This approach allowed us to identify how current governance arrangements influence landscape-scale biodiversity outcomes, and establishes a baseline from which the potential benefits of governance reform can be assessed.

  12. Drainage capture and discharge variations driven by glaciation in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann V. Rowan; Mitchell A. Plummer; Simon H. Brocklehurst; Merren A. Jones; David M. Schultz

    2013-02-01

    Sediment flux in proglacial fluvial settings is primarily controlled by discharge, which usually varies predictably over a glacial–interglacial cycle. However, glaciers can flow against the topographic gradient to cross drainage divides, reshaping fluvial drainage networks and dramatically altering discharge. In turn, these variations in discharge will be recorded by proglacial stratigraphy. Glacial-drainage capture often occurs in alpine environments where ice caps straddle range divides, and more subtly where shallow drainage divides cross valley floors. We investigate discharge variations resulting from glacial-drainage capture over the past 40 k.y. for the adjacent Ashburton, Rangitata, and Rakaia basins in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Although glacial-drainage capture has previously been inferred in the range, our numerical glacier model provides the first quantitative demonstration that this process drives larger variations in discharge for a longer duration than those that occur due to climate change alone. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the effective drainage area of the Ashburton catchment increased to 160% of the interglacial value with drainage capture, driving an increase in discharge exceeding that resulting from glacier recession. Glacial-drainage capture is distinct from traditional (base level–driven) drainage capture and is often unrecognized in proglacial deposits, complicating interpretation of the sedimentary record of climate change.

  13. A test of Automatic Blowing snow Station (ABS) in the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoichi; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Nishimura, Kouichi; Bellot, Hervé; Fontaine, Firmin

    2015-04-01

    Blowing snow is a significant factor to estimate snow distribution in alpine, Arctic and Antarctic regions. The Snow Particle Counter (SPC) is well used for mass flux measurement of the blowing snow, however, the SPC deployment is not always possible for automatic observation under harsh conditions. Recently Automatic Blowing snow Station (ABS), which is a simpler device than the SPC, have been developed in Japan. We installed the ABS system with the SPCs at the Lac Blanc Pass in the French Alps (2700 m a.s.l.) to examine the relationship between the ABS output and snow particle mass flux. The ABS worked well, without problems, for the entire 4-month period in the winter 2014. The ABS output was converted to mass flux using wind-dependent power function which obtained from calibration procedure in a cold wind-tunnel. The mass flux obtained from the ABS showed a good agreement with the SPC, particularly around the peak of blowing snow event. Based on tests under controlled (cold wind-tunnel) and field conditions, we conclude that the ABS is suitable for practical use.

  14. Acidification and recovery at mountain lakes in Central Alps assessed by the MAGIC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela ROGORA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic model MAGIC was calibrated and applied to 84 lakes in Central Alps to predict the response of water chemistry to different scenarios of atmospheric deposition of S and N compounds. Selected lakes were representative of a wide range of chemical characteristics and of sensitivity to acidification. The most sensitive lakes have already shown in the latest years signs of recovery in terms of pH and ANC. The model well captured the main trends in lake chemical data. According to the model forecast, recovery at sensitive lakes will continue in the next decades under the hypothesis of a further decrease of acidic input from the atmosphere. Results clearly demonstrated the benefits of achieving the emission reductions in both S and N compounds agreed under the Gothenburg Protocol. Nevertheless, besides the achieved reduction of SO4 2- deposition from the peak levels of the 80s, also N deposition should be reduced in the near future to protect alpine lakes from further acidification. The condition of lake catchments with regard to N saturation will probably be the dominant factor driving recovery extent. Beside atmospheric deposition, other factors proved to be important in determining long-term changes in surface water chemistry. Climate warming in particular affects weathering processes in lake catchments and dynamics of the N cycle. Including other factors specific to the alpine area, such as dust deposition and climate change, may improve the fit of experimental data by the model and the reliability of model forecast.

  15. Structural complexity at and around the Triassic-Jurassic GSSP at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotai, M.; Pálfy, J.; Sasvári, Á.

    2017-02-01

    One of the key requirements for a Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) is the absence of tectonic disturbance. The GSSP for the Triassic-Jurassic system boundary was recently defined at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. New field observations in the area of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary GSSP site demonstrate that the overturned, tight, and almost upright Karwendel syncline was formed at semibrittle deformation conditions, confirmed by axial planar foliation. Tight to isoclinal folds at various scales were related to a tectonic transport to the north. Brittle faulting occurred before and after folding as confirmed by tilt tests (the rotation of structural data by the average bedding). Foliation is ubiquitous in the incompetent units, including the Kendlbach Formation at the GSSP. A reverse fault (inferred to be formed as a normal fault before folding) crosscuts the GSSP sections, results in the partial tectonic omission of the Schattwald Beds, and thus makes it impossible to measure a complete and continuous stratigraphic section across the whole Kendlbach Formation. Based on these observations, the Kuhjoch sections do not fulfil the specific requirement for a GSSP regarding the absence of tectonic disturbances near boundary level.

  16. Metasomatic tourmalinite formation along basement-cover decollements, Orobic Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Passchier, C.W.; Zhang, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Cryptocrystalline tourmalinites that occur discontinuously for ???30 km along basement-cover de??collements of the Orohic Alps (Italy) formed by the metasomatism of aluminous cataclasites derived from Permian conglomerates and/or feldspathic sandstones. Using Al as an immobile element monitor, calculations show that the majority of tourmalinites in the region formed through the addition of moderate to significant amounts of B, Mg, Na, Sr, and Be, and the loss of moderate to significant Mn, Ca, K, P, Rb, Ba, and Cr; minor Si, Ti, V, light REE, and Eu also were lost. Data tor relatively immobile Al, Zr, Th, Sc, Nb, and heavy REE indicate that, on average, these tourmalinites formed through ???12% net mass loss assuming an original conglomerate protolith, or through ???7% net mass loss assuming a sandstone protolith. The B and other introduced constituents in the tourmalinites were deposited by hydrothermal fluids focused along and near basement-cover de??collements. These fluids, believed to be associated with late Hercynian felsic magmatism, probably are related to fluids that formed the tourmaline-rich U-Mo-Zn deposits at the nearby Novazza mine and the U-Zn deposits at the nearby Val Vedello mine.

  17. Is the ecological belt zonation of the Swiss Alps relevant for moth diversity and turnover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jan; Rüdlinger, Cecil M.; McCain, Christy M.

    2017-04-01

    Mountain ecosystems are traditionally envisioned as elevational belts of homogenous vegetation, separated by intervening ecotones. Recent research has cast doubt on such predictable layering at least in animal communities. We test the link of two a priori defined ecological belt zonations to noctuid moth distributions in the Swiss Alps. Predictions, in particular, were a coincidence of proposed ecotones with increased range endpoint frequencies and with increased species turnover or species richness between equidistant elevational bands. Using >320,000 distributional records for >500 noctuid species, we found no support for these three predictions despite several contrasting analytical approaches. Concurrent with recently published vertebrate data, we conclude that simple ecological belt zonations are unrelated to the moth communities found along mountain slopes. Rather, species are distributed idiosyncratically following their specific niche requirements. Additional rigorous evidence, particularly comparing insect clades spanning a spectrum of host-plant relationships, may be required to support the relevance of the ecological belt concept in structuring mountain ecosystems beyond tree and plant communities.

  18. Glacier ice in rock glaciers: a case study in the Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monnier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the Sachette rock glacier, Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps, using former equilibrium line altitude reconstruction from glacial deposits, aerial photograph analysis, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR. The rock glacier is a young (probably <6000 yr and active landform. The GPR survey consisted of two CMP measurements and four constant-offset profiles. From CMP measurements, the radar wave velocity in exposed shallow massive ice is 0.165–0.17 m ns−1. The constant-offset GPR data was processed and analysed in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy and model the radar wave velocity in two dimensions. The integration of the morphology, the velocity models, and the stratigraphy emphasized, in the upper half of the rock glacier, the good correspondence between high radar wave velocities (>0.15–0.16 m ns−1 and reflectors having a dipping-syncline structure, typical of true glaciers. Consequently, the rock glacier structure is described as being constituted of a glacial massive ice core embedded into diamictons. Our study of the Sachette rock glacier highlights possible significance of rock glaciers and interactions between glacier and permafrost in alpine environments.

  19. OSTRACODS ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY IN WESTERN TETHYS: THE BULLA PARASTRATOTYPE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE CRASQUIN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the ostracod fauna of the parastratotype of the Permian-Triassic boundary at Bulla in the Southern Alps produced 62 species belonging to 31 genera. They are all discussed and figured. This paper presents results of the first description of ostracods from this important site. One genus, Bairdiacratia n. gen., and 13 species are new: Glyptopleurina pasinii n. sp., Knoxiella ventrospinosa n. sp., Knightina bullaensis n. sp., Bairdia ortiseiensis n. sp., B. cheni n. sp., B. (Rectobairdia kershawi n. sp., Bairdiacratia qinglai n.gen. n. sp., B. tergilata n. gen. n. sp., Microcheilinella lata n. sp., Parabythocythere chongpani n. sp., Cavellina bellerophonella n. sp., C. alpina n. sp. and C. triassica n. sp. The palaeocecological analysis of each unit is produced. The unconformity-paraconformity U1 is clearly reflected in the ostracod assemblages and is marked by a drop in diversity and abundance of specimens. It was followed by a change in the ostracod faunal composition. The Bulla Member displays maximum ostracod diversity and abundance linked with the trangressive trend reported for this period. The unconformity-paraconformity U2, at the boundary between the Bellerophon and Werfen formations (Bulla and Lower Tesero members is the main extinction level for ostracods. The Lower Tesero, Lower Mazzin and Upper Tesero members have very poor faunas. The lower part of the Upper Mazzin Mb. is characterized by an uneven burst of diversity before the great period of taxonomic paucity observed during the late Griesbachian all over the world. 

  20. Rock glacier development in the Northern Calcareous Alps at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Andrew P.; Ivy Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Kerschner, Hanns

    2016-11-01

    Relict rock glaciers provide information on past discontinuous permafrost and former mean annual air temperatures. A lack of records showing former permafrost distribution along the northern Alpine fringe prompted the investigation and numerical dating of a belt of relict rock glaciers in the Karwendel Mountains of the Northern Calcareous Austrian Alps. In two neighbouring cirques that were still glaciated during the early Younger Dryas, eleven 36Cl exposure ages from boulder surfaces were obtained. The ages imply the onset of rock glacier activity around ~ 12.3 ka with subsequent stabilization and permafrost melt out no later than ~ 10.1 ka. Hence, rock glacier formation coincided with glacier retreat in the cirques around the mid-Younger Dryas and continued into the early Holocene. As permafrost induced features, the rock glacier termini indicate the local past lower limit of discontinuous permafrost in open cirque floors at ~ 2000 m asl, which is around 400 m lower than during the mid-twentieth century at comparable locations in the Karwendel Mountains. Thus, a mean annual air temperature reduction of ~- 2.6 to - 3.8 °C relative to the mid-twentieth century is inferred. Based on a minimum glacier equilibrium line altitude in the cirques, a summer temperature reduction of less than - 2.6 to - 1.8 °C is shown, suggesting an increased seasonality at the time of rock glacier activity.

  1. Past landscape dynamics in mountain territories: historical trajectory of vulnerability in the Vars catchment (French Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puissant, Anne; Cioloboc, Florin; Schlosser, Arnaud; Gazo, Aurelien; Martin, Brice; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades and centuries, mountain landscapes have experiment natural and man-made landcover/use changes with mainly the development of tourism activities and the reduction of agro-pastoral activities. These transformations have directly influenced the spatial organization of mountain landscapes. To better anticipate the future exposure of the territory to natural hazards, decision-makers need retrospective analyses of the past changes. In the frame of the SAMCO project, whose objective is to propose mountain risk assessment methodologies in the context of global changes, this research presents a retrospective analysis of land cover/use changes (from 1948 to 2013) in the Vars catchment (French South Alps) submitted to several natural hazards (rockfall, landslide, and flood). Database of elements at risk has been built for five dates and evolution of vulnerability is performed through a versatile GIS-based analysis tool developed for the estimation of vulnerability indicators (physical, economical, social) at a fine scale (1:5000). Results allow identifying several areas with different trajectories of vulnerability which can be use as input data for risk analysis and define future trends.

  2. Driving factors for torrential mass-movements occurrence in the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Davide; Cremonini, Roberto; Asprea, Irene; Marco, Federica

    2016-02-01

    To understand the behaviour of torrential processes in the alpine environment, the conditions mainly responsiblefor the occurrence of these phenomena have to be identified and distinguished(classified) aspredisposing and triggering factors. In this regard, this study is aimed to understanding which factors lead to the occurrence of a given torrential processes in alpine catchments in the Western Alps, where information on past events are exhaustive and characterized by a long historical series. More than 769 documented torrential eventsoccurred from 1728 to 2015 within 78 catchments. Datasets concerning climate, geology and morphology, land use and the presence of historical landslide activity have been elaborated as input for multivariate statistical analysis to characterize the behaviour of the catchments. The results pinpoint the factors that mainly drive the type of torrential dominant process occurring in a given catchment, its occurrence probability, and its frequency. This study has demonstrated that catchments characterized by a significant percentage of outcropping rocks show a greater occurrence of torrential processes, especially hyperconcentrated flows and debris flows; on the contrary highly vegetated catchments are typically subject to water flows. This result can be a useful tool for the evaluation of hazards related to this specific phenomenon, making it possible to predict the most likely torrential processes that can be generated in a specific basin, given the characteristics of outcropping rock and vegetation cover.

  3. The geographical and environmental determinants of genetic diversity for four alpine conifers of the European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, E; Eckert, A J; Di Pierro, E A; Rocchini, D; La Porta, Nicola; Belletti, P; Neale, D B

    2012-11-01

    Climate is one of the most important drivers of local adaptation in forest tree species. Standing levels of genetic diversity and structure within and among natural populations of forest trees are determined by the interplay between climatic heterogeneity and the balance between selection and gene flow. To investigate this interplay, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 24 to 37 populations from four subalpine conifers, Abies alba Mill., Larix decidua Mill., Pinus cembra L. and Pinus mugo Turra, across their natural ranges in the Italian Alps and Apennines. Patterns of population structure were apparent using a Bayesian clustering program, STRUCTURE, which identified three to five genetic groups per species. Geographical correlates with these patterns, however, were only apparent for P. cembra. Multivariate environmental variables [i.e. principal components (PCs)] were subsequently tested for association with SNPs using a Bayesian generalized linear mixed model. The majority of the SNPs, ranging from six in L. decidua to 18 in P. mugo, were associated with PC1, corresponding to winter precipitation and seasonal minimum temperature. In A. alba, four SNPs were associated with PC2, corresponding to the seasonal minimum temperature. Functional annotation of those genes with the orthologs in Arabidopsis revealed several genes involved in abiotic stress response. This study provides a detailed assessment of population structure and its association with environment and geography in four coniferous species in the Italian mountains.

  4. Essential-Oil Variability in Natural Populations of Pinus mugo Turra from the Julian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojović, Srdjan; Jurc, Maja; Ristić, Mihailo; Popović, Zorica; Matić, Rada; Vidaković, Vera; Stefanović, Milena; Jurc, Dušan

    2016-02-01

    The composition and variability of the terpenes and their derivatives isolated from the needles of a representative pool of 114 adult trees originating from four natural populations of dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) from the Julian Alps were investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 54 of the 57 detected essential-oil components were identified. Among the different compound classes present in the essential oils, the chief constituents belonged to the monoterpenes, comprising an average content of 79.67% of the total oil composition (74.80% of monoterpene hydrocarbons and 4.87% of oxygenated monoterpenes). Sesquiterpenes were present in smaller amounts (average content of 19.02%), out of which 16.39% were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and 2.62% oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The most abundant components in the needle essential oils were the monoterpenes δ-car-3-ene, β-phellandrene, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and β-pinene and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. From the total data set of 57 detected compounds, 40 were selected for principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA), and cluster analysis (CA). The overlap tendency of the four populations suggested by PCA, was as well observed by DA. CA also demonstrated similarity among the populations, which was the highest between Populations I and II.

  5. Empirical atmospheric thresholds for debris flows and flash floods in the Southern French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Turkington

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows and flash floods are often preceded by intense, convective rainfall. The establishment of reliable rainfall thresholds is an important component for quantitative hazard and risk assessment, and for the development of an early warning system. Traditional empirical thresholds based on peak intensity, duration and antecedent rainfall can be difficult to verify due to the localized character of the rainfall and the absence of weather radar or sufficiently dense rain gauge networks in mountainous regions. However, convective rainfall can be strongly linked to regional atmospheric patterns and profiles. There is potential to employ this in empirical threshold analysis. This work develops a methodology to determine robust thresholds for flash floods and debris flows utilizing regional atmospheric conditions derived from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data, comparing the results with rain gauge derived thresholds. The method includes selecting the appropriate atmospheric indicators, categorizing the potential thresholds, determining and testing the thresholds. The method is tested in the Ubaye Valley in the southern French Alps, which is known to have localized convection triggered debris flows and flash floods. This paper shows that instability of the atmosphere and specific humidity at 850 hPa are the most important atmospheric indicators for debris flows and flash floods in the study area. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that atmospheric reanalysis data is an important asset, and could replace rainfall measurements in empirical exceedence thresholds for debris flows and flash floods.

  6. From dwindling ice to headwater lakes: could dams replace glaciers in the European Alps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinotti, Daniel; Pistocchi, Alberto; Huss, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    The potential exploitation of areas becoming ice-free in response to ongoing climate change has rarely been addressed, although it could be of interest from the water management perspective. Here we present an estimate for the potential of mitigating projected changes in seasonal water availability from melting glaciers by managing runoff through reservoirs. For the European Alps we estimate that by the end of the century, such a strategy could offset up to 65% of the expected summer-runoff changes from presently glacierized surfaces. A first-order approach suggests that the retention volume potentially available in the areas becoming deglacierized is in excess of the volume required for achieving the maximal possible mitigation by more than one order of magnitude. Obviously, however, such a strategy cannot compensate for the reduction in annual runoff caused by glacier ice depletion. Our estimates indicate that by 2070-2099, 0.73 ± 0.67 km3 a-1 of this non-renewable component of the water cycle could be missing in Alpine water supplies.

  7. Debris flows in the Eastern Italian Alps: seasonality and atmospheric circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Nikolopoulos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work examines the seasonality and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns of debris flows in the Trentino-Alto Adige region (Eastern Italian Alps. Analysis is based on classification algorithms applied on a uniquely dense archive of debris flows and hourly rain gauge precipitation series covering the period 2000–2009. Results highlight the seasonal and synoptic forcing patterns linked to debris flows in the study area. Summer and fall season account for 92% of the debris flows in the record, while atmospheric circulation characterized by Zonal West, Mixed and Meridional South, Southeast patterns account for 80%. Both seasonal and circulation patterns exhibit geographical preference. In the case of seasonality, there is a strong north–south separation of summer–fall dominance while spatial distribution of dominant circulation patterns exhibits clustering, with both Zonal West and Mixed prevailing in the northwest and central east part of the region, while the southern part relates to Meridional South, Southeast pattern. Seasonal and synoptic pattern dependence is pronounced also on the debris flow triggering rainfall properties. Examination of rainfall intensity–duration thresholds derived for different data classes (according to season and synoptic pattern revealed a distinct variability in estimated thresholds. These findings imply a certain control on debris-flow events and can therefore be used to improve existing alert systems.

  8. Driving factors for torrential mass-movements occurrence in the Western Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eTiranti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand the behaviour of torrential processes in the alpine environment, the conditions mainly responsiblefor the occurrence of these phenomena have to be identified and distinguished(classified aspredisposing and triggering factors. In this regard, this study is aimed to understanding which factors lead to the occurrence of a given torrential processes in alpine catchments in the Western Alps, where information on past events are exhaustive and characterized by a long historical series. More than 769 documented torrential eventsoccurred from 1728 to 2015 within 78 catchments. Datasets concerning climate, geology and morphology, land use and the presence of historical landslide activity have been elaborated as input for multivariate statistical analysis to characterize the behaviour of the catchments. The results pinpoint the factors that mainly drive the type of torrential dominant process occurring in a given catchment, its occurrence probability, and its frequency. This study has demonstrated that catchments characterized by a significant percentage of outcropping rocks show a greater occurrence of torrential processes, especially hyperconcentrated flows and debris flows; on the contrary highly vegetated catchments are typically subject to water flows. This result can be a useful tool for the evaluation of hazards related to this specific phenomenon, making it possible to predict the most likely torrential processes that can be generated in a specific basin, given the characteristics of outcropping rock and vegetation cover.

  9. Svet bogov Vzhodnih Alp in Jadrana v stiku z rimsko civilizacijo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Šašel Kos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Med bralci naše nove revije, kijih zanimajo klasična filologija, posebej grška in rimska literatura ter vzporedno najrazličnejši vidiki naše preteklosti v antiki, bodo morda tudi takšni, ki jih zanimajo poganski kulti in božanstva, čaščena pri nas v dobi pred prevlado krščanstva. Zato sem se odločila, da vaje objavim v nadaljevanjih svoje besedilo o predrimskih kultih in božanstvih našega prostora in širše okolice. To besedilo je slovenska priredba angleške izdaje z naslovom Pre-RomanDivinities ojtheEasternAlps andAdriatic, ki je izšla spomladi leta 2000 kot monograftja serije Situla (št. 38, Ljubljana 1999. Ta muzejska serija je namenjena predvsem izmenjavi publikacij s tujino, zato je smiselno, da ni dvojezična. Slovensko besedilo začenjam s kratkim uvodnim sestavkom, sledili bosta dve nadaljevanji prvega poglavja (Od izvira Timava do Ekorne v Savariji: domača in uvožena božanstva , ter vsa nadaljna poglavja, ki doslej še niso dostopna v slovenščini (Boginje Histrije in Liburnye; Velike božanske matere v Saloni; Je Jupiter, ki odvrača zlo, noriško božanstvo?

  10. Remote Sensing of Snow in the Solar Spectrum: Experiments in the French Alps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fily

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were perfonned irliApril and December 1992 in the French Alps using simultaneous relnote sensing and ground truth data. Snow grain site and soot content of samples collected in thefield were measured. The Landsat thematic mapper (TM sensor was used because it has a good spatial resolution, a middle infrared channel which is sensitive to grain size and a thermal infraredchannel. Firstj the reflectance data were compared with the theoretical results obtained from a bidirectional reflectance model. Then, some remote sehstng-derived snow parameters wbre comparediWith the outpllt ofa snow metamorphism model (CROCUS,viz., lower elevation of the snowcover, lhe surface grl1in size and the surface temperature. A digital elevation model was used to obtain thelocal incidenc:f angles and the elevation of each snow pixel. The pixels were then grouped according to CROCUS classification (range, elevation, slope, and orientation and the mean snow chart;cheracteristicsfor each class were .compared with the tROCUS results. The lower limit of snow and the surface grain size derived from TM data were compared favourably with the model results. Larger differences werefound for the temperature, because it varies rapidly and is very sensitive to shadowing by the snrrounding mountains and also because its remote measurement is dependent on atmospheric conditions.

  11. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Achillea moschata Wulfen, an Endemic Species from the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Vitalini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerial parts of Achillea moschata Wulfen (Asteraceae growing wild in the Italian Rhaetian Alps were investigated to describe, for the first time, their phenolic content, as well as to characterize the essential oil. Inspection of the metabolic profile combining HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS data showed that the methanol extract contained glycosylated flavonoids with luteolin and apigenin as the main aglycones. Among them, the major compound was 7-O-glucosyl apigenin. Caffeoyl derivates were other phenolics identified. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation and investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS showed camphor, 1,8-cineole, and bornylacetate as the main constituents. The antioxidant capacity of three different extracts with increasing polarity and of the essential oil was evaluated by employing ABTS·+ and DPPH· radical scavenging assays. The methanolic extract was the only significantly effective sample against both synthetic radicals. All samples were also tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial species using the disk diffusion assay. The non-polar extracts (dichloromethane and petroleum ether and the essential oil possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity expressed according to inhibition zone diameter (8–24 mm.

  12. RANAVIRUS CAUSES MASS DIE-OFFS OF ALPINE AMPHIBIANS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN ALPS, FRANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaud, Claude; Pozet, Françoise; Gaudin, Nadine Curt Grand; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Labrut, Sophie

    2016-04-28

    Pathogenic fungi and viruses cause mortality outbreaks in wild amphibians worldwide. In the summer of 2012, dead tadpoles and adults of the European common frog Rana temporaria were reported in alpine lakes in the southwestern Alps (Mercantour National Park, France). A preliminary investigation using molecular diagnostic techniques identified a Ranavirus as the potential pathogenic agent. Three mortality events were recorded in the park, and samples were collected. The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was not detected in any of the dead adult and juvenile frogs sampled (n=16) whereas all specimens were positive for a Ranavirus. The genome sequence of this Ranavirus was identical to previously published sequences of the common midwife toad virus (CMTV), a Ranavirus that has been associated with amphibian mortalities throughout Europe. We cultured virus from the organs of the dead common frogs and infecting adult male common frogs collected in another alpine region where no frog mortality had been observed. The experimentally infected frogs suffered 100% mortality (n=10). The alpine die-off is the first CMTV outbreak associated with mass mortality in wild amphibians in France. We describe the lesions observed and summarize amphibian populations affected by Ranaviruses in Europe. In addition, we discuss the ecologic specificities of mountain amphibians that may contribute to increasing their risk of exposure to and transmission of Ranaviruses.

  13. Hydrogeological model and hydraulic behaviour of a large landslide in the Italian Western Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pisani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of the large, deep-seated Rosone landslide (Italian Western Alps is presented. A large amount of geological and geomechanical data has been collected in this area, due to the presence of various villages and man-made structures, and an automatic monitoring system was installed in December 2000. Since its installation, this system has been showing a continuous slow movement with periodical accelerations that can be correlated to heavy rainfall events. A hydrogeological model has been developed to study the influence of rainfall events on the pore pressure variations inside the rock slope. The structural characteristics, inclinometric and piezometric measurements, statigraphic and seismic profiles, geomorphologic information, water balance and chemical analyses of the main springs in the slope have been taken into account to consider this problem. A numerical hydraulic investigation, based on a continuum equivalent model of the landslide, has then been carried out using the FLAC3D computer code. Some preliminary results, which highlight the role of permeability and the porosity values of the rock mass on the pore pressure variations during heavy rainfall, are shown in the paper.

  14. True propagation paths of surface waves from regional and teleseismic earthquakes across AlpArray Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolínský, Petr; Fuchs, Florian; Gröschl, Gidera; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-04-01

    We utilize array beamforming techniques to investigate deterministic surface waves from regional and teleseismic earthquakes. Because the signal is well recognized and the fundamental mode for both Love and Rayleigh waves is separated before the beamforming, instead of searching for energy of all possible signals, we identify the frequency dependence of surface wave phase velocity and the true backazimuths of propagation. Using the dense AlpArray seismic broadband network distributed in the greater Alpine region across Europe with interstation distances around 40 km, we consider each station as a centre of an array of neighboring 5 to 6 stations. This allows us to calculate the local phase velocity dispersion curves for individual regions with diameter of approximately 80 - 100 km. By the beamforming, phase velocities are corrected for the true propagation backazimuth, which is slightly frequency dependent for each event. We invert the dispersion curves for S and P wave velocity distribution with depth. Measuring the phase velocity from different events distributed around the world, azimuthal dependence of the phase velocity is estimated and thus anisotropy constrained for particular depths. Beamforming of the signals in the time window sliding along the coda after the fundamental mode allows us to detect deterministic late surface-wave signals coming from certain directions dissimilar from the direct fundamental mode backazimuths for some of the events - these can be considered as surface wave reflections from lateral heterogeneities and vertical boundaries.

  15. Long-lasting transcurrent tectonics in SW Alps evidenced by Neogene to present-day stress fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauve, Victorien; Plateaux, Romain; Rolland, Yann; Sanchez, Guillaume; Bethoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand; Darnault, Romain

    2014-05-01

    The SW Alps are an active orogen undergoing intra-mountainous extension and peripheral compression. We discuss the significance of syn-orogenic extension based on a comparison of paleo-stress derived from fault-slip data inversion reflecting the long-term (< 12 Ma) evolution of SW Alps and the present-day stress state obtained by the inversion of the focal mechanisms of the last 30-years seismicity. The resulting stress states of long-term and active tectonic regimes are in good agreement, showing that extension accompanies strike-slip and reverse faulting in the southern part of the belt. The extensional deformation regime is limited to specific tectonic domains that can be interpreted as ‘transitional' between pure strike-slip segments where the deformation concentrates on inherited ductile shear zones that were formed between 32° and 20 Ma ago. We thus propose that the extensional deformation in the SW Alps can be defined as a local deformation in a pull-apart type domain (High Durance - Jausiers area) or above slowly exhuming internal massifs (Dora Maira - Ivrea Body) along a curved boundary between the slowly rotating Apulian block and the relatively immobile Western Europe. The transcurrent fault system merges into a compressional front along the Mediterranean - Ligurian coast mainly to the east of San Remo.

  16. Genetic differentiation of Liparus glabrirostris (Curculionidae: Molytinae) populations from the fragmented habitats of the Alps and Carpathian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, M; Tomanović, Ž; Jakovljević, M; Radović, D; Havelka, J; Stary, P

    2016-10-01

    Populations of Liparus glabrirostris (Curculionidae: Molytinae), a weevil inhabiting higher altitudes of Central Europe, were sampled from 24 localities in the Alps and Carpathian Mountains, and the geographical structuring of genetic variation was analyzed. Comparison of the concatenated mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and subunit II sequences revealed consistent genetic divergence between the populations of L. glabrirostris from different mountain ranges. In phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony and median-joining networks, concatenated mitochondrial haplotypes from the Alps and Carpathians clustered as separate lineages, with high bootstrap support. Substantial genetic distances determined between the separated groups ranged from 2.6 to 3.0%, with divergence estimated to have initiated approximately 0.85-0.98 million years ago. The nuclear elongation factor 1α gene was additionally amplified and haplotype analysis showed very low evolutionary divergence (0.2%), with separate clustering as well. The observed divergence suggests that the populations have been isolated for a long time, as a consequence of environmental changes resulting in varying fragmentation of habitats in the Alps and Carpathians, interrupting genetic exchange events and altering the genetic structure of L. glabrirostris populations. On the other hand, comparison of morphological characteristics showed no differences to confirm genetically well differentiated groups of populations. A polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism-based method was therefore developed to discriminate between the Alpine and Carpathian lineages.

  17. Immediate and delayed signal of slab breakoff in Oligo/Miocene Molasse deposits from the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Castelltort, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution 32–20 Ma-old stratigraphic records from the Molasse foreland basin situated north of the Alps, and Gonfolite Lombarda conglomerates deposited on the southern Alpine margin, document two consecutive sedimentary responses - an immediate and delayed response - to slab breakoff beneath the central Alps c. 32–30 Ma ago. The first signal, which occurred due to rebound and surface uplift in the Alps, was a regional and simultaneous switch from basin underfill to overfill at 30 Ma paired with shifts to coarse-grained depositional environments in the foreland basin. The second signal, however, arrived several million years after slab breakoff and was marked by larger contributions of crystalline clasts in the conglomerates, larger clast sizes, larger sediment fluxes and shifts to more proximal facies. We propose that this secondary pulse reflects a delayed whiplash-type erosional response to surface uplift, where erosion and sediment flux became amplified through positive feedbacks once larger erosional thresholds of crystalline bedrock were exceeded.

  18. ZnO nanoparticles augment ALT, AST, ALP and LDH expressions in C2C12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme expressions in C2C12 cells. ZnO nanoparticles are widely used in the several cosmetic lotions and other biomedical products. Several studies report on ZnO nanoparticle mediated cytotoxicity. However, there are no reports on the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on ALT, AST, ALP and LDH enzyme expressions in C2C12 cells. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the effect of ZnO nanoparticles (1-5 mg/ml) on C2C12 cell viability at 48 and 72 h. ZnO nanoparticles increased ALT, AST, ALP and LDH enzyme mRNA expression and their activities in C2C12 cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that ZnO nanoparticles increased these enzyme activities and its mRNA expression in C2C12 cells in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. Reconstitution de la morphogenèse Oligocène-Miocène des Alpes occidentales par une approche pluridisciplinaire

    OpenAIRE

    Jourdan, Sebastien,

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to use a multidisciplinary approach, combining petrologic, geochemical and geo-thermochronologic analyses, to reconstruct the topographic and exhumational evolution of the Western Alps during Oligocene and Early Miocene times, in relation to regional geodynamic events. Because the sedimentary record of this evolution is preserved in the foreland basins on the both sides of the Western Alps in France and Italy, this approach allows identifying sediment provenan...

  20. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to somatic FAS mutation (ALPS-sFAS) combined with a germline caspase-10 (CASP10) variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Feito, Ana; Melero, Josefa; Mora-Díaz, Sergio; Rodríguez-Vigil, Carmen; Elduayen, Ramón; González-Granado, Luis I; Pérez-Méndez, Dolores; Sánchez-Zapardiel, Elena; Ruiz-García, Raquel; Menchén, Miguela; Díaz-Madroñero, Josefa; Paz-Artal, Estela; Del Orbe-Barreto, Rafael; Riñón, Marta; Allende, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis of lymphocytes and is characterized by chronic nonmalignant or benign lymphoproliferation, autoimmune manifestations and expansion of double negative (DN) T-cells (TCRαβ+CD4-CD8-). Most cases of ALPS are associated with germline (ALPS-FAS) or somatic (ALPS-sFAS) heterozygous FAS mutations or a combination of both. Here we report three unrelated patients with ALPS-sFAS. Only one of them showed impaired Fas function in PHA-activated T-cells. In this patient, the genetic analysis of the caspase-10 gene (CASP10) identified a heterozygous germline change in exon 9 (c.1337A>G) causing Y446C substitution in the caspase-10 protein. In addition, this patient had a dysregulated T- and B-cell phenotype; circulating lymphocytes showed expansion of T effector memory CD45RA+ (TEMRA) CD4 T-cells, effector memory CD8 T-cells, CD21(low) B-cells and reduced memory switched B-cells. Additionally, this patient showed altered expression in T-cells of several molecules that change during differentiation from naïve to effector cells (CD27, CD95, CD57 and perforin). Molecular alterations in genes of the Fas pathway are necessary for the development of ALPS and this syndrome could be influenced by the concurrent effect of other mutations hitting different genes involved in Fas or related pathways.

  1. A first-principles study of the SCN{sup -} chemisorption on the surface of AlN, AlP, and BP nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, Alireza, E-mail: Alireza.soltani46@yahoo.com [Young Researchers Club, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghartapeh, Mohammad Ramezani [Young Researchers Club, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mighani, Hossein [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of science, Golestan University, Gorgan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pahlevani, Amin Allah [Young Researchers Club, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mashkoor, Reza [Department of Chemistry, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Adsorption properties of SCN{sup -} on AlN, AlP, and BP nanotubes based on density functional theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle We demonstrate the most stable configurations (N-side) of SCN{sup -} on AlN, AlP, and BP nanotubes models. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SCN{sup -} Adsorption on surface of AlN, AlP, and BP nanotubes were studied via density functional theory (DFT). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction of SCN{sup -} on the electronic properties and the NBO charge distribution of mentioned configurations are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The studies suggest that the adsorption energies of SCN{sup -} on AlPNT is most notable in comparison with AlNNT and BPNT. - Abstract: We have performed first-principles calculations to explore the adsorption behavior of the SCN{sup -} on electronic properties of AlN, AlP, and BP nanotubes. The adsorption value of SCN{sup -} for the most stable formation on the AlPNT is about -318.16 kJ mol{sup -1}, which is reason via the chemisorptions of SCN anion. The computed density of states (DOS) indicates that a notable orbital hybridization take place between SCN{sup -} and AlP nanotube in adsorption process. Finally, the AlP nanotube can be used to design as useful sensor for nanodevice applications.

  2. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Joannin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081 from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy. Environmental changes that where reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake-levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF measurements recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of distribution tree species. An altitude-dependent progressive time-delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir and of the Larix (larch development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal. BP, Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal. BP and n.e. 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale short-lasting climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 cal. BP and 8200 cal. BP in the south-eastern Alps and, therefore, reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and 8.2 kyr cold events. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200–7300 cal. BP evidenced in high lake-levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal. BP, low signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest a weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal. BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions

  3. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early–middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Joannin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081 from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy. Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF measurements recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and early–middle Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of tree species distribution. An altitude-dependent progressive time delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir and of the Larix (larch development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal BP, Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal BP and the 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 and 8200 cal BP in the south-eastern Alps, and therefore reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and the 8.2 kyr cold event. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200–7300 cal BP evidenced in high lake levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal BP, a weak signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions (particularly during

  4. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early-middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannin, S.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Peyron, O.; Haas, J. N.; Gilli, A.; Chapron, E.; Wirth, S. B.; Anselmetti, F.; Desmet, M.; Magny, M.

    2013-04-01

    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing) in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and early-middle Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of tree species distribution. An altitude-dependent progressive time delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir) and of the Larix (larch) development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills) in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal BP), Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal BP) and the 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce) expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 and 8200 cal BP in the south-eastern Alps, and therefore reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and the 8.2 kyr cold event. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200-7300 cal BP evidenced in high lake levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal BP, a weak signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions (particularly during summers) that

  5. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannin, S.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Peyron, O.; Haas, J.-N.; Gilli, A.; Chapron, E.; Wirth, S. B.; Anselmetti, F.; Desmet, M.; Magny, M.

    2012-11-01

    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes that where reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake-levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of distribution tree species. An altitude-dependent progressive time-delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir) and of the Larix (larch) development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills) in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal. BP), Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal. BP) and n.e. 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale short-lasting climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce) expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 cal. BP and 8200 cal. BP in the south-eastern Alps and, therefore, reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and 8.2 kyr cold events. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200-7300 cal. BP evidenced in high lake-levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal. BP, low signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest a weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal. BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions (particularly during summers) that

  6. Late-stage cooling history of the Eastern and Southern Alps and its linkage to Adria indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Reverman, Rebecca; Fellin, Maria; Neubauer, Franz; Dunkl, István; Zattin, Massimiliano; Seward, Diane; Brack, Peter; Genser, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Late-orogenic indentation by rigid lithospheric plates and microplates into softer orogenic wedges leads to post-collisional shortening, lithospheric thickening and vertical and lateral extrusion. The European Eastern and Southern Alps represent a prime example of indenter tectonics. Their Late Neogene geodynamic framework is influenced primarily by the ca. NW-ward motion and counterclockwise rotation of the Adriatic microplate with respect to Europe, which resulted in an oblique, dextral transpressional setting. In this study we refine the late-stage exhumation pattern related to indentation of the eastern Adriatic indenter, i.e. the still northward pushing triangular northeastern part of the Southalpine block that indented the Eastern Alps. New apatite (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track thermochronometry data come from (1) the Karawanken Mountains adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic fault along the northeastern edge of the indenter and from (2) the central-eastern Southern Alps from within the indenter and from its western edge. We find apatite (U-Th)/He ages from the Karawanken Mountains ranging between 11 and 6 Ma, which indicate an episode of fault-related exhumation leading to the formation of a positive flower structure and an associated peripheral foreland basin as well as lateral activity along the Periadriatic fault system. Apatite (U/Th)/He and fission-track data combined with previous data from the Southern Alps indicate that exhumation largely occurred during the Late Miocene, too, and was maximized along thrust systems, with highly differential amounts of vertical displacement along individual structures. Our new data contribute to mounting evidence for widespread Late Miocene tectonic activity in the Eastern and Southern Alps. They demonstrate a shift from deformation and exhumation concentrated within the Tauern Window at the beginning of the indentation process, to less pronounced, but more widespread exhumation along the edges as well as the

  7. Virtual tours as a new teaching tool in geoscience: an example from the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Antoine; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Nomade, Jérome

    2013-04-01

    , these panorama can be linked together to travel from place to place. Last, but not least, the display of any type of information (video of the last year teachers' explanation, close up of a structure, graphic plot, text content, interpreted geological sections etc.) can be integrated in the virtual tour. From this, it is easy to build a full educational virtual tour that can include the information provided in the field book, and even become the field book itself. These virtual tours can be used with any device (laptop, tablet, smartphone...), hence have the potential become key players in field teaching. Finally, these virtual tours can help physically impaired students to complete their geological curriculum with the indispensable field experience they would not have had otherwise. Here we present an example of such a virtual tour build in 2012 across the European Alps during the 1st International Field Course organized by Grenoble University, ETH Zürich and Milano University. This virtual tour covers the Grimsel Pass Aar Massif Hercynian Basement (granite, shear zone and the underground NAGRA test site), the Zermatt area (two continents and two oceans packed together), the Aiguille du Midi incredible overview on most of the W-Alps, and the back limb of the Nappe de Morcles and its relation with the surrounding blocks. Link to the virtual tour: http://www.alpesphoto.com/temp/visites/Suisse/build/virtualtour.swf

  8. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  9. Debris flow monitoring experience in the Cancia basin (Dolomites, Northeast Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancanelli, Laura; Bernard, Martino; Gregoretti, Carlo; Berti, Matteo; Simoni, Alessandro; Lanzoni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring campaign presented here aims to understand the dynamics of sediment transport processes in small head-water catchments of the Italian Alps and to evaluate the rainfall thresholds for debris flow triggering. The monitored basin of Cancia is located on the Eastern Italian Dolomites, in the Belluno Province. In particular, it is situated on the left side on the Boite river valley, next to the Borca di Cadore village, and is delimited by the western slope of the Mt. Antelao. The drainage area is 1.8 km2 while the elevation ranges from 2451 m a.s.l. to 880 m a.s.l., with a slope varying from 30-40° in the upper part to 10-15° in the lower part (fan area). The basin is characterized by a lithology very common in the Italian Alps, which consist of high permeability, poorly sorted rock debris, containing boulders up to 3-4 m in diameter, and include heterogeneous scree, alluvium and old debris flow deposits. The spatial distribution of sediment is characterized by: an upper part where prevails the presence of rocks, a medium part characterized by poorly sorted rock debris and fine sediment material, and a downstream part plenty of sediment material The Cancia basin is prone to stony debris flows, owing to the plenty availability of loose and coarse sediments and frequent convective events. In particular, the smaller grain sized material is provided by the erosion of lateral slope, while gravel, pebbles and cobbles are provided by the upper part of the basin, characterized by rocky material. The precipitation regime is marked by rainfalls of short duration and high intensity, usually occurring in the summer period. The debris flow channel has began to be surveyed in August 2009 to identify the debris flow generation area. At the beginning of July 2013 topographical surveys of the channel downstream the triggering area began in order to investigate the morphological evolution of the debris flow channel from 2013 until 2015. Moreover, at the beginning of

  10. Post-glacial rock avalanche causing epigenetic gorge incision (Strassberg gorge, Eastern Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Diethard

    2015-04-01

    In the western part of the Eastern Alps, the Strassberg gorge 1.5 km in length and down to 100 m in depth shows a marked asymmetry in height of its right/left brinklines. The gorge is incised into Upper Triassic dolostones, and parallels an older valley filled with Quaternary deposits. Upstream, the valley-fill consists of (a) glacial till (Last Glacial Maximum, LGM), overlain by (b) a rock avalanche deposit (RAD) at least a few tens of meters thick, and (c) alluvial deposits shed over the RAD (except for projecting boulders); the RAD is locally also downlapped by scree slopes. Downstream, the valley-fill consists of glacio-fluvial deposits overlain by LGM till and, on top, the RAD. The rock avalanche defaced from the west slope of mount Hohe Munde (2662 m asl), and consists exclusively of clasts of Wetterstein Limestone (Triassic p. p.). Rock avalanche defacement was tied to a system of NW-SE trending strike-slip faults (Telfs fault zone). The rock avalanche descended before the old valley was significantly cleared of glaciofluvial/glacial deposits of the LGM. On a plateau west of the present bedrock gorge, LGM till is veneered over a large area by RAD; the till and the RAD both were later involved in slumping. The RAD covers a total planview area of ~3.7 square kilometers. The fahrböschung of the rock avalanche is reconstructed between 16°-14.5°. In its proximal part, the rock avalanche propagated by dynamic fragmentation; in the distal part, propagation was by sheet-like 'plug flow', perhaps in part over a snow cover. The filling of the old valley by the RAD led to: (a) formation and filling of a small intramontane basin directly upstream, and (b) incision of the present Strassberg gorge along a course westward-parallel to the old valley. Mean rates of bedrock incision required to form the deepest reach of the present canyon range from 1 cm/a (since 10 ka) to 0.7 cm/a (since 15 ka). In the considered area, talus breccias of pre-LGM age locally show zones of

  11. Biodiversity of Klebsormidium (streptophyta) from alpine biological soil crusts (alps, tyrol, Austria, and Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Glaser, Karin; Holzinger, Andreas; Karsten, Ulf

    2015-08-01

    Forty Klebsormidium strains isolated from soil crusts of mountain regions (Alps, 600–3,000 m elevation) were analyzed. The molecular phylogeny (internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences) showed that these strains belong to clades B/C, D, E, and F. Seven main (K. flaccidum, K. elegans, K. crenulatum, K. dissectum, K. nitens, K. subtile, and K. fluitans) and four transitional morphotypes (K. cf. flaccidum, K. cf. nitens, K. cf. subtile, and K. cf. fluitans) were identified. Most strains belong to clade E, which includes isolates that prefer humid conditions. One representative of the xerophytic lineage (clade F) as well as few isolates characteristic of temperate conditions (clades B/C, D) were found. Most strains of clade E were isolated from low/middle elevations (<1,800 m above sea level; a.s.l.) in the pine-forest zone. Strains of clades B/C, D, and F occurred sporadically at higher elevations (1,548–2,843 m a.s.l.), mostly under xerophytic conditions of alpine meadows. Comparison of the alpine Klebsormidium assemblage with data from other biogeographic regions indicated similarity with soil crusts/biofilms from terrestrial habitats in mixed forest in Western Europe, North America, and Asia, as well as walls of buildings in Western European cities. The alpine assemblage differed substantially from crusts from granite outcrops and sand dunes in Eastern Europe (Ukraine), and fundamentally from soil crusts in South African drylands. Epitypification of the known species K. flaccidum, K. crenulatum, K. subtile, K. nitens, K. dissectum, K. fluitans, K. mucosum, and K. elegans is proposed to establish taxonomic names and type material as an aid for practical studies on these algae, as well as for unambiguous identification of alpine strains. New combination Klebsormidium subtile (Kützing) Mikhailyuk, Glaser, Holzinger et Karsten comb. nov. is made.

  12. Historical reconstruction of Plutonium contamination in the Swiss-Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrieli J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plutonium is present in the environment as a consequence of atmospheric nuclear tests carried out in the 1960s, nuclear weapons production and releases by the nuclear industry over the past 50 years. Approximately 6 tons of 239Pu have been released into the environment as a result of 541 atmospheric weapon tests Nuclear Pu fallout has been studied in various environmental archives, such as sediments, soil and herbarium grass. Mid-latitude ice cores have been studied as well, on Mont Blanc, the Western Alps and on Belukha Glacier, Siberian Altai. We present a Pu record obtained by analyzing 52 discrete samples of an alpine firn/ice core from Colle Gnifetti (M. Rosa, 4450 m a.s.l., dating from 1945 to 1991. The 239Pu signal was recorded directly, without preliminary cleaning or preconcentration steps, using an high resolution inductively plasma mass spectrometer equipped with a desolvation system. The 239Pu profile reflects the three main periods of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing: the earliest peak lasted from 1954/55 to 1958 and was caused by the first testing period reaching a maximum in 1958. Despite a temporary halt of testing in 1959/60, the Pu concentration decreased only by half with respect to the 1958 peak due to long atmospheric residence times. In 1961/62 Pu concentrations rapidly increased reaching a maximum in 1963. After the signing of the “Limited Test Ban Treaty” between USA and USSR in 1964, Pu deposition decreased very sharply reaching a minimum in 1967. The third period (1967-1975 is characterized by irregular Pu concentrations with smaller peaks which might be related to the deposition of Saharan dust contaminated by the French nuclear tests of the 1960s.

  13. Modeling four occurred debris flow events in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreggio, Mauro; Gregoretti, Carlo; Degetto, Massimo; Bernard, Martino

    2016-04-01

    Four occurred debris flows in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps) are modeled by back-analysis. The four debris flows events are those occurred at Rio Lazer (Trento) on the 4th of November 1966, at Fiames (Belluno) on the 5th of July 2006, at Rovina di Cancia (Belluno) on the 18th of July 2009 and at Rio Val Molinara (Trento) on the 15th of August 2010. In all the events, runoff entrained sediments present on natural channels and formed a solid-liquid wave that routed downstream. The first event concerns the routing of debris flow on an inhabited fan. The second event the deviation of debris flow from the usual path due to an obstruction with the excavation of a channel in the scree and the downstream spreading in a wood. The third event concerns the routing of debris flow in a channel with an ending the reservoir, its overtopping and final spreading in the inhabited area. The fourth event concerns the routing of debris flow along the main channel downstream the initiation area until spreading just upstream a village. All the four occurred debris flows are simulated by modeling runoff that entrained debris flow for determining the solid-liquid hydrograph. The routing of the solid-liquid hydrograph is simulated by a bi-phase cell model based on the kinematic approach. The comparison between simulated and measured erosion and deposition depths is satisfactory. Nearly the same parameters for computing erosion and deposition were used for all the four occurred events. The maps of erosion and deposition depths are obtained by comparing the results of post-event surveys with the pre-event DEM. The post-event surveys were conducted by using different instruments (LiDAR and GPS) or the combination photos-single points depth measurements (in this last case it is possible obtaining the deposition/erosion depths by means of stereoscopy techniques).

  14. Plant species dominance shifts across erosion edge-meadow transects in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Corinne; Körner, Christian; Hiltbrunner, Erika

    2013-03-01

    While exerting no obvious function under "average" environmental conditions, the presence of certain plant specialists becomes crucial in the event of a complete failure of a community due to severe disturbance such as landslides. Plants capable of growing at erosion edges may act as potential edge-engineers by coping with unstable ground and stabilizing the soil with their roots. We hypothesized that life conditions at erosion edges select for a particular set of specialists or species with specific traits, the identification of which was the aim of the study. Across 17 small-scale transects (0.40 × 1.60 m) from intact meadows to landslide edges (Ursern Valley, Swiss Alps, c. 1,600 m a.s.l.), we quantified plant species abundance by the point intercept method and characterized growth conditions based on Landolt's indicator values, leaf δ(13)C, and volumetric soil moisture in the uppermost soil layers. We observed a clear change of plant species composition and relative abundance from the meadow to the edge, presumably induced by the 25 % lower soil moisture and microclimatic exposure. Species richness at the edge was two-thirds of that in the meadow, but was positively correlated with species richness of the adjacent meadow. Species with "edge-preference" had either (1) rolled or festucoid leaves like Festuca spp., Avenella flexuosa and Nardus stricta, or (2) small, scleromorphic leaves like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris and Thymus ssp. Graminoids with rolled/festucoid leaves were found to be the most dominant edge-specialists. The grass Festuca valesiaca s.l. emerged as the most dominant plant species at the edge, having an 11-times higher cover at the edge than in the meadow. In this montane grassland, a single species contributes to the stabilization of erosion edges and may be regarded as a potential keystone species for slope stability and regeneration after landslides even its role has not so far been established.

  15. Late Quaternary glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation distribution in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann V. Rowan; Simon H. Brocklehurst; David M. Schultz; Mitchell A. Plummer; Leif S. Anderson; Neil F. Glasser

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers respond to climate variations and leave geomorphic evidence that represents an important terrestrial paleoclimate record. However, the accuracy of paleoclimate reconstructions from glacial geology is limited by the challenge of representing mountain meteorology in numerical models. Precipitation is usually treated in a simple manner and yet represents difficult-to-characterize variables such as amount, distribution, and phase. Furthermore, precipitation distributions during a glacial probably differed from present-day interglacial patterns. We applied two models to investigate glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation in the eastern Southern Alps of New Zealand. A 2-D model was used to quantify variations in the length of the reconstructed glaciers resulting from plausible precipitation distributions compared to variations in length resulting from change in mean annual air temperature and precipitation amount. A 1-D model was used to quantify variations in length resulting from interannual climate variability. Assuming that present-day interglacial values represent precipitation distributions during the last glacial, a range of plausible present-day precipitation distributions resulted in uncertainty in the Last Glacial Maximum length of the Pukaki Glacier of 17.1?km (24%) and the Rakaia Glacier of 9.3?km (25%), corresponding to a 0.5°C difference in temperature. Smaller changes in glacier length resulted from a 50% decrease in precipitation amount from present-day values (-14% and -18%) and from a 50% increase in precipitation amount (5% and 9%). Our results demonstrate that precipitation distribution can produce considerable variation in simulated glacier extents and that reconstructions of paleoglaciers should include this uncertainty.

  16. CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF UPPER CALLOVIAN-LOWER BERRIASIAN SUCCESSIONS FROM THE SOUTHERN ALPS, NORTH ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA EMANUELA CASELLATO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy was investigated in uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian sections from Southern Alps, previously detected through magnetostratigraphy, in order to achieve an integrated stratigraphic framework valid at low latitudes. Nannofossil investigations were carried out on smear slides and ultra-thin sections, revealing generally scarce to common abundances and poor-moderate preservation of nannofloras. An exhaustive taxonomic revision was performed to unambiguously separate forms which are transitional between two species and better delineate rapidly evolving groups. Four new species have been described: Zeugrhabdotus fluxus, Nannoconus puer, Nannoconus erbae, Hexalithus geometricus. Particular attention was paid to taxonomical aspects of primitive nannoconids, appearing and evolving across the early-late Tithonian transition and the Tithonian/Berriasian boundary intervals; the revision was also verified at DSDP Site 534A from Atlantic Ocean. Fourty-eight nannofossil bioevents were detected and the results help to increase potential stratigraphic resolution in this interval. Thirty-seven nannofossil bioevents in the upper Kimmeridgian-lower Berriasian interval have been directly correlated to magnetostratigraphy (CM22-CM17 revealing a systematically older stratigraphic occurrence of these taxa than previously reported. A revised and partly new Tethyan calcareous nannofossil zonation scheme is here proposed for the uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian interval. It consists of seven bio-zones and eight subzones based on thirty-one bioevents, thirteen of them related to dissolution resistant taxa assuring highest reproducibility even in sections with high diagenetic overprint. The proposed biostratigraphic scheme gives higher resolution than previous zonations, especially for the Callovian-Kimmeridgian interval, where no biozonation was available for the Tethyan Realm. 

  17. Braided River Flow and Invasive Vegetation Dynamics in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Brian S.; Edmondson, Laura; Pithie, Callum

    2013-07-01

    In mountain braided rivers, extreme flow variability, floods and high flow pulses are fundamental elements of natural flow regimes and drivers of floodplain processes, understanding of which is essential for management and restoration. This study evaluated flow dynamics and invasive vegetation characteristics and changes in the Ahuriri River, a free-flowing braided, gravel-bed river in the Southern Alps of New Zealand's South Island. Sixty-seven flow metrics based on indicators of hydrologic alteration and environmental flow components (extreme low flows, low flows, high flow pulses, small floods and large floods) were analyzed using a 48-year flow record. Changes in the areal cover of floodplain and invasive vegetation classes and patch characteristics over 20 years (1991-2011) were quantified using five sets of aerial photographs, and the correlation between flow metrics and cover changes were evaluated. The river exhibits considerable hydrologic variability characteristic of mountain braided rivers, with large variation in floods and other flow regime metrics. The flow regime, including flood and high flow pulses, has variable effects on floodplain invasive vegetation, and creates dynamic patch mosaics that demonstrate the concepts of a shifting mosaic steady state and biogeomorphic succession. As much as 25 % of the vegetation cover was removed by the largest flood on record (570 m3/s, ~50-year return period), with preferential removal of lupin and less removal of willow. However, most of the vegetation regenerated and spread relatively quickly after floods. Some flow metrics analyzed were highly correlated with vegetation cover, and key metrics included the peak magnitude of the largest flood, flood frequency, and time since the last flood in the interval between photos. These metrics provided a simple multiple regression model of invasive vegetation cover in the aerial photos evaluated. Our analysis of relationships among flow regimes and invasive vegetation

  18. Environmental impact of cow milk production in the central Italian Alps using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara A. Penati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze environmental impact of cow milk production in an alpine area through a cradle-to-farm-gate Life Cycle Assessment and to identify farming strategies that can improve environmental sustainability without negatively affecting profitability. Data were collected from farmers in 28 dairy farms in an Italian alpine valley. The production of 1 kg of fat protein corrected milk (FPCM needed 3.18 m2 of land; land use on-farm was high because a large part of farm land consisted of pastures in the highland, used extensively during summer. Also the use of energy from non-renewable sources was high, 5.14 MJ kg FPCM-1 on average. Diesel for production and transportation of feed purchased off-farm was mainly used, especially concentrates which were entirely purchased. The average emission of greenhouse and acidification causing gases was 1.14 kg CO2-eq and 0.021 kg SO2-eq kg FPCM-1. Eutrophication was on average 0.077 kg of nitrate-eq kg FPCM-1. Farms with low producing cows had higher environmental impact per kg of milk and lower gross margin per cow compared to the others. Low stocking rate farms had the best results regarding acidification and eutrophication per kg FPCM. Farms with high feed self-sufficiency had significantly lower acidification potential than the others. Increasing milk yield per cow, by selection and feeding, and enhancing feed self-sufficiency, by higher forage production and quality and more exploitation of highland pastures, seem to be the best strategies to improve ecological performances of dairy farms in the Alps while maintaining their profitability.

  19. From dwindling ice to headwater lakes: Could dams replace glaciers in the European Alps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinotti, Daniel; Pistocchi, Alberto; Huss, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Environments significantly influenced by the presence of seasonal snow or glaciers are hotspots regarding the impacts on water availability in response to expected climate change. With warmer temperatures, both the duration and the spatial extent of the seasonal snow cover are projected to decrease, and glaciers are expected to retreat substantially. This is anticipated to have important influences on water availability, including changes in the seasonality of runoff, as well as an overall reduction in water yields from high-mountain catchments. Here we present an estimate for the potential of mitigating projected changes in seasonal water availability from melting glaciers by managing runoff through reservoirs. We compute the water volume that, in future, is expected to be in excess during winter and spring time, and transfer it seasonally through temporary storage in order to mitigate the water deficits during summer. Projections for future runoff evolution are retrieved from the glacier evolution model GloGEM, forced with ensembles of temperature and precipitation time series derived within CIMIP5. For the European Alps we estimate that by the end of the century, about 1 km3 of water from presently glacierized surfaces could be seasonally reallocated in order to mitigate expected changes. On average, the strategy could offset up to 25 % of the changes in summer runoff from presently glacierized surfaces. A first order approach suggests, moreover, that the retention volume potentially available in the areas becoming deglacierized is in excess of the volume required for achieving the maximal possible mitigation by more than one order of magnitude. Obviously, the proposed strategy cannot compensate for the reduction in annual runoff caused by glacier ice depletion. Our estimates indicate that by 2070-2099, 0.73 ± 0.67 km3 a-1 of this non-renewable component of the water cycle could be missing in Alpine water supplies.

  20. Earthquake focal mechanisms and stress orientations in the eastern Swiss Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschall, I.; Deichmann, N. [Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Marone, F. [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    This study presents an updated set of earthquake focal mechanisms in the Helvetic and Penninic/Austroalpine domains of the eastern Swiss Alps. In eight cases, based on high-precision relative hypocentre locations of events within individual earthquake sequences, it was possible to identify the active fault plane. Whereas the focal mechanisms in the Helvetic domain are mostly strike-slip, the Penninic/Austroalpine domain is dominated by normal-faulting mechanisms. Given this systematic difference in faulting style, an inversion for the stress field was performed separately for the two regions. The stress field in the Penninic/Austroalpine domain is characterized by extension oriented obliquely to the E-W strike of the orogen. Hence, the Penninic nappes, which were emplaced as large-scale compressional structures during the Alpine orogenesis, are now deforming in an extensional mode. This contrasts with the more compressional strike-slip regime in the Helvetic domain towards the northern Alpine front. Relative to the regional stress field seen in the northern Alpine foreland with a NNW-SSE compression and an ENE-WSW extension, the orientation of the least compressive stress in the Penninic/Austroalpine domain is rotated counter-clockwise by about 40 °C. Following earlier studies, the observed rotation of the orientation of the least compressive stress in the Penninic/Austroalpine region can be explained as the superposition of the regional stress field of the northern foreland and a uniaxial extensional stress perpendicular to the local trend of the Alpine mountain belt. (authors)

  1. 3D reconstruction of complex geological bodies: Examples from the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Andrea; Francesca, Salvi; Stefano, Zanchetta; Simone, Sterlacchini; Graziano, Guerra

    2009-01-01

    Cartographic geological and structural data collected in the field and managed by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology can be used for 3D reconstruction of complex geological bodies. Using a link between GIS tools and gOcad, stratigraphic and tectonic surfaces can be reconstructed taking into account any geometrical constraint derived from field observations. Complex surfaces can be reconstructed using large data sets analysed by suitable geometrical techniques. Three main typologies of geometric features and related attributes are exported from a GIS-geodatabase: (1) topographic data as points from a digital elevation model; (2) stratigraphic and tectonic boundaries, and linear features as 2D polylines; (3) structural data as points. After having imported the available information into gOcad, the following steps should be performed: (1) construction of the topographic surface by interpolation of points; (2) 3D mapping of the linear geological boundaries and linear features by vertical projection on the reconstructed topographic surface; (3) definition of geometrical constraints from planar and linear outcrop data; (4) construction of a network of cross-sections based on field observations and geometrical constraints; (5) creation of 3D surfaces, closed volumes and grids from the constructed objects. Three examples of the reconstruction of complex geological bodies from the Italian Alps are presented here. The methodology demonstrates that although only outcrop data were available, 3D modelling has allows the checking of the geometrical consistency of the interpretative 2D sections and of the field geology, through a 3D visualisation of geometrical models. Application of a 3D geometrical model to the case studies can be very useful in geomechanical modelling for slope-stability or resource evaluation.

  2. Late Quaternary glaciation of the Upper Soca River Region (Southern Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavec, Milos; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Mahan, Shannon; Stock, Gregory M.

    2004-01-01

    Extent of Late Quaternary glaciers in the Upper Soc??a River Region (Southern Julian Alps, SE Europe) has been analyzed using a combination of geological mapping, glaciological modeling, and sediment dating (radiocarbon, U/Th series and Infrared Stimulated Luminescence-IRSL). Field investigations focused mainly on relatively well preserved Quaternary sequences in the Bovec Basin, an intramontane basin located SW of the Mediterranean/Black Sea divide and surrounded by mountain peaks reaching from approximately 2100 up to 2587 m a.s.l. Within the Basin we recognized two Late Quaternary sedimentary assemblages, which consist of the same facies association of diamictons, laminated lacustrine deposits and sorted fluvial sediments. Radiocarbon dating of the upper part of the lake sediments sequence (between 12790??85 and 5885??60 14C years b.p.) indicates that the younger sedimentary assemblage was deposited during the last glacial maximum and through early Holocene (Marine Isotope Stage 21, MIS 2-1). Sediment ages obtained for the older assemblage with U/Th and IRSL techniques (between 154.74??22.88 and 129.93??7.90 ka b.p. for selected samples) have large errors but both methods yield results consistent with deposition during the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 6-5). Based on analyses of field data combined with glaciological modeling, we argue that both sediment complexes formed due to high sediment productivity spurred by paraglacial conditions with glaciers present in the uplands around the Bovec Basin but not extending down to the basin floor. Our study shows that the extent and intensity of direct glacial sedimentation by Late Quaternary glaciers in the region was previously significantly overestimated. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Debris flow monitoring in the Acquabona watershed on the Dolomites (Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, M.; Genevois, R.; LaHusen, R.; Simoni, A.; Tecca, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 a field monitoring system was installed in Acquabona Creek in the Dolomites (Eastern Italian Alps) to observe the hydrologic conditions for debris flow occurrence and some dynamic properties of debris flow. The monitoring system consists of three remote stations: an upper one located at the head of a deeply-incised channel and two others located downstream. The system is equipped with sensors for measuring rainfall, pore pressures in the mobile channel bottom, ground vibrations, debris flow depth, total normal stress and fluid pore-pressure at the base of the flow. Two video cameras record events at the upper channel station and one video is installed at the lowermost station. During summer 1998, three debris flows (volumes from less than 1000 m3 up to 9000 m3) occurred at Acquabona. The following results were obtained from a preliminary analysis of the data: 1) All of the flows were triggered by rainfalls of less than 1 hour duration, with peak rainfall intensities ranging from 4.8 to 14.7 mm / 10 minute. 2) Debris flows initiated in several reaches of the channel, including the head of the talus slope. 3) The initial surges of the mature flows had a higher solid concentration and a lower velocity (up to 4 m/s) than succeeding, more dilute surges (more than 7 m/s). 4) Total normal stress and pore fluid pressures measured at the base of the flow (mean depth about 1.1 m) were similar (about 15 kPa), indicating a completely liquefied flow. 5) Peak flows entrained debris at a rate of about 6 m3/m of channel length and channel bed scouring was proportional to the local slope gradient and was still evident in the lower channel where the slope was 7??. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of large mass movements occurred in the Italian Alps using seismic monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Velio; De Santis, Francesca; Chiarle, Marta; Arattano, Massimo; Godio, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Passive seismic monitoring techniques have been profusely adopted to detect seismic sources induced by slope deformation and landslide propagation. Seismic signal processing can provide relevant information on the dynamics of unstable slopes, and may allow the identification of collapse precursors. Otherwise, seismic sensors have been used to characterize the volume and propagation velocity of rock-slides and debris-flows. For these purposes, geophone arrays are usually installed in specific monitoring sites. However, also a broadband seismic network can be used to identify signals originated by the detachment and movements of large masses. One advantage of using these networks would be the ability to detect remote events that might otherwise go unnoticed for weeks or months. Furthermore, even if often recorded at a distance, the spectral analysis of the low frequency content of the recorded signal may allow a preliminary characterization of the phenomenon. We selected five well known large mass movements occurred in the Italian Alps with volumes between 300.000 cubic meter (Monte Rosa rock avalanche, 2007) and 34.000.000 cubic meter (Val Pola rock avalanche, 1987). On average, seismic stations located up to 40 km far from these events were able to detect them, except for the Val Pola rock avalanche which was recorded at a distance greater than 100 km. As already observed by other authors, for these phenomena common signal characteristics include emergent onsets on all channels, slowly decaying tails and a triangular spectrogram shape. For this study we used different ground velocity sensors and considering the event magnitude, the distance source-receiver and to ensure a flat frequency response we focused on the 1-40 Hz frequency band. In this work these five large slope instabilities are described and the associated seismograms are presented and analyzed together with a first discussion of their spectral characteristics.

  5. Exploring current and projected tradeoffs between hydropower profitability and reliability of supply in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    The recent spreading of renewable energy across Europe and the associated production variability and uncertainty are emerging challenges for hydropower system operation. Widely distributed and highly intermittent solar and wind power generation systems, along with feed-in-tariffs, at which they are remunerated, are threating the operation of traditional hydropower systems. For instance, in countries where the transition to a larger production by means of renewable power systems is a novel process, e.g. Switzerland, many hydropower companies are operating their reservoirs with low or no profits, claiming for a revision of the entire energy market system. This situation goes along with the problem of ensuring energy supply both nowadays and in the future, with changing energy demand and available water resources. In this work, we focus on a hydropower system in the Swiss Alps to explore how different operating policies can cope with both adequate energy supply and profitable operation under current and future climate and socio-economic conditions. We investigate the operation of the Mattmark reservoir in South-West Switzerland. Mattmark is a pumped reservoir of 98 106 m3 fed by a natural catchment of 37 km2 and contributing catchments, summing up to 51 km2, connected by several diversion channels. The hydrological regime, snow- and ice-melt dominated, has already experienced changes in the last decades due to glacier retreat and is expected to be strongly impacted by climate change in the future. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to explore current tradeoffs between profitability and secure supply. We then investigate how tradeoffs may evolve in time under different climate change projections and energy market scenarios. Results inform on the co-evolution of climate- and socio-economic induced variations, thus unveiling potential co-benefit situations to hydropower generation and providing insights to future energy market design.

  6. Sediment transfer processes in a debris-flow dominated catchment in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdell, B. W.; Berger, C.; Schlunegger, F.

    2009-12-01

    The transfer of sediment from steep hillslopes into channels and subsequent mobilization remains a problem with implications for the development of landscapes as well as applications in natural hazards mitigation. The Illgraben catchment in the Swiss Alps is among the most active catchments in Europe, with several 100’000 cubic meters of sediment exported from the catchment (active area debris flows every year, providing an exceptional opportunity to investigate the transfer of sediment from hillslopes to the outlet of the channel at the distal end of the alluvial fan. Thirty-four debris flows or similar torrential flash flood/hyper-concentrated flows have been recorded at the debris flow observation station since the year 2000. Data are available for many flow properties including front velocity (max. 10 m/s) and front flow depth (max. 3.25 m) as well as estimates for debris flow volume (max. 85,000 cubic meters). Flow bulk density data are also available from a large force plate installation for most flows since 2004, permitting estimation of sediment export from the catchment by debris flows. The channel morphology is strongly affected by these events, and debris flows can increase their volume considerably by entraining material from the channel bed. Aerial photography of the initiation area and upper catchment (fall 2007, early summer and fall 2008; fall 2009 is planned) and photogrammetric analyses allow detection of areas of land surface elevation change (deposition or erosion). Strong hillslope channel coupling is expected, with sediment delivery to the steep torrent channels by rockfall and other mass-movement processes. The upper catchment is generally quite active, yet the main sediment source of debris flows varies from event to event In some cases it was possible to identify the movement of small landslides into torrent channels and the subsequent removal by debris flows. In other cases no landslide activity was obvious and the sediment for the

  7. Two early Holocene rock avalanches in the Bernese Alps (Rinderhorn, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grämiger, Lorenz M.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Vockenhuber, Christof; Aaron, Jordan; Hajdas, Irka; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Large rock avalanches constitute a critical process modulating the evolution of alpine landscapes; however, the relatively infrequent occurrence of these high-magnitude events makes identifying underlying process controls challenging. Here we describe two rock avalanches in the Rinderhorn area of the Bernese Alps, Switzerland, providing new mapping of rock avalanche source areas and deposits, refined volume estimates for each event, runout modeling back-analyses, and absolute age constraint from cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating. Results reveal that the Daubensee rock avalanche released ~ 4 million m3 of limestone sliding from the western crest of the Rinderhorn. Debris ran out across a Lateglacial moraine before reaching the valley bottom and spreading, leaving thin (on average 7 m) deposits across a broad area. The runout resulted in a Fahrböschung angle of 21°. Part of the deposit now lies beneath Lake Daubensee. The Klein Rinderhorn rock avalanche released ~ 37 million m3 of limestone along a dip-slope sliding plane, with a maximum runout distance of 4.3 km and estimated Fahrböschung angle of 14°. Deposits bulked to ~ 47 million m3 running up the opposing slope, with distinct hummocky morphology in the proximal area and a distal longitudinal flow ridge. These deposits were later modified and partly obscured by ice avalanches from the nearby Altels peak. Cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating revealed nearly coincident ages for both rock avalanches of 9.8 ± 0.5 ka. The large lag time between local deglaciation and failure suggests that the events were not directly triggered by deglaciation. Rather, the concurrent exposure ages, also coinciding with the nearby Kander valley rock avalanche as well as paleoseismic records from nearby lakes, strongly suggest seismic triggering.

  8. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants in shallow percolated water of the Alps Karst system (Zugspitze summit, Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Walkiria; Pandelova, Marchela; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Bernhöft, Silke; Fischer, Norbert; Antritter, Felix; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2017-02-01

    In the German Calcareous Alps at the Zugspitze, percolated water close to a permafrost bedrock in a tunnel system was monitored long-term for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD) were deployed in a temporary surface water system at the Zugspitze plateau and analysed for PCB, PAH, and OCP. The high-volume water sampling was successfully implemented and all compounds were identified in the water percolated through the Karst system. However, the percentage distribution of contaminants in the percolated water differed significantly from that found in surface waters. The highest chlorinated PCDD homologues were the predominant compounds of the PCDD/F family, whereas percentages of PCB #52 increased in percolated water. Toxic equivalent values (TEQ) of samples ranged from 2.0 to 4.2pgTEQ/m(3) and from 0.017 to 0.069pgTEQ/m(3) for PCDD/F and PCB, respectively. Low and intermediate molecular weight PAH were the prevailing compounds in the samples. Endosulfan sulfate, endrin, and cis-heptachlor epoxide were enhanced after water percolation through the Karst system in comparison with the surface waters (wet deposition). The relative enrichment on these pesticides was related to the environmental bedrock conditions and glacier melting sources. In summary, the Karst system highly influenced the fate of organic persistent pollutants generating different chemical patterns in their percolated waters than those found at the surface systems.

  10. Interroger l’innovation dans les Alpes à l’échelle locale

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    Philippe Bourdeau

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lieu d’accueil de la semaine alpine 2008, le Pays des Écrins constitue un cas emblématique de territoire de montagne confronté à un impératif de mouvement face à de multiples facteurs de crise et de recomposition endogènes et exogènes. Les questions de la créativité et de l’innovation se voient alors posées de manière structurelle, à la fois comme ressource et injonction. A partir d’une relecture de la trajectoire de ce territoire à l’échelle des vingt dernières années, ce texte examine les conditions et les dynamiques géohistoriques et géoculturelles dans lesquelles la problématique de l’innovation peut être replacée dans un contexte de développement local patrimonial et touristique.The Pays des Écrins, which hosted the 2008 Alpine Week, is an emblematic mountain region of the French Alps that has to adapt in the face of numerous endogenous and exogenous crises and changes. Questions relating to creativity and innovation are thus raised in a structural manner and can be seen both as an injunction and a means to developing resources. Based on a review of the path taken by this region over the past twenty years, this paper examines the geo-historical and geo-cultural underpinnings of innovation in a context of local heritage and tourism development.

  11. Fault roughness evolution with slip (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, A.; Spagnuolo, E.; Di Toro, G.; Nielsen, S. B.; Griffith, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    Fault surface roughness is a principal factor influencing fault and earthquake mechanics. However, little is known on roughness of fault surfaces at seismogenic depths, and particularly on how it evolves with accumulating slip. We have studied seismogenic fault surfaces of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone, which exploit precursor cooling joints of the Adamello tonalitic pluton (Italian Alps). These faults developed at 9-11 km and 250-300°C. Seismic slip along these surfaces, which individually accommodated from 1 to 20 m of net slip, resulted in the production of cm-thick cataclasites and pseudotachylytes (solidified melts produced during seismic slip). The roughness of fault surfaces was determined with a multi-resolution aerial and terrestrial LIDAR and photogrammetric dataset (Bistacchi et al., 2011, Pageoph, doi: 10.1007/s00024-011-0301-7). Fault surface roughness is self-affine, with Hurst exponent H consumed faster with slip than larger ones. However, in faults, production of cataclasites and pseudotachylytes changes the contact area of sliding surfaces by interposing a layer of wear products. This layer may preserve from wearing asperities that are smaller in amplitude than the layer thickness, thus providing a mechanism that is likely to preserve small amplitude/wavelength roughness. These processes have been considered in a new spectral model of wear, which allows to model wear for self-affine surfaces and includes the accumulation of wear products within the fault zone. This model can be used to generalize our results and contribute to reconstruct a realistic model of a seismogenic fault zone (http://roma1.rm.ingv.it/laboratori/laboratorio-hp-ht/usems-project).

  12. Mapping the value of ecosystem services: A case study from the Austrian Alps

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    Alessandro Paletto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are considered the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life. In the decision making process related to the natural resources management, two key-aspects must be taken into account: the economic value of the benefits provided by ES (provisioning, regulating and cultural services and the spatial distribution of these benefits. The purpose of the paper is to develop a method aimed to capture the economic value of the benefits provided by ES, in order to support the decision makers in the natural resources management. ES are not homogeneous across landscapes nor in space. Consequently, gaining knowledge on the spatial distribution of the economic relevance of ES is a fundamental information to target management actions. This method was tested in a case study in the Austrian Alps (Leiblachtal area in Vorarlberg region, characterized by a high importance of forests and grasslands. The results show that the highest economic values could be achieved for the provisioning services with a range between 200 €/ha year and 1,400€/ha year. The regulating services have also important economic values, but strongly localized in specific areas (i.e. protective forests against natural hazards. The economic values of the cultural services are influenced by the preferences of tourists and varies between 5 €/ha year to 60 €/ha year. The method allowed us to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, depending on the ecological characteristics of the site.

  13. Glacier response in the European Alps to Heinrich Event 1 cooling: the Gschnitz stadial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kerschner, Hanns; Kubik, Peter W.; Schlüchter, Christian

    2006-02-01

    The Gschnitz stadial was a period of regionally extensive glacier advance in the European Alps that lies temporally between the breakdown of the Last Glacial Maximum piedmont lobes and the beginning of the Bølling warm interval. Moraines of the Gschnitz stadial are found in medium to small catchments, are steep-walled and blocky, and reflect a snowline lowering of 650-700 m in comparison to the Little Ice Age reference snowline. 10Be surface exposure dating of boulders from the moraine at the type locality at Trins (Gschnitz valley, Tyrol, Austria) shows that it stabilised no later than 15 400 +/- 1400 yr ago. The overall morphological situation and the long reaction time of the glacier suggest that the climatic downturn lasted about 500 +/- 300 yr, indicating that the Gschnitz cold period began approximately 15 900 +/- 1400 yr ago, if not somewhat earlier. This is consistent with published radiocarbon dates that imply that the stadial occurred sometime between 15 400 14C yr BP (18 020-19 100 cal. yr) and 13250 14Cyr BP (15360-16015cal.yr). A palaeoclimatic interpretation of the Gschnitz glacier based on a simple glacier flow model and statistical glacier-climate models shows that precipitation was about one-third of modern-day precipitation and summer temperatures were about 10K lower than today. In comparison, during the Younger Dryas, precipitation in this area was only about 10% less and Ts (summer temperature) was only 3.5-4K lower than modern values. Based on the age of the moraine and the cold and dry climate at that time, we suggest that the Gschnitz stadial was the response of Alpine glaciers to cooling of the North Atlantic Ocean associated with Heinrich Event 1.

  14. SUSTAINABLE SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE COUNTRYSIDE – SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN THE SLOVENIAN ALPS

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    Gašper Mrak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available he paper aims to show the idea of intertwining of various existing accommodation entities within space, originating in the past and standing for an apparent novelty in modern times. In recent years, under the influence of globalisation, with social and demographic change, the needs and wishes of inhabitants and visitors of the Alpine Space have been changing unpredictably. We need to offer new forms of spending leisure time and adapt to the constantly changing demands. The traditional organization of settlement structure in rural space is being abandoned and adapted to a new way of living, different settlement patterns, social and demographic shift etc. These new interventions are in a different relationship with nature than they were in the past. New forms of leisure activities have been implemented, such as alternative, green, rural tourism etc. More and more the concept of sustainable, more ethical and responsible spatial interventions is prevailing, which does not only include the issues of preserving the environment but cultural, economic and political ones as well.The key issues in studying the development of settlement in the Slovenian Alps were: How to enable the coexistence of traditional settlement patterns in the untouched protected landscape? How to ensure the coexistence of traditional rural architecture and modern architecture intended for a larger number of visitors? And how can these elements be connected in the »story about attractiveness«? In the area of the Alpine Space, the diversity of dispersed settlement patterns is important for further development of sustainability-oriented housing and human settlement while offering different and diverse leisure activities.

  15. Boundary layer dynamics in a small shallow valley near the Alps (ScaleX campaign)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Matthias; Adler, Bianca; Banerjee, Tirtha; Brugger, Peter; De Roo, Frederik; Emeis, Stefan; Matthias, Mauder; Schäfer, Klaus; Wolf, Benjamin; Schmid, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Mountainous terrain presents a challenge for the experimental determination of exchange processes. The Alps modulate synoptic flow and introduce circulation systems that reach into the forelands. In addition, the Prealpine landscape is heterogeneous itself, dominated by patches of forestry on the slopes and agriculture on flat areas. That combined complexity is manifest in atmospheric circulations at multiple scales. We investigated the diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer with focus on the connection between surface exchange processes and atmospheric circulations at the regional to local scale. The experiment is part of an ongoing, multi-disciplinary study on scale dependencies in the distribution of energy and matter (ScaleX) at the TERENO Prealpine observatory in Germany. We observed vertical profiles of wind speed and air temperature up to 1000 m above ground during June and July 2015 in a small shallow Prealpine valley in Bavaria, Germany. Wind vectors and temperature were observed using ground-based optical, acoustic and radiometric remote sensing techniques. Spatial patterns in wind speed and direction were determined using eddy covariance systems, 3D Doppler LIDAR and acoustic sounding (RASS). Three Doppler LIDAR units were configured to form a virtual tower at the beam intersect. Temperature profiles were observed using radio-acoustic sounding (RASS) and a microwave radiometer (HATPRO). The temporal and spatial resolutions of the resulting vertical profiles were between 1-15 min and between 3-100 m, respectively. The observed variability in wind vectors and stability shows evidence of the link between flow phenomena at micro- to mesoscale and local biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes. We present first results and discuss the predictability of the impact of local and regional (alpine) landscape features on flow and structures in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  16. Fire severity, residuals and soil legacies affect regeneration of Scots pine in the Southern Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchiano, Giorgio; Stanchi, Silvia; Marinari, Giulia; Ascoli, Davide; Zanini, Ermanno; Motta, Renzo

    2014-02-15

    Regeneration of non fire-adapted conifers following crown fires on the European Alps is often delayed or unsuccessful. Fire may limit establishment by eliminating seed trees, altering soil properties, or modifying microsite and soil conditions via disturbance legacies. However, the effect of soil legacies on post-fire establishment has rarely been discussed. We analyzed the abundance of Scots pine regeneration in a 257 ha wildfire in an inner-alpine forest. Our aims were (1) to model fire intensity at the soil surface and topsoil heating along a gradient of increasing fire severities; (2) to assess the differences in soil properties along the fire severity gradient; (3) to model the effect of disturbance and soil legacies on the density of pine seedlings. We reconstructed fire behavior and soil heating with the First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM), tested the effect of fire severity on soils by nonparametric distributional tests, and modeled seedling density as a function of site, disturbance and soil legacies by fitting a GLM following a variable selection procedure. Topsoil heating differed markedly between the moderate and high severity fires, reaching temperatures high enough to strongly and permanently alter soil properties only in the latter. High fire severity resulted in decreased soil consistency and wet aggregate stability. Burned soils had lower organic matter and cations than those unburned. Pine seedlings favored low-fertility, eroded, and chemically poor sites. Establishment was facilitated by the presence of coarse woody debris, but hampered by increasing distance from the seed source. These results suggest that in dry, inner-alpine valleys, fire residuals and soil legacies interact in determining the success of Scots pine re-establishment. High severity fire can promote favorable soil conditions, but distance from the seed source and high evaporation rates of bare soils must be mitigated in order to ensure a successful restoration.

  17. Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

    2012-04-01

    Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches

  18. Congruencies between photoautotrophic groups in springs of the Italian Alps: implications for conservation strategies

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    Marco CANTONATI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though a number of studies have demonstrated the importance of photoautotrophic organisms in spring habitats, investigations that consider several photoautotrophic taxonomic groups are lacking. Within the framework of a multidisciplinary project on springs of the south-eastern Alps, we studied algae, diatoms, lichens, and bryophytes and (1 compared the alpha, beta and gamma diversity, and the composition of the studied groups between carbonate and siliceous springs, (2 estimated the nonrandomness of species combinations within organismal groups, and (3 examined the congruence in species assemblage patterns across taxonomic groups. In 40 springs, 69 species of algae, 110 species of diatoms, 29 species of lichens, and 62 species of bryophytes were found. Diatoms, lichens and bryophytes had higher species-richness in siliceous springs, while other algae had higher richness in carbonate springs. For all taxonomic groups, carbonate and siliceous springs host different assemblages, indicating that both types of substrata contribute to the overall regional diversity of spring photoautotrophs. In individual springs, the photoautotroph groups are characterised by a similar proportion of species of their regional pool, and form relatively speciespoor communities with a high turnover of species among springs. This pattern has important implications for conservation, suggesting that the protection of single sites might not be effective, and that a biodiversity conservation plan for spring habitats should be developed at the regional level, and include a network of sites. Interestingly, the co-occurrence indices suggested that, in individual springs, stochastic processes might the most important mechanisms in the establishment of local assemblages. A weak cross-taxon congruency was found, suggesting that a single taxon surrogate will not adequately represent other photoautotrophic groups. Therefore, spring conservation plans for photoautotrophs should

  19. Phytosociological and ecological study of springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy

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    Alessandro PETRAGLIA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A phytosociological survey of the crenic vegetation was made in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, combining the field method of the Braun-Blanquet approach with a numerical syntaxonomical analysis. A set of 139 phytosociological relevés, including vascular plants and bryophytes, were classified using cluster analysis. The vegetation types were assigned to 7 different phytosociological classes: Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae, Montio-Cardaminetea, Adiantetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae, Molinio- Arrhenatheretea, Galio-Urticetea, Mulgedio-Aconitetea. The classes Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae and Montio- Cardaminetea represent the core of crenic vegetation, including permanently or intermittently submerged plant communities, mostly made up of bryophytes, or non-submerged communities dominated by bryophytes or vascular plants. The other classes include chasmophytic bryophyte-rich communities and hygrophilous or tall herb communities lying around the periphery of the springs. 23 vegetation types were identified and, whenever possible, classified at the association level, or as phytocoena. The environmental parameters showed different ranges among vegetation types. A number of environmental variables were recorded during the vegetation survey, including altitude, shading, discharge, flow velocity, with exhaustive hydrochemical sampling. Conductivity, alkalinity and pH showed similar distribution patterns, clearly separating the vegetation types into two distinct groups, differing in the nature of the substratum. The altitudinal range was very broad and shading was also very variable. Nitrate and phosphate levels showed that the majority of vegetation types were irrigated by oligotrophic crenic waters. Finally, the bryophyte-dominated vegetation types belonging to the class Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae occurred in springs with the highest discharge values and variation. Discriminant analysis confirmed that the

  20. Extreme rainfall and debris flows from an orographic thunderstorm in the Eastern Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Marra, Francesco; Penna, Daniele; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.

    2013-04-01

    The upper Adige river basin, in Northern Italy, occupy a distinctive hydrometeorological niche, characterised by high frequency of orographic thunderstorms. Relatively small-extent flash floods and debris flows are triggered by these storm events. The hydrometeorological and hydrological controls of these events are examined through analyses of a storm system occurred on August 1, 2005 on the Rio Gola river basin (6.59 km2, Eastern Italian Alps, Adige river basin). The intense orographic convective system produced locally extreme rainfall peaks in 1.5 hours. The storm concentrated on small, rocky and steeply sloping basin where concentrated overland flow feeds ephemeral channels incised in slope deposits. Despite the short duration of the event the storm triggered an unusually large debris flow, with a volume of about 100,000 m3, producing significant geomorphological impacts and abrupt changes in the extent of incision and channel widening. Hydrometeorological analyses of the storm are based on radar reflectivity observations, raingauge and streamgauge data. The orographic organization of the precipitation system is examined by means of the hypsometric rainfall moments. Detailed geomorphological field surveys, rainfall estimates from radar observations, and the application of a distributed hydrological model in comparison with observed discharge, served as the basis to evaluate erosion processes and quantify the water runoff production at the initiation debris flow area. The hydrological analysis is used to evaluate the consistency among the different observations and to identify the critical factors controlling the debris flow triggering. The hydrological analysis shows that the critical factor is storm concentration on rocky and steeply surfaces and formation of concentrated surface flow at the bottom of channels filled by coarse loose debris.

  1. The enigma of the Australian Alps, young landscapes and missing cryogenic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Adrian; Shulmeister, James; Clark, Doug

    2014-05-01

    Widespread evidence for pre last glacial cycle glaciation of late Quaternary ages has been documented from mid-latitude southern hemisphere mountain environments in New Zealand, southern South America and the Tasmanian Highlands. On mainland Australia however cirque and small valley glaciation in the Australian Alps is limited to OIS 4-3 and the last glacial maximum (OIS 2) (Barrows et al. 2001). This contrasts with the other southern hemisphere glacial records that indicate significantly more extensive glaciations preceding the last glacial cycle. In both the Southern Andes and Tasmania the maximum glaciations occurred prior to 783 kya (Glasser et al. 2008, Colhoun et al. 2010) while in tectonically active New Zealand it is at least clear that the scale of glaciation has been diminishing over the last 3 glacial cycles (Shulmeister et al. 2010). In all these locations early workers argued for extensive ice coverage, but subsequent investigations limited the extent and number of glacial advances before more recent work has locally re-extended the glacial limits and greatly increased the number of glacial advances. Similarly, in the highlands of SE Australia the possibility of more pervasive ice coverage was initially entertained; but since the 1960s and especially the 1980s the general consensus is that the lack of glacial evidence is a result of cold dry conditions prevailing for much of the Quaternary on the Australian Alps (Reeves et al. 2013) Recent work by the authors on the extent of relict periglacial block deposits in Australia have identified these block deposits as far north as 29°30'S on the Great Dividing Range, confirming strong freeze-thaw conditions well into the sub-tropics at moderate (900-1200 m) elevations. Curiously, however, the same mapping work has also highlighted the limited development of block deposits and other freeze-thaw landforms, such as tors, in the highest regions of the Australian Alps, in areas beyond the known limits of

  2. Attitudes of livestock farmers and sensitivity of livestock farming systems to drought conditions in the French Alps

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    Laurent Dobremez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock farming systems in the French Alps are particularly exposed to the predicted climate change and most of them have already experienced periods of drought since the beginning of the 2000s. Faced with this risk, livestock farmers have put in place a certain number of measures and envisage introducing others in the future. For the present study, surveys were conducted among livestock farmers to identify these measures and analyses were carried out to characterise the attitudes of livestock farmers to drought conditions and to evaluate changes in the sensitivity of their livestock farming systems. With the exception of those farms with extensive irrigated areas, all the farms are seeking solutions to deal with the risks arising from droughts. One solution is to purchase fodder to compensate for the decrease in the harvests that normally provide animal feed in the winter; the amounts purchased vary with the length of wintering required. For the grazing periods, the high mountain livestock breeders and the dairy systems of the Northern Alps rely above all on extending and over-sizing the pasture areas in relation to the needs of the herds. The livestock farms of the Southern Alps also rely on the diversity of vegetation areas and a certain flexibility in the practices used to adapt to conditions experienced during the year. A succession of dry years could result in more radical breakdowns in the livestock systems. It should also be remembered that climate change is only one of the factors influencing the types of changes taking place on farms.Les systèmes d'élevage des Alpes françaises sont fortement exposés au changement climatique annoncé et la plupart subissent déjà des épisodes de sécheresse depuis le début des années 2000. Face à ces aléas, les éleveurs ont mis en œuvre un certain nombre de leviers et envisagent d'en activer d'autres à l'avenir. Des enquêtes en exploitation ont permis d’identifier ces leviers. Leur

  3. Statistical adaptation of ALADIN RCM outputs over the French Alps – application to future climate and snow cover

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    M. Rousselot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, snowpack scenarios are modelled across the French Alps using dynamically downscaled variables from the ALADIN Regional Climate Model (RCM for the control period (1961–1990 and three emission scenarios (SRES B1, A1B and A2 for the mid- and late 21st century (2021–2050 and 2071–2100. These variables are statistically adapted to the different elevations, aspects and slopes of the Alpine massifs. For this purpose, we use a simple analogue criterion with ERA40 series as well as an existing detailed climatology of the French Alps (Durand et al., 2009a that provides complete meteorological fields from the SAFRAN analysis model. The resulting scenarios of precipitation, temperature, wind, cloudiness, longwave and shortwave radiation, and humidity are used to run the physical snow model CROCUS and simulate snowpack evolution over the massifs studied. The seasonal and regional characteristics of the simulated climate and snow cover changes are explored, as is the influence of the scenarios on these changes. Preliminary results suggest that the snow water equivalent (SWE of the snowpack will decrease dramatically in the next century, especially in the Southern and Extreme Southern parts of the Alps. This decrease seems to result primarily from a general warming throughout the year, and possibly a deficit of precipitation in the autumn. The magnitude of the snow cover decline follows a marked altitudinal gradient, with the highest altitudes being less exposed to climate change. Scenario A2, with its high concentrations of greenhouse gases, results in a SWE reduction roughly twice as large as in the low-emission scenario B1 by the end of the century. This study needs to be completed using simulations from other RCMs, since a multi-model approach is essential for uncertainty analysis.

  4. Coseismic landsliding estimates for an Alpine Fault earthquake and the consequences for erosion of the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. R.; Davies, T. R. H.; Wilson, T. M.; Orchiston, C.

    2016-06-01

    Landsliding resulting from large earthquakes in mountainous terrain presents a substantial hazard and plays an important role in the evolution of mountain ranges. However estimating the scale and effect of landsliding from an individual earthquake prior to its occurrence is difficult. This study presents first order estimates of the scale and effects of coseismic landsliding resulting from a plate boundary earthquake in the South Island of New Zealand. We model an Mw 8.0 earthquake on the Alpine Fault, which has produced large (M 7.8-8.2) earthquakes every 329 ± 68 years over the last 8 ka, with the last earthquake ~ 300 years ago. We suggest that such an earthquake could produce ~ 50,000 ± 20,000 landslides at average densities of 2-9 landslides km- 2 in the area of most intense landsliding. Between 50% and 90% are expected to occur in a 7000 km2 zone between the fault and the main divide of the Southern Alps. Total landslide volume is estimated to be 0.81 + 0.87/- 0.55 km3. In major northern and southern river catchments, total landslide volume is equivalent to up to a century of present-day aseismic denudation measured from suspended sediment yields. This suggests that earthquakes occurring at century-timescales are a major driver of erosion in these regions. In the central Southern Alps, coseismic denudation is equivalent to less than a decade of aseismic denudation, suggesting precipitation and uplift dominate denudation processes. Nevertheless, the estimated scale of coseismic landsliding is considered to be a substantial hazard throughout the entire Southern Alps and is likely to present a substantial issue for post-earthquake response and recovery.

  5. Statistical adaptation of ALADIN RCM outputs over the French Alps - application to future climate and snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselot, M.; Durand, Y.; Giraud, G.; Mérindol, L.; Dombrowski-Etchevers, I.; Déqué, M.; Castebrunet, H.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, snowpack scenarios are modelled across the French Alps using dynamically downscaled variables from the ALADIN Regional Climate Model (RCM) for the control period (1961-1990) and three emission scenarios (SRES B1, A1B and A2) for the mid- and late 21st century (2021-2050 and 2071-2100). These variables are statistically adapted to the different elevations, aspects and slopes of the Alpine massifs. For this purpose, we use a simple analogue criterion with ERA40 series as well as an existing detailed climatology of the French Alps (Durand et al., 2009a) that provides complete meteorological fields from the SAFRAN analysis model. The resulting scenarios of precipitation, temperature, wind, cloudiness, longwave and shortwave radiation, and humidity are used to run the physical snow model CROCUS and simulate snowpack evolution over the massifs studied. The seasonal and regional characteristics of the simulated climate and snow cover changes are explored, as is the influence of the scenarios on these changes. Preliminary results suggest that the snow water equivalent (SWE) of the snowpack will decrease dramatically in the next century, especially in the Southern and Extreme Southern parts of the Alps. This decrease seems to result primarily from a general warming throughout the year, and possibly a deficit of precipitation in the autumn. The magnitude of the snow cover decline follows a marked altitudinal gradient, with the highest altitudes being less exposed to climate change. Scenario A2, with its high concentrations of greenhouse gases, results in a SWE reduction roughly twice as large as in the low-emission scenario B1 by the end of the century. This study needs to be completed using simulations from other RCMs, since a multi-model approach is essential for uncertainty analysis.

  6. Constraints on Alpine hydrothermal activity and deformation from U-Th-Pb dating of cleft monazite and xenotime (Western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand'Homme, Alexis; Janots, Emilie; Bosse, Valerie; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; De Ascencao, Roger

    2016-04-01

    In this large-scale regional study, age of hydrothermal monazite (and xenotime) precipitation has been investigated through in-situ U-Th-Pb dating of crystals collected in 11 clefts (veins) taken in the internal and external massifs (Western Alps). The investigated clefts are composed of quartz, chlorite (± epidote), albite and millimetric accessory minerals (monazite, apatite, xenotime, anatase, rutile). Prior to dating, cleft monazite composition was thoroughly studied to reveal potential zoning. In-situ dating through different compositional domains of single monazite crystal yields well-resolved Th-Pb ages (typically with 0.1-0.3 Ma resolution) indicating for growth episodes with short duration. Comparison of U-Pb and Th-Pb dating indicates that the U-Pb systematics appears successful to date cleft monazite with low Th/U ratio (typically hand, monazite dating in the Argentera (20.6 ± 0.3 Ma) confirms for the regional diachronism observed from South to the North of the ECM in the Western Alps. First ages were here obtained for the hydrothermal activity of the internal massifs of the Western Alps. As expected from other (thermo)chronometers, hydrothermal activity in the Internal Alpine domains (Briançonnais) is older than in the ECM. In the Briançonnais zone, monazite age at 32.1 ± 0.2 Ma coincides with the exhumation along the penninic front. In the second cleft, monazite age at 23.3 ± 0.2 Ma is more complex to attribute to a specific deformation stage.

  7. La justice pénale dans les Alpes-Maritimes et les avorteurs (1939-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadh Ben Khalifa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’intensification de la propagande nataliste établissant un lien étroit entre l’avortement et la dénatalité conduit, en juillet 1939, au durcissement de la législation concernant la répression des pratiques abortives. Le régime de Vichy renforce le Code de la famille par des mesures encore plus sévères. En vertu de la loi du 15 février 1942, les « individus qui procurent ou tentent de procurer l’avortement sur une femme enceinte » sont passibles d’être déférés devant le tribunal d’État. Cependant, une étude localisée de la répression des avorteurs par la justice pénale dans les Alpes-Maritimes permet de constater un véritable décalage entre l’idéologie officielle qui appelle à une sanction exemplaire, et des pratiques judiciaires qui paraissent relativement indulgentes. Entre 1941 et 1944, les peines maximales n’ont pas été infligées aux avorteurs par la justice correctionnelle des Alpes-Maritimes : la question du recours à la justice d’exception ne s’est donc pas posée.The development of natalist propaganda, establishing a close link between abortion and the fall in the birthrate, led to stricter legislation concerning the repression of abortion practices in July 1939. The Vichy regime hardened the Family Code through even more repressive measures. In pursuance of the Act of February 15, 1942, "persons who procure or try to procure an abortion on a pregnant woman are liable to be submitted to the State Court". A local study of abortionists’ repression by the Criminal Court of the Alpes-Maritimes, shows there was a gap between official ideology and judicial practices: the first called for exemplary punishment, whereas the second was relatively lenient. Between 1941 and 1944, the Magistrate’s Court of the Alpes-Maritimes did not impose the maximum penalties on abortionists; the use of emergency laws did not arise.

  8. Estimating the age of rock glaciers from weathering rind thickness in the yari-hotaka mountain range, northern japanese alps

    OpenAIRE

    AOYAMA, Masafumi

    2001-01-01

    Formative periods of rock glaciers distributed in the Yari-Hotaka Mountain Range, northern Japanese Alps, were estimated from weathering rind thickness. The results suggest that the age of rock glaciers in the Minamisawa-Kita cirque and the most headward of the Tenguppara cirque is between the age of Early Yarisawa Stage II moraines and the Late Yarisawa Stage II moraines, and the age of rock glaciers in the northern part of the Tenguppara cirque and Ohkiretto cirque is same or younger than t...

  9. 20th century global warming favoured enhanced intensity of extreme torrential events - a proglacial sediment record in NW French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Legaz, A.; Allignol, F.; Enters, D.; Revillon, S.

    2009-04-01

    During the past few yeas, considerable climate changes have been observed at high elevation areas of the European Alps. Additionally, one of the main results of high resolution climate modelling is a trend towards both dryer summer conditions and enhanced risk of extreme floods. This should have particularly dramatic consequences in alpine areas. Indeed, the development of tourism during the 20th century in the Alps and the rise of population density resulted in an increasing potential risk from natural hazards. Among them, torrential floods are some of the most common and widespread ones. They cause both loss of human life and high damage to property and infrastructure and are particularly destructive in mountain areas. For example, in August 2005, an unusual meteorological situation resulted in a series of catastrophic floods in most regions of the European Alps and particularly in the catchment of the Vorz river, downstream of proglacial Lac Blanc (2170 m a.s.l., Belledonne range, NW French Alps). We studied a series of sediment cores from Lac Blanc, spanning the last ca. 250 years. Through a coupled high resolution sedimentological and geochemical approach we documented about 100 flood deposits and measured their thickness. The age of each deposit has been assessed by radiochemical dating and the recognition of historically-known events - major earthquakes and historical atmospheric lead deposition. Furthermore, a detailed study of regional and local historical archives was conducted allowing us to relate the recognised flood deposits to the ones reported by local population. We hence obtained a flood calendar from 1740 to 2005 with the respective intensity of each event assessed by the thickness of the associated deposit. The flood frequency shows an important and punctual increase at the early end of the Little Ice Age (1830 - 1860) as a response to the beginning warming period, which was emphasized by the synchronous local glacier retreat. On the other hand

  10. A regional analysis of elements at risk exposed to mountain hazards in the Eastern European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to quantify the number and value of buildings exposed to torrents and snow avalanches in the Austrian Alps, as well as the number of exposed people. Based on a unique population and building register dataset, a relational SQL database was developed that allows in combination with GIS data a rule-based nation-wide automated analysis. Furthermore, possibilities and challenges are discussed with respect to the use of such data in vulnerability assessment and with respect to resilience measures. We comprehensively address the challenge of data accuracy, scale and uncertainties. From the total of approximately 2.4 million buildings with a clearly attributable geographical location, around 120,000 are exposed to torrent processes (5 %) and snow avalanches (0.4 %); exposition was defined here as located within the digitally available hazard maps of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control Service. Around 5 % of the population (360,000 out of 8.5 million inhabitants), based on those people being compulsory listed in the population register, are located in these areas. The analysis according to the building category resulted in 2.05 million residential buildings in Austria (85 %), 93,000 of which (4.5 %) are exposed to these hazards. In contrast, 37,300 buildings (1.6 %) throughout the country belong to the category of accommodation facilities, 5,600 of which are exposed (15 %). Out of the 140,500 commercial buildings, 8,000 (5 %) are exposed. A considerable spatial variation was detectable within the communities and Federal States. In general, an above-average exposition of buildings to torrent process and snow avalanches was detectable in communities located in the Federal State of Salzburg, Styria and Vorarlberg (torrents), and Tyrol and Vorarlberg (snow avalanches). In the alpine part of Austria, the share of exposed accommodation buildings was two times (Salzburg) and three times (Vorarlberg) higher than the regional average of exposed buildings

  11. Low altitude aerial photogrammetry application to braided river systems. Example of the Buech River, Alps, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules Fleury, Thomas; Pothin, Virginie; Vella, Claude; Dussouillez, Philippe; Izem, Abdelkoddouss

    2015-04-01

    Low-altitude aerial photogrammetry offers new opportunities for geomorphology and other fields requiring very high-resolution topographic data. It combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS topographic surveys with the high accuracy of LIDAR, but at relatively low-cost, easy-to-deploy and with the synaptic advantage of remote sensing. In order to evaluate the potential of photogrammetry on river systems and to assess river-bed changes and erosion-accretion processes, we conducted several surveys over the period of one year on the Buech river, a gravel-bed braided river located in the French Southern Alps. The study area is located directly upstream of a gravel pit and there is an interest in evaluating its effects on the riverbed. Our field protocol was comprised of vertical aerial photographs taken from a microlight aircraft flying approximately 300 ft above the ground. The equipment used was a full-frame DSLR with a wide angle lense, synchronised with a DGPS onboard. Fourty 40cm wide targets were placed on the ground and georeferenced by RTK DGPS with an accuracy of 2cm. In addition, close to one thousand Ground Control Points (GCPs) were measured within the different types of ground surfaces (vegetated, water, gravels) in order to assess the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) accuracy. We operated the production of the 3D model and its derived products: Digital Surface Model (DSM) and orthophotography, with user-friendly Agisoft (c) Photoscan Professional software. The processing of several hundred pictures with 2.5 cm ground resolution resulted in a DSM with a resolution of 10 cm and a vertical accuracy within 5 cm. As is expected, accuracy was best on bare bars and decreased with increasing vegetation density. To complement the DSM in the wetted channels, we used the orthophotos to establish a relationship between water color and flow depth using statistical multivariate regressions. Merging the bathymetric model and the DSM produced a DTM with a vertical

  12. Rock slope response to fluvial incision in the central Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Fox, Matthew; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2016-04-01

    The longitudinal profile of rivers intersecting the Rhone Valley in the central Swiss Alps suggests the development of topography throughout much of this region has been dominated by interglacial fluvial incision and ongoing tectonic uplift with only minimal glacial erosion since the mid-Pleistocene transition. Evidence indicates bedrock river incision during this period reflects a base level fall of between 500 m and 800 m (depending on the degree of overdeepening following an early period of enhanced glacial incision). This observation raises important questions regarding the preservation, or development of hillslope morphologies through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Since the pioneering works of Richter (1900) and Penck and Brückner (1909), Alpine geomorphologists have commented on a sequence of between three and five moderately dipping matched terraces that converge toward inferred paleo-river channels up to 800 m above the axis of many valleys. Here, we use a combination of integral analysis, forward streampower models, and a new method of topographic analysis based on high resolution LiDAR DEMs in order to test the correspondence of valley morphologies in this formerly glaciated landscape, with hillslope processes initiated by fluvial incision up to 700,000 years ago. Results indicate topography adjacent to reaches subjected to transient fluvial incision is characterized by a coherent region of consistently steep slopes, while narrow gorges correspond to rapid incision close to the Rhone valley since MIS 5. A majority of hillslopes converge to our initial fluvial valley floor, or the location of propagating knickpoints. The correspondence between intermediate-level terraces and modeled stages of river incision is, however, currently unclear. These results offer a unique insight into the long-term response of bedrock slopes to varying rates of base level fall, and the cumulative impact of glacial erosion on Alpine valley walls since MIS 11. Penck, A

  13. Rapid rates of soil production in the western Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, I. J.; Almond, P. C.; Eger, A.; Stone, J. O.; Malcolm, B.; Montgomery, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying rates of soil production is necessary for determining the relative magnitude of the processes that drive the evolution of mountain topography and for assessing proposed links among tectonic uplift, erosion, weathering, and global biogeochemical cycles. However, little is known about the role soil production plays in the denudation of rapidly uplifting mountains. We addressed this problem by sampling soil and river sediment from five catchments in the rapidly uplifting and high rainfall portion of the western Southern Alps, New Zealand. Soils were sampled from ridgetops with subalpine forest and dense alpine shrubland vegetation. Results from 11 measurements of in situ-produced 10Be in soils from three catchments show that rock is rapidly converted to soil, with the highest measured rate approaching 2 mm yr-1. Soil production rates at two of the ridgetops decline exponentially as soil depth increases, consistent with previously proposed soil production functions. The third site exhibits an ambiguous soil production rate-depth relationship. The y-intercepts, or maximum predicted soil production rate where the soil depth is equal to zero, at the sites with well-defined soil production functions are 7-9 times greater than those in other tectonically-active mountains and 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than values from drier and more tectonically-quiescent landscapes, indicating that rock can be converted to soil at substantially higher rates than previously recognized. The maximum predicted soil production rate values are 1.5 to 2.5 times lower than watershed-scale denudation rates inferred from in situ 10Be concentrations in stream sediment, indicating that soil production rates approach, but do not reach catchment-averaged values, which also reflect denudation by bedrock landslides. Ongoing work on additional samples will lead to a refinement of the soil production functions and provide rates for two additional sites. In-progress measurement of zirconium

  14. Snow covers detection using terrestrial photography. Application to a mountain catchment in Alps region (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Thierry; Saulnier, Georges-Marie; Malet, Emmanuel

    2010-05-01

    In August 2005, a significant mudflow leaded to major impacts damages at the Sainte-Agnes village located downstream the Vorz torrent (35 km2, elevations ranging from 1248m and 2977m, Alps region, France). To meet the demand of populations and civil authorities a research program was launched to both monitor and model these regions to help to quantify water resources and vulnerability to such hazardous events, including their probable evolutions do to climatic changes. This communication focuses on one of the several forcing variables of the water cycle in mountainous regions: the snow covering. Indeed, its controls a significant part of the future available water resources and may strongly interact with liquid precipitations during snow melting season. Usual sensors such as remote sensing cannot easily quantify accurately the snow covering for small mountainous catchment at hydrological models spatial and temporal resolutions (typically Dx fog, clouds, etc.) taking into account for the very various luminosity and cloud covers conditions. To make the 2D to 3D conversion, the camera referential needs to be replaced in the catchment referential by geometrical transformations. This operation is automatically realized by automatic recognition of geo referenced ground points (particular DTM points) within the camera pictures and resolution of a matrix system. Solving this inverse matrix problem raises numerous mathematical difficulties that will be discussed in the presentation. When successfully solved, every picture pixel can then be dropped on the DTM taking into account classical problems such as hidden faces. The automatically detection of the snow pixels in each picture is then achieved. The recurrent problem is the changing of luminosity and cloud cover of the catchment. It is often very difficult to distinguish between white clouds and snow within the picture by automatic algorithm. Difficulties also arise when shading effects fade colours of the compressed

  15. Talus slope development: an integrated concept based on the Eastern Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D.; Ostermann, M.

    2009-04-01

    Talus slopes are deposystems that accumulate in onlap onto the area of sediment provenance, that is, rock cliffs. 'Talus slope - rock cliff ensembles' are subject to strong internal feedback due to the direct interplay of slope accumulation with cliff degradation. Our field observations in numerous Quaternary talus-slope successions indicate an overall predictable relation between talus slope maturity, depositional geometry, and sedimentary facies: After exposure of rock cliffs by deglaciation or rocksliding, a low-dipping immature talus (dominated by debris flows and/or by rockfalls) or a rock glacier initially accumulates. Upon progressive aggradation and steepening of the proximal slope segment, prevalent processes of deposition change to grain flows and 'sorted rockfalls' in the steep-dipping (30-35°) proximal slope segment, while deposits of debris flows, ephemeral fluid flows, and rare large rockfalls prevail on the distal, lower-dipping slope segment. In successions of mature talus slopes, the proximal slope package overlies the lower-dipping, distal slope deposits along a narrow 'downlap interval'. The downlap interval is characterized by a marked upslope steepening of bedding surfaces over a short vertical and lateral distance. Immediately after cliff exposure by deglaciation or rocksliding, talus can aggrade at rates of up to a few tens of meters per 1000 years; initially high accumulation rates, however, decrease rapidly with buildup of slope and consequent burial of the rock cliff. On present carbonate-lithic talus slopes of the Eastern Alps the prevalent processes of sediment transport, final deposition, and deposit overprint in many cases change over lateral distances of a few tens to a few hundreds of meters; this gives rise to different types of talus slopes. Whereas glacial-interglacial cycles determine presence/absence of talus, as well as the altitude range of effective talus formation, minor climatic changes thus are hardly to read clearly from

  16. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (Lepus timidus in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (Lepus timidus. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (Lepus timidus nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (Lepus timidus sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'home range è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli home range (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell home range non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (core area ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  17. CODA-DERIVED SOURCE SPECTRA, MOMENT MAGNITUDES, AND ENERGY-MOMENT SCALING IN THE WESTERN ALPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Walter, W

    2004-02-03

    A stable estimate of the earthquake source spectra in the western Alps is obtained using an empirical method based on coda envelope amplitude measurements described by Mayeda et al. (2003) for events ranging between M{sub W} {approx} 1.0 to {approx}5.0. We calibrated path corrections for consecutive narrow frequency bands ranging between 0.2 and 25.0-Hz using a simple 1-D model for 5 three-component stations of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The 1-D assumption performs well, even though the region is characterized by a complex structural setting involving strong lateral variations in the Moho depth. For frequencies less than 1.0-Hz, we tied our dimensionless, distance-corrected coda amplitudes to an absolute scale in units of dyne-cm by using independent moment magnitudes from long-period waveform modeling for 3 moderate magnitude events in the region. For the higher frequencies, we used small events as empirical Green's functions, with corner frequencies above 25.0-Hz. For each station, the procedure yields frequency-dependent corrections that account for site effects, including those related to f{sub max}, as well as those related to S-to-coda transfer function effects. After the calibration was completed, the corrections were applied to the entire data-set composed of 957 events. Our findings using the coda-derived source spectra are summarized as follows: (1) We derived stable estimates of seismic moment, M{sub 0}, (and hence M{sub W}) as well as radiated S-wave energy, (E{sub S}), from waveforms recorded by as few as one station, for events that were too small to be waveform modeled (i.e., events less than M{sub W} {approx}3.5); (2) The source spectra were used to derive an equivalent local magnitude, M{sub L(coda)}, that is in excellent agreement with the network averaged values using direct S-waves; (3) Scaled energy, {tilde e} = E{sub R}/M{sub 0}, where E{sub R}, the radiated seismic energy, is comparable to results from

  18. Glacial Debutressing and Displacement History of the Driest Rockslide (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Matthias; Loew, Simon; Glueer, Franziska; Grämiger, Lorenz

    2016-04-01

    Only few studies have been performed, where the physical interactions between a retreating valley glacier and rock slope movements have been recorded and analyzed in detail. The Driest landslide, situated at the current tongue of the Great Aletsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps, offers a unique case study, because the history of the Great Aletsch Glacier has been studied in great detail by various researchers and the Driest landslide displacements can be unraveled for similar time windows. In this paper we focus on the most recent observation period, i.e. the rockslide and glacier history since the Little Ice Age, when the entire Driest landslide was covered by the glacial ice. Our kinematic model of the Driest landslide, based on field mapping and photogrammetric analyses, was confirmed by displacement vector data from two robotic total stations recording daily displacements of 12 reflectors positioned within the instability. The rockslide basal rupture plane is a compound sliding surface composed of a steeply dipping head scarp, a presumably moderately steep central section, and an upward directed daylighting frontal section. This rupture plane geometry is structurally conditioned by a regional fault in the head scarp area and a rotating Alpine foliation in the toe area. The most recent displacement history of this old rotational rockslide has been unraveled by lichenometry (i.e. systematic mapping of greenish Rhizocarpon Geographicum diameters) in the deepest part of the head scarp, calibrated with dendrochronologic data. Depending on the lichen profile position within the head scarp area, different displacement time histories of the Driest landslide can be developed and correlated with glacial ice elevations as recorded by multiple aerial images and historical documents. Whereas displacement rates before 1991 were in the order of 1 cm/year, significantly higher displacement rates ranging between 7 and 13 cm/year are recorded in the head scarp area for the period

  19. Natural hazard risk assessment and management in the Matter valley, Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, T.; King, L.; Philippi, S.

    2003-04-01

    The Matter valley has a length of about 40 km and is surrounded by some of the highest peaks of the Alps resulting in extreme altitudinal differences and a continental character of the climate. These climatic conditions cause a high glacier equilibrium line and therefore a periglacial belt of a large vertical extend. Due to the high relief energy, all kinds of natural hazards typical for high mountain environments occur. The steep western slopes are dominated by rockfalls, slope instabilities in bedrock and avalanches. A widespread cover of unconsolidated sediments on the eastern slopes induces landslides and debris flows, which often reach down to the valley bottom where they can dam up the river. Increasing population and modern land use forms required a more and more sensitive attitude towards natural hazard potentials in this endangered area. Assessment and management of natural hazard risks have been much improved during the last fifteen years and increasing amounts of money are spent each year in order to safeguard settlements, traffic lines, and other objects of the technical infrastructure. Numerous investigations concerning natural hazard risks have been made and the results are considered in the actual land use planning of the Canton. The planning law of the Canton Valais defines risk zones as areas, which are endangered by natural hazards like avalanches, rockfalls, landslides and floodings. Risk assessment is done by overview maps (scale 1:25,000) which are specified by detailed risk analyses consisting of registers and detailed maps (scale 1:2,000 to 1:10,000). These analyses are integrated in the land zoning by defining zones of high, medium and low danger, associated with corresponding prohibitions, restrictions and conditions for utilisation. At present, the incorporation of the avalanche and rockfall register in local zoning plans is completed in most communities of the Canton Valais. An additional inventory of 200 slope instabilities was

  20. Using High-Resolution Airborne LiDAR-Data for Landslide Mapping in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, N.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the increasing frequency of natural disasters like floods and landslides, the active remote sensing technique LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), has become a topic of great interest to the Federal State Government of Styria, Federal Republic of Austria. In a perennial project from 2008 to 2012 high-resolution 3D Airborne LiDAR Data of the Province of Styria, an area about 16.000km2 in south-eastern Austria were collected. These data were processed to create Digital Terrain Models (DTM) and Digital Surface Models (DSM) at 1m resolution with a vertical accuracy of 15 [cm] and a positional accuracy of 40 [cm]. High resolution DTMs can be used in different geo-related applications like geomorphological mapping or natural hazard mapping. DTMs show because of its high accuracy various natural and anthropogenic terrain features such as erosion scarps, alluvial fans, landslides, old creeks, topographic edges and karstforms, as well as walking paths and roads and in addition to that LiDAR data allows the detection and outlining of these different geomorphological and anthropogenic features with the help of ArcGIS 10 geoprocessing and analysing techniques, mathematical, statistical and image processing methods and the open source scripting language Python. As a result complex workflows and new geoprocessing tools can be implemented in an ArcGIS 10 workspace and are provided as easy to use toolbox contents. The landslide phenomena take in centre stage of the research work of the author. Thereby the main focus is targeted on sliding movements out of soils and bedrock. Factors like gravity take effect on slope stability directly and cause complex mass movements with a downslope directed, gliding movement of bed- and/or loose-rock as well as soil material. In this paper the author presents the result of her master thesis, an automatic ArcGIS 10 landslide mapping tool using high-resolution LiDAR data in the rock masses of the Eastern Alps (Province of Styria, Austria

  1. Three-dimensional geometry and tectonostratigraphy of the Pennine zone, Central Alps, Switzerland and Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxelon, Michael; Mancktelow, Neil S.

    2005-08-01

    Continental collision during Alpine orogenesis entailed a polyphase deformation history (D 1-D 5) in the Pennine zone of the Central Alps. The regional tectonostratigraphy was basically developed during D 1 and D 2, characterised by isoclinal, typically north-closing recumbent anticlines, separated by pinched-in synclines, on the scale of tens of kilometres. Later deformation phases (D 3 and D 4) warped the stack into wavy to open folds. Exhumation of this zone resulted locally in later vertical shortening and folding of already steep fabrics (D 5). Three-dimensional models of the nappe pile were constructed, based on geostatistical assessment of the regional foliation field and considering the abundant structural field data. These models indicate the existence of five principal tectonostratigraphic levels developed during D 1 and thus equivalent to nappe units s. str.: the Gotthard, the Leventina-Antigorio, the Maggia-Simano (and probably the Monte Leone as well as the Composite Lepontine Series), Lebendun-Soja and Adula-Cima Lunga levels. All these tectonic units formed part of the passive continental margin of Europe prior to the onset of the Alpine orogenesis. Individual isoclinal post-nappe folds reflect relative displacements on the order of 40 km or more. The most prominent D 2 post-nappe structure is the Wandfluhhorn Fold, structurally equivalent to the northern closure of the Leventina-Lucomagno Antiform. The Lebendun and Monte Leone folds are of similar magnitudes and also affect the whole nappe pile, whereas the smaller Mogno and Molare synforms only refold the Maggia-Simano nappe internally. Principal D 3 and D 4 structures are the tight Mergoscia Synform directly north of the Insubric Fault between Bellinzona and Locarno (Southern Steep Belt), the Maggia Steep Zone, forming the steep western limb of the Campo Tencia Synform and subdividing the Lepontine dome into the Simplon and Ticino subdomes, the Chiéra Synform steepening the dominant foliation in

  2. Hydraulic structure of a fault zone at seismogenic depths (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Mittempergher, Silvia; Di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steve; Garofalo, Paolo; Vho, Alice

    2016-04-01

    The Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps) was exhumed from c. 8 km depth, where it was characterized by seismic activity (pseudotachylytes), but also by hydrous fluid flow (alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and cataclasites). Thanks to glacier-polished outcrops exposing the fault zone over a continuous area > 1 km2, the fault zone architecture has been quantitatively described with an unprecedented detail (Bistacchi 2011, PAGEOPH; Smith 2013, JSG; Mittempergher 2016, this meeting), providing a rich dataset to generate 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models and simulate the fault zone hydraulic properties. Based on field and microstructural evidence, we infer that the opening and closing of fractures resulted in a toggle-switch mechanism for fluid flow during the seismic cycle: higher permeability was obtained in the syn- to early post-seismic period, when the largest number of fractures was (re)opened by off-fault deformation, then permeability dropped due to hydrothermal mineral precipitation and fracture sealing. Since the fracture network that we observe now in the field is the result of the cumulative deformation history of the fault zone, which probably includes thousands of earthquakes, a fundamental parameter that cannot be directly evaluated in the field is the fraction of fractures-faults that were open immediately after a single earthquake. Postseismic permeability has been evaluated in a few cases in the world thanks to seismological evidences of fluid migration along active fault systems. Therefore, we were able to develop a parametric hydraulic model of the GLFZ and calibrate it, varying the fraction of faults/fractures that were open in the postseismic period, to obtain on one side realistic fluid flow and permeability values, and on the other side a flow pattern consistent with the observed alteration/mineralization pattern. The fraction of open fractures is very close to the percolation threshold

  3. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

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    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices

  4. Episyenites in meta-granitoids of the Tauern Window (Eastern Alps): unpredictable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Ceccato, Alberto; Fioretti, Anna Maria; Mazzoli, Claudio; Zorzi, Federico; Ferretti, Patrizia

    2016-11-01

    The core of the Tauern tectonic window (Eastern Alps) consists of pre-Alpine granitoids (∼295 Ma) variably deformed during Alpine (∼30 Ma) amphibolite-facies metamorphism. Episyenites occur as local alteration haloes (as wide as a few meters) surrounding steeply dipping, strike-slip faults, with offsets meta-granodiorite) and 13% (meta-aplite), mainly derived from dissolution of quartz. Glacier-polished outcrops allow the detailed investigation of the relationships between the episyenites and the structure of the associated faults. Field mapping indicates that episyenites: (i) are spatially linked to pre-existing faults and statically overprinted these structures; (ii) are discontinuous along faults; (iii) have a thickness (of as much as a few meters) that does not correlate with either the amount of slip along the pre-existing faults or the spatial density of the fracture network; (iv) developed with a similar extent in rocks with conspicuous variations of the original quartz grain size and structure. The studied outcrop includes a relatively large volume of episyenite associated with faults. However, despite the pervasiveness of faulting, episyenites are rare in the Tauern meta-granitoids. This localized occurrence of episyenite is inferred to represent a section of a vertical pipe structure exploiting a portion of the fault network. Our study indicates that the location and the extent of episyenite alteration cannot be simply predicted from the geometry and the fracturing patterns of the pre-existing cataclastic faults. Quartz dissolution during episyenitization was accompanied and/or followed by: (i) pervasive substitution of oligoclase and biotite/chlorite of the meta-granodiorite by albite and vermicular chlorite, respectively; and (ii) precipitation of adularia, albite, anatase, calcite, hematite and zeolites within pores. Isotopic data from the calcite filling of the pores suggest a surficial source of fluids associated with this calcite precipitation

  5. Debris-covered glaciers during the LGM and Lateglacial at the eastern margin of the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Sabrina; Reitner, Jürgen M.; Wagreich, Michael

    2013-04-01

    We present the reconstruction of paleo-glaciers in the easternmost part of the Alps (Schneeberg mountain) with the main focus on sedimentology, chronology and glacial dynamics. The area is dominantly made up of limestone bedrock and hence characterized by steep slopes and cirques. Two juvenile moraine-systems can be deciphered based on geological mapping. The major system is characterized by an up to 60 m high latero-frontal dump moraine with a prominent breach-lobe moraine in a lateral position. It is regarded to represent the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; Würm Pleniglacial). The other system is much smaller and was formed most probably during the Würm Lateglacial. The angular to subangular shape of the clasts and the abundant boulders on top of the ridges indicate a high portion of passive (Boulton, 1978) i.e. supraglacial and englacial transport of debris before deposition.Thus the model of a debris-covered glacier is favored to explain both landforms and as well the corresponding sediment facies. For the pleniglacial moraine such an assumption is backed by a low accumulation/ablation area ratio (AAR) of around 1:1 based on the reconstruction of the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) using the maximum elevation of lateral moraines (MELM; Lichtenecker, 1938). Furthermore as there is no indication of a former glacier snout glacio-fluvial processes should have played a limited role in sediment transport into the forefield. Such setting pinpoints to very cold-arid conditions, which are as well found in paleo-climate reconstructions of the eastern foreland (Frenzel et al. 1992). Boulton, G.S., 1978: Boulder shapes and grain-size distribution of debris as indicators of transport paths through a glacier and till genesis.- Sedimentology, 25, 773-799. Lichtenecker, N.,1938. Die gegenwärtige und die eiszeitliche Schneegrenze in den Ostalpen. In: Verhandlungen der III. Internationalen Quartär - Konferenz, Vienna, 1936, 141-147. Frenzel, B., Pecsi, M. & Velichko, A. A., 1992

  6. "Fast pedogenesis" on proglacial areas: examples from the north-western Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Michele; Freppaz, Michele; Zanini, Ermanno

    2013-04-01

    Climate changes have huge impacts on alpine ecosystems. One of the most visible effects is glacial retreat since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA: 190-190 years ago), which caused the exposure of previously glaciated surfaces. These surfaces are open-air laboratories, verifying theories regarding ecosystem and soil development. In order to increase our knowledge on the effect of time and vegetation primary succession on soil development in proglacial areas, we sampled soils and surveyed plant communities on stable points on the proglacial areas of the Lys and Verra Grande glaciers, in the Italian north-western Alps (Valle d'Aosta). Sampling sites were located on dated sites (6-260 years), on the basis of literature or historical photographs). Glacial till is attacked by weathering processes immediately after deposition and stabilization, such as loss of soluble compounds, acidification, primary mineral weathering. The speed of these processes are largely increased after the establishment of a continuous vegetation cover, thanks to surface stabilization, organic matter accumulation caused by litter input and root decomposition below the soil surface. On sialic glacial tills (Lys forefield), below timberline and under a larch - Rhododendron forest, a fast and steady decrease in pH values, increase in organic matter content and horizon differentiation were observed. In particular, genetic eluvial horizons formed in just 60 years, while diagnostic albic horizons were developed after ca. 90 years, evidencing an early start of the podzolization processes. Cheluviation of Fe and, secondarily, Al were analytically verified. However, illuviation of Fe, Al and organic matter in incipient B horizons was not sufficient to obtain diagnostic spodic horizons on LIA materials. Under grazed grassland below timberline and alpine prairie above timberline, acidification and weathering were slightly slower, and no redistribution with depth of Fe and Al oxi-hydroxides was observed. A

  7. Application of terrestrial photogrammetry for the mass balance calculation on Montasio Occidentale Glacier (Julian Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Calligaro, Simone; Blasone, Giacomo; Guarnieri, Alberto; Tarolli, Paolo; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Vettore, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of glaciated terrain are commonly used to measure changes in geometry and hence infer the mass balance of glaciers. Different tools and methods exist to obtain information about the 3D geometry of terrain. Recent improvements on the quality and performance of digital cameras for close-range photogrammetry, and the development of automatic digital photogrammetric processing makes the 'structure from motion' photogrammetric technique (SfM) competitive for high quality 3D models production, compared to efficient but also expensive and logistically-demanding survey technologies such as airborn and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The purpose of this work is to test the SfM approach, using a consumer-grade SLR camera and the low-cost computer vision-based software package Agisoft Photoscan (Agisoft LLC), to monitor the mass balance of Montasio Occidentale glacier, a 0.07km2, low-altitude, debris-covered glacier located in the Eastern Italian Alps. The quality of the 3D models produced by the SfM process has been assessed by comparison with digital terrain models obtained through TLS surveys carried out at the same dates. TLS technique has indeed proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier in the last years. Our results shows that the photogrammetric approach can produce point cloud densities comparable to those derived from TLS measurements. Furthermore, the horizontal and vertical accuracies are also of the same order of magnitude as for TLS (centimetric to decimetric). The effect of different landscape characteristics (e.g. distance from the camera or terrain gradient) and of different substrata (rock, debris, ice, snow and firn) was also evaluated in terms of SfM reconstruction's accuracy vs. TLS. Given the good results obtained on the Montasio Occidentale glacier, it can be concluded that the terrestrial photogrammetry, with the advantageous features of portability, ease of use and above all low costs

  8. A statistical approach to modelling permafrost distribution in the European Alps or similar mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Boeckli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of permafrost distribution in mountain regions are important for the assessment of climate change effects on natural and human systems. In order to make permafrost analyses and the establishment of guidelines for e.g. construction or hazard assessment comparable and compatible between regions, one consistent and traceable model for the entire Alpine domain is required. For the calibration of statistical models, the scarcity of suitable and reliable information about the presence or absence of permafrost makes the use of large areas attractive due to the larger data base available.

    We present a strategy and method for modelling permafrost distribution of entire mountain regions and provide the results of statistical analyses and model calibration for the European Alps. Starting from an integrated model framework, two statistical sub-models are developed, one for debris-covered areas (debris model and one for steep bedrock (rock model. They are calibrated using rock glacier inventories and rock surface temperatures. To support the later generalization to surface characteristics other than those available for calibration, so-called offset terms have been introduced into the model that allow doing this in a transparent and traceable manner.

    For the debris model a generalized linear mixed-effect model (GLMM is used to predict the probability of a rock glacier being intact as opposed to relict. It is based on the explanatory variables mean annual air temperature (MAAT, potential incoming solar radiation (PISR and the mean annual sum of precipitation (PRECIP, and achieves an excellent discrimination (area under the receiver-operating characteristic, AUROC = 0.91. Surprisingly, the probability of a rock glacier being intact is positively associated with increasing PRECIP for given MAAT and PISR conditions. The rock model is based on a linear regression and was calibrated with mean annual rock surface temperatures (MARST. The

  9. HLA B44 is associated with decreased severity of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in patients with CD95 defects (ALPS type Ia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Marla M; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Davis, Joie; Fischer, Roxanne E; Dale, Janet K; Adams, Sharon; Straus, Stephen E; Puck, Jennifer M

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis characterized by non-malignant lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, expansion of T cells without either CD4 or CD8 surface markers, and increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and lymphoma. Most patients with ALPS have dominant, heterozygous mutations in tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (TNFRSF6), which encodes CD95, also known as Fas, a mediator of apoptosis. Penetrance and range of disease manifestations in ALPS are highly variable, even among family members who share the same dominant TNFRSF6 mutation. To evaluate HLA as a candidate modifier locus, we typed HLA A, B (including subtypes), and DQB alleles in 356 individuals from 63 unrelated families with defined TNFRSF6 mutations associated with ALPS. We also developed a quantitative severity score and performed statistical analysis. Among the healthier, mutation-bearing individuals, transmission of HLA B44 was significantly overrepresented (nominal PALPS. The B44 allele may exert a protective role in ALPS.

  10. Cry1Ac抗、感棉铃虫碱性磷酸酯酶(ALP1)的表达量比较%The Expression Level of Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP1) in Cry1Ac-Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Hübner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 张丽丽; 魏纪珍; 肖玉涛; 梁革梅; 周瑞阳

    2013-01-01

    [目的]通过比较Cry1Ac抗、感棉铃虫昆虫中肠碱性磷酸酶(ALP1)表达量的差异及抗性棉铃虫取食Cry1Ac蛋白对ALP1表达量的影响,分析ALP1表达量变化与抗性的关系,为进一步明确Bt抗性机制、制定抗性治理策略提供理论依据.[方法]利用实时荧光定量PCR技术,比较敏感棉铃虫、Cry1Ac抗性棉铃虫取食含Cry1Ac蛋白的饲料和正常饲料后ALP1表达量的差异.[结果]ALP1在棉铃虫整个发育期都表达,幼虫的表达量最高,蛹期表达量最低,在成虫体内也有较高的表达;ALP1在幼虫中肠表达量最高,其次是后肠、前肠、马氏管,表皮中的表达量最低;与敏感品系相比,对Cry1Ac具有中等水平抗性的棉铃虫ALP1表达量明显增加,尤其是取食含Cry1Ac蛋白饲料的抗性棉铃虫幼虫的ALP1的表达量显著升高,但抗性棉铃虫取食正常饲料后,2、3龄幼虫的ALP1的表达量与敏感棉铃虫差异不显著;所有的抗性品系4龄棉铃虫幼虫中肠ALP1的表达量都显著高于敏感品系,而且随着棉铃虫抗性倍数的升高,ALP1的表达量呈逐渐降低的趋势.[结论]抗性棉铃虫中肠ALP1表达量的改变可能与Cry1Ac抗性、Cry1Ac代谢有一定的关系.%[Objective] The objective of this study is to provide a theoretical basis for further clarifying Cry1Ac resistance mechanism and constituting reasonable resistance management strategy,the difference of ALP1 expression level between Cry1Ac-resistant and susceptible Helicoverpa armigera,the effect of Cry1Ac toxin on ALP1 expression level in Cry1Ac-resistant larvae and the relationship between ALP 1 and Cry 1 Ac-resistant strains were analyzed.[Method] The expression levels of ALP1 in susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant H.armigera larvae feeding on artificial diet containing Cry1Ac and no-Cry1Ac were compared using real-time quantitative PCR analysis.[Result] The ALP1 could express in whole development period ofH.armigera,the highest expression level

  11. Aspergillus nidulans Dis1/XMAP215 protein AlpA localizes to spindle pole bodies and microtubule plus ends and contributes to growth directionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Cathrin; Zekert, Nadine; Veith, Daniel; Schaaf, Carolin; Konzack, Sven; Fischer, Reinhard

    2007-03-01

    The dynamics of cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs) is largely controlled by a protein complex at the MT plus end. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe and in filamentous fungi, MT plus end-associated proteins also determine growth directionality. We have characterized the Dis1/XMAP215 family protein AlpA from Aspergillus nidulans and show that it determines MT dynamics as well as hyphal morphology. Green fluorescent protein-tagged AlpA localized to MT-organizing centers (centrosomes) and to MT plus ends. The latter accumulation occurred independently of conventional kinesin or the Kip2-familiy kinesin KipA. alpA deletion strains were viable and only slightly temperature sensitive. Mitosis, nuclear migration, and nuclear positioning were not affected, but hyphae grew in curves rather than straight, which appeared to be an effect of reduced MT growth and dynamics.

  12. [Fire and Pinus mugo Turra communities in the western Alps (Susa Valley, Italy) during the Lateglacial-Holocene transition: an evidence of refugia area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adam A; Martinez, Marion; Fauvart, Nicolas; Roiron, Paul; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Guendon, Jean-Louis; Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Carcaillet, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    In western Italian Alps, small distinct populations of Pinus mugo Turra raise some questions concerning its ecological status and dynamics in the occidental Alps. This note present new palaeobotanical data based on cone imprints of Pinus mugo, identified in travertine systems located in the Val di Susa and dated back to the Late Dryas (11506+/-66 BP) and the Early Holocene (10145+/-225 et 9475+/-670 BP). Heliophilous species and charcoal fragments were also identified, testifying to the oldness of wildfires in this region. The data support the hypothesis that this zone was a refuge area of this pine during the last glaciation. Here we discuss about the postglacial dynamics of the Pinus mugo in the occidental Alps.

  13. The Effects of the Planned High-Speed Rail System on Travel Times and Spatial Development in the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ravazzoli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the direct effects of introducing high-speed railway lines is a significant reduction in travel times between major cities. This is particularly relevant in mountain areas. It not only makes cities more easily reachable with more sustainable transport systems but can also encourage different travel behavior and reduce environmental pressures on sensitive areas. A comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal effects of the introduction of high-speed railways in the Alpine arc has not yet been developed. To help fill this gap, this study uses multidimensional scaling and the geographical information system to illustrate the time–space compression. This term indicates the erosion of spatial and temporal distances in the areas of the Alps directly affected by the new railway lines. Six trans-Alpine high-speed railway lines are analyzed, comparing current and projected travel times by train. A time-based map is created to show the time–space compression in every transversal direction, particularly on the French and the Austrian side of the Alps. Implications in terms of local accessibility are also analyzed, focusing on the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen-South Tyrol. Finally, the paper discusses the importance of time-based maps for the understanding of sociospatial dynamics and the possible implications for spatial development.

  14. Magnetostratigraphic dating of an intensification of glacial activity in the southern Italian Alps during Marine Isotope Stage 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Ravazzi, Cesare; Breda, Marzia; Pini, Roberta; Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine; Mazaud, Alain; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    We applied magnetostratigraphy and mammal biostratigraphy to date climate-sensitive pollen cycles and lithostratigraphic units of the Pliocene-Pleistocene Leffe sedimentary succession from the Southern Alps, Italy. The Leffe section was correlated to additional sections (Casnigo, Fornaci di Ranica, and Pianengo) to construct a stratigraphic network along a common fluviatile system (the Serio River) sourced in the Southern Alps and flowing southward into the Po River Basin. We obtained a coherent scenario of climate variability for the last ˜ 2 Myr. At Leffe, lacustrine deposition commenced during the Olduvai Normal Subchron (1.94-1.78 Ma) and lasted up to a chronologic level compatible with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 22 (0.87 Ma). Pollen analysis revealed that climate varied cyclically from warm-temperate to cool during this time interval, but never as cold as during glacial intervals. At around MIS 22, climate cooled globally. Gravels, attributed to high-energy braided river systems fed locally by alluvial fans, prograded from the Serio River catchment area over the Leffe Basin and toward the Po Plain in response to a generalized event of vegetation withdrawal and enhanced physical erosion. At this time, Alpine valley glaciers reached their first maximum southward expansion with glacier fronts located at only ˜ 5 km upstream from Leffe.

  15. Elevation-dependency of the representation of precipitation with COSMO-CLM at 3km over the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Marie; Truhetz, Heimo; Csaki, Andras

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that convection-permitting simulations accurately reproduce the diurnal cycle of precipitation, especially over mountainous regions in summer. However, a strong dependency to elevation has been shown with COSMO-CLM at 3km. Indeed, the model is unable to reproduce the mid-afternoon peak in low- and flat-lands in the Eastern Alps. Associated processes are investigated in the framework of NHCM-2 (project number P24758-N29), using a set of sensitivity experiments over the greater Alpine region. These experiments are designed to cover a broad range of influences, including orographic forcing and physical parametrizations. Model evaluation is performed with a set of observations-based high-quality datasets at 1km over the Eastern Alps. These datasets are provided by the Austrian Central Department for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), and include data from the now-casting system INCA, and newly generated gridded dataset from homogenized high-density network of in situ measurement stations. First results of process-oriented analysis will be presented in the context of model inter-comparison with WRF.

  16. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in high altitude lakes and fish (Arctic charr) from the French Alps related to watershed characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusczak, Nicolas; Larose, Catherine; Dommergue, Aurélien; Paquet, Serge; Beaulne, Jean-Sébastien; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Lucotte, Marc; Nedjai, Rachid; Ferrari, Christophe P

    2011-04-15

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were measured in the muscle of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and in the water column of 4 lakes that are located in the French Alps. Watershed characteristics were determined (6 coverage classes) for each lake in order to evaluate the influence of watershed composition on mercury and methylmercury concentrations in fish muscle and in the water column. THg and MeHg concentrations in surface water were relatively low and similar among lakes and watershed characteristics play a major role in determining water column Hg and MeHg levels. THg muscle concentrations for fish with either a standardized length of 220mm, a standardized age of 5 years or for individualuals did not exceed the 0.5mg kg(-1) fish consumption advisory limit established for Hg by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1990). These relatively low THg concentrations can be explained by watershed characteristics, which lead to short Hg residence time in the water column, and also by the short trophic chain that is characteristic of mountain lakes. Growth rate did not seem to influence THg concentrations in fish muscles of these lakes and we observed no relationship between fish Hg concentrations and altitude. This study shows that in the French Alps, high altitude lakes have relatively low THg and MeHg concentrations in both the water column and in Arctic charr populations. Therefore, Hg does not appear to present a danger for local populations and the fishermen of these lakes.

  17. Rethinking Pumped Storage Hydropower in the European Alps: A Call for New Integrated Assessment Tools to Support the Energy Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Björnsen Gurung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Alps are well positioned to contribute significantly to the energy transition. In addition to sites with above-average potential for wind and solar power, the “water towers” of Europe provide flexible, low-carbon power generation as well as energy storage. In the future, hydropower systems are expected to become more than mere electricity generators, serving a key role as flexible complements to intermittent power generators and as providers of large-scale seasonal and daily energy storage. Energy transition on national and European scales can be facilitated by expanding the capacity of pumped storage hydropower (PSHP plants. Yet the extension of hydropower production, in particular PSHP, remains controversial, primarily due to environmental concerns. Focusing on 2 Alpine countries, Austria and Switzerland, this paper provides a system view of hydropower production and energy storage in the Alps. It discusses advantages and drawbacks of various assessment tools and identifies gaps and needs for the integrated assessment of PSHP plants. It concludes that instruments that evaluate the impacts and sustainability of PSHP projects need to be developed, elaborated, and applied in a participatory manner, in order to promote public dialogue, increase social acceptance, and, ideally, encourage energy consumers to become advocates of a sustainable energy future.

  18. Characterization, 1064 nm photon signals and background events of a tungsten TES detector for the ALPS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, J.; Doebrich, B.; Januschek, F.; Lindner, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Bastidon, N.; Horns, D. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    2015-02-15

    The high efficiency, low-background, and single-photon detection with transition-edge sensors (TES) is making this type of detector attractive in widely different types of application. In this paper, we present first characterizations of a TES to be used in the Any Light Particle Search (ALPS) experiment searching for new fundamental ultra-light particles. Firstly, we describe the setup and the main components of the ALPS TES detector (TES, millikelvin-cryostat and SQUID read-out) and their performances. Secondly, we explain a dedicated analysis method for single-photon spectroscopy and rejection of non-photon background. Finally, we report on results from extensive background measurements. Considering an event-selection, optimized for a wavelength of 1064 nm, we achieved a background suppression of ∝10{sup -3} with a ∝ 50 % efficiency for photons passing the selection. The resulting overall efficiency was 23 % with a dark count rate of 8.6.10{sup -3} s{sup -1}. We observed that pile-up events of thermal photons are the main background component.

  19. Global and local-scale variation in bacterial community structure of snow from the Swiss and Australian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlin, Tina; Ferrari, Belinda; Power, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Seasonally, snow environments cover up to 50% of the land's surface, yet the microbial diversity and ecosystem functioning within snow, particularly from alpine regions are not well described. This study explores the bacterial diversity in snow using next-generation sequencing technology. Our data expand the global inventory of snow microbiomes by focusing on two understudied regions, the Swiss Alps and the Australian Alps. A total biomass similar to cell numbers in polar snow was detected, with 5.2 to 10.5 × 10(3) cells mL(-1) of snow. We found that microbial community structure of surface snow varied by country and site and along the altitudinal range (alpine and sub-alpine). The bacterial communities present were diverse, spanning 25 distinct phyla, but the six phyla Proteobacteria (Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria), Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes, accounted for 72%-98% of the total relative abundance. Taxa such as Acidobacteriaceae and Methylocystaceae, associated with cold soils, may be part of the atmospherically sourced snow community, while families like Sphingomonadaceae were detected in every snow sample and are likely part of the common snow biome.

  20. Using the “Footprint” Approach to Examine the Potentials and Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hastik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of renewable energies is regarded as a key way to mitigate global climate change and to ensure the provision of energy in the long term. However, conflicts between these goals and local nature conservation goals are likely to increase because of the additional space required for renewable energies. This is particularly true for mountainous areas with biodiversity-rich ecosystems. Little effort has been undertaken to systematically compare different renewable energy sources and to examine their environmental impacts using an interdisciplinary approach. This study adapted the concept of the “ecological footprint” to examine the impact on ecosystem services of land use changes involved in exploiting renewable energy sources. This innovative approach made it possible to assess and communicate the potentials of those energy sources in light of both space consumption and sustainability. The European Alps are an ideal test area because of their high energy potentials and biodiversity-rich ecosystems and the high demand for multiple ecosystem services. Our results demonstrate that energy consumption in the Alps could not be covered with the available renewable energy potentials, despite the utilization of large parts of the Alpine land area and the majority of larger rivers. Therefore, considerable effort must be invested in resolving conflicting priorities between expanding renewable energies and nature conservation, but also in realizing energy-saving measures. To this end, the approach presented here can support decision-making by revealing the energy potentials, space requirements, and environmental impacts of different renewable energy sources.

  1. Observational consistency and future predictions for a 3.5 keV ALP to photon line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pedro D.; Conlon, Joseph P.; Day, Francesca V.; Marsh, M.C. David; Rummel, Markus [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-09

    Motivated by the possibility of explaining the 3.5 keV line through dark matter decaying to axion-like particles that subsequently convert to photons, we study ALP-photon conversion for sightlines passing within 50 pc of the galactic centre. Conversion depends on the galactic centre magnetic field which is highly uncertain. For fields at low or mid-range of observational estimates (10–100 μG), no observable signal is possible. For fields at the high range of observational estimates (a pervasive poloidal mG field over the central 150 pc) it is possible to generate sufficient signal to explain recent observations of a 3.5 keV line in the galactic centre. In this scenario, the galactic centre line signal comes predominantly from the region with z>20pc, reconciling the results from the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes. The dark matter to ALP to photon scenario also naturally predicts the non-observation of the 3.5 keV line in stacked galaxy spectra. We further explore predictions for the line flux in galaxies and suggest a set of galaxies that is optimised for observing the 3.5 keV line in this model.

  2. Monitoring of forest decline in forest ecosystems of the Bavarian Alps; Monitoring von Schaeden in Waldoekosystemen des bayerischen Alpenraumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehfuess, K.E.; Osswald, W.F.; Ewald, J.; Reuther, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenkunde und Standortslehre; Nechwatal, J.; Lang, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Forstbotanik - Arbeitsgruppe Phytopathologie

    2000-09-01

    This regional multifactorial investigation addresses the dependence of vitality of Norway spruce and European beech (crown transparency, site index, root systems and nutritional status) on ecological factors and the presence of pathogens in mountain forests of the Bavarian Alps (Germany). Existing data on airborne deposition and ozone concentrations were supplemented by 2 elevational transects, in which wet bulk deposition was measured and ozone passive samplers were exposed during 2 vegetation periods. The distribution of crown transparency in spruce and beech as related to site conditions and its relationships with long-term stand growth, nutritional status and root morphology suggest that transparent crowns as observed in the Calcareous Alps are nothing new and unlikely to be caused by atmospheric pollution. Their distribution must be regarded as an old, long-lasting and natural pattern of tree vitality. (orig.) [German] Es wurde die Abhaengigkeit der Vitalitaet von Fichten und Buchen (Kronentransparenz, Bestandesbonitaet, Wurzel- und Ernaehrungszustand) in den Bergwaeldern des Werdenfelser Landes (Oberbayern) von Standortsfaktoren und vom Befall durch pilzliche Pathogene mit einem regionalstatistischen, multifaktoriellen Ansatz untersucht. Vorhandene Daten zu Stoffeintrag und Ozonbelastung wurden durch eine zweijaehrige Beprobung des Freilandniederschlags und Ozon-Passivsammler-Messungen in zwei Hoehenprofilen ergaenzt. Die standortbezogene Verteilung der Kronentransparenz und ihre Beziehungen zum langfristigen Bestandeswachstum, zum Ernaehrungs- und Wurzelzustand legen nahe, dass es sich in den Kalkalpen nicht um neuartige, immissionsbedingte Waldschaeden, sondern um seit Alters her bestehende, natuerliche Vitalitaetsunterschiede handelt. (orig.)

  3. Glacier retreat and associated sediment dynamics in proglacial areas: a case study from the Silvretta Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felbauer, Lucia; Pöppl, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Global warming results in an ongoing retreat of glaciers in the Alps, leaving behind large amounts of easily erodible sediments. In addition, the debuttressing of rock-walls and the decay of permafrost in the high mountain regions facilitates mass movements of potential disastrous consequences, such as rock falls, landslides and debris flows. Therefore, it is highly important to quantify the amount of sediments that are supplied from the different compartments and to investigate how glacial retreat influences sediment dynamics in proglacial areas. In the presented work glacier retreat and associated sediment dynamics were investigated in the Kromer valley (Silvretta Alps, Austria) by analyzing remote sensing data. Glacial retreat from the period of 1950 to 2012 was documented by interpreting aerial photographs. By digitizing the different stages of the glaciers for six time frames, changes in glacier area and length were mapped and quantified. In order to identify, characterize and quantify sediment dynamics in the proglacial areas a high resolution DEM of difference (DoD) between 2007 and 2012 was created and analyzed, further differentiating between different zones (e.g. valley bottom, hillslope) and types of geomorphic processes (e.g. fluvial, gravitational). First results will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2016.

  4. Estimating permafrost distribution in the maritime Southern Alps, New Zealand, based on climatic conditions at rock glacier sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eSattler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alpine permafrost occurrence in maritime climates has received little attention, despite suggestions that permafrost may occur at lower elevations than in continental climates. To assess the spatial and altitudinal limits of permafrost in the maritime Southern Alps, we developed and tested a catchment-scale distributed permafrost estimate. We used logistic regression to identify the relationship between permafrost presence at 280 active and relict rock glacier sites and the independent variables a mean annual air temperature and b potential incoming solar radiation in snow free months. The statistical relationships were subsequently employed to calculate the spatially-distributed probability of permafrost occurrence, using a probability of ≥ 0.6 to delineate the potential permafrost extent. Our results suggest that topoclimatic conditions are favorable for permafrost occurrence in debris-mantled slopes above ~ 2000 m in the central Southern Alps and above ~ 2150 m in the more northern Kaikoura ranges. Considering the well-recognized latitudinal influence on global permafrost occurrences, these altitudinal limits are lower than the limits observed in other mountain regions. We argue that the Southern Alps’ lower distribution limits may exemplify an oceanic influence on global permafrost distribution. Reduced ice-loss due to moderate maritime summer temperature extremes may facilitate the existence of permafrost at lower altitudes than in continental regions at similar latitude. Empirical permafrost distribution models derived in continental climates may consequently be of limited applicability in maritime settings.

  5. Seismic tomography and azimuthal anisotropy for the Southern and Eastern Alps from ambient noise cross-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Zigone, Dimitri; Kolinsky, Petr; Fuchs, Florian; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray-EASI Working Group

    2016-04-01

    The eastern part of the Alpine chain is considered as an area of complex tectonics and lithospheric structure. Having a relatively dense network of stations in this region provides an opportunity to study the crustal and lithospheric velocity structure using ambient-noise correlations methods. We used continuous data recorded during 2014 at 50 permanent stations located in Austria, Germany, northern Italy, and Slovenia, along with data from 8 temporary stations of the Eastern Alpine Seismic Investigation (EASI) profile. Cross correlation of ambient noise are performed in order to estimate the Green's functions of surface waves propagating between station pairs. Dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves are constructed between 2 and 30 seconds and are then inverted to obtain group velocity maps at different frequency (depth) levels. We present here a new crustal-lithospheric velocity model for the Southern and Eastern Alps, which reveals clear spatial velocity variation and contrasts, associated with major faults, deformed and damaged zones. In this study, we also assess the azimuthal anisotropy from the group velocity measurements. The new finding together with the previous results from SKS splitting and receiver function provides 3D images of anisotropy at scales ranging from crust to upper mantle. This allows us to discuss the strain field and deformation pattern within both shallow and lithospheric-asthenospheric depth, in relation with the most prominent tectonic processes in the region, such as eastward extrusion of the ALCAPA block (Eastern Alps, Western Carpathian, and Pannonian Basin).

  6. 3-D GPS velocity field and its implications on the present-day post-orogenic deformation of the Western Alps and Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninh Nguyen, Hai; Vernant, Philippe; Mazzotti, Stephane; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Asensio, Eva

    2016-09-01

    We present a new 3-D GPS velocity solution for 182 sites for the region encompassing the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The velocity field is based on a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solution, to which we apply a common-mode filter, defined by the 26 longest time series, in order to correct for network-wide biases (reference frame, unmodeled large-scale processes, etc.). We show that processing parameters, such as troposphere delay modeling, can lead to systematic velocity variations of 0.1-0.5 mm yr-1 affecting both accuracy and precision, especially for short (< 5 years) time series. A velocity convergence analysis shows that minimum time-series lengths of ˜ 3 and ˜ 5.5 years are required to reach a velocity stability of 0.5 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. On average, horizontal residual velocities show a stability of ˜ 0.2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The only significant horizontal strain rate signal is in the western Pyrenees with up to 4 × 10-9 yr-1 NNE-SSW extension, whereas no significant strain rates are detected in the Western Alps (< 1 × 10-9 yr-1). In contrast, we identify significant uplift rates up to 2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps but not in the Pyrenees (0.1 ± 0.2 mm yr-1). A correlation between site elevations and fast uplift rates in the northern part of the Western Alps, in the region of the Würmian ice cap, suggests that part of this uplift is induced by postglacial rebound. The very slow uplift rates in the southern Western Alps and in the Pyrenees could be accounted for by erosion-induced rebound.

  7. External micro-PIXE analysis of fluid inclusions: Test of the LABEC facility on samples of quartz veins from Apuan Alps (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Giuntini, L.; Ruggieri, G.; Dini, A.

    2008-05-01

    Fluid inclusions are small portions, usually smaller than 100 μm, of fluid trapped within minerals during or after growth. Their characteristics provide therefore fundamental information on nature and evolution of fluids present in the past in different geological environments. At the LABEC laboratory in Firenze, high-salinity fluid inclusions in quartz crystals, coming from the Apuan Alps metamorphic complex, were analysed at the external scanning microbeam. Results, although still preliminary, have already provided us with hints on fluid-rock interaction processes during the metamorphism of the Apuan Alps.

  8. A new genus and species of leaf-mining moth from the French Alps, Mercantouria neli gen. n., sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Peter; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Triberti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Alps are a hotspot of biodiversity in Europe with many Lepidoptera species still to be discovered. Here we describe a new gracillariid genus and species, Mercantouria neli gen. n. and sp. n. The morphology of the male genitalia is highly differentiated with unique features. DNA barcodes show that its nearest neighbor is the North American species ‘Caloptilia’ scutellariella (Braun, 1923). Mercantouria neli is known from four adults (two males and two females) collected at two localities in the French Alps. Its host plant and life cycle remain unknown. PMID:27199612

  9. Natural hazards in the Alps triggered by ski slope engineering and artificial snow production

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Alps there is increasing concern of man-made triggering of natural hazards in association with ski slope engineering and pressures from climate change. However literature on the topic is rare. Ski run development has been intensified in the past decade to accommodate a higher density of skiers. In order to absorb the increased flux of skiers promoted by continually increasing lift capacity, ski runs are subject to more and more enlargement, straightening and leveling. This has required large-scale re-leveling of slopes with the removal of soil and protective vegetation using heavy machinery during the summer season. Slope-ward incision on steep slopes, creation of artificial embankments by leeward deposition and development of straight ski runs perpendicular to steep slopes have resulted in both shallow and deep erosion, gullying, triggering of small landslides and even bedload transport in marginal channels. Other natural hazards have been triggered directly or indirectly due to intensification of artificial snow production. This has increased exponentially in the last decade in order to secure the skiing season under increasingly warm temperatures and erratic snowfall and decreasing snow depth and snow duration in association with climate change. The consequences are multiple. Firstly, in order to economize both costs and quantity of artificial snow production, ski runs are leveled as far as possible in order to avoid topographical irregularities, protruding vegetation or rocks. The combination of topsoil removal and prolonged duration of artificial snow cover results in a decreased vegetation cover and period as well as species alteration. Together with greatly decreased permeability of the underground, snowmelt and intensive summer precipitation trigger surface runoff, erosion and even small landslides. After more than a decade of intensive cover by artificial snow, most such steep ski runs at altitudes above 1400 m are reduced into highly erosive

  10. Predicting debris flow occurrence in Eastern Italian Alps based on hydrological and geomorphological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Borga, Marco; Destro, Elisa; Marchi, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    located in the Upper Adige region, Eastern Italian Alps. Analysis involved eight debris-flow triggering storms for which high-quality radar-rainfall fields and a detailed debris flow record (with a total of 87 occurrences) is available. Results show that in all cases examined TI exhibits significant skill in predicting debris flow occurrence. However, sensitivity analysis of the results on the channel width scaling functions, the grain size and peak flow estimation uncertainty revealed considerable variability in the results. This suggests that successful application of TI as a predictor in a warning system requires local adjustment of the channel width law and grain size parameters while characterization of uncertainty in hydrologic model predictions should also be considered. Berti, M., Simoni, A., 2005: Experimental evidences and numerical modelling of debris flow initiated by channel runoff. Landslides, 2 (3), 171-182. Gregoretti, C. and G. Dalla Fontana, 2008: The triggering of debris flow due to channel-bed failure in some alpine headwater basins of the Dolomites: analyses of critical runoff. Hydrol. Process. 22, 2248-2263. Tognacca C., Bezzola G.R., Minor H.E., 2000: Threshold criterion fo debrisflow initiation due to channel bed failure. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Debris Flow Hazards Mitigation Taipei,August, Wiezczorek, Naeser (eds): 89-97.

  11. 2D Numerical simulations of intraoceanic subduction: the case study of the Ligurian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Cristina; Gerya, Taras; Federico, Laura; Scambelluri, Marco; Crispini, Laura; Capponi, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    the serpentinized horizon in an oceanic lithosphere with the "atypical" structure controls the development and size of a serpentinite channel during subduction. The channel forms between the subducting slab and the overlying mantle wedge as the result of infiltration of fluids released from the down-going plate. Circulation of slices from both the subducting and the overidding plates usually occurs inside the channel. The shape and therefore the type of flow inside the channel are influenced by several parameters such as for example the dip of the slab. We furthermore investigated the influence of singular changes in geometric and kinematic parameters on the entire "subduction system". We focused in detail on the development of a volcanic arc and particularly on the effects that convergence rate, initial inclination and age of the subducting slab have on its dimension, its distance from the trench and its age. Moreover, the numerical simulations allowed us to investigate the circulation patterns inside the serpentinite channel: we modeled the P-T paths produced during burial and exhumation of rocks involved in subduction and compared them to the ones of "real" rocks. Following this approach we have compared our model results with the present-day structure and metamorphism of the high pressure ophiolite Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps) in order to discuss the exhumation mechanisms. We conclude that formation of a serpentinite channel likely drives the exhumation of the eclogite-facies rocks. Our model appears to fit well several aspects of the Voltri Massif evolution; particularly the gaps in P-T peak conditions attained by the various tectonic slices, the dimension of such bodies, and the involvement of sedimentary rocks from different sources (oceanic vs continental types). REFERENCES Gerya T., Stöckhert B., Perchuk A.L. (2002). Tectonics, vol. 21, no. 6, 1056. Lagabrielle Y., Lemoine M. (1997). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes/Earth and

  12. Geophysic data interperetation of Passo della Morte landslide: Eastern Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppe', G.; Costa, G.; Marcato, G.; Forte, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Passo della Morte block-slide covers a relative large area in the Carnic Alps, along the left side of the Tagliamento River, between Forni di Sotto and Ampezzo (N-E of Italy). The high seismicity and the presence of the landslide increase the risk associated to the interest area. Moreover the large volume of material involved in the landslide (a few million of cubic meters), the presence of important infrastructure such as the road and two tunnels which cross the landslide, as well as the presence of the Tagliamento River that flow at the foot of the landslide, make the area very vulnerable. This study concerns with the western part of the Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD). It focuses on the potential instability of a rock slope (crossed by road tunnels) and its connection with the DSGSD activity. The main objectives of this study are: monitoring the rock mass movement, studying the seismic site effect and defining the stratigraphic and geological characteristics of involved materials. Two vibration sensors have been installed inside the potential landslide: a short-period seismometer and a piezoelectric transducer. The microseismic activity recorded by the sensors has been analyzed, with particular regard to periods characterized by rapid changes in recorded seismic signals, and then correlated with the precipitation trend to evaluate the existence of a possible correlation between these phenomena. The microseismic activity study has highlighted the existence of a close link between microseisms and acoustic emissions recorded respectively by the seismometer and by the piezoelectric transducer. In addition, the comparison with the rainfall pattern has shown a direct relationship between different rainfall events and the sharp increase of microseismic activity detected by the two instruments. The correlation is good, even if acoustic emissions appear to be more sensitive than microseisms to short duration and low intensity rainfall events. The

  13. Chemical denudation rates of a small torrential catchment in the Northern Calcareous Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Georg; Robl, Jörg; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Hilberg, Sylke; Schmidt, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding on the decay of alpine landscapes and the pace of landscape adjustment to climatic or tectonic changes rely on catchment wide erosion rates. In general, these data stem from cosmogenic isotope dating of quartz grains and are therefore only applicable at catchments providing suitable bedrock. However, denudation caused by the dissolution of rocks is not explicitly considered by this method. In the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) crystalline rocks are missing and intensive karstification suggests that chemical denudation is an important player for destroying topography. In this study we present chemical denudation rates derived from measuring the dissolved load of an alpine catchment located in the country of Salzburg, Austria. The catchment has a drainage area of about 7 km2 and is predominantly covered by limestone rich glacial deposits and carbonatic rocks as characteristic for the NCA. In order to obtain catchment wide chemical denudation rates we have integrated discharge time series that where measured by a permanent water gauge of the Austrian Service for Torrent and Avalanche Control to compute the total discharge of the investigated catchment over a period of one year. During the same period samples were taken at several campaigns to consider variations of the dissolved load. Samples were taken at high and low run-off conditions to study the effect of precipitation and at different locations along the tributaries to account for lithological variations of the river beds on the dissolved load. The concentrations of various cations in water samples were measured by the ICP-MS facility at the University of Graz. For the investigation period of one year 3.02 ∗ 106m3 of discharge was measured at the catchment outlet. The summed cation-concentration is varying between about 85 mg/l for dry-conditions and 75 mg/l for rainy-conditions at the gauge and consists predominantly of Ca+ cations. Based on the total discharge of the river integrated over a

  14. Mid- and late Holocene human impact recorded by the Coltrondo peat bog (NE Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segnana, Michela; Poto, Luisa; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Martino, Matteo; Oeggl, Klaus; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Peat bogs are ideal archives for the study of environmental changes, whether these are natural or human induced. Indeed, receiving water and nutrients exclusively from dry and wet atmospheric depositions, they are among the most suitable matrices for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The present study is focused on the Eastern sector of the Italian Alps, where we sampled the Coltrondo peat bog, in the Comelico area (ca. 1800 m a.s.l.) The knowledge of the human history in this area is rather scarce: the only pieces of archaeological evidence found in this area dates back to the Mesolithic and the absence of later archaeological finds makes it difficult to reconstruct the human settlement in the valley. With the main aim to obtain information about the human settlement in that area we selected a multi-proxy approach, combining the study of biotic and abiotic sedimentary components archived in the 7900 years-peat bog record. Pollen analysis is performed along the core registering human impacts on the area from ca. 2500 cal BP, when land-use changes are well evidenced by the presence of human-related pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs), as well as by the increase in micro-charcoal particles. Periods of increased human impact are recorded at the end of the Middle Ages and later, at the end of the 19th century. The analysis of trace elements, such as lead, is performed by means of ICP-MS technique and its enrichment factor (EF) is calculated. A first slight increase of Pb EF during Roman Times is possibly related to mining activities carried out by the Romans. Mining activities carried out in the area are registered during the Middle Ages, while the advent of the industrialization in the 20th century is marked by the highest EF values registered on the top of the core. To help and support the interpretation of geochemical data, lead isotopes ratios are also measured using ICP-MS to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic sources of lead. The 206Pb/207Pb

  15. Norian-Rhaetian sedimentary evolution of the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, L.; Šmuc, A.; Kolar-Jurkovšek, T.; Skaberne, D.; Celarc, B.; Čar, J.; Rožič, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Slovenian Basin represents a Mesozoic deep water sedimentary environment, during the Triassic situated on the southern passive continental margin of the Neotethys (Meliata) Ocean (cf. Schmid et al., 2008). The Norian-Rhaetian sedimentary evolution of the Slovenian Basin is reconstructed on the basis of five sections located in different parts of the Tolmin Nappe (Eastern Southern Alps, western Slovenia). The correlation of sections is based on conodont data and facies analysis. The Norian-Rhaetian interval is in the basin represented by the "Bača dolomite" (bedded dolostone with chert) and the Slatnik Formation (hemipelagic and allodapic limestones), while the bordering reef-rimmed carbonate platforms in inner areas record peritidal deposition (Main Dolomite, Dachstein Limestone). The transition from claystone and marly limestone dominated "Amphiclina beds" to the bedded "Bača dolomite" took place at the Carnian-Norian boundary. The change in facies can be attributed to the eustatic rise of sea-level and the subsequent retreat of terrigenous input. Intensive basin-wide slumping took place during the Early Norian and marks a short period of tectonic activity. Slump breccias are followed by bedded dolostones. An increase in terrigenous input in pyrite-enriched thin-bedded dolostones indicates a relative sea-level fall (cf. Haas, 2002) at the Early-Middle Norian boundary. The Middle-Late Norian sedimentation is dominated by bedded dolostones. The microfacies analysis of scarce non-dolomitized horizons indicates hemipelagic deposition and sedimentation from distal turbidites, with material derived from adjacent platform. An interval of slump breccias suggests that another tectonic pulse took place during the Middle Norian. The Late Norian in the northern part of the Tolmin Nappe already belongs to the Slatnik Formation, which spans the rest of the Triassic, while in other parts of the Basin the "Bača dolomite" continues up to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. The

  16. Authigenic K-feldspar in salt rock (Haselgebirge Formation, Eastern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The crystallisation of authigenic quartz under low temperature, saline conditions is well known (Grimm, 1962). Also the growth of low temperature authigenic feldspar in sediments is a long known phenomenon (Kastner & Siever, 1979; Sandler et al., 2004). In this study we intend to show that halite (NaCl) is a major catalyser for authigenic mineral growth. During late Permian (c. 255-250 Ma), when the later Eastern Alps were located around north of the equator, the evaporites of the Haselgebirge Formation were deposited (Piller et al., 2004). The Haselgebirge Fm. consists in salt mines of a two-component tectonite of c. 50 % halite and 50 % sedimentary clastic and other evaporite rocks (Spötl 1998). Most of the clastic rocks are mud- to siltstones ("mudrock"). During this study, we investigated rare sandstones embedded in salt rock form four Alpine salt mines. Around 40 polished thin sections were prepared by dry grinding for thin section analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sandstones consist mainly of quartz, K-feldspar, rock fragments, micas, accessory minerals and halite in the pore space. They are fine grained and well sorted. Mudrock clasts in sandstone were observed locally, and also coal was observed repeatedly. Asymmetric ripples were found only in the dimension of millimeters to centimeters. Euhedral halite crystals in pores indicate an early presence of halite. During early diagenesis, authigenic minerals crystallized in the following chronological order. (1) Where carbonate (mainly magnesite) occurred, it first filled the pore space. Plant remains were impregnated with carbonate. (2) Halite precipitated between the detritic sandstone grains. Carbonate grains can be completely embedded in halite. (3) K-feldspar and quartz grains usually expose a detritic core and a later grown euhedral inclusion free rim. Euhedral rims of K-feldspar often also enclose a halite core. K-feldspar replaced the pre-existing halite along former grain boundaries of

  17. Digital structural interpretation of mountain-scale photogrammetric 3D models (Kamnik Alps, Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolžan, Erazem; Vrabec, Marko

    2015-04-01

    From the earliest days of geological science, mountainous terrains with their extreme topographic relief and sparse to non-existent vegetation were utilized to a great advantage for gaining 3D insight into geological structure. But whereas Alpine vistas may offer perfect panoramic views of geology, the steep mountain slopes and vertical cliffs make it very time-consuming and difficult (if not impossible) to acquire quantitative mapping data such as precisely georeferenced traces of geological boundaries and attitudes of structural planes. We faced this problem in mapping the central Kamnik Alps of northern Slovenia, which are built up from Mid to Late Triassic succession of carbonate rocks. Polyphase brittle tectonic evolution, monotonous lithology and the presence of temporally and spatially irregular facies boundary between bedded platform carbonates and massive reef limestones considerably complicate the structural interpretation of otherwise perfectly exposed, but hardly accessible massif. We used Agisoft Photoscan Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric software to process a series of overlapping high-resolution (~0.25 m ground resolution) vertical aerial photographs originally acquired by the Geodetic Authority of the Republic of Slovenia for surveying purposes, to derive very detailed 3D triangular mesh models of terrain and associated photographic textures. Phototextures are crucial for geological interpretation of the models as they provide additional levels of detail and lithological information which is not resolvable from geometrical mesh models alone. We then exported the models to Paradigm Gocad software to refine and optimize the meshing. Structural interpretation of the models, including mapping of traces and surfaces of faults and stratigraphic boundaries and determining dips of structural planes, was performed in MVE Move suite which offers a range of useful tools for digital mapping and interpretation. Photogrammetric model was complemented by

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of throughfall at the plot scale in the Italian pre-Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuecco, Giulia; Oliviero, Omar; Penna, Daniele; van Meerveld, Ilja; Hopp, Luisa; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Borga, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The redistribution of rainfall in the forest canopy affects many hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Although many studies have focused on the quantification of throughfall, the controls on the spatial variability and temporal persistence of throughfall patterns are still poorly understood. This study therefore aims to: i) quantify throughfall at the plot scale for a pre-Alpine forested hillslope in Italy; ii) assess measurement differences between two different throughfall collectors; and iii) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of throughfall patterns and their relation to canopy characteristics. Throughfall measurements were taken from April to November 2013 in a 500 m2 experimental plot on the hillslope of a small and densely forested catchment (Ressi) in the Italian pre-Alps. The main tree species in the plot are beech and chestnut. The median Diameter at Breast Height of the trees in the plot is 4 cm (range 1-61 cm). Two different rainfall collectors were used: buckets (collecting area: 556 cm2; capacity: 162 mm) and rain gauges (collecting area: 47 cm2; capacity: 80 mm). Fifty buckets were randomly distributed in the plot, while 40 rain gauges were installed on a regular grid (spacing 2.5x3 m). One bucket and one rain gauge collected rainfall in a nearby open area. A tipping bucket rain gauge was installed in the open area as well. Rainfall and throughfall were measured for 20 events by manually emptying the collectors and measuring the volume of water in the collectors. Canopy openness was determined by taking pictures with a 24 mm lens upward from each sampler and selecting thresholds between dark (canopy) and light (sky) areas. For the measured events, rainfall in the open area ranged from 4 mm to 122 mm. Plot-average throughfall for these events ranged between 69%-94% and 68%-100% of precipitation for the buckets and rain gauges, respectively. Throughfall measured by the two types of samplers was statistically similar (Mann

  19. Geodetic measurement of tectonic deformation in the southern Alps and Provence, France, 1947-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat, Gilbert; Feigl, Kurt L.; Ritz, Jean-François; Souriau, Annie

    1998-06-01

    Active deformation at the boundary between the Eurasia and Africa plates varies in style. The belt between the Alpine mountain range and the Mediterranean Sea, for example, differs markedly in its western and eastern parts. In the western part, around southeast France, the mountains are higher, but the seismicity lower, than in the eastern part, around northern Italy and Greece. Yet the inter-plate convergence rate of 6 mm/yr varies by less than 15% between these two areas. To better understand the behaviour of this complex plate boundary, we use geodesy to map the spatial distribution of the deformation. In this paper, we focus on southeast France, a tectonic crossroads between three different domains (Alps, Ligurian Sea, and Massif Central) which exhibits a moderate level of seismicity. Here, the geodetic measurements imply low rates of horizontal deformation. By combining historical triangulation measurements mostly from 1947 to 1983 with Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in 1993 and 1994, we estimate the rate of angular shear in triangular subnetworks covering the study area. The estimated strain rates in thirteen of nineteen triangles are smaller than their (1 standard deviation) uncertainties of about 0.1 microradian/yr. This value bounds the rate of deformation for a 100-km wide zone in Provence, between Marseilles to the south and the Ventoux massif to the north. The geodetic estimates place an upper bound of 1 to 2 mm/yr on the slip rates of two seismically active structures, the Durance fault and the Nı̂mes fault, assuming a fault zone ˜20 km wide in each case. We also find strain rates as high as 0.20±0.07 microradian/yr in three subnetworks near the epicentre of the magnitude 5.3 Haute-Ubaye earthquake in 1959, in a region which includes the higher summits. This may be interpreted either as pure shear with compression oriented NE-SW across this region or right-lateral simple shear along NNW-SSE-trending faults. Given that this earthquake is

  20. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  1. FAS-L, IL-10, and double-negative CD4- CD8- TCR alpha/beta+ T cells are reliable markers of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) associated with FAS loss of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Loffredo, Maria S; Neven, Bénédicte; Schaffner, Catherine; Ducrot, Nicolas; Arkwright, Peter D; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Barbot, José; Blanche, Stéphane; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Debré, Marianne; Ferster, Alina; Fieschi, Claire; Florkin, Benoit; Galambrun, Claire; Hermine, Olivier; Lambotte, Olivier; Solary, Eric; Thomas, Caroline; Le Deist, Francoise; Picard, Capucine; Fischer, Alain; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric

    2009-03-26

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hypergammaglobulinemia, accumulation of double-negative TCRalphabeta(+) CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells (DNT cells), and autoimmunity. Previously, DNT cell detection and a functional defect of T cells in a FAS-induced apoptosis test in vitro had been used for ALPS diagnosis. However, a functional defect can also be detected in mutation-positive relatives (MPRs) who remain free of any ALPS-related disease. In contrast, lymphocytes from patients carrying a somatic mutation of FAS exhibit normal sensitivity to FAS-induced apoptosis in vitro. We assessed the soluble FAS-L concentration in the plasma of ALPS patients carrying FAS mutations. Overall, we showed that determination of the FAS-L represents, together with the IL-10 concentration and the DNT cell percentage, a reliable tool for the diagnosis of ALPS.

  2. AL:PE Acidification of mountain lakes: Palaeolimnology and Ecology. Part 2. - Extention. Final report to the Norwegian Research Council; AL:PE Acidification of mountain lakes: palaeolimnology and ecology. Part 2 - Utvidelse. Sluttrapport til Norges forskningsraad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wathne, B.M.; Rosseland, B.O.; Lien, L.

    1996-09-01

    Alpine and arctic regions, the least affected areas of Europe, are threatened by acid precipitation and long-range pollution. The international project discussed in this report was started to assess the conditions for alpine or arctic lakes, chemically and biologically combined with analyses of sediment cores. The work was done on lakes of various degrees of acidification and the results may be used to evaluate how fast the environment is changing, in what direction, and biological effects. The AL:PE project is the first comprehensive study of alpine lakes on a European level. The project was financed through EU`s research programme combined with funds from the participating countries. The project, which is now finally ending after 5 years of activity, is briefly surveyed in the report. One of the conclusions is that contamination from long-range pollutants can be found in even the most outlying places. 58 refs., 106 figs., 58 tabs.

  3. Diversity of bacteria producing pigmented colonies in aerosol, snow and soil samples from remote glacial areas (Antarctica, Alps and Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González-Toril

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Four different communities and one culture of pigmented microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation in mineral medium of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia, from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. The phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed the identification of sequences belonging to Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified and the maritime Antarctic soil the poorest (only one. Snow samples from Col du midi (Alps and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones. These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clone. The only microorganism identified in the maritime Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp. was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. The two snow samples from the Alps only shared one common microorganism. Most of the identified microorganisms have been detected previously in cold environments (Dietzia kujamenisi, Pseudonocardia Antarctica, Hydrogenophaga palleronii and Brebundimonas sp., marine sediments (Aquiflexus balticus, Pseudomonas pseudoalkaligenes, Pseudomonas sp. and one uncultured Alphaproteobacteria, and soils and rocks (Pseudonocardia sp.,

  4. Modern diatom, cladocera, chironomid, and chrysophyte cyst assemblages as quantitative indicators for the reconstruction of past environmental conditions in the Alps. II. Nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotter, A.F.; Birks, H.J.B.; Hofmann, W.; Marchetto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Surface sediments from 68 small lakes in the Alps and 9 welldated sediment core samples that cover a gradient of total phosphorus (TP) concentrations of 6 to 520 ug TP l-1 were studied for diatom, chrysophyte cyst, cladocera, and chironomid assemblages. Inferencemodels for mean circulation log10 TP

  5. Survey of the Target Audience for the Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS), with a Review of Pertinent Research Studies. A Report to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Urban Education, New York, NY.

    To provide information on the target audience for the Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS), a television series being developed by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, interviews were conducted with a small national sample of potential viewers. The main focus of the study was an examination of the social-psychological aspects of a decision…

  6. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  7. Zwischen Wildnis und Freizeitpark: Eine Streitschrift zur Zukunft der Alpen [Between Wilderness and Leisure Park: A Pamphlet on the Future of the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Siegrist

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Zwischen Wildnis und Freizeitpark: Eine Streitschrift zur Zukunft der Alpen [Between Wilderness and Leisure Park: A Pamphlet on the Future of the Alps] By Werner Bätzing. Zurich, Switzerland: Rotpunktverlag, 2015. 145 pp. € 9.90. ISBN 978-3-85869-648-9.

  8. Generation and evolution of nanoscale AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} particles in Al-Fe-P system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Huan; Gao, Tong; Zhu, Xiangzhen; Wu, Yuying; Qian, Zhao; Liu, Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Diffusion and gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. • Nanoscale AlP clusters are in-situ generated and evolve during the whole process. • This novel Al-Fe-P alloy has an excellent low-temperature refining performance on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. - Abstract: In this paper, the gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. The results show that the whole reaction process undergoes four main stages: the diffusion of Al atom, the generation of (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compound, the precipitation of nano AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} clusters and their growth to submicron particles. The microstructure of Fe-P particles evolves from the “egg-type”, the “sponge-type” to the “sesame-cake” structure. AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} nano phases have in-situ generated and evolved during the whole process. The gradual reaction mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, a novel Al-Fe-P alloy which contains (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compounds and nano AlP particles has been synthesized and its low-temperature refining performance on A390 alloy has also been investigated.

  9. Assessing the debris flow run-out frequency of a catchment in the French Alps using a parameterization analysis with the RAMMS numerical run-out model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussin, Y.A.; Quan Luna, B.; Van Westen, C.J.; Christen, M.; Malet, J.P.; Asch, Th.W.J. van

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows occurring in the European Alps frequently cause significant damage to settlements, power-lines and transportation infrastructure which has led to traffic disruptions, economic loss and even death. Estimating the debris flow run-out extent and the parameter uncertainty related to run-out

  10. Parameterization of a numerical 2-D debris flow model with entrainment: a case study of the Faucon catchment, Southern French Alps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussin, H.Y.; Luna, B. Quan; Westen, C.J. van; Christen, M.; Malet, J.P.; Asch, Th.W.J. van

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of debris flows has been recorded for more than a century in the European Alps, accounting for the risk to settlements and other human infrastructure that have led to death, building damage and traffic disruptions. One of the difficulties in the quantitative hazard assessment of debri

  11. 3-D assessment of peak-metamorphic conditions by Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material: an example from the margin of the Lepontine dome (Swiss Central Alps)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiederkehr, Michael; Bousquet, Romain; Ziemann, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    within the northeastern margin of the Lepontine dome and easterly adjacent areas of the Swiss Central Alps. Three-dimensional mapping of isotemperature contours in map and profile views shows that the isotemperature contours associated with the Miocene Barrow-type Lepontine metamorphic event cut across...

  12. Dominant inhibition of Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis due to a heterozygous mutation associated with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS Type Ib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Jay M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS is a disorder of lymphocyte homeostasis and immunological tolerance due primarily to genetic defects in Fas (CD95/APO-1; TNFRSF6, a cell surface receptor that regulates apoptosis and its signaling apparatus. Methods: Fas ligand gene mutations from ALPS patients were identified through cDNA and genomic DNA sequencing. Molecular and biochemical assessment of these mutant Fas ligand proteins were carried out by expressing the mutant FasL cDNA in mammalian cells and analysis its effects on Fas-mediated programmed cell death. Results: We found an ALPS patient that harbored a heterozygous A530G mutation in the FasL gene that replaced Arg with Gly at position 156 in the protein's extracellular Fas-binding region. This produced a dominant-interfering FasL protein that bound to the wild-type FasL protein and prevented it from effectively inducing apoptosis. Conclusion: Our data explain how a naturally occurring heterozygous human FasL mutation can dominantly interfere with normal FasL apoptotic function and lead to an ALPS phenotype, designated Type Ib.

  13. Strain rates at high temporal resolution from curved inclusion trails in garnet, Passo del Sole, Central Swiss Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, C. A.; Carlson, W. D.; Connelly, James

    2013-01-01

    of locally sourced nutrients. Together, these constraints increase the reliability of estimates of rates of garnet growth, and the strain-rate calculations that depend on them. To obtain growth rates, P-T conditions during garnet crystallization were modelled in a series of pseudosections, and compositional......Quantitative strain rates at outcrop scale are very difficult to obtain, but they may be estimated from crystals with curved inclusion trails by calculating rotation rates from growth rates and corresponding deflections of the internal foliation. Garnet in a quartzose pelite at Passo del Sole...... in the central Swiss Alps is extraordinarily valuable for calculation of strain rates during Alpine orogenesis, because the unusual zoning patterns clearly define the kinetics of its nucleation and growth. Complex concentric zoning patterns can be correlated from one crystal to another in a hand sample, based...

  14. Evolution of organic and inorganic components of aerosol during a Saharan dust episode observed in the French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aymoz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A Saharan dust event was observed in a rural area in the Maurienne Valley (French Alps in summer 2000. Detailed data on PM10, particle numbers, and aerosol chemistry (ionic species and Elemental Carbon (EC and Organic Carbon (OC are presented. The comparative evolutions of particle numbers and chemistry (calcium, sodium, and sulfate show that the overall period included two episodes of dust particles with very distinct chemistry, followed by an episode with a large increase of the concentrations of species with an anthropogenic origin. The overall data set does not indicate large interactions between the dust particles and compounds from anthropogenic origin (sulfate, nitrate or with organic carbon, all of these species showing very low concentrations. Simplistic calculations indicate that these concentrations are consistent with our current knowledge of adsorption processes of gases on mineral dust in a clean air mass.

  15. Evolution of organic and inorganic components of aerosol during a Saharan dust episode observed in the French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aymoz

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A Saharan dust event was observed in a rural area in the Maurienne Valley (French Alps in summer 2000. Detailed data on PM10, particle numbers, and aerosol chemistry (ionic species and Elemental Carbon (EC and Organic Carbon (OC are presented. The comparative evolutions of particle numbers and chemistry (calcium, sodium, and sulfate show that the overall period included two episodes of dust particles with very distinct chemistry, followed by an episode with a large increase of the concentrations of species with an anthropogenic origin. The overall data set does not indicate large interactions between the dust particles and compounds from anthropogenic origin (sulfate, nitrate or with organic carbon, all of these species showing very low concentrations. Simplistic calculations indicate that these concentrations are consistent with our current knowledge of adsorption processes of gases on mineral dust in a clean air mass.

  16. Monitoring of carbon dioxide fluxes in a subalpine grassland ecosystem of the Italian Alps using a multispectral sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sakowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the potential of a multispectral sensor for monitoring mean midday gross ecosystem production (GEPm in a dynamic subalpine grassland ecosystem of the Italian Alps equipped with an eddy covariance flux tower. Reflectance observations were collected for five consecutive years by means of a multispectral radiometer system. Spectral vegetation indices were calculated from reflectance measurements at particular wavelengths. Different models based on linear regression and on multiple regression were developed to estimate GEPm. Chlorophyll-related indices including red-edge part of the spectrum in their formulation were the best predictors of GEPm, explaining most of its variability during the five consecutive years of observations characterized by different climatic conditions. Integrating mean midday photosynthetically active radiation into the model resulted in a general decrease in the accuracy of estimates. Also, the use of the reflectance approach instead of the VIs approach did not lead to considerably improved results in estimating GEPm.

  17. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS-A 'light shining through a wall' experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hildebrandt, Matthias [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kracht, Dietmar [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Lindner, Axel, E-mail: axel.lindner@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Meier, Tobias [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-12-21

    The ALPS Collaboration runs a 'light shining through a wall' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into 'weakly interacting sub-eV particles' (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical resonant cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run.

  18. Results of the MERKUR experiment: Structural changes of a weak cold front in the area of the Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freytag, C.; Beier, N. (ed.)

    1987-03-01

    The examination of fronts and the effect on them of mountains are the research aims of ALPEX. A whole series of works are available on about 15 'front events' during ALPEX-SOP (special observing period March-April 1982). The first results on a weak cold front are shown, which reached the southern spur of the Alps on the 2nd and 3rd of April 1982, but which did not cross the mountains. The passage of the front came in the 3rd intensive measurement phase of the MERKUR experiment. Apart from the ALPEX soundings, the additional measurements during MERKUR are also available. This permits structural investigations with relatively good resolution in the border area mountains/foothills and in the mountains themselves.

  19. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS. A 'light-shining-through-walls' experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (DE)] (and others)

    2009-05-15

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run. (orig.)

  20. Structural data, geomorphology and rock slides in the SW of Barles (The Alps of Northern Provence, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, D.

    2016-10-01

    The Alps of northern Provence in France is a familiar area to European geologists because numerous, long field studies have been organized by European universities and private petroleum companies during the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. Nevertheless, geologists have made few comments on the consequences of some topographic slides and, more broadly, on the manner by which nature has sculpted the local geomorphology. After having set the local tectonic data (the thrust of the Blayeul Massif on an already folded para-autochtonous formation and locally up and down reversals in the area of the Heights of Chine and Proussier), a geological and geomorphological summary introduces a discussion on slides and slope formations; then the details of the morphology analysis lead us to the conclusions. (Author)

  1. The "green stones" of Valtellina and Valchiavenna (central Alps, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Valtellina and Val Chiavenna (Sondrio, Central Alps, northern Italy) are traditionally areas of production of building and ornamental stones (e.g. Serizzo Ghiandone, Serizzo Valmasino, San Fedelino Granite), and among these the "green stones" have a leading position. These stones had an extensive use in Lombardy, as well as abroad (e.g Switzerland). The "green stones" are related to the two mafic-ultramafic bodies of Valmalenco and Chiavenna, where the two largest quarrying districts of the Province of Sondrio are located. Until the early decades of the XX century, serpentinites (and other lithologies from Valtellina) were also extracted from the erratic boulders of Brianza (north of Milan), but at present time the law protects the few remaining boulders. The extracted and processed materials are various: serpentinites, ophicalcites, soapstones. Even the "Stone of Tresivio", used in the past in important monuments of Valtellina, could be classified among the "green stones" in a broad sense: it is a green chloritic schist with scarce and thin ferriferous calcitic veins, pertaining to the sedimentary "Servino" Formation. In recent times, the ancient quarries of this stone were rediscovered near the homonymous village, a few kilometers from Sondrio. There are also historic reports about other "green stones", used in ancient times, such as the "Stone of Grosio", a chloritic schist, and the "Bormio Prasinite". Currently the extraction and processing of "green stones" occurs mostly in Valmalenco, with 22 active serpentinite quarries and a gross volume of 70000 m3 extracted per year, with a yield of about 50%. The Malenco serpentinite (interpreted as sub-continental mantle rocks) forms a 1-2 km thick tabular body, outcropping over an area of about 170 km2, almost entirely confined within the boundaries of the valley. The antigoritic serpentinites (with variable amounts of olivine, clinopyroxene, chlorite and magnetite) are moderately up to strongly foliated, sometimes

  2. A new Geo-Information Architecture for Risk Management in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffini, Mi.; Thuering, M.

    2009-04-01

    the dangers (natural) and related risks in terms of infrastructure vulnerability. The application considers different types of danger (logically intersected with the transport infrastructure) and compares them with fixed values to obtain a so-called deficit. As framework we adopt The Swiss system for risk analysis of gravitational natural hazards (BUWAL 1999). In this way the project develops a methodology that makes possible a risk analysis aiming to optimize the infrastructure vulnerability and therefore allows to obtain a model designed to optimize the functionality of the network infrastructure. A simulation environment, RiskBox, is developed within the open-source GIS environment GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) and a database (PostgreSQL) in order to manage a infrastructure data catalog. The targeted simulation environment includes the elements that identify the consecutive steps of risk analysis: hazard - vulnerability - risk. The initial results of the experimental case study show how useful a GIS-based system, which identify the risk of any single vulnerable element in the corridor and to assess the risk to the global system on the basis of priorities of the actors involved, can be for effective and efficient disaster response management, as explained in (ARMONIA Project 2007). In our work we wanted to highlight the complexity of the risk analysis methodology, difficulty that is amplified by many peculiarities in the mountain areas. In particular, the illustrative performed process can give an overview of the interests and the need to act to reduce vulnerability and the hazardous nature of the Gotthard corridor. We present the concept and current state of development of our project and our application to the testbed, the Alps-crossing corridor of St. Gotthard. REFERENCES ARMONIA Project 2007: Land use plans in Risky areas fro Unwise to Wise Practices - Materials 2nd conference. Politecnico di Milano. BUWAL 1999: Risikoanalyse bei

  3. Ophiolitic detritus in Kimmeridgian resedimented limestones and its provenance from an eroded obducted ophiolitic nappe stack south of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlick Hans-Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes for the Middle to Late Jurassic tectonic processes in the Northern Calcareous Alps are still controversially discussed. There are several contrasting models for these processes, formerly designated “Jurassic gravitational tectonics”. Whereas in the Dinarides or the Western Carpathians Jurassic ophiolite obduction and a Jurassic mountain building process with nappe thrusting is widely accepted, equivalent processes are still questioned for the Eastern Alps. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, an Early Cretaceous nappe thrusting process is widely favoured instead of a Jurassic one, obviously all other Jurassic features are nearly identical in the Northern Calcareous Alps, the Western Carpathians and the Dinarides. In contrast, the Jurassic basin evolutionary processes, as best documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps, were in recent times adopted to explain the Jurassic tectonic processes in the Carpathians and Dinarides. Whereas in the Western Carpathians Neotethys oceanic material is incorporated in the mélanges and in the Dinarides huge ophiolite nappes are preserved above the Jurassic basin fills and mélanges, Jurassic ophiolites or ophiolitic remains are not clearly documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps. Here we present chrome spinel analyses of ophiolitic detritic material from Kimmeridgian allodapic limestones in the central Northern Calcareous Alps. The Kimmeridgian age is proven by the occurrence of the benthic foraminifera Protopeneroplis striata and Labyrinthina mirabilis, the dasycladalean algae Salpingoporella pygmea, and the alga incertae sedis Pseudolithocodium carpathicum. From the geochemical composition the analysed spinels are pleonastes and show a dominance of Al-chromites (Fe3+–Cr3+–Al3+ diagram. In the Mg/(Mg+ Fe2+ vs. Cr/(Cr+ Al diagram they can be classified as type II ophiolites and in the TiO2 vs. Al2O3 diagram they plot into the SSZ peridotite field. All together this points to a harzburgite

  4. Genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild caprine and cervid ungulates from the Alps in Tyrol, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Hamel, Dietmar; Thiel, Claudia; Pfister, Kurt; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum was studied in wild ungulates from the northern and central eastern Alps in Tyrol, Austria. For this purpose, spleen samples collected from 53 game animals during the hunting season 2008/2009 (16 roe deer [Capreolus capreolus], 10 red deer [Cervus elaphus], 16 Alpine chamois [Rupicapra r. rupicapra], 7 Alpine ibex [Capra i. ibex], and 4 European mouflons [Ovis orientalis musimon]) were analyzed. Thirty-five animals originated from the Karwendel mountains, 12 from the Kaunertal area (Ötztal Alps), and the remaining from other mountainous areas in Tyrol. DNA extracts were screened with a real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the msp2 gene of A. phagocytophilum. A total of 23 (43.4%) samples, from all ungulate species studied, were A. phagocytophilum positive. As of the date of this article, A. phagocytophilum has not been reported in the Alpine ibex. The positive samples were investigated further with polymerase chain reactions for amplification of the partial 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp4 genes. Sequence analysis using forward and reverse primers revealed seven different 16S rRNA gene variants. No variant could be attributed to any particular ungulate species. The groEL gene revealed 11 different variants, which grouped in the phylogenetic analysis into two distinct clusters: one cluster contained the sequences from roe deer, whereas the sequences of the other species formed the second cluster. The msp4 gene showed a high degree of variability in the amplified part with a total of 10 different sequence types. The results show that the wild mountain ungulates were infected to a considerable extent with various variants of A. phagocytophilum. The pathogenicity of the variants and the reservoir competence of the species investigated in this study deserve further attention in future studies.

  5. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  6. Performances of an expanding insect under elevated CO{sub 2} and snow cover in the Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, B.; Petrucco-Toffolo, E. [University of Padova, Legnaro (Italy). Dept. of Environmental Agronomy

    2008-09-30

    Variations of phenology and distribution have been recently highlighted in numerous insect species and attributed to climate change, particularly the increase of temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Both have been shown to have direct and indirect effects on insect species of various ecosystems, though the responses are often species-specific. The pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae) is an important pest of conifers in the Mediterranean region, and has been recently shown to expand its altitudinal range in the Alps, including the mountain pine Pinus mugo as a novel host. We had the opportunity to transplant colonies of the pine processionary moth to a high elevation site well outside of the current range of the insect (Stillberg, Davos, Switzerland, 2180 m), where trees of the mountain pine have been grown for five years under ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations (ca. 570 ppm). The aim of the study was to evaluate the response of first instar larvae to extreme conditions of temperature and to an altered performance induced by the change of host metabolism under elevated CO{sub 2}. Larval mortality and relative growth rate did not differ between host trees grown in ambient or elevated CO{sub 2}. As extended snow cover may be an important mortality factor of larval colonies on the dwarf trees of mountain pine, we tested the survival of colonies transplanted at two extreme sites of Eastern Alps. The snow cover extended over more than one month proved to be an important mortality factor of larval colonies on mountain pine. We concluded that the first instar larvae of the pine processionary moth are not concerned by unusually low temperature and CO{sub 2} increase whereas they can be later strongly affected by snow accumulation. The decrease of snow cover observed in the last decades, however, may reduce such a risk.

  7. Refined Three-Dimensional Modelling of Thermally-Driven Flow in the Bormio System (Central Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Giorgio; Riva, Federico; Frattini, Paolo; Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Magri, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    Thermal springs are widespread in the European Alps, where more than 80 geothermal sites are known and exploited. The quantitative assessment of those thermal flow systems is a challenging issue and requires accurate conceptual model and a thorough understanding of thermo-hydraulic properties of the aquifers. Accordingly in the last years, several qualitative studies were carried out to understand the heat and fluid transport processes driving deep fluids from the reservoir to the springs. Our work focused on thermal circulation and fluid outflows of the area around Bormio (Central Italian Alps), where nine geothermal springs discharge from dolomite bodies located close to a regional alpine thrust, called the Zebrù Line. At this site, water is heated in deep circulation systems and vigorously upwells at temperature of about 40°C. The aim of this paper is to explore the mechanisms of heat and fluid transport in the Bormio area by carrying out refined steady and transient three-dimensional finite element simulations of thermally-driven flow and to quantitatively assess the source area of the thermal waters. The full regional model (ca. 700 km2) is discretized with a highly refined triangular finite element planar grid obtained with Midas GTS NX software. The structural 3D features of the regional Zebrù thrust are built by interpolating series of geological cross sections using Fracman. A script was developed to convert and implement the thrust grid into FEFLOW mesh that comprises ca. 4 million elements. The numerical results support the observed discharge rates and temperature field within the simulated domain. Flow and temperature patterns suggest that thermal groundwater flows through a deep system crossing both sedimentary and metamorphic lithotypes, and a fracture network associated to the thrust system. Besides providing a numerical framework to simulate complex fractured systems, this example gives insights into the influence of deep alpine structures on

  8. Peat bog records of dust deposition over the last 2000 years in the Dolomites (NE Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poto, Luisa; Segnana, Michela; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Zaccone, Claudio; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    The reconstruction of dust composition and fluxes is crucial to help to understand climate variability and climate changes. Dust fluctuations, linked to changes in dry and wet depositions, can indicate more humid or arid conditions, changes in temperature, vegetation cover and wind regimes. Peatlands are unique terrestrial archives that can capture changes in atmospheric deposition over time. Among them, ombrotrophic environments are hydrologically isolated from the surrounding landscapes receiving all the nutrients from precipitation and wind, with no influence from streams and groundwater. In recent decades biological and chemical proxies from peat bogs were extensively used to trace past climate changes, and rare earth elements (REE) in particular have been developed as inorganic geochemical proxies of mineral dust input in the atmosphere that plays an important role in the marine and terrestrial biogeochemical cycle as source for both major and trace elements. Dust deposition in the Italian Alps during the last 2000 years is estimated from the geochemical signature of two ombrotrophic peatlands. The first bog is located in Danta di Cadore (Belluno province, 1400 m a.s.l.), the second one in Coltrondo (Belluno province, 1800 m a.s.l.): they both allow us to have new insights into climate variability in the Eastern sector of the Italian Alps. The REE and the lithogenic elements concentration, as well as the lead isotopic composition were determined by CRC-ICP-QMS along the first meter of each core. For both the archives chronology is based upon independent 14C and 210Pb measurements. Changes in REE concentration through the bogs were related with those of lithogenic elements in order to test the immobility of the REE. Moreover peat humification degree was used to evaluate the hydroclimatic conditions of the bogs and Pb isotopic signature were used to trace dust deposited at Danta di Cadore and Coltrondo bogs and to discriminate natural from anthropogenic source

  9. Reconstructing temperatures in the Maritime Alps, Italy, since the Last Glacial Maximum using cosmogenic noble gas paleothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marissa; Spagnolo, Matteo; Ribolini, Adriano; Shuster, David

    2016-04-01

    The Gesso Valley, located in the southwestern-most, Maritime portion of the European Alps, contains an exceptionally well-preserved record of glacial advances during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Detailed geomorphic mapping, geochronology of glacial deposits, and glacier reconstructions indicate that glaciers in this Mediterranean region responded to millennial scale climate variability differently than glaciers in the interior of the European Alps. This suggests that the Mediterranean Sea somehow modulated the climate of this region. However, since glaciers respond to changes in temperature and precipitation, both variables were potentially influenced by proximity to the Sea. To disentangle the competing effects of temperature and precipitation changes on glacier size, we are constraining past temperature variations in the Gesso Valley since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) using cosmogenic noble gas paleothermometry. The cosmogenic noble gases 3He and 21Ne experience diffusive loss from common minerals like quartz and feldspars at Earth surface temperatures. Cosmogenic noble gas paleothermometry utilizes this open-system behavior to quantitatively constrain thermal histories of rocks during exposure to cosmic ray particles at the Earth's surface. We will present measurements of cosmogenic 3He in quartz sampled from moraines in the Gesso Valley with LGM, Bühl stadial, and Younger Dryas ages. With these 3He measurements and experimental data quantifying the diffusion kinetics of 3He in quartz, we will provide a preliminary temperature reconstruction for the Gesso Valley since the LGM. Future work on samples from younger moraines in the valley system will be used to fill in details of the more recent temperature history.

  10. MAPK signaling pathway alters expression of midgut ALP and ABCC genes and causes resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in diamondback moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojiang Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L., was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1. Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella.

  11. A model-data comparison of Holocene timberline changes in the Swiss Alps reveals past and future drivers of mountain forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwörer, Christoph; Henne, Paul D; Tinner, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Mountain vegetation is strongly affected by temperature and is expected to shift upwards with climate change. Dynamic vegetation models are often used to assess the impact of climate on vegetation and model output can be compared with paleobotanical data as a reality check. Recent paleoecological studies have revealed regional variation in the upward shift of timberlines in the Northern and Central European Alps in response to rapid warming at the Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition ca. 11 700 years ago, probably caused by a climatic gradient across the Alps. This contrasts with previous studies that successfully simulated the early Holocene afforestation in the (warmer) Central Alps with a chironomid-inferred temperature reconstruction from the (colder) Northern Alps. We use LandClim, a dynamic landscape vegetation model to simulate mountain forests under different temperature, soil and precipitation scenarios around Iffigsee (2065 m a.s.l.) a lake in the Northwestern Swiss Alps, and compare the model output with the paleobotanical records. The model clearly overestimates the upward shift of timberline in a climate scenario that applies chironomid-inferred July-temperature anomalies to all months. However, forest establishment at 9800 cal. BP at Iffigsee is successfully simulated with lower moisture availability and monthly temperatures corrected for stronger seasonality during the early Holocene. The model-data comparison reveals a contraction in the realized niche of Abies alba due to the prominent role of anthropogenic disturbance after ca. 5000 cal. BP, which has important implications for species distribution models (SDMs) that rely on equilibrium with climate and niche stability. Under future climate projections, LandClim indicates a rapid upward shift of mountain vegetation belts by ca. 500 m and treeline positions of ca. 2500 m a.s.l. by the end of this century. Resulting biodiversity losses in the alpine vegetation belt might be mitigated with low

  12. Application of Powder Diffraction Methods to the Analysis of the Atomic Structure of Nanocrystals: The Concept of the Apparent Lattice Parameter (ALP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, B.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Stelmakh, S.; Pielaszek, R.; Bismayer, U.; Weber, H.-P.; Palosz, W.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The applicability of standard methods of elaboration of powder diffraction data for determination of the structure of nano-size crystallites is analysed. Based on our theoretical calculations of powder diffraction data we show, that the assumption of the infinite crystal lattice for nanocrystals smaller than 20 nm in size is not justified. Application of conventional tools developed for elaboration of powder diffraction data, like the Rietveld method, may lead to erroneous interpretation of the experimental results. An alternate evaluation of diffraction data of nanoparticles, based on the so-called 'apparent lattice parameter' (alp) is introduced. We assume a model of nanocrystal having a grain core with well-defined crystal structure, surrounded by a surface shell with the atomic structure similar to that of the core but being under a strain (compressive or tensile). The two structural components, the core and the shell, form essentially a composite crystal with interfering, inseparable diffraction properties. Because the structure of such a nanocrystal is not uniform, it defies the basic definitions of an unambiguous crystallographic phase. Consequently, a set of lattice parameters used for characterization of simple crystal phases is insufficient for a proper description of the complex structure of nanocrystals. We developed a method of evaluation of powder diffraction data of nanocrystals, which refers to a core-shell model and is based on the 'apparent lattice parameter' methodology. For a given diffraction pattem, the alp values are calculated for every individual Bragg reflection. For nanocrystals the alp values depend on the diffraction vector Q. By modeling different a0tomic structures of nanocrystals and calculating theoretically corresponding diffraction patterns using the Debye functions we showed, that alp-Q plots show characteristic shapes which can be used for evaluation of the atomic structure of the core-shell system. We show, that using a simple

  13. Differential regulation of miR-146a/FAS and miR-21/FASLG axes in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to FAS mutation (ALPS-FAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marega, Lia Furlaneto; Teocchi, Marcelo Ananias; Dos Santos Vilela, Maria Marluce

    2016-08-01

    Most cases of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) have an inherited genetic defect involving apoptosis-related genes of the FAS pathway. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding regulatory RNAs playing a role in the control of gene expression. This is the first report on miRNAs in ALPS patients. We studied a mother and son carrying the same FAS cell surface death receptor (FAS) mutation, but with only the son manifesting the signs and symptoms of ALPS-FAS. The aim was to analyse, by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) relative expression of miR-146a and miR-21, including their passenger strands and respective targets (FAS and FASLG). In comparison with healthy matched control individuals, miR-21-3p was over-expressed significantly (P = 0·0313) in the son, with no significant change in the expression of miR-146a, miR-146a-3p and miR-21. In contrast, the mother had a slight under-expression of the miR-146a pair and miR-21-3p (P = 0·0625). Regarding the miRNA targets, FAS was up-regulated markedly for the mother (P = 0·0078), but down-regulated for the son (P = 0·0625), while FASLG did not have any significant alteration. Taken together, our finding clearly suggests a role of the miR-146a/FAS axis in ALPS-FAS variable expressivity in which FAS haploinsufficiency seems to be compensated only in the mother who had the miR-146a pair down-regulated. As only the son had the major clinical manifestations of ALPS-FAS, miR-21-3p should be investigated as playing a critical role in ALPS physiopathology, including the development of lymphoma.

  14. Assessment of the thermal and dynamic reaction scenarios of different permafrost typologies in the European Alps: A PermaNET initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, A.

    2009-04-01

    High altitude and high latitude regions are generally recognized as being particularly sensitive to the effects of the ongoing climate change. A large part of permafrost in the European Alps for instance is at or close to melting conditions and is therefore very sensitive to degradation caused by atmospheric warming. Knowledge regarding permafrost distribution and its climatologically driven dynamics in the entire European Alps is still far from being complete. The new European Union co-funded project "PermaNET - Permafrost long-term monitoring network" (launched in July 2008) attempts to close some of these major gaps in permafrost knowledge (www.permanet-alpinespace.eu). One work package of PermaNET focuses on the assessment of the relationship between permafrost and climate change. In it, one action is concerned with the assessment of the thermal and dynamic reaction scenarios of different permafrost typologies in the European Alps. Research in this action is focussing on the relationship between measured climate data and observed permafrost reaction using available datasets collected during the last decades in the European Alps. Such datasets include ground temperature measurements (at the surface and in boreholes), rock glacier displacements or observations on mass movement events that were initiated in permafrost environments (e.g. rock falls). These established relationships in combination with calculated data from climate scenario modelling will form the basis for model simulations and estimations regarding changes in permafrost distribution (vertically and horizontally), in the active layer thickness, in the rates of rock glacier displacement, etc. Study sites for this action are located in Austria (Mt. Sonnblick, Central Schober Mountains, Dösen Valley, Mt. Hochreichart, Schrank Cirque), in Italy (Cime Bianche Pass, Matterhorn SW ridge, Valtournenche, Aosta Valley Region, Val di Genova and Val d'Amola in the Adamello-Presanella Group), in Switzerland

  15. Aerosol deposition (trace elements and black carbon) over the highest glacier of the Eastern European Alps during the last centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertò, Michele; Barbante, Carlo; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Gabrielli, Paolo; Spolaor, Andrea; Dreossi, Giuliano; Laj, Paolo; Zanatta, Marco; Ginot, Patrick; Fain, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Ice cores are an archive of a wide variety of climatic and environmental information from the past, retaining them for hundreds of thousands of years. Anthropogenic pollutants, trace elements, heavy metals and major ions, are preserved as well providing insights on the past atmospheric circulations and allowing evaluating the human impact on the environment. Several ice cores were drilled in glaciers at mid and low latitudes, as in the European Alps. The first ice cores drilled to bedrock in the Eastern Alps were retrieved during autumn 2011 on the "Alto dell`Ortles glacier", the uppermost glacier of the Ortles massif (3905m, South Tirol, Italy), in the frame of the "Ortles Project". A preliminary dating of the core suggests that it should cover at least 300-400 years. Despite the summer temperature increase of the last decades this glacier still contain cold ice. Indeed, O and H isotopes profiles well describe the atmospheric warming as well as the low temperatures recorded during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Moreover, this glacier is located close to densely populated and industrialized areas and can be used for reconstructing for the first time past and recent air pollution and the human impact in the Eastern European Alps. The innermost part of the core is under analysis by means of a "Continuous Flow Analysis" system. This kind of analysis offers a high resolution in data profiles. The separation between the internal and the external parts of the core avoid any kind of contamination. An aluminum melting head melts the core at about 2.5 cm min-1. Simultaneous analyses of conductivity, dust concentration and size distribution (from 0.8 to 80 μm), trace elements with Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500) and refractory black carbon (rBC) with the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2, Droplet Measurement Technologies) are performed. A fraction of the melt water is collected by an auto-sampler for further analysis. The analyzed elements

  16. Soil-stratigraphic techniques in the study of soil and landform evolution across the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, P. J.; Basher, L. R.

    1990-09-01

    The Southern Alps lie along the convergent Pacific-Indian plate boundary. Geomorphically distinct eastern, axial and western regions reflect the east-west gradient in tectonic uplift (1 to 10 mm a -1) and precipitation (600 to 10,000 mm a -1). The eastern region is divided into front-ange and basin-and-range subregions. Soil-sequence studies on terraces established temporal contrasts in pedogenesis within and between eastern and western regions encompassing Entisols, Inceptisols and Spodosols. On Late Pleistocene and early Holocene terraces Dystrochrepts are persistent soils in the eastern region and Aquods in the western region. These soil sequences are used in the interpretation of relative soil age, stratigraphy and erosion history in hill and mountain drainage basins of the eastern and western regions. In the subhumid to humid eastern front-range subregion, simple soil forms occur as catenary sequences, and there is little evidence of erosion following the destruction of forests in the last millenium. Mollisols are dominant in the subhumid, and Dystrochrepts in humid areas, respectively. Soil-debris mantle regoliths date from the early Holocene and are still developing on slopes. The soil pattern on mountain slopes in the humid, eastern basin-and-range subregion is a complex array of simple, eroded, composite and compound soils. This pattern has resulted from erosion following forest destruction within the last millenium. The oldest surface or buried forest soils are Dystrochrepts dating from the Late Pleistocene to early Holocene. Wind erosion of these low-fertility soils contributes to the loessial sediments in which younger soils have formed. In the western region, soil patterns and soil stratigraphy indicate continous instability with a complex pattern of highly leached, shallow Orthents and bedrock outcrops on slopes. The soils are eroded from slopes within 2 ka. These contrasts in soil development and erosion periodicity in the eastern and western regions

  17. Measurement of snow depth distribution in the upper basin in the Japanese Alps using an airborne laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Sasaki, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    In the Japanese Alps region, large amounts of precipitation in the form of snow constitute a more important water resource than rain. During the winter, precipitation that is deposited as snowfall accumulates in the river basins, and it forms natural dams known as "white dams." A quantitative understanding of snow depth distribution in these mountainous areas is important not only for evaluating water resource volume, but also for understanding the effects of snow in terms of its impact on landforms and its effect on the distribution of vegetation. However, it is not easy to perform a quantitative evaluation of snow depth distribution in mountainous areas. Several methods have been proposed for clarifying snow depth distribution. The most widely used of these is a method of inserting a sounding rod into the snow to measure its depth at each geographic position. Another method is to dig a trench in the snow and then perform an observational measurement of the side of the trench. These methods enable accurate measurement of the snow depth; however, when the snow is several meters deep, the methods may be limited by the measuring capacity of the equipment, or by the time restrictions of the survey. For these reasons, wide area measurement of the spatial distribution of snow is very difficult, and it is not suitable for investigating snow depth distribution in river basins. In recent years, a measurement technology has been developed that uses laser scanners mounted on aircraft. This method enables researchers to obtain ground surface coordinate data with high precision over a wide area from the air. Using such a scanner to measure the ground surface during snow coverage and during no snow coverage, and then finding the differences between the surface elevations, has made it possible to ascertain snow depth with high precision. Airborne laser measurement enables high-precision measurements over a wide area and in a short amount of time, and measurements can be made

  18. Plant-wax D/H ratios in the southern European Alps record multiple aspects of climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Stefanie B.; Sessions, Alex L.

    2016-09-01

    We present a Younger Dryas-Holocene record of the hydrogen isotopic composition of sedimentary plant waxes (δDwax) from the southern European Alps (Lake Ghirla, N-Italy) to investigate its sensitivity to climatic forcing variations in this mid-latitude region (45°N). A modern altitudinal transect of δD values of river water and leaf waxes in the Lake Ghirla catchment is used to test present-day climate sensitivity of δDwax. While we find that altitudinal effects on δDwax are minor at our study site, temperature, precipitation amount, and evapotranspiration all appear to influence δDwax to varying extents. In the lake-sediment record, δDwax values vary between -134 and -180‰ over the past 13 kyr. The long-term Holocene pattern of δDwax parallels the trend of decreasing temperature and is thus likely forced by the decline of northern hemisphere summer insolation. Shorter-term fluctuations, in contrast, may reflect both temperature and moisture-source changes. During the cool Younger Dryas and Little Ice Age (LIA) periods we observe unexpectedly high δDwax values relative to those before and after. We suggest that a change towards a more D-enriched moisture source is required during these intervals. In fact, a shift from northern N-Atlantic to southern N-Atlantic/western Mediterranean Sea sources would be consistent with a southward migration of the Westerlies with climate cooling. Prominent δDwax fluctuations in the early and middle Holocene are negative and potentially associated with temperature declines. In the late Holocene (changes on δDwax variation. In addition to isotopic fractionations of the hydrological cycle, changes in vegetation composition, in the length of the growing season, and in snowfall amount provide additional potential sources of variability, although we cannot yet quantitatively assess these in the paleo-record. We conclude that while our δDwax record from the Alps does contain climatic information, it is a complicated record

  19. The Little Ice Age climate of New Zealand reconstructed from Southern Alps cirque glaciers: a synoptic type approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrey, Andrew; Fauchereau, Nicolas; Stanton, Craig; Chappell, Petra; Phipps, Steven; Mackintosh, Andrew; Renwick, James; Goodwin, Ian; Fowler, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA) austral summer temperature anomalies were derived from palaeoequilibrium line altitudes at 22 cirque glacier sites across the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Modern analog seasons with temperature anomalies akin to the LIA reconstructions were selected, and then applied in a sampling of high-resolution gridded New Zealand climate data and global reanalysis data to generate LIA climate composites at local, regional and hemispheric scales. The composite anomaly patterns assist in improving our understanding of atmospheric circulation contributions to the LIA climate state, allow an interrogation of synoptic type frequency changes for the LIA relative to present, and provide a hemispheric context of the past conditions in New Zealand. An LIA summer temperature anomaly of -0.56 °C (±0.29 °C) for the Southern Alps based on palaeo-equilibrium lines compares well with local tree-ring reconstructions of austral summer temperature. Reconstructed geopotential height at 1,000 hPa (z1000) suggests enhanced southwesterly flow across New Zealand occurred during the LIA to generate the terrestrial temperature anomalies. The mean atmospheric circulation pattern for summer resulted from a crucial reduction of the `HSE'-blocking synoptic type (highs over and to the west of NZ; largely settled conditions) and increases in both the `T'- and `SW'-trough synoptic types (lows passing over NZ; enhanced southerly and southwesterly flow) relative to normal. Associated land-based temperature and precipitation anomalies suggest both colder- and wetter-than-normal conditions were a pervasive component of the base climate state across New Zealand during the LIA, as were colder-than-normal Tasman Sea surface temperatures. Proxy temperature and circulation evidence were used to corroborate the spatially heterogeneous Southern Hemisphere composite z1000 and sea surface temperature patterns generated in this study. A comparison of the composites to climate mode archetypes

  20. The wake south of the Alps: Dynamics and structure of the lee-side flow and secondary potential vorticity banners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamant, C.; Richard, E.; Schär, C.; Rotunno, R.; Nance, L.; Sprenger, M.; Benoit, R.

    2004-04-01

    The dynamics and structure of the lee-side flow over the Po valley during a northerly föhn event, which occurred in the framework of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme Special Observation Period (on 8 November 1999 during Intensive Observation Period 15), has been investigated using aircraft data and high-resolution numerical simulations. Numerical simulations were performed with the mesoscale non-hydrostatic model Meso-NH, using three nested domains (with horizontal resolutions 32, 8 and 2 km), the 2 km resolution domain being centred on the Po valley. The basic data-model comparison, and back-trajectory and tracer release analyses, provided evidence that the jet/wake structure of the flow above the Po valley could be reasonably identified with the mountain pass/peak distributions. Measurements from three aircraft flying below the Alps crestline (at 2700, 1500 and 600 m above sea level) along two 350 km east-west legs, designed to be approximately perpendicular to the northerly synoptic flow, were used to compute the potential vorticity (PV) experimentally assuming the lee-side flow to be two-dimensional. (The simplified form of the PV under these assumptions is hereafter referred to as SPV). Due to increasing lee-side flow curvature with decreasing altitude (caused by flow splitting at the scale of the Alps), the experimentally derived SPV was compared to its simulated counterpart.In situ measurements showed that coherent secondary PV banners (PVB2s) do exist downstream of the complex Alpine terrain, as observations show oscillations between positive and negative values of SPV as expected from the simulations. The details of the structure of the SPV field simulated with Meso-NH were found to be different from the observations (i.e. the location of observed maxima and minima of SPV did not match their simulated counterparts at particular points). This is because the correspondence between observed and modelled velocity and potential temperature fields was not good

  1. Composition of microbial communities in aerosol, snow and ice samples from remote glaciated areas (Antarctica, Alps, Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Elster

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomical and ecological analyses were performed on micro-autotrophs (cyanobacteria and algae together with remnants of diatom valves, micro-fungi (hyphae and spores, bacteria (rod, cocci and red clusters, yeast, and plant pollen extracted from various samples: Alps snow (Mt. Blank area, Andean snow (Illimani, Bolivia, Antarctic aerosol filters (Dumont d'Urville, Terre Adélie, and Antarctic inland ice (Terre Adélie. Three methods for ice and snow sample's pre-concentration were tested (filtration, centrifugation and lyophilisation. Afterwards, cultivation methods for terrestrial, freshwater and marine microorganisms (micro-autotrophs and micro-fungi were used in combination with liquid and solid media. The main goal of the study was to find out if micro-autotrophs are commonly transported by air masses, and later stored in snow and icecaps around the world. The most striking result of this study was the absence of culturable micro-autotrophs in all studied samples. However, an unusual culturable pigmented prokaryote was found in both alpine snow and aerosol samples. Analyses of many samples and proper statistical analyses (PCA, RDA- Monte Carlo permutation tests showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in both microbial community and biotic remnants composition F=9.33, p=0.001. In addition, GLM showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in numbers of categories of microorganisms and remnants of biological material F=11.45, p=0.00005. The Antarctic aerosol samples were characterised by having red clusters of bacteria, the unusual prokaryote and yeasts. The high mountain snow from the Alps and Andes contained much more culturable heterotrophs. The unusual prokaryote was very abundant, as were coccoid bacteria, red clusters of bacteria, as well as yeasts. The Antarctic ice samples were quite different. These samples had higher numbers of rod bacteria and fungal hyphae. The microbial communities and

  2. New constraints on the thermochronologic evolution at the boundary between the Eastern and Western Alps - Vorarlberg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Audrey; Pomella, Hannah; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Zerlauth, Michael; Ortner, Hugo

    2013-04-01

    The study area in the westernmost part of Austria is marked by the limit between the Western and the Eastern Alps that takes place along the Rhine Valley, south of the Lake Constance. The area is composed, form the north to the south and from lowermost to uppermost structural position, by the European basement together with its autochthonous Mesozoic cover, autochthonous Molasse, subalpine Molasse, the Helvetic and Ultra-Helvetic, the Penninic and the Austroalpine nappes. These units are stacked in a succession of nappes separated by large south-trending overthrusts. This study presenting new apatite and zircon fission track ages, together with a crustal-scale cross-section (Pomella et al., this session) addresses the thermotectonic evolution of this nappe stack. In comparison with similar studies from eastern Switzerland the boundary between Western and Eastern Alps should be enlightened. Zircon fissions track ages from the lower freshwater Molasse reveal different age populations. Since all zircon fission track ages are older than the stratigraphic age this clearly indicates that post-depositional temperatures were well below the zircon partial annealing zone (i.e. below 200 °C) and the different age populations can be attributed to different source areas derived from the coevally forming and eroding alpine chain. Preliminary fission track results on apatite from the lower freshwater Molasse indicate a strong dependence of apatite fission track single-grain ages on their annealing kinetics as inferred from Dpar analyses (Gleadow and Duddy, 1981). F-rich apatites systematically yielded younger ages compared to the Cl-rich grains. The younger ages derived from the F-rich apatites are consistently younger than the stratigraphic age and thus fully annealed while Cl-rich apatites display older ages than the stratigraphic one. The difference in annealing temperatures between Cl- and F-rich apatites (Ravenhurst and Donelick, 1992) thus constrains the maximum

  3. Soils evolution and treeline fluctuations under late Holocene climatic changes: a case study from Upper Valtellina (European Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroli, Anna; Leonelli, Giovanni; Pelfini, Manuela; Trombino, Luca

    2016-04-01

    High-altitude areas in the European Alps have been widely investigated through time for reconstructing the Holocene climate fluctuations, by analyzing both biological and abiological indicators. In high-altitude areas the ongoing temperature increase caused some effects in the natural environments such as the upward shift of the vegetation belts and, in particular, of the treeline. In fact, the treeline is considered a sensitive climate indicator; in high-altitude areas, the vegetation growth and dynamics are strongly influenced not only by climate but also by abiotic factors, like geomorphological processes and soil development. The aim of this study is the reconstruction of late Holocene soil evolution and environmental changes at the treeline on the SW slope of the Monte Confinale in the Upper Valtellina, Central Italian Alps. We performed a detailed reconstruction of the treeline altitudinal dynamics together with the field and laboratory characterization of a transect of nine soil profiles developing at an altitude ranging from 1800 m a.s.l. (closed forest) to 2600 m a.s.l. (species line), in order to understand the relationship between colonization by arboreal vegetation and soil development. The upward shift of the treeline was assessed analyzing tree age distribution on the slope by means of a tree-ring based approach. The treeline elevation over time (based on the years in which the trees reached 2 m in height) increased from 2505 m a.s.l. (period 1990-1999) to 2531 m (period 2000-2009) to 2545 m (in 2013) with a rate of upward shift of up to 2.6 m/y in the period 2000-2009. The investigated soils showed a decreasing development with increasing altitude, in fact at higher altitude we found less developed soils (i.e. Ranker), on the contrary in the forest area (about 2000 m a.s.l.) we found a more developed soil (i.e. Podzol). Moreover, the soil development may also be affected by the conditions of the slope, characterized by broad alpine grasslands that

  4. Zaraščanje kmetijskih zemljišč v slovenskem alpskem svetu = Abandoning of agricultural land in the Slovenian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Cunder

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoning of agricultural land belongs to the most prominent indicators of partial disintegration of cultivated landscape. The Slovenian Alps are undoubtedly among those regions in which the abandoning is the most intensive and widely extended. The stagnation of agriculture, which is going on at present, is influenced by natural and social and demographic conditions which also affect the extensification of the most unfavourable areas followed by permanent abandoning of production. If the reasons for this situation are considered, the abandoning of agricultural land can be defined as a reflection of a disturbed balance between the socio-economic situation of agricultural population and the natural disposition for agricultural production. Areas with the most severe degradation of cultured landscape are, as a rule, the most prominent depopulation and deagrarisation areas in the Alps. Revitalisation of agricultural land in the process of abandoning is not only important from the productionally strategic point of view but also from the regional and ecological one.

  5. Business and Commerce, alp ski bndy - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Business and Commerce dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'alp...

  6. Mapping Evapotranspiration in the Alps through Two-Source Energy-Balance Models and Multi-Satellite Data Fusion: Scale Effects in Heterogeneous Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, M.; Anderson, M. C.; Yang, Y.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Bertoldi, G.; Tomelleri, E.; Notarnicola, C.

    2015-12-01

    This work aims to assess a diagnostic approach which links evapotranspiration (ET) to land surface temperature (LST) measured by thermal remote sensing in the Alps. We estimate gridded ET, from field (30 m) to regional (1 km) scales. A specific study is performed on water- and energy-limited grassland ecosystems in a dry inner alpine valley in South Tyrol (Italy), to evaluate the model sensitivity to soil moisture, topography and canopy structure variations. The energy balance model TSEB ALEXI (Two Source Energy Balance Atmosphere Land EXchange Inverse) is first applied to Meteosat satellite data. Then ET is estimated by the flux disaggregation procedure DisALEXI driven by MODIS and Landsat LST retrievals. Finally, ET products based on MODIS and Landsat are fused by the algorithm STARFM (Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model), to obtain daily maps at Landsat ground resolution (30 m). We validate the model by eddy-covariance (EC) measurements from established stations in the Alps. In addition, for studying the scale representativeness of the satellite retrieved ET, we exploit a thermal camera installed on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), addressing a similar spatial scale as EC measurements, which allows to study ET spatial patterns. Results show that in the Alps the fusion with MODIS-retrieved ET does not significantly improve retrievals based only on Landsat acquisitions. This is due to i) the low availability of clear-sky scenes and ii) the small scale (~10 m) changes in soil moisture, topography and canopy density, which control ET patterns in mountainous regions. Specific TSEB model runs driven by UAV-borne thermal sensor data confirm these results. In conclusion, current thermal satellites lack the temporal and spatial resolution required to characterize ET in the Alps. This limitation can be overcome only by developing new high resolution thermal-based remote sensing tools with a higher temporal frequency.

  7. Glacial to paraglacial history and forest recovery in the Oglio glacier system (Italian Alps) between 26 and 15 ka cal BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravazzi, Cesare; Badino, Federica; Marsetti, Diego; Patera, Glauco; Reimer, Paula J.

    2012-12-01

    The integrated stratigraphic, radiocarbon and palynological record from an end-moraine system of the Oglio valley glacier (Italian Alps), propagating a lobe upstream in a lateral reach, provided evidence for a complete cycle of glacial advance, culmination and withdrawal during the Last Glacial Maximum and early Lateglacial. The glacier culminated in the end moraine shortly after 25.8 ± 0.8 ka cal BP, and cleared the valley floor 18.3-17.2 ± 0.3 ka cal BP. A primary paraglacial phase is then recorded by fast progradation of the valley floor. As early as 16.7 ± 0.3 ka cal BP, early stabilization of alluvial fans and lake filling promoted expansion of cembran pine. This is an unprecedented evidence of direct tree response to depletion of paraglacial activity during the early Lateglacial, and also documents the cembran pine survival in the mountain belt of the Italian Alps during the last glaciation. Between 16.1 and 14.6 ± 0.5 ka cal BP, debris cones emplacement points to a moisture increase favouring tree Betula and Pinus sylvestris-mugo. A climate perturbation renewed paraglacial activity. According to cosmogenic ages on glacial deposits and AMS radiocarbon ages from lake records in South-Eastern Alps such phase compares favourably with the Gschnitz stadial and with the oscillations recorded at lakes Ragogna, Längsee and Jeserzersee, most probably forced by the latest freshening phases of the Heinrich Event 1. A further sharp pine rise marks the subsequent onset of Bølling interstadial. The chronology of the Oglio glacier compares closely with major piedmont glaciers on the Central and Eastern Alpine forelands. On the other hand, the results of the present study imply a chronostratigraphic re-assessment of the recent geological mapping of the Central Italian Alps.

  8. Effect of two kinds of porcelain crown on AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8, GP-x and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Ling Wang; Zhi Cao; Shi-Xia Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of two kinds of porcelain crown on AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8, GP-x and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid.Methods: A total of 80 patients with dental porcelain crowns at front teeth during February 2013 to February 2016 were randomly divided into cobalt-chromium alloy PFM group (n=40) and gold alloy PFM group (n=40). After 6 months, the amount of gingival crevicular fluid, GI, PD, AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8, GP-x and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid were recorded and analyzed.Results: There were no differences in amount of gingival crevicular fluid, GI and PD before treatment of the two groups (P>0.05). After treatment, the amount of gingival crevicular fluid, GI and PD of the two groups were significantly higher than before treatment (P0.05). After treatment, the AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8 and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid of the two groups were significantly higher than before treatment (P<0.05), but that of the gold alloy PFM group were significantly lower than cobalt-chromium alloy PFM group (P<0.05). After treatment, the GP-x level in gingival crevicular fluid of the two groups were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05), but that of the gold alloy PFM group were significantly higher than cobalt-chromium alloy PFM group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Gold alloy PFM can significantly reduce the AST, ALP, TNF-α, IL-8 and MDA levels in gingival crevicular fluid, improve the GP-x level in gingival crevicular fluid, shows better biocompatibility and clinical outcomes than cobalt-chromium alloy PFM.

  9. Atmospheric circulation patterns, cloud-to-ground lightning, and locally intense convective rainfall associated with debris flow initiation in the Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, S. Jeffrey; Schultz, Michael D.; Berti, Metteo; Gregoretti, Carlo; Simoni, Alessandro; Mote, Thomas L.; Saylor, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    The Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy experience debris flows with great frequency during the summer months. An ample supply of unconsolidated material on steep slopes and a summer season climate regime characterized by recurrent thunderstorms combine to produce an abundance of these destructive hydro-geologic events. In the past, debris flow events have been studied primarily in the context of their geologic and geomorphic characteristics. The atmospheric contribution to ...

  10. Atmospheric circulation patterns, cloud-to-ground lightning, and locally intense convective rainfall associated with debris flow initiation in the Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Underwood; Schultz, M D; Berti, M; C. Gregoretti; Simoni, A.; T. L. Mote; A. M. Saylor

    2015-01-01

    The Dolomite Alps of northeastern Italy experience debris flows with great frequency during the summer months. An ample supply of unconsolidated material on steep slopes and a summer season climate regime characterized by recurrent thunderstorms combine to produce an abundance of these destructive hydrogeologic events. In the past debris flow events have been studied primarily in the context of their geologic and geomorphic characteristics. The atmospheric contribution to th...

  11. U-Th-Pb dating of the Brossasco ultrahigh-pressure metagranite, Dora-Maira massif, western Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, J.L.; Montel, J.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Chopin, C. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Geologie

    1999-01-01

    The Brossasco metagranite is part of the coherent ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane in the Dora-Maira massif and, although it has reached Alpine peak metamorphic conditions of about 725 C/30 kbar, still locally preserves an undeformed magmatic texture. In order to obtain new chronological constraints on this key area of the western Alps, we studied the behaviour of the U-Th-Pb system in zircons and monazites from such an undeformed facies. Only zircon fractions containing very small needle-shaped inclusions are concordant at 304{+-}3 Ma. This result is interpreted as the emplacement age of the granite. All other zircons show an old inherited memory and the more U-rich of these crystals were affected by an episodic Pb loss with a poorly defined lower intercept at 60{+-}45 Ma. Both TIMS (thermo-ionisation mass spectrometry) and electron-microprobe analysis of monazites show that this last event has also disturbed their U-Pb and Th-Pb isotopic systems, without resetting them completely. Comparison with cofacial rock-types which have been completely reworked under these extreme P-T conditions shows that deformation and mass transfer as well as the nature of the protoliths and the characteristics of their zircons have a much more pronounced influence on the behaviour of isotopic systems than the temperature and/or pressure parameters. This evidence is an obvious limitation to the use of the blocking-temperature concept. (orig.)

  12. High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing PROglacial Systems of the Alps - results from the PROSA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Ludwig; Dusik, Jana-Marie; Heckmann, Tobias; Haas, Florian; Näher, Martin; Philipp, Rumohr; Philipp, Glira; Lucas, Vehling; Michael, Becht

    2016-04-01

    In June 2012, the PROSA-project was initiated with the goal to construct a sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal Valley, Ötztal Alps, Austria. A unique feature of the project being the dedicated usage of study-area wide multi-volume LiDAR survey data of relatively high density on a meso-scale catchment resulting in a data base of over 4 billion LiDAR measurement points. A high effort was undertaken to produce classified point data as a methodological backbone of the project. Both ALS and georeferenced TLS data as well as other remote sensing and mapping products were used in addition to extensive fieldwork as basis for a regionalization of monitoring-site based measurements to arrive at basin-wide sediment production rates and identification of sediment pathways. Results can now be presented for: Rock fall (plot-based measurement and subsequent model-based regionalization), debris flows (study area-wide direct measurement from LiDAR and analysis of historical orthophotos), rock glaciers (feature-tracking and direct differencing), hillslope channels (plot-based measurements and model-based regionalization) and avalanches (sample site measurement, mapping and extrapolation). Sediment budgets were subsequently constructed for different representative subsystems within the 62.5 km2 catchment. Although also glacier and main channel transport was looked into by the PROSA-project, the presentation will focus on the processes mentioned above.

  13. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frassy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d’Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification’s accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified.

  14. Dynamics and structure of natural regeneration in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraruf L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration structures and spatial patterns of European larch (Larix decidua Miller, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst., were analyzed in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps. Larch and spruce regeneration is mainly affected by dense forest cover and grasses competition whereas stone pine is mostly sensitive to late snow melting, fungal diseases and wild ungulate damages. The current stand and regeneration structure suggests that larch has been highly fostered in the past due to silvo-pastoral management practices. All species show a clear tendency to spatial intraspecific aggregation especially at short-distances. The spatial patterns of larch regeneration are more complex than the other two species, more heavily affected by a main factor such as the nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes L. seed dispersal for stone pine or presence of canopy gaps for spruce. However, spatial patterns of all species depend on the number of the available microsites, that often match at small distance driving the formation of small mixed and unevenaged patches. Combining the age structure and spatial pattern information we were able to better understand the small-scale patterns and processes and the role of the past disturbances on the regeneration dynamics in space and time.

  15. Organic matter losses in German Alps forest soils since the 1970s most likely caused by warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prietzel, Jörg; Zimmermann, Lothar; Schubert, Alfred; Christophel, Dominik

    2016-07-01

    Climate warming is expected to induce soil organic carbon losses in mountain soils that result, in turn, in reduced soil fertility, reduced water storage capacity and positive feedback on climate change. Here we combine two independent sets of measurements of soil organic carbon from forest soils in the German Alps--repeated measurements from 1976 to 2010 and from 1987 to 2011--to show that warming has caused a 14% decline in topsoil organic carbon stocks. The decreases in soil carbon occurred over a period of significant increases in six-month summer temperatures, with the most substantial decreases occurring at sites with large changes in mean annual temperature. Organic carbon stock decreases were largest--on average 32%--in forest soils with initial topsoil organic carbon stocks greater than 8 kg C m-2, which can be found predominantly on calcareous bedrock. However, organic carbon stocks of forest soils with lower initial carbon stocks, as well as soils under pasture or at elevations above 1,150 m, have not changed significantly. We conclude that warming is the most likely reason for the observed losses of soil organic carbon, but that site, land use and elevation may ameliorate the effects of climate change.

  16. Holocene climate dynamics in the Eastern Italian Alps: a multi-proxy study from ice and peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poto, Luisa; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Segnana, Michela; Festi, Daniela; Oeggl, Klaus; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Italian Alps are located near one of the areas in the world with some of the longest records of extreme environmental use by human activity. In this area, paleo-climate studies are hampered by the lack of high-resolution multi-proxy records with adequate chronological control. With this project, we propose to reconstruct Holocene climatic and environmental variations in the Eastern Italian Alps using terrestrial and glaciological archives. We aim to study the characteristics of different climate stages in this sector of the Alps using an ice core drilled on the top of the Ortles glacier (46°30' N, 10°32 E, 3850 m a.s.l.) and ombrotrophic peat bog records from the Dolomites (Danta di Cadore, 46°34' N, 12°33 E, 1400 m a.s.l. and Coltrondo 46°39'28.37''N 12°26'59.17''E, 1800 m a.s.l., Belluno province). The study of global climatic change require a holistic and multi-proxy approach to better understand several complex and often non-linear relationships. In the Italian Alps our study on peat cores represents the first attempt where a multi-proxy approach is applied, and here we report our first results. A 7.0 m peat sequence was extracted in Danta di Cadore. The depth-age scale, based upon independent 14C and 210Pb dates and modeled with the Clam method (Blaauw, 2010), demonstrates that the archive covers more than 13,200 years (cal BP). We determined physical proprieties, Ca and Ti trends, pore water pH, conductivity, and Ca/Mg ratios to identify changes in trophic conditions. The results confirm that the uppermost 400 cm are composed of ombrotrophic peat representing the longest Eastern Alpine ombrotrophic record yet obtained, covering the last 7,000 years. The oldest radiocarbon age (13,200 years cal BP) provides evidence that, during the Bölling-Alleröd interstadial, the upper part of the Piave Glacier was ice-free up to 1400 m a.s.l.. At that time pollen assemblages show that a conifer forest characterized the local vegetation. This forest was

  17. AUthigenic feldspar as an indicator of paleo-rock/water interactions in Permian carbonates of the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotl, C.; Kralik, M.; Kunk, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Dolostones interbedded with Upper Permian evaporites at the base of the Northern Calcareous Alps contain abundant authigenic K-feldspar. Two petrographically, structurally, and isotopically distinct generations of K-feldspar can be distinguished: crystals composed of an inclusion-rich core and a clear rim, and optically unzoned, transparent crystals. Both feldspar types have essentially identical K-feldspar end-member compositions with ??? 99.5 mole % Or component. Low oxygen isotope ratios (+16.1??? to +18.1??? SMOW) suggest precipitation from 18O-enriched, saline fluids at temperatures in excess of ??? 140??C. 40Ar/39Ar plateau-age spectra of five samples range from 145 ?? 1 to 144 ?? 1 Ma (Early Berriasian) and suggest that both types of feldspar were formed within an interval that did not exceed ??? 2 m.y. Rb/Sr model ages range from 152 to 140 Ma, assuming that the burial diagenetic regime was buffered with respect to strontium by the associated marine Permian evaporites. Authigenic K-feldspar records two distinct events of hot brine flow, most likely triggered by tectonic movements (detachment) and by an increase in the subsurface temperature in response to thrust loading.

  18. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of eclogites and associated rocks from the Eastern Sesia zone (Western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmons, J.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses have been made of mineral separates from eclogites, glaucophanites and glaucophane schists from the eastern Sesia zone (Italian Western Alps). Regularities in (1) hydrogen isotope compositions, (2) order of 18O enrichment among coexisting minerals, and (3) ?? 18O (quartz-rutile) and ?? 18O (quartz-phengite) imply attainment of a high degree of isotopic equilibrium. However, some scattering of ??18O values of individual minerals indicates that the eclogitic assemblage did not form in the presence of a thoroughly pervasive fluid. Minerals from an eclogitic lens enclosed in marble have ??18O values distinctly different from those measured in the other rocks. The ??18O values are high in comparison with other type C eclogites of the world, and it is proposed that the fluid present during the high pressure metamorphism has to a large extent been inherited from the precursor rocks of amphibolite facies. An average formation temperature of 540 ?? C is inferred from the oxygen isotope fractionations between quartz and rutile and between quartz and white mica. This temperature is in accordance with petrologic considerations and implies subduction of the precursor rocks into the upper mantle to achieve the high pressures required. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Mesozoic (Lower Jurassic) red stromatactis limestones from the Southern Alps (Arzo, Switzerland): calcite mineral authigenesis and syneresis-type deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuweiler, Fritz; Bernoulli, Daniel

    2005-02-01

    The Broccatello lithological unit (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian to lower parts of Upper Sinemurian) near the village of Arzo (southern Alps, southern Switzerland) is a mound-shaped carbonate deposit that contains patches of red stromatactis limestone. Within the largely bioclastic Broccatello unit, the stromatactis limestone is distinguished by its early-diagenetic cavity system, a relatively fine-grained texture, and an in-situ assemblage of calcified siliceous sponges (various demosponges and hexactinellids). A complex shallow subsurface diagenetic pathway can be reconstructed from sediment petrography in combination with comparative geochemical analysis (carbon and oxygen isotopes; trace and rare earth elements, REE + Y). This pathway includes organic matter transformation, aragonite and skeletal opal dissolution, patchy calcification and lithification, sediment shrinkage, sagging and collapse, partial REE remobilization, and multiple sediment infiltration. These processes occurred under normal-marine, essentially oxic conditions and were independent from local, recurring syn-sedimentary faulting. It is concluded that the stromatactis results from a combination of calcite mineral authigenesis and syneresis-type deformation. The natural stromatactis phenomenon may thus be best explained by maturation processes of particulate polymer gels expected to form in fine-grained carbonate sediments in the shallow subsurface. Conditions favorable for the evolution of stromatactis appear to be particularly frequent during drowning of tropical or subtropical carbonate platforms.

  20. Resonant light power buildup in ALPS, a ''light shining through a wall''-experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Tobias; Danzmann, Karsten; Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut (Germany); Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Knabbe, Axel; Lindner, Axel; List, Jenny; Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik; Hildebrandt, Matthias [Laserzentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    We report on the first successfull application of a new experimental technique to search for weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) coupling to photons. As part of the ALPS experiment located at DESY in Hamburg, this technique uses an optical resonator to enhance the power inside a HERA dipole magnet on the production side of a typical ''light shining through a wall''-experiment. We use a frequency doubled continuous-wave laser emitting 0.6 W of power at 532 nm that is stabilized to a linear optical resonator with 8 m length. On resonance we achieve a circulating power of 34 W within the magnet. With this we obtained sensitivities corresponding to a coupling strength of g{approx}5.10{sup -7} GeV{sup -1} for interactions of axion-like particles and photons. The experimental setup and possible improvements are described and compared with common experimental designs with pulsed lasers.

  1. Ecophysiology, secondary pigments and ultrastructure of Chlainomonas sp. (Chlorophyta) from the European Alps compared with Chlamydomonas nivalis forming red snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remias, Daniel; Pichrtová, Martina; Pangratz, Marion; Lütz, Cornelius; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Red snow is a well-known phenomenon caused by microalgae thriving in alpine and polar regions during the melting season. The ecology and biodiversity of these organisms, which are adapted to low temperatures, high irradiance and freeze-thaw events, are still poorly understood. We compared two different snow habitats containing two different green algal genera in the European Alps, namely algae blooming in seasonal rock-based snowfields (Chlamydomonas nivalis) and algae dominating waterlogged snow bedded over ice (Chlainomonassp.). Despite the morphological similarity of the red spores found at the snow surface, we found differences in intracellular organization investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and in secondary pigments investigated by chromatographic analysis in combination with mass spectrometry. Spores ofChlainomonassp. show clear differences fromChlamydomonas nivalisin cell wall arrangement and plastid organization. Active photosynthesis at ambient temperatures indicates a high physiological activity, despite no cell division being present. Lipid bodies containing the carotenoid astaxanthin, which produces the red color, dominate cells of both species, but are modified differently. While inChlainomonassp. astaxanthin is mainly esterified with two fatty acids and is more apolar, inChamydomonas nivalis, in contrast, less apolar monoesters prevail.

  2. HoloGondel: in situ cloud observations on a cable car in the Swiss Alps using a holographic imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alexander; Henneberger, Jan; Schöpfer, Sarah; Fugal, Jacob; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2017-02-01

    In situ observations of cloud properties in complex alpine terrain where research aircraft cannot sample are commonly conducted at mountain-top research stations and limited to single-point measurements. The HoloGondel platform overcomes this limitation by using a cable car to obtain vertical profiles of the microphysical and meteorological cloud parameters. The main component of the HoloGondel platform is the HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects (HOLIMO 3G), which uses digital in-line holography to image cloud particles. Based on two-dimensional images the microphysical cloud parameters for the size range from small cloud particles to large precipitation particles are obtained for the liquid and ice phase. The low traveling velocity of a cable car on the order of 10 m s-1 allows measurements with high spatial resolution; however, at the same time it leads to an unstable air speed towards the HoloGondel platform. Holographic cloud imagers, which have a sample volume that is independent of the air speed, are therefore well suited for measurements on a cable car. Example measurements of the vertical profiles observed in a liquid cloud and a mixed-phase cloud at the Eggishorn in the Swiss Alps in the winters 2015 and 2016 are presented. The HoloGondel platform reliably observes cloud droplets larger than 6.5 µm, partitions between cloud droplets and ice crystals for a size larger than 25 µm and obtains a statistically significantly size distribution for every 5 m in vertical ascent.

  3. Glacial erosion dynamics in a small mountainous watershed (Southern French Alps): A source-to-sink approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Lucile; Toucanne, Samuel; Bayon, Germain; Jorry, Stéphan J.; Emmanuel, Laurent; Silva Jacinto, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    In this study we used major element composition, neodymium isotopes ratios (εNd) and concentration of REE to track and quantify the sediment routing in the Var sedimentary system from source (Southern French Alps) to sink (Ligurian Sea) over the last 50 ka. Our data reveal that changes in sediment sources over that period, associated with concomitant changes in the hyperpycnal (i.e. flood-generated turbidity currents) activity in the Var submarine canyon, were mainly driven by paleoenvironmental conditions in the upper basin and in particular by the presence of glaciers during the last glacial period. Based on this evidence, we determined when and how glacier-derived sediments were produced, then excavated and transferred to the ocean, allowing us to ultimately tune offshore sedimentary records to onshore denudation rates. In contrast to large glaciated systems, we found that sediment export from the Var River to the Mediterranean Sea directly responded to climate-induced perturbations within the basin. Finally, we estimated that sediment fluxes in the Var routing system were 2.5 times higher during the Last Glacial Maximum than today, thus confirming that glacier denudation rates exceed fluvial rates and that such a pattern also governs the interglacial-glacial sediment flux cycle in other small mountainous basins.

  4. Understanding Land Cover Changes in the Italian Alps and Romanian Carpathians Combining Remote Sensing and Stakeholder Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Malek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, socio-economic changes in Europe have had a significant effect on land cover changes, but it is unclear how this has affected mountain areas. We focus on two mountain areas: the eastern Italian Alps and the Romanian Curvature Carpathians. We classified land cover from Earth observation data after 1989 by using applied remote sensing techniques. We also analyzed socio-economic data and conducted semi-structured interviews with local stakeholders. In Italy, most of the land conversion processes followed long-term trends. In Romania, they took off with the sudden political changes after 1989. In both areas, forest expansion was the biggest, but potentially not the most consequential change. More consequential changes were urbanization in Italy and small-scale deforestation in Romania, since both increased the risk of hydro-meteorological hazards. Stakeholders’ views were an added value to the spatial analysis and vice versa. For example, stakeholders’ explanations resolved the seeming contradiction of decreased economic activity and increased urbanization (Italian site, as a consequence of secondary home building. Furthermore, spatial analysis revealed that urbanization in Romania was less significant with regard to consequences for the wider human-environment system than many stakeholders thought.

  5. Mapping complementarity between solar and hydro power: Sensitivity study to glacier retreat in the Eastern Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borga, Marco; Baptiste, François; Zoccatelli, Davide

    2016-04-01

    High penetration of climate related energy sources (such as solar and small hydropower) might be facilitated by using their complementarity in order to increase the balance between energy load and generation. In this study we examine and map the complementarity between solar PV and run-of-the-river energy along the river network of catchments in the Eastern Italian Alps which are significantly affected by glaciers. We analyze energy sources complementarity across different temporal scales using two indicators: the standard deviation of the energy balance and the theoretical storage required for balancing generation and load (François et a., 2016). Temporal scales ranging from hours to years are assessed. By using a glacio-hydrological model able to simulate both the glacier and hydrology dynamics, we analyse the sensitivity of the obtained results with respect to different scenarios of glacier retreat. Reference: François, B., Hingray, B., Raynaud, D., Borga, M., Creutin, J.D., 2016: Increasing climate-related-energy penetration by integrating run-of-the river hydropower to wind/solar mix. Renewable Energy, 87, 686-696.

  6. 3D modelling of the Austroalpine-Penninic collisional wedge of the NW Alps: dataset management and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monopoli, Bruno; Bistacchi, Andrea; Bertolo, Davide; Dal Piaz, Giovanni; Gouffon, Yves; Massironi, Matteo; Sartori, Mario; Vittorio Dal Piaz, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    We know since the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to mapping and structural studies by the Italian Regio Servizio Geologico (Franchi et al., 1908) and Argand's work (1909; 1911; 1916), that the Austroalpine-Penninic collisional wedge of the NW Alps is spectacularly exposed across the Aosta Valley and Valais ranges (Italy and Switzerland). In the 150th anniversary of the first ascent to Ruskin's "most noble cliff in Europe" - the Cervino/Matterhorn (Whymper, July 14th 1865), first described in a geological profile by Giordano (1869) and in a detailed map by Gerlach (1869; 1871), we have seen the conclusion of very detailed mapping projects carried out in the last years over the two regions, with collaborative efforts across the Italy-Switzerland border, constellated by 4000 m-high peaks. These projects have pictured with an unprecedented detail (up to 1:10.000 scale) the geology of this complex region, resulting from pre-Alpine events, Alpine subduction- and collision-related ductile deformations, and finally late-Alpine brittle deformations from the Oligocene to the Present. Based on this dataset, we use up-to-date technology and software to undertake a 3D modelling study aimed at: i) reconstructing the 3D geometry of the principal tectonic units, ii) detecting and unravelling problems and incongruences in the 2D geometrical models, iii) modelling the kinematics of the Oligocene and Miocene brittle fault network using 2D and 3D balancing and palinspastic restoration techniques. In this contribution we mainly discuss the prerequisites of the project. Common geomodelling paradigms (mainly developed for the hydrocarbon industry) cannot be applied in this project due to (i) the little scale, (ii) the source of the data - fieldwork, and (iii) the polyphase ductile and brittle deformations in the metamorphic nappe stack. Our goals at the moment are to model the post-metamorphic fault network and the boundaries of the principal tectonic units, which will be

  7. Characterization of Modern and Fossil Mineral Dust Transported to High Altitude in the Western Alps: Saharan Sources and Transport Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Thevenon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust aerosols recently collected at the high-altitude Jungfraujoch research station (N, E; 3580 m a.s.l. were compared to mineral dust deposited at the Colle Gnifetti glacier (N, E; 4455 m a.s.l. over the last millennium. Radiogenic isotope signatures and backward trajectories analyses indicate that major dust sources are situated in the north-central to north-western part of the Saharan desert. Less radiogenic Sr isotopic compositions of PM10 aerosols and of mineral particles deposited during periods of low dust transfer likely result from the enhancement of the background chemically-weathered Saharan source. Saharan dust mobilization and transport were relatively reduced during the second part of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1690–1870 except within the greatest Saharan dust event deposited around 1770. After ca. 1870, sustained dust deposition suggests that increased mineral dust transport over the Alps during the last century could be due to stronger spring/summer North Atlantic southwesterlies and drier winters in North Africa. On the other hand, increasing carbonaceous particle emissions from fossil fuel combustion combined to a higher lead enrichment factor point to concomitant anthropogenic sources of particulate pollutants reaching high-altitude European glaciers during the last century.

  8. Climate change and hydropower production in the Swiss Alps: quantification of potential impacts and related modelling uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two major challenges in climate change impact analysis on water resources systems: (i incorporation of a large range of potential climate change scenarios and (ii quantification of related modelling uncertainties. The methodology of climate change impact modelling is developed and illustrated through application to a hydropower plant in the Swiss Alps that uses the discharge of a highly glacierised catchment. The potential climate change impacts are analysed in terms of system performance for the control period (1961–1990 and for the future period (2070–2099 under a range of climate change scenarios. The system performance is simulated through a set of four model types, including the production of regional climate change scenarios based on global-mean warming scenarios, the corresponding discharge model, the model of glacier surface evolution and the hydropower management model. The modelling uncertainties inherent in each model type are characterised and quantified separately. The overall modelling uncertainty is simulated through Monte Carlo simulations of the system behaviour for the control and the future period. The results obtained for both periods lead to the conclusion that potential climate change has a statistically significant negative impact on the system performance.

  9. The species of the Chthonius heterodactylus group (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from the eastern Alps and the Carpathians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Giulio

    2014-11-24

    The species of the subgenus Chthonius (Chthonius) C.L. Koch, 1843 displaying a sigmoid fixed chelal finger from the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians, assigned to the informal heterodactylus species-group, are revised and a key given for their identification. The following species are present in this area: Chthonius cavernarum Ellingsen, 1909 (Italy, Romania, Slovenia), C. heterodactylus Tömösváry, 1882 (Czech Republic, Hungary, Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine), C. hungaricus Mahnert, 1981 (Hungary, Romania, Slovakia), C. lessiniensis Schawaller, 1982 (Italy), C. pusillus Beier, 1947 (Austria, Slovenia) and C. raridentatus Hadži, 1930 (Austria, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia). The following synonymies are proposed: Chthonius diophthalmus Daday, 1889, C. (C.) orthodactylus gracilis Beier, 1935, C. (C.) ksenemani Hadži, 1939 and C. (C.) leruthi Beier, 1939 are junior subjective synonyms of C. heterodactylus Tömösváry, 1882 (n. syn.); C. (C.) pivai Gardini, 1991 is a junior subjective synonym of C. (C.) lessiniensis Schawaller, 1982 (n. syn.); C. (C.) ellingseni Beier, 1939, C. (C.) brandmayri Callaini, 1986 and C. (C.) jalzici Ćurčić, 1988 are junior subjective synonyms of C. (C.) raridentatus Hadži, 1930 (n. syn.). Lectotypes are designated for C. cavernarum Ellingsen, 1909 and C. (C.) ellingseni Beier, 1939. Chthonius (C.) pusillus is newly recorded from Slovenia, C. (C.) hungaricus and Mundochthonius carpaticus Rafalski, 1948 are newly recorded from Romania, and the presence of C. (C.) cavernarum in Italy is confirmed.

  10. Added value from European Territorial Co-operation: the impact of demographic change in the Alps on the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marot Naja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article sets demographic change in the Alps in the framework of European Territorial Cooperation programs. A statistical overview of selected regions in five Alpine countries serves as a basis for further policy analysis. The latter was undertaken to reveal how transnational projects tackle youth issues, including the difficulties within the labour and real estate markets that appeared to be the most problematic factors influencing (out migration of the youth. While there is only a minor recognition of the young in current policymaking on supranational, regional and local levels, the analysis showed that the added value of transnational programs for mountain regions and localities can be recognized in the development of multi-stakeholder environments, creating and transferring new solutions for the labour market as well as empowering youth participation in policy processes. However, the extent to which these solutions might contribute to overcoming the challenges of demographic change because of transnational programs is limited by various factors. Among these are the precise governance framework, administrative capacity, and population figures.

  11. Total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R Jivani; H J Trivedi; P J Gajjar; A R Jani

    2005-01-01

    Recently proposed model potential which combines both linear and quadratic types of interactions is employed for the investigation of some properties like the total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductor compounds using higher-order perturbation theory. The model potential parameter is determined using zero pressure condition. The ratio of the covalent bonding term E cov to the second-order term 2 is 6.77% to 11.85% which shows that contribution from higher order terms are important for zinc-blende-type crystals. The calculated numerical results of the total energy, energy band gap at Jones-zone face and bulk modulus of these compounds are in good agreement with the experimental data and found much better than other such theoretical findings. We have also studied pressure–volume relations of these compounds. The present study is carried out using six different screening functions along with latest screening function proposed by Sarkar et al. It is found from the present study that effect of exchange and correlation is clearly distinguishable.

  12. Towards the ecotourism: a decision support model for the assessment of sustainability of mountain huts in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubelj Ars, Mojca; Bohanec, Marko

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies mountain hut infrastructure in the Alps as an important element of ecotourism in the Alpine region. To improve the decision-making process regarding the implementation of future infrastructure and improvement of existing infrastructure in the vulnerable natural environment of mountain ecosystems, a new decision support model has been developed. The methodology is based on qualitative multi-attribute modelling supported by the DEXi software. The integrated rule-based model is hierarchical and consists of two submodels that cover the infrastructure of the mountain huts and that of the huts' surroundings. The final goal for the designed tool is to help minimize the ecological footprint of tourists in environmentally sensitive and undeveloped mountain areas and contribute to mountain ecotourism. The model has been tested in the case study of four mountain huts in Triglav National Park in Slovenia. Study findings provide a new empirical approach to evaluating existing mountain infrastructure and predicting improvements for the future. The assessment results are of particular interest for decision makers in protected areas, such as Alpine national parks managers and administrators. In a way, this model proposes an approach to the management assessment of mountain huts with the main aim of increasing the quality of life of mountain environment visitors as well as the satisfaction of tourists who may eventually become ecotourists.

  13. Contraintes climatiques dans les Préalpes françaises : évolution récente et conséquences potentielles futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rome

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Le climat des Alpes françaises reste encore mal décrit, et sa variabilité interannuelle est difficile à étudier du fait des spécificités topoclimatiques locales et du manque de séries climatiques longues. Les conséquences régionales du changement de certaines contraintes climatiques sur plusieurs secteurs d’activité sont pourtant redoutées. Cet article propose donc un diagnostic des variations climatiques contemporaines (1959-2009 à l’échelle des Préalpes du Nord (Vercors et Chartreuse en utilisant des chroniques stationnelles pluviothermiques. Les changements observés sont ensuite mis en relation avec des impacts connus ou potentiels sur les activités socio-économiques régionales.The climate of the French Alps remains poorly described, and its interannual variability is difficult to study because of the wide variety of local topoclimatic characteristics and the lack of available long-term time-series. Regional consequences by certain climatic threat on various economic activities are nevertheless expected. This article thus proposes a diagnosis of the contemporary climatic variations (1959-2009 on the scale of French northern Prealps (Vercors and Chartreuse by using the time series of 4 reference stations. Observed changes are then related to known or potential impacts on the regional socioeconomic activities.

  14. Naked-eye sensitive detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and pyrophosphate (PPi) based on a horseradish peroxidase catalytic colorimetric system with Cu(ii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongmin; Sun, Yue; Lin, Lin; Shi, Chunjun; Wang, Guangfeng; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2016-10-07

    In this paper, a novel colorimetric method for the detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and pyrophosphate (PPi) was designed based on a Cu(2+)-horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-3,3',5,5'-tetra-methylbenzidine (TMB)-H2O2 system. In the presence of ALP, l-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (AAP) could be hydrolyzed to ascorbic acid which could reduce Cu(2+) to Cu(+) to inhibit the enzymatic activity of HRP in the colorimetric system. The change in absorbance was found to be proportional to the ALP concentration with a linear detection range and a limit of detection of 5.4 mU mL(-1). In the presence of PPi, because Cu(2+) was chelated by PPi, the conversion of Cu(ii) by AA was effectively inhibited. The color of the HRP-TMB-H2O2 system with Cu(2+) showed blue. The HRP-TMB-H2O2 system with the Cu(2+) colorimetric system could also detect PPi with a satisfying result. In summary, this method possesses sensitivity, reproducibility, and cost-effectiveness without labelling and separation and the use of a colorimetric method is more in line with the requirements of on-site detection and green chemistry.

  15. Soils on the Late Triassic carbonate rocks in the West Karavanke Mountains and the high plateaus of the Julian Alps (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Budkovič

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain-size analysis, mineral composition of heavy and light fraction, and surface texture of quartz grains in soilsdeveloped on different parent carbonate rocks in the region of the West Karavanke Mountains and the high plateausof the Julian Alps (Mežakla, Pokljuka, Jelovica revealed their polygenetic origin. Homogeneity of the heavymineral assemblage in the soils developed on different parent carbonate rocks indicates – besides autochthonousmaterial (insoluble residue of carbonate rocks, the presence of allochthonous (external material in the compositionof mineral component of soils, too. Heavy mineral assemblage indicates a metamorphic-igneous source area, whichis most probably in the Central Alps. The Drava glacier transported material from there, and deposited it in tillesalong the Drava valley. They were exposed to the fluvial and eolian erosion after the Würm deglaciation. Mostly siltymaterial was transported over the ridges of the Karavanke Mountains by the northeren winds. Their deposition beganon the southern calm and protected slopes and saddles, and continued southward on high plateaus of the JulianAlps, and very possibly even farther.

  16. Underground electromagnetic activity in two regions with contrasting seismicity: a case study from the Eastern Alps and Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Koktavý, Pavel; Stemberk, Josef; Macků, Robert; Trčka, Tomáš; Škarvada, Pavel; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Meurers, Bruno; Rowberry, Mattew; Marti, Xavi; Plan, Lukas; Grasemann, Berhnard; Mitrovic, Ivanka

    2016-04-01

    Electromagnetic emissions (EME) occur during the fracturing of solid materials under laboratory conditions and may represent potential earthquake precursors. We recorded EME from May 2015 to October 2015 in two caves situated in contrasting seismotectonic settings. Zbrašov Aragonite Caves are located close to the seismically quiescent contact between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians while Obir Caves are located near the seismically active Periadriatic Fault on the southern margin of the Eastern Alps. The specific monitoring points are located at depths of tens of metres below the ground surface as such places are assumed to represent favourably shielded environments. The EME sig